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Sample records for hdemeeste wetland complex

  1. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Davis

    Full Text Available The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year (ii interrupted peristence (iii delayed recruitment (iv facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological

  2. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  3. Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Shaffer, Terry L.

    2002-01-01

    Floristic quality assessment is potentially an important tool for conservation efforts in the northern Great Plains of North America, but it has received little rigorous evaluation. Floristic quality assessments rely on coefficients assigned to each plant species of a region’s flora based on the conservatism of each species relative to others in the region. These “coefficients of conservatism” (C values) are assigned by a panel of experts familiar with a region’s flora. The floristic quality assessment method has faced some criticism due to the subjective nature of these assignments. To evaluate the effect of this subjectivity on floristic quality assessments, we performed separate evaluations of the native plant communities in a natural wetland complex and three restored wetland complexes. In our first assessment, we used C values assigned “subjectively” by the Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel. We then performed an independent assessment using the observed distributions of species among a group of wetlands that ranged from highly disturbed to largely undisturbed (data-generated C values). Using the panel-assigned C values, mean C values (C¯">C¯C¯) of the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 3.4 and never exceeded 3.9, with the highest values occurring in the oldest restored complex; all but two wetlands in the natural wetland complex had a C¯">C¯C¯ greater than 3.9. Floristic quality indices (FQI) for the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 22 and usually reached maximums closer to 19, with higher values occurring again in the oldest restored complex; only two wetlands in the natural complex had an FQI less than 22. We observed that 95% confidence limits for species richness and percent natives overlapped greatly among wetland complexes, whereas confidence limits for both C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI overlapped little. C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI values were consistently greater when we used the datagenerated C values than when we used the

  4. Analysis of complex wetland ecological system: Effect of harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Kumar Thakur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied interaction among diffusive phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish population with Beddington-DeAngelis type functional response for the zooplankton and Holling type III for fish. The stability analysis of the model system with diffusion and without diffusion has been analyzed. The conditions for Maximum sustainable yield and Optimal harvesting policy for non-spatial model have been discussed. Our study may be helpful to improve and manage ecosystem services provided by wetlands on an agricultural landscapes include fisheries, water conservation, climate change and many more.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF A GOLF COMPLEX ON COASTAL WETLANDS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal wetlands and other near-shore areas. The chemical and biological magnitude of the problem is almost unknown. To provide perspective on this issue, the effects of golf complex r...

  6. A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

  7. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  8. Terrestrial laser scanning to quantify above-ground biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owers, Christopher J.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2018-05-01

    Above-ground biomass represents a small yet significant contributor to carbon storage in coastal wetlands. Despite this, above-ground biomass is often poorly quantified, particularly in areas where vegetation structure is complex. Traditional methods for providing accurate estimates involve harvesting vegetation to develop mangrove allometric equations and quantify saltmarsh biomass in quadrats. However broad scale application of these methods may not capture structural variability in vegetation resulting in a loss of detail and estimates with considerable uncertainty. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) collects high resolution three-dimensional point clouds capable of providing detailed structural morphology of vegetation. This study demonstrates that TLS is a suitable non-destructive method for estimating biomass of structurally complex coastal wetland vegetation. We compare volumetric models, 3-D surface reconstruction and rasterised volume, and point cloud elevation histogram modelling techniques to estimate biomass. Our results show that current volumetric modelling approaches for estimating TLS-derived biomass are comparable to traditional mangrove allometrics and saltmarsh harvesting. However, volumetric modelling approaches oversimplify vegetation structure by under-utilising the large amount of structural information provided by the point cloud. The point cloud elevation histogram model presented in this study, as an alternative to volumetric modelling, utilises all of the information within the point cloud, as opposed to sub-sampling based on specific criteria. This method is simple but highly effective for both mangrove (r2 = 0.95) and saltmarsh (r2 > 0.92) vegetation. Our results provide evidence that application of TLS in coastal wetlands is an effective non-destructive method to accurately quantify biomass for structurally complex vegetation.

  9. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  10. Effects of groundwater pumping on the sustainability of a mountain wetland complex, Yosemite National Park, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Cooper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study Region: We analyzed the effects of groundwater pumping on a mountain wetland complex, Yosemite National Park, California, USA. Study Focus: Groundwater pumping from mountain meadows is common in many regions of the world. However, few quantitative analyses exist of the hydrologic or ecological effects of pumping. New Hydrological Insights for the Region: Daily hydraulic head and water table variations at sampling locations within 100 m of the pumping well were strongly correlated with the timing and duration of pumping. The effect of pumping varied by distance from the pumping well, depth of the water table when the pumping started, and that water year's snow water equivalent (SWE. Pumping in years with below average SWE and/or early melting snow pack, resulted in a water table decline to the base of the fen peat body by mid summer. Pumping in years with higher SWE and later melting snowpack, resulted in much less water level drawdown from the same pumping schedule. Predictive modeling scenarios showed that, even in a dry water year like 2004, distinct increases in fen water table elevation can be achieved with reductions in pumping. A high water table during summers following low snowpack water years had a more significant influence on vegetation composition than depth of water table in wet years or peat thickness, highlighting the impact of water level drawdown on vegetation. Keywords: Fen, Groundwater pumping, Modeling, Mountain meadow, Water table, Wetlands

  11. Analysis of the landscape complexity and heterogeneity of the Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, C S; Gamarra, R M; Mioto, C L; Silva, N M; Conceição Filho, A P; Pott, A

    2018-05-01

    This is the first report on analysis of habitat complexity and heterogeneity of the Pantanal wetland. The Pantanal encompasses a peculiar mosaic of environments, being important to evaluate and monitor this area concerning conservation of biodiversity. Our objective was to indirectly measure the habitat complexity and heterogeneity of the mosaic forming the sub-regions of the Pantanal, by means of remote sensing. We obtained free images of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the sensor MODIS and calculated the mean value (complexity) and standard deviation (heterogeneity) for each sub-region in the years 2000, 2008 and 2015. The sub-regions of Poconé, Canoeira, Paraguai and Aquidauana presented the highest values of complexity (mean NDVI), between 0.69 and 0.64 in the evaluated years. The highest horizontal heterogeneity (NDVI standard deviation) was observed in the sub-region of Tuiuiú, with values of 0.19 in the years 2000 and 2015, and 0.21 in the year 2008. We concluded that the use of NDVI to estimate landscape parameters is an efficient tool for assessment and monitoring of the complexity and heterogeneity of the Pantanal habitats, applicable in other regions.

  12. Complex networks of functional connectivity in a wetland reconnected to its floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Newman, Susan; Saunders, Colin; Harvey, Judson

    2017-01-01

    Disturbances such as fire or flood, in addition to changing the local magnitude of ecological, hydrological, or biogeochemical processes, can also change their functional connectivity—how those processes interact in space. Complex networks offer promise for quantifying functional connectivity in watersheds. The approach resolves connections between nodes in space based on statistical similarities in perturbation signals (derived from solute time series) and is sensitive to a wider range of timescales than traditional mass-balance modeling. We use this approach to test hypotheses about how fire and flood impact ecological and biogeochemical dynamics in a wetland (Everglades, FL, USA) that was reconnected to its floodplain. Reintroduction of flow pulses after decades of separation by levees fundamentally reconfigured functional connectivity networks. The most pronounced expansion was that of the calcium network, which reflects periphyton dynamics and may represent an indirect influence of elevated nutrients, despite the comparatively smaller observed expansion of phosphorus networks. With respect to several solutes, periphyton acted as a “biotic filter,” shifting perturbations in water-quality signals to different timescales through slow but persistent transformations of the biotic community. The complex-networks approach also revealed portions of the landscape that operate in fundamentally different regimes with respect to dissolved oxygen, separated by a threshold in flow velocity of 1.2 cm/s, and suggested that complete removal of canals may be needed to restore connectivity with respect to biogeochemical processes. Fire reconfigured functional connectivity networks in a manner that reflected localized burn severity, but had a larger effect on the magnitude of solute concentrations.

  13. Geochemistry and hydrology of a calcareous fen within the Savage Fen wetlands complex, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komor, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Savage Fen is a wetlands complex at the base of north-facing bluffs in the Minnesota River Valley. The complex includes 27.8 hectares of calcareous fen that host rare calciphile plants whose populations are declining in Minnesota. Water and sediment compositions in the calcareous fen were studied to gain a better understanding of the hydrologie System that sustains the rare vegetation. Groundwater in the fen is a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate type with circumneutral pH values. The groundwater composition is the resuit of interactions among water, dissolved and gaseous carbon species, carbonates, and ion exchangers. Shallow groundwater is distinguished from deep groundwater by smaller concentrations of chloride, sulfate, magnesium, and sodium, and larger concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonium. Magnesian calcite is the prevalent carbonate in unconsolidated sedimentary fill beneath the fen and is an important source and sink for dissolved calcium, magnesium, and inorganic carbon. Calcite concentrations just below the water table are small because aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of organic matter increase the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), decrease pH, and cause calcite to dissolve. Thick calcite accumulations just above the water table, in the root zone of calciphile plants, result from water table fluctuations and attendant changes in PCO2. Groundwater beneath Savage Fen recharges in lakes and ponds south of the fen and upwells to the surface within the fen. Water at the water table is a mixture of upwelling groundwater and water near the surface that flows downslope from higher elevations in the fen. Changes in oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of shallow groundwater indicate that the proportion of upwelling groundwater in shallow groundwater decreases downgradient in the calcareous fen. Encroachment of reed grasses into the calcareous fen may reflect human-caused disturbances in the recharge area.

  14. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  15. Rising tides, rising gates: The complex ecogeomorphic response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise and human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Steven G.; Rodríguez, José F.; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia M.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to submergence due to sea-level rise, as shown by predictions of up to 80% of global wetland loss by the end of the century. Coastal wetlands with mixed mangrove-saltmarsh vegetation are particularly vulnerable because sea-level rise can promote mangrove encroachment on saltmarsh, reducing overall wetland biodiversity. Here we use an ecogeomorphic framework that incorporates hydrodynamic effects, mangrove-saltmarsh dynamics, and soil accretion processes to assess the effects of control structures on wetland evolution. Migration and accretion patterns of mangrove and saltmarsh are heavily dependent on topography and control structures. We find that current management practices that incorporate a fixed gate for the control of mangrove encroachment are useful initially, but soon become ineffective due to sea-level rise. Raising the gate, to counteract the effects of sea level rise and promote suitable hydrodynamic conditions, excludes mangrove and maintains saltmarsh over the entire simulation period of 100 years

  16. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  17. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  18. Response of methane emissions from wetlands to the Last Glacial Maximum and an idealized Dansgaard–Oeschger climate event: insights from two models of different complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ringeval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of different sources and sinks of CH4 in changes in atmospheric methane ([CH4] concentration during the last 100 000 yr is still not fully understood. In particular, the magnitude of the change in wetland CH4 emissions at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM relative to the pre-industrial period (PI, as well as during abrupt climatic warming or Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O events of the last glacial period, is largely unconstrained. In the present study, we aim to understand the uncertainties related to the parameterization of the wetland CH4 emission models relevant to these time periods by using two wetland models of different complexity (SDGVM and ORCHIDEE. These models have been forced by identical climate fields from low-resolution coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (FAMOUS simulations of these time periods. Both emission models simulate a large decrease in emissions during LGM in comparison to PI consistent with ice core observations and previous modelling studies. The global reduction is much larger in ORCHIDEE than in SDGVM (respectively −67 and −46%, and whilst the differences can be partially explained by different model sensitivities to temperature, the major reason for spatial differences between the models is the inclusion of freezing of soil water in ORCHIDEE and the resultant impact on methanogenesis substrate availability in boreal regions. Besides, a sensitivity test performed with ORCHIDEE in which the methanogenesis substrate sensitivity to the precipitations is modified to be more realistic gives a LGM reduction of −36%. The range of the global LGM decrease is still prone to uncertainty, and here we underline its sensitivity to different process parameterizations. Over the course of an idealized D–O warming, the magnitude of the change in wetland CH4 emissions simulated by the two models at global scale is very similar at around 15 Tg yr−1, but this is only around 25% of the ice-core measured

  19. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  20. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  1. Wetlands and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smardon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment.

  2. Fringe wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fringe wetlands are characterized by the dominance of few species, a clear species zonation, synchrony of ecological processes with episodic events, and simplicity in the structure of vegetation. The structure and ecosystem dynamics of fringe forested wetlands are presented with emphasis on saltwater wetlands because they have been studied more than freshwater ones. The study areas were Caribbean and Florida mangroves. Fringe wetlands are found on the water edge of oceans, inland estuaries, and lakes. Water motion in the fringe is bi-directional and perpendicular to the forest and due mostly to tidal energy in oceanic and estuarine fringes. in lakes, water moves in and out of the fringe under the influence of wind, waves, or seiches. some fringe forests are occasionally flushed by terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge. In contrast, fringe forests located on small offshore islands or steep coastal shroes are isolated from terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge, and their hydroperiod is controlled by tides and waves only. Literature reviews suggest that ecosystem parameters such as vegetation structure, tree growth, primary productivity, and organic matter in sediments respond proportionally to hydrologic energy. Human activity that impacts on fringe forested wetlands include harvesting of trees, oil pollution and eutrophication. 72 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  4. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bo...

  5. Release of dissolved phosphorus from riparian wetlands: Evidence for complex interactions among hydroclimate variability, topography and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sen; Gruau, Gérard; Dupas, Rémi; Rumpel, Cornélia; Crème, Alexandra; Fovet, Ophélie; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Jeanneau, Laurent; Humbert, Guillaume; Petitjean, Patrice

    2017-11-15

    In agricultural landscapes, establishment of vegetated buffer zones in riparian wetlands (RWs) is promoted to decrease phosphorus (P) emissions because RWs can trap particulate P from upslope fields. However, long-term accumulation of P risks the release of dissolved P, since the unstable hydrological conditions in these zones may mobilize accumulated particulate P by transforming it into a mobile dissolved P species. This study evaluates how hydroclimate variability, topography and soil properties interact and influence this mobilization, using a three-year dataset of molybdate-reactive dissolved P (MRDP) and total dissolved P (TDP) concentrations in soil water from two RWs located in an agricultural catchment in western France (Kervidy-Naizin), along with stream P concentrations. Two main drivers of seasonal dissolved P release were identified: i) soil rewetting during water-table rise after dry periods and ii) reductive dissolution of soil Fe (hydr)oxides during prolonged water saturation periods. These mechanisms were shown to vary greatly in space (according to topography) and time (according to intra- and interannual hydroclimate variability). The concentration and speciation of the released dissolved P also varied spatially depending on soil chemistry and local topography. Comparison of sites revealed a similar correlation between soil P speciation (percentage of organic P ranging from 35-70%) and the concentration and speciation of the released P (MRDP from topography and soil chemistry must be considered to decrease the risk of remobilizing legacy soil P when establishing riparian buffer zones in agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating temporal trend in the presence of spatial complexity: a Bayesian hierarchical model for a wetland plant population undergoing restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Rodhouse

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs that evaluate restoration and inform adaptive management are important for addressing environmental degradation. These efforts may be well served by spatially explicit hierarchical approaches to modeling because of unavoidable spatial structure inherited from past land use patterns and other factors. We developed bayesian hierarchical models to estimate trends from annual density counts observed in a spatially structured wetland forb (Camassia quamash [camas] population following the cessation of grazing and mowing on the study area, and in a separate reference population of camas. The restoration site was bisected by roads and drainage ditches, resulting in distinct subpopulations ("zones" with different land use histories. We modeled this spatial structure by fitting zone-specific intercepts and slopes. We allowed spatial covariance parameters in the model to vary by zone, as in stratified kriging, accommodating anisotropy and improving computation and biological interpretation. Trend estimates provided evidence of a positive effect of passive restoration, and the strength of evidence was influenced by the amount of spatial structure in the model. Allowing trends to vary among zones and accounting for topographic heterogeneity increased precision of trend estimates. Accounting for spatial autocorrelation shifted parameter coefficients in ways that varied among zones depending on strength of statistical shrinkage, autocorrelation and topographic heterogeneity--a phenomenon not widely described. Spatially explicit estimates of trend from hierarchical models will generally be more useful to land managers than pooled regional estimates and provide more realistic assessments of uncertainty. The ability to grapple with historical contingency is an appealing benefit of this approach.

