Sample records for he3 he4 heavy

  1. Solar energetic particle event with He-3/He-4 greater than 1

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Serlemitsos, A. T.


    An unusual solar event involving the detection of a He-3/He-4 ratio of about 1.5 was observed with the aid of the cosmic-ray telescopes of OGO-V on May 28, 1969. A theory dealing with the production of H-2, H-3, and He-3 in solar events is considered together with the conditions which would have to be satisfied in order to explain the observed very high helium isotope ratio in terms of the theory.

  2. Statistical mechanics of dilute liquid mixtures of He3 in He4

    Jackson, H. W.


    The Woo-Tan-Massey quantum-mechanical theory of dilute mixtures of He-3 in liquid He-4 is extended to incorporate superfluid flow. Then statistical-mechanical principles are employed to find explicit formulas for thermodyanmic and hydrodynamic properties of mixtures, such as internal energy, free energy, entropy, pressure, chemical potential, and normal-fluid and superfluid densities. This paper is the first in a planned series that applies methods originally developed for pure liquid He-4 to dilute mixtures as a means of establishing a comprehensive theory that includes a theoretical bridge between a microscopic description of the mixtures and a hydrodynamic two-fluid model. Ultimately effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on dilute solutions are also planned to be treated.

  3. The cosmic-ray He-3/He-4 ratio from 200 MeV per nucleon(-1) to 3.7 GeV per nucleon(-1)

    Reimer, O.; Menn, W.; Hof, M.;


    by their mass using the velocity versus magnetic rigidity technique. The measured He-3/He-4 ratios are corrected to the top of the atmosphere, and a comparison with previous data is given. The observed isotopic composition is found to be generally consistent with the predictions of a standard leaky box model...

  4. MeV He3/He4 isotope abundances in solar energetic particle events: SOHO/COSTEP observations

    Bothmer, V.:; Sierks, H.; Böhm, E.; Kunow, H.


    We present first results based on a systematic survey of 4-41 MeV/N 3He/4He isotope abundances with ratios >0.01 detected by the COmprehensive SupraThermal and Energetic Particle analyzer (COSTEP) onboard the SOHO (SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory) spacecraft. More than about 25% of the identified events showed 3He/4He ratios in the range 0.1-1. For events with sufficiently high detector count rates the atomic mass plots can be resolved up to a time resolution of about 1 hour. These events are most suitable for comparisons with in situ solar wind plasma and magnetic field measurements and SOHO's optical white-light and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations of the Sun. The correlations show an association with passages of shock associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind that inhibit high He/H plasma overabundances. It is likely that the CMEs have been released in strong magnetic reconfiguration processes at the solar source sites. Here we present a brief overview of such an event detected on October 30, 2000. 1. Introduction The SOHO/COSTEP instrument measures solar energetic particles (SEPs) at MeV energies in the interplanetary medium. The solid state detectors are capable to detect 3 He/4 He-enrichments at these energies (Müller-Mellin et al., 1995). Usually, the 3 He/4 He-ratio in the solar wind is at the order of 10-4 , but occasionally ratios up to about values of ~1 or even above have been observed in SEP events (e.g., Mason et al., 1999). The origin of these isotope abundances has commonly been attributed to impulsive solar flares and wave-particle interaction mechanisms (Temerin and Roth, 1992). However, fully satisfying physical explanations are still lacking. Here we present first results of a systematic survey of the He-measurements taken by COSTEP since launch in 1995 until the end of the year 2000. 2. Data For this study we have analyzed SOHO/COSTEP measurements of 4.3-40.9 MeV/N helium particles as well as COSTEP data covering

  5. Study of Interaction of Low-Energy Antiprotons with H$^{2}$,He$^{3}$,He$^{4}$,Ne-Nuclei Using a Streamer Chamber in Magnetic Field


    The aim of this experiment is the systematic study of the interaction between low-energy antiprotons and the H|2,~He|3,~He|4,~Ne-nuclei using a self shunted streamer chamber in a magnetic field exposed to the antiproton beam of the LEAR facility. The properties of the self shunted streamer chamber, which allows the use of the filling gas (hydrogen, helium, neon at a pressure of l~atm) as a target, permit to carry out experiments also in the very low-energy region. \\\\ \\\\ The experimental apparatus is suitable for a large programme of measurements. We plan to measure the @*H|2 cross section and the spectator momentum distributions at @* momenta lower than 250~MeV/c, where data are lacking. It is interesting to study for the first time the @*He|3 and @*He|4 interactions measuring the cross sections and the emitted particle distributions. Among other things the knowledge of the branching ratio of the @*He|4 annihilation channels clarifies some open cosmological questions. The study of the process of nuclear absor...

  6. Solar-flare implanted He-4/He-3 and solar-proton-produced Ne and Ar concentration profiles preserved in lunar rock 61016

    Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Reedy, R. C.


    Depth profiles for Ne-21, Ne-22, and Ar-38 isotopes from oriented lunar rock 61016 are reported. Concentration profiles of cosmogenic GCR+SCR (Galactic cosmic ray and solar cosmic ray-produced) isotopes are determined, quantitatively resolving neon and argon produced by energetic solar flares from that produced by Galactic cosmic rays. The SCR component is resolved from the GCR component as a function of shielding, and excellent agreement is found between experimental SCR production profiles for the isotopes and theoretically calculated values. A characteristic SW He-4/He-3 ratio of 3450 +/- 81, representing energies down to as few keV/amu. In slightly deeper samples an SRF He-4/He-3 ratio of 3450 +/- 725 is found for He particles with E larger than about 1 MeV/amu. These results indicate that the isotopic composition of SF He, averaged over the long term, is energy-dependent. An implanted Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of 12.4 is measured in unetched samples, representing E greater than 1 MeV/amu, and a ratio of 11.6 is inferred in the samples, representing E larger than about 5 MeV/amu.

  7. The cosmic-ray He-3/He-4 ratio from 200 MeV per nucleon(-1) to 3.7 GeV per nucleon(-1)

    Reimer, O.; Menn, W.; Hof, M.


    of the charge, the velocity, and the rigidity of cosmic rays using plastic scintillators, a high-resolution time-of-flight system, and two silica-aerogel Cerenkov counters in conjunction with a drift chamber/multiwire proportional chamber tracking system. About 75,000 helium isotopes are identified......The abundances of cosmic-ray helium isotopes between 0.2 and 3.7 GeV nucleon(-1) were measured by the Isotope Matter Antimatter Experiment (IMAX) during a flight from Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada on 1992 July 16-17. The IMAX balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer realized a direct measurement...... by their mass using the velocity versus magnetic rigidity technique. The measured He-3/He-4 ratios are corrected to the top of the atmosphere, and a comparison with previous data is given. The observed isotopic composition is found to be generally consistent with the predictions of a standard leaky box model...

  8. Numerical simulations of heavy fermion systems. From He-3 bilayers to topological Kondo insulators

    Werner, Jan


    In this thesis the results of model calculations based on an extended Periodic Anderson Model are presented. The three particle ring exchange, which is the dominant magnetic exchange process in layered He-3, is included in the model. In addition, the model incorporates the constraint of no double occupancy by taking the limit of large local Coulomb repulsion. By means of Cellular DMFT, the model is investigated for a range of values of the chemical potential μ and inverse temperature β=1/T. The method is a cluster extension to the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT), and allows to systematically include non-local correlations beyond the DMFT. The auxiliary cluster model is solved by a hybridization expansion CTQMC cluster solver, which provides unbiased, numerically exact results for the Green's function and other observables of interest. As a first step, the onset of Fermi liquid coherence is studied. At low enough temperature, the self-energy is found to exhibit a linear dependence on Matsubara frequency. Meanwhile, the spin susceptibility crossed over from a Curie-Weiss law to a Pauli law. The heavy fermion state appears at a characteristic coherence scale T{sub coh}. While the density is rather high for small filling, for larger filling T{sub coh} is increasingly suppressed. This involves a decreasing quasiparticle residue Z∝T{sub coh} and an enhanced mass renormalization m{sup *}/m∝T{sub coh}{sup -1}. Extrapolation leads to a critical filling, where the coherence scale is expected to vanish at a quantum critical point. At the same time, the effective mass diverges. This corresponds to a breakdown of the Kondo effect, which is responsible for the formation of quasiparticles, due to a vanishing of the effective hybridization between the layers. Cellular DMFT simulations are conducted for small clusters of size N{sub c}=2 and 3. Furthermore a simple two-band model for two-dimensional topological Kondo insulators is devised, which is based on a single

  9. He-3 in diamonds - The cosmogenic component

    Lal, D.; Craig, H.; Wacker, J. F.; Poreda, R.


    Results are presented of measurements of He-3 and He-4 concentrations in diamonds received directly from mines, as well as in industrual samples. None of the diamonds recovered from underground mining was found to have a He-3/He-4 ratio, R, exceeding three times the atmospheric He-3/He-4 ratio R(A), while one of the industrial diamonds was found to have an R value of 142 R(A). It is concluded that the hypothesis of Ozima et al. (1983) of high primordial He-3/He-4 ratios in diamonds exceeding MORB ratios is not required. The present findings on the He-3/He-4 ratios are explained as the result of cosmogenic and nucleogenic production of He-3 within the diamonds.

  10. He-3 in galactic cosmic rays

    Mewaldt, R.A.


    Cosmic-ray He-3/He-4 observations, including a new measurement around 65 MeV per nucleon from ISEE-3, are compared with interstellar propagation and solar modulation calculations in an effort to understand the origin of cosmic-ray He nuclei. A survey of spacecraft and balloon observations of the He-3/He-4 ratio shows improved consistency among measurements in the 50-300 MeV per nucleon energy range when a previously neglected contribution from atmospheric secondary He-3 is taken into account. These low-energy observations imply a mean escape length of 6-8 g/sq cm in the standard leaky box model for cosmic-ray propagation in the Galaxy, a value consistent with that derived from studies of heavier nuclei. No evidence is found for an excess of low-energy He-3 such as that reported at high energies. 42 references.

  11. Dry Dilution Refrigerator with He-4 Precool Loop

    Uhlig, K


    He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators (DR) are very common in sub-Kelvin temperature research. We describe a pulse tube precooled DR where a separate He-4 circuit condenses the He-3 of the dilution loop. Whereas in our previous work the dilution circuit and the He-4 circuit were separate, we show how the two circuits can be combined. Originally, the He-4 loop with a base temperature of ~ 1 K was installed to make an additional cooling power of up to 100 mW available to cool cold amplifiers and electrical lines. In the new design, the dilution circuit is run through a heat exchanger in the vessel of the He-4 circuit so that the condensation of the He-3 stream of the DR is done by the He-4 stage. A much reduced condensation time (factor of 2) of the He-3/He-4 gas mixture at the beginning of an experiment is achieved. A compressor is no longer needed with the DR as the condensation pressure remains below atmospheric pressure at all times; thus the risk of losing expensive He-3 gas is small. The performance of the DR ...

  12. MIMAC-He3 : MIcro-tpc MAtrix of Chambers of He3

    Santos, D; Lamy, T; Mayet, F; Moulin, E


    The project of a micro-TPC matrix of chambers of He3 for direct detection of non-baryonic dark matter is outlined. The privileged properties of He3 are highlighted. The double detection (ionization - projection of tracks) will assure the electron-recoil discrimination. The complementarity of MIMAC-He3 for supersymmetric dark matter search with respect to other experiments is illustrated. The modular character of the detector allows to have different gases to get A-dependence. The pressure degreee of freedom gives the possibility to work at high and low pressure. The low pressure regime gives the possibility to get the directionality of the tracks. The first measurements of ionization at very few keVs for He3 in He4 gas are described.




    The 4pi neutron detector ORION was installed at SATURNE laboratory to perform experiments with high energy light- and heavy- ion beams. The first preliminary results are now available. The thermal excitation energy distribution of nuclei produced in high energy proton induced reactions was measured

  14. HE4 Gene Overexpression in Ovarian Cancer

    A Shahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Ovarian cancer is one of the common malignancies within women and the fifth cause of cancer death in women all over the world. Recent developments in Genomics and Proteomics technologies have led to the identification of unknown candidate markers for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 has recently been supported to monitor the recurrence or the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to measure the expression of HE4 in women suffering from ovarian cancer. Methods: In this study, 20 paraffin-embedded tissue samples from women with ovarian cancer and 10 normal samples were collected from Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. After removing paraffin, RNA extraction was performed with RNAPlus solution. cDNA was synthesized through reverse transcription by MMULV enzyme. Gene expression was measured by Relative Real time PCR method. Glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH was used as an internal control. Results: The HE4 was expressed in normal and cancerous tissues, though its expression was observed more in tumor tissues (4.083 than noncancerous tissues. The study results also revealed that the expression level of HE4 increased with the advancement of the disease. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that HE4 expression levels greatly increases in tumor samples. Therefore, HE4 gene expression measurements can serve as a valuable prognostic factor for early detection and treatment management of the disease.

  15. Single shot demountable self-contained He-3 refrigerator

    Kittel, P.; Brooks, W. F.


    The present investigation is concerned with the development of a self-contained demountable He-3 refrigerator which greatly increases the versatility of a cold-plate-style helium Dewar. The refrigerator is controlled by a single heater. The considered design makes it possible to achieve a temperature of 0.27 K without costly or time-consuming modifications to the Dewar. An example for an employment of a temperature of less than 1 K in space is related to the study of the critical behavior of He-3/He-4 mixtures in the absence of gravitational mixing. This requires a temperature of 0.87 K. Such low temperatures can also be utilized in the space operation of infrared telescopes. Attention is given to details of system design, the operating principles, and aspects of performance.

  16. Cryogenic-coolant He-4-superconductor interaction

    Caspi, S.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Allen, R. J.; Frederking, T. H. K.


    The thermodynamic and thermal interaction between a type 2 composite alloy and cryo-coolant He4 was studied with emphasis on post quench phenomena of formvar coated conductors. The latter were investigated using a heater simulation technique. Overall heat transfer coefficients were evaluated for the quench onset point. Heat flux densities were determined for phenomena of thermal switching between a peak and a recovery value. The study covered near saturated liquid, pressurized He4, both above and below the lambda transition, and above and below the thermodynamic critical pressure. In addition, friction coefficients for relative motion between formvar insulated conductors were determined.

  17. The generalized GDH sum for He-3

    Karl Slifer


    The Burkhardt-Cottingham, Bjorken and generalized GDH sum rules are all consequences of the Q^2-dependent dispersion relations for the virtual photon Compton amplitudes. These integrals are investigated for a He-3 target at low Q^2.

  18. A rocket-borne He-3 refrigerator

    Duband, L.; Alsop, D.; Lange, A.; Kittel, P.

    A self-contained, recyclable He-3 refrigerator suitable for use in space has been developed. The refrigerator is compact, has no moving parts, and requires only electrical connections and thermal contact in order to operate from a 2 K cold stage. A charcoal adsorption pump is used to efficiently condense and cool the He-3. Sintered copper confines the He-3 to the evaporator in zero-gravity and, in fact, allows the refrigerator to operate upside-down in the laboratory. Mounted on a 2 K cold stage, the refrigerator provides 100 microwatts of cooling power at 346 mK, with a 7 hour hold time. On a 1.5 K cold stage, the lowest temperature achieved is 277 mK. The refrigerator has been vibration tested at 7.5 G amplitude from 30 to 400 Hz and 15 G amplitude from 400 to 2000 Hz.

  19. Nuclear-pumped lasing of /He-3/-Xe and /He-3/-Kr

    De Young, R. J.; Jalufka, N. W.; Hohl, F.


    The letter reports direct nuclear pumping of (He-3)-Xe and (He-3)-Kr using the volumetric He-3(n,p)H-3 nuclear reaction. Lasing in (He-3)-Xe was achieved at the 2.027-micron transition of Xe I; lasing in (He-3)-Kr is assumed to have occurred at the 2.52-micron transition of Kr I. Experimental results show that laser output in (He-3)-Xe increases and tends to saturate with increasing pressure, the lasing neutron-flux threshold decreases with decreasing neutron pulse, and maximum output occurs between 0.1% and 0.5% Xe with the total pressure held constant at 400 torr and with an average neutron flux of 6 by 10 to the 15th power per sq cm/sec. It is noted that the (He-3)-Xe laser has the lowest lasing-threshold neutron flux of any He-3 nuclear-pumped laser to date, but the (He-3)-Kr laser has a very high threshold flux. The primary lasing mechanism is believed to be Penning ionization of Xe and Kr followed by collisional radiative recombination and cascading into the upper laser level.

  20. Heavy-ion compositional signature in 3He-rich solar particle events

    Mason, G.M.; Reames, D.V.; Von Rosenvinge, T.T.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.


    A survey of the approx. 1 MeV/nucleon heavy ion abundances in 66 He3-rich solar particle events was performed using the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland and Goddard Space Flight Center instruments on the ISEE-3 spacecraft. The observations were carried out in interplanetary space over the period 1978 October through 1982 June. Earlier observations were confirmed which show an enrichment of heavy ions in HE3-rich events, relative to the average solar energetic particle composition in large particle events. For the survey near 1.5 MeV/nucleon the enrichments compared to large solar particle events are approximately He4:C:O:Ne:Mg:Si:Fe = 0.44:0.66:1.:3.4:3.5:4.1:9.6. Surprising new results emerging from the present broad survey are that the heavy ion enrichment pattern is the same within a factor of approx. 2 for almost all cases, and the degree of heavy ion enrichment is uncorrelated with the He3 enrichment. Overall, the features established appear to be best explained by an acceleraiation mechanism in which the He3 enrichment process is not responsible for the heavy ion enrichment, but rather the heavy ion enrichment is a measure of the ambient coronal composition at the sites where the He3-rich events occur. 63 references




    Spin-isospin excitations in nuclei havee been studied by means of the (He-3, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The Gamow-Teller (GT) resonances are found to be strongly excited. A fine structure of the giant Gamow Teller resonances in medium-heavy nuclei is observed with an energy resolution of 130 keV. The

  2. Opportunities for Polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC

    Aschenauer E.; Deshpande, A.; Fischer, W.; Derbenev, S.; Milner, R.; Roser, T.; Zelenski, A.


    The workshop on opportunities for polarized He-3 in RHIC and EIC was targeted at finding practical ways of implementing and using polarized He-3 beams. Polarized He-3 beams will provide the unique opportunity for first measurements, i.e, to a full quark flavor separation measuring single spin asymmetries for p{sup +}, p{sup -} and p{sup 0} in hadron-hadron collisions. In electron ion collisions the combination of data recorded with polarized electron proton/He-3 beams allows to determine the quark flavor separated helicity and transverse momentum distributions. The workshop had sessions on polarized He-3 sources, the physics of colliding polarized He-3 beams, polarimetry, and beam acceleration in the AGS Booster, AGS, RHIC, and ELIC. The material presented at the workshop will allow making plans for the implementation of polarized He-3 beams in RHIC.

  3. Estudo de modelos de Spins contínuos anisotrópicos: aplicações a misturas de He(3) - He(4)

    Rodrigo Teixeira Santos Freire


    Neste trabalho, estudamos, através de simulações Monte Carlo, as transições de fases que ocorrem em dois modelos tridimensionais distintos, obtendo o diagrama de fases de cada um deles, para diferentes valores dos parâmetros do hamiltoniano correspondente. No caso do modelo de Heisenberg anisotrópico submetido a um campo cristalino, a competição entre anisotropias de troca e cristalina resulta em um diagrama de fases de topologia rica, que revela duas fases ordenadas, separadas por uma linha ...

  4. A three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler reached 4.26 K with He-4 working fluid

    Zhi, X. Q.; Han, L.; Dietrich, M.; Gan, Z. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Thummes, G.


    Multi-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) working at liquid helium temperatures are attractive because of their promising potential in tactical and space applications. However, it is still a challenge for a SPTC to operate below 5 K with He-4 as working fluid instead of the rare He-3. In this study, the operating characteristics of an in-house made three-stage SPTC were experimentally investigated. The mutual influence of precooling temperature, operating frequency, input power, and charge pressure on the cooling performance of the third stage was studied. A no-load temperature of 4.26 K was achieved by the three-stage SPTC, which is the lowest temperature ever obtained by a multi-stage SPTC operating with He-4 as working fluid.

  5. Strategy for D/He-3 fusion development

    Santarius, John F.


    It is concluded that Deuterium/Helium-3 fusion faces a more difficult physics development path but an easier technology development path than does Deuterium/Tritium. Early D/He-3 tests in next generation D/T fusion experiments might provide a valuable D/He-3 proof-of-principle at modest cost. At least one high leverage alternate concept should be vigorously pursued. Space applications of D/He-3 fusion are critically important to large scale development.

  6. Synergism of He-3 acquisition with lunar base evolution

    Crabb, Thomas M.; Jacobs, Mark K.


    It is shown how acquisition of He-3 affects Lunar Base development and operation. A four phase evolutionary Lunar Base scenario is summarized with initial equipment mass and resupply requirements. Requirements for various He-3 mining operations are shown and available by-products are identified. Impacts of mining He-3 on Lunar Base development include increases in equipment masses to be delivered to the lunar surface and a reduction of Lunar Base resupply based on availability of He-3 acquisition by-products. It is concluded that the acquisition of this valuable fusion fuel element greatly enhances the commercial potential of a Lunar Base.

  7. Is Helium-3 hype, hyperbole or a hopeful fuel for the future. [Lunar He-3 extraction/production for earth fusion reactors

    Mackowski, M.J.


    Sixty kilowatts of thermal power have been reached with deuterium/He-3 reaction on the JET reactor, and full scale study of the environmental impact of a tokamak D/He-3 reactor is now underway for NASA. He-3 is obtained from the decaying process undergone by tritium, but in nature, the source of He-3 is the sun. It is found in abundance in the lunar regolith. He-3 combines with deuterium in a fusion reaction generating very high amounts of energy, He-4 and protons. He-3 is economical; it could be moon mined and sold at a price comparable to oil. The energy released is roughly 70 percent efficient, and can be directly converted to electricity with solid-state converters. Also, reactors can be built cheaper, placed closer to cities, and maintained and decomissioned more easily than any other type of fission or fusion reactor, thus allowing faster commercialization and lower energy costs. He-3 is not very radioactive; however, the physics of its nuclear structure presents barriers to getting it to fuse. Other advantages of producing He-3 on the moon include obtaining gases necessary in moon colonies, and fuel for hydrogen rockets. Water, nickel and carbon-oxygen compounds can also be obtained that way.

  8. K-He3 and K+K- interactions in the pd→ He3 K+K- reaction

    Grishina, V. Yu.; Büscher, M.; Kondratyuk, L. A.


    We investigate the K- He3 and K+K- interactions in the reaction pd→ He3 K+K- near threshold and compare our model calculations with data from the MOMO experiment at COSY-Jülich. A large attractive effective K-p amplitude would give a significant K- He3 final-state interaction effect, which is not supported by the experimental data. We also estimate upper limits for the a0(980) and f0(980) contributions to the produced K+K- pairs.

  9. Energy requirements for HE-3 mining operations on the Moon

    Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    At the present rate of world energy consumption (10 TW-y/y) and allowing for an equilibrium consumption of 20 to 30 TW-y/y in mid 21st century, we will exhaust economically recoverable fossil fuels in the next 50 to 60 years. We will then have to rely on nuclear (fission and fusion) and renewable energy to feed, warm, and protect the world's population. Fusion energy is expected to play an important role in the 21st century and there a 2 billion dollar per year research program to commercialize that energy resource. A serious problem with this is its reliance on the D-T fuel cycle which releases 80 percent of its energy in the form of neutrons. These neutrons cause significant radiation damage and induce large amounts of radioactivity. There is another fusion fuel cycle involving the isotopes of Deuterium and Helium-3 which, if configured properly, releases 1 percent or less of its energy in neutrons. Obviously, such a fuel would be preferred, but there is no large source of He-3 known to satisfy world energy needs. Fortunately, a very large source of He-3 was found on the Moon, implanted over the past 4 billion years by the solar wind. Recent analysis of Apollo and Luna data reveals that over a million tons of He-3 sit on the Moon's surface. The potential energy in this He-3 fuel is 10 times that contained in all the coal, oil, and natural gas on the Earth. The purpose of this paper is to examine the energy required to extract the He-3 from the lunar regolith.

  10. Microscopic Description of Diffractive Deuteron Breakup by He-3 Nuclei

    Kovalchuk, Valery


    A microscopic formalism for describing observed cross sections for deuteron breakup by three-nucleon nuclei was developed on the basis of the diffraction nuclear model. A general formula that describes the amplitude for the reaction d+3He->3He+p+n and which involves only one adjustable parameter was obtained by using expansions of the integrands involved in terms of a Gaussian basis. This formula was used to analyze experimental data on the exclusive cross sections for deuteron breakup by He-3 nuclei at the projectile energy of 89.4 MeV. The importance of employing, in calculations, a deuteron wave function that has a correct asymptotic behavior at large nucleon-nucleon distances was demonstrated.

  11. Neutron Beam Effects on Spin Exchange Polarized He-3

    Sharma, M; Andersen, K H; Barron-Palos, L; Becker, M; Boag, S; Chen, W C; Chupp, T E; Danagoulian, A; Gentile, T R; Klein, A; Penttila, S; Petoukhov, A; Soldner, T; Tardiff, E R; Walker, T G; Wilburn, W S


    We have observed depolarization effects when high intensity cold neutron beams are incident on alkali-metal-spin-exchange polarized He-3 cells used as neutron spin filters. This was first observed as a reduction of the maximum attainable He-3 polarization and was attributed to a decrease of alkali-metal polarization, which led us to directly measure alkali-metal polarization and spin relaxation over a range of neutron fluxes at LANSCE and ILL. The data reveal a new alkali-metal spin-relaxation mechanism that approximately scales as the square root of the neutron capture-flux density incident on the cell. This is consistent with an effect proportional to the recombination-limited ion concentration, but is much larger than expected from earlier work.

  12. Hard Two-Body Photodisintegration of He3

    Pomerantz, I.; Ilieva, Y.; Gilman, R.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Piasetzky, E.; Strauch, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Allada, K.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Beck, A.; Beck, S.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Boeglin, W.; Bono, J.; Bookwalter, C.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bubis, N.; Burkert, V.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Cisbani, E.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; Cusanno, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; de Jager, C. W.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Dutta, C.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garibaldi, F.; Geagla, O.; Gevorgyan, N.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glister, J.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Katramatou, A. T.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Khrosinkova, E.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Lee, B.; LeRose, J. J.; Lewis, S.; Lindgren, R.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McCullough, E.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D.; Meyer, C. A.; Michaels, R.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Moffit, B.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Petratos, G. G.; Phelps, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rodriguez, I.; Ron, G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saha, A.; Saini, M. S.; Sarty, A. J.; Sawatzky, B.; Saylor, N. A.; Schott, D.; Schulte, E.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Shneor, R.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wang, Y.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wood, M. H.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.


    We have measured cross sections for the γHe3→pd reaction at photon energies of 0.4-1.4 GeV and a center-of-mass angle of 90°. We observe dimensional scaling above 0.7 GeV at this center-of-mass angle. This is the first observation of dimensional scaling in the photodisintegration of a nucleus heavier than the deuteron.

  13. Portable He-3 detector cryostat for the far infrared

    Radostitz, J. V.; Nolt, I. G.; Kittel, P.; Donnelly, R. J.


    The design of a portable He-3 cryostat for far infrared detection applications is described, with a cutaway drawing of the cryostat, including bolometer and cooled optics, provided. Consideration is given to the selection and testing of various bolometer materials, including Ge:Ga and Ge:InSb; the resistance-temperature coefficients of the materials examined are presented. The absolute flux calibration of the detector system using a new temperature-modulated cold source method is described.

  14. Evaluation of tumor marker HE4 assay on the Elecsys 2010 analyzer

    Jozo Ćorić


    Full Text Available Introduction: Whey-acidic protein human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 is a new promising biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer. The measured HE4 values may depend on the testing procedure used. The aim of this study was to evaluate theMethods: We evaluated a HE4 method on Elecsys 2010 analyzer. The method for quantitative determination of HE4 is direct, competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay. For quality control we use Elecsys PreciControl HE4 1 and 2. HE4 was measure on sera obtained from 56 women ( 20 healthy and 36 with epithelial ovarian cancer.Results: The Roche HE4 assays showed a good linearity (r=0.99 and precision (intrassayed total CV<5%. The median HE4 serum concentrations was significantly higher among EOC patients than healthy females (p<0,05. Elevated levels HE4 were found in 78 % patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.Conclusions: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HE4 on the Elecsys 2010 analyzer showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  15. Clinical value of serum and bronchial aspiration fluid HE-4 levels in patients with lung cancer

    Jin Jing; Lin Yuan; Yong-Biao Liu


    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of serum and bronchial aspiration fluid HE-4 levels in patients with lung cancer.Methods:A total of 58 patients with lung cancer and 40 with benign lung disease were enrolled in our study. Compare the serum and bronchial aspiration fluid HE-4 levels between the two group. The specificity and sensitivity of serum and bronchial aspiration fluid HE-4 levels in determine whether lung cancer or not were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve; Spearman was used to evaluate the association of clinical and pathologic features with levels of LYVE-1.Results: Serum HE-4 levels were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer group than in benign lung disease group. No significant difference was observed in terms of BAF HE-4 values in two patient groups. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of serum HE-4 was 0.798 and that of BAF HE-4 was 0.598. A high cancer staging, occurrence of lymph-node metastases, and occurrence of distant metastases patient were associated with high HE-4 levels. No significant difference was observed with sex, tumor location and tumor histology.Conclusion: The increase of level of serum HE-4 is more prominent than the increase of the level of BAF HE-4, and has certain clinical significance for diagnosis of lung cancer and occurrence of metastases.

  16. Expression of HE4 in Endometrial Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

    Xiao Li


    Full Text Available The main aims of this study were to determine the expression of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 in endometrial cancer and to explore the relationships between HE4 expression, clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect HE4 expression in 102 cases of endometrial cancer, 30 cases of endometrial atypical hyperplasia, and 20 cases of normal endometrium. The positive expression rate of HE4 in endometrial carcinoma was 84.62%, significantly higher than 66.67% in atypical hyperplasia (P<0.05 and 15.00% in normal endometrium (P<0.0.01. With the exception of stage II, HE4 expression in endometrial cancer showed an increasing tendency with increased clinical stage (P<0.05. The positive expression rate of HE4 increased with a decrease in the degree of differentiation. A statistically significant difference was observed between the highly differentiated group and the poorly differentiated group (P<0.05. Mortality in endometrial cancer patients with high HE4 expression was significantly higher than that in patients with low HE4 expression (P<0.05. Endometrial cancer patients with high HE4 expression have a poor prognosis.

  17. The WAP Four-Disulfide Core Domain Protein HE4 : A Novel Biomarker for Heart Failure

    de Boer, Rudolf A.; Cao, Qi; Postmus, Douwe; Damman, Kevin; Voors, Adriaan A.; Jaarsma, Tiny; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Arnold, William D.; Hillege, Hans L.; Sillje, Herman H. W.


    Objectives This study investigated clinical determinants and added prognostic value of HE4 as a biomarker not previously described in heart failure (HF). Background Identification of plasma biomarkers that help to risk stratify HF patients may help to improve treatment. Methods Plasma HE4 levels wer

  18. Correlation of serum HE4 with tumor size and myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer.

    Kalogera, Eleftheria; Scholler, Nathalie; Powless, Cecelia; Weaver, Amy; Drapkin, Ronny; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Podratz, Karl; Urban, Nicole; Dowdy, Sean C


    To evaluate the utility of serum (HE4) as a marker for high risk disease in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). Preoperative serum HE4 levels were measured from a cohort of 75 patients surgically treated for EC. Cases were compared to matched controls without a history of cancer. HE4 levels were analyzed as a function of primary tumor diameter, grade, stage and histological subtype. Wilcoxon rank-sum test, ROC curve, Spearman rank correlation coefficient and contingency tables were used for statistical analyses. Stage distribution was as follows: 49 stage I, 2 stage II, 20 stage III, 4 stage IV. Type I EC was present in 54 patients, type II in 21. Median HE4 was significantly elevated in both types I and II EC compared to controls (P50%, P2 cm, P=0.002). Low risk patients (type I, MI ≤ 50% and PTD ≤ 2 cm) had significantly lower median HE4 compared to all other type I EC patients (P<0.01). In comparison to prior investigations, HE4 (cutoff of 8 mfi) was more sensitive than CA125 in detecting advanced stage disease. Our data suggest that HE4 is elevated in a high proportion of EC patients, is correlated with PTD and MI, and is more sensitive than CA125 in EC. These observations suggest potential utility of HE4 in the preoperative prediction of high risk disease and the necessity for definitive surgical staging. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Triple oxygen isotopic composition of the high-3He/4He mantle

    Starkey, N. A.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Greenwood, R. C.; Parman, S.; Franchi, I. A.; Jackson, M.; Fitton, J. G.; Stuart, F. M.; Kurz, M.; Larsen, L. M.


    Measurements of Xe isotope ratios in ocean island basalts (OIB) suggest that Earth's mantle accreted heterogeneously, and that compositional remnants of accretion are sampled by modern, high-3He/4He OIB associated with the Icelandic and Samoan plumes. If so, the high-3He/4He source may also have a distinct oxygen isotopic composition from the rest of the mantle. Here, we test if the major elements of the high-3He/4He source preserve any evidence of heterogeneous accretion using measurements of three oxygen isotopes on olivine from a variety of high-3He/4He OIB locations. To high precision, the Δ17O value of high-3He/4He olivines from Hawaii, Pitcairn, Baffin Island and Samoa, are indistinguishable from bulk mantle olivine (Δ17OBulk Mantle - Δ17OHigh 3He/4He olivine = -0.002 ± 0.004 (2 × SEM)‰). Thus, there is no resolvable oxygen isotope evidence for heterogeneous accretion in the high-3He/4He source. Modelling of mixing processes indicates that if an early-forming, oxygen-isotope distinct mantle did exist, either the anomaly was extremely small, or the anomaly was homogenised away by later mantle convection. The δ18O values of olivine with the highest 3He/4He ratios from a variety of OIB locations have a relatively uniform composition (∼5‰). This composition is intermediate to values associated with the depleted MORB mantle and the average mantle. Similarly, δ18O values of olivine from high-3He/4He OIB correlate with radiogenic isotope ratios of He, Sr, and Nd. Combined, this suggests that magmatic oxygen is sourced from the same mantle as other, more incompatible elements and that the intermediate δ18O value is a feature of the high-3He/4He mantle source. The processes responsible for the δ18O signature of high-3He/4He mantle are not certain, but δ18O-87Sr/86Sr correlations indicate that it may be connected to a predominance of a HIMU-like (high U/Pb) component or other moderate δ18O components recycled into the high-3He/4He source.

  20. Development of a thermodynamic model for a cold cycle 3He-4He dilution refrigerator

    Mueller, B. W.; Miller, F. K.


    A thermodynamic model of a 3He-4He cold cycle dilution refrigerator with no actively-driven mechanical components is developed and investigated. The refrigerator employs a reversible superfluid magnetic pump, passive check valves, a phase separation chamber, and a series of recuperative heat exchangers to continuously circulate 3He-4He and maintain a 3He concentration gradient across the mixing chamber. The model predicts cooling power and mixing chamber temperature for a range of design and operating parameters, allowing an evaluation of feasibility for potential 3He-4He cold cycle dilution refrigerator prototype designs. Model simulations for a prototype refrigerator design are presented.

  1. Investigation on phase shifting for a 4 K Stirling pulse tube cryocooler with He-3 as working fluid

    Qiu, L. M.; Han, L.; Zhi, X. Q.; Dietrich, M.; Gan, Z. H.; Thummes, G.


    He-3 is generally recognized for its ability to provide more excellent thermophysical performance than He-4, especially in the 4 K temperature range. However, this was not always the case in our preliminary experiments on a three-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC). Our ongoing studies, as reported in this paper, demonstrate that the different working fluids also affect the performance through their phase shifting capability. This feature has been passed over in large part by researchers considering refrigerant substitution. Unlike previous theoretical analyses that focus primarily on regenerator losses, this report investigates the effects of the working fluid on the phase angle at the cold end in order to quantitatively reveal the relationship between the lowest attainable temperature and the cooling capacity. The analysis agrees well with our experimental results on a three-stage SPTC. While running with the operating parameters optimized for He-3, the lowest temperature of the SPTC decreased from 5.4 K down to 4.03 K. This is the lowest refrigeration temperature ever achieved with a three-stage SPTC.

  2. First Measurement of the $^{3}He(^{3}He,2p) ^{4}He$ Cross Section down to the Lower Edge of the Solar Gamow Peak

    Bonetti, R; Campajola, L; Corvisiero, P; D'Alessandro, A; Dessalvi, M; D'Onofrio, A; Fubini, A; Gervino, G; Gialanella, L; Greife, U; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Schuemann, F; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Zavatarelli, S


    We give the LUNA results on the cross section measurement of a key reaction of the proton-proton chain strongly affecting the calculated neutrino luminosity from the Sun: He3+He3-->He4+2p. Due to the cosmic ray suppression provided by the Gran Sasso underground laboratory it has been possible to measure the cross section down to the lower edge of the solar Gamow peak, i.e. as low as 16.5 keV centre of mass energy. The data clearly show the cross section increase due to the electron screening effect but they do not exhibit any evidence for a narrow resonance suggested to explain the observed solar neutrino flux.

  3. Serum concentrations of HE4 change little during in vitro fertilization.

    Hallamaa, Marianne; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Suvitie, Pia; Perheentupa, Antti


    Human epididymal secretory protein 4 (HE4) is a biomarker for ovarian cancer. The effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on HE4 was evaluated to determine whether substantial hormonal stimulation of the ovaries affects the serum levels of this marker. Findings were compared with serum concentrations of cancer antigen 125 (CA125), currently the most commonly used marker for ovarian cancer. Prospective cohort study. University hospital infertility clinic. Infertility patients undergoing IVF treatment. We determined the serum concentration of HE4 and CA125 in serial blood samples in 20 women treated with IVF. Samples were taken following gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist suppression, two to three times during FSH stimulation, at ovum pick-up and 2 weeks following embryo transfer at the time of the pregnancy test. Ovarian follicles were counted and serum estradiol concentrations measured throughout treatment. Serum HE4, CA125 and estradiol concentrations. Serum HE4 levels did not increase significantly during the FSH stimulation. The majority of values remained below the normal reference range (treatment. Serum CA125 concentration also remained low during stimulation. Serum estradiol concentration reflected the severity of ovarian stimulation during IVF, increasing 3.9-fold with stimulation. Serum HE4 concentrations respond little if at all to supraphysiological ovarian stimulation, suggesting that the amount of circulating HE4 in women with normal ovaries is independent of gonadotropin stimulation. Hormonal stimulation of the ovaries is unlikely to affect the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors with HE4. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Collimated Outflows in the Stingray Nebula (He 3-1357)

    Bobrowsky, M.; Sahu, K. C.; Parthasarathy, M.; Garcia-Lario, P.