  7. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  8. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  9. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  10. Wetlands: Science, Politics, and Geographical Relationships. Pathways in Geography Series, Title No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhart, John E.; Margin, Alex

    This teacher's guide focuses on the value and functions of wetlands by integrating science and the politics of wetlands into a geographic framework. Wetlands are highly dynamic, diverse, and prolific ecosystems. The volume advocates a need for mutual understanding and harmony of effort in order to deal with the complex issues of the wetlands. The…

  11. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  12. "Wetlands: Water Living Filters?",

    OpenAIRE

    Dordio, Ana; Palace, A. J.; Pinto, Ana Paula

    2008-01-01

    Human societies have indirectly used natural wetlands as wastewater discharge sites for many centuries. Observations of the wastewater depuration capacity of natural wetlands have led to a greater understanding of the potential of these ecosystems for pollutant assimilation and have stimulated the development of artificial wetlands systems for treatment of wastewaters from a variety of sources. Constructed wetlands, in contrast to natural wetlands, are human-made systems that are designed, bu...

  13. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  14. Observations On Some Upper Amazonian Wetlands of Southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, J. E.; Muttiah, R.; Khanal, S.

    2007-05-01

    Upper Amazonian wetlands represent little studied, poorly understood, and grossly under protected systems. Scientific investigation of Amazonian wetlands is in its infancy; nor is there much known about their ecological services. Regionally, wetlands form a ubiquitous and significant component of floodplain habitat fed by perennial springs as well as overland runoff. Locally, wetland vegetation forms bewilderingly complex vegetation mosaics that seem to be governed by local topography and hydrology. Drawing upon intensive field campaigns and remotely sensed imagery, we summarize the results and experiences gathered in wetlands of southeastern Peru.

  15. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  16. Object-Based Image Analysis in Wetland Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Dronova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The applications of object-based image analysis (OBIA in remote sensing studies of wetlands have been growing over recent decades, addressing tasks from detection and delineation of wetland bodies to comprehensive analyses of within-wetland cover types and their change. Compared to pixel-based approaches, OBIA offers several important benefits to wetland analyses related to smoothing of the local noise, incorporating meaningful non-spectral features for class separation and accounting for landscape hierarchy of wetland ecosystem organization and structure. However, there has been little discussion on whether unique challenges of wetland environments can be uniformly addressed by OBIA across different types of data, spatial scales and research objectives, and to what extent technical and conceptual aspects of this framework may themselves present challenges in a complex wetland setting. This review presents a synthesis of 73 studies that applied OBIA to different types of remote sensing data, spatial scale and research objectives. It summarizes the progress and scope of OBIA uses in wetlands, key benefits of this approach, factors related to accuracy and uncertainty in its applications and the main research needs and directions to expand the OBIA capacity in the future wetland studies. Growing demands for higher-accuracy wetland characterization at both regional and local scales together with advances in very high resolution remote sensing and novel tasks in wetland restoration monitoring will likely continue active exploration of the OBIA potential in these diverse and complex environments.

  17. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  18. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  19. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  20. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  1. Response of methane emissions from wetlands to the Last Glacial Maximum and an idealized Dansgaard-Oeschger climate event: insights from two models of different complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringeval, B.; Hopcroft, P.O.; Valdes, P.J.; Ciais, P.; Ramstein, G.; Dolman, A.J.; Kageyama, M.

    2013-01-01

    The role of different sources and sinks of CH4 in changes in atmospheric methane ([CH4]) concentration during the last 100 000 yr is still not fully understood. In particular, the magnitude of the change in wetland CH4 emissions at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) relative to the pre-industrial period

  2. Evaluating the piscicide rotenone as an option for eradication of invasive Mozambique tilapia in a Hawaiian brackish-water wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo; Englund, Ronald A.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2015-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were recently discovered in ‘Aimakapā Fishpond, a 12-hectare brackish-water wetland complex in Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, on the Island of Hawai’i. As a possible eradication method, we evaluated rotenone, a natural piscicide used in fish management and the active ingredient in plants traditionally used by indigenous Hawaiians for capturing fish. To assess rotenone’s efficacy in killing tilapia and effects on non-target species, laboratory toxicity tests involved exposing organisms to various concentrations of liquid CFT Legumine (5% rotenone) in static trials of 48-h to 72-h duration. Test organisms included: Mozambique tilapia, non-native guppy Poecilia reticulata, the non-native odonate Rambur’s forktail Ischnura ramburii, native feeble shrimp Palaemon debilis, and native ‘ōpae’ula shrimp Halocaridina rubra. All organisms and water used in tests were obtained from ‘Aimakapā (12.6–12.7 ppt salinity), or, for H. rubra, an anchialine pool (15.0–15.2 ppt salinity). Survival analyses indicated CFT Legumine concentrations >3 ppm (>0.15 mg/L rotenone) achieved 100% mortality of tilapia and 93% of guppies within 24 h, with most tilapia killed by 6 h and most guppies by 2 h. Little or no mortality was observed among invertebrate exposed to 1 to 5 mg/L CFT Legumine: 0% mortality for ‘ōpae’ula shrimp, 4% for feeble shrimp; and 16% for odonate larvae. The 48 h LC50 values for Mozambique tilapia and guppy were 0.06 and 0.11 mg/L rotenone, respectively. Results demonstrate rotenone’s potential for non-native fish eradication in brackish-water habitats, with benefit of low mortality to certain macro-invertebrates. High rotenone tolerance displayed by ‘ōpae’ula shrimp is noteworthy. Invasive fish are common in anchialine pools, threatening existence of shrimp and other invertebrate fauna. Although rotenone’s effects on freshwater organisms have been well studied, our research

  3. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  4. Winter Tourism and mountain wetland management and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherand, S.; Mauz, I.

    2012-04-01

    The degradation and loss of wetlands is more rapid than that of other ecosystems (MEA 2005). In mountains area, wetlands are small and scattered and particularly sensitive to global change. The development of ski resorts can lead to the destruction or the deterioration of mountain wetlands because of hydrologic interferences, fill in, soil compression and erosion, etc. Since 2008, we have studied a high altitude wetland complex in the ski resort of Val Thorens. The aim of our study was to identify the impacts of mountain tourism development (winter and summer tourism) on wetland functioning and to produce an action plan designed to protect, rehabilitate and value the wetlands. We chose an approach based on multi-stakeholder participatory process at every stage, from information gathering to technical choices and monitoring. In this presentation, we show how such an approach can efficiently improve the consideration of wetlands in the development of a ski resort, but also the bottlenecks that need to be overcome. We will also discuss some of the ecological engineering techniques used to rehabilitate or restore high altitude degraded wetlands. Finally, this work has contributed to the creation in 2012 of a mountain wetland observatory coordinated by the conservatory of Haute-Savoie. The objective of this observatory is to estimate ecosystem services furnished by mountain wetlands and to find restoration strategies adapted to the local socio-economical context (mountain agriculture and mountain tourism).

  5. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  6. Forested Wetlands: Functions, Benefits and the Use of Best Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Welsch; David L. Smart; James N. Boyer; Paul Minken; Howard C. Smith; Tamara L. McCandless

    1995-01-01

    Wetlands are complex and fascinating ecosystems that perform a variety of functions of vital importance to the environment and to the society whose very existence depends on the quality of the environment. Wetlands regulate water flow by detaining storm flows for short periods thus reducing Wetlands protect lake shore and coastal areas by buffering the erosive action...

  7. Assessment of Wetland Valuation Processes for Compensation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of compensation has been debated in various fora; however compensation on wetland resources has not been given the primary place. Wetland valuation like any other type of valuation requires going through stages, which may be more complex than real estate valuation for compensation. This study therefore ...

  8. Lake Alaotra wetlands: how long can Madagascar's most important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Alaotra wetlands represent the biggest lake and wetland complex in Madagascar and are home of several endemic species. The region constitutes the largest rice production area and inland fishery of Madagascar. Rice and fish are the main local sources of income. While the population has increased fivefold during ...

  9. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  10. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David Bruce; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Mushet, David M.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Smith, Lora; Walls, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bodies to create spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the timing, flow paths, and magnitude of network connectivity. These attributes signal a critical role for GIWs in sustaining a portfolio of landscape functions, but legal protections remain weak despite preferential loss from many landscapes. GIWs lack persistent surface water connections, but this condition does not imply the absence of hydrological, biogeochemical, and biological exchanges with nearby and downstream waters. Although hydrological and biogeochemical connectivity is often episodic or slow (e.g., via groundwater), hydrologic continuity and limited evaporative solute enrichment suggest both flow generation and solute and sediment retention. Similarly, whereas biological connectivity usually requires overland dispersal, numerous organisms, including many rare or threatened species, use both GIWs and downstream waters at different times or life stages, suggesting that GIWs are critical elements of landscape habitat mosaics. Indeed, weaker hydrologic connectivity with downstream waters and constrained biological connectivity with other landscape elements are precisely what enhances some GIW functions and enables others. Based on analysis of wetland geography and synthesis of wetland functions, we argue that sustaining landscape functions requires conserving the entire continuum of wetland connectivity, including GIWs.

  11. Forested wetland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  12. Constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into the Loch Katrine wetland complex, Park County, Wyoming, and their bioconcentration in the aquatic bird food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota from the Loch Katrine wetlands at Park County, WY in 1992. This study was designed to determine if produced waters pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. The radium-226 concentration recorded at the Sidney Battery Discharge in July, 93.7 pCi/l, exceeded WY DEQ's 60 pCi/l standard for the protection of aquatic life. Water quality acute criteria were exceeded for arsenic, Custer Lake, July, and for zinc, Sidney Battery discharge, April. Radium-226 concentrations in sediments from Custer Lake and Sidney Battery Discharge exceeded the 3 pCi/g background for Oregon Basin soils. The radium-226 concentration in aquatic vegetation, Custer Lake, 29.5 pCi/g, greatly exceeded the 2.9 pCi/g average concentration found in plants growing in uranium mill tailings in South Dakota. Radium-226 in aquatic vegetation may be available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations, Sidney Battery Discharge, exceeded the 10 mg/l standard of WY DEQ. Sediment hydrocarbon concentrations were highest at Sidney Battery Discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in gadwalls from Loch Katrine but was detected in northern shovelers from Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in shovelers is indicative of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  13. Analysis of Spatiotemporal Dynamic and Bifurcation in a Wetland Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wetland ecosystem is studied theoretically and numerically to reveal the rules of dynamics which can be quite accurate to better describe the observed spatial regularity of tussock vegetation. Mathematical theoretical works mainly investigate the stability of constant steady states, the existence of nonconstant steady states, and bifurcation, which can deduce a standard parameter control relation and in return can provide a theoretical basis for the numerical simulation. Numerical analysis indicates that the theoretical works are correct and the wetland ecosystem can show rich dynamical behaviors not only regular spatial patterns. Our results further deepen and expand the study of dynamics in the wetland ecosystem. In addition, it is successful to display tussock formation in the wetland ecosystem may have important consequences for aquatic community structure, especially for species interactions and biodiversity. All these results are expected to be useful in the study of the dynamic complexity of wetland ecosystems.

  14. Hydrology and Ecology of Freshwater Wetlands in Central Florida - A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Kim H.; Lee, Terrie M.

    2010-01-01

    how wetlands are affected by human activities. Freshwater wetlands are unique and complex ecosystems defined by characteristic properties. Wetlands usually have standing water during at least part of the year, although water depths can vary from a few inches to as much as several feet from one wetland to another. The hydrologic behavior of wetlands is influenced by drainage basin characteristics, as well as by natural variations in climate. Wetlands in central Florida (especially forested wetlands) often have acidic waters that are darkly stained from organic substances released by decomposing leaves and other plant material. Wetlands are characterized by biogeochemical cycles in which vital elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and others are transformed as they move between wetland soils and sediments, the open water, and the atmosphere. Wetlands are populated with plants that can thrive under conditions of saturated soils and low dissolved-oxygen concentrations. The bottoms of many wetlands, especially marshes, are covered with decayed plant material that can accumulate over time to form brown peat or black muck soils. Wetlands are inhabited by animals that need standing water to complete some or all of their life cycles, and they also provide periodic food, water, and shelter for many other animals that spend most of their lives on dry land. The complex and interrelated components of wetlands directly affect one another and there are numerous feedback mechanisms.

  15. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  16. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  17. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  18. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  19. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  20. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  1. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  2. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  3. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  4. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  5. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  6. Adaptation Tipping Points of a Wetland under a Drying Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Nanda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands experience considerable alteration to their hydrology, which typically contributes to a decline in their overall ecological integrity. Wetland management strategies aim to repair wetland hydrology and attenuate wetland loss that is associated with climate change. However, decision makers often lack the data needed to support complex social environmental systems models, making it difficult to assess the effectiveness of current or past practices. Adaptation Tipping Points (ATPs is a policy-oriented method that can be useful in these situations. Here, a modified ATP framework is presented to assess the suitability of ecosystem management when rigorous ecological data are lacking. We define the effectiveness of the wetland management strategy by its ability to maintain sustainable minimum water levels that are required to support ecological processes. These minimum water requirements are defined in water management and environmental policy of the wetland. Here, we trial the method on Forrestdale Lake, a wetland in a region experiencing a markedly drying climate. ATPs were defined by linking key ecological objectives identified by policy documents to threshold values for water depth. We then used long-term hydrologic data (1978–2012 to assess if and when thresholds were breached. We found that from the mid-1990s, declining wetland water depth breached ATPs for the majority of the wetland objectives. We conclude that the wetland management strategy has been ineffective from the mid-1990s, when the region’s climate dried markedly. The extent of legislation, policies, and management authorities across different scales and levels of governance need to be understood to adapt ecosystem management strategies. Empirical verification of the ATP assessment is required to validate the suitability of the method. However, in general we consider ATPs to be a useful desktop method to assess the suitability of management when rigorous ecological data

  7. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  8. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  9. Levee Presence and Wetland Areas within the 100-Year Floodplain of the Wabash Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. R.; Dong, Q.; Nardi, F.; Grantham, T.; Annis, A.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands have declined over the past century due to land use changes and water management activities in the United States. Levees have been extensively built to provide protection against flooding events, and can fundamentally alter the water distribution and hydrologic dynamics within floodplains. Although levees can reduce wetlands in many places, it is unclear how much wetland areas are impacted at a basin-scale. This study explores the relationship between wetlands, levee presence, and other important hydrologic metrics within a 100-year floodplain. We estimated total wetland area, levee length, floodplain area and other variables, in discrete 12-digit hydrologic units (HUC-12) of the Wabash Basin (n=854) and examined the relationship between these variables using non-parametric statistical tests. We found greater areas of wetland habitat in HUC12 units that contain levees compared to those without levees when we aggregated the results across the entire basin. Factors such as stream order, mean annual flow, and HUC12 area are not correlated with the wetland area in HUC-12 units that contain levees. In addition, median wetland area in HUC12 units with levees is surprisingly consistent regardless of maximum stream order. Visual observations of wetland distributions indicate that wetland presence may be dependent on its location relative to levees. These results indicate that refined geospatial analyses may be necessary to explore the complex influence of levees on wetland habitat, and that additional basins should be explored to develop more generalized trends. This information is preliminary and subject to revision.

  10. Wetland Change Detection in Protected and Unprotected Indus Coastal and Inland Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, M. H. Ali; Sultan, M.; Riaz Khan, M.; Zhang, L.; Kozlova, M.; Malik, N. Abbas; Wang, S.

    2017-09-01

    Worth of wetland sites lies in their ecological importance. They enhance ecosystem via provision of ecological services like improving water quality, groundwater infiltration, flood risk reduction and biodiversity regulation. Like other parts of the world Pakistan is also facing wetlands degradation. Ecological and economic significance of wetlands was recognized officially in 1971 as Pakistan became signatory of Ramsar wetland convention. Wetlands provide habitat to species of ecological and economic importance. Despite being recognized for international importance, Ramsar figures state that almost half of Pakistan's wetlands are at moderate or prominent level threat. Wetlands ecosystems are deteriorating at a rapid rate, if uncontrolled this trend may lead to substantial losses. Therefore, management of these resources demands regular monitoring. Present study is dedicated to assessing levels of change overtime in three distinct types of wetlands in Pakistan i.e. Indus delta a coastal wetland, Uchhali complex an inland wetland which are both protected sites while another site Nurri Lagoon which is not sheltered under any category of protected areas. Remotely sensed data has remarkable applications in change detection. Multitemporal Landsat images were used to map changes occurring from 2006 to 2016. Results reveal that wetland area has considerably decreased for all types. Both protected sites have experienced degradation though impact is comparatively lesser than unprotected Nurri lagoon. Significance of protection strategies cannot be denied, it is recommended that mere declaration of a site protected area is not sufficient. It is equally important to control non-point pollutants and ensuring the compliance of conservation strategy.

  11. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  12. Constructed wetlands : the Canadian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, S.; Champagne, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Large volumes of wastewater from livestock and production facilities must be treated to minimize the contamination of waterways in agricultural areas. This paper investigated the use of constructed wetlands as a lower-cost and efficient method of treating agricultural wastewaters. The study found that while constructed wetlands required limited maintenance, temperature dependency of the constructed wetlands systems is a limiting factor in their widespread implementation. Lower operating temperatures are only overcome by constructing larger wetlands systems, which require a substantial amount of land. The Canadian climate poses significant challenges to the implementation of constructed wetlands, which become inoperative during winter months. Plants and bacteria normally become dormant or die during winter months, which can create a lag in wetland treatment during the initial months of operation in the Spring. Snowmelt and added rainfall in the Spring can also create a high flow within the wetland cells, as many constructed wetlands rely on runoff as a feed source. Washout of bacteria can occur. Wastewater storage systems or further engineering of the wetlands may be required. It was concluded that insulating wetland cells will maintain a warmer operating temperature, while the addition of an aeration system will increase the treatment efficiency of the wetland during winter months. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between

  14. Negative effects of excessive soil phosphorus on floristic quality in Ohio wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Monteith, Steven E

    2016-05-01

    Excessive soil nutrients, often from agricultural runoff, have been shown to negatively impact some aspects of wetland plant communities. We measured plant-available phosphorus (Mehlich-3: MeP) in soil samples, and assessed the vascular plant community and habitat degradation at 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. We tested two hypotheses: (1) that an index of vegetation biological integrity based on floristic quality was lower in wetlands with higher concentrations of MeP in the soil, and (2) that higher concentrations of MeP occurred in wetlands with more habitat degradation (i.e., lower quality), as estimated by a rapid assessment method. Hypothesis (1) was supported for emergent, but not for forested wetlands. Hypothesis (2) was marginally supported (P=0.09) for emergent, but not supported for forested wetlands. The results indicate that the effect of concentration of phosphorus in wetland soils and the quality of plant species assemblages in wetlands is more complex than shown in site-specific studies and may depend in part on degree of disturbance in the surrounding watershed and dominant wetland vegetation type. Woody plants in forested wetlands are typically longer lived than herbaceous species in the understory and emergent wetlands, and may persist despite high inputs of phosphorus. Further, the forested wetlands were typically surrounded by a wide band of forest vegetation, which may provide a barrier against sedimentation and the associated phosphorus inputs to the wetland interior. Our results indicate that inferences about soil nutrient conditions made from rapid assessment methods for assessing wetland habitat condition may not be reliable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Community structure and quality after 10 years in two central Ohio mitigation bank wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieles, Douglas J; Coneybeer, Meagan; Horn, Jonathan

    2006-11-01

    We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components, by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with an index of floristic quality and we evaluate the predictability of these parameters in year 10, given 5 years of data. Results show that the mitigation wetlands in this study meet vegetation performance criteria of native hydrophyte establishment by year 5 and maintain these characteristics through year 10. Species richness and floristic quality, as well as vegetative similarity with reference wetlands, differ among mitigation wetlands in year 1 and also in their rate of change during the first 10 years. The prevalence of native hydrophytes is reasonably predictable by year 10, but 5 years of monitoring is not sufficient to predict future trends of floristic quality in either the created or restored wetland. By year 10, macroinvertebrate taxa richness does not statistically differ among these wetlands, but mitigation wetlands differ from reference sites by tolerance index and by trophic guild dominance. The created wetland herbivore biomass is significantly smaller than its reference, whereas detritivore biomass is significantly greater in the created wetland and smaller in the restored wetland as compared with respective reference wetlands. These analyses illustrate differences in measures of wetland performance and contrast the monitoring duration necessary for legal compliance with the duration required for development of more complex indicators of ecosystem integrity.

  16. Spatial relationships of levees and wetland systems within floodplains of the Wabash Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Morrison, R. R.; Nardi, F.; Annis, A.; Dong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Given the unique biogeochemical, physical, and hydrologic services provided by floodplain wetlands, proper management of river systems should include an understanding of how floodplain modifications influences wetland ecosystems. The construction of levees can reduce river-floodplain connectivity, yet it is unclear how levees affect wetlands within a river system, let alone the cumulative impacts within an entire watershed. This paper explores spatial relationships between levee and floodplain wetland systems in the Wabash basin, United States. We used a hydrogeomorphic floodplain delineation technique to map floodplain extents and identify wetlands that may be hydrologically connected to river networks. We then spatially examined the relationship between levee presence, wetland area, and other river network attributes within discrete HUC-12 sub-basins. Our results show that cumulative wetland area is relatively constant in sub-basins that contain levees, regardless of maximum stream order within the sub-basin. In sub-basins that do not contain levees, cumulative wetland area increases with maximum stream order. However, we found that wetland distributions around levees can be complex, and further studies on the influence of levees on wetland habitat may need to be evaluated at finer-resolution spatial scales.

  17. Water quality and fish dynamics in forested wetlands associated with an oxbow lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Caroline S.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Kroger, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Forested wetlands represent some of the most distinct environments in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Depending on season, water in forested wetlands can be warm, stagnant, and oxygen-depleted, yet may support high fish diversity. Fish assemblages in forested wetlands are not well studied because of difficulties in sampling heavily structured environments. During the April–July period, we surveyed and compared the water quality and assemblages of small fish in a margin wetland (forested fringe along a lake shore), contiguous wetland (forested wetland adjacent to a lake), and the open water of an oxbow lake. Dissolved-oxygen levels measured hourly 0.5 m below the surface were higher in the open water than in either of the forested wetlands. Despite reduced water quality, fish-species richness and catch rates estimated with light traps were greater in the forested wetlands than in the open water. The forested wetlands supported large numbers of fish and unique fish assemblages that included some rare species, likely because of their structural complexity. Programs developed to refine agricultural practices, preserve riparian zones, and restore lakes should include guidance to protect and reestablish forested wetlands.

  18. Hydrology of prairie wetlands: Understanding the integrated surface-water and groundwater processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers and policy makers need to make decisions based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands. This article presents an overview of the hydrology of prairie wetlands intended for managers, policy makers, and researchers new to this field (e.g., graduate students), and a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding the hydrological functions of prairie wetlands and their responses to changes in climate and land use. The existence of prairie wetlands in the semi-arid environment of the Prairie-Pothole Region (PPR) depends on the lateral inputs of runoff water from their catchments because mean annual potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the PPR. Therefore, it is critically important to consider wetlands and catchments as highly integrated hydrological units. The water balance of individual wetlands is strongly influenced by runoff from the catchment and the exchange of groundwater between the central pond and its moist margin. Land-use practices in the catchment have a sensitive effect on runoff and hence the water balance. Surface and subsurface storage and connectivity among individual wetlands controls the diversity of pond permanence within a wetland complex, resulting in a variety of eco-hydrological functionalities necessary for maintaining the integrity of prairie-wetland ecosystems.

  19. Restored agricultural wetlands in Central Iowa: habitat quality and amphibian response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Rebecca A.; Pierce, Clay; Smalling, Kelly L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are declining throughout the United States and worldwide due, partly, to habitat loss. Conservation practices on the landscape restore wetlands to denitrify tile drainage effluent and restore ecosystem services. Understanding how water quality, hydroperiod, predation, and disease affect amphibians in restored wetlands is central to maintaining healthy amphibian populations in the region. We examined the quality of amphibian habitat in restored wetlands relative to reference wetlands by comparing species richness, developmental stress, and adult leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) survival probabilities to a suite of environmental metrics. Although measured habitat variables differed between restored and reference wetlands, differences appeared to have sub-lethal rather than lethal effects on resident amphibian populations. There were few differences in amphibian species richness and no difference in estimated survival probabilities between wetland types. Restored wetlands had more nitrate and alkaline pH, longer hydroperiods, and were deeper, whereas reference wetlands had more amphibian chytrid fungus zoospores in water samples and resident amphibians exhibited increased developmental stress. Restored and reference wetlands are both important components of the landscape in central Iowa and maintaining a complex of fish-free wetlands with a variety of hydroperiods will likely contribute to the persistence of amphibians in this landscape.

  20. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a... expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  1. Hydro-biogeochemical phosphorus mobilization - evaluating a wetland restoration "P risk" assesment tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Forsmann, Ditte M.; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2012-01-01

    recognized as one of the most important mitigation options in obeying the quality goals of the European Water Framework Directive. While the nitrogen removal efficiency of restored wetlands is well accepted, the impact of wetland restoration on phosphorus (P) is less obvious. An increasing number...... of studies have called to the attention that wetland restoration on former agricultural soils may result in P release. Despite the high priority of wetland restoration there is a serious lack in understanding the fate of P following wetland restoration, and predictive model tools are highly needed....... Prediction of P dynamics in restored wetlands is extremely challenging because of the complex interactions and feedbacks between hydrology, hydrochemistry and sediment geochemistry. In the Danish Strategic Research project MONITECH, one of the major objectives was to investigate the possibility of developing...

  2. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  3. Wetlands - an underestimated economic resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.; Soederqvist, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are producing several valuable resources like fish, potential for recreation, water cleaning etc. These resources, and methods for assigning an economic value to them, are discussed in this article. Swedish and foreign empirical studies of the economic value of wetlands are reviewed. This review shows that socioeconomic estimates of the value of wetlands risk to be misleading if the direct and indirect values are not properly accounted for. 37 refs

  4. 2011 Summary: Coastal wetland restoration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Czayka, Alex; Dominguez, Andrea; Doty, Susan; Eggleston, Mike; Green, Sean; Sweetman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    similar to Crane Creek (e.g., greater turbidity, higher concentration of nitrogen). Sites closest to the structure showed the most creek influence with that influence decreasing with distance from the structure, suggesting that input water from Crane Creek is not mixing fully with the pool water. We also found that water level fluctuations were much greater in the reconnected wetland due to the influence of seiches in Lake Erie. We measured the nutrient concentrations of water flowing into and out of Pool 2B during seiche events and found that the phosphorous and nitrogen concentrations generally were drastically reduced after pulsing through the reconnected wetland. Fish response to the reconnection was equally striking. High-resolution sonar revealed extensive bidirectional movement of fish through the structure on a daily and seasonal basis. There also were significant increases in both the catch per unit effort (CPUE) and the species richness of all sites in Pool 2B from 2010 to 2011. Reconnecting the diked pool to the larger Crane Creek wetland complex, and therefore Lake Erie, has opened up rich new habitat for many fish species. Thirteen species of fish not previously found in the pool entered through the structure and actively used the reconnected wetland. We also found that the wetland functions as a productive spawning ground and nursery area with notable shifts in the predominant age-class of several species of fish, especially northern pike. We observed no negative effects of reconnection on the avian or vegetative communities. All sites within the connected pool had increases in diversity and abundance in the avian community and decreases in the species richness and Floristic Quality Assessment Index values for vegetative communities. After one year of study, data suggest that maintaining a hydrologic connection between diked and coastal wetlands in Lake Erie allows fishes to use vegetated habitats regularly, reduces the concentration of nutrients in coastal

  5. Providing low-budget estimations of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Colin R; Rebelo, Lisa-Maria; Max Finlayson, C

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of wetlands to agriculture through drainage and flooding, and the burning of wetland areas for agriculture have important implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) production and changing carbon stocks. However, the estimation of net GHG changes from mitigation practices in agricultural wetlands is complex compared to dryland crops. Agricultural wetlands have more complicated carbon and nitrogen cycles with both above- and below-ground processes and export of carbon via vertical and horizontal movement of water through the wetland. This letter reviews current research methodologies in estimating greenhouse gas production and provides guidance on the provision of robust estimates of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands through the use of low cost reliable and sustainable measurement, modelling and remote sensing applications. The guidance is highly applicable to, and aimed at, wetlands such as those in the tropics and sub-tropics, where complex research infrastructure may not exist, or agricultural wetlands located in remote regions, where frequent visits by monitoring scientists prove difficult. In conclusion, the proposed measurement-modelling approach provides guidance on an affordable solution for mitigation and for investigating the consequences of wetland agricultural practice on GHG production, ecological resilience and possible changes to agricultural yields, variety choice and farming practice. (letter)

  6. Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Soils of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands play an important but complex role in the global carbon cycle, contributing to the ecosystem service of greenhouse gas regulation through carbon sequestration. Although coastal wetlands occupy a small percent of the total US land area, their potential for carbon...