    Observations over the past four decades have revealed significant changes in the spectrum of the Stingray Nebula (He 3-1357). Here we present HST images and spectra showing the most recent developments. In 1950, Henize saw only Hα in emission; but more recent observations by Parthasarathy et al. in 1992 showed strong forbidden lines consistent with a young planetary nebula. The spherically aberrated 1992 HST images, in which Bobrowsky first optically resolved the nebula, showed a compact nebula surrounding the central star. Nebular gas appeared most strongly concentrated in an ellipse with its major axis subtending 1.('') 6 from NE to SW. If this ellipse is actually a circular ring viewed obliquely, then our line of sight is inclined from the symmetry axis by 56deg . Above and below the ring of gas are two bubbles containing lower-density gas. At the tip of each bubble, there is a hole where the gas inside the bubbles has broken through and is now escaping. While images of focused jets have been obtained previously (Borkowski et al.), this is the first case where the nebular structure responsible for the focusing of an outflow can be clearly seen. The windblown appearance of the nebula is consistent with the blueshifted Si IV (1394-1403 Angstroms) and Al III (1855-1863 Angstroms) doublets observed by Parthasarathy et al. that indicated the presence of a strong stellar wind. The N V (1239-1243 Angstroms) to C IV (1548-1551 Angstroms) ratio has increased in recent years, consistent with a young nebula becoming increasingly ionized. Our new spectra reveal additional developments that show the real-time development of this young nebula. Finally, the new HST Planetary Camera images of the nebula show detailed structure indicating a much more complex object than previously known, including the presence of a companion star 0.('') from the central star.

  5. Heat Transfer in 3He -4He Mixtures in Cylindrical Geometry

    Nemchenko, K.; Rogova, S.; Vikhtinskaya, T.


    The paper presents the results of theoretical studies of the transport processes that take place in the newly proposed experiments on study of a vibrating quartz fork in superfluid 3He -4He mixtures. In addition to known mechanisms of energy loss from a vibrating quartz fork such as first sound radiation or interaction with thermal excitations, two more mechanisms specific for 3He -4He mixtures are proposed and studied in the paper. The relative contribution of these mechanisms: second sound and effective diffusion, is considered, and experimental conditions under which these mechanisms become effective are discussed.


    Luo Hong; Pu Zhilin


    Existence and regularity of solutions to model for liquid mixture of 3He-4He is considered in this paper.First,it is proved that this system possesses a unique global weak solution in H1(Ω,C × R) by using Galerkin method.Secondly,by using an iteration procedure,regularity estimates for the linear semigroups,it is proved that the model for liquid mixture of 3He-4He has a unique solution in Hk(Ω,C × R) for all k ≥ 1.

  7. Implications of new High 3He/4He Values from the Samoan Hotspot

    Jackson, M. G.; Kurz, M. D.; Hart, S. R.; Workman, R.


    We report new olivine phenocryst helium measurements from Ofu Island, American Samoa; the 3He/4He ratios range from 19.5 to 33.7 times atmospheric (R/Ra), significantly expanding the observed range for Samoa. The highest 3He/4He ratio of 33.7 Ra was measured in olivines from an ankaramite dike. Relatively high helium concentrations (4.4*108 cc/g) in this sample, crushing and fusion measurements, coupled with sampling from a roadcut exposure, all ensure that the isotope ratio is not affected by in situ cosmogenic 3He. A second basaltic dike yielded a 3He/4He ratio of 29.6 Ra, and measurements on 9 other basalt samples from Ofu range from 19.5 to 26.4 Ra. Previous high 3He/4He measurements (~25 Ra) from the Samoan hotspot were also obtained from basaltic dikes, but were from Tutuila Island (Farley et al., 1992). The new high 3He/4He ratios from Samoa are similar in magnitude to the high ratios found at Iceland (~37 Ra) and Hawaii (~35 Ra). However, the Ofu basalts have 87Sr/86Sr > 0.7044, which is significantly more radiogenic than Iceland or Hawaii. The combined Sr-He isotopic data are broadly consistent with mixing between an enriched mantle source (EM2) and the putative common high 3He/4He component (FOZO, as best represented by Baffin Island Picrites, Stuart et al., 2003). Assuming that the overall isotopic variations are produced by mixing processes, we attempt to place constraints on the relative helium concentrations in the FOZO, EM2 and Depleted MORB mantle (DMM) endmembers. In addition to using the shape of the plausible mixing lines, we employ new estimates for the trace element concentrations in the DMM and Samoan EM2 sources (Workman et al., 2004; Workman and Hart, 2005) to get at relative helium concentrations in these reservoirs. We assume that high 3He/4He basalts from the mid-Atlantic ridge North of Iceland (Schilling et al., 1999, and others) are a mixture between DMM and FOZO. We further assume that the N. Iceland ridge-FOZO and Ofu-FOZO mixing

  8. The prognostic and predictive value of combined HE4 and CA-125 in ovarian cancer patients

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Brandslund, Ivan;


    A risk-of-ovarian-malignancy algorithm (ROMA) based on human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and CA-125 has been reported to categorize women with a pelvic mass into high or low risk of ovarian malignancy. Originally, the ROMA score was developed for diagnostic purposes and the clinical application of...

  9. First observation and mobility measurements of negative ions in superfluid He-4

    Kasimova, A; Zuhlke, C; Jungmann, K; Putlitz, GZ


    We present the results of the first mobility measurements in superfluid helium for negative ions of different elements. Various negative ions like Cl-, F- and I- were produced by laser ablation from targets consisting of NaCl, NaF, NaI, LiF and KCl immersed in a He-4 bath. In addition to negative io

  10. First observation and mobility measurements of negative ions in superfluid He-4

    Kasimova, A; Zuhlke, C; Jungmann, K; Putlitz, GZ

    We present the results of the first mobility measurements in superfluid helium for negative ions of different elements. Various negative ions like Cl-, F- and I- were produced by laser ablation from targets consisting of NaCl, NaF, NaI, LiF and KCl immersed in a He-4 bath. In addition to negative

  11. Stability of HE4 and CA125 in blood samples from patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer

    Sandhu, Noreen; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of handling and storage on HE4 and CA125 serum and EDTA plasma levels to clarify any important consequences for a clinical setting. METHODS: Blood samples from 13 ovarian cancer (OC) patients were collected and allowed to clot or sediment for up to 72 hours...

  12. Prognostic impact of prechemotherapy serum levels of HER2, CA125, and HE4 in ovarian cancer patients

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Brandslund, Ivan;


    Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has attracted a lot of interest as a relatively novel biomarker for ovarian carcinoma. Research focus has been directed at HE4 as a diagnostic tool with potential for better triage of women with adnexal masses but the prognostic aspect of HE4 in ovarian cancer...... patients remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of prechemotherapy serum HER2, cancer antigen 125 (CA125), and HE4 levels in ovarian cancer patients receiving standard combination chemotherapy....

  13. HE4 as a predictor of adjuvant chemotherapy resistance and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    Aarenstrup Karlsen, Mona; Høgdall, Claus; Nedergaard, Lotte


    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and HE4 tissue protein expression to predict tumor resistance to adjuvant chemotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Consecutive...... inclusion of 198 patients diagnosed with EOC was conducted. Blood samples were collected prior to surgery and tissue samples during surgery. Patient data were registered prospectively in the Danish Gynecologic Cancer Database. The association between serum HE4 and HE4 tissue protein expression, resistance...... significantly (p tissue protein expression...

  14. Abundance of He-3 and other solar-wind-derived volatiles in lunar soil

    Swindle, Timothy D.

    Volatiles implanted into the lunar regolith by the solar wind are potentially important lunar resources. Wittenberg et al. (1986) have proposed that lunar He-3 could be used as a fuel for terrestrial nuclear fusion reactors. They argue that a fusion scheme involving D and He-3 would be cleaner and more efficient than currently-proposed schemes involving D and T. However, since the terrestrial inventory of He-3 is so small, they suggest that the lunar regolith, with concentrations of the order of parts per billion (by mass) would be an economical source of He-3. Solar-wind implantation is also the primary source of H, C, and N in lunar soil. These elements could also be important, particularly for life support and for propellant production. In a SERC study of the feasibility of obtaining the necessary amount of He-3, Swindle et al. (1990) concluded that the available amount is sufficient for early reactors, at least, but that the mining problems, while not necessarily insurmountable, are prodigious. The volatiles H, C, and N, on the other hand, come in parts per million level abundances. The differences in abundances mean that (1) a comparable amount of H, C, and/or N could be extracted with orders of magnitude smaller operations than required for He-3, and (2) if He-3 extraction ever becomes important, huge quantities of H, C, and N will be produced as by-products.

  15. Discoloration and mineralization of Reactive Red HE-3B by heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction.

    Feng, Jiyun; Hu, Xijun; Yue, Po Lock; Zhu, Huai Yong; Lu, Gao Qing


    Discoloration and mineralization of Reactive Red HE-3B were studied by using a laponite clay-based Fe nanocomposite (Fe-Lap-RD) as a heterogeneous catalyst in the presence of H2O2 and UV light. Our experimental results clearly indicate that Fe-Lap-RD mainly consists of Fe2O3 (meghemite) and Fe2Si4O10(OH)2 (iron silicate hydroxide) which have tetragonal and monoclinic structures, respectively, and has a high specific surface area (472 m2/g) as well as a high total pore volume (0.547 cm3/g). It was observed that discoloration of HE-3B undergoes a much faster kinetics than mineralization of HE-3B. It was also found that initial HE-3B concentration, H2O2 concentration, UV light wavelength and power, and Fe-Lap-RD catalyst loading are the four main factors that can significantly influence the mineralization of HE-3B. At optimal conditions, complete discoloration of 100 mg/L HE-3B can be achieved in 30 min and the total organic carbon removal ratio can attain 76% in 120 min, illustrating that Fe-Lap-RD has a high photo-catalytic activity in the photo-assisted discoloration and mineralization of HE-3B in the presence of UV light (254 nm) and H2O2.

  16. Heavy ion compositional signature in /sup 3/He-rich solar particle events

    Mason, G.M.; Reames, D.V.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Vonrosenvinge, T.T.


    A survey of the approx. 1 MeV/nucleon heavy ion abundances in 66 He/sup 3/-rich solar particle events was performed using the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland and Goddard Space Flight Center instruments on the ISEE-3 spacecraft. The observations were carried out in interplanetary space over the period 1978 October through 1982 June. Earlier observations were confirmed which show an enrichment of heavy ions in HE3-rich events, relative to the average solar energetic particle composition in large particle events. For the survey near 1.5 MeV/nucleon the enrichments compared to large solar particle events are approximately He4:C:O:Ne:Mg:Si:Fe = 0.44:0.66:1.:3.4:3.5:4.1:9.6. Surprising new results emerging from the present broad survey are that the heavy ion enrichment pattern is the same within a factor of approx. 2 for almost all cases, and the degree of heavy ion enrichment is uncorrelated with the He/sup 3/ enrichment. Overall, the features established appear to be best explained by an acceleration mechanism in which the He/sup 3/ enrichment process is not responsible for the heavy ion enrichment, but rather the heavy ion enrichment is a measure of the ambient coronal composition at the sites where the He/sup 3/-rich events occur.

  17. High-Sensitivity Measurement of 3He-4He Isotopic Ratios for Ultracold Neutron Experiments

    Mumm, H P; Bauder, W; Abrams, N; Deibel, C M; Huffer, C R; Huffman, P R; Schelhammer, K W; Swank, C M; Janssens, R; Jiang, C L; Scott, R H; Pardo, R C; Rehm, K E; Vondrasek, R; O'Shaughnessy, C M; Paul, M; Yang, L


    Research efforts ranging from studies of solid helium to searches for a neutron electric dipole moment require isotopically purified helium with a ratio of 3He to 4He at levels below that which can be measured using traditional mass spectroscopy techniques. We demonstrate an approach to such a measurement using accelerator mass spectroscopy, reaching the 10e-14 level of sensitivity, several orders of magnitude more sensitive than other techniques. Measurements of 3He/4He in samples relevant to the measurement of the neutron lifetime indicate the need for substantial corrections. We also argue that there is a clear path forward to sensitivity increases of at least another order of magnitude.

  18. Trapping of ultra cold atoms in a 3He/4He dilution refrigerator

    Jessen, F; Bell, S C; Vergien, P; Hattermann, H; Weiss, P; Rudolph, M; Reinschmidt, M; Meyer, K; Gaber, T; Cano, D; Guenther, A; Bernon, S; Koelle, D; Kleiner, R; Fortagh, J


    We describe the preparation of ultra cold atomic clouds in a dilution refrigerator. The closed cycle 3He/4He cryostat was custom made to provide optical access for laser cooling, optical manipulation and detection of atoms. We show that the cryostat meets the requirements for cold atom experiments, specifically in terms of operating a magneto-optical trap, magnetic traps and magnetic transport under ultra high vacuum conditions. The presented system is a step towards the creation of a quantum hybrid system combining ultra cold atoms and solid state quantum devices.

  19. Excimers He2* as tracers of quantum turbulence in He4 in the T=0 Limit

    Zmeev, D. E.; Pakpour, F.; Walmsley, P. M.; Golov, A. I.; Guo, W; McKinsey, D. N.; Ihas, G. G.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Fisher, S. N.; Vinen, W. F.


    We have studied the interaction of metastable He2*4 excimer molecules with quantized vortices in superfluid He4 in the zero temperature limit. The vortices were generated by either rotation or ion injection. The trapping diameter of the molecules on quantized vortices was found to be 96±6 nm at a pressure of 0.1 bar and 27±5 nm at 5.0 bar. We have also demonstrated that a moving tangle of vortices can carry the molecules through the superfluid helium. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  20. Excimers He2* as Tracers of Quantum Turbulence in He4 in the T=0 Limit

    Zmeev, D. E.; Pakpour, F.; Walmsley, P. M.; Golov, A. I.; Guo, W.; McKinsey, D. N.; Ihas, G. G.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Fisher, S. N.; Vinen, W. F.


    We have studied the interaction of metastable He2*4 excimer molecules with quantized vortices in superfluid He4 in the zero temperature limit. The vortices were generated by either rotation or ion injection. The trapping diameter of the molecules on quantized vortices was found to be 96±6nm at a pressure of 0.1 bar and 27±5nm at 5.0 bar. We have also demonstrated that a moving tangle of vortices can carry the molecules through the superfluid helium.

  1. Assessment of lunar sources of He-3 for use on earth

    English, Robert E.


    As a gross measure of the economics of mining lunar sources of He-3, the energy densities (GJ/ton) of lunar soils were compared with the energy densities of various existing and future terrestrial sources of energy. On this basis, only the very richest lunar ores appear competitive with coal. Future lunar exploration might emphasize identification of lunar soils having higher concentrations of He-3.

  2. Accretion of Interplanetary Dust: A New Record from He-3 In Polar Ice Cores

    Brook, Edward


    This grant funded measurements of extraterrestrial He-3 in particles extracted from polar ice samples. The overall objective was to develop measurements of He-3 as tracers of the flux of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) to the earth. To our knowledge these are the first such measurements, apart from our earlier work. The project also funded an EPO activity - a climate and global change workshop for high school science teachers.

  3. Solar neon abundances from gamma-ray spectroscopy and He-3-rich particle events

    Reames, D. V.; Ramaty, R.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.


    Ambient solar atmospheric abundances derived from gamma-ray spectroscopy are compared with observations of solar energetic particles. Agreement is found between the gamma-ray-derived Ne/O ratio and the corresponding mean ratio for He-3-rich flares. Both of these values are significantly higher than inferred coronal Ne/O ratios. It is suggested that the mean Ne/O ratio in He-3-rich flares reflects the composition of the flare plasma rather than the acceleration process.

  4. HE4 Transcription- and Splice Variants-Specific Expression in Endometrial Cancer and Correlation with Patient Survival

    Shi-Wen Jiang


    Full Text Available We investigated the HE4 variant-specific expression patterns in various normal tissues as well as in normal and malignant endometrial tissues. The relationships between mRNA variants and age, body weight, or survival are analyzed. ICAT-labeled normal and endometrial cancer (EC tissues were analyzed with multidimensional liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of HE4 mRNA variants were measured by real-time PCR. Mean mRNA levels were compared among 16 normal endometrial samples, 14 grade 1 and 14 grade 3 endometrioid EC, 15 papillary serous EC, and 14 normal human tissue samples. The relationship between levels of HE4 variants and EC patient characteristics was analyzed with the use of Pearson correlation test. We found that, although all five HE4 mRNA variants are detectable in normal tissue samples, their expression is highly tissue-specific, with epididymis, trachea, breast and endometrium containing the highest levels. HE4-V0, -V1, and -V3 are the most abundant variants in both normal and malignant tissues. All variants are significantly increased in both endometrioid and papillary serous EC, with higher levels observed in grade 3 endometrioid EC. In the EC group, HE4-V1, -V3, and -V4 levels inversely correlate with EC patient survival, whereas HE4-V0 levels positively correlate with age. HE4 variants exhibit tissue-specific expression, suggesting that each variant may exert distinct functions in normal and malignant cells. HE4 levels appear to correlate with EC patient survival in a variant-specific manner. When using HE4 as a biomarker for EC management, the effects of age should be considered.

  5. HE4 in the Differential Diagnosis of a Pelvic Mass: A Case Report

    Luigi Frati


    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the ovary present an increasing challenge to the physician. Neoplastic ovarian cysts can resemble endometriomas in ultrasound imaging and need to be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a woman with a strong family history of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, who presented with a pelvic mass. The young girl refused oncogenetic counseling and genetic testing, even though she had a 50% a priori probability of being a BRCA1 mutation carrier. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a comparative analysis of the serum concentration of HE-4 and CA125 biomarkers provided accuracy and sensitivity in the diagnosis of a benign ovarian pathology. Based on this experience, we propose that the sensitivity of a screening program based on a HE4 and CA125 assay and MRI in high risk patients with mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes may be considered a useful pre-operative tool for the differential diagnosis of pelvic masses.

  6. Utility of tumor marker HE4 as prognostic factor in endometrial cancer: a single-center controlled study.

    Capriglione, Stella; Plotti, Francesco; Miranda, Andrea; Ricciardi, Roberto; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Aloisi, Alessia; Guzzo, Federica; Montera, Roberto; Angioli, Roberto


    This study aims to investigate the correlation between preoperative human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) levels, endometrial cancer (EC) staging, and ideal cutoff for stage prediction. All EC patients, treated within January 2009 and February 2014 at the Division of Gynaecologic Oncology of the University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, were considered for the study. For the first part of the study, we consider an HE4 cutoff of 70 pmol/L. Histotypes (endometrioid versus non-endometrioid), grading (G1, G2, G3), and stage were correlated with HE4 levels. In the second part of the study, the logistic regression was performed in stepwise mood to identify the ideal HE4 cutoff for stage prediction. Two hundred thirty-two patients with surgically staged EC and preoperative HE4 dosage were included in the study. We found that higher HE4 levels correlate with undifferentiated grading (p IV, respectively, presented HE4 levels above the standard cutoff of 70 pmol/L. Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, we found the ideal HE4 cutoff as follows: 61.3 pmol/L for FIGO stage IA (sensitivity = 82.3 % and specificity = 96 %), 89.2 pmol/L for FIGO stage IB (sensitivity = 83.3 % and specificity = 96 %), 104.3 pmol/L for FIGO stage II (sensitivity = 80.9 % and specificity = 98.6 %), 152.6 pmol/L for FIGO stage III (sensitivity = 92.5 % and specificity = 98.6 %), and 203.8 pmol/L for FIGO stage IV (sensitivity = 81.8 % and specificity = 99.3 %). Our results suggest a potential role of HE4 in EC stage prediction.

  7. Highly Mobile Metastable State of He-4 Thin Films: A Glass Transition by Mechanical Perturbation?

    Minoguchi, Tomoki


    Solid layers of helium on graphite surface are known to go into a highly mobile state (HMS) once the solid layer is enforced to slip on the substrate. The HMS collapses to the stable inert state with the lifetime extending over 10^4 s. In this paper, we suggest that the HMS is a structural glass by showing the similarities between the present system and an organic conductor named BEDT-TTF. The latter was recently discovered to be an electronic glass if the cooling rate is rapid enough across the freezing temperature (Wigner crystal formation temperature). We then address a novel annealing process promoted by a local condensate which should be seen for the present He-4 case as the condensation fraction grows in the liquid overlayer.

  8. Green's function theory for the Cheng-Schick model of 3He-4He mixtures

    Siemann, R. P.; Boukahil, A.; Huber, D. L.


    In this paper, we outline a theory for the thermodynamic properties of 3He-4He mixtures in the neighborhood of the critical line and the tricritical point (TCP). The theory utilizes the Cheng-Schick (CS) lattice gas model where both the 3He and 4He atoms are treated as quantum particles on a lattice. The analysis is based on Green's function approach. Results are presented for the ordering susceptibility and the thermal averages of the occupation numbers of 3He and 4He atoms. We derive a self-consistent equation for the ordering susceptibility and use it to calculate the critical line and locate the TCP. Our findings are compared with the predictions obtained from high temperature series expansions, mean field theory and the random phase approximation (RPA).

  9. Charge symmetry breaking in dd→He4π0 with WASA-at-COSY

    P. Adlarson


    Full Text Available Charge symmetry breaking (CSB observables are a suitable experimental tool to examine effects induced by quark masses on the nuclear level. Previous high precision data from TRIUMF and IUCF are currently used to develop a consistent description of CSB within the framework of chiral perturbation theory. In this work the experimental studies on the reaction dd→He4π0 have been extended towards higher excess energies in order to provide information on the contribution of p-waves in the final state. For this, an exclusive measurement has been carried out at a beam momentum of pd=1.2 GeV/c using the WASA-at-COSY facility. The total cross section amounts to σtot=(118±18stat±13sys±8ext pb and first data on the differential cross section are consistent with s-wave pion production.

  10. Microscopic approach to critical behavior in 3He-4He mixtures. Effective Hamiltonian and instability

    Singh, K. K.; Goswami, Partha


    A system of weakly interacting bosons and fermions is used as a model to develop a theory of critical behavior of 3He-4He mixtures. The fermion amplitudes and the short-wavelength boson amplitudes are eliminated from the problem within the framework of perturbation theory. The resulting effective boson Hamiltonian possesses interesting features. It implies an instability of the mixture and of its λ line when certain conditions are fulfilled. The coefficients associated with the quartic and six-operator terms of the effective Hamiltonian have properties characteristic of the classical Landau model often used to discuss tricritical behavior. The condition of stability derived for the mixture agrees with an earlier result of Cohen and Leeuwen for the degenerate phase but is in disagreement with their results for the nondegenerate phase.

  11. Explore the possibility of accelerating polarized He-3 beam in RHIC

    Bai M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.


    As the world's first high energy polarized proton collider, RHIC has made significant progresses in measuring the proton spin structure in the past decade. In order to have better understanding of the contribution of up quarks and down quarks to the proton spin structure, collisions of high energy polarized neutron beams are required. Polarized He-3 beams offer an effectiveway to provide polarized neutron beams. In this paper, we present studies of accelerating polarized He-3 in RHIC with the current dual snake configuration. Possibilities of adding two more pairs of snakes for accelerating polarized He-3 were explored. Results of six snake configuration in RHIC are also reported in the paper.

  12. Microdosimetry spectra and RBE of H-1, He-4, Li-7 and C-12 nuclei in water studied with Geant4

    Burigo, Lucas; Mishustin, Igor; Bleicher, Marcus


    A Geant4-based Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT) is used to study radiation fields of H-1, He-4, Li-7 and C-12 beams with similar ranges (~160-180 mm) in water. Microdosimetry spectra are simulated for wall-less and walled Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs) placed outside or inside a phantom, as in experiments performed, respectively, at NIRS, Japan and GSI, Germany. The impact of fragmentation reactions on microdosimetry spectra is investigated for He-4, Li-7 and C-12, and contributions from nuclear fragments of different charge are evaluated for various TEPC positions in the phantom. The microdosimetry spectra measured on the beam axis are well described by MCHIT, in particular, in the vicinity of the Bragg peak. However, the simulated spectra for the walled TEPC far from the beam axis are underestimated. Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of the considered beams is estimated using a modified microdosimetric-kinetic model. Calculations show a similar rise of the RBE up to 2.2...

  13. 3He/4He Ratio in Olivines from Linosa, Ustica, and Pantelleria Islands (Southern Italy

    Elise Fourré


    Full Text Available We report helium isotope data for 0.03–1 Ma olivine-bearing basaltic hawaiites from three volcanoes of the southern Italy magmatic province (Ustica, Pantelleria, and Linosa Islands. Homogenous 3He/4He ratios (range: 7.3–7.6 Ra for the three islands, and their similarity with the ratio of modern volcanic gases on Pantelleria, indicate a common magmatic end-member. In particular, Ustica (7.6±0.2 Ra clearly differs from the nearby Aeolian Islands Arc volcanism, despite its location on the Tyrrhenian side of the plate boundary. Although limited in size, our data set complements the large existing database for helium isotope in southern Italy and adds further constraints upon the spatial extent of intraplate alkaline volcanism in southern Mediterranea. As already discussed by others, the He-Pb isotopic signature of this magmatic province indicates a derivation from a mantle diapir of a OIB-type that is partially diluted by the depleted upper mantle (MORB mantle at its periphery.

  14. Random UV mutagenesis approach for enhanced biodegradation of sulfonated azo dye, Green HE4B.

    Joshi, Swati M; Inamdar, Shrirang A; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P


    The objective of the study was to execute mutant bacteria for efficient biodegradation of sulfonated azo dye, Green HE4B (GHE4B). UV irradiation was used to introduce random mutations in Pseudomonas sp. LBC1. Genetic alterations induced by UV irradiation in selected mutant bacteria were confirmed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA technique. The mutant bacteria named as Pseudomonas sp. 1 F reduced the time required for complete degradation of recalcitrant dye GHE4B by 25 % when compared with the wild one. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis. Activities of enzymes like laccase, lignin peroxidase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, and NADH dichlorophenol indophenol reductase were found to be boosted in mutant bacteria as a consequence of UV-induced mutation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis of differentially expressed proteins of mutant bacteria suggested active role of antioxidant enzymes in the degradation of the dye. The degradation product was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results revealed few variations in the degradation end products of wild-type and mutant bacteria. Phytotoxicity study underlined the safer biodegradation of GHE4B by mutant Pseudomonas sp. 1 F.

  15. Dispersion Relation of Longitudinal Waves in Liquid He-4 in the framework of the Bohm interpretation of QM

    Molinari, Vincenzo


    He-4 is known to become superfluid at very low temperatures. This effect is now generally accepted to be connected with BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation). The dispersion relation of pressure waves in superfluid He-4 has been determined at 1.1 {\\deg}K by Yarnell et al., and exhibits a non monotonic behaviour - with a maximum and a minimum - usually explained in terms of excitations called rotons, introduced by Landau. In the present work an attempt is made to describe the phenomenon within the bohmian interpretation of QM. To this end, the effects of the intermolecular potential, taken to be essentially of the Lennard-Jones type, are included as a Vlasov-type self-consistent field. A dispersion relation is found, that is in good agreement with Yarnell's curve. Keywords: Bohm potential; Intermolecular potential; Dispersion relation; Superfluid He-4; First sound. PACS: 05.30.Jp; 05.20.Dd; 03.75.Kk; 67.25.dt

  16. Expression of HE4 and CA1 2 5 in Ovarian Cancer Ascites%HE4和 CA125蛋白在卵巢癌腹水中的表达及其意义∗

    陈颖; 郑丽琳; 袁晓青


    Objective]To investigate the clinical significance of HE4 protein and cancer antigen125(CA125)in ovarian cancer ascites.[Methods]5 1 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (the ovarian cancer group),21 cases of the o-varian borderline tumor group and 1 5 cases of the control group (including 2 cases of tuberculous peritonitis,2 ca-ses of liver cirrhosis,1 1 cases of acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease)were selected.ELISA and radio-im-munity method were used to detect ascites,serum HE4 and CA125 protein expression.[Results]The positive rates of HE4 protein in ascites and serum of the ovarian borderline tumor group and the ovarian cancer group were sig-nificantly higher in than that in the control group(P <0.05).In ovarian cancer of different histological types,the positive expression of ascites in the endometrium ,the serous carcinoma and HE4 was significantly increased.In the early stage (Ⅰ/Ⅱ)of ovarian cancer,the sensitivity of HE4 in serum was significantly higher than that of CA125 (P <0.05).In ovarian cancer,the specificity of ascites and serum HE4 was 100%,which was significant-ly higher than that of CA125 (P <0.05).[Conclusions]Increased protein expression of HE4 were closely associat-ed with tumorigenesis and pathological behaviors of ovarian cancer,which may be used as specific tumor markers to predict the earlier ovarian cancer.Combination of HE4 and CA125 measurement in ascites has an higher diagnos-tic value in differentiate ovarian benign and malignant tumors.%【目的】探讨附睾分泌蛋白-4(human epididymis protein 4,HE4)和糖类抗原125(cancer antigen125, CA125)在卵巢癌腹水中的表达及临床意义。【方法】收集上皮性卵巢癌患者51例(卵巢癌组),卵巢交界性肿瘤21例(交界性肿瘤组),对照组15例(包括结核性腹膜炎2例、肝硬化2例,急、慢性盆腔炎11例)、分别采用ELISA 法和放射免疫法检测腹水、血清中 HE4和 CA125蛋白表达。【结果】交界性肿瘤组、卵巢癌组腹水、血清HE

  17. Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon.

    Flowers, R M; Farley, K A


    The Grand Canyon is one of the most dramatic features on Earth, yet when and why it was carved have been controversial topics for more than 150 years. Here, we present apatite (4)He/(3)He thermochronometry data from the Grand Canyon basement that tightly constrain the near-surface cooling history associated with canyon incision. (4)He/(3)He spectra for eastern Grand Canyon apatites of differing He date, radiation damage, and U-Th zonation yield a self-consistent cooling history that substantially validates the He diffusion kinetic model applied here. Similar data for the western Grand Canyon provide evidence that it was excavated to within a few hundred meters of modern depths by ~70 million years ago (Ma), in contrast to the conventional model in which the entire canyon was carved since 5 to 6 Ma.

  18. Acquisition of He3 Cryostat Insert for Experiments on Topological Insulators


    facilitated transport experiments on topological insulators and Dirac and Weyl semimetals. These experiments resulted in several notable achievements and...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquisition of He3 Cryostat Insert for Experiments on Topological Insulators. The views...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 Cryogenic equipment with 9 Tesla magnet, low temperature experiments REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

  19. Population inversion mechanisms producing nuclear lasing in He-3-Ar, Xe, Kr, Cl, and UF6

    Deyoung, R. J.; Wilson, J. W.


    The paper examines the lasing excitation mechanisms of present nuclear lasers, with a view to developing more efficient, higher power nuclear lasers. Particular attention is given to volumetric nuclear discharges pumped by either the He-3(n, p)H-3 reaction or the U-235F6(n, ff)FF reaction. Insight gained from these laser systems will make it possible to determine the major excitation mechanisms and then to look for new gaseous laser systems where these excitation mechanisms dominate.

  20. The Ga-71(He-3, t) reaction and the low-energy neutrino response

    Frekers, D.; Ejiri, H.; Akimune, H.; Adachi, T.; Bilgier, B.; Brown, B. A.; Cleveland, B. T.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Ganioglu, E.; Gavrin, V. N.; Grewe, E. -W.; Guess, C. J.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hatanaka, K.; Hodak, R.; Holl, M.; Iwamoto, C.; Khai, N. T.; Kozer, H. C.; Lennarz, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, H.; Povinec, P. P.; Puppe, P.; Simkovic, F.; Susoy, G.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thies, J. H.; Van de Walle, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.


    A Ga-71(He-3,t)Ge-71 charge-exchange experiment was performed to extract with high precision the Gamow-Teller (GT) transition strengths to the three lowest-lying states in Ge-71, i.e., the ground state (1/2(-)), the 175 keV (5/2(-)) and the 500 key (3/2(-)) excited states. These are the relevant sta

  1. Barshay-Temmer test for the 4He( overlined, 3He) 3H reaction

    Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; D'agostino, M.; Fiandri, M. L.; Herman, M.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vuaridel, B.; Grüebler, W.; König, V.; Schmelzbach, P. A.; Elsener, K.


    The mechanisms of isospin violation in the reaction 4He( overlined, 3He) 3H is studied, in the framework of a microscopic model. To describe realistically the intermediate 6Li nucleus and the fragment states we use the refined resonating group model (RRGM). A detailed analysis of the matrix elements responsible for the asymmetry of cross sections and vector analyzing powers is presented. The isospin violation is found typically of the order of 5-10% and arises mainly from coupling to intermediate "5 + 1" structures in a two-step mechanism. The agreement with the experimental data is fair.

  2. Nuclear structure corrections to the Lamb shift in μHe3+ and μ3H

    Nevo Dinur, N.; Ji, C.; Bacca, S.; Barnea, N.


    Measuring the 2S-2P Lamb shift in a hydrogen-like muonic atom allows one to extract its nuclear charge radius with a high precision that is limited by the uncertainty in the nuclear structure corrections. The charge radius of the proton thus extracted was found to be 7σ away from the CODATA value, in what has become the yet unsolved "proton radius puzzle". Further experiments currently aim at the isotopes of hydrogen and helium: the precise extraction of their radii may provide a hint at the solution of the puzzle. We present the first ab initio calculation of nuclear structure corrections, including the nuclear polarization correction, to the 2S-2P transition in μHe3+ and μ3H, and assess solid theoretical error bars. Our predictions reduce the uncertainty in the nuclear structure corrections to the level of a few percent and will be instrumental to the on-going μHe3+ experiment. We also support the mirror μ3H system as a candidate for further probing of the nucleon polarizabilities and shedding more light on the puzzle.

  3. Communal action of microbial cultures for Red HE3B degradation.

    Patil, P S; Phugare, S S; Jadhav, S B; Jadhav, J P


    The consortium PMB11 consisting of three bacterial species, originally isolated from dye contaminated soil was identified as Bacillus odysseyi SUK3, Morganella morganii SUK5 and Proteus sp. SUK7. The consortium possessed the ability to decolorize various textile dyes as well as mixtures of dyes. PMB11 could decolorize Red HE3B (50 mg l(-1)) with 99% of decolorization within 12 h in nutrient broth, while in mineral medium it could decolorize up to 97% within 24h. Induction in the activities of various oxidative and reductive enzymes indicates the involvement of these enzymes in decolorization. Biodegradation of the dye was monitored using UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC and FTIR analysis. The Red HE3B degradation pathway was proposed by GC-MS analysis. Various metabolites formed after the degradation were identified as 2,5-diaminobenzene 6-aminotriazine, aniline 2-sulfate, aniline 3-sulfate, 2-amino 5-chlorotriazine and naphthalene. Phytotoxicity studies revealed that metabolites formed after degradation were significantly less toxic in nature.

  4. Exploiting Intrinsic Triangular Geometry in Relativistic He3+Au Collisions to Disentangle Medium Properties

    Nagle, J L; Beckman, S; Koblesky, T; Koop, J Orjuela; McGlinchey, D; Romatschke, P; Carlson, J; Lynn, J; McCumber, M


    Recent results in d+Au and p+Pb collisions at RHIC and the LHC provide evidence for collective expansion and flow of the created medium. We propose a control set of experiments to directly compare particle emission patterns from p+Au, d+Au, and He3+Au or t+Au collisions at the same sqrt(sNN). Using Monte Carlo Glauber we find that a He3 or triton projectile, with a realistic wavefunction description, induces a significant intrinsic triangular shape to the initial medium and that, even with viscous damping, this survives into a significant third order flow moment v3. By comparing systems with one, two, and three initial hot spots, one can disentangle the effects from the initial spatial distribution of the deposited energy and viscous damping. These are key tools to answering the question of how small a droplet of matter is necessary to form a quark-gluon plasma described by nearly inviscid hydrodynamics.

  5. 186Os and 187Os enrichments and high-3He/4He sources in the Earth's mantle

    Brandon, A.D.; Graham, D.W.; Waight, Tod Earle


    . These Os isotope systematics are best explained by ancient recycled crust or melt enrichment in the mantle source region. If so, then the coupled enrichments displayed in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os from lavas of other plume systems must result from an independent process, the most viable candidate...... picrites is best modeled as mixtures of 1 Ga or older ancient recycled crust mixed with primitive mantle or incompletely degassed depleted mantle isolated since 1-1.5 Ga, which preserves the high 3He/4He of the depleted mantle at the time. These mixtures create a hybrid source region that subsequently...... be interpreted as an increase in the proportion of ancient recycled crust in the upwelling plume over this time period. The positive correlation between 187Os/188Os and 3He/4He demonstrates that the Iceland lava He isotopic compositions do not result from simple melt depletion histories and consequent removal...

  6. Ultra-High Sensitivity Techniques for the Determination of 3 He /4 He Abundances in Helium by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Mumm, H. P.; Huber, M.; Bauder, W.; Abrams, N.; Deibel, C.; Huffer, C.; Huffman, P.; Schelhammer, K.; Janssens, R.; Jiang, C.; Scott, R.; Pardo, R.; Rehm, K.; Vondrasek, R.; Swank, C.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Paul, M.; Yang, L.


    We report the development of an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique to measure the 3He/4He isotopic ratio using a radio frequency (RF) discharge source and the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Control over 3He/4He ratio in helium several orders of magnitude lower than natural abundance is critical for neutron lifetime and source experiments using liquid helium. Due to low ultimate beam currents, the ATLAS accelerator and beam line were tuned using a succession of species of the same M/q. A unique RF source was developed for the experiment due to large natural 3He backgrounds. Analog H_3 + and DH + molecular ions are eliminated by dissociation via a gold stripper foil near the detector. The stripped ions were dispersed in a magnetic spectrograph and 3He2 + ions counted in the focal plane detector. This technique is sensitive to 3 He /4 He ratios in the regime of 10-12 with backgrounds that appear to be below 10-14. The techniques used to reduce the backgrounds and remaining outstanding problems will be presented along with results from measurements on high purity 4He samples.

  7. Using 3He/4He to Map the flow of the Samoan-Plume into the Lau Basin

    Price, A.; Jackson, M. G.; Hall, P. S.; Sinton, J. M.; Kurz, M. D.


    Understanding how the upper mantle flows beneath oceanic lithosphere is crucial to understanding mantle melting, the distribution of geochemical reservoirs, and movement of plate tectonics. Spatial variations in the geochemistry of igneous rocks can provide an understanding of flow in the upper mantle. Numerous geochemical and geophysical anomalies within the northern portion of the Lau basin--the presence of high 3He/4He (up to 28 times atmospheric), latitudinal gradients in trace element and isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) enrichment, and trench parallel shear wave splitting near the Tonga arc--have been attributed to the southward flow of mantle material from the nearby Samoan hotspot. The Samoan plume is located only 200 km east of the northern terminus of the Tonga trench. North of the terminus, the Pacific plate "tears" and, instead of subducting into the trench, continues to the West. To the South of the terminus, the Pacific plate subducts into the Tonga Trench. The resulting tear generated a "slab window", allowing the Samoan mantle to flow southward beneath the Vitiaz lineament and penetrate into the shallow mantle of the Lau Basin. The juxtaposition of the Samoan hotspot and the Tonga Trench create a unique setting in which the southward flow of the distinctive high 3He/4He Samoan plume mantle can be readily detected in the Lau Basin. High 3He/4He ratios (up to 28.1 Ra) have been reported in a swath within the northern Lau Basin, which drop rapidly to both the South (~400km south of Peggy ridge) and East (Lupton, 2009) of this narrow incursion. It was suggested that the 3He/ 4He would also decline to the west, creating a "finger-like" corridor of Samoan Plume (Turner & Hawkesworth ,1998). However, such a model is not constrained, as 3He/4He ratios have not been reported in the region to the West of the infiltrating plume. Does the Samoan plume material extend broadly to the west, or is it confined to a narrow "finger-like" corridor in the North Lau Basin? We present

  8. Independent Measurement of the Total Active B8 Solar Neutrino Flux Using an Array of He3 Proportional Counters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Anthony, A. E.; Banar, J.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chauhan, D.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Dimarco, M.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goon, J. T. M.; Graham, K.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamian, A. A.; Harper, G. C.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jagam, P.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Klein, J. R.; Kormos, L. L.; Kos, M.; Krüger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Loach, J. C.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Martin, R.; McBryde, K.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, G. G.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Morissette, B.; Myers, A.; Nickel, B. G.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Gann, G. D. Orebi; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Reitzner, S. D.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, L.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tešić, G.; Thornewell, P. M.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Tunnell, C. D.; van Wechel, T.; van Berg, R.; Vandevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Walker, T. J.; Wall, B. L.; Waller, D.; Tseung, H. Wan Chan; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.


    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) used an array of He3 proportional counters to measure the rate of neutral-current interactions in heavy water and precisely determined the total active (νx) B8 solar neutrino flux. This technique is independent of previous methods employed by SNO. The total flux is found to be 5.54-0.31+0.33(stat)-0.34+0.36(syst)×106cm-2s-1, in agreement with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino results yields Δm2=7.59-0.21+0.19×10-5eV2 and θ=34.4-1.2+1.3 degrees. The uncertainty on the mixing angle has been reduced from SNO’s previous results.

  9. Serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Risk for Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) as new diagnostic and prognostic tools for epithelial ovarian cancer management

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Romani, Chiara; Specchia, Claudia; Zanotti, Laura; Galli, Claudio; Ruggeri, Giuseppina; Tognon, Germana; Bignotti, Eliana; Tassi, Renata A.; Odicino, Franco; Caimi, Luigi; Sartori, Enrico; Santin, Alessandro D.; Pecorelli, Sergio; Ravaggi, Antonella


    BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to analyze the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Risk for Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS Preoperative serum samples of 419 women (140 healthy controls, 131 ovarian benign cysts, 34 endometriosis, 114 EOC) were tested for CA125 and HE4 using fully automated methods (Abbott ARCHITECT) and validated cut-off values. RESULTS For the discrimination of benign masses from EOC, in pre-menopausal women the sensitivity and specificity were 92.3% and 59.4% for CA125, 84.6% and 94.2% for HE4, and 84.6% and 81.2% for ROMA while in post-menopausal women the sensitivity and specificity were 94.3% and 82.3% for CA125, 78.2% and 99.0% for HE4, 93.1% and 84.4% for ROMA. In patients with EOC, elevated CA125, HE4 and ROMA levels were associated with advanced FIGO stage, sub-optimally debulking, ascites, positive cytology, lymph node involvement and advanced age (all p≤0.05). Elevated HE4 and ROMA (both p≤0.01), but not CA125 (p=0.0579), were associated with undifferentiated tumours. In multivariable analysis, elevated HE4 and ROMA (all p≤0.05) were independent prognostic factors for shorter overall survival, disease free survival and progression free survival. CONCLUSIONS and IMPACT This study underlines the high specificity of HE4 in discriminating endometriosis and ovarian benign cysts from EOC and the high sensitivity of CA125 in detecting EOC. We demonstrated HE4 and ROMA as independent prognostic factors. Multicenter studies are needed to draw firm conclusions about the applicability of HE4 and ROMA in clinical practice. PMID:22028406

  10. Kinematics of 1200 km/s Jets in He 3-1475

    Borkowski, K J


    Spectroscopic observations of a proto-planetary nebula He 3-1475 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) reveal the kinematics of its high (1200 km/s) velocity jets. The jets are formed at a large (0.15 pc) distance from its central star by collimation of an asymmetric stellar wind in a pair of conical shocks seen in Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) images. The jets consist of several pairs of knots symmetrically distributed with respect to the central star, with most knots exhibiting a head-tail morphology. Large (up to 650 km/s) radial velocity gradients are seen within the knots on subarcsec scales, with velocities decreasing from the knot heads toward their trailing tails. These large velocity gradients are a sign of efficient deceleration of jets by a much slower bipolar outflow. The inclination angle of the bipolar outflow is equal to 50 degrees, based on Doppler shifts of the scattered stellar Halpha line. Its velocity is equal to 140 km/s at a distance of 0.23 pc from the star, and inc...

  11. Susceptibility Measurements Near the He-3 Liquid-Gas Critical Point

    Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Hahn, Inseob


    An experiment is now being developed to measure both the linear susceptibility and specific heat at constant volume near the liquid-gas critical point of He-3 in a microgravity environment. An electrostriction technique for measuring susceptibility will be described. Initial electrostriction measurements were performed on the ground along the critical isochore in a 0.5 mm high measurement cell filled to within 0.1 % of the critical density. These measurements agreed with the susceptibility determined from pressure-density measurements along isotherms. The critical temperature, T(sub c), determined separately from specific heat and susceptibility measurements was self-consistent. Susceptibility measurements in the range t = T/T(sub c) - 1 > 10(exp -4)were fit to Chi(sup *)(sub T) = Gamma(sup +)t(exp -lambda)(1 + Gamma(sup +)(sub 1)t(sup delta). Best fit parameters for the asymptotic amplitude Gamma(sup +) and the first Wegner amplitude Gamma(sup +)(sub 1) will be presented and compared to previous measurements.

  12. Small-angle electron-impact excitation of He 3^1D.

    Bartschat, Klaus; Andersen, Nils


    With few exceptions, the angular momentum transfer L_⊥ in small-angle electron-impact excitation of atoms is found to be positive, independent of the collision energy, the transition, and even the target of interest. The origin of this strong propensity and its range of validity has been subject of many discussions (see [1] for details). A major violation was found in recent experimental work [2] on electron-impact excitation of the He 3^1D state. We further investigated this problem by analyzing results from various numerical models that differ in the number of coupled states included in a close-coupling expansion. We found that only the most sophisticated ``convergent close-coupling'' (CCC) and ``R-matrix with pseudo-states'' (RMPS) models could reproduce the experimental data. Surprising results were also obtained for the charge cloud representing the excited 3d-electron, e.g., cases where this cloud extends predominantly in a direction perpendicular (rather than parallel) to the collision plane. [1] N. Andersen and K. Bartschat, Polarization, Alignment, and Orientation in Atomic Collisions, Springer (New York, 2000). [2] D. Cvejanović, D.T. McLaughlin, and A. Crowe (2000), J. Phys. B 33, 3013.

  13. Survey of A_LT' asymmetries in semi-exclusive electron scattering on He4 and C12

    Protopopescu, D; Holtrop, M; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bertozzi, W; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D C; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gavalian, G; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M R; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ingram, W; Ireland, D; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kelley, J H; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuhn, S E; Kühn, J; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lee, T; Ji Li; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McLauchlan, S T; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R C; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Müller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E A; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabati, F; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, B; Debruyne, D; Ryckebusch, J


    Single spin azimuthal asymmetries A_LT' were measured at Jefferson Lab using 2.2 and 4.4 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident on He4 and C12 targets in the CLAS detector. A_LT' is related to the imaginary part of the longitudinal-transverse interference and in quasifree nucleon knockout it provides an unambiguous signature for final state interactions (FSI). Experimental values of A_LT' were found to be below 5%, typically |A_LT'| < 3% for data with good statistical precision. Optical Model in Eikonal Approximation (OMEA) and Relativistic Multiple-Scattering Glauber Approximation (RMSGA) calculations are shown to be consistent with the measured asymmetries.

  14. Hyperspherical coupled channel calculations of energy and structure of 4He-4He-Li+ and its isotopic combinations

    Liu, Min-min; Wu, Meng-Shan; Han, Hui-li; Shi, Ting-yun


    The ground state vibrational energy and spatial features of 4He-4He-Li+ and its triatomic isotopic complexes are studied using the slow variable discretization (SVD) method in the hyperspherical coordinates for the zero total angular momentum. Our results show that the dominant structure of the system is an isosceles triangle with the shorter side associated with the two Li+-He distances using the sum-of-potential approximation. Corrections caused by the induced dipole-induced dipole interactions on the He atoms are also investigated. The effects are seen to be small and have a minor influence on the binding energy and the structure of present system. The results are also compared with the full ab initio calculations including all the three-body interactions and information of three-body corrections is obtained.

  15. MRI of the lung using hyperpolarized He-3 at very low magnetic field (3 mT)

    Bidinosti, C P; Tastevin, G; Vignaud, A; Nacher, P J


    Optical pumping of He-3 produces large (hyper) nuclear-spin polarizations independent of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) field strength. This allows lung MRI to be performed at reduced fields with many associated benefits, such as lower tissue susceptibility gradients and decreased power absorption rates. Here we present results of 2D imaging as well as accurate 1D gas diffusion mapping of the human lung using He-3 at very low field (3 mT). Furthermore, measurements of transverse relaxation in zero applied gradient are shown to accurately track pulmonary oxygen partial pressure, opening the way for novel imaging sequences.

  16. Hulth$\\grave{e}$n potential models for $\\alpha−\\alpha$ and $\\alpha−He^3$ elastic scattering



    Simple Hulth$\\grave{e}$n-type potential models are proposed to treat the $\\alpha−\\alpha$ and $\\alpha−He^3$ elastic scattering. The merit of our approach is examined by computing elastic scattering phases through the judicious use of the phase function method. Reasonable agreements in scattering phase shifts are obtained with the standard data.

  17. Hulthén potential models for α-α and α-He 3 elastic scattering

    BHOI, J.; LAHA, U.


    Simple Hulthén-type potential models are proposed to treat the α- α and α {-} {He}3 elastic scattering. The merit of our approach is examined by computing elastic scattering phases through the judicious use of the phase function method. Reasonable agreements in scattering phase shifts are obtained with the standard data.

  18. Correlation of gold in siliceous sinters with 3He 4He in hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park

    Fournier, R.O.; Kennedy, B.M.; Aoki, M.; Thompson, J.M.


    temperatures may contain waters with different [H2S] and [Au]. The [H2S] in a subsurface reservoir water is difficult to assess on the basis of analyses of hot spring waters because of uncertainties about steam loss during fluid ascent. However, the same processes that result in low [H2S] in reservoir waters also tend to result in decreases in the ratio of 3He 4He(R) dissolved in that water. Values of R relative to this ratio in air (Ra) attain values > 15 in YNP thermal waters. To date, all of the thermal waters at YNP that have R Ra values total He dissolved in the residual liquid without appreciably changing the 3He 4He ratio. This is because the isotopic composition of the He of the initial bulk fluid is unchanged and there is too little time for much radiogenic 4He to build back into the liquid during this rapid ascent from the near-surface reservoir. However, if boiling with phase separation and loss of steam occurs deep in the system, the 3He 4He ratio in the residual liquid, now depleted in H2S and total He, will be susceptible to dilution with radiogenic 4He that is acquired during the longer residence time underground. Some or all of the Au that comes out of solution when an initial gold bisulfide complex breaks

  19. Laser Spectroscopy of the Fine-Structure Splitting in the 2 PJ 3 Levels of He 4

    Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Chen, J.-J.; Jiang, W.; Pachucki, K.; Hu, S.-M.


    The fine-structure splitting in the 2 PJ 3 (J =0 , 1, 2) levels of He 4 is of great interest for tests of quantum electrodynamics and for the determination of the fine-structure constant α . The 2 P0 3 -2 P2 3 and 2 P1 3 -2 P2 3 intervals are measured by laser spectroscopy of the PJ 3 -2 S1 3 transitions at 1083 nm in an atomic beam, and are determined to be 31 908 130.98 ±0.13 kHz and 2 291 177.56 ±0.19 kHz , respectively. Compared with calculations, which include terms up to α5Ry , the deviation for the α -sensitive interval 2 P0 3 -2 P2 3 is only 0.22 kHz. It opens the window for further improvement of theoretical predictions and an independent determination of the fine-structure constant α with a precision of 2 ×10-9 .

  20. Effect of serum HE4 and CP2 contents on expression of clinical pathological molecules and proliferation molecules in tumor tissue of patients with endometrial carcinoma

    Zhe Zhou; Xin Jiang; Ji-Cheng Song; Hong-Yan Jia


    Objective:To study the effect of serum HE4 and CP2 contents on the expression of clinical pathological molecules and proliferation molecules in tumor tissue of patients with endometrial carcinoma.Methods:A total of 40 cases of patients who were diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma in our hospital from May 2013 to March 2016 as well as 40 cases of healthy volunteers who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected for study, serum samples were collected to detect HE4, c-myc, ZEB1, CP2, sTn, CA125, CA199 contents, and endometrial carcinoma tissue as well as para-carcinoma tissue were collected to detect P53, E-cad, EpCAM, C-erbB-2, Ki-67 and MACC1 contents.Results:Serum CP2 and HE4 contents of patients with endometrial carcinoma were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers, and serum CP2 and HE4 contents of endometrial carcinoma patients with FIGO III-IV stage, low differentiation, muscular layer involvement more than 1/2 and cervical involvement were significantly higher than those of endometrial carcinoma patients with FIGO I-II stage, middle and high differentiation, muscular layer involvement less than 1/2 and without cervical involvement; serum CA125, CA199, c-myc, sTn and ZEB1 contents of patients with endometrial carcinoma were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers and positively correlated with serum HE4 and CP2; P53 and E-cad contents in endometrial carcinoma tissue were significantly lower than those in para-carcinoma tissue and negatively correlated with serum HE4 and CP2, and EpCAM, C-erbB-2, Ki-67 and MACC1 contents were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue and positively correlated with serum HE4 and CP2.Conclusions:Serum HE4 and CP2 contents abnormally increase in patients with endometrial carcinoma, and serum HE4 and CP2 can be used to assess the clinical pathology of tumor as well as the degree of tumor tissue proliferation.

  1. HE4、CA125联合ROMA在卵巢癌及盆腔良性疾病中的诊断意义

    吴学炜; 付光宇; 王瑞; 史小芹; 胡秀丽


    目的 探讨血清中人附睾上皮分泌蛋白4(HE4)、CA125水平和卵巢恶性肿瘤风险模型(ROMA)对卵巢癌及盆腔良性疾病的诊断意义.方法 共检测卵巢癌患者68例、卵巢良性疾病135例、健康女性对照者40例,比较各组HE4、CA125水平,结合绝经状态,根据ROMA值预测卵巢恶性肿瘤的发病风险.结果 卵巢癌组血清HE4、CA125水平和ROMA值高于健康对照组(P均<0.05),盆腔良性疾病组血清CA125水平和ROMA值高于健康对照组(P均<0.05),盆腔良性疾病组HE4水平与健康对照组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).HE4、CA125和ROMA值的敏感性分别为76.47%、70.59%、85.29%,特异性分别为98.52%、74.81%、78.52%,ROMA值敏感性最好,HE4特异性最好.ROMA值绝经前后敏感性分别为73.33%和88.68%,特异性分别为77.36%和82.76%.结论 HE4可作为CA125单项检测卵巢癌的很好补充,且HE4在鉴别盆腔良恶性疾病中具有重要诊断价值,而ROMA值风险预测的敏感性和诊断符合率较HE4和CA125单项高,在临床上可以帮助评估患上皮细胞型卵巢癌的风险性.

  2. Magnetic hysteresis of p(+) and He-3(2+) irradiated melt-textured YBa2Cu3O(7-delta)

    Song, S. N.; Liu, J.; Chen, I. G.; Weinstein, Roy


    We have measured the magnetic hysteresis loops and temperature dependent trapped fields in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) samples before and after p(+) and He-3(2+) irradiation using a Hall effect magnetometer (HEM) as well as a commercial vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). For proper He-3(2+) fluence, the critical current density may be enhanced by a factor of 10. Calculations based on various critical state models show that before the irradiation, the hysteresis loops can be well accounted for by a critical current density of a modified power law field dependence. After the irradiation, the best fit has been achieved by using an exponential form. Jc and its field dependence deduced from HEM hysteresis loops are in good agreement with those deduced from the VSM loops, suggesting that the Hall effect magnetometer can be conveniently used to characterize bulk high Tc oxide superconductors.

  3. Ion cyclotron range of frequency mode conversion flow drive in D(He-3) plasmas on JET

    Lin, Y.; Mantica, P.; Hellsten, T.; Kiptily, V.; Lerche, E.; Nave, M. F. F.; Rice, J. E.; Van Eester, D.; de Vries, P. C.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Tala, T.


    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) mode conversion has been shown to drive toroidal flow in JET D(He-3) L-mode plasmas: B-t0 = 3.45 T, n(e0) similar to 3x10(19) m(-3), I-p = 2.8 and 1.8 MA, P-RF <= 3MW at 33MHz and -90 degrees phasing. Central toroidal rotation in the counter-I-p directi

  4. A comparison of CA125, HE4, risk ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA, and risk malignancy index (RMI for the classification of ovarian masses

    Cristina Anton


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms is essential for creating a system for patient referrals. Therefore, the contributions of the tumor markers CA125 and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 as well as the risk ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA and risk malignancy index (RMI values were considered individually and in combination to evaluate their utility for establishing this type of patient referral system. METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed with ovarian masses through imaging analyses (n = 128 were assessed for their expression of the tumor markers CA125 and HE4. The ROMA and RMI values were also determined. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves according to the area under the curve (AUC for each method. RESULTS: The sensitivities associated with the ability of CA125, HE4, ROMA, or RMI to distinguish between malignant versus benign ovarian masses were 70.4%, 79.6%, 74.1%, and 63%, respectively. Among carcinomas, the sensitivities of CA125, HE4, ROMA (pre-and post-menopausal, and RMI were 93.5%, 87.1%, 80%, 95.2%, and 87.1%, respectively. The most accurate numerical values were obtained with RMI, although the four parameters were shown to be statistically equivalent. CONCLUSION: There were no differences in accuracy between CA125, HE4, ROMA, and RMI for differentiating between types of ovarian masses. RMI had the lowest sensitivity but was the most numerically accurate method. HE4 demonstrated the best overall sensitivity for the evaluation of malignant ovarian tumors and the differential diagnosis of endometriosis. All of the parameters demonstrated increased sensitivity when tumors with low malignancy potential were considered low-risk, which may be used as an acceptable assessment method for referring patients to reference centers.

  5. 健康女性绝经前后血清 HE4、CA125及 ROMA 参考值调查

    李秋荣; 李建军


    目的:调查并建立本地区健康女性血清 HE4、CA125及 ROMA 参考值。方法利用化学发光免疫测定法检测健康女性血清 HE4和 CA125的水平,计算 ROMA 值。结果健康女性绝经前血清 HE4、CA125和 ROMA 值的95%可信区间分别为(41.6±22.4)pmol/L、(13.5±10.2)U /ml、(5.1±3.8)%。健康女性绝经后血清 HE4、CA125和 ROMA 值的95%可信区间分别为(49.9±23.2)pmol/L、(10.2±9.6)U /ml、(18.9±9.6)%。与绝经前女性相比,绝经后健康女性HE4、CA125浓度降低,ROMA 值增加,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论通过对180例健康女性的血清 HE4、CA125浓度以及 ROMA 值进行调查,制定出本地区血清 HE4、CA125浓度以及 ROMA 值95%参考区间,为评估当地健康女性HE4、CA125、ROMA 水平及建立相应的参考值提供了参考。

  6. RNA干扰下调HE4基因表达对人卵巢癌SK-OV-3细胞增殖和侵袭的影响%Effect of HE4 gene silenced by siRNA on the proliferation and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cell SK-OV-3

    房青; 王在; 游嘉; 詹雪梅; 杨爱莲; 魏继红; 房昭


    目的应用 RNA 干扰技术下调人附睾蛋白 HE4基因表达水平,观察 HE4对人卵巢癌 SK-OV-3细胞增殖和侵袭能力的影响。  方法化学合成3对 HE4特异性小分子干扰 RNA ( siRNA ),脂质体法转染人卵巢癌细胞系 SK-OV-3( HE4-siRNA 组),同时以非特异序列 siRNA 转染的SK-OV-3细胞(阴性对照组)和正常培养的 SK-OV-3细胞(正常对照组)为对照,于转染后48 h,采用实时荧光定量 PCR 技术(RT-qPCR)和 Western blot 方法分别检测HE4 mRNA 及蛋白表达水平。采用 CCK8试剂盒检测卵巢癌细胞增殖活性的变化,穿膜小室模型测定 HE4对细胞侵袭能力的影响。  结果与正常对照组相比,HE4-siRNA 转染卵巢癌SK-OV-3细胞48 h 后,HE4 mRNA 的表达水平显著下降,仅为正常对照组的12.7%(P0.05)。HE4-siRNA 下调卵巢癌 SK-OV-3细胞 HE4表达后,细胞增殖受到明显抑制,细胞增殖活性仅为正常对照组的60%,阴性对照组细胞增殖未见明显变化。体外侵袭实验显示,HE4-siRNA 组穿膜细胞数为每视野(21.8±2.86)个,显著低于正常对照组(187.4±11.17)个(P 0.05)。  结论 HE4特异性 siRNA 能成功下调 SK-OV-3细胞中HE4基因的表达,显著降低卵巢癌细胞增殖和侵袭能力, HE4有可能成为人卵巢癌侵袭转移防治的重要靶点。%Objective To investigate the effect of HE4 gene knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on proliferation and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cell SK-OV-3. Methods 3 pairs of synthetic siRNAs targeted HE4 gene were transiently transfected into SK-OV-3 cells by liposomal method (HE4-siRNA group), siRNA of scrambled sequence were transfected at the same time as a negative control, and normal cultured SK-OV-3 without any transfection were used as normal control. HE4 expression level in SK-OV-3 cells was determined using real-time quantitative PCR method and Western blot. CCK8 assay was

  7. HE4与Lewis在卵巢上皮性肿瘤中的表达及相关性研究%The expression and correlation of human epididymis protein 4(HE4)and Lewis y anti-gen in ovarian epithelial carcinoma

    庄慧宇; 胡珍华; 刘娟娟; 刘大我; 高娜; 齐跃; 张淑兰; 林蓓


    目的:研究HE4与Lewis y抗原在卵巢上皮性肿瘤中的表达、相关性及临床意义。方法:免疫组化法检测卵巢上皮性恶性肿瘤、卵巢上皮性交界性肿瘤、卵巢上皮性良性肿瘤及正常卵巢组织中HE4与Lewis y抗原的表达。应用免疫荧光双标记方法检测卵巢上皮性肿瘤中HE4与Lewis y的结构关系。结果:HE4在卵巢恶性肿瘤组的阳性率最高,明显高于良性及正常卵巢组( p均﹤0.05)。Lewis y表达与HE4相似,在卵巢恶性上皮性肿瘤中,Lewis y抗原的阳性表达率明显高于交界性、良性及正常卵巢组。相关性分析显示:HE4与Lewis y呈直线相关( r=0.813,p﹤0.05)。在激光共聚焦显微镜下可见HE4与Lewis y抗原有空间位置上的重叠。结论:HE4与Lewis y抗原在卵巢恶性肿瘤中均呈现明显高表达,且两者在卵巢上皮性肿瘤中的表达呈正相关。%Objective:To investigate the expression and the clinical significance of HE4 and Lewis y in ovarian epithelial carcinoma,then evaluate the association between them. Methods:HE4 and Lewis y antigen expression were detectd on tissues from malignant,borderline,and benign ovarian tumors and normal tissues. Their expression and re-lationship were assessed in paraffin sections using immunohistochemistry method. The structure relationship between HE4 and Lewis y antigen was detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results:The results of the immunohis-tochemistry displayed that positive expression rates of HE4 in malignant and boundary ovarian tissues were significant-ly higher than those in benign tumor,similar to Lewis y antigen levels in ovarian cancer. The positive expression rates in malignant ovarian cancer were markedly higher than those in the borderline,benign tumor and normal tissue groups. The correlation analysis showed that tissues displaying marked expression of HE4 simultaneously express high levels of Lewis y antigen. Overall

  8. Probing the Repulsive Core of the Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction via the He4(e ,e'pN) Triple-Coincidence Reaction

    Korover, I.; Muangma, N.; Hen, O.; Shneor, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Kelleher, A.; Gilad, S.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Piasetzky, E.; Watson, J. W.; Wood, S. A.; Aguilera, P.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B.; Anez, D.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Armstrong, W.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Badman, T.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Bai, X.; Beck, A.; Beck, S.; Bellini, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bittner, J.; Boeglin, W.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M. M.; Daniel, A.; Day, D.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deconinck, W.; Defurne, M.; Flay, D.; Fomin, N.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Gu, C.; Gueye, P.; Hamilton, D.; Hanretty, C.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hashemi Shabestari, M.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Iqbal, S.; Jin, G.; Kalantarians, N.; Kang, H.; Khandaker, M.; LeRose, J.; Leckey, J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marti Jimenez-Arguello, A.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Monaghan, P.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Norum, B.; Nuruzzaman, Pan, K.; Phillips, S.; Pomerantz, I.; Posik, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, X.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Rondon-Aramayo, O.; Saha, A.; Schulte, E.; Selvy, L.; Shahinyan, A.; Sirca, S.; Sjoegren, J.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Sparveris, N.; Subedi, R.; Tireman, W.; Wang, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, W.; Yaron, I.; Ye, Z.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.; Zielinski, R.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration


    We studied simultaneously the He4(e ,e'p), He4(e ,e'pp), and He4(e ,e'pn) reactions at Q2=2(GeV/c)2 and xB>1, for an (e ,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830 MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A =2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum, in a region where the nucleon-nucleon (NN) force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. The abundance of neutron-proton pairs is reduced as the nucleon momentum increases beyond ˜500 MeV/c. The extracted fraction of proton-proton pairs is small and almost independent of the missing momentum. Our data are compared with calculations of two-nucleon momentum distributions in He4 and discussed in the context of probing the elusive repulsive component of the NN force.

  9. Anomalously High Isotope Ratio 3He/4He and Tritium in Deuterium-Loaded Metal: Evidence for Nuclear Reaction in Metal Hydrides at Low Temperature

    JIANG Song-Sheng; HE Ming; WU Shao-Yong; QI Bu-Jia


    Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4x10-1, much greater than the values (<10~4) in natural objects. Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out, but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed. In addition, anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed. To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples, it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.%Anomalous 3He/4He ratios in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are observed to be about 1-4×10-1,much greater than the values (≤10-4) in natural objects.Control experiments with the deuterium-unloaded titanium sample and original industrial deuterium gas are also carried out,but no anomalous 3He/4He values are observed.In addition,anomalous tritium in deuterium-loaded titanium samples are also observed.To explain the excess 3He and tritium in the deuterium-loaded titanium samples,it is required that the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction occurs in the samples at low temperature.

  10. Production of plutonium tracers in Np-237 nuclear reactions with He-3-ions in the energy range from 26 to 60 MeV

    Aaltonen, J; Dendooven, P; Gromova, EA; Jakovlev, VA; Trzaska, WH


    Cross-sections for the reaction Np-237 + He-3 --> Pu-236,Pu-237,Pu-238 at He-3 bombarding energies from 26 to 60 MeV were measured. Thick-target yields, based on the measured and previously known cross-sections were constructed. The results are discussed and compared with Ether reactions leading to

  11. Construction of a newly designed small-size mass spectrometer for helium isotope analysis: toward the continuous monitoring of (3)he/(4)he ratios in natural fluids.

    Bajo, Ken-Ichi; Sumino, Hirochika; Toyoda, Michisato; Okazaki, Ryuji; Osawa, Takahito; Ishihara, Morio; Katakuse, Itsuo; Notsu, Kenji; Igarashi, George; Nagao, Keisuke


    The construction of a small-size, magnetic sector, single focusing mass spectrometer (He-MS) for the continuous, on-site monitoring of He isotope ratios ((3)He/(4)He) is described. The instrument is capable of measuring (4)He/(20)Ne ratios dissolved in several different types of natural fluids of geochemical interest, such as groundwater and gas from hot springs, volcanoes and gas well fields. The ion optics of He-MS was designed using an ion trajectory simulation program "TRIO," which permits the simultaneous measurement of (3)He and (4)He with a double collector system under a mass resolution power (M/ΔM) of >700. The presently attained specifications of He-MS are; (1) a mass resolving power of ca. 430, sufficient to separate (3)He(+) from interfering ions, HD(+) and H3 (+), (2) ultra-high vacuum conditions down to 3×10(-8) Pa, and (3) a sufficiently high sensitivity to permit amounts of (3)He to be detected at levels as small as 10(-13) cm(3) STP (3×10(6) atoms). Long term stability for (3)He/(4)He analysis was examined by measuring the (3)He/(4)He standard gas (HESJ) and atmospheric He, resulting in ∼3% reproducibility and ≤5% experimental error for various amounts of atmospheric He from 0.3 to 2.3×10(-6) cm(3) STP introduced into the instrument. A dynamic range of measurable (3)He/(4)He ratios with He-MS is greater than 10(3) which was determined by measuring various types of natural fluid samples from continental gas (with a low (3)He/(4)He ratio down to 2×10(-8)) to volcanic gas (with a high (3)He/(4)He ratio up to 3×10(-5)). The accuracy and precision of (3)He/(4)He and (4)He/(20)Ne ratios were evaluated by comparing the values with those measured using well established noble gas mass spectrometers (modified VG5400/MS-III and -IV) in our laboratory, and were found to be in good agreement within analytical errors. Usefulness of the selective extraction of He from water/gas using a high permeability of He through a silica glass wall at high

  12. Observation of Scattering Resonances in the Penning Ionization of NH$_3$ by He($^3$S$_1$) at Low Collision Energies

    Jankunas, Justin; Hapka, Michal; Osterwalder, Andreas


    A merged-beam study of the gas phase He($^3$S$_1$) + NH$_3$ Penning ionization reaction dynamics in the collision energy range 3.3 $\\mu$eV $<$ E $<$ 10 meV is presented. In this energy range the reaction rate is governed by long-range attraction. Shape resonances are observed at collision energies of 1.8 meV and 7.3 meV and are assigned to $\\ell$=15,16 and $\\ell$=20,21 partial waves, respectively. The experimental results are well reproduced by theoretical calculations with the short-range reaction probability $P_{sr}=0.035$.

  13. Measurement of Integrated Stokes Parameters for He 3 3p State Excited by Spin-Polarized Electrons

    DING Hai-Bing; PANG Wen-Ning; LIU Yi-Bao; SHANG Ren-Cheng


    @@ Integrated Stokes parameters Pi (i = 1, 2, 3) for the He 3 3p → 2 3S1 (388.9nm) transition after excitation from the ground state to the 3 3 P state by a transversely spin-polarized electron beam are measured in near threshold energy region. The experimental results are presented. The linear-polarization P2 are consistent with zero over the incident energy range, providing evidence for the LS coupling mechanism of the 3 3P state. The measured circular polarization P3 are non-zero, indicating strong electron-electron exchange effects in the spin-polarized electron-atom collision process.

  14. Cosmic ray exposure dating with in situ produced cosmogenic He-3 - Results from young Hawaiian lava flows

    Kurz, Mark D.; Colodner, Debra; Trull, Thomas W.; Moore, Richard B.; O'Brien, Keran


    Cosmogenic helium contents in a suite of Hawaiian radiocarbon-dated lava flows were measured to study the use of the production rate of spallation-produced cosmogenic He-3 as a surface exposure chronometer. Basalt samples from the Mauna Loa and Hualalai volcanoes were analyzed, showing that exposure-age dating is feasible in the 600-13000 year age range. The data suggest a present-day sea-level production rate in olivine of 125 + or - 30 atoms/g yr.

  15. Asthenosphere-lithosphere interactions in Western Saudi Arabia: Inferences from 3He/4He in xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah

    Konrad, Kevin; Graham, David W.; Thornber, Carl R.; Duncan, Robert A.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M.


    Extensive volcanic fields on the western Arabian Plate have erupted intermittently over the last 30 Ma following emplacement of the Afar flood basalts in Ethiopia. In an effort to better understand the origin of this volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, we analyzed 3He/4He, and He, CO2 and trace element concentrations in minerals separated from xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah, supplemented with reconnaissance He isotope data from several other volcanic fields (Harrat Al Birk, Harrat Al Kishb and Harrat Ithnayn). Harrat Hutaymah is young (< 850 ka) and the northeasternmost of the volcanic fields. There is a remarkable homogeneity of 3He/4He trapped within most xenoliths, with a weighted mean of 7.54 ± 0.03 RA (2σ, n = 20). This homogeneity occurs over at least eight different xenolith types (including spinel lherzolite, amphibole clinopyroxenite, olivine websterite, clinopyroxenite and garnet websterite), and encompasses ten different volcanic centers within an area of ~ 2500 km2. The homogeneity is caused by volatile equilibration between the xenoliths and fluids derived from their host magma, as fluid inclusions are annealed during the infiltration of vapor-saturated magmas along crystalline grain boundaries. The notable exceptions are the anhydrous spinel lherzolites, which have a lower weighted mean 3He/4He of 6.8 ± 0.3 RA (2σ, n = 2), contain lower concentrations of trapped He, and have a distinctly depleted light rare earth element signature. 3He/4He values of ~ 6.8 RA are also commonly found in spinel lherzolites from harrats Ithnayn, Al Birk, and from Zabargad Island in the Red Sea. Olivine from non-xenolith-bearing lava flows at Hutaymah spans the He isotope range of the xenoliths. The lower 3He/4He in the anhydrous spinel lherzolites appears to be tied to remnant Proterozoic lithosphere prior to metasomatic fluid overprinting. Elevated 3He/4He in the western harrats has been observed only at Rahat (up to 11.8 RA; Murcia et al., 2013), a

  16. Asthenosphere–lithosphere interactions in Western Saudi Arabia: Inferences from 3He/4He in xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah

    Konrad, Kevin;; Graham, David W; Thornber, Carl; Duncan, Robert A; Kent, Adam J.R.; Al-Amri, Abdulla


    Extensive volcanic fields on the western Arabian Plate have erupted intermittently over the last 30 Ma following emplacement of the Afar flood basalts in Ethiopia. In an effort to better understand the origin of this volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, we analyzed3He/4He, and He, CO2 and trace element concentrations in minerals separated from xenoliths and lava flows from Harrat Hutaymah, supplemented with reconnaissance He isotope data from several other volcanic fields (Harrat Al Birk, Harrat Al Kishb and Harrat Ithnayn). Harrat Hutaymah is young (lava flows at Hutaymah spans the He isotope range of the xenoliths. The lower 3He/4He in the anhydrous spinel lherzolites appears to be tied to remnant Proterozoic lithosphere prior to metasomatic fluid overprinting.

  17. The diagnostic accuracy of two human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) testing systems in combination with CA125 in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses

    Lenhard, Miriam; Stieber, Petra; Hertlein, Linda; Kirschenhofer, Angela; Fuerst, Sophie; Mayr, Doris; Nagel, Dorothea; Hofmann, Karin; Krocker, Katja; Burges, Alexander


    Background: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is the best known single tumor marker for ovarian cancer (OC). We investigated whether the additional information of the human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) improves diagnostic accuracy. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed preoperative sera of 109 healthy women, 285 patients with benign ovarian masses (cystadenoma: n = 78, leimyoma: n = 66, endometriosis: n = 52, functional ovarian cysts: n = 79, other: n = 10), 16 low malignant potential (LMP) ovarian tum...

  18. Clinic Value of HE4,CA125 Combined with Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) in the Diagnosis for Ovarian Cancer%血清HE4和CA125水平联合ROMA预测和诊断卵巢癌的临床价值

    李子军; 郑雅琴; 徐仙凤; 夏飞


    [Purpose] To evaluate clinic value of HE4,CA125 combined with ROMA in the diagnosis for ovarian cancer. [Methods] Serum HE4 and CA125 levels were detected by SLISA in 40 ovarian cancer patients and 30 ovarian benign cyst patients. ROMA was evaluated by HE4 md CA125 levels combined with menopause status.[Results] The serum CA125,HE4 levels were(223.50±87.48)pmol/L and (111.00± 24.11)U/mI in ovarian cancer group,respectively,(41.00±3.73)pmol/L and(32.00±3.86)U/ml in ovarian benign cyst group,with significant difference(P=0.000). If the cut-off values cf CA125,HE4 were 37U/ml and 71.5pmol/L,the sensitivity and specificity of CA125 for ovarian cancer diagnosis were 97.5% and 80.0%; those of HE4,80.0% and 100.0%; and those of ROMA, 97.5% and 80.0%, respectively .The area of ROC was 0.868(CA125),0.939(HE4),and 0.972(ROMA). The area of ROC of ROMA was higher than the others (P=0.001, P=0.000). [Conclusion ] ROMA is helpful with great va ue in the clinic predication and diagnosis for ovarian cancer.%[目的]探讨血清肿瘤标志物人附睾分泌蛋白4(HE4)、CA125和卵巢癌风险预测模型(ROMA)在卵巢癌预测和诊断中的应用价值.[方法]回顾性分析因卵巢肿瘤住院接受手术的患者70例,用ELISA法检测70例卵巢癌和卵巢良性肿瘤患者血清中HE4与CA125水平,计算出ROMA值,联合绝经状态评估患卵巢癌的风险性.[结果]卵巢癌组HE4和CA125血清水平分别为(223.50±87.48) pmol/L、(111.00±24.11)U/ml,卵巢良性肿瘤组分别为(4l.00±3.73)pmol/L、(32.00±3.86)U/ml,两组比较有统计学差异(P=0.000).若将CA125及HE4的切割值定在37U/ml、71.5pmol/L,则CA125、HE4预测和诊断卵巢癌的灵敏度、特异性分别为97.5%、80.0%,80.0%、100.0%;两者联合(ROMA计算)其预测和诊断卵巢癌的灵敏度、特异性分别为97.5%、80.0%;CA 125 ROC曲线下面积为0.868,HE4 ROC曲线下面积为0.939,ROMA ROC曲线下面积为0.972,与CA125、HE4比较有显著性差异(P=0

  19. Eruptive activity at Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica): Inferences from 3He/4He in fumarole gases and chemistry of the products ejected during 2014 and 2015

    Rizzo, Andrea Luca; Di Piazza, Andrea; de Moor, J. Maarten; Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Avard, Geoffroy; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Mora, Mauricio M.


    A new period of eruptive activity started at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica, in 2010 after almost 150 years of quiescence. This activity has been characterized by sporadic explosions whose frequency clearly increased since October 2014. This study aimed to identify the mechanisms that triggered the resumption of this eruptive activity and characterize the evolution of the phenomena over the past 2 years. We integrate 3He/4He data available on fumarole gases collected in the summit area of Turrialba between 1999 and 2011 with new measurements made on samples collected between September 2014 and February 2016. The results of a petrological investigation of the products that erupted between October 2014 and May 2015 are also presented. We infer that the resumption of eruptive activity in 2010 was triggered by a replenishment of the plumbing system of Turrialba by a new batch of magma. This is supported by the increase in 3He/4He values observed since 2005 at the crater fumaroles and by comparable high values in September 2014, just before the onset of the new eruptive phase. The presence of a number of fresh and juvenile glassy shards in the erupted products increased between October 2014 and May 2015, suggesting the involvement of new magma with a composition similar to that erupted in 1864-1866. We conclude that the increase in 3He/4He at the summit fumaroles since October 2015 represents strong evidence of a new phase of magma replenishment, which implies that the level of activity remains high at the volcano.

  20. Clinical Value of the Diagnose Postmenpausal Palpable Ovary Syndrome by Joint Detecting HE4, CA199 and CA125%联合检测HE4、CA125和CA199对绝经后卵巢可及综合征的诊断价值

    黄西元; 石玉玲; 张速林



  1. Electromagnetic transition from the 4$^+$ to 2$^+$ resonance in $^8$Be measured via the radiative capture in $^4$He+$^4$He

    Datar, V M; Kumar, Suresh; Nanal, V; Pastore, S; Wiringa, R B; Behera, S P; Chatterjee, A; Jenkins, D; Lister, C J; Mirgule, E T; Mitra, A; Pillay, R G; Ramachandran, K; Roberts, O J; Rout, P C; Shrivastava, A; Sugathan, P


    An earlier measurement on the 4$^+$ to 2$^+$ radiative transition in $^8$Be provided the first electromagnetic signature of its dumbbell-like shape. However, the large uncertainty in the measured cross section does not allow a stringent test of nuclear structure models. The present paper reports a more elaborate and precise measurement for this transition, via the radiative capture in the $^4$He+$^4$He reaction, improving the accuracy by about a factor of three. The {\\it ab initio} calculations of the radiative transition strength with improved three-nucleon forces are also presented. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of the alpha cluster model and {\\it ab initio} calculations.