  7. Understanding the Hydrodynamics of a Coastal Wetland with an Integrated Distributed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, W.; Sun, G.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands linking ocean and terrestrial landscape provide important ecosystem services including flood mitigation, fresh water supply, erosion control, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitats. Wetland hydrology is the major driving force for wetland formation, structure, function, and ecosystem services. The dynamics of wetland hydrology and energy budget are strongly affected by frequent inundation and drying of wetland soil and vegetation due to tide, sea level rise (SLR) and climatic variability (change). However, the quantitative representation of how the energy budget and groundwater variation of coastal wetlands respond to frequent water level fluctuation is limited, especially at regional scales. This study developed a physically based distributed wetland hydrological model by integrating coastal processes and considering the inundation influence on energy budget and ET. Analysis using in situ measurements and satellite data for a coastal wetland in North Carolina confirm that the model sufficiently captures the wetland hydrologic behaviors. The validated model was then applied to examine the wetland hydrodynamics under a 30-year historical climate forcing (1985-2014) for the wetland region. The simulation reveals that 43% of the study area has inundation events, 63% of which has a frequency higher than 50% each year. The canopy evaporation and transpiration decline dramatically when the inundation level exceeds the canopy height. Additionally, inundation causes about 10% increase of the net shortwave radiation. This study also demonstrates that the critical wetland zones highly influenced by the coastal processes spans 300-800 m from the coastline. The model developed in the study offers a new tool for understanding the complex wetland hydrodynamics in response to natural and human-induced disturbances at landscape to regional scales.

  8. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  9. Innovative techniques cut costs in wetlands drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to drilling oil and gas wells in sensitive wetlands areas contributed to a savings of over $1.2 million on a three-well, $3 million drilling project in south Louisiana. ARCO Oil and Gas Co. drilled a three-well project in the Bayou Sale field with a truck-mounted workover rig and a modified solids-control system. This smaller equipment eliminated the need to build a large location in the marsh. Traditional drilling techniques require a large drillsite to accommodate all the equipment of a modern drilling complex. However, recently imposed environmental regulations substantially limit, and in some cases prohibit, the use of these conventional techniques for drilling wells in wetlands areas. Based on the potentially huge economic and operational impact on the drilling industry because of these stricter regulations, alternatives to these traditional practices are essential

  10. Mapping wetlands in Nova Scotia with multi-beam RADARSAT-2 Polarimetric SAR, optical satellite imagery, and Lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Raymond; Leblon, Brigitte; Bush, Peter; LaRocque, Armand

    2018-06-01

    Wetland maps currently in use by the Province of Nova Scotia, namely the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) wetland inventory map and the swamp wetland classes of the DNR forest map, need to be updated. In this study, wetlands were mapped in an area southwest of Halifax, Nova Scotia by classifying a combination of multi-date and multi-beam RADARSAT-2 C-band polarimetric SAR (polSAR) images with spring Lidar, and fall QuickBird optical data using the Random Forests (RF) classifier. The resulting map has five wetland classes (open-water/marsh complex, open bog, open fen, shrub/treed fen/bog, swamp), plus lakes and various upland classes. Its accuracy was assessed using data from 156 GPS wetland sites collected in 2012 and compared to the one obtained with the current wetland map of Nova Scotia. The best overall classification was obtained using a combination of Lidar, RADARSAT-2 HH, HV, VH, VV intensity with polarimetric variables, and QuickBird multispectral (89.2%). The classified image was compared to GPS validation sites to assess the mapping accuracy of the wetlands. It was first done considering a group consisting of all wetland classes including lakes. This showed that only 69.9% of the wetland sites were correctly identified when only the QuickBird classified image was used in the classification. With the addition of variables derived from lidar, the number of correctly identified wetlands increased to 88.5%. The accuracy remained the same with the addition of RADARSAT-2 (88.5%). When we tested the accuracy for identifying wetland classes (e.g. marsh complex vs. open bog) instead of grouped wetlands, the resulting wetland map performed best with either QuickBird and Lidar, or QuickBird, Lidar, and RADARSAT-2 (66%). The Province of Nova Scotia's current wetland inventory and its associated wetland classes (aerial-photo interpreted) were also assessed against the GPS wetland sites. This provincial inventory correctly identified 62.2% of the grouped wetlands

  11. Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Cornelis; Beemster, Nicolaas; Zijlstra, Menno; van Eerden, M; Daan, Serge

    1995-01-01

    Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands (1995). C. Dijkstra, N. Beemster, M. Zijlstra, M. van Eerden, S. Daan RWS, RDIJ, Flevobericht nr. 381. ISBN 90-369-1147-8. Dit Flevobericht vormt de eindrapportage van het onderzoeksproject " De betekenis van grootschalige wetlands voor roofvogels". De verwerkte

  12. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  13. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  14. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  15. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  16. [Impact on nitrogen and phosphorous export of wetlands in Tianmu Lake watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Fu; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Heng-Peng

    2012-11-01

    Focused on understanding the function of wetland in improving water quality, Pingqiao watershed and Zhongtian watershed in Tianmu Lake drinking water sources area were selected as the research region. We integrated remote sensing, GIS techniques with field investigation and chemical analysis to analyze the relationship between wetland and water quality in watershed scale. Results show: (1) There are many wetland patches in Pingqiao and Zhongtian watershed, wetlands patch densities were respectively 7.5 km(-2) and 7.1 km(-2). Wetlands widely distributed in the Pingqiao watershed with mostly located away from the river of 500 m, whereas wetlands relatively concentrated in the lower reach within 500 meters of riverside in Zhongtian watershed. (2) Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient retention of wetland in watershed scale was significant. The annual mean TN and DTN concentration had a strong relationship with percent area of wetlands in Zhongtian watershed while the weakest relationship was found with TP and DTP concentrations, especially, the mean TN and DTN concentrations in spring and winter had the significantly negative relationship with wetland areas of watershed. The negative relationship was existed for nitrogen in autumn of Pingqiao watershed, which suggested that watersheds varying in area of wetlands have the different nutrient reducing efficiency in seasonal periods. (3) A certain number and area of wetland will improve river water quality in watershed scale, which can instruct water environment treatment. However, considering the complexity of nutrient transport processes in watershed, wetland-related factors such as area, location, density, ecosystem structure and watershed-related factors such as temporal interval, spatial scales, slope and land use will impact on the transport processes, and related theoretical and practical problems need further research.

  17. Desert wetlands in the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeff S.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Bright, Jordon; Edwards, L.; Springer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Desert wetlands support flora and fauna in a variety of hydrologic settings, including seeps, springs, marshes, wet meadows, ponds, and spring pools. Over time, eolian, alluvial, and fluvial sediments become trapped in these settings by a combination of wet ground conditions and dense plant cover. The result is a unique combination of clastic sediments, chemical precipitates, and organic matter that is preserved in the geologic record as ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, therefore, are a potential source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. In addition, they can be important archeological and paleontological archives because desert wetlands provide reliable sources of fresh water, and thus act as focal points for human and faunal activities, in some of the world's harshest and driest lands. Here, we review some of the physical, sedimentological, and geochemical characteristics common to GWD deposits, and provide a contextual framework that researchers can use to identify and interpret geologic deposits associated with desert wetlands. We discuss several lines of evidence used to differentiate GWD deposits from lake deposits (they are commonly confused), and examine how various types of microbiota and depositional facies aid in reconstructing past environmental and hydrologic conditions. We also review how late Quaternary GWD deposits are dated, as well as methods used to investigate desert wetlands deeper in geologic time. We end by evaluating the strengths and limitations of hydrologic and climatic records derived from GWD deposits, and suggest several avenues of potential future research to further develop and utilize these unique and complex systems.

  18. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 2. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    to waves taller than I ft? • " Guidelines: 1 "Sufficient" is defined as the height of vegetation or relief multiplied * by length of vegetation or...Sci., Interim Rep. No. 3, Gloucester Point, VA. 52 pp. 203 VI. 4 WET 2.0 Simmons, E. G. 1957. An ecological survey of the Upper Laguna Madre of Texas...A wetland class characterized by vegetation that is 6 m or taller . Fringe Wetland - Fringe wetlands along a channel (i.e.. river, stream, etc.)are

  19. Remote sensing of wetlands applications and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Tiner, Ralph W; Klemas, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Manage Wetland Resources Using the Best Available Remote Sensing Techniques Utilizing top scientists in the wetland classification and mapping field, Remote Sensing of Wetlands: Applications and Advances covers the rapidly changing landscape of wetlands and describes the latest advances in remote sensing that have taken place over the past 30 years for use in mapping wetlands. Factoring in the impact of climate change, as well as a growing demand on wetlands for agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, and development, this text considers the challenges that wetlands pose for remote sensing and provides a thorough introduction on the use of remotely sensed data for wetland detection. Taking advantage of the experiences of more than 50 contributing authors, the book describes a variety of techniques for mapping and classifying wetlands in a multitude of environments ranging from tropical to arctic wetlands including coral reefs and submerged aquatic vegetation. The authors discuss the advantages and di...

  20. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  1. Co-evolution and thresholds in arid floodplain wetland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Steven; Rodriguez, Jose; Riccardi, Gerardo; Wen, Li; Saintilan, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation in arid floodplain wetlands consist of water dependent and flood tolerant species that rely on periodical floods in order to maintain healthy conditions. The floodplain often consist of a complex system of marshes, swamps and lagoons interconnected by a network of streams and poorly defined rills. Over time, feedbacks develop between vegetation and flow paths producing areas of flow obstruction and flow concentration, which combined with depositional and erosional process lead to a continuous change on the position and characteristics of inundation areas. This coevolution of flow paths and vegetation can reach a threshold that triggers major channel transformations and abandonment of wetland areas, in a process that is irreversible. The Macquarie Marshes is a floodplain wetland complex in the semi-arid region of north western NSW, Australia. The site is characterised by a low-gradient topography that leads to channel breakdown processes where the river network becomes practically non-existent and the flow extends over large areas of wetland that later re-join and reform channels exiting the system. Due to a combination of climatic and anthropogenic pressures, the wetland ecosystem in the Macquarie Marshes has deteriorated over the past few decades. This has been linked to decreasing inundation frequencies and extent, with whole areas of flood dependent species such as Water Couch and Common Reed undergoing complete succession to terrestrial species and dryland. In this presentation we provide an overview of an ecogeomorphological model that we have developed in order to simulate the complex dynamics of the marshes. The model combines hydrodynamic, vegetation and channel evolution modules. We focus on the vegetation component of the model and the transitional rules to predict wetland invasion by terrestrial vegetation.

  2. The emergence of treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, S.

    1998-01-01

    Judging by the growing number of wetlands built for wastewater treatment around the world, this natural technology seems to have firmly established roots. After almost 30 years of use in wastewater treatment, constructed treatment wetlands now number over 500 in Europe and 600 in North America. Marsh-type surface flow systems are most common in North America, but subsurface flow wetlands, where wastewater flows beneath the surface of a gravel-rock bed, predominate in Europe. The inexpensive, low maintenance technology is in high demand in Central America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. New applications, from nitrate-contaminated ground water to effluent from high-intensity livestock operations, are also increasing. But in the United States, treatment-wetland technology has not yet gained national regulatory acceptance. Some states and EPA regions are eager to endorse them, but others are wary of this nontraditional method of treating wastewater. In part, this reluctance exists because the technology is not yet completely understood. Treatment wetlands also pose a potential threat to wildlife attracted to this new habitat -an ecosystem exposed to toxic compounds. New efforts are under way, however, to place the technology onto firmer scientific and regulatory ground. Long-term demonstration and monitoring field studies are currently probing the inner workings of wetlands and their water quality capabilities to provide better data on how to design more effective systems. A recent study of US policy and regulatory issues surrounding treatment wetlands has recommended that the federal government actively promote the technology and clear the regulatory roadblocks to enable wider use. Proponents argue that the net environmental benefits of constructed wetlands, such as restoring habitat and increasing wetlands inventory, should be considered. 8 refs., 6 photos

  3. Using Tradtional Ecological Knowledge to Protect Wetlands: the Swinomish Tribe's Wetland Cultural Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T.

    2017-12-01

    "Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.

  4. Complex community of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in coastal sediments of the Mai Po wetland by PCR amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhou, Zhichao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, both 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers were employed successfully to study the diversity and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the surface and lower layer sediments at the coastal Mai Po wetland. The occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity was confirmed in this study. Unlike the two other known n-damo communities from coastal areas, the pmoA gene-amplified sequences in the present work clustered not only with some freshwater subclusters but also within three newly erected marine subclusters mostly, indicating the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in this wetland. Results suggested vegetation affected the distribution and community structures of n-damo bacteria in the sediments and n-damo could coexist with sulfate-reducing methanotrophs in the coastal ecosystem. Community structures of the Mai Po n-damo bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene were different from those of either the freshwater or the marine. In contrast, structures of the Mai Po n-damo communities based on pmoA gene grouped with the marine ones and were clearly distinguished from the freshwater ones. The abundance of n-damo bacteria at this wetland was quantified using 16S rRNA gene PCR primers to be 2.65-6.71 × 10(5) copies/g dry sediment. Ammonium and nitrite strongly affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the coastal Mai Po wetland sediments.

  5. Nitrate fate and transport through current and former depressional wetlands in an agricultural landscape, Choptank Watershed, Maryland, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, J.M.; Ator, S.W.; Lang, M.W.; Fisher, T.R.; Gustafson, A.B.; Fox, R.; Clune, J.W.; McCarty, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    denitrification were limited, particularly where reducing conditions did not extend throughout the entire thickness of the surficial aquifer allowing NO3 to pass conservatively beneath a wetland along deeper groundwater flow paths. The complexity of N fate and transport associated with depressional wetlands complicates the understanding of their importance to water quality in adjacent streams. Although depressional wetlands often contribute low NO3 water to local streams, their effectiveness as landscape sinks, for N from adjacent agriculture varies with natural conditions, such as the thickness of the aquifer and the extent of reducing conditions. Measurement of such natural geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical conditions are therefore fundamental to understanding N mitigation in individual wetlands.

  6. Wetlands of the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    all three views, and represent the outflow of suspended sediment from the seabed shelf to the open waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Major features include the Mississippi Delta, where large amounts of land-derived sediments have been deposited in shallow coastal waters. These deltaic environments form a complex, interconnected web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans is prone to flooding, with about 45% of the metropolitan core situated at or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been disappearing.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Tidal Wetlands and Coastal Ocean Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Wang, S. R.; Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Cai, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent overviews of coastal ocean C dynamics have tidal wetlands in a prominent position: a local sink for atmospheric CO2, a local store of OC, and a source of DIC and OC for the adjacent estuary and nearshore ocean. Over the past decade there have been great strides made in quantifying and understanding these flows and linkages. GPP and R of the wetlands are not nearly as imbalanced as thought 30 yrs ago. Heterotrophy of adjacent estuarine waters is not solely due to the respiration of OC exported from the marsh, rather we see the marsh directly respiring into the water during tidal inundation and accumulated marsh DIC draining into tidal creeks. Organic carbon burial on the marsh is still a relatively minor flux, but it is large relative to marsh NEE. Using literature and unpublished data on marsh DIC export, we used examples from Sapelo Island GA USA and Plum Island MA USA to constrain estimates of NEP and potential OC export. P. There remain large uncertainties in quantifying C dynamics of coupled wetland - estuary systems. Gas exchange from the water to atmosphere is one of the largest uncertainties. Work at Sapelo suggests that upwards of 40% of all daily exchange occurs from water flooding the marsh, which is but a few hours a day. This estimate is based on the intercept value for gas exchange vs wind velocity. Another major uncertainty comes from converting between O2 based estimates of metabolism to C. At Sapelo we find PQ and RQ values diverging greatly from Redfield. Finally, C dynamics of the coastal ocean, especially the role of tidal wetlands is likely to change substantially in the future. Studies at Plum Island show a reversal of the 4000 yr process of marsh progradation with marshes eroding away at their edges because of inadequate sediment supply and rising sea level. The fate of eroded OC is questionable. Landward transgression with SLR is the only likely counter to continued wetland loss - but that's a complex social issue requiring new

  8. Tritium as tracer of flow in constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachniew, P.; Czuprynski, P.; Maloszewski, P.