  2. The evaluation of serum HE4, CA125 and ROMA index in accessing the risk of ovarian cancer%血清HE4、CA125和ROMA指数评估卵巢癌风险性的初步评价

    陈燕; 林莺莺; 郑瑜宏; 胡敏华; 陈岩松


    目的:评价血清HE4、CA125和ROMA指数在判断卵巢癌高风险性中的价值并分析三项指标与卵巢癌临床分期和病理特征的相关性.方法:临床回顾并随访从2011年1月到2011年9月期间在福建省肿瘤医院就诊的96例原发性卵巢癌病人、74例良性卵巢肿瘤患者及60例健康女性体检者.采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法测定受试者手术前血清HE4和CA125水平.用卵巢癌风险性评估软件计算ROMA指数.以卵巢良性肿瘤+健康人为参照绘制ROC曲线以评价HE4、CA125和ROMA指数的诊断价值,并以单变量统计分析治疗前血清HE4、CA125水平和ROMA指数与临床病理学参数之间的关系.结果:卵巢良性肿瘤组和正常对照组患者血清HE4、CA125和ROMA指数水平均在正常范围内,而卵巢癌组三项指标的中位水平分别为240.40 pmol/L、88.37 U/ml和79.70%,与卵巢良性肿瘤组和正常对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).以卵巢良性肿瘤为对照,卵巢癌组中ROMA指数的敏感性和阴性预测值最高(83.33%和82.95%),HE4的特异性、阳性预测值和准确性最高(100%、100%和82.82%).以良性肿瘤+健康人为参照人群,HE4、CA125和ROMA指数单项检测的受试者工作特征曲线下面积分别为0.896、0.869和0.922.三项指标的阳性率随着临床分期的升高而升高,但CA125在Ⅰ期的的阳性率仅为36.36%,与HE4和ROMA指数相比(60.61%和78.79%),差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).CA125 、HE4和ROMA指数的阳性率均与卵巢癌病理特征(术前转移状态、组织学分级、肿物大小、肿瘤病理类型)显著相关,此外HE4的阳性率还与患者年龄显著相关,ROMA指数的阳性率则与患者年龄、绝经状态显著相关(P值均<0.05);HE4和ROMA指数在上皮类卵巢癌的阳性率均显著高于非上皮性卵巢癌(76.54% VS 6.67%,90.12% VS 46.67%),ROMA指数在上皮性卵巢癌的阳性率最高(90.12

  3. Extensive air showers (HE-4)

    Clay, R. W.


    Ultra high energy (UHE) gamma ray astronomy is an exciting area which has added a new sense of purpose to ground based array work. There is much to be done before UHE gamma ray showers can be understood properly and it is important to remain conservative with claims while the properties of such showers are still not clear. The muon content is only one of the properties that needs to be clarified. It remains to be seen how well progress occurs on the second order problem of detailed interaction parameters once the gross features are clarified. The shower disk thickness has become an area of intense study with interest in Linsley's technique for measuremnts of giant showers and in the study of structure near the core for improving fast timing and studying delayed subshowers. Perhaps the most significant area of promise for the future is individual shower develpments with Cerenkov and, particularly, air fluorescence techniques. The importance and potential of having relatively complete information on a complete set of individual showers can hardly be overestimated. A complete understanding of the observation process is needed to determine whether or not the recorded data set is complete at a given energy, apparent core distance, and zenith angle.

  4. 组织CDH1基因异常甲基化和血清HE4检测对卵巢癌和卵巢内异症囊肿的鉴别价值%Value of abnormal methylation of CDH1 gene and the detection of serum HE4 in the identification of ovarian cancer and ovarian endometriosis cyst

    孙蓓; 张熊


    Objective To investigate the abnormal methylation of CDH1 gene and the detection of serum hu-man epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in the identification of ovarian cancer and ovarian endometriosis cyst. Methods Thir-ty-eight patients with ovarian cancer (group A), 41 patients with ovarian ectopic cyst (group B) and 42 patients with be-nign uterine or ovarian lesion (the control group) were enrolled in the study. The methylation status of CDH1 gene pro-moter region was detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and the levels of serum HE4 were de-tected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The changes of the above indicators were compared. Results The expression rates of CDH1 DNA methylation in group B, group A, control group were 4.8% (2/41), 39.4% (15/38), 2.3%(1/42), respectively, with no statistically significant difference between group B and the control group (χ2=0.37, P=0.542), but statistically significant difference between group A and the control group (χ2=11.24, P=0.001), as well as between group A and group B (χ2=13.79, P=0.000). The levels of serum HE4 in group B, group A and control group were 52.7 pmol/L, 537.2 pmol/L, 50.3 pmol/L, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between group B and the control group (t=0.63, P=0.532), but statistically significant difference between group A and the control group (t=54.27, P=0.000), as well as between group A and group B (t=55.33, P=0.000). In group A, the DNA expres-sion quantity of CDH1 gene methylation and levels of serum HE4 are correlated (r=0.527, P0.05). Conclusion Joint detection of CDH1 gene methylation and serum HE4 levels can be applied to the differential diagnosis between ovarian endometriosis cyst and ovarian cancer, which improves the diagnosis rate of the two kinds of diseases.%目的 探讨组织上皮-钙粘连素(CDH1)基因异常甲基化和血清人附睾分泌蛋白4 (HE4)检测对卵巢癌和卵巢内异症囊肿的鉴别价值.方法 选

  5. 血清HE4、CA125及ROMA指数在卵巢癌诊断中的价值评价%Performance evaluation of serum HE4, CA125 and risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm in ovarian tumor

    高岚; 许泼实; 张福明


    目的 探讨血清人附睾分泌蛋白4、CA125检测及ROMA指数鉴别诊断上皮性卵巢癌的临床应用价值.方法 分别采用ELISA法和微粒子化学发光法测定46例上皮性卵巢癌患者(EOC)、49例良性肿瘤患者和50例健康体检者血清HE4、CA125水平,计算出ROMA指数.结果 EOC与健康对照组相比,HE4、CA125及ROMA指数诊断上皮性卵巢癌的AUC分别为0.915、0.818和0.948;EOC与良性肿瘤相比,HE4、CA125及ROMA指数诊断卵巢恶性肿瘤的AUC分别为0.833、0.755和0.870.结论 人附睾分泌蛋白4是一种有效的卵巢癌肿瘤标志物,联合CA125检测计算ROMA指数可显著提高卵巢癌的诊断效率.

  6. The halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) and H2O systematics of Samoan lavas: Assimilated-seawater, EM2 and high-3He/4He components

    Kendrick, Mark A.; Jackson, Matthew G.; Hauri, Erik H.; Phillips, David


    The Samoan mantle plume samples two or more mantle components including an extreme EM2 composition with 87Sr/86Sr > 0.720 and a primitive component with high 3He/4He. The high 87Sr/86Sr melts have a unique potential to constrain the composition of the EM2 mantle end-member that is commonly attributed to subduction recycling. However, a previous study of H2O, CO2, S, F and Cl in Samoan glasses was hampered by the presence of unresolved assimilated sea water. The current study builds on the earlier work by extending the volatile database to include the trace halogens Br and I, and reporting new volatile data for additional glasses with 87Sr/86Sr up to 0.7125 and 3He/4He up to 15 Ra (Ra is the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.39 ×10-6). The selected glasses with MgO of 4.0 to 6.5 wt.% have CO2 concentrations of 4 to 200 ppm that reflect degassing of CO2 on the seafloor. The glasses contain 0.7-1.9 wt.% H2O, 880-1870 ppm F, 490-1790 ppm Cl, 1.9-7.2 ppm Br, 19-130 ppb I and 0.6-1.7 wt.% K. Correlations between the concentrations of these elements suggest the melts retain H2O concentrations close to pre-degassing values and demonstrate the melts have been variably affected by assimilation of seawater-derived brines. The brines are indicated to have had salinities of 55 ± 15 wt.% salt, F/Cl ratios close to seawater (e.g. calculated the melts assimilated brine fractions of 0 to 0.45 wt.%, which contributed up to ∼30% of the total H2O and up to ∼70% of the total Cl in the melts. After accounting for the effects of brine assimilation, the Samoan melts are suggested to have a fairly constant magmatic Cl/K of 0.05 ± 0.2, which is lower than the median MORB value. Assimilation-corrected H2O/Ce values are not correlated with 87Sr/86Sr, but the sample with the highest 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7125 has an assimilation-corrected H2O/Ce of 83 ± 3, that is significantly lower than typical MORB values of 150-300. These data confirm that the Samoan EM2 source is depleted in H2O, and

  7. Affinity composite cryogel discs functionalized with Reactive Red 120 and Green HE 4BD dye ligands: Application on the separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses

    Huseynli, Sabina; Baydemir, Gözde; Sarı, Esma [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Elkak, Assem [Laboraory of “Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Produits de Santé (VRNPS)”, Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology, Lebanese University, Rafic Hariri University Campus, Hadath (Lebanon); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)


    Naturally produced by the human immune system, immunoglobulin nowadays is widely used for in vivo and in vitro purposes. The increased needs for pure immunoglobulin have prompted researchers to find new immunoglobulin chromatographic separation processes. Cryogels as chromatographic adsorbents, congregate several mechanical features including good compatibility, large pore structure, flexibility, short diffusion pathway and stability. These different characteristics make them a good alternative to conventional chromatographic methods and allowing their potential use in separation technology. In the present study, two sets of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based beads were prepared and functionalized with Reactive Red 120 (RR) and Reactive Green HE 4BD (RG) dyes, and then embedded into supermacroporous cryogels. The morphology, physical and chemical features of the prepared bead embedded composite cryogel discs (CCDs) were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling test, elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the embedded composite cryogel discs have a specific surface area of 192.0 m{sup 2}/g with maximum adsorption capacity of HIgG 239.8 mg/g for the RR functionalized CCD and 170 mg/g for RG functionalized CCD columns, both at pH 6.2. - Highlights: • Dye attached composite cryogel discs were prepared to separate HIgG subclasses. • Composite cryogels characterized by swelling, FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. • Reactive Green HE 4B and Reactive Red 120 dyes were used as the affinity ligand. • HIgG and subclasses were separate from both aqueous solution and human plasma.

  8. Neutron decay of deep hole states and isobaric analog states in Sn-115 populated by the (He-3,alpha) reaction at 102 MeV

    Soderman, PO; Ringbom, A; Blomgren, J; Olsson, N; Nilsson, L; Bordewijk, JA; van't Hof, G; Hofstee, MA; van der Ploeg, H; van der Werf, SY; Krasznahorkay, A; Balanda, A; Chmielewska, D; Laurent, H


    Neutron decay of excited hole states and isobaric analog states (IAS) populated by the Sn-116(He-3,alpha) reaction at an energy of 102 MeV has been investigated. The alpha -particles were analysed in a magnetic spectrograph positioned at 1.4 degrees and detected with a multiwire drift chamber. Excit

  9. Precision evaluation of the Ga-71(nu(e),e(-)) solar neutrino capture rate from the (He-3,t) charge-exchange reaction

    Frekers, D.; Adachi, T.; Akimune, H.; Alanssari, M.; Brown, B. A.; Cleveland, B. T.; Ejiri, H.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Gavrin, V. N.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hatanaka, K.; Holl, M.; Iwamoto, C.; Lennarz, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, H.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.


    A precision measurement of the Ga-71(He-3,t)Ge-71 charge-exchange reaction was performed. By using a rather complete set of theoretical form factors to describe the cross-section angular distributions over a large angular range, the Gamow-Teller strength distribution up to the effective neutron-sepa

  10. 血清 HE4和 CA125检测及 ROMA 模型在恶性卵巢癌诊断中的应用%Application of Serum HE4 and CA125 Detection and ROMA Model in the Diagnosis of Malignant Ovarian Carcinoma



    Objective To study the role of serum CA125,HE4 detection and ROMA model in the diagnosis of malignant ovarian carcinoma.Methods 204 patients with gynecological pelvic mass in the treatment of surgical operation were selected, and patients were divided into the benign group and the malignant ovarian cancer group in accordance with the pathological exami-nation results,and 140 healthy women were selected as the control group,CA125,HE4 level,and the calculation of ROMA value were tested.Results CA125 and HE4 level in the malignant ovarian cancer group were (478.53 ±930.42) U/ml and (228.02 ±374.24) pmol/L,and those of the benign group were respectively (50.64 ±62.04) U/ml,(37.42 ±9.28) pmol/L.CA125, HE4 level in the malignant ovarian cancer group were significantly higher than those of the benign group,there was significant difference (P0.05).Premenopausal patients with epithelial ovarian cancer high risk ROMA≥5.6%,low risk of ROMA<5.6%;postmenopa-usal patients with epithelial ovarian cancer high risk ROMA≥17.5%,low risk of ROMA<17.50%.Premenopause group sensi-tivity,specificity,positive predictive value,and negative predictive value were 59.12%,74.68%,35.04%,88.73%,and those of the postmenopausal group were respectively 58.27%,71.43%,95.52%,14.26%,the sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value,and negative predictive value of the total were respectively 58.51%,74.49%,67.88%,66.05%.Conclusion The serum HE4 and CA125 detection and ROMA model has clinical value in the diagnosis of malignant ovarian carcinoma,it helps early dis-covery,early diagnosis and early treatment of malignant ovarian cancer.%目的:研究血清CA125、HE4检测及ROMA模型在恶性卵巢癌诊断中的作用。方法将204例盆腔包块待查患者按照病理学检查结果分为卵巢良性病变组和恶性卵巢癌组,并选取140例健康女性作为对照组,检测所有入选女性的CA125、HE4水平,并计算ROMA值。结果恶性卵巢癌组患者CA125、HE4

  11. The Significance of Detecting Serum HE4 Levels in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer%血清人附睾蛋白4检测对肺癌的诊断意义

    于飞; 王倩; 钟殿胜; 宁超; 马晴; 肖平


    目的:探讨血清人附睾蛋白4(HE4)对肺癌的诊断价值,分析HE4在不同病理类型及TNM分期肺癌患者血清中的表达水平。方法选取47例肺癌患者和31例健康体检者为研究对象。根据病理类型及TNM分期分组,比较不同属性分组下各组血清HE4水平;以病理诊断为金标准,绘制血清HE4、血清癌胚抗原(CEA)诊断肺癌的ROC曲线。结果肺癌患者的血清HE4水平[(253.47±170.03)pmol/L]较健康体检者的血清HE4水平[(84.09±51.03) pmol/L]升高(t=5.365)。不同病理类型[非小细胞癌组(241.34±161.81)pmol/L vs小细胞癌组(293.5±198.76)pmol/L,t=0.847;鳞癌组(304.29±287.61)pmol/L、腺癌组(224.39±122.15)pmol/L,与小细胞癌组比较F=0.969]及不同TNM分期[Ⅰ~Ⅲ期组(255.27±183.04)pmol/L vsⅣ期组(288.16±216.49)pmol/L,t=0.528]的肺癌患者血清HE4水平差异均无统计学意义。血清HE4诊断肺癌的ROC曲线下面积(AUC)为0.902,当HE4浓度为149.145 pmol/L时,其诊断肺癌的敏感度和特异度分别为72.3%和90.3%,检验效能高于CEA(AUC为0.765;当CEA浓度为4.685μg/L时,敏感度和特异度分别为57.4%和83.9%)。结论血清HE4对肺癌的诊断有较高的敏感度及特异度;不同病理类型及TNM分期肺癌患者血清HE4水平无明显差异;检测患者血清HE4有助于诊断肺癌。%Objective To discuss the serum value of human epididymis protein 4(HE4) in the diagnosis of lung can-cer and to analyse the serum levels of HE4 in different pathological types and TNM staging of lung cancer patients. Meth-ods Forty-seven patients with lung cancer and thirty-one healthy controls were selected to join this study. According to various pathological types and TNM staging, the selected lung cancer patients were divided into different subgroups under the two categories. The serum HE4 levels were compared between subgroups. ROC curves of serum HE4 level

  12. Methodological evaluation of electrochemistry luminescent technique for HE4 detection%人附睾蛋白4检测试剂方法学评价


      目的通过对罗氏公司电化学发光法检测人附睾蛋白4(human epididymal protein 4,HE4)试剂的方法学评价。方法检测本方法的批内变异系数和批间变异系数、线性实验。比较本方法与酶联免疫法检测结果的相关性分析,评估此方法的可靠性。结果在检测范围内,该方法的线性良好,检测的批内变异系数分别为1.05%和1.83%,批间变异系数分别为2.63%和2.68%,与酶联免疫法试剂检测结果比较呈良好相关性(R2=0.9966)。结论本方法测定结果准确可靠,操作简便,值得推广使用。%Objective To evaluate the detection methodology of HE4 using electrochemistry luminescent technique (Roche Company). Methods The variation coefficients for within runs and between runs and linear experiment were detected with electrochemistry luminescent technique, and compared with those detected by ELASA. The reliability of electrochemistry luminescent technique was assessed. Results The electrochemistry luminescent technique had a good linearity in the detection range. The variation coefficient for within runs and between runs was 1.05 and 1.83, and 2.63%and 2.68%, respectively, which were well correlated with those detected by ELISA (R2=0.9966). Conclusion The electrochemistry luminescent technique is accurate, reliable, and easy to operate, and is thus worthy to be widely used in clinical practice.

  13. PET monitoring of cancer therapy with He-3 and C-12 beams: a study with the GEANT4 toolkit

    Pshenichnov, Igor; Mishustin, Igor; Greiner, Walter


    We study the spatial distributions of $\\beta^+$-activity produced by therapeutic beams of $^3$He and $^{12}$C ions in various tissue-like materials. The calculations were performed within a Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT) based on the GEANT4 toolkit. The contributions from $^{10,11}$C, $^{13}$N, $^{14,15}$O, $^{17,18}$F and $^{30}$P positron-emitting nuclei were calculated and compared with experimental data obtained during and after irradiation. Positron emitting nuclei are created by $^{12}$C beam in fragmentation reactions of projectile and target nuclei. This leads to a $\\beta^+$-activity profile characterised by a noticeable peak located close to the Bragg peak in the corresponding depth-dose distribution. On the contrary, as the most of positron-emitting nuclei are produced by $^3$He beam in target fragmentation reactions, the calculated total $\\beta^+$-activity during or soon after the irradiation period is evenly distributed within the projectile range. However, we predict also the pre...

  14. Feynman-Kleinert Linearized Path Integral (FK-LPI) Algorithms for Quantum Molecular Dynamics, with Application to Water and He(4).

    Poulsen, Jens Aage; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J


    The Feynman-Kleinert Linearized Path Integral (FK-LPI) representation of quantum correlation functions is extended in applications and algorithms. Diffusion including quantum effects for a flexible simple point charge model of liquid water is explored, including new tests of internal consistency. An ab initio quantum correction factor (QCF) is also obtained to correct the far-infrared spectrum of water. After correction, a spectrum based on a classical simulation is in good agreement with the experiment. The FK-LPI QCF is shown to be superior to the so-called harmonic QCF. New computational algorithms are introduced so that the quantum Boltzmann Wigner phase-space density, the central object in the implementation, can be obtained for arbitrary potentials. One scheme requires only that the standard classical force routine be replaced when turning from one molecular problem to another. The new algorithms are applied to the calculation of the Van Hove spectrum of liquid He(4) at 27 K. The spectrum moments are in very good agreement with the experiment. These observations indicate that the FK-LPI approach can be broadly effective for molecular problems involving the dynamics of light nuclei.

  15. P-wave resonant state of the HeΣ4 hypernucleus in the He4(K−,π− reaction

    Toru Harada


    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate a possible existence of a p-wave HeΣ4 resonant state with Jπ=1−, T≃1/2 above the Σ threshold, using a coupled (3N–Λ+(3N–Σ model with a spreading potential. We calculate inclusive and Σ–Λ conversion π− spectra in a He4(K−,π− reaction at 1.5 GeV/c, θlab=4–12° by the Green's function method in a distorted-wave impulse approximation. The pole position for the p-wave Σ resonant state in HeΣ4 is determined on the Riemann sheets in the complex E plane. The result shows that a peak of the HeΣ4 resonant state is clearly obtained in the conversion spectra above the Σ threshold, and that the angular distributions of these spectra enable extraction of the contribution of the resonant state from the π− spectra. Effects of the Σ-nucleus potential and the interference between Λ and Σ on the spectra are also discussed.

  16. Hairy root induction and phytoremediation of textile dye, Reactive green 19A-HE4BD, in a halophyte, Sesuvium portulacastrum (L. L.

    Vinayak H. Lokhande


    Full Text Available In this study, we report phytoremediation of textile dyes using hairy roots derived through Agrobacterium rhizogenes (NCIM 5140 infection of in vitro leaf and stem explants of a halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum (L. L. Leaf explants showed higher frequency of hairy root induction (70% than stem explants (30%, and maximum number of roots (leaf 42.3 ± 2.4 and stem 50.3 ± 1.7. Transformed nature of hairy roots was ascertained by amplifying 970 bp region of T-DNA of Ri plasmid. Hairy roots were screened for phytoremediation of various textile dyes and results showed that HRs were able to degrade Reactive green 19A HE4BD upto 98% within 5 days of incubation. Spectrophotometric analysis showed decrease in dye concentration while HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed its degradation. Seed germination assay demonstrated non-toxic nature of the extracted metabolites. This is the first report on induction of hairy root culture in Sesuvium portulacastrum and phytoremediation of textile dyes.

  17. A dry 3He-4He dilution refrigerator for a transition edge sensor microcalorimeter spectrometer system mounted on a transmission electron microscope

    Maehata, K.; Hara, T.; Ito, T.; Yamanaka, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.


    A dry 3He-4He dilution refrigerator (DR) was developed for a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter installed on a transmission electron microscope. This system could be used for energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with an excellent energy resolution. A Gifford-McMahon (GM)-type mechanical cryocooler was used as a pre-cooler for the DR to ensure liquid helium was not consumed during operation. To reduce sound and vibrations generated by the GM cryocooler, the DR was separated from the GM cryocooler in a split system. The TES microcalorimeter was glued onto the top of a copper rod referred to as the snout, which was attached to the mixing chamber of the DR. The cooling power in the mixing chamber was 30 μW at 105 mK. The lowest temperature in the mixing chamber was 74 mK, and that at top of the snout was 86 mK. An energy resolution of 7.6 eV full width at half maximum for Si Kα X-rays of 1.74 keV was obtained by TES microcalorimeter EDS performed with the transmission electron microscope.

  18. Geoantineutrino Spectrum, 3He/4He - ratio radial distribution and Slow Nuclear Burning on the Boundary of the Liquid and Solid Phases of the Earth's core

    Rusov, V D; Vaschenko, V N; Tarasov, V A; Zelentsova, T N; Bolshakov, V N; Litvinov, D A; Kosenko, S I; Byegunova, O A


    The problem of the geoantineutrino deficit and the experimental results of the interaction of uranium dioxide and carbide with iron-nickel and silica-alumina melts at high pressure (5-10 Gpa) and temperature (1600-22000 C) have motivated us to consider the possible consequences of the assumption made by V.Anisichkin and coauthors that there is an actinid shell on boundary of liquid and solid phases of the Earth's core. We have shown that the activation of a natural nuclear reactor operating as the solitary waves of nuclear burning in 238U- and/or 232Th-medium (in particular, the neutron-fission progressive wave of Feoktistov and/or Teller-Ishikawa-Wood) can be such a physical consequence. The simplified model of the kinetics of accumulation and burnup in U-Pu fuel cycle of Feoktistov is developed. The results of the numerical simulation of neutron-fission wave in two-phase UO2/Fe medium on a surface of the Earth's solid core are presented. The georeactor model of 3He origin and the 3He/4He-ratio distribution ...

  19. Ginzburg-Landau theory for the solid-liquid interface of bcc elements. II - Application to the classical one-component plasma, the Wigner crystal, and He-4

    Zeng, X. C.; Stroud, D.


    The previously developed Ginzburg-Landau theory for calculating the crystal-melt interfacial tension of bcc elements to treat the classical one-component plasma (OCP), the charged fermion system, and the Bose crystal. For the OCP, a direct application of the theory of Shih et al. (1987) yields for the surface tension 0.0012(Z-squared e-squared/a-cubed), where Ze is the ionic charge and a is the radius of the ionic sphere. Bose crystal-melt interface is treated by a quantum extension of the classical density-functional theory, using the Feynman formalism to estimate the relevant correlation functions. The theory is applied to the metastable He-4 solid-superfluid interface at T = 0, with a resulting surface tension of 0.085 erg/sq cm, in reasonable agreement with the value extrapolated from the measured surface tension of the bcc solid in the range 1.46-1.76 K. These results suggest that the density-functional approach is a satisfactory mean-field theory for estimating the equilibrium properties of liquid-solid interfaces, given knowledge of the uniform phases.

  20. Application of a He3Ne infrared laser source for detection of geometrical dimensions of cracks and scratches on finished surfaces of metals

    Nazaryan, Nikolay; Campana, Claudio; Moslehpour, Saeid; Shetty, Devdas


    In this study, the authors addressed a new method of measurement for microscratches and cracks on finished metallic surfaces. The technology proposed here can be used in aviation, automobile, machine-tools, bearings, electrical and thermal devices (detection of electrical and thermal contact resistance), and many other industrial fields where finished surfaces have to be inspected for quality before use. The technology is based on the application of He3Ne laser optics. This measurement method allows for the inspection of geometrical parameters such as depth and width of scratches and cracks and consists of a low-energy He3Ne red laser beam (wavelength 633 nm) with a cross-section of 0.48 mm, beam expander with special designed slit, multi-axis stage with sample holder and CCD (charge-coupled device) visual detection system. Using experimental data, a mathematical algorithm was created in order to calculate the depths and widths of the scratches and cracks where the method of center of gravity (centroid) of the imaged area was used. The results showed a good correlation between the experimental and calculated values of the dimensions of the scratches. Future work will deal with the determination of the geometrical dimensions of microcracks.

  1. Effect of paclitaxel liposome combined with nedaplatin on serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP, CEA and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Su-Yu Zhu; Jie Tan; Chen-Lu Zhang; Qun-Ying Wu; Xue-Xin Xie; Hua-Fang Yin


    Objective:To study the effect of paclitaxel liposome combined with nedaplatin on serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP, CEA and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.Methods:A total of 80 patients with advanced ovarian cancer in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2015 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into control group (n=40) and experiment group (n=40) randomly. The control group were treated with paclitaxel and cisplatin, the experiment group were treated with paclitaxel liposome combined with nedaplatin. 21 days for a period of treatment and the two groups were treated for 3 periods. The serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP, CEA levels and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Results:There were no significantly differences of the serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP, CEA level and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells of the two groups before treatment (P>0.05). The serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP and CEA level of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05), and that of experiment were significantly lower than control group (P<0.05). The peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+and NK cells of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05), and that of experiment were significantly higher than control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Paclitaxel liposome combined with nedaplatin can significantly reduce the serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP and CEA levels, improve peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK levels of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, and it was worthy clinical application.


    exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish. ... The outcome effect 15 impairment of carbohydrate metabolism, which caused fish ..... of pesticides, heavy metal, detergent and petroleum.

  3. 血清HE4、CP2检测对子宫内膜癌患者临床病理分子、肿瘤组织中增殖分子表达的评估价值%Assessment value of serum HE4 and CP2 contents for the expression of clinical pathological molecules and proliferation molecules in tumor tissue of patients with endometrial carcinoma

    周哲; 蒋欣; 宋继成; 贾红燕



  4. Evaluation of HE4, CA125, risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) and risk of malignancy index (RMI) as diagnostic tools of epithelial ovarian cancer in patients with a pelvic mass

    Karlsen, Mona Aarenstrup; Sandhu, Noreen; Høgdall, Claus


    Diagnostic factors are needed to improve the currently used serum CA125 and risk of malignancy index (RMI) in differentiating ovarian cancer (OC) from other pelvic masses, thereby achieving precise and fast referral to a tertiary center and correct selection for further diagnostics. The aim was t...... was to evaluate serum Human Epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) for these purposes....

  5. Menorrhagia (Heavy Menstrual Bleeding)

    Diseases and Conditions Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) By Mayo Clinic Staff Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding. Although heavy ...

  6. Primordial heavy elements in composite dark matter models

    Khlopov, M Yu


    A widely accepted viewpoint is to consider candidates for cosmological dark matter as neutral and weakly interacting particles, as well as to consider only light elements in the pregalactic chemical composition. It is shown that stable charged leptons and quarks can exist and, hidden in elusive atoms, play the role of dark matter. The inevitable consequence of realistic scenarios with such composite atom-like dark matter is existence of significant or even dominant fraction of "atoms", binding heavy -2 charged particles and He-4 nuclei. Being alpha-particles with shielded electric charge, such atoms catalyse a new path of nuclear transformations in the period of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, which result in primordial heavy elements. The arguments are given, why such scenario escapes immediate contradiction with observations and challenges search for heavy stable charged particles in cosmic rays and at accelerators.

  7. Methodological evaluation of chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay for determining HE4%化学发光微粒子免疫法检测人附睾蛋白方法学性能评价

    郑桂喜; 王传新; 刘延红; 梁永媛


    目的 对Abbott Architect i2000SR检测系统应用化学发光微粒子免疫技术定量测定人附睾蛋白(HE4)的分析性能进行评价.方法 参考美国临床实验室标准化协会( NCCLS)文件,制定定量检测方法的方法学评价方案,通过Abbott Architect i2000sR检测系统测定HE4的批内精密度、批间精密度、线性范围、携带污染率和参考区间.结果 低、高值混合血清批内精密度CV分别为1.80%、2.34%;批间精密度CV分别为2.03%、2.70%;线性范围为19.8 ~1 573.5 pmol/L;携带污染率为-0.02%;参考区间为0.0~ 140.0 pmol/L.结论 Abbott Architect i2000SR检测系统测定HE4的精密度好、线性范围宽、携带污染率低,参考区间与厂家提供的一致,检测性能可满足临床要求.%To evaluate the performance methodology of Chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for determining HE4 using Abbott Architect i2000SR Chemiluminescence analyzer. Methods According to a method by NCCLS recommended, we designed the evaluation program of quantitative detection methods. The within-run precision、 between-run precision Jinear range,carry-over and biological reference interval of HE4 were determined. Results The coefficient of variation( CV) of within-run precision of low and high value pooled serum were respectively 1. 80% and 2. 34% . The CV of between-run precision were respectively 2. 03% and 2. 70% . The linear range was from 19.8 pmol/L to 1 573.5 pmol/L. The 1 carry-over was -0.02%. The biological reference interval was consistent with manufactures which is from 0. 0 pmol/L to 140. 0 pmol/L. Conclusion The within-run precision, between-run precision, linear range and carry-over of Abbott Architect i2000SR for determining HE4 meet the requirements of clinical use. The biological reference interval was consistent with that provided by the manufacturer.

  8. Observational Constraint on Heavy Element Production in Inhomogeneous Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Nakamura, Riou; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Nishimura, Nobuya; Sato, Katsuhiko


    Based on a scenario of the inhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis (IBBN), we investigate the detailed nucleosynthesis that includes the production of heavy elements beyond Li-7. From the observational constraints on light elements of He4 and D for the baryon-to-photon ratio given by WMAP, possible regions found on the plane of the volume fraction of the high density region against the ratio between high- and low-density regions. In these allowed regions, we have confirmed that the heavy elements beyond Fe can be produced appreciably, where p- and/or r-process elements are produced well simultaneously compared to the solar system abundances. We suggest that recent observational signals such as He4 overabundance in globular clusters and high metallicity abundances in quasars could be partly due to the results of IBBN. Possible implications are given for the formation of the first generation stars

  9. Borderline Ovarian Tumors and Diagnostic Dilemma of Intraoperative Diagnosis: Could Preoperative He4 Assay and ROMA Score Assessment Increase the Frozen Section Accuracy? A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    Salvatore Gizzo


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the value of a preoperative He4-serum-assay and ROMA-score assessment in improving the accuracy of frozen section histology in the diagnosis of borderline ovarian tumors (BOT. 113 women presenting with a unilateral ovarian mass diagnosed as serous/mucinous BOT at frozen-section-histology (FS and/or confirmed on final pathology were recruited. Pathologists were informed of the results of preoperative clinical/instrumental assessment of all patients. For Group_A patients, additional information regarding He4, CA125, and ROMA score was available (in Group_B only CA125 was known. The comparison between Group A and Group B in terms of FS accuracy, demonstrated a consensual diagnosis in 62.8% versus 58.6% (P: n.s., underdiagnosis in 25.6% versus 41.4% (P<0.05, and overdiagnosis in 11.6% versus 0% (P<0.01. Low FS diagnostic accuracy was associated with menopausal status (OR: 2.13, laparoscopic approach (OR: 2.18, mucinous histotype (OR: 2.23, low grading (OR: 1.30, and FIGO stage I (OR: 2.53. Ultrasound detection of papillae (OR: 0.29, septa (OR: 0.39, atypical vascularization (OR: 0.34, serum He4 assay (OR: 0.39, and ROMA score assessment (OR: 0.44 decreased the probability of underdiagnosis. A combined preoperative assessment through serum markers and ultrasonographic features may potentially reduce the risk of underdiagnosis of BOTs on FS while likely increasing the concomitant incidence of false-positive events.

  10. Value of human saplens epididymi specific protein 4 on predicting epithelial ovarian cancer%人附睾分泌蛋白4(HE4)对卵巢皮性癌的预测价值

    邢秋霞; 李文佼


    卵巢癌是妇女生殖系统中常见的恶性肿瘤,早期诊断卵巢癌可明显改善患者预后.人附睾分泌蛋白4(human sapiens epididymis specific protein 4,HE4)作为一种新型的肿瘤标记物,其在卵巢癌的早期诊断及疾病监测方面均具有很好的临床价值.

  11. Isovector excitations in 100Nb and their decays by neutron emission studied via the Mo100(t,He3+n reaction at 115 MeV/u

    K. Miki


    Full Text Available Spin–isospin excitations in Nb100 were studied via the Mo100(t,He3 charge-exchange reaction at 115 MeV/u with the goal to constrain theoretical models used to describe the isovector spin response of nuclei. The experiment was performed with a secondary beam of tritons, and 3He particles were analyzed in the S800 magnetic spectrometer. Decay by neutron emission from excited states in Nb100 was observed by using plastic and liquid scintillator arrays. Differential cross sections were analyzed and monopole excitations were revealed by using a multipole decomposition analysis. The Gamow–Teller transition strength observed at low excitation energies, which is important for estimating the electron-capture rate in astrophysical scenarios, was strongly fragmented and reduced compared to single-particle and spherical mean-field models. The consideration of deformation in the theoretical estimates was found to be important to better describe the fragmentation and strengths. A strong excitation of the isovector spin giant monopole resonance was observed, and well reproduced by the mean-field models. Its presence makes the extraction of Gamow–Teller strengths at high excitation energies difficult. The branches for statistical and direct decay by neutron emission were identified in the spectra. The upper limit for the branching ratio by direct decay (integrated over all observed excitations was determined to be 20±6%. Even though the statistical uncertainties in the neutron-coincident data were too large to perform detailed studies of the decay by neutron emission from individual states and resonances, the experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the method.

  12. 慢性肾脏病患者血清人附睾分泌蛋白4与肾小球滤过率的相关性研究%The study on association between HE4 and eGFR in patients with chronic kidney disease

    贺艳光; 仇燕; 郭晓丽; 刘力亚; 张建国


    目的:比较不同分期的慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者血清人附睾分泌蛋白4(HE4)、血清半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂 C(Cystatin C)和血清肌酐(Scr)的符合率,研究 CKD 患者血清 HE4与估算的肾小球滤过率(eGFR)的相关性。方法分别采用电化学发光法、颗粒增强免疫透射比浊法、肌氨酸氧化酶法检测136例 CKD 患者和67名健康对照组的血清 HE4、血清 Cystatin C 和血清 Scr 水平,比较血清 HE4与 eGFR 、血清 Cystatin C 和血清Scr 水平的相关性,分析血清 HE4、血清 Cystatin C 和血清 Scr 水平在 CKD 不同分期患者间的水平差异和不同分期内血清 HE4、血清 Cystatin C 和血清 Scr 的异常率。结果血清 HE4浓度与 eGFR 呈负相关( r =-0•7033, P <0•05);血清 HE4浓度与血清 Cystatin C 浓度呈正相关(r=0•8719,P<0•05),血清 HE4浓度与血清 Scr 浓度呈正相关( r =0•8489,P <0•05)。 CKD 患者血清 HE4、血清 Cystatin C 和血清 Scr 水平随着 CKD 病情的加重显著升高,血清 HE4、血清 Cystatin C 和血清 Scr 平均水平在各期间的差异均有统计学意义( P <0•05)。在CKD 5期组和 CKD 4期组,HE4、Cystatin C 和 Scr 的异常率均为100%。在 CKD 3期组,HE4、Cystatin C 和 Scr的异常率分别为95•5%,95•5%和86•4%,3个指标异常率的差异无统计学意义( P >0.05);在 CKD 2期组, HE4的异常率为81.5%,Cystatin C 的异常率为88•9%,Scr 的异常率仅为44.4%,3个指标异常率的差异有统计学意义( P <0.05);CKD1期组,HE4和 Cystatin C 的异常率为36.7%和43•3%,2个指标异常率的差异无统计学意义( P >0.05),而 Scr 的异常率为0。结论血清 HE4浓度与 eGFR 呈负相关,其水平在非卵巢癌肾脏病患者中随着病情加重显著升高,异常检出率与 CystatinC 相当,优于 Scr

  13. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    Pillot, Philippe


    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  14. Production of heavy elements in inhomogeneous cosmologies

    Rauscher, Thomas; Applegate, James H.; Cowan, John J.; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Wiescher, Michael


    Baryon density inhomogeneities during big bang nucleosynthesis can result from a variety of possible causes (e.g., quantum chromodynamic and electroweak phase transitions; cosmic strings). We present here the consequences of such inhomogeneities with special emphasis on the production of heavy elements in a parameter study, varying the global baryon-to-photon ratio eta (which is related to the baryon density and the Hubble constant via eta10 = 64.94 Omegab(H0/50)2 and the length scale of the density inhomogeneities. The production of heavy elements beyond Fe can only occur in neutron-rich environments; thus, we limit our study to neutron-rich zones, originating from neutron diffusion into low-density regions. In this first calculation including elements heavier than Si, we prove an earlier hypothesis that under such conditions r-process elements can be produced, strongly enhanced by the process of fission cycling. Primordial r-process abundances are, however, very sensitive to the choice of eta. Significant amounts, comparable to or larger than the (permitted) floor of heavy-element abundances found in low-metallicity stars at the onset of galactic evolution, can only be obtained for values in excess of eta10 = 133 (i.e., Omegab(h50)2 = 2.0; e.g., Omegab = 1, H0 = 71, or Omegab = 0.5, H0 = 100) and large length scales of inhomogeneities, which minimize the back-diffusion of neutrons into proton-rich regions. Recent investigations analyzing the primordial abundances of light elements seem to set tighter limits, eta10 less than 26 to 39 (Omega b)(h50)2 less than 0.4 to 0.6, from He-4 and apparently considerably lower values based on Li, Be, and B. Under such conditions the predicted abundances of heavy elements are a factor of 105 or more below presently observable limits.