    2005-01-01

    Constructed wetlands technology is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method used world-wide to treat waste waters of different origins. The soluble pollutants are transformed and removed mainly through the processes that occur at surfaces of plants, plant debris or filtering media. The efficiency of soluble pollutants removal is thus primarily related to the extent of contact between waste waters and the reactive surfaces. Residence time distributions function (RTD)is basic characteristic of wetland hydraulic properties and can be obtained by combined use of tracer technique and mathematical modelling. Tritium was used as to obtain RTD's of three parallel cells of a sub-surface flow constructed wetland overgrown with Pharagmites australis in Nowa Slupia. Tritium as a part of water molecule, is an ideal tracer of flow in the highly reactive environment of constructed wetlands. Results of the tracer test interpreted by the assumed model (Multi Flow Dispersion Model) of conservative solute transport revealed a complex structure of flow through the wetland. (author)

  9. The wetlands of Magdalena medio Antioqueno from a physical and socio-cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Acosta, Humberto; Durango Lopez, Consuelo; Giraldo Castro, Carlos Augusto

    2001-01-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems with environmental and ecological importance that require of a new methodological and legal focus that allows developing conservation policies in agreement with the natural and socio-cultural conditions. In the Magdalena Medio Antioqueno, CORANTIOQUIA region, were recognized 362 wetlands, divided in two main groups; in Puerto Nare and Puerto Berrio to the south prevails herbaceous wetlands without permanent surface water, locally known as Bajos. In Yondo the wetlands have permanent surface water. The environmental dynamic depends from the geomorphologic and hydrological conditions and are affected in a differential way by the human action. The region is the result of a long occupation process that begins in prehistoric times and had changed depending on the different historical moments. This complex social configuration has given origin to diverse perceptions and types of appropriation of the wetlands what explains the identified environmental circumstances

  10. WETLAND CHANGE DETECTION IN PROTECTED AND UNPROTECTED INDUS COASTAL AND INLAND DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ali Baig

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Worth of wetland sites lies in their ecological importance. They enhance ecosystem via provision of ecological services like improving water quality, groundwater infiltration, flood risk reduction and biodiversity regulation. Like other parts of the world Pakistan is also facing wetlands degradation. Ecological and economic significance of wetlands was recognized officially in 1971 as Pakistan became signatory of Ramsar wetland convention. Wetlands provide habitat to species of ecological and economic importance. Despite being recognized for international importance, Ramsar figures state that almost half of Pakistan’s wetlands are at moderate or prominent level threat. Wetlands ecosystems are deteriorating at a rapid rate, if uncontrolled this trend may lead to substantial losses. Therefore, management of these resources demands regular monitoring. Present study is dedicated to assessing levels of change overtime in three distinct types of wetlands in Pakistan i.e. Indus delta a coastal wetland, Uchhali complex an inland wetland which are both protected sites while another site Nurri Lagoon which is not sheltered under any category of protected areas. Remotely sensed data has remarkable applications in change detection. Multitemporal Landsat images were used to map changes occurring from 2006 to 2016. Results reveal that wetland area has considerably decreased for all types. Both protected sites have experienced degradation though impact is comparatively lesser than unprotected Nurri lagoon. Significance of protection strategies cannot be denied, it is recommended that mere declaration of a site protected area is not sufficient. It is equally important to control non-point pollutants and ensuring the compliance of conservation strategy.

  11. Tropical Wetlands as Carbon Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation focuses on the tropical wetlands of sub-Saharan Africa. These are an understudied ecosystem in which large emergent grasses and sedges normally dominate and which have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon. Measurements of Net Primary Production of these wetlands show that they are some of the highest values recorded for any ecosystem. We have used eddy covariance to measure Net Ecosystem Exchange of pristine and disturbed wetlands and show that pristine systems can have sink strengths as strong as tropical forests while disturbed systems that have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes have a very much reduced carbon sink activity and may be net carbon sources. The management issues surrounding the use of these wetlands illustrate a direct conflict between the production of food crops for the local population and the maintenance of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service.

  12. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  13. Midcontinent Prairie-Pothole wetlands and climate change: An Introduction to the Supplemental Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The multitude of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America forms one of Earth’s largest wetland complexes. The midcontinent location exposes this ecologically and economically important wetland system to a highly variable climate, markedly influencing ponded-water levels, hydroperiods, chemical characteristics, and biota of individual basins. Given their dominance on the landscape and recognized value, great interest in how projected future changes in climate will affect prairie-pothole wetlands has developed and spawned much scientific research. On June 2, 2015, a special symposium, “Midcontinent Prairie-Pothole Wetlands: Influence of a Changed Climate,” was held at the annual meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. The symposium’s twelve presenters covered a wide range of relevant topics delivered to a standing-room-only audience. Following the symposium, the presenters recognized the need to publish their presented papers as a combined product to facilitate widespread distribution. The need for additional papers to more fully cover the topic of prairie-pothole wetlands and climate change was also identified. This supplemental issue of Wetlands is the realization of that vision.

  14. Mine-associated wetlands as avian habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstman, A.J.; Nawrot, J.R.; Woolf, A.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois

  15. 78 FR 68719 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of wetlands in Sec. 55.2(b)(11) to cover manmade wetlands in order to ensure that wetlands built for...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD... wetlands and floodplains. With respect to wetlands, the rule codifies existing procedures for Executive...

  16. Tidal wetlands of the Yaquina and Alsea River estuaries, Oregon: Geographic Information Systems layer development and recommendations for National Wetlands Inventory revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Laura S.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Janousek, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) layers of current, and likely former, tidal wetlands in two Oregon estuaries were generated by enhancing the 2010 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with expert local field knowledge, Light Detection and Ranging-derived elevations, and 2009 aerial orthophotographs. Data were generated for two purposes: First, to enhance the NWI by recommending revised Cowardin classifications for certain NWI wetlands within the study area; and second, to generate GIS data for the 1999 Yaquina and Alsea River Basins Estuarine Wetland Site Prioritization study. Two sets of GIS products were generated: (1) enhanced NWI shapefiles; and (2) shapefiles of prioritization sites. The enhanced NWI shapefiles contain recommended changes to the Cowardin classification (system, subsystem, class, and/or modifiers) for 286 NWI polygons in the Yaquina estuary (1,133 acres) and 83 NWI polygons in the Alsea estuary (322 acres). These enhanced NWI shapefiles also identify likely former tidal wetlands that are classified as upland in the current NWI (64 NWI polygons totaling 441 acres in the Yaquina estuary; 16 NWI polygons totaling 51 acres in the Alsea estuary). The former tidal wetlands were identified to assist strategic planning for tidal wetland restoration. Cowardin classifications for the former tidal wetlands were not provided, because their current hydrology is complex owing to dikes, tide gates, and drainage ditches. The scope of this project did not include the field evaluation that would be needed to determine whether the former tidal wetlands are currently wetlands, and if so, determine their correct Cowardin classification. The prioritization site shapefiles contain 49 prioritization sites totaling 2,177 acres in the Yaquina estuary, and 39 prioritization sites totaling 1,045 acres in the Alsea estuary. The prioritization sites include current and former (for example, diked) tidal wetlands, and provide landscape units appropriate for basin

  17. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  18. Designated Wetlands and Setback Distances in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This GIS layer depicts wetlands designated for protection in the state of Iowa. Designated wetland is defined in Iowa Code subsection 459.102(21) as follows: 21....

  19. Industry and forest wetlands: Cooperative research initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.P.; Lucier, A.A.; Haines, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989 the forest products industry responded to a challenge of the National Wetlands Policy Forum to initiate a cooperative research program on forest wetlands management organized through the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI). The objective is to determine how forest landowners can manage wetlands for timber production while protecting other wetland functions such as flood storage, water purification, and food chain/wildlife habitat support. Studies supported by the NCASI in 9 states are summarized. Technical support on wetland regulatory issues to member companies is part of the research program. Since guidelines for recognizing wetlands for regulatory proposed have changed frequently, the NCASI has recommend an explicit link between wetland delineation and a classification system that considers difference among wetland types in vegetation, soils, hydrology, appearance, landscape position, and other factors. 16 refs

  20. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through secondary impacts. Discharging fill material in wetlands as part of municipal, industrial or recreational development may modify the capacity of wetlands to retain and store floodwaters and to serve as a...

  1. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: observations and a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and

  2. Inferring tidal wetland stability from channel sediment fluxes: Observations and a conceptual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.

    2013-12-01

    and climatic forces have modified the geomorphology of tidal wetlands over a range of timescales. Changes in land use, sediment supply, river flow, storminess, and sea level alter the layout of tidal channels, intertidal flats, and marsh plains; these elements define wetland complexes. Diagnostically, measurements of net sediment fluxes through tidal channels are high-temporal resolution, spatially integrated quantities that indicate (1) whether a complex is stable over seasonal timescales and (2) what mechanisms are leading to that state. We estimated sediment fluxes through tidal channels draining wetland complexes on the Blackwater and Transquaking Rivers, Maryland, USA. While the Blackwater complex has experienced decades of degradation and been largely converted to open water, the Transquaking complex has persisted as an expansive, vegetated marsh. The measured net export at the Blackwater complex (1.0 kg/s or 0.56 kg/m2/yr over the landward marsh area) was caused by northwesterly winds, which exported water and sediment on the subtidal timescale; tidally forced net fluxes were weak and precluded landward transport of suspended sediment from potential seaward sources. Though wind forcing also exported sediment at the Transquaking complex, strong tidal forcing and proximity to a turbidity maximum led to an import of sediment (0.031 kg/s or 0.70 kg/m2/yr). This resulted in a spatially averaged accretion of 3.9 mm/yr, equaling the regional relative sea level rise. Our results suggest that in areas where seaward sediment supply is dominant, seaward wetlands may be more capable of withstanding sea level rise over the short term than landward wetlands. We propose a conceptual model to determine a complex's tendency toward stability or instability based on sediment source, wetland channel location, and transport mechanisms. Wetlands with a reliable portfolio of sources and transport mechanisms appear better suited to offset natural and anthropogenic loss.

  3. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following demonstrations... actions (e.g., restoration of existing degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a reasonable determination with respect to these demonstrations...

  4. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  5. Description of the Wetlands Research Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a rationale to the development of a multidisciplinary South African Wetland Research Programme. A definition of what is meant by the term wetland is given along with a general description of what types of wetland occur in South...

  6. Annotated bibliography of economic literature on wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.

    1989-01-01

    associated with the use of the site may have risen during this period. Both intuition and formal analysis suggest that accurate estimates of benefits conferred by a good or service provide quantitative indices of the availability of good substitutes for the good or service in question., The fewer low-priced substitutes, the greater the benefits conferred by the good. The prices (quantities) of available substitutes may be needed to specify empirically estimated demand (supply) curves. If so, omission of these variables will produce biased estimates of net benefits conferred if the approach used to estimate social benefits is based on the shape and position of an empirically estimated demand (supply) curve. In general, a good grasp of the meaning of both demand and supply (curves) is needed to produce sound estimates of benefits conferred by some commodity. Demand and supply curves are discussed in the following section that deals with various techniques for estimating benefits conferred by outdoor recreation sites. With wetlands functions and resources, the divergence between large total values and very low (zero) marginal values lies behind much of the controversy as to the appropriate procedure for imputing values to wetlands preservation benefits. If some type of wetland habitat is not a limiting factor in the production of some target wildlife species, the marginal value product of that habitat type is zero. The total social marginal product of the wetlands habitat type or complex may be very large, but if the removal of the last unit does not diminish total output, reallocating the land to more valuable economic activities increases social welfare.

  7. Impacts of human-induced environmental change in wetlands on aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Hale, Robin; Parris, Kirsten M; Swearer, Stephen E

    2018-02-01

    limitations of using only community- and population-level measures to assess habitat quality. Only four studies provided habitat-preference data, preventing investigation of the potential for altered wetlands to function as ecological traps. This is concerning because attempts to identify ecological traps may detect previously unidentified conservation risks. Although there was considerable variability amongst taxa, amphibians were typically the most sensitive taxon, and thus, may be a valuable bio-indicator of wetland quality. Despite suffering reduced survival and reproduction, measures such as time to and mass at metamorphosis were similar between altered and reference wetlands, suggesting that quantifying metamorphosis-related measures in isolation may not provide accurate information on habitat quality. Our review provides the most detailed evaluation to date of the ecological impacts of human alterations to wetland ecosystems. We emphasise that the role of wetlands in human-altered ecosystems can be complex, as they may represent important habitat but also pose potential risks to animals. Reduced availability of natural wetlands is increasing the importance of altered wetlands for aquatic animals. Consequently, we need to define what represents habitat quality from the perspective of animals, and gain a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms of habitat selection and how these factors could be manipulated. Furthermore, strategies to enhance the quality of these wetlands should be implemented to maximise their conservation potential. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in intertidal wetland sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J

    2014-06-01

    Intertidal wetlands, primarily salt marsh, mangrove and mudflats, which provide many essential ecosystem services, are under threat on numerous fronts; a situation that is made worse by crude-oil pollution. Microbes are the main vehicle for remediation of such sediments, and new discoveries, such as novel biodegradation pathways, means of accessing oil, multi-species interactions, and community-level responses to oil addition, are helping us to understand, predict and monitor the fate of oil. Despite this, there are many challenges, not least because of the heterogeneity of these ecosystems and the complexity of crude oil. For example, there is growing awareness about the toxicity of the oxygenated products that result from crude-oil weathering, which are difficult to degrade. This review highlights how developments in areas as diverse as systems biology, microbiology, ecology, biogeochemistry and analytical chemistry are enhancing our understanding of hydrocarbon biodegradation and thus bioremediation of oil-polluted intertidal wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using stable isotopes to understand hydrochemical processes in and around a Prairie Pothole wetland in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Morrison, Jean M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Thurston, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A stable isotope study of the hydrochemistry of a Prairie Pothole wetland system. → δ 18 O H2O and δ 2 H H2O values show salt concentration by transpiration at wetland edge. → A range of δ 34 S SO4 values indicate SO 4 source and reduction processes. → Isotopic mixing lines show interaction of surface and groundwater at wetland edge. - Abstract: Millions of internally drained wetland systems in the Prairie Potholes region of the northern Great Plains (USA and Canada) provide indispensable habitat for waterfowl and a host of other ecosystem services. The hydrochemistry of these systems is complex and a crucial control on wetland function, flora and fauna. Wetland waters can have high concentrations of SO 4 2- due to the oxidation of large amounts of pyrite in glacial till that is in part derived from the Pierre shale. Water chemistry including δ 18 O H2O , δ 2 H H2O , and δ 34 S SO4 values, was determined for groundwater, soil pore water, and wetland surface water in and around a discharge wetland in North Dakota. The isotopic data for the first time trace the interaction of processes that affect wetland chemistry, including open water evaporation, plant transpiration, and microbial SO 4 reduction.

  10. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CFRAW) : overview and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Dixon, D.G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Seven oil sand mining partners and 5 university labs have joined forces to study the effects of mine tailings and process waters on development, health and function of wetland communities formed in post-mining landscapes. The collaborative effort, know as the carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CRFAW), aims to identify the materials and strategies most effective and economical in producing a functioning reclamation landscape. This presentation reported on part of the study that tested predictions about how quickly wetlands amended with reclamation materials approach the conditions of reference wetland systems. It provided a conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets to assess how the allocation of carbon among compartments changes as newly formed wetlands mature in the boreal system. It was assumed that stockpiling constructed wetlands with peat or topsoil would accelerate succession and community development. Although the bitumen and the naphthenic acids found in constructed wetlands are initially toxic, they may serve as an alternate source of carbon once they degrade. This study also assessed the sources, biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands. Additional studies are examining how the productivity of new wetlands is maintained. Net ecosystem productivity is being monitored along with rates of organic carbon accumulation from microbial, algal, and macrophyte production, and influx of outside materials. The rates of leaf litter breakdown and microbial respiration are being compared to determine how constituents speed or slow food web processes of young and older wetlands. Carbon and nitrogen isotope values in food web compartments indicate which sources are incorporated into the food web as wetlands age. The values are used to determine how this influences community development, food web structure and complexity, and the

  11. Ecosystem services: developing sustainable management paradigms based on wetland functions and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; Conner, William H.; Burkett, Virginia R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Hester, Mark W.; Zheng, Haochi

    2013-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century and twentieth century, there was considerable interest and activity to develop the United States for agricultural, mining, and many other purposes to improve the quality of human life standards and prosperity. Most of the work to support this development was focused along disciplinary lines with little attention focused on ecosystem service trade-offs or synergisms, especially those that transcended boundaries of scientific disciplines and specific interest groups. Concurrently, human population size has increased substantially and its use of ecosystem services has increased more than five-fold over just the past century. Consequently, the contemporary landscape has been highly modified for human use, leaving behind a fragmented landscape where basic ecosystem functions and processes have been broadly altered. Over this period, climate change also interacted with other anthropogenic effects, resulting in modern environmental problems having a complexity that is without historical precedent. The challenge before the scientific community is to develop new science paradigms that integrate relevant scientific disciplines to properly frame and evaluate modern environmental problems in a systems-type approach to better inform the decision-making process. Wetland science is a relatively new discipline that grew out of the conservation movement of the early twentieth century. In the United States, most of the conservation attention in the earlier days was on wildlife, but a growing human awareness of the importance of the environment led to the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. Concurrently, there was a broadening interest in conservation science, and the scientific study of wetlands gradually gained acceptance as a scientific discipline. Pioneering wetland scientists became formally organized when they formed The Society of Wetland Scientists in 1980 and established a publication outlet to share wetland research

  12. Soil and water characteristics of a young surface mine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Cole, C.; Lefebvre, Eugene A.

    1991-05-01

    Coal companies are reluctant to include wetland development in reclamation plans partly due to a lack of information on the resulting characteristics of such sites. It is easier for coal companies to recreate terrestrial habitats than to attempt experimental methods and possibly face significant regulatory disapproval. Therefore, we studied a young (10 years) wetland on a reclaimed surface coal mine in southern Illinois so as to ascertain soil and water characteristics such that the site might serve as a model for wetland development on surface mines. Water pH was not measured because of equipment problems, but evidence (plant life, fish, herpetofauna) suggests suitable pH levels. Other water parameters (conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, chloride, copper, total hardness, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate) were measured, and only copper was seen in potentially high concentrations (but with no obvious toxic effects). Soil variables measured included pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, iron, sulfate, chloride, and percent organic matter. Soils were slightly alkaline and most parameters fell within levels reported for other studies on both natural and manmade wetlands. Aluminum was high, but this might be indicative more of large amounts complexed with soils and therefore unavailable, than amounts actually accessible to plants. Organic matter was moderate, somewhat surprising given the age of the system.

  13. Inland wetland change detection using aircraft MSS [multispectral scanner] data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.R.; Ramsey, E.W.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Sharitz, R.R.; Christensen, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nontidal wetlands in a portion of the Savannah River swamp forest affected by reactor cooling water discharges were mapped using March 31, 1981 and April 29, 1985 high-resolution aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Due to the inherent distortion in the aircraft MSS data and the complex spectral characteristics of the wetland vegetation, it was necessary to implement multiple techniques in the registration and classification of the MSS imagery of the Pen Branch Delta on each date. In particular, it was necessary to use a piecewise-linear registration process over relatively small regions to perform image-to-image registration. When performing unsupervised classification, an iterative ''cluster busting'' technique was used, which simplified the cluster labeling process. These procedures allowed important wetland vegetation categories to be identified on each date. The multiple-date classification maps were then evaluated using a post-classification comparison technique yielding change classes that were of value in determining the extent of inland wetland change in this region

  14. The nitrogen abatement cost in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroem, Olof

    1998-01-01

    The costs of abating agricultural nitrogen pollution in wetlands are estimated. By linking costs for construction of wetlands to the denitrification capacity of wetlands, an abatement cost function can be formed. A construction-cost function and a denitrification function for wetlands is estimated empirically. This paper establishes a link between abatement costs and the nitrogen load on wetlands. Since abatement costs fluctuate with nitrogen load, ignoring this link results in incorrect estimates of abatement costs. The results demonstrate that wetlands have the capacity to provide low cost abatement of nitrogen compounds in runoff. For the Kattegatt region in Sweden, marginal abatement costs for wetlands are shown to be lower than costs of land use changing measures, such as extended land under fallow or cultivation of fuel woods, but higher than the marginal costs of reducing nitrogen fertilizer

  15. Hydrodynamic modelling of a tidal delta wetland using an enhanced quasi-2D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Sjoerd J.; Grimson, Rafael; Minotti, Priscilla G.; Booija, Martijn J.; Brugnach, Marcela

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge about the hydrological regime of wetlands is key to understand their physical and biological properties. Modelling hydrological and hydrodynamic processes within a wetland is therefore becoming increasingly important. 3D models have successfully modelled wetland dynamics but depend on very detailed bathymetry and land topography. Many 1D and 2D models of river deltas highly simplify the interaction between the river and wetland area or simply neglect the wetland area. This study proposes an enhanced quasi-2D modelling strategy that captures the interaction between river discharge and moon tides and the resulting hydrodynamics, while using the scarce data available. The water flow equations are discretised with an interconnected irregular cell scheme, in which a simplification of the 1D Saint-Venant equations is used to define the water flow between cells. The spatial structure of wetlands is based on the ecogeomorphology in complex estuarine deltas. The islands within the delta are modelled with levee cells, creek cells and an interior cell representing a shallow marsh wetland. The model is calibrated for an average year and the model performance is evaluated for another average year and additionally an extreme dry three-month period and an extreme wet three-month period. The calibration and evaluation are done based on two water level measurement stations and two discharge measurement stations, all located in the main rivers. Additional calibration is carried out with field water level measurements in a wetland area. Accurate simulations are obtained for both calibration and evaluation with high correlations between observed and simulated water levels and simulated discharges in the same order of magnitude as observed discharges. Calibration against field measurements showed that the model can successfully simulate the overflow mechanism in wetland areas. A sensitivity analysis for several wetland parameters showed that these parameters are all

  16. In Situ Wetland Restoration Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    wetland habitats where: habitat disruption should be minimized; desirable flora or fauna might be harmed by traditional remedial excavation methods...However, it is possible that short-term impacts to hydrophytic flora and fauna may occur. Other potential challenges include the long-term physical

  17. Magellanic Wetlands : More than Moor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, L.; Hédl, Radim; Dančák, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 163-188 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : wetland * vegetation * environment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  18. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  19. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in a landscape dominated by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A; Hladik, Michelle L; Pierce, Clay L

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1,500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and implementing

  20. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in alandscape dominated by agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin L.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Hladik, Michelle; Pierce, Clay L.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and

  1. China's natural wetlands: past problems, current status, and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuqing An; Harbin Li; Baohua Guan; Changfang Zhou; Zhongsheng Wang; Zifa Deng; Yingbiao Zhi; Yuhong Liu; Chi Xu; Shubo Fang; Jinhui Jiang; Hongli Li

    2007-01-01

    Natural wetlands, occupying 3.8% of China's land and providing 54.9% of ecosystem services, are unevenly distributed among eight wetland regions. Natural wetlands in China suffered great loss and degradation (e.g., 23.0% freshwater swamps, 51.2% coastal wetlands) because of the wetland reclamation during China's long history of civilization, and the...

  2. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendelton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low (chemistry, basin characteristics, and avian use of different wetland types. Shallow, beaver (Castor canadensis)-created wetlands with the highest phosphorus levels and abundant and varied macrophyte assemblages supported greater densities of macroinvertebrates and numbers of duck broods (88.3% of all broods) in contrast to deep, glacial type wetlands with sparse vegetation and lower invertebrate densities that supported fewer broods (11.7%). Low pH may have affected some acid-intolerant invertebrate taxa (i.e., Ephemeroptera), but high mean numbers of Insecta per wetland were recorded from wetlands with a pH of 5.51. Other Classes and Orders of invertebrates were more abundant on wetlands with pH > 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH ≤ 5.51 (77.4%) in contract to wetlands with pH > 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  3. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M. [Jacques Whitford NAWE, White Bear Lake, MN (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000{sup 2} foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m{sup 3} per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m{sup 3} of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig.

  4. Working group report on wetlands and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teels, B.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss the state of knowledge and knowledge gaps concerning climatic change impacts on wetlands and wildlife are presented. Prairie pothole wetlands are extremely productive and produce ca 50% of all ducks in North America. The most productive, and most vulnerable to climate change, are small potholes, often less than one acre in area. Changes in water regimes and land use will have more impact on wildlife than changes in temperature. There are gaps in knowledge relating to: boreal wetlands and their wildlife, and response to climate; wetland inventories that include the smallest wetlands; coordinated schemes for monitoring status and trends of wetlands and wildlife; and understanding of ecological relationships within wetlands and their wildlife communities. Recommendations include: coordinate and enhance existing databases to provide an integrated monitoring system; establish research programs to increase understanding of ecological relationships within wetland ecosystems; evaluate programs and policies that affect wetlands; and promote heightened public awareness of general values of wetlands

  5. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000 2 foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m 3 per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig

  6. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  7. Wetlands - different types, their properties and functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Erik [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences/Hydrology

    2003-08-01

    In this report, different Swedish wetland types are presented with emphasis on their occurrence, vegetation cover, soil physical and chemical properties and functions. Three different main groups of wetlands are identified: bogs, fens and marshes. The former two are peat forming environments while the term 'marshes' covers all non-peat forming wetlands. Poor fens are the most common type in Sweden but (tree-covered) marshes would probably be dominating large areas in Southern Sweden if not affected by human activity such as drainage for farming. Fens and bogs are often coexisting next to each other and bogs are often seen to be the next step after fens in the natural succession. However, the development of wetlands and processes of succession between different wetland types are resulting from complicated interactions between climate, vegetation, geology and topography. For description of the development at individual sites, the hydrological settings which determine the water flow paths seem to be most crucial, emphasizing the importance of geology and topography. For modelling the growth of peat, simple models have so far dominated, but these are often restricted in general use. Therefore, more physical-based models have been developed, but the natural heterogeneity and climate shifts bring uncertainty of how they should be parameterised. The use of coupled groundwater-substance transport models have shown to help understand how water flows and soil chemistry are developing in response to different peat forms. The peat is characterised by a high porosity (80-95%) which is decreasing with decomposition and depth. The most important change is then that the actively conducting pores are getting clogged and closed. The storage coefficient of the peat is then decreasing with decomposition as well as the hydraulic conductivity. The variation of hydraulic conductivity (k) can be large and current understanding of the connections between hydraulic conductivity

  8. Wetlands - different types, their properties and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellner, Erik

    2003-08-01

    In this report, different Swedish wetland types are presented with emphasis on their occurrence, vegetation cover, soil physical and chemical properties and functions. Three different main groups of wetlands are identified: bogs, fens and marshes. The former two are peat forming environments while the term 'marshes' covers all non-peat forming wetlands. Poor fens are the most common type in Sweden but (tree-covered) marshes would probably be dominating large areas in Southern Sweden if not affected by human activity such as drainage for farming. Fens and bogs are often coexisting next to each other and bogs are often seen to be the next step after fens in the natural succession. However, the development of wetlands and processes of succession between different wetland types are resulting from complicated interactions between climate, vegetation, geology and topography. For description of the development at individual sites, the hydrological settings which determine the water flow paths seem to be most crucial, emphasizing the importance of geology and topography. For modelling the growth of peat, simple models have so far dominated, but these are often restricted in general use. Therefore, more physical-based models have been developed, but the natural heterogeneity and climate shifts bring uncertainty of how they should be parameterised. The use of coupled groundwater-substance transport models have shown to help understand how water flows and soil chemistry are developing in response to different peat forms. The peat is characterised by a high porosity (80-95%) which is decreasing with decomposition and depth. The most important change is then that the actively conducting pores are getting clogged and closed. The storage coefficient of the peat is then decreasing with decomposition as well as the hydraulic conductivity. The variation of hydraulic conductivity (k) can be large and current understanding of the connections between hydraulic conductivity and other

  9. National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study Wetland Migitation Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    habitat (i.e. number of snags, extent of exposed steep shoreline, etc.) rather than selecting species themselves as function indicators [ WWF 1992...etc.) that are converted to portray hydrologic, water quality, and habitat functions as well as wetland loss on watershed scales [ WWF 1992]. The...Natural Areas - include the Stewardship Program, a partnership program between the private and public sectors for conservation land acquisitions

  10. Introduction to the Wetland Book 1: Wetland structure and function, management, and nethods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Nick C.; Middleton, Beth A.; McInnes, Robert J.; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; Van Dam, Anne A.; Finlayson, C. Max; Finlayson, C. Max; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; McInnes, Robert J.; Middleton, Beth A.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Davidson, Nick C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a ‘first port-of-call’ reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic Sections. Each Section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

  11. Rainfall Variability, Wetland Persistence, and Water–Carbon Cycle Coupling in the Upper Zambezi River Basin in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. L. Lowman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Zambezi River Basin (UZRB delineates a complex region of topographic, soil and rainfall gradients between the Congo rainforest and the Kalahari Desert. Satellite imagery shows permanent wetlands in low-lying convergence zones where surface–groundwater interactions are vigorous. A dynamic wetland classification based on MODIS Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance is developed to capture the inter-annual and seasonal changes in areal extent due to groundwater redistribution and rainfall variability. Simulations of the coupled water–carbon cycles of seasonal wetlands show nearly double rates of carbon uptake as compared to dry areas, at increasingly lower water-use efficiencies as the dry season progresses. Thus, wetland extent and persistence into the dry season is key to the UZRB’s carbon sink and water budget. Whereas groundwater recharge governs the expansion of wetlands in the rainy season under large-scale forcing, wetland persistence in April–June (wet–dry transition months is tied to daily morning fog and clouds, and by afternoon land–atmosphere interactions (isolated convection. Rainfall suppression in July–September results from colder temperatures, weaker regional circulations, and reduced instability in the lower troposphere, shutting off moisture recycling in the dry season despite high evapotranspiration rates. The co-organization of precipitation and wetlands reflects land–atmosphere interactions that determine wetland seasonal persistence, and the coupled water and carbon cycles.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  13. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  14. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  15. Characteristic community structure of Florida's subtropical wetlands: the Florida wetland condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depending upon the classification scheme applied, there are between 10 and 45 different wetland types in Florida. Land use and land cover change has a marked effect on wetland condition, and different wetland types are affected differentially depending on many abiotic and biotic ...