  15. Heavy metal jako subkultura

    KOUTNÁ, Daniela


    This bachelor thesis deals with heavy metal subculture. Its aim is to introduce the most important branches and to show broadness of heavy metal. This bachelor thesis describes development and history, briefly shows Czech heavy metal history alongside with the biggest and most popular Czech heavy metal festivals. It shows the most dressing concerns of society against this style.

  16. A heavy load for heavy ions


    On 25 September, the two large coils for the dipole magnet of ALICE, the LHC experiment dedicated to heavy ions, arrived at Point 2 on two heavy load trucks after a 1200 km journey from their assembly in Vannes, France.

  17. Heavy hadron decays with conserved heavy flavour

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas [Theoretische Physik 1, Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen, Walter-Flex-Strasse 3, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)


    We investigate the decays of heavy hadrons where the heavy quark acts as a spectator and the light quark decays in a weak transition. For these s → u or d → u decays we show that the decay rates can be reliably computed.

  18. Physics of heavy neutrinos

    Gluza, J


    Theoretical and experimental situation in physics of heavy neutrinos (M_N>M_Z) is briefly presented. Various experimental bounds on heavy neutrino masses and mixings are shortly reviewed. Special attention is paid to possibility of detecting heavy neutrinos in future lepton linear colliders.

  19. Modeling a Cryogenic HE3 Nuclear Gyro.


    OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED .2 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: THIS PAGE (9When Deta Entered) UNCLASSIFILD SECURIT ) CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(147 n Date - 4G -I theoretically possible to determine all three components of W0 with a single device. To do this three magnetometers are required, one to -* to maintain a constant angle between the 3G and 31 axes as the k axis cones around the 3I axis at a frequency w rad/sec.z Then - 4G -I . G (4.1) W

  20. Soil heavy metals

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)


    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  1. Heavy quark masses

    Testa, Massimo


    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  2. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron up to Q2=3.4 GeV2 using the Reaction He3(e,e'n)pp

    Riordan, S; Craver, B; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Miller, J; Cates, G D; Liyanage, N; Wojtsekhowski, B; Acha, A; Allada, K; Anderson, B; Aniol, K A; Annand, J R M; Arrington, J; Averett, T; Beck, A; Bellis, M; Boeglin, W; Breuer, H; Calarco, J R; Camsonne, A; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Coman, L; Crowe, B; Cusanno, F; Day, D; Degtyarenko, P; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, C; Ferdi, C; Fernandez-Ramirez, C; Feuerbach, R; Fraile, L M; Franklin, G; Frullani, S; Fuchs, S; Garibaldi, F; Gevorgyan, N; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Gomez, J; Grimm, K; Hansen, J O; Herraiz, J L; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R; Holmstrom, T; Howell, D; deJager, C W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Katich, J; Kaufman, L J; Khandaker, M; Kelly, J J; Kiselev, D; Korsch, W; LeRose, J; Lindgren, R; Markowitz, P; Margaziotis, D J; Beck, S May-Tal; Mayilyan, S; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Nanda, S; Nelyubin, V; Ngo, T; Nikolenko, D M; Norum, B; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Pomatsalyuk, R; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Punjabi, V A; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Quinn, B; Rachek, I; Ransome, R D; Reimer, P E; Reitz, B; Roche, J; Ron, G; Rondon, O; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sargsian, M; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Shestakov, Yu; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Souder, P; Stepanyan, S; Stibunov, V; Sulkosky, V; Tajima, S; Tobias, W A; Udias, J M; Urciuoli, G M; Vlahovic, B; Voskanyan, H; Wang, K; Wesselmann, F R; Vignote, J R; Wood, S A; Wright, J; Yao, H; Zhu, X


    The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from studies of the reaction He3(e,e'n)pp in quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized target in which the nuclear polarization was oriented perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons that were registered in a large-solid-angle detector. More than doubling the Q2-range over which it is known, we find GEn = 0.0225 +/- 0.0017 (stat) +/- 0.0024 (syst), 0.0200 +/- 0.0023 +/- 0.0018, and 0.0142 +/- 0.0019 +/- 0.0013 for Q2 = 1.72, 2.48, and 3.41 GeV2, respectively.

  3. Production of heavy water

    Spencer, Larry S.; Brown, Sam W.; Phillips, Michael R.


    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for producing heavy water. In one embodiment, a catalyst is treated with high purity air or a mixture of gaseous nitrogen and oxygen with gaseous deuterium all together flowing over the catalyst to produce the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, the deuterium is combusted to form the heavy water. In an alternate embodiment, gaseous deuterium and gaseous oxygen is flowed into a fuel cell to produce the heavy water. In various embodiments, the deuterium may be produced by a thermal decomposition and distillation process that involves heating solid lithium deuteride to form liquid lithium deuteride and then extracting the gaseous deuterium from the liquid lithium deuteride.

  4. Determination of solar flare accelerated ion angular distributions from SMM gamma ray and neutron measurements and determination of the He-3/H ratio in the solar photosphere from SMM gamma ray measurements

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.


    Comparisons of Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) observations of gamma-ray line and neutron emission with theoretical calculation of their expected production by flare accelerated ion interactions in the solar atmosphere have led to significant advances in the understanding of solar flare particle acceleration and interaction, as well as the flare process itself. These comparisons have enabled the determination of, not only the total number and energy spectrum of accelerated ions trapped at the sun, but also the ion angular distribution as they interact in the solar atmosphere. The Monte Carlo program was modified to include in the calculations of ion trajectories the effects of both mirroring in converging magnetic fields and of pitch angle scattering. Comparing the results of these calculations with the SMM observations, not only the angular distribution of the interacting ions can be determined, but also the initial angular distribution of the ions at acceleration. The reliable determination of the solar photospheric He-3 abundance is of great importance for understanding nucleosynthesis in the early universe and its implications for cosmology, as well as for the study of the evolution of the sun. It is also essential for the determinations of the spectrum and total number of flare accelerated ions from the SMM/GRS gamma-ray line measurements. Systematic Monte Carlo calculations of the time dependence were made as a function of the He-3 abundance and other variables. A new series of calculations were compared for the time-dependent flux of 2.223 MeV neutron capture line emission and the ratio of the time-integrated flux in the 2.223 MeV line to that in the 4.1 to 6.4 MeV nuclear deexcitation band.

  5. Development and testing of a deuterium gas target assembly for neutron production via the H-2(d,n)He-3 reaction at a low-energy accelerator facility

    Feautrier, D.; Smith, D.L.


    This report describes the development and testing of a deuterium gas target intended for use at a low-energy accelerator facility to produce neutrons for basic research and various nuclear applications. The principle source reaction is H-2(d,n)He-3. It produces a nearly mono-energetic group of neutrons. However, a lower-energy continuum neutron spectrum is produced by the H-2(d;n,p)H-2 reaction and also by deuterons which strike various components in the target assembly. The present target is designed to achieve the following objectives: (1) minimize unwanted background neutron production from the target assembly, (2) provide a relatively low level of residual long-term activity within the target components, (3) have the capacity to dissipate up to 150 watts of beam power with good target longevity, and (4) possess a relatively modest target mass in order to minimize neutron scattering from the target components. The basic physical principles that have to be considered in designing an accelerator target are discussed and the major engineering features of this particular target design are outlined. The results of initial performance tests on this target are documented and some conclusions concerning the viability of the target design are presented.

  6. Heavy Hadrons in Dense Matter

    Tolos, Laura; Hidalgo-Duque, Carlos; Nieves, Juan; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis; Torres-Rincon, Juan M


    We study the behavior of dynamically-generated baryon resonances with heavy-quark content within a unitarized coupled-channel theory in matter that fulfills heavy-quark spin symmetry constraints. We analyze the implications for the formation of charmed mesic nuclei and the propagation of heavy mesons in heavy-ion collisions from RHIC to FAIR.

  7. Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses.


    i 2N E ihhhhh1112h MEmhhhhEEEohhhhE I.’....momo 111111111’-20 LA ’Ll2. AFWL-TR-86-37 AFWL-TR- 86-37 oT C ,l C ’-’ N HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 0nI...Secwrit CkasmfcationJ HEAVY METAL FLUORIDE GLASSES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Reisfield, Renata; and Eyal, Mrek 13. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114...glasses containing about 50 mole% of ZrF4 [which can be replaced by HfF 4 or TIF 4 (Refs. 1-3) or heavy metal fluorides based on PbF2 and on 3d-group

  8. Heavy Exotic Molecules

    Liu, Yizhuang


    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general strictures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. The bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is a possible neutral $X_b(10532)$ to be observed.

  9. Heavy exotic molecules

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+1 binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb-(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  10. Aquathermolysis of heavy oils

    Hyne, J.B.; Clark, P.D.; Clarke, R.A.; Koo, J.; Greidanus, J.W.


    The use of steam injection as a recovery method is based mainly on the physical effect of transferring the energy of the steam to enhance the flow properties of heavy oils. Other physical effects, such as emulsification, also may take place but little attention has been given to the possibility of a chemical reaction between the steam and some of the heavy oil components. This work addresses the question of such a chemical reaction to which the name, Aquathermolysis, has been given. The results of gas analyses to simulate field conditions of steam injection are presented. Two samples were used. Means to enhance the flow properties during the aquathermolysis process also were determined.

  11. Production of Heavy Clusters with an Expanded Coalescence Model in CEM

    Kerby, Leslie M


    The production of heavy clusters in nuclear reactions is important in a wide variety of applications: radiation shielding, space engineering and design, medical physics, accelerator design, and more. According to the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM), there are three ways high-energy heavy clusters can be produced. The first way is via coalescence of nucleons produced in the IntraNuclear Cascade (INC). The second way is via the preequilibrium model. The last way is via Fermi breakup. Previous work in CEM examines the impact of expansions of the preequilibrium model and Fermi breakup model on heavy cluster production. The present work studies the impact of expanding the coalescence model on heavy cluster spectra. CEM03.03, the default event generator in the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code version 6 (MCNP6) for intermediate-energy nuclear reactions, is capable of producing light fragments up to He4 in its coalescence model. In the present study, we have expanded the coalescence model to be able to produce up to...

  12. Phenomenology of Heavy Flavors in Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Isayev, A A


    Some recent experimental results obtained in collisions of heavy nuclei ($\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV) at BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) are discussed. The probes of dense matter created in heavy-ion collision by quarkonia, $D$ and $B$ mesons containing heavy charm and beauty quarks are considered. The centrality, rapidity and transverse momentum dependences of the nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow coefficient are presented and their possible theoretical interpretation is provided.

  13. Heavy liquid bubble chamber


    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.

  14. Heavy quarkonium effective theory

    Mannel, T


    We formulate a QCD-based effective theory approach to heavy quarkonia-like systems as \\bar{c} c and \\bar{b} b resonances and B_c states. We apply the method to inclusive decays, working out a few examples in detail.

  15. Dolly For Heavy Towbar

    Soper, Terry A.


    Proposed lightweight dolly enables operator to cart heavy towbar to remote site over unpaved roads or rough terrain. Acts as simple, lightweight towed vehicle to support rear of towbar. Removed quickly at point of use. Saves labor, and eliminates need for truck and forklift.

  16. Heavy chain only antibodies

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud


    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer....

  17. Heavy Stars Thrive among Heavy Elements


    VLT Observes Wolf-Rayet Stars in Virgo Cluster Galaxies [1] Summary Do very massive stars form in metal-rich regions of the Universe and in the nuclei of galaxies ? Or does "heavy element poisoning" stop stellar growth at an early stage, before young stars reach the "heavyweight class"? What may at the first glance appear as a question for specialists actually has profound implications for our understanding of the evolution of galaxies, those systems of billions of stars - the main building blocks of the Universe. With an enormous output of electromagnetic radiation and energetic elementary particles, massive stars exert a decisive influence on the surrounding (interstellar) gas and dust clouds . They also eject large amounts of processed elements, thereby participating in the gradual build-up of the many elements we see today. Thus the presence or absence of such stars at the centres of galaxies can significantly change the overall development of those regions and hence, presumably, that of the entire galaxy. A team of European astronomers [2] has now directly observed the presence of so-called Wolf-Rayet stars (born with masses of 60 - 90 times that of the Sun or more) within metal-rich regions in some galaxies in the Virgo cluster, some 50 million light-years away. This is the first unambiguous detection of such massive stellar objects in metal-rich regions . PR Photo 20a/02 : H II regions in the Virgo cluster galaxy NGC 4254 . PR Photo 20b/02 : Multi-object-slit observation of galaxy NGC 4303 . PR Photo 20c/02 : Spectrum of H II region in NGC 4254 with Wolf-Rayet signatures. Production of heavy elements in the Universe Most scientists agree that the Universe in which we live underwent a dramatic event, known as the Big Bang , approximately 15,000 million years ago. During the early moments, elementary particles were formed which after some time united into more complex nuclei and in turn resulted in the production of hydrogen and helium atoms and their isotopes

  18. Heavy hadron spectrum and interactions

    Ebert, D


    Starting from the approximate symmetries of QCD, namely chiral symmetry for light quarks and spin and flavor symmetry for heavy quarks, we investigate the low-energy properties of heavy hadrons. For this purpose we construct a consistent picture of quark-antiquark and quark-diquark interactions as a low-energy approximation to the flavor dynamics in heavy mesons and heavy baryons, respectively. Using standard functional integration tools, we derive an effective Lagrangian in terms of heavy hadron fields and discuss several properties, like the mass spectrum, coupling and decay constants, Isgur-Wise form factors.

  19. Distributed Private Heavy Hitters

    Hsu, Justin; Roth, Aaron


    In this paper, we give efficient algorithms and lower bounds for solving the heavy hitters problem while preserving differential privacy in the fully distributed local model. In this model, there are n parties, each of which possesses a single element from a universe of size N. The heavy hitters problem is to find the identity of the most common element shared amongst the n parties. In the local model, there is no trusted database administrator, and so the algorithm must interact with each of the $n$ parties separately, using a differentially private protocol. We give tight information-theoretic upper and lower bounds on the accuracy to which this problem can be solved in the local model (giving a separation between the local model and the more common centralized model of privacy), as well as computationally efficient algorithms even in the case where the data universe N may be exponentially large.

  20. [Heavy particle radiation therapy].

    Lozares, S; Mañeru, F; Pellejero, S


    The characteristics of radiation formed by heavy particles make it a highly useful tool for therapeutic use. Protons, helium nuclei or carbon ions are being successfully employed in radiotherapy installations throughout the world. This article sets out the physical and technological foundations that make these radiation particles suitable for attacking white volume, as well as the different ways of administering treatment. Next, the main clinical applications are described, which show the therapeutic advantages in some of the pathologies most widely employed in proton and hadron therapy centres at present. Under continuous study, the clinical use of heavy particles appears to be an enormously promising path of advance in comparison with classical technologies, both in tumour coverage and in reducing dosages in surrounding tissue.

  1. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Brink, D.M.


    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel


    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  3. Transformable Heavy Lift Ship


    the 500 group include climate control, freshwater/seawater systems, mechanical handling, and special purpose systems. Due to the large troop...compliment carried on the JHSS, large amounts of climate control and ventilation were required. The transformable heavy lift ship has only a single... Treeline Connector Innovation Cell Naval Research Enterprise Intern Program Final Report, NSWCCD-20-TR-2005/05 August 2005 "Saturn." Nijhuis

  4. Heavy oil markets and investments

    Forrest, Jackie [CERA North America (United States)


    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, the exploitation of heavy oil resources is increasing. The aim of this paper is to present the heavy oil sector and to show which are the factors influencing heavy oil growth and production. A large part of heavy oil reserves lies in the Americas, with about 45% of the world's reserves in Latin America and over 35% in North America. The development of the heavy oil sector is dependent on economic, technological and environmental factors; greenhouse gas policies have important impacts on the development of the heavy oil industry as well as downstream market access. This presentation highlighted the great potential that North and South America have in terms of heavy oil but that the development of this sector will depend on several factors.

  5. Spatial response characterization of He-4 scintillation detectors

    Kelley, Ryan P.; Steinberg, Noah; Murer, David; Ray, Heather; Jordan, Kelly A.


    The spatial response of pressurized helium-4 fast neutron scintillation detectors is characterized using collimated neutron source measurements and MCNPX-PoliMi simulations. A method for localizing the position of each detected event is also demonstrated using the two-sided photomultiplier readout. Results show that the position of particle interaction along the axis of the active volume has a measurable effect on the scintillation light response of the detector. An algorithm is presented that uses the probability distribution of relative interaction positions to perform source localization, further demonstrating the applicability of these detectors as tools for the detector of hidden shielded nuclear material.

  6. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    Nelson, Christopher


    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient

  7. Physical Modelling of Proton and Heavy Ion Radiation using Geant4

    Douglass M.


    Full Text Available Protons and heavy ion particles are considered to be ideal particles for use in external beam radiotherapy due to superior properties of the dose distribution that results when these particles are incident externally and due to their relative biological effectiveness. While significant research has been performed into the properties and physical dose characteristics of heavy ions, the nuclear reactions (direct and fragmentation undergone by He4, C12 and Ne20 nuclei used in radiotherapy in materials other than water is still largely unexplored. In the current project, input code was developed for the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant 4 version 9.3 to simulate the transport of several mono-energetic heavy ions through water. The relative dose contributions from secondary particles and nuclear fragments originating from the primary particles were investigated for each ion in both water and dense bone (ICRU media. The results indicated that the relative contribution to the total physical dose from nuclear fragments increased with both increasing particle mass and with increasing medium density. In the case of 150 MeV protons, secondary particles were shown to contribute less than 0.5% of the peak dose and as high as 25% when using 10570 MeV neon ions in bone. When water was substituted for a bone medium, the contributions from fragments increased by more than 6% for C12 and Ne20.

  8. Light is Heavy

    Mark, M.B. van der; Hooft, G. W. 't


    Einstein's relativity theory appears to be very accurate, but at times equally puzzling. On the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy. In this paper, no new results will be derived, but a possibly surprising perspect...

  9. Heavy Metal Factory

    Löbling, Lisa


    The metal enrichment in the cosmic circuit of matter is dominated by the yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis, that are blown back into the interstellar medium just before these stars die as white dwarfs. To establish constraints on AGB processes, spectral analyses of hot post-AGB stars are mandatory. These show that such stars are heavy metal factories due to the AGB s-process. The Virtual Observatory service TheoSSA offers access to synthetic stellar spectra calculated with our Tübingen non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere package that are suitable for the analysis of hot post-AGB stars.

  10. Heavy fermion superconductivity

    Brison, Jean-Pascal; Glémot, Loı̈c; Suderow, Hermann; Huxley, Andrew; Kambe, Shinsaku; Flouquet, Jacques


    The quest for a precise identification of the symmetry of the order parameter in heavy fermion systems has really started with the discovery of the complex superconducting phase diagram in UPt 3. About 10 years latter, despite numerous experiments and theoretical efforts, this is still not achieved, and we will quickly review the present status of knowledge and the main open question. Actually, the more forsaken issue of the nature of the pairing mechanism has been recently tackled by different groups with macroscopic or microscopic measurement, and significant progress have been obtained. We will discuss the results emerging from these recent studies which all support non-phonon-mediated mechanisms.

  11. Light is Heavy

    van der Mark, M B


    Einstein's relativity theory appears to be very accurate, but at times equally puzzling. On the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy. In this paper, no new results will be derived, but a possibly surprising perspective on the above paradox is given.

  12. Heavy ion storage rings

    Schuch, R.


    A brief overview of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, which are presently under construction in different accelerator laboratories is given. Ions ranging from protons up to uranium ions at MeV/nucleon energies will be injected into these rings using multiturn injection from the accelerators available or being built in these laboratories. After injection, it is planned to cool the phase space distribution of the ions by merging them with cold electron beams or laser beams, or by using stochastic cooling. Some atomic physics experiments planned for these rings are presented.

  13. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    Lim, Sanghoon


    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important ingredient to interpret the results from heavy-ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, intrinsic parton transverse momentum broadening, and initial patron energy loss. The measurement of heavy quark production is a good probe to study the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has an ability to study the CNM effects by measuring leptons from heavy-flavor decay in a broad kinematic range. Comparisons of the results measured in different rapidity regions allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on parton fractional momentum x. In addition, comparisons to the results from heavy-ion collisions (Au + Au and Cu + Cu) measured by PHENIX provide an insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are discussed in this presentation.

  14. Heavy quark production and spectroscopy

    Appel, J.A.


    This review covers many new experimental results on heavy flavor production and spectroscopy. It also shows some of the increasingly improved theoretical understanding of results in light of basic perturbative QCD and heavy quark symmetry. At the same time, there are some remaining discrepancies among experiments as well as significant missing information on some of the anticipated lowest lying heavy quark states. Most interesting, perhaps, are some clearly measured production effects awaiting full explanation.

  15. Bucharest heavy ion accelerator facility

    Ceausescu, V.; Dobrescu, S.; Duma, M.; Indreas, G.; Ivascu, M.; Papureanu, S.; Pascovici, G.; Semenescu, G.


    The heavy ion accelerator facility of the Heavy Ion Physics Department at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest is described. The Tandem accelerator development and the operation of the first stage of the heavy ion postaccelerating system are discussed. Details are given concerning the resonance cavities, the pulsing system matching the dc beam to the RF cavities and the computer control system.

  16. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    Castro, J.R.


    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  17. Using heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons to determine QCD parameters and test heavy quark symmetry

    Randall, Lisa


    We present a detailed analysis of the use of heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons for testing the heavy quark effective theory through comparison of the measured fragmentation parameters of the c and b quarks. Our analysis is entirely model independent. We interpret the known perturbative evolution in a way useful for exploiting heavy quark symmetry at low energy. We first show consistency with perturbative QCD scaling for measurements done solely with c quarks. We then apply the perturbative analysis and the heavy quark expansion to relate measurements from ARGUS and LEP. We place bounds on a nonperturbative quark mass suppressed parameter, and compare the values for the b and c quarks. We find consistency with the heavy quark expansion but fairly sizable QCD uncertainties. We also suggest that one might reduce the systematic uncertainty in the result by not extrapolating to low z.

  18. Heavy Quarks and Heavy Quarkonia as Tests of Thermalization

    Nagle, J L


    We present here a brief summary of new results on heavy quarks and heavy quarkonia from the PHENIX experiment as presented at the "Quark Gluon Plasma Thermalization" Workshop in Vienna, Austria in August 2005, directly following the International Quark Matter Conference in Hungary.

  19. Propagation of heavy baryons in heavy-ion collisions

    Das, Santosh K.; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Tolos, Laura; Minissale, Vincenzo; Scardina, Francesco; Greco, Vincenzo


    The drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy baryons (Λc and Λb ) in the hadronic phase created in the latter stage of the heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies have been evaluated recently. In this work we compute some experimental observables, such as the nuclear suppression factor RA A and the elliptic flow v2 of heavy baryons at RHIC and LHC energies, highlighting the role of the hadronic phase contribution to these observables, which are going to be measured at Run 3 of LHC. For the time evolution of the heavy quarks in the quark and gluon plasma (QGP) and heavy baryons in the hadronic phase, we use the Langevin dynamics. For the hadronization of the heavy quarks to heavy baryons we employ Peterson fragmentation functions. We observe a strong suppression of both the Λc and Λb . We find that the hadronic medium has a sizable impact on the heavy-baryon elliptic flow whereas the impact of hadronic medium rescattering is almost unnoticeable on the nuclear suppression factor. We evaluate the Λc/D ratio at RHIC and LHC. We find that the Λc/D ratio remains unaffected due to the hadronic phase rescattering which enables it as a nobel probe of QGP phase dynamics along with its hadronization.

  20. Heavy hadrons in nuclear matter

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro


    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia (J / ψ, ϒ), heavy-light mesons (D/ D ¯ , B ¯ / B) and heavy baryons (Λc, Λb). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in infinite nuclear matter, but also in finite-size atomic nuclei with finite baryon numbers, to serve future experiments.

  1. Heavy Hadrons in Nuclear Matter

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro


    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia ($J/\\psi$, $\\Upsilon$), heavy-light mesons ($D$/$\\bar{D}$, $\\bar{B}$/$B$) and heavy baryons ($\\Lambda_{c}$, $\\Lambda_{b}$). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in nuclear matter with infinite volume, but also in atomic nuclei with finite bary...

  2. Heavy meson fragmentation at LHC

    M. A. Gomshi Nobary


    Full Text Available   Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN will provide excellent opportunity to study the production and decay of heavy mesons and baryons with high statistics. We aim at the heavy mesons in this work and calculate their fragmentation functions consistent with this machine and present their total fragmentation probabilities and average fragmentation parameters.

  3. Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators


    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators, Phase I, SBIR ARL-CR-5· R. Cavalieri, W. Tiarn, and D. Nicholson prepared...REPORT DATE S. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 1992 Final Report-1/1/92 - 7/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FAILURE ENGINEERED HEAVY METAL PENETRATORS

  4. Heavy flavor results from CMS

    Ronchese, Paolo


    Heavy flavor particles produced in LHC $pp$ collisions at $7, 8,$ and $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ constitute an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. Recent results by the CMS Collaboration on heavy flavor production and decays are presented.

  5. Heavy flavours: working group summary

    Ali, Ahmed [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gladilin, Leonid [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Scobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tonelli, Diego [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)


    The talks presented in the working group ''Heavy flavours'' of the DIS 2009 workshop are summarised. New and recently updated results from theory, proton antiproton and heavy ion colliders, as well from HERA and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Heavy metals and soil microbes

    Giller, K.E.; Witter, E.; McGrath, S.


    The discovery in the early 1980s that soil microorganisms, and in particular the symbiotic bacteria Rhizobium, were highly sensitive to heavy metals initiated a new line of research. This has given us important insights into a range of topics: ecotoxicology, bioavailability of heavy metals, the role

  7. Disorders of heavy metals.

    Woimant, France; Trocello, Jean-Marc


    Heavy metals and trace elements play an important role in relation to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Neurologic diseases related to disorders of metabolism of copper and iron are reviewed. Copper disorders are divided into two classes: ATP7A- or ATP7B-related inherited copper transport disorders (Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, and Wilson disease) and acquired diseases associated with copper deficiency or copper excess. Iron brain disorders are divided into genetic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminemia), genetic systemic iron accumulation with neurologic features (hemochromatosis), and acquired diseases associated with iron excess (superficial siderosis) or iron deficiency (restless leg syndrome). The main features of cadmium, lead, aluminum, mercury, and manganese toxicity are summarized.

  8. Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy

    Faccini, Riccardo; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome


    Although the Standard Model of elementary particles is well established, strong interactions are not yet fully under control. We believe QCD is the field theory capable of describing them, but we are not yet capable, in most of the cases, to make exact predictions. Systems that include heavy quark-antiquark pairs (quarkonia) are ideal and unique laboratories to probe both the high energy regimes of QCD, where an expansion in terms of the coupling constant is possible, and the low energy regimes, where non-perturbative effects dominate. In the last years this field is experiencing a rapid expansion with a wealth of new data coming in from diverse sources: data on quarkonium formation from dedicated experiments (BES at BEPC, KEDR at VEPP-4M CLEO-c at CESR), clear samples produced by high luminosity B-factories (PEP and KEKB), and very large samples produced from gluon-gluon fusion in p{bar p} annihilations at Tevatron (CDF and D0 experiments). In this review I will first summarize recent developments in the understanding of heavy quarkonium states which have a well established quark content. Next, the core of the paper will be spent to review the experimental evidences of new states that might be aggregations of more than just a quark-antiquark pair. Although the possibility to have bound states of two quarks and two antiquarks or of quark-antiquark pairs and gluons has been predicted since the very start of the quark model [2], no observed state has yet been attributed to one of them: achieving such an attribution would be a major step in the understanding of the strong interactions.

  9. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.


    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  10. Heavy Flavour Production at LHC: an overview

    Eugenio Bruno Giuseppe


    Full Text Available An overview of experimental results on the production of heavy flavour (charm and bottom hadrons at LHC is presented. Both the open and hidden heavy flavour sectors are covered, with an emphasis on heavy ion collisions.

  11. Heavy-flavour and quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions

    Rossi A.


    Full Text Available The comparison of heavy-flavour hadron production in proton-proton, proton-Pb and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC offers the opportunity to investigate the properties of the high-density colour-deconfined state of strongly-interacting matter (Quark Gluon Plasma, QGP that is expected to be formed in high-energy collisions of heavy nuclei. A review of the main quarkonium and open heavy-flavour results obtained by the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments is presented.

  12. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei

    Theisen, C


    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei.

  13. Heavy quarkonium production and polarization

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Sterman, George


    We present a perturbative QCD factorization formalism for the production of heavy quarkonia of large transverse momentum $p_T$ at collider energies, which includes both the leading power (LP) and next-to-leading power (NLP) contributions to the cross section in the $m_Q^2/p_T^2$ expansion for heavy quark mass $m_Q$. We estimate fragmentation functions in the non-relativistic QCD formalism, and reproduce the bulk of the large enhancement found in explicit NLO calculations in the color singlet model. Heavy quarkonia produced from NLP channels prefer longitudinal polarization.

  14. Observable Heavy Higgs Dark Matter

    Keus, Venus; Moretti, Stefano; Sokolowska, Dorota


    Dark Matter (DM), arising from an Inert Higgs Doublet, may either be light, below the $W$ mass, or heavy, above about 525 GeV. While the light region may soon be excluded, the heavy region is known to be very difficult to probe with either Direct Detection (DD) experiments or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We show that adding a second Inert Higgs Doublet helps to make the heavy DM region accessible to both DD and the LHC, by either increasing its couplings to the observed Higgs boson, or lowering its mass to $360 \\gev \\lesssim m_{DM}$, or both.

  15. Observable heavy Higgs dark matter

    Keus, Venus [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,Gustaf Hallstromin katu 2, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Moretti, Stefano [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Particle Physics Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory,Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sokolowska, Dorota [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Pasteura 5,02-093 Warsaw (Poland)


    Dark Matter (DM), arising from an Inert Higgs Doublet, may either be light, below the W mass, or heavy, above about 525 GeV. While the light region may soon be excluded, the heavy region is known to be very difficult to probe with either Direct Detection (DD) experiments or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We show that adding a second Inert Higgs Doublet helps to make the heavy DM region accessible to both DD and the LHC, by either increasing its couplings to the observed Higgs boson, or lowering its mass to 360 GeV≲m{sub DM}, or both.

  16. Heavy Hybrids: decay to and mixing with Heavy Quarkonium

    Oncala, Rubén


    We report on a recent QCD based research on hybrid mesons containing $c\\bar c$ or $b\\bar b$ quarks. We present results for the spectrum, the decay widths to heavy quarkonium, and the role of mixing with the latter. We point out that mixing with heavy quarkonium provides a potentially large source of spin symmetry breaking. We identify candidates to hybrid mesons among the so called XYZ states in the charmonium and bottomonium spectrum.

  17. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments.

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark


    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely.

  18. Heavy fields and gravity

    Goon, Garrett


    We study the effects of heavy fields on 4D spacetimes with flat, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. At low energies, matter generates specific, calculable higher derivative corrections to the GR action which perturbatively alter the Schwarzschild-( A) dS family of solutions. The effects of massive scalars, Dirac spinors and gauge fields are each considered. The six-derivative operators they produce, such as ˜ R 3 terms, generate the leading corrections. The induced changes to horizon radii, Hawking temperatures and entropies are found. Modifications to the energy of large AdS black holes are derived by imposing the first law. An explicit demonstration of the replica trick is provided, as it is used to derive black hole and cosmological horizon entropies. Considering entropy bounds, it's found that scalars and fermions increase the entropy one can store inside a region bounded by a sphere of fixed size, but vectors lead to a decrease, oddly. We also demonstrate, however, that many of the corrections fall below the resolving power of the effective field theory and are therefore untrustworthy. Defining properties of black holes, such as the horizon area and Hawking temperature, prove to be remarkably robust against higher derivative gravitational corrections.

  19. Decays of heavy quarks

    Rizzo, T G


    The weak decay of heavy b and t quarks is discussed using the mixing angles obtained in Fritzsch's model (1978). The author finds that the decay b to c dominates over b to u for 7

  20. Heavy Fields and Gravity

    Goon, Garrett


    We study the effects of heavy fields on 4D spacetimes with flat, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. At low energies, matter generates specific, calculable higher derivative corrections to the GR action which perturbatively alter the Schwarzschild-$(A)dS$ family of solutions. The effects of massive scalars, Dirac spinors and gauge fields are each considered. The six-derivative operators they produce, such as $\\sim R^{3}$ terms, generate the leading corrections. The induced changes to horizon radii, Hawking temperatures and entropies are found. Modifications to the energy of large $AdS$ black holes are derived by imposing the first law. An explicit demonstration of the replica trick is provided, as it is used to derive black hole and cosmological horizon entropies. Considering entropy bounds, it's found that scalars and fermions increase the entropy one can store inside a region bounded by a sphere of fixed size, but vectors lead to a decrease, oddly. We also demonstrate, however, that many of the correc...

  1. Heavy Flavor Production in Heavy Ion Collisions at CMS

    Sun, Jian


    Studies of Heavy flavor production are of great interest in heavy ion collisions. In the produced medium, the binding potential between a quark and antiquark in quarkonium is screened by surrounding light quarks and antiquarks. Thus, the various quarkonium states are expected to be melt at different temperatures depending on their binding energies, which allows us to characterize the QCD phase transition. In addition, open heavy flavor production are relevant for flavor-dependence of the in-medium parton energy loss. In QCD, gluons are expected to lose more energy compared to quarks when passing through the QGP due to the larger color charge. Compared to light quarks, heavy quarks are expected to lose less radiative energy because gluon radiation is suppressed at angles smaller than the ratio of the quark mass to its energy. This dead cone effect (and its disappearance at high transverse momentum) can be studied using open heavy flavor mesons and heavy flavor tagged jets. With CMS detector, quarkonia, open he...

  2. Heavy flavour production at LHCb

    Barsuk, Sergey


    The present write-up reports recent LHCb results on production of quarkonium and open flavour states, as well as selected results on associated production, central exclusive production and pro- duction in heavy ion collisions.

  3. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang


    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding progressive resistance training during adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of developing breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Furthermore, no studies have investigated the safety of resistance training with heavy loads (> 80% 1 repetition maximum...

  4. Viscoelastic properties of heavy oils

    Rojas Luces, Maria Alejandra

    Rheological low frequency measurements were carried out to analyze the viscoelastic properties of four heavy oil samples. At room conditions, the heavy oil samples exhibit non-Newtonian or viscoelastic behavior since they have a viscous component and an elastic component. The latter becomes very important for temperatures below 30°C, and for seismic to ultrasonic frequencies. Above this temperature, the viscous component increases significantly in comparison to the elastic component, and for seismic frequencies heavy oils can be considered as Newtonian fluids. A new viscosity model based on the concept of activation energy was derived to predict viscosity in terms of frequency and temperature for temperatures below 60°C. A new frequency-temperature dispersion model was derived to address the variation of the complex shear modulus (G*) with frequency and temperature for the heavy oil samples. This model fits the data well for seismic and sonic frequencies but it overpredicts G* at ultrasonic frequencies.

  5. Status of Heavy Neutrino Experiments

    Wynne, Benjamin; The ATLAS collaboration


    The observation of neutrino oscillations raises the possibility that there exist additional, undiscovered high-mass neutrinos, giving mass to Standard Model neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism. By pushing the collider energy frontier at the LHC, the possibility arises that these heavy neutrinos may be produced and identified. We summarise the latest LHC results of searches for heavy neutrinos in a variety of final states.

  6. Heavy flavour results from ATLAS

    Bell P. J.


    Full Text Available A selection of heavy-flavour physics results from the ATLAS experiment is presented, based on data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC during 2010. Differential cross-sections for the production of heavy flavours, charmonium and bottomonium states and D-mesons are presented and compared to various theoretical models. Results of B-hadron lifetime measurements are also reported.

  7. Phenomenology of heavy quark systems

    Gilman, F.J.


    The spectroscopy of heavy quark systems is examined with regards to spin independent and spin dependent potentials. It is shown that a qualitative picture exists of the spin-independent forces, and that a semi-quantitative understanding exists for the spin-dependent effects. A brief review is then given of the subject of the decays of hadrons containing heavy quarks, including weak decays at the quark level, and describing corrections to the spectator model. (LEW)

  8. Heavy smoking and liver

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi


    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necroinflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes.Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis.Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with supression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache,fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling sensation

  9. Disentangling heavy flavor at colliders

    Ilten, Philip; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike


    We propose two new analysis strategies for studying charm and beauty quarks at colliders. The first strategy is aimed at testing the kinematics of heavy-flavor quarks within an identified jet. Here, we use the SoftDrop jet-declustering algorithm to identify two subjets within a large-radius jet, using subjet flavor tagging to test the heavy-quark splitting functions of QCD. For subjets containing a J /ψ or ϒ , this declustering technique can also help probe the mechanism for quarkonium production. The second strategy is aimed at isolating heavy-flavor production from gluon splitting. Here, we introduce a new FlavorCone algorithm, which smoothly interpolates from well-separated heavy-quark jets to the gluon-splitting regime where jets overlap. Because of its excellent ability to identify charm and beauty hadrons, the LHCb detector is ideally suited to pursue these strategies, though similar measurements should also be possible at ATLAS and CMS. Together, these SoftDrop and FlavorCone studies should clarify a number of aspects of heavy-flavor physics at colliders, and provide crucial information needed to improve heavy-flavor modeling in parton-shower generators.

  10. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.


    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  11. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    Falk, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy


    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Suppression and Two-Particle Correlations of Heavy Mesons in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Bass, Steffen A.


    We study the medium modification of heavy quarks produced in heavy-ion collisions. The evolution of heavy quarks inside the QGP is described using a modified Langevin framework that simultaneously incorporates their collisional and radiative energy loss. Within this framework, we provide good descriptions of the heavy meson suppression and predictions for the two-particle correlation functions of heavy meson pairs.

  13. Heavy quarkonium photoproduction in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    Yu, Gong-Ming; Cai, Yang-Bing; Li, Yun-De; Wang, Jian-Song


    Based on the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD), we calculate the production cross section for the charmonium [J /ψ , ψ (2 S ) , χc J, ηc, and hc] and the bottomonium [Υ (n S ) , χb J, ηb, and hb] produced by the hard photoproduction processes and fragmentation processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is shown that the existing experimental data on heavy quarkonium production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be described in the framework of the NRQCD formalism, and the phenomenological values of matrix elements for color-singlet and color-octet components give the main contribution. The numerical results of photoproduction processes and fragmentation processes for the heavy quarkonium production become prominent in p -p collisions and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies.

  14. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S


    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  15. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Beuter, W.


    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  16. Relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Bhalerao, Rajeev S


    The field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is introduced to the high-energy physics students with no prior knowledge in this area. The emphasis is on the two most important observables, namely the azimuthal collective flow and jet quenching, and on the role fluid dynamics plays in the interpretation of the data. Other important observables described briefly are constituent quark number scaling, ratios of particle abundances, strangeness enhancement, and sequential melting of heavy quarkonia. Comparison is made of some of the basic heavy-ion results obtained at LHC with those obtained at RHIC. Initial findings at LHC which seem to be in apparent conflict with the accumulated RHIC data are highlighted.

  17. Timescales in heavy ion collisions

    Lisa, Mike


    The study of high energy collisions between heavy nuclei is a field unto itself, distinct from nuclear and particle physics. A defining aspect of heavy ion physics is the importance of a bulk, self-interacting system with a rich space-time substructure. I focus on the issue of timescales in heavy ion collisions, starting with proof from low-energy collisions that femtoscopy can, indeed, measure very long timescales. I then discuss the relativistic case, where detailed measurements over three orders of magnitude in energy reveal a timescale increase that might be due to a first-order phase transition. I discuss also consistency in evolution timescales as determined from traditional longitudinal sizes and a novel analysis using shape information.

  18. Does climate have heavy tails?

    Bermejo, Miguel; Mudelsee, Manfred


    When we speak about a distribution with heavy tails, we are referring to the probability of the existence of extreme values will be relatively large. Several heavy-tail models are constructed from Poisson processes, which are the most tractable models. Among such processes, one of the most important are the Lévy processes, which are those process with independent, stationary increments and stochastic continuity. If the random component of a climate process that generates the data exhibits a heavy-tail distribution, and if that fact is ignored by assuming a finite-variance distribution, then there would be serious consequences (in the form, e.g., of bias) for the analysis of extreme values. Yet, it appears that it is an open question to what extent and degree climate data exhibit heavy-tail phenomena. We present a study about the statistical inference in the presence of heavy-tail distribution. In particular, we explore (1) the estimation of tail index of the marginal distribution using several estimation techniques (e.g., Hill estimator, Pickands estimator) and (2) the power of hypothesis tests. The performance of the different methods are compared using artificial time-series by means of Monte Carlo experiments. We systematically apply the heavy tail inference to observed climate data, in particular we focus on time series data. We study several proxy and directly observed climate variables from the instrumental period, the Holocene and the Pleistocene. This work receives financial support from the European Commission (Marie Curie Initial Training Network LINC, No. 289447, within the 7th Framework Programme).

  19. Heavy flavour production at CMS

    Negro, Giulia


    Three recent results in heavy flavour production at the CMS experiment are addressed in this report. Measurements of the differential production cross sections of B hadron and quarkonium states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV are presented. These are important tools to investigate heavy-quark production mechanisms in QCD. The dependences on transverse momentum and rapidity are investigated and comparisons with theory expectations and among different collision energies are provided. Also the new observation of $\\Upsilon(1S)\\Upsilon(1S)$ production is reported.

  20. Spontaneous emission of heavy clusters

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M. (Central Inst. of Physics, Bucharest (Romania)); Sandulescu, A. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)); Greiner, W. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.))


    The lifetimes of some heavy nuclei relative to the spontaneous emission of various clusters heavier than the alpha particle are estimated with a model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay, showing that this phenomenon is a new manifestation of the nuclear shell structure. A greater probability is obtained for parent-heavy-cluster combinations leading to a magic or almost magic daughter nucleus. The analytical formula obtained allows the handling of a large number of cases to search for new kinds of radioactivities.

  1. Open Heavy Flavor Measurements in Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    Sun, Jian


    The measurement of heavy flavor production is a powerful tool to study the properties of the high-density QCD medium created in heavy-ion collisions as heavy quarks are sensitive to the transport properties of the medium and may interact with the matter differently than light quarks. Heavy flavor jets, non-prompt J / ψ (J / ψ from B-hadron decay) and fully reconstructed B mesons have been studied in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV with CMS. Recently, the nuclear modification factor of prompt D0 mesons has been measured in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV with CMS as a function of both transverse momentum and collision centrality. These studies show that prompt D0 production is suppressed in semi-central to central PbPb collisions and the suppression is smaller at high pT. A comparison with the RAA of charged particle and non-prompt J / ψ hints a hierarchy of suppression as a function of flavor.

  2. Experiment on the melting pressure of spin polarized He3

    Chapellier, M.; Olsen, M.; Rasmussen, Finn Berg


    In liquid He in a Pomeranchuk cell, the melting curve has been observed to be suppressed, presumably in regions with a strong local spin polarization. In the temperature range 30-50 mK the observed suppression was 60-80 kPa. The corresponding local polarization is estimated, in a crude model, to ...

  3. Spin Relaxation in Hyperpolarized He-3 Fermi Liquids

    Stanton, Liam; Bedell, Kevin


    In the past few years, attention has been drawn towards the hyperpolarized gases of Xenon-129 and Helium-3 isotopes. Medical research has explored the possibilities of using these isotopes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs in both human and animal test subjects. Because the atoms of hyperpolarized gas are forced into a specific spin state, the MRI signal is enhanced. While the spin relaxation times of Helium-3 can be calculated in the high and low temperature limits, there exists no exact analytic solution for intermediate temperatures. The intention of this research was to numerically connect these limits with an accurate approximation. To do this, various analytic and numerical methods were used to reduce the spin relaxation time to a function of temperature, chemical potential, and particle number. Additional numerical methods were then used to calculate the chemical potential of Helium-3. The data show that a minimum occurs in the spin relaxation time at the order of the Fermi temperature, after which the classical limit is rapidly approached. These computational results seem to coincide with those expected.

  4. Heavy flavour production at HERA

    Brugnera Riccardo


    Full Text Available In this brief review, recent experimental results from the H1 and ZEUS collaborations on heavy flavour production in deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction regimes are summarized. The results cover charm fragmentation fractions, charm and beauty cross sections, F2cc̄ and F2bb̄ proton structure functions and the running charm- and beauty-quark masses.

  5. Heavy and light meson wavefunctions

    Wu, Xing-Gang


    We present a short review on the properties of heavy and light mesons' light-cone wavefunctions (LCWFs), and their distribution amplitudes (DAs). The B meson LCWFs can be treated by taking the heavy quark limit ($m_b\\to\\infty$) and by using the heavy quark effective theory (HQET). Using the relations between 2- and 3- particle WFs derived from the QCD equations of motion and constraints from the heavy quark symmetry, one can obtain their transverse momentum dependence up to next-to-leading order in Fock state expansion. Furthermore, we propose a simple model for B meson WFs with 3-particle Fock states' contributions, whose behaviors are controlled by two parameters $\\bar\\Lambda$ and $\\delta$. Using such model, the form factors $F^{B\\to\\pi}_{+,0,T}$ and $F^{B\\to K}_{+,0,T}$ in large recoil region are studied up to ${\\cal O}(1/m_b^2)$ within the $k_T$ factorization approach. When $\\bar\\Lambda\\in [0.50,0.55]$ and $\\delta\\in[0.25,0.30]$, the results of $F^{B\\to\\pi}_{+,0,T}(Q^2)$ and $F^{B\\to K}_{+,0,T}(Q^2)$ are ...

  6. Heavy quark spectroscopy at LHCb



    The analysis of $3.0 fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector has yielded a broad range of results in spectroscopy of conventional and exotic hadrons with heavy quark(s) inside. We review the LHCb results which have been obtained over the last year.


    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Acute toxicity of heavy metals is a rare phenomenon in nature but the intake of sub-‐lethal doses over an extended ... protein (14-40 %), potassium, iron, calcium, sodium .... Lead and chromium were not ..... combined treatments of nickel and.

  8. Heavy Neutrinos at Future Colliders

    Dev, P S Bhupal


    We discuss the current status and future prospects of heavy neutrino searches at the energy frontier, which might play an important role in vindicating the simplest seesaw paradigm as the new physics responsible for neutrino mass generation. After summarizing the current search limits and potential improvements at hadron colliders, we highlight the unparalleled sensitivities achievable in the clean environment of future lepton colliders.

  9. Heavy-Quark QCD Exotica

    Lebed, Richard F; Swanson, Eric S


    This review presents an overview of the remarkable progress in the field of heavy-quark exotic hadrons over the past 15 years. It seeks to be pedagogical rather than exhaustive, summarizing both the progress and specific results of experimental discoveries, and the variety of theoretical approaches designed to explain these new states.

  10. Workshop on heavy hadron spectroscopy


    The recent developments in heavy hadron spectroscopy at LHCb have shown that LHCb has a unique potential in the field, combining hadronic production mechanisms to a powerful identification system. In this short workshop we focus on the recent results from LHCb and theoretical developments with attention to the future perspectives, in the context of the potential of current and future experiments.

  11. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    Fynbo, Lars


    on the interviewee’s risk behaviour, especially in relation to driving. The interviewees are first divided into 1) a group of young “edgeworkers” with pronounced general risk behaviour, 2) a group of middle-aged “post-edgeworkers”, most with criminal records, and 3) a group of middle-aged and older heavy consumers...

  12. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.


    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  13. Heavy quark physics from LEP

    Dornan, P.J. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)


    A review of some of the latest results on heavy flavor physics from the LEP Collaborations is presented. The emphasis is on B physics, particularly new results and those where discrepancies is given of the many techniques which have been developed to permit these analyses.

  14. Heavy metals in Mindhola river estuary, India

    Zingde, M.D.; Rokade, M.A; Mandalia, A

    The heavy metal concentrations are studied along the Mindhola river estuary. Surface and bottom water samples were collected using Niskin Sampler. The sediment samples were collected using a Van Veen grab. The heavy metal concentration is estimated...

  15. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    Faju, M.R.


    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (ACR)

  16. How to Lift a Heavy Object?



    <正>Many people hurt their backs when they try to lift heavy things from the floor. It is easy to hurt your back muscles when you pick up a heavy object. However, there is a correct way to lift things from the floor. If you pick up big or heavy objects correctly, you probably will not hurt your back.

  17. 21 CFR 131.150 - Heavy cream.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy cream. 131.150 Section 131.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.150 Heavy cream. (a) Description. Heavy cream is cream which contains not less than 36 percent milkfat. It is pasteurized or...

  18. Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas


    We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  19. Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons

    Faller, Sven, E-mail:; Mannel, Thomas, E-mail:


    We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  20. Light-Quark Decays in Heavy Hadrons

    Faller, Sven


    We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed) where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. Theses decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays are interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  1. Recent progress in heavy ion sources

    Clark, D.J.


    A summary is given of the progress during the last several years in the technology of sources of high charge state positive heavy ions and negative heavy ions. Subjects covered include recent results in ECR and EBIS source development and comparison of various source types for high charge state heavy ions.

  2. ``Heavy-water Lattice and Heavy-Quark''

    Maksoed, Ssi, Wh-

    Refer to Birgitt Roettger-Roessler: ``Feelings at the Margins'', 2014 retrieved the Vienna, 2006 UNIDO Research Programme: Combating Marginalization and Poverty through Industrial Development/COMPID. Also from Vienna, on Feb 18-22, 1963 reported Technical Report Series 20 about ``Heavy Water Lattice''. Failed to relates scale-invariant properties of public-Debt growth to convergence in perturbation theory, sought JH Field: ``Convergence & Gauge Dependence Properties:..''. Furthers, in GP Lepage: ``On the Viabilities of Lattice Perturbation Theory'', 1992 stated: ``in terms of physical quantities, like the heavy-quark potential, greatly enhanced the predictive power of lattice perturbation theory''. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  3. Heavy ions: Report from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Sonia Kabana


    We review selected highlights from the experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) exploring the QCD phase diagram. A wealth of new results appeared recently from RHIC due to major recent upgrades, like for example the $\\Upsilon$ suppression in central nucleus-nucleus collisions which has been discovered recently in both RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, we discuss RHIC results from the beam energy scan (BES) program aiming to search for a possible critical point and to map out the QCD phase diagram.

  4. Heavy-heavy-light-light correlators in Liouville theory

    Balasubramanian, V.; Bernamonti, A.; Craps, B.; De Jonckheere, T.; Galli, F.


    We compute four-point functions of two heavy and two "perturbatively heavy" operators in the semiclassical limit of Liouville theory on the sphere. We obtain these "Heavy-Heavy-Light-Light" (HHLL) correlators to leading order in the conformal weights of the light insertions in two ways: (a) via a path integral approach, combining different methods to evaluate correlation functions from complex solutions for the Liouville field, and (b) via the conformal block expansion. This latter approach identifies an integral over the continuum of normalizable states and a sum over an infinite tower of lighter discrete states, whose contribution we extract by analytically continuing standard results to our HHLL setting. The sum over this tower reproduces the sum over those complex saddlepoints of the path integral that contribute to the correlator. Our path integral computations reveal that when the two light operators are inserted at equal time in radial quantization, the leading-order HHLL correlator is independent of their separation, and more generally that at this order there is no short-distance singularity as the two light operators approach each other. The conformal block expansion likewise shows that in the discrete sum short-distance singularities are indeed absent for all intermediate states that contribute. In particular, the Virasoro vacuum block, which would have been singular at short distances, is not exchanged. The separation-independence of equal-time correlators is due to cancelations between the discrete contributions. These features lead to a Lorentzian singularity that, in conformal theories with anti-de Sitter (AdS) duals, would be associated to locality below the AdS scale.

  5. Heavy flavour production at CMS in heavy ion collisions

    Nguyen, Matthew


    We review recent results relating to beauty production in heavy-ion collisions, in both the closed and open heavy flavor sectors, from the CMS experiment at the LHC. The sequential suppression of the ° states in PbPb collisions is thought to be evidence of the dissociation of quarkonia bound states in deconfined matter. Data from pPb collisions demonstrate that while cold nuclear effects appear to be subdominant in minimum bias collisions, there exists a non-trivial dependence on collision multiplicity that remains to be understood. The suppression of high p T particles in heavy-ion collisions, relative to the expectation from pp collisions, is typically interpreted in terms of energy loss of hard scattered parton in the dense nuclear medium. The flavor dependence of the energy loss may be accessed via measurements of b hadrons and b-tagged jets. Measurement of B mesons, via non-prompt J = y , at relatively low p T indicate a smaller suppression factor than D meson or inclusive charged hadrons. Data on b jet...

  6. RHIC heavy ion operations performance

    Satogata, T; Ferrone, R; Pilat, F


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) completed its fifth year of operation in 2005, colliding copper ion beams with ps=200 GeV/u and 62.4 GeV/u[1]. Previous heavy ion runs have collided gold ions at ps=130 GeV/u, 200 GeV/u, and 62.4 GeV/u[2], and deuterons and gold ions at ps=200 GeV/u[3]. This paper discusses operational performance statistics of this facility, including Cu- Cu delivered luminosity, availability, calendar time spent in physics stores, and time between physics stores. We summarize the major factors affecting operations efficiency, and characterize machine activities between physics stores.

  7. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Preis, Florian


    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  8. Semiholography for heavy ion collisions

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan


    The formation of QGP in heavy ion collisions gives us a great opportunity for learning about nonperturbative dynamics of QCD. Semiholography provides a new consistent framework to combine perturbative and non-perturbative effects in a coherent way and can be applied to obtain an effective description for heavy ion collisions. In particular, it allows us to include nonperturbative effects in existing glasma effective theory and QCD kinetic theory for the weakly coupled saturated degrees of freedom liberated by the collisions in the initial stages in a consistent manner. We argue why the full framework should be able to confront experiments with only a few phenomenological parameters and present feasibility tests for the necessary numerical computations. Furthermore, we discuss that semiholography leads to a new description of collective flow in the form of a generalised non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss some open questions which we hope to answer in the near future.

  9. Heavy spin-2 Dark Matter

    Babichev, Eugeny; Raidal, Martti; Schmidt-May, Angnis; Urban, Federico; Veermäe, Hardi; von Strauss, Mikael


    We provide further details on a recent proposal addressing the nature of the dark sectors in cosmology and demonstrate that all current observations related to Dark Matter can be explained by the presence of a heavy spin-2 particle. Massive spin-2 fields and their gravitational interactions are uniquely described by ghost-free bimetric theory, which is a minimal and natural extension of General Relativity. In this setup, the largeness of the physical Planck mass is naturally related to extremely weak couplings of the heavy spin-2 field to baryonic matter and therefore explains the absence of signals in experiments dedicated to Dark Matter searches. It also ensures the phenomenological viability of our model as we confirm by comparing it with cosmological and local tests of gravity. At the same time, the spin-2 field possesses standard gravitational interactions and it decays universally into all Standard Model fields but not into massless gravitons. Matching the measured DM abundance together with the require...

  10. QCD Radiation off Heavy Particles

    Norrbin, E


    We study QCD radiation in decay processes involving heavy particles. As input, the first-order gluon emission rate is calculated in a number of reactions, and comparisons of the energy flow patterns show a non-negligible process dependence. To proceed further, the QCD parton shower language offers a convenient approach to include multi-gluon emission effects, and to describe exclusive event properties. An existing shower algorithm is extended to take into account the process-dependent mass, spin and parity effects, as given by the matrix element calculations. This allows an improved description of multiple gluon emission effects off b and t quarks, and also off nonstandard particles like squarks and gluinos. Phenomenological applications are presented for bottom production at LEP, Higgs particle decay to heavy flavours, top production and decay at linear colliders, and some simple supersymmetric processes.

  11. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    Harper, J.F.


    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  12. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration


    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the precise measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare FCNC decays is presented.

  13. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    O. N. Korinovskaya


    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  14. Heavy Ion Physics in CMS

    Baur, G; Chatrchyan, Serguei; Contardo, Didier; Damgov, Jordan; De Min, Alberto; Denegri, Daniel; Drapier, Olivier; Geist, Walter; Genchev, Vladimir; Haroutunian, Roger; Hayrapetyan, M G; Hencken, K; Jenkovszky, L L; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Kharlov, Yuri; Kodolova, Olga; Kotlinski, Danek; Kruglov, Nikolai A; Kva, R


    This note summarizes the CMS potential for Heavy Ions Collisions studies. The main physics topic is the study of Y to muon pair decays in view of Y family supression studies, with a detailed discussion of muon reconstruction efficiencies and purities in conditions of central Pb-Pb collisions. We also discuss energy flow and impact parameter measurements, the observability of continuum muon pairs and of Z to mu + mu decays, and of jets and hard direct photons as a means to study jet quenching. We also discuss pA interactions as well as gamma-gamma physics. The instrumental specificities of CMS for heavy ion running are discussed, including trigger and data acquisition aspects.

  15. Central collisions of heavy ions

    Fung, Sun-yiu.


    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  16. Developing Chinese Heavy Truck Industry

    Tang Jintao


    @@ Strong economic recovery=Great opportunity in heavy trucks Based on the four trillion investment expansionary fiscal policy and the loose monetary policy,China's economy is stimulated.Meanwhile,the CITIC Securities Research Dept.estimated that the economic growth will be better than expected in 2009 and 2010.Macro-economic expectations continue to improve and the fix-asset investment growth rate hit a new high level of the recent five years.

  17. Computing for Heavy Ion Physics

    Martinez, G.; Schiff, D.; Hristov, P.; Menaud, J.M.; Hrivnacova, I.; Poizat, P.; Chabratova, G.; Albin-Amiot, H.; Carminati, F.; Peters, A.; Schutz, Y.; Safarik, K.; Ollitrault, J.Y.; Hrivnacova, I.; Morsch, A.; Gheata, A.; Morsch, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Lauret, J.; Nief, J.Y.; Pereira, H.; Kaczmarek, O.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Guernane, R.; Stocco, D.; Gruwe, M.; Betev, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Rapp, B.; Masoni, A.; Stoicea, G.; Brun, R


    This workshop was devoted to the computational technologies needed for the heavy quarkonia and open flavor production study at LHC (large hadron collider) experiments. These requirements are huge: peta-bytes of data will be generated each year. Analysing this will require the equivalent of a few thousands of today's fastest PC processors. The new developments in terms of dedicated software has been addressed. This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the workshop.

  18. Progress Toward Heavy Ion IFE

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G; Waldron, W L; Sabbi, G L; Callahan-Miller, D A; Peterson, P F; Goodin, D T


    Successful development of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) will require scientific and technology advances in areas of targets, drivers and chambers. Design work on heavy ion targets indicates that high gain (60-130) may be possible with a -3-6 MJ driver depending on the ability to focus the beams to small spot sizes. Significant improvements have been made on key components of heavy ion drivers, including sources, injectors, insulators and ferromagnetic materials for long-pulse induction accelerator cells, solid-state pulsers, and superconducting quadrupole magnets. The leading chamber concept for HIF is the thick-liquid-wall HYLEE-II design, which uses an array of flibe jets to protect chamber structures from x-ray, debris, and neutron damage. Significant progress has been made in demonstrating the ability to create and control the types of flow needed to form the protective liquid blanket. Progress has also been made on neutron shielding for the final focus magnet arrays with predicted lifetimes now exceeding the life of the power plant. Safety analyses have been completed for the HYLEE-II design using state-of-the-art codes. Work also continues on target fabrication and injection for HE. A target injector experiment capable of > 5 Hz operation has been designed and construction will start in 2002. Methods for mass production of hohlraum targets are being evaluated with small-scale experiments and analyses. Progress in these areas will be reviewed.

  19. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing


    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  20. Morphometric studies of heavy ion damage in the brains of rodents

    Kraft, L. M.; Cox, A. B.


    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of different heavy ions for the mammalian brain was determined in mice irradiated at 100 days of age with He-4, C-12, Ne-20, Fe-56, Ar-40, or Co-60 gamma photons (with the primary particle LET values ranging from 2 to 650). Brain preparations were examined 16 months later for volume changes in the external plexiform layer (P-zone) of the olfactory bulb and an internal region (G-zone), which consists of the granule cells, the internal plexiform layer, and the mitral cell layer. The result indicate that the volume changes did occur in the olfactory bulb, not only in absolute terms but also when expressed as the ratio of the structures to each other and to the bulb as a whole. While the observed increased neuronal loss in mice receiving 700 cGy of Co-60 support the earlier data from irradiated rabbits, the increases observed in bulbar volumes and in the volume ratios of the P and the G zones measured in the mice given lower doses (320 or 160 cGy of He or C), were not expected.

  1. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo


    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  2. Alpha radioactivity in heavy and super heavy elements

    Santhosh, K.P. [P G Department of Physics and Research Centre, Payyanur College, Payyanur 670 327 (India)], E-mail:; Sahadevan, Sabina; Biju, R.K. [P G Department of Physics and Research Centre, Payyanur College, Payyanur 670 327 (India)


    The alpha decay half lives and other characteristics of 190 even-even super heavy elements in the range 100{<=}Z{<=}120 has been determined within the Coulomb and Proximity Potential Model (CPPM). The computed Q values and log{sub 10}(T{sub 1/2}) values plotted against neutron number of parent nuclei were studied and it was found that neutron shell closures in the super heavy region occur at N=162 and N=184. The alpha decay half lives for parent nuclei with atomic number Z=106 onwards were compared with experimental data and are found to be in good agreement with each other. A semi-empirical formula for alpha decay half lives has been formulated by making least squares fit to the available experimental data. The new semi-empirical formula was used for calculating half lives of isotopes of nuclei in the chosen range 100{<=}Z{<=}120. These results when compared with the corresponding experimental half life values and the values calculated using GLDM and Viola-Seaborg systematics showed good agreement.

  3. Heavy metals in plants and phytoremediation.

    Cheng, Shuiping


    In some cases, soil, water and food are heavily polluted by heavy metals in China. To use plants to remediate heavy metal pollution would be an effective technique in pollution control. The accumulation of heavy metals in plants and the role of plants in removing pollutants should be understood in order to implement phytoremediation, which makes use of plants to extract, transfer and stabilize heavy metals from soil and water. The information has been compiled from Chinese publications stemming mostly from the last decade, to show the research results on heavy metals in plants and the role of plants in controlling heavy metal pollution, and to provide a general outlook of phytoremediation in China. Related references from scientific journals and university journals are searched and summarized in sections concerning the accumulation of heavy metals in plants, plants for heavy metal purification and phytoremediation techniques. Plants can take up heavy metals by their roots, or even via their stems and leaves, and accumulate them in their organs. Plants take up elements selectively. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the plant depends on the plant species, element species, chemical and bioavailiability, redox, pH, cation exchange capacity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and secretion of roots. Plants are employed in the decontamination of heavy metals from polluted water and have demonstrated high performances in treating mineral tailing water and industrial effluents. The purification capacity of heavy metals by plants are affected by several factors, such as the concentration of the heavy metals, species of elements, plant species, exposure duration, temperature and pH. Phytoremediation, which makes use of vegetation to remove, detoxify, or stabilize persistent pollutants, is a green and environmentally-friendly tool for cleaning polluted soil and water. The advantage of high biomass productive and easy disposal makes plants most useful to remediate


    Sivoklokov, S; The ATLAS collaboration


    The production of heavy flavours at LHC provides an opportunity for new insight into QCD. ATLAS detector provides data at higher transverse momenta and wider rapidity ranges than have previously been studied. Both Charmonia and Bottomonia production cross-section have been measured in proton-proton collisions at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV as a function of transverse momemtum and rapidity. Exclusive B and D meson states have been also reconstructed. Results are compared to theoretical predictions of various QCD models.

  5. Heavy consumption and drink driving

    Fynbo, Lars


    on the interviewee’s risk behaviour, especially in relation to driving. The interviewees are first divided into 1) a group of young “edgeworkers” with pronounced general risk behaviour, 2) a group of middle-aged “post-edgeworkers”, most with criminal records, and 3) a group of middle-aged and older heavy consumers...... with a more comprehensive approach towards drinking. In this paper focus is on the younger edgeworkers and post-edgeworkers, to which alcohol seems to play lesser role and is often mixed with other drugs as part of a wider scope of seeking excitement from risky behaviour....

  6. The Toledo heavy ion accelerator

    Haar, R.R. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Beideck, D.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Curtis, L.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Kvale, T.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Sen, A. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Schectman, R.M. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)); Stevens, H.W. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States))


    The recently installed 330 kV electrostatic positive ion accelerator at the University of Toledo is described. Experiments have been performed using ions ranging from H[sup +] to Hg[sup 2+] and exotic molecules such as HeH[sup +]. Most of these experiments involve the beam-foil studies of the lifetimes of excited atomic states and the apparatus used for these experiments is also described. Another beamline is available for ion-implantation. The Toledo heavy ion accelerator facility welcomes outside users. (orig.)

  7. Discovery of Interstellar Heavy Water

    Butner, H. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Ceccarelli, C.; Rodgers, S.D.; Pardo Carrión, Juan Ramón; Parise, B.; Cernicharo, José; Davis, G. R.


    We report the discovery of doubly deuterated water (D2O, heavy water) in the interstellar medium. Using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10 m telescope, we detected the 1_10–1_01 transition of para-D2O at 316.7998 GHz in both absorption and emission toward the protostellar binary system IRAS 16293-2422. Assuming that the D2O exists primarily in the warm regions where water ices have been evaporated (i.e., in a "hot corino" environment), we determi...

  8. Spectroscopy of heavy fissionable nuclei

    S K Tandel


    Structural studies of heavy nuclei are quite challenging due to increased competition from fission, particularly at high spins. Nuclei in the actinide region exhibit a variety of interesting phenomena. Recent advances in instrumentation and analysis techniques have made feasible sensitive measurements of nuclei populated with quite low cross-sections. These include isomers and rotational band structures in isotopes of Pu ( = 94) to Rf ( = 104), and octupole correlations in the Th ( = 90) region. The obtained experimental data have provided insights on various aspects like moments of inertia and nucleon alignments at high spins, quasiparticle energies and evolution of quadrupole and octupole collectivity, among others. An overview of some of these results is presented.

  9. Biomolecules for removal of heavy metal.

    Singh, Namita Ashish


    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but some heavy metals like cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic etc. are injurious to living organisms at higher concentration. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have altered geochemical cycles and biochemical balance of heavy metals. Biomolecules are used nowadays for removal of heavy metals compared to other synthetic biosorbents due to their environmental friendly nature and cost effectiveness. The goal of this work is to review research work and patents related to adsorption through biomolecules like polysaccharides, polypeptides, lignin etc. and bio-sorption by biological material that are used for heavy metal removal. Biomolecules are cost effective and there have been significant progresses in the remediation of heavy metals but, still there are some problems that need to be rectified for its application at industrial processes.

  10. Matching the Heavy Vector Meson Theory

    Bijnens, J; Talavera, P


    We show how to obtain a ``heavy'' meson effective lagrangian for the case where the number of heavy particles is not conserved. We apply the method in a simple example at tree level and perform then the reduction for the case of vector mesons in Chiral Perturbation Theory in a manifestly chiral invariant fashion. Some examples showing that ``heavy'' meson effective theory also works at the one-loop level are included.

  11. Light-quark decays in heavy hadrons

    Sven Faller


    Full Text Available We consider weak decays of heavy hadrons (bottom and charmed where the heavy quark acts as a spectator. These decays are heavily phase-space suppressed but may become experimentally accessible in the near future. These decays may be interesting as a QCD laboratory to study the behaviour of the light quarks in the colour-background field of the heavy spectator.

  12. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick


    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  13. Heavy ion physics at the LHC

    Schükraft, Jürgen


    The field of ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics, which started some 15 years ago at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS with fixed target experiments, is entering today a new era with the recent start-up of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider RHIC and preparations well under way for a new large heavy ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At this crossroads, the article will give a summary of the experimental program and our current view of heavy ion physics at the LHC, concentrating in particular on physics topics that are different or unique compared to current facilities.

  14. Production of heavy hadrons in hard processes

    Azimov, Ya.I.; Dokshitser, Yu.L.; Troyan, S.I.; Khoze, V.A. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)


    Spectra of heavy hadrons and of leptons produced via decays of the hadrons are treated in the framework of QCD. The distribution of heavy quarks Dsub(Q)(xsub(Q)) is discussed and a single approximation formula for its description is given. The relationship between the spectra of quarks and those of heavy hadrons produced by quarks is considered. The spectra of inclusive leptons resulting from the heavy quarks decay are considered. Possible ways are discussed which allow to compare the data and the theory in such a manner that the phenomenological assumptions do not strongly affect the result.

  15. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Velev Romel


    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  16. Heavy Flavour Electron Elliptic Flow

    Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto

    Due to the large mass of the Charm and Beauty quarks, they are c reated in the very first moments of the ultra-high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions taking place at the CERN LHC, therefore, they should be unaware of the geome try of the colli- sion system and carry no azimuthal anisotropies. Similarly , the energy loss via gluon radiation for these massive quarks should be suppressed, th e so-called dead cone ef- fect. Although the observation of elliptic flow in the electro ns produced through the semileptonic decay of these heavy mesons is an indirect meas urement, throughout this thesis it will be shown that a strong correlation exists between the momentum anisotropy of the mother and daughter particles. In the low t ransverse momentum region such measurement would establish whether or not the s ystem reaches local thermal equilibrium. While at large transverse momentum, t he observation of collec- tivity for the heavy flavours can be understood only if the col lisional and radiative in-medium interaction...

  17. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  18. Heavy spin-2 Dark Matter

    Babichev, Eugeny [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay (France); UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Schmidt-May, Angnis [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Urban, Federico; Veermäe, Hardi [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Strauss, Mikael von [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)


    We provide further details on a recent proposal addressing the nature of the dark sectors in cosmology and demonstrate that all current observations related to Dark Matter can be explained by the presence of a heavy spin-2 particle. Massive spin-2 fields and their gravitational interactions are uniquely described by ghost-free bimetric theory, which is a minimal and natural extension of General Relativity. In this setup, the largeness of the physical Planck mass is naturally related to extremely weak couplings of the heavy spin-2 field to baryonic matter and therefore explains the absence of signals in experiments dedicated to Dark Matter searches. It also ensures the phenomenological viability of our model as we confirm by comparing it with cosmological and local tests of gravity. At the same time, the spin-2 field possesses standard gravitational interactions and it decays universally into all Standard Model fields but not into massless gravitons. Matching the measured DM abundance together with the requirement of stability constrains the spin-2 mass to be in the 1 to 100 TeV range.

  19. Heavy Ion Physics at CMS

    Veres, Gabor


    In the present proceedings recent heavy ion results from the Compact Muon Solenoid collaboration at the LHC are presented. These contain comparisons between small and large collision systems, as well as studies of energy evolution, thus include data collected in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV (2015 and 2016), proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at 5 TeV (2015), and proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV and 8 TeV (2016) center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair. They provide new insights into the properties of the extremely high density and high temperature matter created in heavy ion collisions, while pointing out similarities and differences in comparison to smaller collision systems. These include gluon distribution functions in the lead nucleus; the azimuthal anisotropy of final state particle distributions in all the three different collision systems; charge separation signals from proton-lead collisions and consequences for the Chiral Magnetic Effect; new studies of parton energy loss and its dependence on...

  20. Open heavy-flavor production and suppression in heavy-ion collisions

    Nahrgang, Marlene


    Heavy-flavor observables are valuable probes of the quark-gluon plasma, which is expected to be produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. These experiments offer the unique opportunity to study strongly interacting matter at high temperatures and densities in the laboratory. In this overview talk I will summarize the current theoretical status of heavy-flavor production and suppression in heavy-ion collisions and discuss open challenges.

  1. Campground marketing: the heavy-half strategy

    Wilbur F. LaPage


    When we arrayed camping frequencies in order from the lowest to the highest number of days spent camping per year we found that half of the campers do much more than half of the camping. Campers in this heavy half consistently camp more, year after year, and are increasing their annual participation as well. Heavy-half campers have larger investments in camping...

  2. Heavy work investment, personality and organizational climate

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the relative importance of personality and organizational climate for two forms of heavy work investment; workaholism, a “bad” and work engagement, which represents a “good” kind of heavy work investment. More specifically, it is hypothesized that wor

  3. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.


    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  4. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Itzhak Tserruya


    The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics is reviewed with emphasis on new results and highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super proton synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and the AGS at BNL.

  5. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    van Putten EM; IMG


    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  6. Behaviour of heavy metals in soils

    Harmsen, K.


    Fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn extractable with water, a salt solution and dilute acid, and residual fractions were determined in soils with raised contents of heavy metals, near zinc smelters, along a river formerly discharging heavy metals, and in a sewage farm. Special attention was paid

  7. Lattice studies of hadrons with heavy flavors

    Christopher Aubin


    I will discuss recent developments in lattice studies of hadrons composed of heavy quarks. I will mostly cover topics which are at a state of direct comparison with experiment, but will also discuss new ideas and promising techniques to aid future studies of lattice heavy quark physics.

  8. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.


    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  9. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.


    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  10. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    Stack, Steven


    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  11. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine


    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  12. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    Stack, Steven; And Others


    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  13. Probing QED Vacuum with Heavy Ions

    Rafelski, Johann; Müller, Berndt; Reinhardt, Joachim; Greiner, Walter


    We recall how nearly half a century ago the proposal was made to explore the structure of the quantum vacuum using slow heavy-ion collisions. Pursuing this topic we review the foundational concept of spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by observable positron emission in heavy-ion collisions and describe the related theoretical developments in strong fields QED.

  14. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.


    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another adv

  15. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    McGaughey, P.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Quack, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruuskanen, P.V. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)]|[Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)] [and others


    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  16. Recent heavy flavor results from STAR

    Mischke, A.


    We report on recent heavy flavor measurements from the STAR experiment at RHIC[1]. The measured charm cross section in heavy-ion collisions scales with the number of binary collisions, which is an indication for exclusive charm production in the initial state of the collision. The observed strong su

  17. Former heavy drinkers’ multiple narratives of recovery

    Christensen Anne-Sofie


    Full Text Available AIM – This article explores the multiplicity of former heavy drinkers’ narratives. The focus lies on turning points from heavy drinking among people who have recovered through self-change and among those who recovered by participating in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA meetings.

  18. Heavy fuel and LPG; Fioul et GPL

    Philippon, A. [Chambre Syndicale du raffinage, UFIP, 75 - Paris (France)


    This paper analyzes the impact of new French combustion and environment regulations on the market of heavy fuels and on refining. The economical context of the petroleum and heavy fuels market is recalled first and then the future evolution of this market and the future impact of new pollution regulations on the refining industry are briefly analyzed. (J.S.)

  19. Lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions

    Wagenbach, Björn; Wagner, Marc


    We report on a lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions and of tetraquark candidates with two very heavy quarks. These two quarks are treated in the static limit, while the other two are up, down, strange or charm quarks of finite mass. Various isospin, spin and parity quantum numbers are considered.

  20. Lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions

    Wagenbach, Björn; Bicudo, Pedro; Wagner, Marc


    We report on a lattice investigation of heavy meson interactions and of tetraquark candidates with two very heavy quarks. These two quarks are treated in the static limit, while the other two are up, down, strange or charm quarks of finite mass. Various isospin, spin and parity quantum numbers are considered.

  1. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.


    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  2. QCD in heavy ion collisions

    Iancu, Edmond


    These lectures provide a modern introduction to selected topics in the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions which shed light on the fundamental theory of strong interactions, the Quantum Chromodynamics. The emphasis is on the partonic forms of QCD matter which exist in the early and intermediate stages of a collision -- the colour glass condensate, the glasma, and the quark-gluon plasma -- and on the effective theories that are used for their description. These theories provide qualitative and even quantitative insight into a wealth of remarkable phenomena observed in nucleus-nucleus or deuteron-nucleus collisions at RHIC and/or the LHC, like the suppression of particle production and of azimuthal correlations at forward rapidities, the energy and centrality dependence of the multiplicities, the ridge effect, the limiting fragmentation, the jet quenching, or the dijet asymmetry.

  3. Hard rock, heavy metal, metal

    Hein, Fabien


    Le terme générique metal désigne une multitude de genres et de sous-genres musicaux issus de l’appariement du hard rock et du heavy metal. Il résulte d’une agrégation sémantique consécutive de l’érosion et de l’interpénétration de ces termes au cours des années 1980. Leurs modèles canoniques, respectivement représentés par les groupes Led Zeppelin et Black Sabbath, se sont progressivement dilués sous l’effet d’une filiation particulièrement effervescente et féconde : black, thrash, doom, prog...

  4. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka


    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  5. Paleoproxies: Heavy Stable Isotope Perspectives

    Nagler, T. F.; Hippler, D.; Siebert, C.; Kramers, J. D.


    Recent advances in isotope ratio mass spectrometry, namely multiple collector ICP-MS and refined TIMS techniques, will significantly enhance the ability to measure heavy stable isotope fractionation, which will lead to the development of a wide array of process-identifying (bio)-geochemical tools. Thus far research in this area is not easily assessable to scientists outside the isotope field. This is due to the fact that analyzing heavy stable isotopes does not provide routine numbers which are per se true (the preciser the truer) but is still a highly experimental field. On the other hand resolving earth science problems requires specialists familiar with the environment being studied. So what is in there for paleoceanographers? In a first order approach, relating isotope variations to physical processes is straightforward. A prominent example are oxygen isotope variations with temperature. The total geological signal is of course far more complicated. At low temperatures, heavy stable isotopes variations have been reported for e.g. Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo and Tl. Fractionation mechanisms and physical parameters responsible for the observed variations are not yet resolved for most elements. Significant equilibrium isotope fractionation is expected from redox reactions of transition metals. However a difference in coordination number between two coexisting speciations of an element in the same oxidation state can also cause fractionation. Protonation of dissolved Mo is one case currently discussed. For paleoceanography studies, a principal distinction between transition metals essential for life (V to Zn plus Mo) or not will be helpful. In case of the former group, distinction between biogenic and abiogenic isotope fractionation will remain an important issue. For example, abiotic Fe redox reactions result in isotope fractionations indistinguishable in direction and magnitude from microbial effects. Only a combination of different stable isotope systems bears the

  6. Heavy quark physics from SLD

    Messner, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    This report covers preliminary measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 1993-1995 runs. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag is presented. The high electron beam polarization of the SLC is employed in the direct measurement of the parity-violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} by use of the left-right forward-backward asymmetry. The lifetimes of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons have been measured by two analyses. The first identifies semileptonic decays of B mesons with high (p,p{sub t}) leptons; the second analysis isolates a sample of B meson decays with a two-dimensional impact parameter tag and reconstructs the decay length and charge using a topological vertex reconstruction method.


    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.


    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  8. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J


    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  9. Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter

    Das, S. K.; Scardina, F.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.


    Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow v 2 is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible for addressing a large part of such a puzzle along with the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quarks in the medium. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which induces a sizable heavy quark directed flow, v 1(y), that can be measurable at LHC.