  16. SLOSS or Not? Factoring Wetland Size Into Decisions for Wetland Conservation, Enhancement, Restoration, and Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitigation or replacement of several small impacted wetlands or sites with fewer large wetlands can occur deliberately through the application of functional assessment methods (e.g., Adamus 1997) or coincidentally as the result of market-based mechanisms for wetland mitigation ba...

  17. Artificial wetlands - yes or no?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Václav; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 119-127 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : floodplain * artificial wetlands * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  19. Interactions Between Wetlands and Tidal Inlets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents numerical simulations investigating how the loss of wetlands in estuaries modifies tidal processes in inlet navigation channels...

  20. Simulation of Constructed Wetland in treating Wastewater using Fuzzy Logic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Subramani, Sheekha; Rajan, Rajitha J.; Shah, Isha; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2018-04-01

    Constructed wetlands act as a natural alternative to conventional methods of wastewater treatment. CW are found effective in wastewater containing inorganic matter, organic matter, toxic compounds, metals, nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. The treatment efficiency by the adaptation of CWs in treatment process is achieved by a complex interaction between plants, microorganisms, soil matrix and substances in the wastewater. Constructed wetland treatment systems are engineered systems designed in such a manner that it could take advantages of those processes occurring in natural wetlands in treating the wastewater concerned, but in a more controlled environment. Petrochemical wastewater was the type of wastewater taken for the study. Characteristics of petrochemical wastewater mainly oil, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) were selected for treatment in constructed wetland as they are predominant in petrochemical wastewater. The conventional methods followed in the treatment are chemical and biological treatment. In this study, a fuzzy model for water quality assessment has been developed and water quality index value was obtained. The experiment conducted and further analysis using fuzzy logic indicated that interpretation of certain imprecise data can be improved within fuzzy inference system (FIS). Based on the analysis, we could observe that Typha sp contained wetland cell showed greater efficiency in removal of parameters such as COD and BOD than Phragmites sp. wetland cell.

  1. Hydrological Response of Alpine Wetlands to Climate Warming in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpine wetlands in the Tibetan Plateau (TP play a crucial role in the regional hydrological cycle due to their strong influence on surface ecohydrological processes; therefore, understanding how TP wetlands respond to climate change is essential for projecting their future condition and potential vulnerability. We investigated the hydrological responses of a large TP wetland complex to recent climate change, by combining multiple satellite observations and in-situ hydro-meteorological records. We found different responses of runoff production to regional warming trends among three basins with similar climate, topography and vegetation cover but different wetland proportions. The basin with larger wetland proportion (40.1% had a lower mean runoff coefficient (0.173 ± 0.006, and also showed increasingly lower runoff level (−3.9% year−1, p = 0.002 than the two adjacent basins. The satellite-based observations showed an increasing trend of annual non-frozen period, especially in the wetland-dominated region (2.64 day·year−1, p < 0.10, and a strong extension of vegetation growing-season (0.26–0.41 day·year−1, p < 0.10. Relatively strong increasing trends in evapotranspiration (ET (~1.00 mm·year−1, p < 0.01 and the vertical temperature gradient above ground surface (0.043 °C·year−1, p < 0.05 in wetland-dominant areas were documented from satellite-based ET observations and weather station records. These results indicate recent surface drying and runoff reduction of alpine wetlands, and their potential vulnerability to degradation with continued climate warming.

  2. Wise use of wetlands: current state of protection and utilization of Chinese wetlands and recommendations for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Yao, Yong; Ju, Meiting

    2008-06-01

    Wetland protection and utilization sometimes appear to be in conflict, but promoting the wise use of wetlands can solve this problem. All countries face the challenge of sustainable development of wetlands to a greater or lesser extent, but the problem is especially urgent in developing countries, such as China, that want to accelerate their economic development without excessive environmental cost. Chinese wetlands contribute greatly to economic development, but improper use of these natural resources has endangered their existence. It is thus necessary to provide scientific guidance to managers and users of wetlands. In this paper, we analyze the present status of Chinese wetland protection and utilization, and discuss problems in six categories: a lack of public awareness of the need for wetland protection; insufficient funding for wetland protection and management; an imperfect legal system to protect wetlands; insufficient wetland research; lack of coordination among agencies and unclear responsibilities; and undeveloped technologies related to wetland use and protection. The wise use of Chinese wetlands will require improvements in four main areas: increased wetland utilization research, scientific management of wetland utilization, improved laws and regulations to protect wetlands, and wider dissemination of wetland knowledge. Based on these categories, we propose a framework for the optimization of wetland use by industry to provide guidance for China and other countries that cannot sacrifice economic benefits to protect their wetlands.

  3. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  4. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  5. Challenges and Conundrums in Modeling Global Methane Emissions from Wetlands: An Empiricist's Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgham, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    of microbial studies in wetlands using high-throughput molecular techniques, but microbial community and functional parameters are largely missing from models. However, recently developed trait-based models show promise for reducing the multivariate complexity of this data into manageable parameters for large-scale CH4 models.

  6. 398 ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND VALUATION PROCESSES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    This study therefore examined the processes involved in the valuation of wetland resources for ... of the subsistence uses of wetland resources are also not ... hydrological cycle, playing a key role in the provision ..... Management Strategies at the River Basin Scale. A ... Using. GIS: A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty.

  7. Carbon Cycling in Wetland Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands comprise a small proportion (i.e., 2 to 3%) of earth's terrestrial surface, yet they contain a significant proportion of the terrestrial carbon (C) pool. Soils comprise the largest terrestrial C pool (ca. 1550 Pg C in upper 100 cm; Eswaran et al., 1993; Batjes, 1996), and wetlands contain the single largest component, with estimates ranging between 18...

  8. Stochastic modeling of wetland-groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassello, Leonardo Enrico; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Park, Jeryang; Jawitz, James W.; Botter, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    Modeling and data analyses were used in this study to examine the temporal hydrological variability in geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), as influenced by hydrologic connectivity to shallow groundwater, wetland bathymetry, and subject to stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. We examined the general case of GIWs coupled to shallow groundwater through exfiltration or infiltration across wetland bottom. We also examined limiting case with the wetland stage as the local expression of the shallow groundwater. We derive analytical expressions for the steady-state probability density functions (pdfs) for wetland water storage and stage using few, scaled, physically-based parameters. In addition, we analyze the hydrologic crossing time properties of wetland stage, and the dependence of the mean hydroperiod on climatic and wetland morphologic attributes. Our analyses show that it is crucial to account for shallow groundwater connectivity to fully understand the hydrologic dynamics in wetlands. The application of the model to two different case studies in Florida, jointly with a detailed sensitivity analysis, allowed us to identify the main drivers of hydrologic dynamics in GIWs under different climate and morphologic conditions.

  9. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  10. Advancing the use of minirhizotrons in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Iversen; M. T. Murphy; M. F. Allen; J. Childs; D. M. Eissenstat; E.A. Lilleskov; T. M. Sarjala; V. L. Sloan; P. F. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Wetlands store a substantial amount of carbon (C) in deep soil organic matter deposits, and play an important role in global fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. Fine roots (i.e., ephemeral roots that are active in water and nutrient uptake) are recognized as important components of biogeochemical cycles in nutrient-limited wetland ecosystems. However,...

  11. Macroinvertebrate variation in endorheic depression wetlands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variation. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetland fauna. Spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages in endorheic depressions (locally referred to as 'pans') in ...

  12. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  13. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers

    2000-01-01

    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  14. Mapping the Dabus Wetlands, Ethiopia, Using Random Forest Classification of Landsat, PALSAR and Topographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Dubeau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Dabus Wetland complex in the highlands of Ethiopia is within the headwaters of the Nile Basin and is home to significant ecological communities and rare or endangered species. Its many interrelated wetland types undergo seasonal and longer-term changes due to weather and climate variations as well as anthropogenic land use such as grazing and burning. Mapping and monitoring of these wetlands has not been previously undertaken due primarily to their relative isolation and lack of resources. This study investigated the potential of remote sensing based classification for mapping the primary vegetation groups in the Dabus Wetlands using a combination of dry and wet season data, including optical (Landsat spectral bands and derived vegetation and wetness indices, radar (ALOS PALSAR L-band backscatter, and elevation (SRTM derived DEM and other terrain metrics as inputs to the non-parametric Random Forest (RF classifier. Eight wetland types and three terrestrial/upland classes were mapped using field samples of observed plant community composition and structure groupings as reference information. Various tests to compare results using different RF input parameters and data types were conducted. A combination of multispectral optical, radar and topographic variables provided the best overall classification accuracy, 94.4% and 92.9% for the dry and wet season, respectively. Spectral and topographic data (radar data excluded performed nearly as well, while accuracies using only radar and topographic data were 82–89%. Relatively homogeneous classes such as Papyrus Swamps, Forested Wetland, and Wet Meadow yielded the highest accuracies while spatially complex classes such as Emergent Marsh were more difficult to accurately classify. The methods and results presented in this paper can serve as a basis for development of long-term mapping and monitoring of these and other non-forested wetlands in Ethiopia and other similar environmental settings.

  15. Teaching multidisciplinary environmental science in a wetland setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Nuzzo, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    High-school students from across the country came to the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) to assist in field research for two weeks in July, 1994, as part of The Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth Summer Experience Program. During the research project at the ISGS, students were exposed to a multidisciplinary scientific investigation where geology, hydrogeology, ground-water chemistry, and plant biology could be directly observed and used to study the potentially destructive effects of nearby road and house construction on a fen-wetland complex. Experienced researchers provided classroom and field instruction to the students prior to leading the field investigations. Following field work, the students returned to the ISGS laboratories where they assisted with the chemical analysis of ground-water samples and compiled and interpreted their data. The students wrote up their results in standard scientific report format and gave oral presentations covering various aspects of the project to an audience of ISGS scientists and guests. The results of their work, which showed changes in the wetland's plant biodiversity resulting from urban development within the watershed, will provide data needed for the preservation of biodiversity in these and other wetlands.

  16. Modeling adaptation of wetland plants under changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, R.; Muneepeerakul, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    An evolutionary-game-theoretic approach is used to study the changes in traits of wetland plants in response to environmental changes, e.g., altered patterns of rainfall and nutrients. Here, a wetland is considered as a complex adaptive system where plants can adapt their strategies and influence one another. The system is subject to stochastic rainfall, which controls the dynamics of water level, soil moisture, and alternation between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in soil. Based on our previous work, a plant unit is characterized by three traits, namely biomass nitrogen content, specific leaf area, and allocation to rhizome. These traits control the basic functions of plants such as assimilation, respiration, and nutrient uptake, while affecting their environment through litter chemistry, root oxygenation, and thus soil microbial dynamics. The outcome of this evolutionary game, i.e., the best-performing plant traits against the backdrop of these interactions and feedbacks, is analyzed and its implications on important roles of wetlands in supporting our sustainability such as carbon sequestration in biosphere, nutrient cycling, and repository of biodiversity are discussed.

  17. Are isolated wetlands groundwater recharge hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A.; Wicks, C. M.; Brantley, S. T.; Golladay, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are a common landscape feature in the mantled karst terrain of the Dougherty Plain physiographic district in Southwestern Georgia. These wetlands support a high diversity of obligate/facultative wetland flora and fauna, including several endangered species. While the ecological value of these wetlands is well documented, the hydrologic effects of GIWs on larger watershed processes, such as water storage and aquifer recharge, are less clear. Our project seeks to understand the spatial and temporal variation in recharge across GIWs on this mantled karst landscape. In particular, our first step is to understand the role of isolated wetlands (presumed sinkholes) in delivering water into the underlying aquifer. Our hypothesis is that many GIWs are actually water-filled sinkholes and are locations of focused recharge feeding either the underlying upper Floridan aquifer or the nearby creeks. If we are correct, then these sinkholes should exhibit "drains", i.e., conduits into the limestone bedrock. Thus, the purposes of our initial study are to image the soil-limestone contact (the buried epikarstic surface) and determine if possible subsurface drains exist. Our field work was conducted at the Joseph W Jones Ecological Research Center. During the dry season, we conducted ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys as grids and lines across a large wetland and across a field with no surface expression of a wetland or sinkhole. We used GPR (200 MHz antenna) with 1-m spacing between antenna and a ping rate of 1 ping per 40 centimeters. Our results show that the epikarstic surface exhibits a drain underneath the wetland (sinkhole) and that no similar feature was seen under the field, even though the survey grid and spacing were similar. As our project progresses, we will survey additional wetlands occurring across varying soil types to determine the spatial distribution between surface wetlands and subsurface drains.