  10. Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter

    Das, Santosh K; Plumari, Salvatore; Greco, Vincenzo


    Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ and the elliptic flow $v_2$ is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible to address a large part of such a puzzle along with the the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quark. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which develops a sizable heavy quark directed flow, $v_1(y)$, can be measurable at LHC.

  11. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria


    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed.

  12. Heavy Quark Physics on the Lattice

    Bernard, C


    I review the current status of lattice calculations of the properties of bound states containing one or more heavy quarks. Many of my remarks focus on the heavy-light leptonic decay constants, such as $f_B$, for which the systematic errors have by now been quite well studied. I also discuss $B$-parameters, semileptonic form factors, and the heavy-light and heavy-heavy spectra. Some of my ``world averages'' are: $f_B=200(30) MeV$, $f_B\\sqrt{\\hat B_{B_d}}= 230(40) MeV$, $f_{B_s}/f_B=1.16(4)$ and $f_{B_s}\\sqrt{\\hat B_{B_s}}/f_B\\sqrt{\\hat B_{B_d}}=1.16(5)$.

  13. Heavy meson masses and decay constants from relativistic heavy quarks in full lattice QCD

    McNeile, C; Follana, E; Hornbostel, K; Lepage, G P


    We determine masses and decay constants of heavy-heavy and heavy-charm pseudoscalar mesons as a function of heavy quark mass using a fully relativistic formalism known as Highly Improved Staggered Quarks for the heavy quark. We are able to cover the region from the charm quark mass to the bottom quark mass using MILC ensembles with lattice spacing values from 0.15 fm down to 0.044 fm. We obtain f_{B_c} = 0.427(6) GeV; m_{B_c} = 6.285(10) GeV and f_{\\eta_b} = 0.667(6) GeV. Our value for f_{\\eta_b} is within a few percent of f_{\\Upsilon} confirming that spin effects are surprisingly small for heavyonium decay constants. Our value for f_{B_c} is significantly lower than potential model values being used to estimate production rates at the LHC. We discuss the changing physical heavy-quark mass dependence of decay constants from heavy-heavy through heavy-charm to heavy-strange mesons. A comparison between the three different systems confirms that the B_c system behaves in some ways more like a heavy-light system t...

  14. Helicity probabilities for heavy quark fragmentation into heavy-light excited mesons

    Yuan, T C


    After a brief review on how heavy quark symmetry constraints the helicity fragmentation probabilities for a heavy quark hadronizes into heavy-light hadrons, we present a heavy quark fragmentation model to extract the value for the Falk-Peskin probability w_{3/2} describing the fragmentation of a heavy quark into a heavy-light meson whose light degrees of freedom have angular momentum {3 \\over 2}. We point out that this probability depends on the longitudinal momentum fraction z of the meson and on its transverse momentum p_\\bot relative to the jet axis. In this model, the light degrees of freedom prefer to have their angular momentum aligned transverse to, rather than along, the jet axis. Implications for the production of excited heavy mesons, like D^{**} and B^{**}, are briefly discussed.

  15. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...



    May 8, 2014 ... inorganic products, generating heat as a metabolic waste product. Heavy metal ..... Potencial Bioremediation Agent in Compost Material Contaminated with Heavy .... Toxicity of non-radioactive heavy metals and their salts in ...

  16. Unified description of hadrons and heavy hadron decays

    Kitazawa, N


    We construct an effective Lagrangian which describes interactions of heavy and light hadrons utilizing the chiral flavor symmetry for light quarks and heavy quark symmetry. For both light and heavy sector we include pseudo scalars, vectors and baryons in the Lagrangian. Heavy hadron decays are discussed as application of our formalism. The $D_s$ decay constant and the coupling constant among heavy meson, heavy vector meson and light meson are fitted from the experimental data of $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- e^+\

  17. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste deposits

    Flyhammar, P.


    Extensive use of heavy metals in modern society influences routes followed by fluxes on the surface of the Earth. The changed flow paths may be harmful for the balance of biological systems at different levels, micro-organisms, human beings and whole ecosystems, since the toxicity of heavy metals is determined by their concentrations and chemical forms. Despite the low mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in municipal landfills, it was found that extensive transformations of the binding forms of heavy metal take place within the waste mass during the degradation of the waste. These changes appear to be closely related to the development of early diagenetic solid phases, i.e. new secondary solid phases formed in the waste. The heavy metals often constitute a minor part of these phases and the bindings include several forms such as adsorption, complexation, coprecipitation, precipitation, etc. It was also found that the associations between heavy metals and solid phases are dominated by several binding forms to one specific substrate rather than bindings to various solid phases. The mobility of iron and manganese seems to increase during the processes involved in waste degradation due to the solution of oxide/hydroxide phases, while the heavy metals appear to become less mobile due to their binding to organic compounds and sulphides. However, one exception in this case may be nickel. Another aspect of the transformation of heavy metals is the accumulation of pools of heavy metals which can become susceptible to environmental changes, such as oxidation or acidification. However, the risk of increased mobilization caused by lower pH values seem to be limited since municipal solid waste has a large buffer capacity. 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs 66 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Experimental Search for a Heavy Electron

    Boley, C. D.; Elias, J. E.; Friedman, J. I.; Hartmann, G. C.; Kendall, H. W.; Kirk, P.N.; Sogard, M. R.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.; de Pagter, J. K.


    A search for a heavy electron of the type considered by Low and Blackmon has been made by studying the inelastic scattering of 5 BeV electrons from hydrogen. The search was made over a range of values of the mass of the heavy electron from 100 t0 1300 MeV. No evidence for such a particle was observed. Upper limits on the production cross sections were determined and employed to deducelimits on the values of the electron-photon-heavy electron coupling constant in Low and Blackmon=s theory.


    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk


    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  20. Is Heavy Quark Axion Necessarily Hadronic Axion?

    Chang, Sanghyeon; Kim, Jihn E.


    We show that heavy quark axion is not necessarily a hadronic axion, which manifests in the quark and lepton seesaw mechanism. We introduce a heavy $SU(2)$ singlet fermion for each known fermion in order to unify the axion scale and the seesaw scale. The light quarks and leptons gain their masses by the seesaw mechanism. Even though our axion model gives a kind of heavy quark axion, the axion has tree level lepton--axion coupling suppressed by $F_a$, contrary to a widely known belief that heav...

  1. Benchmarking of Heavy Ion Transport Codes

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Ronningen, Reginald M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Heilbronn, Lawrence [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in designing and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required.

  2. Heavy Flavor Production in ATLAS

    Stahl, T


    ATLAS prepares a program for measurements of production cross sections both of b-hadrons and quarkonia in central proton-proton collisions at a new center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV at the LHC. Dedicated triggers based on muon, di-muon or electron signatures are designed to accommodate large statistics already in the first several months. Starting from semi-inclusive measurements at the very early stage, exclusive channels will soon dominate the measurements, allowing for tests of QCD in the Heavy Flavor sector already with 10 pb−1 of data. With larger statistics, polarization measurements are being prepared for J/psi and Lambda_b. It is expected, that 30 fb−1 of data collected at a luminosity of 10^33 cm−2s−1 will allow specific measurements not accessible with the statistics collected at the Tevatron. In particular, a Lambda_b polarization measurement will be achieved using Lambda_b -> J/psi Lambda decays. For J/psi, a polarization measurement will allow to confirm or exclude model predictions within ...

  3. Heavy duty complete extension slides

    Bueno, José Ignacio; Vázquez, Javier


    The selection from available commercial market of a set of slides to be used in an habitable pressurised module in space, to draw a 660 mm box out of a rack, up to a completely extracted position in a safely supported configuration, seems in principle not to be a complicated task. That was the first approach taken in the design process of the telescopic guides of the Crew Work Bench (CWB) included in the Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL), part of "ESA Microgravity Facilities for Columbus" within the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) of the International Space Station (ISS). Nevertheless, common space compatible requirements such as materials, specific environmental loads, available envelope, total weight, etc., can make the selection of telescopic slides from commercial market unfeasible. A specific development to design space compatible telescopic slides for the CWB was undertaken. A set of heavy duty space compatible telescopic slides were designed, manufactured and tested. They should be operative in both, 1-g environment and in orbit, and additionally should withstand an inadvertent astronaut kick or bump of 556 N in any direction.

  4. HTL heavy oil upgrading a key solution for heavy oil upstream and midstream operations

    Silverman, M.A.; Pavel, S. K.; Hillderman, M. D. [Ivanhoe Energy (Canada)


    In the oil industry, heavy oil has become a strategic resource due to the decline of light crude oil reserves and the rising energy demand. Many challenges have to be overcome during heavy oil development and Ivanhoe Energy has developed a new process to address these issues. The heavy to light (HTL) upgrading process converts heavy crude oil into lighter and more valuable synthetic oil. This process can be used upstream, midstream or near the well head. The aim of this paper is to present the history of HTL's development, the technology itself and its performance and advantages. HTL captures the majority of the market value difference between heavy and light oil while eliminating diluent requirement; in addition this technology is economic at small scales. The HTL upgrading process presented herein is a simple and efficient solution for exploiting heavy oil and bitumen reserves.

  5. Double Heavy Flavour Production at LHCb

    Li, Yiming


    This proceeding summarises the latest LHCb results on associated heavy flavour productions, including double charm production and associated bottomonia and charm production. This article belongs to the Topical Collection “New Observables in Quarkonium Production”.

  6. Heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy: An overview

    P C Vinodkumar


    A comprehensive overview and some of the theoretical attempts towards understanding heavy flavour hadron spectroscopy are presented. Apart from the conventional quark structure (quark, antiquarks structure for the mesons and three-quarks structure of baryons) of hadrons, multiquark hadrons the hadron molecular states etc., also will be reviewed. Various issues and challenges in understanding the physics and dynamics of the quarks at the hadronic dimensions are highlighted. Looking into the present and future experimental prospects at different heavy flavour laboratories like BES-III, CLEO-c, BaBar, Belle, LHC etc., the scope for theoretical extensions of the present knowledge of heavy flavour physics would be very demanding. In this context, many relevant contributions from the forthcoming PANDA Facility are expected. Scopes and outlook of the hadron physics at the heavy flavour sector in view of the future experimental facilities are highlighted.


    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Fosu lagoon, Heavy metal, Enrichment, Pollution ... Both anthropogenic pressures and natural processes account for degradation in surface water ... only play an important role in river water pollution but can also provide a ...

  8. Heavy Baryons in a Quark Model

    Winston Roberts; Muslema Pervin


    A quark model is applied to the spectrum of baryons containing heavy quarks. The model gives masses for the known heavy baryons that are in agreement with experiment, but for the doubly-charmed baryon $\\Xi_{cc}$, the model prediction is too heavy. Mixing between the $\\Xi_Q$ and $\\Xi_Q^\\prime$ states is examined and is found to be small for the lowest lying states. In contrast with this, mixing between the $\\Xi_{bc}$ and $\\Xi_{bc}^\\prime$ states is found to be large, and the implication of this mixing for properties of these states is briefly discussed. We also examine heavy-quark spin-symmetry multiplets, and find that many states in the model can be placed in such multiplets.

  9. The theory of heavy flavour production

    Ellis, R.K.


    The theory of heavy quark production in hadronic reactions is reviewed. Rates for the production of charm, bottom and top quarks at energies of current interest are presented. 34 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 202 197 Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamin


    Dec 2, 2008 ... ABSTRACT: The heavy metal and microbial contaminants levels were evaluated in a commercial polyherbal product ... fungal toxins such as aflatoxins, pesticides and synthetic ... natural products is that 'natural' equals safe.

  11. An Early History of Heavy Water

    Waltham, C


    Since 1945 Canada has had a nuclear power industry based on reactor design which uses natural uranium and heavy water. The tortuous and improbable sequence of events which led to this situation is examined.

  12. Heavy Dynamical Fermions in Lattice QCD

    Hasenfratz, Anna; Hasenfratz, Anna; Grand, Thomas A. De


    It is expected that the only effect of heavy dynamical fermions in QCD is to renormalize the gauge coupling. We derive a simple expression for the shift in the gauge coupling induced by $N_f$ flavors of heavy fermions. We compare this formula to the shift in the gauge coupling at which the confinement-deconfinement phase transition occurs (at fixed lattice size) from numerical simulations as a function of quark mass and $N_f$. We find remarkable agreement with our expression down to a fairly light quark mass. However, simulations with eight heavy flavors and two light flavors show that the eight flavors do more than just shift the gauge coupling. We observe confinement-deconfinement transitions at $\\beta=0$ induced by a large number of heavy quarks. We comment on the relevance of our results to contemporary simulations of QCD which include dynamical fermions.

  13. Heavy Ion Acceleration in Impulsive Solar Flares



    The abundance enhancements of heavy ions Ne, Mg, Si and Fe in impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) eventsare explained by a plasma acceleration mechanism. In consideration of the fact that the coronal plasma is mainlycomposed of hydrogen and helium ions, we think that theion-ion hybrid wave and quasi-perpendicular wave excited by the energetic electron beam in impulsive solar flares. These waves may resonantly be absorbed byheavy ions when the frequencies of these waves are close to the second-harmonic gyrofrequencies of these heavyions. This requires the coronal plasma temperature to be located in the range ofT ~ (5 - 9) × 106 K in impulsivesolar flares and makes the average ionic charge state of these heavy ions in impulsive SEP events higher than theaverage ionic charge state of these heavy ions in gradual SEP events. These pre-heated and enhanced heavy ionsin impulsive SEP events.



    Toxicity levels of heavy metals depend on the type, its ... sectors (food and processing sector) accounted for nearly ... Groundwater accounts for about 98% of the world's ... footpaths and a few major roads, with an uneven distribution of ...

  15. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil | Nanda |

    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. ... in intensive research aiming at understanding metal interactions in soil and their removal in an efficient way. ... This paper investigates the plant-microbial interactions in reclaiming the metal ...

  16. Pion mean fields and heavy baryons

    Yang, Ghil-Seok; Polyakov, Maxim V; Praszałowicz, Michał


    We show that the masses of the lowest-lying heavy baryons can be very well described in a pion mean-field approach. We consider a heavy baryon as a system consisting of the $N_c-1$ light quarks that induce the pion mean field, and a heavy quark as a static color source under the influence of this mean field. In this approach we derive a number of \\textit{model-independent} relations and calculate the heavy baryon masses using those of the lowest-lying light baryons as input. The results are in remarkable agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the mass of the $\\Omega_b^*$ baryon is predicted.

  17. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Arnold, R C [ed.


    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.


    Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam,. P. O. Box ... parameters. The study ..... chemical wastes containing heavy metals and organochlorides. During ... In Mwanza South, samples were collected near a fish processing industry,.

  19. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    Raju, M.R.


    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections.

  20. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Kurz, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Steinhauser, Matthias [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  1. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Kurz, Alexander; Marquard, Peter; Steinhauser, Matthias


    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  2. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)


    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  3. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil



    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  4. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  5. Spin dependence of heavy quark fragmentation

    Cornet, Fernando [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Anadaluz de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail:; Garcia Canal, Carlos A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, La Plata (1900) (Argentina)


    We propose that the non-perturbative part of the fragmentation function describing the transition from a heavy quark to a heavy meson is proportional to the square of the produced meson wave function at the origin, taking into account hyperfine interactions. We analyze the effects of this proposal on the number of pseudoscalar mesons compared to the number of vector mesons produced and find a good agreement with experimental data. Finally, we discuss further experimental checks for our hypothesis.

  6. Revisiting Uraltsev's BPS limit for Heavy Quarks

    Heinonen, Johannes


    Motivated by the recent experimental data of the values of the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters, in particular the spin-orbit and Darwin terms, we argue that nature actually may be close to a limit of QCD which has been suggested by Uraltsev more than ten years ago. Assuming that this limit is not accidental, we derive the relations among the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters that occur up to the order 1/mb^5.

  7. Heavy Baryons and QCD Sum Rules

    Yakovlev, O I


    We discuss an application of QCD sum rules to the heavy baryons $\\Lambda_Q$ and $\\Sigma_Q$. The predictions for the masses of heavy baryons, residues and Isgur-Wise function are presented. The new results on two loop anomalous dimensions of baryonic currents and QCD radiative corrections (two- and three- loop contributions) to the first two Wilson coefficients in OPE are explicitly presented.

  8. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino


    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  9. Superfluid response in heavy fermion superconductors

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Shao, Can; Luo, Hong-Gang


    Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo-Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large- N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1- x Yb x CoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.

  10. From heavy ions to exotic atoms

    Indelicato, Paul; Trassinelli, Martino


    We review a number of experiments and theoretical calculations on heavy ions and exotic atoms, which aim at providing informations on fundamental interactions. Among those are propositions of experiments for parity violation measurements in heavy ions and high-precision mesurements of He-like transition energies in highly charged ions. We also describe recent experiments on pionic atoms, that make use of highly-charged ion transitions to obtain accurate measurements of strong interaction shif...

  11. A Heavy Quark Symmetry Approach to Baryons

    Albertus, C. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Amaro, J.E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Nieves, J. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)


    We evaluate different properties of baryons with a heavy c or b quark. The use of Heavy Quark Symmetry (HQS) provides with an important simplification of the non relativistic three body problem which can be solved by means of a simple variational approach. This scheme is able to reproduce previous results obtained with more involved Faddeev calculations. The resulting wave functions are parametrized in a simple manner, and can be used to calculate further observables.

  12. Hadronic molecules in the heavy baryon spectrum

    Entem, D. R.; Ortega, P. G.; Fernández, F.


    We study possible baryon molecules in the non-strange heavy baryon spectrum. We include configurations with a heavy-meson and a light baryon. We find several structures, in particular we can understand the Λc(2940) as a D*N molecule with JP = 3/2- quantum numbers. We also find D(*)Δ candidates for the recently discovered Xc(3250) resonance.

  13. Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor baryons and single heavy hyperon polarization

    Goldstein, G R


    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. $\\Lambda_b$ , $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are calculated and, where possible, compared with experiment. A different approach, also relying on a heavy quark-diquark model, is proposed for the small momentum transfer inclusive production of polarized heavy flavor hyperons. The predicted $\\Lambda_c$ polarization is roughly in agreement with experiment.

  14. Analysis of spatial autocorrelation patterns of heavy and super-heavy rainfall in Iran

    Rousta, Iman; Doostkamian, Mehdi; Haghighi, Esmaeil; Ghafarian Malamiri, Hamid Reza; Yarahmadi, Parvane


    Rainfall is a highly variable climatic element, and rainfall-related changes occur in spatial and temporal dimensions within a regional climate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial autocorrelation changes of Iran's heavy and super-heavy rainfall over the past 40 years. For this purpose, the daily rainfall data of 664 meteorological stations between 1971 and 2011 are used. To analyze the changes in rainfall within a decade, geostatistical techniques like spatial autocorrelation analysis of hot spots, based on the Getis-Ord G i statistic, are employed. Furthermore, programming features in MATLAB, Surfer, and GIS are used. The results indicate that the Caspian coast, the northwest and west of the western foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran, the inner regions of Iran, and southern parts of Southeast and Northeast Iran, have the highest likelihood of heavy and super-heavy rainfall. The spatial pattern of heavy rainfall shows that, despite its oscillation in different periods, the maximum positive spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall includes areas of the west, northwest and west coast of the Caspian Sea. On the other hand, a negative spatial autocorrelation pattern of heavy rainfall is observed in central Iran and parts of the east, particularly in Zabul. Finally, it is found that patterns of super-heavy rainfall are similar to those of heavy rainfall.

  15. Maximizing heavy oil value while minimizing environmental impact with HTL upgrading of heavy to light oil

    Koshka, E. [Ivanhoe Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation described Ivanhoe Energy Inc.'s proprietary HTL upgrading technology which was designed to process heavy oil in the field to cost effectively produce an upgraded synthetic oil that meets pipeline requirements. Steam and electricity are generated from the energy produced during the process. HTL improves the economics of heavy oil production by reducing the need for natural gas and diluent, and by capturing most of the heavy to light oil price differential. Integrated HTL heavy oil production also provides many environmental benefits regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The HTL upgrading process is ready for full scale application. tabs., figs.

  16. Holographic Heavy-Light Chiral Effective Action

    Liu, Yizhuang


    We propose a variant of the $D4$-$D8$ construction to describe the low energy effective theory of heavy-light mesons, interacting with the lowest lying pseudoscalar and vector mesons. The heavy degrees of freedom are identified with the $D8_L$-$D8_H$ string low energy modes, and are approximated near the world volume of $N_f-1$ light $D8_L$ branes, by fundamental vector field valued in $U(N_f-1)$. The effective action follows from the reduction of the bulk D-brane Born-Infeld (DBI) and Chern-Simons (CS) actions, and is shown to exhibit both chiral and heavy-quark symmetry. The action interpolates continuously between the $U(N_f)$ case with massless mesons, and the $U(N_f-1)$ case with heavy-light mesons. The heavy-light meson radial spectrum is Regge-like. The one-pion and two-pion couplings to the heavy-light multiplets are evaluated. The partial widths for the charged decays $G\\rightarrow H+\\pi$ are shown to be comparable to the recently reported full widths for both the charm and bottom mesons.

  17. Do heavy and medium oil waterfloods differ?

    Renouf, G. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    Waterflooding is a common and important method of enhanced oil recovery. However, little is known about how waterflooding heavy oils differs from waterflooding lighter oils. There is a substantial body of work on designing, monitoring, and managing waterfloods. However, the problems specific to producing heavy oil by waterflooding are rarely addressed. This paper presented the results of a statistical study of 44 heavy oil waterfloods and 39 medium oil waterfloods in western Canadian waterfloods. The purpose of the study was to identify the parameters which impact heavy oil waterflood success. Each waterflood was assigned a numerical value according to the success of each waterflood operation and examined the importance of various reservoir and operating parameters to that success. Waterfloods were classified as either heavy or medium. Separate multivariate analysis models were developed for each set. It was concluded that the most important reservoir parameters to the success of medium oil waterfloods were permeability and heterogeneity. This validated the conventional knowledge of waterflooding, but were not significant to the success of heavy oil waterfloods. 30 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  18. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena


    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  19. 46 CFR 44.01-13 - Heavy weather plan.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heavy weather plan. 44.01-13 Section 44.01-13 Shipping... VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-13 Heavy weather plan. (a) Each heavy weather plan under § 44.01-12(b) must... Inspection. Approval of a heavy weather plan is limited to the current hurricane season. (b) The...

  20. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu


    over a wider energy range for many more reactions is desired for accurate determination of PCN> and more insight into the dynamics of fusion in the heavy mass region.

  1. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division


    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  2. Heavy flavor Production and Interactions in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions in CMS Experiment

    Xie, Wei


    This paper presents the CMS measurements of quarkonia and open heavy flavor production in \\pp, \\pPb, and \\PbPb collisions at \\sqrtsnn = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. A brief outlook of the near-future CMS heavy flavor physics analyses is provided at the end.

  3. Heavy flavor production and interactions in relativistic heavy ion collisions in CMS experiments

    Xie, Wei


    This paper presents the CMS measurements of quarkonia and open heavy flavor production in \\pp, \\pPb, and \\PbPb collisions at \\sqrtsnn = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. A brief outlook of the near-future CMS heavy flavor physics analyses is provided at the end.

  4. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste: modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies.

    Veeken, A.


    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of municipal so

  5. Energy loss, hadronization and hadronic interactions of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen A


    We construct a theoretical framework to describe the evolution of heavy flavors produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin equation that incorporates both quasi-elastic scatterings and the medium-induced gluon radiation. The space-time profiles of the fireball is described by a (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics simulation. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is utilized for heavy quark hadronization, after which the produced heavy mesons together with the soft hadrons produced from the bulk QGP are fed into the hadron cascade UrQMD model to simulate the subsequent hadronic interactions. We find that the medium-induced gluon radiation contributes significantly to heavy quark energy loss at high $p_\\mathrm{T}$; heavy-light quark coalescence enhances heavy meson production at intermediate $p_\\mathrm{T}$; and scatterings inside the hadron gas further suppress the $D$ meson $R_\\mathrm{AA}$ at large $p_\\mathrm{T}$ and e...

  6. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste : modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies

    Veeken, A.H.M.


    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of mun

  7. QCD string in excited heavy-light mesons and heavy-quark hybrids

    Kalashnikova, Yu S


    The QCD string model is employed to evaluate the masses of orbitally and radially excited heavy-light mesons and lightest hybrids in the spectrum of charmonium and bottomonium. The number of parameters of the model is reduced to only seven which are the string tension, the two values of the strong coupling constant (one for heavy-light and $\\bar{c}c$ mesons and one for $\\bar{b}b$ mesons), and the four overall spectrum shift constants which depend on the quark contents of the particular meson or hybrid family. A few well-established states in the spectrum of heavy-light and heavy-heavy mesons are used to fix these parameters, and then the masses of other mesons and hybrids come out as predictions of the model which are confronted with the existing experimental data, and a few suggestions are made concerning yet not measured quantum numbers of some states in the spectrum of charmonium and bottomonium.

  8. Wellhead application of new heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process in heavy crude upgrading

    Zarkesh, Jamshid; Samimi, A. Kh. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Russian Federation); Khadzhiev, S.; Kadiev, H. [Russian Academy of science (Russian Federation)


    In the oil industry, the decline of light crude oil reserves and the price differential between intermediate and heavy oils have made upgrading processes attractive. A new nano catalytic process, the heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH), which converts heavy residue to light product has been developed. HRH is flexible as to feed type and catalyst is mainly recovered and recycled in the process. This study aimed at examining the feasibility of HRH to produce syncrude from heavy crude oil. Three cases of stand-alone HRH plants were investigated: a 20,000 bbl/d plant producing hydrogen from natural gas, another producing hydrogen from residue and a third with a high capacity of 30,000 bbl/d. Results showed that in all three cases the stand-alone HRH plant was economically feasible. This study demonstrated that stand-alone HRH plants are a good alternative for producing syncrude from heavy crude oils.


    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  10. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Eman M. Alissa


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  11. Experimental summary for heavy flavor production

    Ma, Rongrong


    Measurements of heavy flavor production in heavy-ion collisions have played an important role in understanding the properties of the quark-gluon plasma created in such collision. Due to their large masses, heavy flavor quarks present unique sensitivity to the kinematics as well as the dynamics of the hot and dense medium. In this article, a selection of recent measurements on heavy flavor production in p+p, p+A and A+A collisions at both RHIC and LHC energies will be presented. The measurements in p+p collisions serve as benchmarks to fundamental theories, and as references to similar studies in A+A collisions where the hot medium effects are present. On the other hand, the measurements in p+A collisions can help to quantify the cold nuclear matter effects which are also in effect in A+A collisions and thus need to be taken into account when interpreting the measurements in heavy-ion collisions. The experimental results from A+A collisions are discussed and compared to theoretical calculations, which can shed...

  12. How equity markets view heavy oil

    Janisch, M.L. [BMO Nesbitt Burns, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    A review of heavy oil economics was presented in this power point presentation with particular focus on investor motivation, the importance of heavy oil, and an outlook on commodity price for oil and natural gas. Heavy oil from oil sands is playing a major role on the Canadian domestic production front as well as globally. Almost all senior Canadian producers have a major heavy oil project in the works. Oil prices are forecasted to remain strong, but a more bullish outlook is expected for natural gas prices for both the short and long term. Natural gas drilling has increased, but the number of natural gas wells as a percentage of total wells has decreased. Recent Canadian drilling activity has placed more emphasis on crude oil production which has contributed to the lower overall natural gas drilling success rate. It was shown that infrastructure issues regarding tankers, refining capacity (at or near capacity) will be the major factor affecting the availability of crude products to market. It was also shown that heavy oil differentials have increased substantially, which could be a potential issue if oil prices begin to weaken. 1 tab., 12 figs.

  13. Dendroremediation of heavy metal polluted soils.

    González-Oreja, J A; Rozas, M A; Alkorta, I; Garbisu, C


    Heavy metals are among the most common and harmful pollutants reaching the soil ecosystem all over the world. Phytoextraction is an effective, non-intrusive, inexpensive, aesthetically pleasing, socially accepted, highly promising phytotechnology for the remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. To overcome the so-called 'Achilles' heel' of phytoextraction, namely, the long time needed for effective remediation, this phytotechnology should be combined with other profit-making activities such as forestry or bioenergy production. Dendroremediation, or the use of trees to clean up polluted soil and water, appears of great potential for metal phytoextraction, especially when using fast-growing tree species, for example, willows (Salix sp. pl.) and poplars (Populus sp. pl.). Most important, the ecologic and environmental risks of dispersing heavy metals into the ecosystems by dendroremediation strategies should be minimized by selecting the right tree species, properly managing/disposing the polluted plant material, or a combination of both options.

  14. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Milam, David


    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  15. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.


    , providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...... problem in which each heavy hitter is encoded as some form of noisy spectral cluster in a much bigger graph, and the goal is to identify every cluster. Since every heavy hitter must be found, correctness requires that every cluster be found. We thus need a "cluster-preserving clustering" algorithm......, that partitions the graph into clusters with the promise of not destroying any original cluster. To do this we first apply standard spectral graph partitioning, and then we use some novel combinatorial techniques to modify the cuts obtained so as to make sure that the original clusters are sufficiently preserved...

  16. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    Dinev, D.


    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  17. Heavy Diquark Symmetry Constraints for Strong Decays

    Eakins, B


    The Heavy Diquark Symmetry (HDS) of Doubly Heavy Baryons (DHBs) provides new insights into the spectroscopy of these hadrons. We derive the consequences of this symmetry for the mass spectra and the decay widths of DHBs. We compare these symmetry constraints to results from a nonrelativistic quark model for the mass spectra and results from the $^3P_0$ model for strong decays. The quark model we implement was not constructed with these symmetries and contains interactions which explicitly break HDS, nevertheless these symmetries emerge. We argue that the $^3P_0$ model and any other model for strong transitions which employs a spectator assumption explicitly respects HDS. We also explore the possibility of treating the strange quark as a heavy quark and apply these ideas to $\\Xi$, $\\Xi_c$, and $\\Xi_b$ baryons.

  18. Probing heavy neutrinos in the COMET experiment

    Asaka, Takehiko


    We argue that the COMET experiment --- a dedicated experiment for the $\\mu$-$e$ conversion search --- can be a powerful facility to search for heavy neutrinos in the mass range $1\\,{\\rm MeV} \\lesssim M \\lesssim 100\\,{\\rm MeV}$. The stopped muons captured by the target nuclei or decaying in orbit are efficiently produce heavy neutrinos via the active-sterile mixing. The produced heavy neutrinos then decay to electron-positron pair (plus an active neutrino), which events are clearly seen by the cylindrical drift chamber surrounding the target. The expected sensitivity is comparable to the PS191 bound when the COMET experiment achieves $\\sim 10^{17}$ stopping muons in the target.

  19. Phytochelatins: peptides involved in heavy metal detoxification.

    Pal, Rama; Rai, J P N


    Phytochelatins (PCs) are enzymatically synthesized peptides known to involve in heavy metal detoxification and accumulation, which have been measured in plants grown at high heavy metal concentrations, but few studies have examined the response of plants even at lower environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Recently, genes encoding the enzyme PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species enabling molecular biological studies to untangle the mechanisms underlying PC synthesis and its regulation. The present paper embodies review on recent advances in structure of PCs, their biosynthetic regulation, roles in heavy metal detoxification and/or accumulation, and PC synthase gene expression for better understanding of mechanism involved and to improve phytoremediation efficiency of plants for wider application.

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;


    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup........ The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...

  1. Heavy ions at the Future Circular Collider

    Dainese, A; Armesto, N; d'Enterria, D; Jowett, J M; Lansberg, J -P; Milhano, J G; Salgado, C A; Schaumann, M; van Leeuwen, M; Albacete, J L; Andronic, A; Antonioli, P; Apolinario, L; Bass, S; Beraudo, A; Bilandzic, A; Borsanyi, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Chen, Z; Mendez, L Cunqueiro; Denicol, G S; Eskola, K J; Floerchinger, S; Fujii, H; Giubellino, P; Greiner, C; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Ko, C -M; Kotko, P; Krajczar, K; Kutak, K; Laine, M; Liu, Y; Lombardo, M P; Luzum, M; Marquet, C; Masciocchi, S; Okorokov, V; Paquet, J -F; Paukkunen, H; Petreska, E; Pierog, T; Ploskon, M; Ratti, C; Rezaeian, A H; Riegler, W; Rojo, J; Roland, C; Rossi, A; Salam, G P; Sapeta, S; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Stachel, J; Uphoff, J; van Hameren, A; Watanabe, K; Xiao, B -W; Yuan, F; Zaslavsky, D; Zhou, K; Zhuang, P


    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode, seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. Operating such machine with heavy ions is an option that is being considered in the accelerator design studies. It would provide, for example, Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 39 and 63 TeV, respectively, per nucleon-nucleon collision, with integrated luminosities above 30 nb^-1 per month for Pb-Pb. This is a report by the working group on heavy-ion physics of the FCC Study. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, of gluon saturation, of photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with other fields of high-energy physics.

  2. Measuring heavy neutrino couplings at the LHC

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A


    The existence of heavy neutrinos mediating neutrino masses via a type-I seesaw can be directly probed at the LHC, or indirectly in rare lepton flavor-violating processes. The synergy between these two approaches requires a direct measurement of the heavy neutrino couplings. We discuss a strategy to perform such measurements at the LHC in the context of left-right symmetric models, which is also applicable to other models implementing a type-I or type-III seesaw. We demonstrate that the ambiguities in the determination of the heavy neutrino mixing parameters can be resolved by performing an exclusive analysis of dilepton final states, discriminated by flavor and missing energy.

  3. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail:


    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  4. Heavy Quarks, QCD, and Effective Field Theory

    Thomas Mehen


    The research supported by this OJI award is in the area of heavy quark and quarkonium production, especially the application Soft-Collinear E ective Theory (SCET) to the hadronic production of quarkonia. SCET is an e ffective theory which allows one to derive factorization theorems and perform all order resummations for QCD processes. Factorization theorems allow one to separate the various scales entering a QCD process, and in particular, separate perturbative scales from nonperturbative scales. The perturbative physics can then be calculated using QCD perturbation theory. Universal functions with precise fi eld theoretic de nitions describe the nonperturbative physics. In addition, higher order perturbative QCD corrections that are enhanced by large logarithms can be resummed using the renormalization group equations of SCET. The applies SCET to the physics of heavy quarks, heavy quarkonium, and similar particles.

  5. Disappearing Inflaton Potential via Heavy Field Dynamics

    Kitajima, Naoya


    We propose a possibility that the inflaton potential is significantly modified after inflation due to heavy field dynamics. During inflation there may be a heavy scalar field stabilized at a value deviated from the low-energy minimum. As the heavy field moves to the low-energy minimum, the inflaton potential could be significantly modified. In extreme cases, the inflaton potential vanishes and the inflaton becomes almost massless at some time after inflation. Such transition of the inflaton potential has interesting implications for primordial density perturbations, reheating, creation of unwanted relics, dark radiation, and experimental search for light degrees of freedom. To be concrete, we consider a chaotic inflation in supergravity where the inflaton mass parameter is promoted to a modulus field, finding that the inflaton becomes stable after the transition and contributes to dark matter. Another example is the new inflation by the MSSM Higgs field which acquires a large expectation value just after infl...

  6. Holographic picture of heavy vector meson melting

    Braga, Nelson R.F.; Diles, Saulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel [Universidad de los Andes, High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Bogota (Colombia)


    The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1S, 2S and 3S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ(1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium. (orig.)

  7. Exotic hadrons from heavy ion collisions

    Cho, Sungtae; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Maeda, Saori; Miyahara, Kenta; Morita, Kenji; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Song, Taesoo; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi


    High energy heavy ion collisions are excellent ways for producing heavy hadrons and composite particles, including the light (anti)nuclei. With upgraded detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it has become possible to measure hadrons beyond their ground states. Therefore, heavy ion collisions provide a new method for studying exotic hadrons that are either molecular states made of various hadrons or compact system consisting of multiquarks. Because their structures are related to the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), studying exotic hadrons is currently one of the most active areas of research in hadron physics. Experiments carried out at various accelerator facilities have indicated that some exotic hadrons may have already been produced. The present review is a summary of the current understanding of a selected set of exotic particle candidates that can be potentially measured in heavy ion collisions. It also includes discussions on the production of resonances, exotics and hadronic molecular states in these collisions based on the coalescence model and the statistical model. A more detailed discussion is given on the results from these models, leading to the conclusion that the yield of a hadron that is a compact multiquark state is typically an order of magnitude smaller than if it is an excited hadronic state with normal quark numbers or a loosely bound hadronic molecule. Attention is also given to some of the proposed heavy exotic hadrons that could be produced with sufficient abundance in heavy ion collisions because of the significant numbers of charm and bottom quarks that are produced at RHIC and even larger numbers at LHC, making it possible to study them in these experiments. Further included in the discussion are the general formalism for the coalescence model that involves resonance particles and its implication on the present estimated yield for resonance production. Finally

  8. Entropic destruction of a moving heavy quarkonium

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir


    Recently it has been shown that the peak of the quarkonium entropy at the deconfinement transition is related to the emergent entropic force which destructs the quarkonium. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we consider dissociation of a moving heavy quarkonium by entropic force. We find that the entropic force destructs the moving quarkonium easier than the static case which is expected from perturbative weakly coupled plasma. By considering the Maxwell charge, we study the effect of medium on the destruction of heavy quarkonium. It is shown that the quarkonium dissociates easier in the medium.

  9. Heavy-flavour production in ALICE

    Sakai, Shingo


    We present measurements of heavy-flavour production in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV and in p–Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. A strong suppression of heavy-flavour production at high p{sub T} is observed in central Pb–Pb collisions, while non-zero elliptic flow is seen at low p{sub T} in semi-central collisions. The cold nuclear matter effects on the measurements in Pb–Pb collisions have been investigated in p–Pb collisions, and no large effects have been observed.

  10. Radiative decay of light and heavy mesons

    Barik, N. (Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India)); Dash, P.C. (Department of Physics, P. N. College, Khurda, Orissa (India))


    The [ital M]1 transition among the vector ([ital V]) and pseudoscalar ([ital P]) mesons in the light and heavy flavor sectors has been investigated in a potential model of independent quarks. Going beyond the static approximation, to add some momentum dependence due to the recoil effect in a more realistic calculation, we find an improvement in the results for the radiative decay of light flavored mesons. However, our prediction on the decay rates for the mesons ([ital D][sup *] and [ital B][sup *]) in the heavy flavor sector remains unaffected and compares well with those of other model calculations.

  11. The Electronic Structure of Heavy Element Complexes

    Bursten, Bruce E.


    The area of study is the bonding in heavy element complexes, and the application of more sophisticated electronic structure theories. Progress is recounted in several areas: (a) technological advances and current methodologies - Relativistic effects are extremely important in gaining an understanding of the electronic structure of compounds of the actinides, transactinides, and other heavy elements. Therefore, a major part of the continual benchmarking was the proper inclusion of the appropriate relativistic effects for the properties under study. (b) specific applications - These include organoactinide sandwich complexes, CO activation by actinide atoms, and theoretical studies of molecules of the transactinide elements. Finally, specific directions in proposed research are described.

  12. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    Reena Singh


    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth′s crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.

  13. Experimental Verification of Heavy Ion Simulation


    1 IntroductionThe investigation of radiation damage induced by high dose neutrons and/or protons is a currently interesting topic in nuclear power, ADS etc., The lack of high dose neutron and proton sources hampers this investigation. The advent of heavy ion accelerators opens up a way to study radiation damage caused by high dose neutron and/or proton irradiation[1]. The displacement rate of heavy ions is much higher than that of neutrons and protons. Higher displacement rate leads to short irradiation time. An irradiation dose of -20 dpa takes about a year in a reactor, while only a few minutes or hours by

  14. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Bhavin Patel; Ajay Kumar Rai; P C Vinodkumar


    Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body problem. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index . The ground state masses of the heavy flavor, $J^{P} = \\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ and $\\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$ baryons are computed for different power indices, starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value in each case of quark combinations beyond the power index = 1.0.

  15. Jets in Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    Salur, Sevil


    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  16. European heavy ion ICF driver development

    Plass, Günther


    Approaches in Europe to heavy ion induced Inertial Confinement Fusion are oriented toward the linac-plus- storage ring technique. Despite the very limited support of this work, technical pro gress was achieved in some important areas. For the immediate future, a substantial intensity upgrade of the GSI accelerator facilities at Darmstadt is being implemented, leading to specific energy depositions of the order of 100 kJ/g and plasma temperatures of 10 to 20 eV. For the longer term, a conceptual design study of a heavy ion based Ignition Facility is being initiated.

  17. Heavy Oil Development Technology of Liaohe Oilfield

    Han Yun


    @@ Liaohe Oilfield, the largest heavy oil production base in China, features in various reservoir types, deep burial, and wide range of crude oil viscosity. For many years, a series of technologies have been developed for different oil products and reservoir types of the oilfield, of which water flooding, foam slug drive, steam stimulation, steam drive,and SAGD are the main technologies. After continuous improvement, they have been further developed and played an important role in the development of heavy oil in the oilfield.

  18. Search for heavy neutrinos at Belle

    Liventsev, D; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Bakich, A M; Bay, A; Belous, K; Bhuyan, B; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Browder, T E; Chang, P; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W -S; Hyun, H J; Iijima, T; Ishikawa, A; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Julius, T; Kah, D H; Kang, J H; Kato, E; Kawasaki, T; Kiesling, C; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J B; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Klucar, J; Ko, B R; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lee, S -H; Li, J; Li, Y; Libby, J; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liu, Z Q; Louvot, R; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Moll, A; Muramatsu, N; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Nellikunnummel, N; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ostrowicz, W; Oswald, C; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Prothmann, K; Ritter, M; Rohrken, M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Saito, T; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santel, D; Santelj, L; Sato, Y; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Staric, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vorobyev, V; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zupanc, A


    We report on a search for heavy neutrinos in B-meson decays. The results are obtained using a data sample that contains 772x10^6 BB-bar pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. No signal is observed and upper limits are set on mixing of heavy neutrinos with left-handed neutrinos of the Standard Model in the mass range 0.5 - 5.0 GeV/c^2.

  19. Baryogenesis through mixing of heavy Majorana neutrinos

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos


    We review the scenario of baryogenesis through leptogenesis induced by the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy neutrinos. We pay special attention to the resonant phenomenon of CP violation through mixing of two nearly degenerate heavy Majorana neutrinos and show how unitarity and CPT invariance is maintained within the resummation approach. An important consequence of this is that the leptogenesis scale may be as low as 1 TeV, even for models with universal Yukawa couplings. We briefly discuss the impact of finite temperature effects and low-energy constraints to the afore-mentioned mechanism of CP violation.

  20. Oscillating propagators in heavy-dense QCD

    Akerlund, Oscar; Rindlisbacher, Tobias


    Using Monte Carlo simulations and extended mean field theory calculations we show that the $3$-dimensional $\\mathbb{Z}_3$ spin model with complex external fields has non-monotonic correlators in some regions of its parameter space. This model serves as a proxy for heavy-dense QCD in $(3+1)$ dimensions. Non-monotonic correlators are intrinsically related to a complex mass spectrum and a liquid-like (or crystalline) behavior. A liquid phase could have implications for heavy-ion experiments, where it could leave detectable signals in the spatial correlations of baryons.

  1. Heavy Flavour Production and Decay at ATLAS

    Jones, RWL; The ATLAS collaboration


    ATLAS is taking advantage of its large integrated luminosity band sophisticated muon and dimuon triggers to make competitive measurements of heavy flavour production and decay. Inclusive production and heavy flavour jet production is discussed before turning to charm and onium production. The production and decay of individual B hadron species is then addressed, including the current best measurement of the Λb lifetime. A much improved analysis of CP related quantities in Bs decays is presented, before turning to recent results and prospects for rare B decays.

  2. Summary of the Heavy Flavor Working Group

    Klasen, Michael; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Mankel, Rainer


    During the last year many important results have been achieved in heavy flavour physics: New measurements of charm and beauty production have been performed at HERA and the Tevatron. A wealth of new spectroscopy data with several new, unexpected states in the charmonium and the D_s systems has been collected and b to d gamma transitions have been established. The oscillation frequency in the B_s Bbar_s is now measured, and mixing in the D0 D0bar system has been observed. Theoretical progress in the areas of open heavy flavour production, quarkonium production and decays, and multiquark spectroscopy has been presented at this workshop.

  3. Heavy ion induced mutation in arabidopsis

    Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Heavy ions, He, C, Ar and Ne were irradiated to the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana for inducing the new mutants. In the irradiated generation (M{sub 1}), germination and survival rate were observed to estimate the relative biological effectiveness in relation to the LET including the inactivation cross section. Mutation frequencies were compared by using three kinds of genetic loci after irradiation with C ions and electrons. Several interesting new mutants were selected in the selfed progenies of heavy ion irradiated seeds. (author)

  4. The flow of heavy flavor in hydrodynamics

    Song, Taesoo; Lee, Su Houng


    The flow of charm is calculated in 2+1 ideal hydrodynamics by introducing the charge of $c\\bar{c}$ pair assuming that the number of $c\\bar{c}$ pairs is conserved in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It is found that the mean radial flow velocity of charm quarks is smaller than that of bulk matter by 10$\\sim$15 \\% and the measured $v_2$ of heavy-flavor electrons is reproduced up to $p_T^e=$ 1.5 GeV/c in Au+Au collision at RHIC. The same flow is applied to regenerated $J/\\psi$ and its $v_2$ is discussed.

  5. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    Kanazawa, Takuya


    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  6. Heavy quark colorimetry of QCD matter

    Dokshitzer, Yu L; Dokshitzer, Yu.L.


    We consider propagation of heavy quarks in QCD matter. Because of large quark mass, the radiative quark energy loss appears to be qualitatively different from that of light quarks at all energies of practical importance. Finite quark mass effects lead to an in-medium enhancement of the heavy-to-light D/\\pi ratio at moderately large (5--10 GeV) transverse momenta. For hot QCD matter a large enhancement is expected, whose magnitude and shape are exponentially sensitive to the density of colour charges in the medium.

  7. Novel modified pectin for heavy metal adsorption

    Feng Ting Li; Hong Yang; Yan Zhao; Ran Xu


    Modified pectin cross-linked with adipic acid, was synthesized and used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. SEM and FrIR were used to investigate its structure and morphology. The modified pectin had a rough, porous phase covered with carboxy groups, resulting a high adsorption capacity. And at the room temperature, the saturated loading capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ reached 1.82 mmol/g, 1.794 mmol/g and 0.964 mmol/g, respectively. The results proved its potential application to remove of the heavy metal.

  8. Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel


    We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15\\%. %The rapidity profile of the charge is wider than the profile of the local energy density. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.

  9. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    Kanazawa, Takuya


    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  10. New lattice action for heavy quarks

    Oktay, Mehmet B.; Kronfeld, Andreas S.


    We extend the Fermilab method for heavy quarks to include interactions of dimension six and seven in the action. There are, in general, many new interactions, but we carry out the calculations needed to match the lattice action to continuum QCD at the tree level, finding six non-zero couplings. Using the heavy-quark theory of cutoff effects, we estimate how large the remaining discretization errors are. We find that our tree-level matching, augmented with one-loop matching of the dimension-five interactions, can bring these errors below 1%, at currently available lattice spacings.

  11. An Experimental Review on Heavy-Flavor v2 in Heavy-Ion Collision

    Md. Nasim


    Full Text Available For over a decade now, the primary purpose of relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC has been to study the properties of QCD matter under extreme conditions—high temperature and high density. The heavy-ion experiments at both RHIC and LHC have recorded a wealth of data in p+p, p+Pb, d+Au, Cu+Cu, Cu+Au, Au+Au, Pb+Pb, and U+U collisions at energies ranging from sNN=7.7 GeV to 7 TeV. Heavy quarks are considered good probe to study the QCD matter created in relativistic collisions due to their very large mass and other unique properties. A precise measurement of various properties of heavy-flavor hadrons provides an insight into the fundamental properties of the hot and dense medium created in these nucleus-nucleus collisions, such as transport coefficient and thermalization and hadronization mechanisms. The main focus of this paper is to present a review on the measurements of azimuthal anisotropy of heavy-flavor hadrons and to outline the scientific opportunities in this sector due to future detector upgrade. We will mainly discuss the elliptic flow of open charmed meson (D-meson, J/ψ, and leptons from heavy-flavor decay at RHIC and LHC energy.

  12. Specific Features of Heavy Quark Production. LPHD approach to heavy particle spectra

    Dokshitzer, Yu. L.; Khoze, V. A.; Troyan, S. I.


    Perturbative QCD formula for inclusive energy spectra of heavy quarks from heavy quark initiated jets which takes into account collinear and/or soft logarithms in all orders, the exact first order result and two-loop effects is applied to distributions of heavy flavoured hadrons in the framework of the LPHD concept. Fits to experimentally measured charm and bottom mean energy losses result in $\\alpha_{\\MSbar}(M_Z)=0.125\\pm 0.003\\pm 0.004$ and $(2\\GeV)^{-1}\\int_0^{2\\GeV} dk \\alpha_s^{eff}(k)= ...

  13. Heavy meson spectra for heavy quark potential in quantum chromodynamics with dilaton

    陈洪; 杨兴华; 姜焕清


    For heavy meson systems, we study the heavy quark potential, which emerges from the effective dilaton-gluoncoupling inspired from the superstring theory. We put emphasis on the new confinement generating mechanism of thispotential through the investigation of the spin-averaged energy levels of the heavy meson systems. By using a unifiedapproach to the solutions of the Schrodinger and the spinless Salpeter equations, we can examine in a realistic waythe effects of using a relativistic kinetic energy. The obtained results agree favourably with other predictions, and therelativistic equation can better account for the observed energy levels.

  14. Heavy Water Reactor; Reacteurs a eau lourde

    Yu, St.; HOpwood, J.; Meneley, D. [Energie Atomique du Canada (Canada)


    This document deals with the Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) technology and especially the Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. This reactors type offers many advantages that promote them for the future. General concepts, a description of the Candu nuclear power plants, the safety systems, the fuel cycle and economical and environmental aspects are included. (A.L.B.)

  15. Heavy baryon spectroscopy from the lattice

    Bowler, K.C.; Kenway, R.D.; Oliveira, O.; Richards, D.G.; Ueberholz, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (Scotland); Lellouch, L.; Nieves, J.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Stella, N.; Wittig, H. [Physics Department, The University, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)


    The results of an exploratory lattice study of heavy baryon spectroscopy are presented. We have computed the full spectrum of the eight baryons containing a single heavy quark, on a 24{sup 3}{times}48 lattice at {beta}=6.2, using an {ital O}({ital a})-improved fermion action. We discuss the lattice baryon operators and give a method for isolating the contributions of the spin doublets ({Sigma},{Sigma}{sup {asterisk}}), ({Xi}{sup {prime}},{Xi}{sup {asterisk}}), and ({Omega},{Omega}{sup {asterisk}}) to the correlation function of the relevant operator. We compare our results with the available experimental data and find good agreement in both the charm and the {ital b}-quark sectors, despite the long extrapolation in the heavy quark mass needed in the latter case. We also predict the masses of several undiscovered baryons. We compute the {Lambda}-pseudoscalar meson and {Sigma}-{Lambda} mass splittings. Our results, which have errors in the range 10{endash}30{percent}, are in good agreement with the experimental numbers. For the {Sigma}{sup {asterisk}}-{Sigma} mass splitting, we find results considerably smaller than the experimental values for both the charm and the {ital b}-flavored baryons, although in the latter case the experimental results are still preliminary. This is also the case for the lattice results for the hyperfine splitting for the heavy mesons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Quenched heavy-light decay constants

    Baxter, R.M.; Booth, S.P.; Bowler, K.C.; Collins, S.; Henty, D.S.; Kenway, R.D.; Richards, D.G.; Shanahan, H.P.; Simone, J.N.; Simpson, A.D.; Wilkes, B.E. (Department of Physics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)); Ewing, A.K.; Lellouch, L.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Wittig, H. (Physics Department, The University, Southampton SO9 5NH (United Kingdom)); (UKQCD Collaboration)


    We present results for heavy-light decay constants, using both propagating quarks and the static approximation, in [ital O]([ital a])-improved, quenched lattice QCD. At [beta]=6.2 on a 24[sup 3][times]48 lattice we find [ital f][sub [ital D

  17. Auto Mechanics. Heavy Equipment. Small Engines.

    Finnerty, Kathy

    Developed for use in auto mechanics, Heavy Equipment Repair and Operation (HERO), and small engines programs, these study guides and supplemental worksheets cover operating principles, lubrication, cooling system, ignition circuit and electrical system, and fuel system. The worksheets and guide questions are phrased to emphasize key points…

  18. Heavy quarkonium suppression in a fireball

    Escobedo, Miguel Ángel [Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The dissociation of heavy quarkonium seen in heavy-ion collisions is a phenomena that allows to extract information of the produced thermal medium. This was believed to be due to the screening of the static potential but recently perturbative computations and some lattice studies have pointed out the possibility of having an imaginary part of the potential that would also contribute to dissociation. In recent years a program to study heavy quarkonium with the use of non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) has been started, this allows to make the computations in a more systematic way by defining a more suitable power counting and making it more difficult to miss necessary resummations. However until now these studies have been done assuming thermal equilibrium. In this work we will discuss what happens in the EFT formalism when heavy quarkonium is in a medium that is not in thermal equilibrium and what is the expected suppression when a medium with a time dependent effective temperature that follows Bjorken evolution is considered. This will be done adapting previous results from different temperature regimes.

  19. Non-perturbative Heavy Quark Effective Theory

    Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Simma, Hubert;


    We review a lattice strategy how to non-perturbatively determine the coefficients in the HQET expansion of all components of the heavy-light axial and vector currents, including 1/m_h-corrections. We also discuss recent preliminary results on the form factors parameterizing semi-leptonic B-decays...

  20. Non-perturbative Heavy Quark Effective Theory

    Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Simma, Hubert


    We review a lattice strategy how to non-perturbatively determine the coefficients in the HQET expansion of all components of the heavy-light axial and vector currents, including 1/m_h-corrections. We also discuss recent preliminary results on the form factors parameterizing semi-leptonic B-decays...

  1. Heavy ion isotope resolution with polymer detectors

    Vidal-Quadras Roca, Alejo; Ortega Girón, Manuel; Fernández Moreno, Francisco; Font Garcia, Josep Lluís; Casas Ametller, Montserrat; Baixeras Divar, Carmen; Gonzalo Cestero, Miguel


    The heavy ion mass resolution power of polymer detectors Lexan and cellulose nitrate is systematically studied both for accelerator and for cosmic ions. It is concluded that a satisfactory isotopic discrimination, better than 1 u, is hardly attainable with these detectors. Peer Reviewed

  2. Heavy drinking and health promotion activities.

    Ettner, Susan L; French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana


    Empirical evidence suggests that individuals who consume relatively large amounts of alcohol are more likely to use expensive acute medical care and less likely to use preventive or ambulatory services than other individuals. The few studies that investigated the associations between heavy drinking and health promotion activities did not try to address omitted-variable biases that may confound the relationships. To fill this void in the literature, we examined the effects of heavy alcohol use on three health promotion activities (routine physical exam, flu shot, regular seatbelt use) using the US 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. Although specification tests indicated that omitted variable bias was not present in the majority of the single-equation probit models, we cautiously interpret our findings as evidence of strong associations rather than causal effects. Among both men and women, heavy alcohol use is negatively and significantly associated with each of our three outcomes. These findings suggest that heavy drinkers may be investing less in health promotion activities relative to abstainers and other drinkers. Policy options to address the associated externalities may be warranted.

  3. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    Feng-Kun Guo


    Full Text Available Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of O(ΛQCD/mQ, with ΛQCD the scale of QCD and mQ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we will show that a small S- and D-wave mixing in the wave function of the heavy quarkonium could induce a large breaking in the ratios of partial decay widths. As an example, we consider the decays of the ϒ(10860 into the χbJω (J=0,1,2, which were recently measured by the Belle Collaboration. These decays exhibit a huge breaking of the spin symmetry relation were the ϒ(10860 a pure 5S bottomonium state. We propose that this could be a consequence of a mixing of the S-wave and D-wave components in the ϒ(10860. Prediction on the ratio Γ(ϒ(10860→χb0ω/Γ(ϒ(10860→χb2ω is presented assuming that the decay of the D-wave component is dominated by the coupled-channel effects.

  4. Photoelectrochemical detection of toxic heavy metals

    Chamier, J


    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals in air, soil, and water are global problems that are a growing threat to the environment. Trace metal determination is currently done by expensive separation techniques which include inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and cold vapor...

  5. Positron production in collision of heavy nuclei

    Khriplovich, I B


    We consider the electromagnetic production of positron in collision of slow heavy nuclei, with the simultaneously produced electron captured by one of the nuclei. The cross-section of the discussed process exceeds essentially the cross-section of $e^+e^-$ production.

  6. The quarkonium saga in heavy ion collisions

    Tserruya, Itzhak


    J/psi suppression was proposed more than 25 years ago as an unambiguous signature for the formation of the Quark Gluon Plasma in relativistic heavy ion collisions. After intensive efforts, both experimental and theoretical, the quarkonium saga remains exciting, producing surprising results and not fully understood. This talk focuses on recent results on quarkonium production at RHIC and the LHC.


    Adam Łukowski


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was estimation of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd in forage grasses from the area of Podlasie Province based on the bioaccumulation factor. In the soil samples the pH, organic carbon content and CEC were determined. Determination of heavy metals contents in plant and soil material was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Soils were characterized mainly by acidic reaction, high cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. The content of heavy metals in studied forage grasses did not exceed the polish regulations related to plant usage for feeding purposes, except the lead content in seven samples. Coefficients of variation for particular heavy metals content in studied forage grasses were as follows: Pb - 37%, Ni - 63%, Cu - 30%, Zn - 34%, Cd - 48%. The highest bioaccumulation factor was found for nickel and grass from the village Remieńkiń (11.54, while the lowest for cadmium and grass from the village Jemieliste (0.04.

  8. "Super" Cocktails for Heavy Ion Testing

    Johnson, Michael B; Johnson, Michael B.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Galloway, Michelle; Leitner, Daniela; Morel, James R.; Gimpel, ThomasL.; Ninemire, Brien F.; Siero, Reba; Thatcher, Raymond K.


    The 4.5 MeV/nucleon heavy ion cocktail at the 88-Inch Cyclotron has been expanded by incorporating beams from solid material to fill in the linear energy transfer curve. This supercocktail is available by special request and is useful when only normal incidence between the beam and the device under test is possible or desirable.

  9. On the Elastic Scattering of Heavy Nuclei

    McIntosh, J. S.; Park, S. C.; Turner, J. E.


    A program is presented for determining the differential cross-section for the elastic scattering of heavy nuclei. It utilizes the unitary property of the S-matrix and a less drastic L-dependence of the absorption than the sharp cut-off model of Blair. it is shown that experimental data can be fitted quite well. (auth)

  10. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves


    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  11. Heavy-Ion Physics in a Nutshell

    Hirano Tetsufumi


    Full Text Available The physics of quark gluon plasma (QGP and heavy ion collisions at the collider energies is briefly reviewed. We first discuss about the discovery of a nearly perfect fluidity of the QGP. We also highlights recent topics on responses of the QGP to initial deformation and propagation of a jet.

  12. Quarkonium production in heavy-ion collisions

    Arnaldi Roberta


    Full Text Available The production of quarkonium states plays a crucial role among the probes to investigate the formation of the plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP in heavy-ion collisions. A review of the charmonium and bottomonium production, mainly focussing on the latest results from the LHC experiments, is presented.

  13. Heavy-flavour meson production at RHIC

    Mischke, A.


    Collisions of heavy atomic nuclei at very high beam energies allow to create and study hot QCD matter under laboratory-controlled conditions. Measurements at the SPS and RHIC facilities have yielded compelling evidence for the formation of this novel state of matter, the so-called Quark-Gluon Plasma

  14. Physics of heavy flavor at CDF

    Torre, Stefano; /Siena U. /INFN, Pisa


    Results on physics of heavy flavor at CDF are reported. Selected measurements of Branching Ratios and CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}, lifetime difference of B{sub s}{sup 0} CP eigenstates and a precise measurement of the B{sub c} mass are presented.

  15. Brain volume reductions in adolescent heavy drinkers.

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Rinker, Daniel A; Bartsch, Hauke; Castro, Norma; Chung, Yoonho; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Tapert, Susan F


    Brain abnormalities in adolescent heavy drinkers may result from alcohol exposure, or stem from pre-existing neural features. This longitudinal morphometric study investigated 40 healthy adolescents, ages 12-17 at study entry, half of whom (n=20) initiated heavy drinking over the 3-year follow-up. Both assessments included high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain volumes, which were measured longitudinally using the newly developed quantitative anatomic regional change analysis (QUARC) tool. At baseline, participants who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed smaller left cingulate, pars triangularis, and rostral anterior cingulate volume, and less right cerebellar white matter volumes (pteens. Over time, participants who initiated heavy drinking showed significantly greater volume reduction in the left ventral diencephalon, left inferior and middle temporal gyrus, and left caudate and brain stem, compared to substance-naïve youth (pbrain regions in future drinkers and greater brain volume reduction in subcortical and temporal regions after alcohol use was initiated. This is consistent with literature showing pre-existing cognitive deficits on tasks recruited by frontal regions, as well as post-drinking consequences on brain regions involved in language and spatial tasks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.




    This is a mini-review of recent theoretical work in the field of relativistic heavy ion physics. The following topics are discussed initial conditions and the Color Glass Condensate; approach to thermalization and the hydrodynamic evolution; hard probes and the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. Some of the unsolved problems and potentially promising directions for future research are listed as well.

  17. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.


    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  18. "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Share Tweet ... Feed A federal law is restricting the words “light,” “low,” and “mild” from tobacco products now on ...

  19. Heavy quarkonium hybrids: Spectrum, decay, and mixing

    Oncala, Ruben; Soto, Joan


    We present a largely model-independent analysis of the lighter heavy quarkonium hybrids based on the strong coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD. We calculate the spectrum at leading order, including the mixing of static hybrid states. We use potentials that fulfill the required short and long distance theoretical constraints and fit well the available lattice data. We argue that the decay width to the lower lying heavy quarkonia can be reliably estimated in some cases and provide results for a selected set of decays. We also consider the mixing with heavy quarkonium states. We establish the form of the mixing potential at O (1 /mQ) , mQ being the mass of the heavy quarks, and work out its short and long distance constraints. The weak coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD and the effective string theory of QCD are used for that goal. We show that the mixing effects may indeed be important and produce large spin symmetry violations. Most of the isospin zero XYZ states fit well in our spectrum, either as a hybrid or standard quarkonium candidate.

  20. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  1. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad


    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  2. Entropic destruction of a rotating heavy quarkonium

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Ma, Chong; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang


    Using the AdS/CFT duality, we study the destruction of a rotating heavy quarkonium due to the entropice force in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory and a confining YM theory. It is shown that in both theories increasing the angular velocity leads to decreasing the entropic force. This result implies that the rotating quarkonium dissociates harder than the static case.

  3. Experimental Overview of Open Heavy Flavor

    Schweda, Kai


    These are the proceedings of the experimental overview of the production of open heavy flavor at the international conference Strangeness in Quark Matter 2016. Instead of a comprehensive overview, I focus on a few topics which the reader might find particularly interesting.

  4. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  5. Holographic Picture of Heavy Vector Meson Melting

    Braga, Nelson R F; Diles, Saulo


    The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one fla...

  6. Heavy minerals : from 'Edelstein' to Einstein

    de Meijer, RJ


    Identification in 1982 on the Dutch Frisian Island of Ameland of beach sand with;ln enhanced level of natural radioactivity, due to concentrations of heavy minerals, inspired a multi-disciplinary research project. A joint research effort in geochemistry, sedimentology, hydrodynamics, solid-state phy

  7. Heavy metals extraction from anaerobically digested sludge

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Bruning, H.; Loan, N.T.P.; Rulkens, W.H.


    This paper reports on the chemical extraction efficiency in the removal of heavy metals from sludge from an activated-sludge system, which receives as influent both industrial and municipal wastewater. Utilizing a series of chemical extractants in a sequential order comprised the first phase of the

  8. Phytoremediation of heavy metals: Recent techniques | Jadia ...

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... microorganisms/biomass or live plants to clean polluted areas. ... of the plants. A brief review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on plants have been compiled to provide a wide applicability of ...

  9. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Pickett, J.B.


    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  10. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Pickett, J.B.


    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  11. Systemic causes of heavy menstrual bleeding

    Verschueren, Sophie


    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common problem in fertile women. In addition to local factors, such as a polyp or a uterine fibroid, systemic causes may lead to HMB. These systemic causes are discussed in this thesis. For years, women with HMB were tested underlying thyroid disorder, but our res

  12. Photoelectron spectroscopy of heavy atoms and molecules

    White, M.G.


    The importance of relativistic interactions in the photoionization of heavy atoms and molecules has been investigated by the technique of photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, experiments are reported which illustrate the effects of the spin-orbit interaction in the neutral ground state, final ionic states and continuum states of the photoionization target.

  13. Weak chaos in the asymmetric heavy top

    Barrientos, M; Ranada, A F


    We consider the dynamics of the slightly asymmetric heavy top, a non-integrable system obtained from the Lagrange top by breaking the symmetry of its inertia tensor. It shows signs of weak chaos, which we study numerically. We argue that it is a good example for introducing students to non-integrability and chaos. (author)

  14. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil


    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  15. Recent advances in heavy quark theory

    Wise, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Some recent developments in heavy quark theory are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to inclusive weak decays of hadrons containing a b quark. The isospin violating hadronic decay D{sub s}* {yields} D{sub s}{sup pi}{sup 0} is also discussed.

  16. Solubility of deposited airborne heavy metals

    Cizmecioglu, Sibel C.; Muezzinoglu, Aysen


    Toxic effects of heavy metals in water and soil environments are important. Quantifying the heavy metal concentrations and their solubilities in dry and wet deposition samples is part of atmospheric research. Soluble fractions of the deposited air pollutants are important in food chain mechanisms as heavy metals may cause ecotoxic impacts. In this study, the solubilities of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni were investigated in deposition samples for total, dissolved, and suspended fractions after collection in a surrogate, water-surface sampler in Izmir, Turkey, during October 2003 to June 2004. To find overall solubility of each metal in dry and wet deposition samples, concentrations in soluble and suspended phases of aqueous solutions were analyzed separately. Ratios between total and dissolved forms and the metals in the same forms were analyzed and evaluated statistically. It was found that the deposited metal fluxes were significantly correlated in wet deposition with the highest correlation between Cd and Pb in the soluble and total forms. Comparatively smaller correlations were found between these metal fluxes in dry deposition samples. Results of this study showed the importance of metal pollution, especially ecotoxic properties of heavy metals in wet deposition far more than dry deposition.

  17. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))


    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  18. Heavy Mesons in Nuclear Matter and Nuclei

    Tolos, Laura; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Romanets, Olena; Salcedo, Lorenzo Luis; Torres-Rincon, Juan M


    Heavy mesons in nuclear matter and nuclei are analyzed within different frameworks, paying a special attention to unitarized coupled-channel approaches. Possible experimental signatures of the properties of these mesons in matter are addressed, in particular in connection with the future FAIR facility at GSI.

  19. Heavy quark pair production in high energy pA collisions: Open heavy flavors

    Fujii, Hirotsugu


    We study open heavy flavor meson production in proton-nucleus (pA) collisions at RHIC and LHC energies within the Color Glass Condensate framework. We use the unintegrated gluon distribution at small Bjorken's x in the proton obtained by solving the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling correction and constrained by global fitting of HERA data. We change the initial saturation scale of the gluon distribution for the heavy nucleus. The gluon distribution with McLerran-Venugopalan model initial condition is also used for comparison. We present transverse momentum spectra of single D and B productions in pA collisions, and the so-called nuclear modification factor. The azimuthal angle correlation of open heavy flavor meson pair is also computed to study the modification due to the gluon saturation in the heavy nucleus at the LHC.

  20. Investigation on radiation shielding parameters of ordinary, heavy and super heavy concretes

    Singh Vishwaanath P.


    Full Text Available Shielding of a reactor is required for protection of people and environment during normal operation and accidental situations. In the present paper we investigated the shielding parameters viz. mass attenuation coefficients, linear attenuation coefficients, tenth-value layer, effective atomic numbers, kerma relative to air and exposure buildup factors for gamma-ray for ordinary, heavy, and super heavy concretes. Macroscopic effective removal cross-sections for fast neutron had also been calculated. Ordinary concrete is economically suitable for mixture high energy gamma-ray and neutron as it has large weight fraction of low-Z as compared with super heavy concretes to slow down the neutron. Super heavy concretes are superior shielding for both reactor operation and accident situations. The study is useful for optimizing for shielding design and radiation protection in the reactors.

  1. On the Role of One Pion Exchange and Heavy Quark Spin Symmetry in Heavy Meson Molecules

    Pavón Valderrama M.


    Full Text Available In this contribution we consider the theoretical description of heavy mesonantimeson molecules from the effective field theory perspective. We are interested in the role of one pion exchange and heavy quark spin symmetry in the low energy description of the molecular states. We find that pion exchanges are weaker than naively expected. As a consequence, at lowest order in the effective expansion, the heavy meson-antimeson dynamics are driven by contact range interactions that are in turn heavily constrained by heavy quark spin symmetry. We find that if the X(3872 DD¯*${m{Dar D*}}$ is a bound state with quantum numbers JPC = 1++, we should expect the existence of a 2++ DD¯*${m{Dar D*}}$ molecule with a mass of 4012 MeV. If we also assume the X(3915 resonance to be molecular, we end up deriving the location of three new states with masses of 3710, 3820 and 3855 MeV.

  2. Heavy Quarkonium Dissociation Cross Sections in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    C.-Y. Wong; Eric Swanson; Ted Barnes


    Many of the hadron-hadron cross sections required for the study of the dynamics of matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions can be calculated using the quark-interchange model. Here we evaluate the low-energy dissociation cross sections of J/{psi}, {psi}', {chi}, {Upsilon}, and {Upsilon}' in collision with {pi}, {rho}, and K, which are important for the interpretation of heavy-quarkonium suppression as a signature for the quark gluon plasma. These comover dissociation processes also contribute to heavy-quarkonium suppression, and must be understood and incorporated in simulations of heavy-ion collisions before QGP formation can be established through this signature.

  3. Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear systems formed in heavy-ion collisions

    Manoj K Sharma; Gurvinder Kaur


    The dynamical description of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclei formed in heavy-ion collisions is worked out using the dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), with reference to various effects such as deformation and orientation, temperature, angular momentum etc. Based on the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), DCM has been applied to understand the decay mechanism of a large number of nuclei formed in low-energy heavy-ion reactions. Various features related to the dynamics of competing decay modes of nuclear systems are explored by addressing the experimental data of a number of reactions in light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy mass regions. The DCM, being a non-statistical description for the decay of a compound nucleus, treats light particles (LPs) or equivalently evaporation residues (ERs), intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) and fission fragments on equal footing and hence, provides an alternative to the available statistical model approaches to address fusion–fission and related phenomena.

  4. From heavy nuclei to super-heavy nuclei; Des noyaux lourds aux super-lourds

    Theisen, Ch


    The existence of super-heavy nuclei has been predicted nearly fifty years ago. Due to the strong coulomb repulsion, the stabilisation of these nuclei is possible only through shell effects. The reasons for this fragile stability, as well as the theoretical predictions concerning the position of the island of stability are presented in the first part of this lecture. In the second part, experiments and experimental techniques which have been used to synthesize or search for super-heavy elements are described. Spectroscopic studies performed in very heavy elements are presented in the following section. We close this lecture with techniques that are currently being developed in order to reach the superheavy island and to study the structure of very-heavy nuclei. (author)

  5. 7 CFR 29.2437 - Heavy Leaf (B Group).


    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... tolerance. B3M Good Mixed Color Heavy Leaf. Medium to heavy body, mature, firm, oily, semielastic, normal...

  6. Use of Sapropel for Removal of Heavy Metals from Solution

    Rūta Birgėlaitė; Vaidotas Valskys; Gytautas Ignatavičius


    ... composition of sapropel research is very few. The article deals with silicon sapropel as a sorbent is able to absorb heavy metals from the solution depending on the time and the concentration of heavy metals in the solution...

  7. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...


    Key words: Heavy metal contamination, roadside soils, enrichment factors, contamination factor, pollution load index ... The objectives of the present work were to: (1) Assess heavy metal ..... the basis of Varimax orthogonal rotation with Kaiser.

  8. Heavy mineral occurrence off Hazira, west coast of India

    Vora, K.H.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.

    of sphene, zircon, staurolite, kyanite, tourmaline etc. indicating mixed igneous and metamorphic source. The grain size studies indicate positive correlation between concentration of heavies and high sorting values, as well as concentration of heavies...

  9. Determination of selected heavy metals in inland fresh water of ...


    significant negative impact on the water quality. Key words: Heavy ... fish, and for such in-stream uses as recreation, ... adverse effects of pollutants such as heavy metals is ... through Kebbi State and flows through to the Atlantic Ocean. The.

  10. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Bryan Romero


    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness.  Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  11. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.


    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  12. Recent results on heavy quark quenching in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Bluhm, Marcus; Gousset, Thierry; Nahrgang, Marlene; Vogel, Sascha; Werner, Klaus


    In this contribution, we present some predictions for the production of D and B mesons in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies and confront them with experimental results obtained so far by the STAR, PHENIX, ALICE and CMS collaborations. We next discuss some preliminary results obtained with an improved description of the medium based on EPOS initial conditions, and its possible implications on the nuclear modification factor and on the elliptic flow of heavy quarks.

  13. Theory and Analysis of Classic Heavy Metal Harmony

    Lilja, Esa


    This thesis explores melodic and harmonic features of heavy metal, and while doing so, explores various methods of music analysis; their applicability and limitations regarding the study of heavy metal music. The study is built on three general hypotheses according to which 1) acoustic characteristics play a significant role for chord constructing in heavy metal, 2) heavy metal has strong ties and similarities with other Western musical styles, and 3) theories and analytical methods of Wester...

  14. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    Amouei A.1 PhD,; Tashakkorian H.1 PhD,; Naghipour D.2 PhD,; Mohammadi P.3 MSc


    Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild a...

  15. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.


    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  16. Discovery of dumbbell-shaped Cs*He_n exciplexes in solid He 4

    Nettels, D; Moroshkin, P; Müller-Siebert, R; Ulzega, S; Weis, A


    We have observed several new spectral features in the fluorescence of cesium atoms implanted in the hcp phase of solid helium following laser excitation to the 6$^{2}$P states. Based on calculations of the emission spectra using semiempirical Cs-He pair potentials the newly discovered lines can be assigned to the decay of specific Cs*He$_{n}$ exciplexes: an apple-shaped Cs$(A\\Pi _{3/2})$He$_{2}$ and a dumbbell-shaped Cs$(A\\Pi_{1/2}) $He$_{n}$ exciplex with a well defined number $n$ of bound helium atoms. While the former has been observed in other enviroments, it was commonly believed that exciplexes with $n>2$ might not exist. The calculations suggest Cs$(A\\Pi_{1/2}) $He$_{6}$ to be the most probable candidate for that exciplex, in which the helium atoms are arranged on a ring around the waist of the dumbbell shaped electronic density distribution of the cesium atom.

  17. A closed cycle 3He- 4He dilution refrigerator insensitive to gravity

    Martin, Florian; Vermeulen, Gerard; Camus, Philippe; Benoit, Alain


    The cooling power and the lifetime of an open cycle dilution refrigerator as developed for the Planck mission (100 nW at 100 mK during 30 months) are limited by the quantity of the helium isotopes carried on the satellite at launch, because the helium mixture obtained after the dilution process is rejected into space. Future space missions require to increase the cooling power and lifetime significantly (1 μW at 50 mK during 5 years). Therefore we are extending the open cycle dilution refrigerator with a helium isotope separator operating at 1 K to close the cycle. A first prototype to demonstrate the principle of the closed cycle dilution refrigerator has been tested and a cooling power of 1 μW at temperatures below 60 mK has been obtained. We present the apparatus and the experimental results and give some elements for its integration in a complete cooling chain. The advantages (continuous operation, absence of magnetic field, less weight) of a closed cycle dilution refrigerator with respect to an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator are also discussed.

  18. Assessment of serum HE4 levels throughout the normal menstrual cycle.

    Moore, Richard G; Plante, Beth; Hartnett, Erin; Mitchel, Jessica; Raker, Christine A; Vitek, Wendy; Eklund, Elizabeth; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn


    Human epididymis protein 4 is a serum biomarker to aid in differentiating benign and malignant disease in women with a pelvic mass. Interpretation of human epididymis protein 4 results relies on robust normative data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether human epididymis protein 4 levels are variable in women during the normal menstrual cycle. Healthy women, 18-45 years old, with regular menstrual cycles were recruited from community gynecologic practices in Rhode Island. Women consented to enroll and to participate by the donation of blood and urine samples at 5 specific times over the course of each cycle. Levels of reproductive hormones and human epididymis protein 4 were determined. Data were analyzed with the use of linear regression after log transformation. Among 74 enrolled cycles, 53 women had confirmed ovulation during the menstrual cycle and completed all 5 sample collections. Levels of estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone displayed the expected menstrual cycle patterns. Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in serum were relatively stable across the menstrual cycle, except for a small ovulatory (median, 37.0 pM) increase. Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in urine, after correction for creatinine, displayed the same pattern of secretion observed in serum. Serum human epididymis protein 4 levels are relatively stable across the menstrual cycle of reproductive-aged women and can be determined on any day to evaluate risk of ovarian malignancy. A slight increase is expected at ovulation; but even with this higher human epididymis protein 4 level, results are well within the healthy reference range for women (<120 pM). Levels of human epididymis protein 4 in urine warrant further investigation for use in clinical practice as a simple and convenient sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Open heavy flavor and quarkonia measurements in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC

    Bielcik Jaroslav


    Full Text Available The properties of the hot and dense nuclear matter produced at RHIC in heavy-ion collisions can be investigated in multiple ways by heavy flavor production. The STAR and PHENIX experiments have excellent capability to study both open heavy flavor and quarkonia. Heavy quarks are produced in early stage of the collisions and the mechanisms of their interaction with nuclear matter are not yet well understood. The open heavy flavor hadrons can be studied using electrons from their semileptonic decays or via direct reconstruction through their hadronic decay channels. The heavy quarkonia production is expected to be sequentially suppressed depending on the temperature of the produced nuclear matter. However, cold nuclear matter effects play an important role and have to be well understood. In this paper we report recent results from the RHIC heavyion program on non-photonic electrons, direct reconstruction of charm mesons, J/ψ as well as ϒ in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV.

  20. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of ...


    (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Lead (Pb). They are natural ... Heavy metals poisoning could result for instance, from drinking water contamination ... The high level of pollution caused by heavy metals and their .... measures need to be taken in order to prevent future heavy metal pollution. References.