  18. Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2004-12-01

    Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

  19. Modeling natural wetlands: A new global framework built on wetland observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.; Romanski, J.; Olefeldt, D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural wetlands are the world's largest methane (CH4) source, and their distribution and CH4 fluxes are sensitive to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Wetland distributions used in wetland-CH4 models diverge widely, and these geographic differences contribute substantially to large variations in magnitude, seasonality and distribution of modeled methane fluxes. Modeling wetland type and distribution—closely tied to simulating CH4 emissions—is a high priority, particularly for studies of wetlands and CH4 dynamics under past and future climates. Methane-wetland models either prescribe or simulate methane-producing areas (aka wetlands) and both approaches result in predictable over- and under-estimates. 1) Monthly satellite-derived inundation data include flooded areas that are not wetlands (e.g., lakes, reservoirs, and rivers), and do not identify non-flooded wetlands. 2) Models simulating methane-producing areas overwhelmingly rely on modeled soil moisture, systematically over-estimating total global area, with regional over- and under-estimates, while schemes to model soil-moisture typically cannot account for positive water tables (i.e., flooding). Interestingly, while these distinct hydrological approaches to identify wetlands are complementary, merging them does not provide critical data needed to model wetlands for methane studies. We present a new integrated framework for modeling wetlands, and ultimately their methane emissions, that exploits the extensive body of data and information on wetlands. The foundation of the approach is an existing global gridded data set comprising all and only wetlands, including vegetation information. This data set is augmented with data inter alia on climate, inundation dynamics, soil type and soil carbon, permafrost, active-layer depth, growth form, and species composition. We investigate this enhanced wetland data set to identify which variables best explain occurrence and characteristics of observed

  20. Use of wetlands for the treatment of acidic mining drainage: the processes in the wetland; Utilizacion de humedales para el tratamiento de aguas acidas de mina: procesos que tienen lugar en el humedal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lastra, M.; Loredo Perez, J. [Departamento de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas. Escuela de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1995-04-01

    Wetlands constitute an alternative method for the treatment of acidic mining drainage, through the utilization of some plant species complex physico-chemical and biological processes take place, producing and improvement of the quality of waters moving through. The inherent characteristics of a wetland in operation will originate an horizontal zonation as for the quality of waters due to their progressive ameliorations of pH increase and heavy metals concentration decreases, anyway a vertical zonation, giving rise to oxidation and reduction zones on the wetland. From the different physical processes occurring on the wetland, the plant roots filtering, the dilution of effluents with superficial and underground waters and aeration phenomena can be considered very important. Oxidation, hydrolysis and sulphate reduction constitute important chemical processes leading to the removal of heavy metals from contaminated effluents. Wetlands have plants as sphagnum, typha and algae advantageous for the treatment of acidic waters provided that they retain heavy metals in their tissues and the contribute furthermore to modify the substrate conditions favoring the creation of reduction zones. The aerobic-anaerobic mixed systems are from the different wetland types those are prevailing because of the advantages of sulphate reduction as contrasted with oxides precipitation for the removal of heavy metals. Wetlands although are not the panacea for the treatment of acidic mining waters they offer advantages and some disadvantages too, over other treatment methods, and they constitute a real alternative for the conventional methods of chemical neutralization. (Author)

  1. Evaluating how variants of floristic quality assessment indicate wetland condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Thomas E; Forrester, Graham E

    2018-03-28

    Biological indicators are useful tools for the assessment of ecosystem condition. Multi-metric and multi-taxa indicators may respond to a broader range of disturbances than simpler indicators, but their complexity can make them difficult to interpret, which is critical to indicator utility for ecosystem management. Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is an example of a biological assessment approach that has been widely tested for indicating freshwater wetland condition, but less attention has been given to clarifying the factors controlling its response. FQA quantifies the aggregate of vascular plant species tolerance to habitat degradation (conservatism), and model variants have incorporated species richness, abundance, and indigenity (native or non-native). To assess bias, we tested FQA variants in open-canopy freshwater wetlands against three independent reference measures, using practical vegetation sampling methods. FQA variants incorporating species richness did not correlate with our reference measures and were influenced by wetland size and hydrogeomorphic class. In contrast, FQA variants lacking measures of species richness responded linearly to reference measures quantifying individual and aggregate stresses, suggesting a broad response to cumulative degradation. FQA variants incorporating non-native species, and a variant additionally incorporating relative species abundance, improved performance over using only native species. We relate our empirical findings to ecological theory to clarify the functional properties and implications of the FQA variants. Our analysis indicates that (1) aggregate conservatism reliably declines with increased disturbance; (2) species richness has varying relationships with disturbance and increases with site area, confounding FQA response; and (3) non-native species signal human disturbance. We propose that incorporating species abundance can improve FQA site-level relevance with little extra sampling effort. Using our

  2. 76 FR 79145 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands Correction In proposed rule document... Type of proposed action Type of proposed action (new Wetlands or 100- Non-wetlands area reviewable... construction in wetlands locations. \\2\\ Or those paragraphs of Sec. 55.20 that are applicable to an action...

  3. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  4. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical and...

  5. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  6. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  7. Natural wetland in China | Pan | African Journal of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As it is known to all, wetland is one of the most crucial ecosystems in the world, with large varieties in China. How to protect wetland in China has become a more serious problem and five typical wetlands were selected in the article to illustrate the condition. Through the comparison between the past and present of wetland, ...

  8. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  9. BUFFER ZONE METHOD, LAND USE PLANNING AND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES ABOUT WETLANDS UNDER URBANIZATION PRESSURE IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ergen, Baris

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are special areas that they offer habitat for terrestrial and water life. Wetlands are nest sides also for amphibian, for this reason wetlands offer wide range diversity for species. Wetlands are also reproduction regions for birds. Wetlands have special importance for ecosystem because they obstruct erosion. Wetlands absorb contaminants from water therefore wetlands contribute to clean water and they offer more potable water. Wetlands obstruct waterflood. In that case wetlands must ...

  10. Prioritizing Wetlands for Waterbirds in a Boom and Bust System: Waterbird Refugia and Breeding in the Murray-Darling Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Bino

    Full Text Available Dryland rivers have considerable flow variability, producing complex ecosystems, processes, and communities of organisms that vary over space and time. They are also among the more vulnerable of the world's ecosystems. A key strategy for conservation of dryland rivers is identifying and maintaining key sites for biodiversity conservation, particularly protecting the quantity and quality of flow and flooding regimes. Extreme variability considerably challenges freshwater conservation planning. We systematically prioritised wetlands for waterbirds (simultaneously for 52 species, across about 13.5% of the Murray-Darling Basin (1,061,469 km2, using a 30-year record of systematic aerial surveys of waterbird populations. Nine key wetlands in this area, primarily lakes, floodplains, and swamps, consistently contributed to a representation target (80% of total abundances of all 52 waterbird species. The long temporal span of our data included dramatic availability (i.e., booms and scarcity (i.e., busts of water, providing a unique opportunity to test prioritisation at extremes of variation. These extremes represented periods when waterbirds were breeding or concentrating on refugia, varying wetland prioritisation. In dry years, important wetlands for waterbirds were riverine and lacustrine (12 wetlands but this changed in wet years to lacustrine and palustrine (8 wetlands. Such variation in ecosystem condition substantially changes the relative importance of individual wetlands for waterbirds during boom and bust phases. Incorporating this variability is necessary for effective conservation of Murray-Darling Basin waterbirds, with considerable generality for other similarly variable systems around the world.

  11. Prioritizing Wetlands for Waterbirds in a Boom and Bust System: Waterbird Refugia and Breeding in the Murray-Darling Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bino, Gilad; Kingsford, Richard T; Porter, John

    2015-01-01

    Dryland rivers have considerable flow variability, producing complex ecosystems, processes, and communities of organisms that vary over space and time. They are also among the more vulnerable of the world's ecosystems. A key strategy for conservation of dryland rivers is identifying and maintaining key sites for biodiversity conservation, particularly protecting the quantity and quality of flow and flooding regimes. Extreme variability considerably challenges freshwater conservation planning. We systematically prioritised wetlands for waterbirds (simultaneously for 52 species), across about 13.5% of the Murray-Darling Basin (1,061,469 km2), using a 30-year record of systematic aerial surveys of waterbird populations. Nine key wetlands in this area, primarily lakes, floodplains, and swamps, consistently contributed to a representation target (80%) of total abundances of all 52 waterbird species. The long temporal span of our data included dramatic availability (i.e., booms) and scarcity (i.e., busts) of water, providing a unique opportunity to test prioritisation at extremes of variation. These extremes represented periods when waterbirds were breeding or concentrating on refugia, varying wetland prioritisation. In dry years, important wetlands for waterbirds were riverine and lacustrine (12 wetlands) but this changed in wet years to lacustrine and palustrine (8 wetlands). Such variation in ecosystem condition substantially changes the relative importance of individual wetlands for waterbirds during boom and bust phases. Incorporating this variability is necessary for effective conservation of Murray-Darling Basin waterbirds, with considerable generality for other similarly variable systems around the world.

  12. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  13. A review of models and micrometeorological methods used to estimate wetland evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, J.Z.; Snyder, R.L.; Spano, D.; Paw, U.K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past decade or so, the accuracy of evapotranspiration (ET) estimates has improved due to new and increasingly sophisticated methods. Yet despite a plethora of choices concerning methods, estimation of wetland ET remains insufficiently characterized due to the complexity of surface characteristics and the diversity of wetland types. In this review, we present models and micrometeorological methods that have been used to estimate wetland ET and discuss their suitability for particular wetland types. Hydrological, soil monitoring and lysimetric methods to determine ET are not discussed. Our review shows that, due to the variability and complexity of wetlands, there is no single approach that is the best for estimating wetland ET. Furthermore, there is no single foolproof method to obtain an accurate, independent measure of wetland ET. Because all of the methods reviewed, with the exception of eddy covariance and LIDAR, require measurements of net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G), highly accurate measurements of these energy components are key to improving measurements of wetland ET. Many of the major methods used to determine ET can be applied successfully to wetlands of uniform vegetation and adequate fetch, however, certain caveats apply. For example, with accurate Rn and G data and small Bowen ratio (??) values, the Bowen ratio energy balance method can give accurate estimates of wetland ET. However, large errors in latent heat flux density can occur near sunrise and sunset when the Bowen ratio ?? ??? - 1??0. The eddy covariance method provides a direct measurement of latent heat flux density (??E) and sensible heat flux density (II), yet this method requires considerable expertise and expensive instrumentation to implement. A clear advantage of using the eddy covariance method is that ??E can be compared with Rn-G H, thereby allowing for an independent test of accuracy. The surface renewal method is inexpensive to replicate and, therefore, shows

  14. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  15. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  16. Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring key technology in coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    The coastal wetland, a transitional zone between terrestrial ecosystems and marine ecosystems, is the type of great value to ecosystem services. For the recent 3 decades, area of the coastal wetland is decreasing and the ecological function is gradually degraded with the rapid development of economy, which restricts the sustainable development of economy and society in the coastal areas of China in turn. It is a major demand of the national reality to carry out the monitoring of coastal wetlands, to master the distribution and dynamic change. UAV, namely unmanned aerial vehicle, is a new platform for remote sensing. Compared with the traditional satellite and manned aerial remote sensing, it has the advantage of flexible implementation, no cloud cover, strong initiative and low cost. Image-spectrum merging is one character of high spectral remote sensing. At the same time of imaging, the spectral curve of each pixel is obtained, which is suitable for quantitative remote sensing, fine classification and target detection. Aimed at the frontier and hotspot of remote sensing monitoring technology, and faced the demand of the coastal wetland monitoring, this paper used UAV and the new remote sensor of high spectral imaging instrument to carry out the analysis of the key technologies of monitoring coastal wetlands by UAV on the basis of the current situation in overseas and domestic and the analysis of developing trend. According to the characteristic of airborne hyperspectral data on UAV, that is "three high and one many", the key technology research that should develop are promoted as follows: 1) the atmosphere correction of the UAV hyperspectral in coastal wetlands under the circumstance of complex underlying surface and variable geometry, 2) the best observation scale and scale transformation method of the UAV platform while monitoring the coastal wetland features, 3) the classification and detection method of typical features with high precision from multi scale

  17. Wetland Management Reduces Sediment and Nutrient Loading to the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restored riparian wetlands in the Upper Mississippi River basin have the potential to remove sediment and nutrients from tributaries before they flow into the Mississippi River. For 3 yr we calculated retention efficiencies of a marsh complex, which consisted of a restored marsh...

  18. Identification of Dynamic Cover Types in Wetlands by using Multitemporal Cross-polarized Sentinel-1 Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro, Javier; Canty, Morton; Conradsen, Knut

    , and the Lagoon of Fuente de Piedra, a small wetland in Southern Spain. For that we use a multitemporal change detection procedure for polarimetric SAR imagery based on the Complex Wishart distribution developed recently by Conradsen et al (2015), (to be published) and an innovative open source software...

  19. Stimulating a Great Lakes coastal wetland seed bank using portable cofferdams: implications for habitat rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.; Wiley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetland seed banks exposed by low lake levels or through management actions fuel the reestablishment of emergent plant assemblages (i.e., wetland habitat) critical to Great Lakes aquatic biota. This project explored the effectiveness of using portable, water-filled cofferdams as a management tool to promote the natural growth of emergent vegetation from the seed bank in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. A series of dams stretching approximately 450??m was installed temporarily to isolate hydrologically a 10-ha corner of the Crane Creek wetland complex from Lake Erie. The test area was dewatered in 2004 to mimic a low-water year, and vegetation sampling characterized the wetland seed bank response at low, middle, and high elevations in areas open to and protected from bird and mammal herbivory. The nearly two-month drawdown stimulated a rapid seed-bank-driven response by 45 plant taxa. Herbivory had little effect on plant species richness, regardless of the location along an elevation gradient. Inundation contributed to the replacement of immature emergent plant species with submersed aquatic species after the dams failed and were removed prematurely. This study revealed a number of important issues that must be considered for effective long-term implementation of portable cofferdam technology to stimulate wetland seed banks, including duration of dewatering, product size, source of clean water, replacement of damaged dams, and regular maintenance. This technology is a potentially important tool in the arsenal used by resource managers seeking to rehabilitate the functions and values of Great Lakes coastal wetland habitats.

  20. Modelling of seasonal dynamics of Wetland-Groundwater flow interaction in the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Melkamu; Nussbaumer, Raphaël; Ireson, Andrew; Keim, Dawn

    2015-04-01

    Wetland-shallow groundwater interaction is studied at the St. Denis National Wildlife Area in Saskatchewan, Canada, located within the northern glaciated prairies of North America. Ponds in the Canadian Prairies are intermittently connected by fill-spill processes in the spring and growing season of some wetter years. The contribution of the ponds and wetlands to groundwater is still a significant research challenge. The objective of this study is to evaluate model's ability to reproduce observed effects of groundwater-wetland interactions including seasonal pattern of shallow groundwater table, intended flow direction and to quantify the depression induced infiltration from the wetland to the surrounding uplands. The integrated surface-wetland-shallow groundwater processes and the changes in land-energy and water balances caused by the flow interaction are simulated using ParFlow-CLM at a small watershed of 1km2 containing both permanent and seasonal wetland complexes. We compare simulated water table depth with piezometers reading monitored by level loggers at the watershed. We also present the strengths and limitations of the model in reproducing observed behaviour of the groundwater table response to the spring snowmelt and summer rainfall. Simulations indicate that the shallow water table at the uphill recovers quickly after major rainfall events in early summer that generates lateral flow to the pond. In late summer, the wetland supplies water to the surrounding upland when the evapotranspiration is higher than the precipitation in which more water from the root zone is up taken by plants. Results also show that Parflow-CLM is able to reasonably simulate the water table patterns response to summer rainfall, while it is insufficient to reproduce the spring snowmelt infiltration which is the most dominant hydrological process in the Prairies.

  1. Causal mechanisms of soil organic matter decomposition: Deconstructing salinity and flooding impacts in coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Camille L.; Schoolmaster, Donald; Krauss, Ken W.; Cormier, Nicole; Conner, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands significantly contribute to global carbon storage potential. Sea-level rise and other climate change-induced disturbances threaten coastal wetland sustainability and carbon storage capacity. It is critical that we understand the mechanisms controlling wetland carbon loss so that we can predict and manage these resources in anticipation of climate change. However, our current understanding of the mechanisms that control soil organic matter decomposition, in particular the impacts of elevated salinity, are limited, and literature reports are contradictory. In an attempt to improve our understanding of these complex processes, we measured root and rhizome decomposition and developed a causal model to identify and quantify the mechanisms that influence soil organic matter decomposition in coastal wetlands that are impacted by sea-level rise. We identified three causal pathways: 1) a direct pathway representing the effects of flooding on soil moisture, 2) a direct pathway representing the effects of salinity on decomposer microbial communities and soil biogeochemistry, and 3) an indirect pathway representing the effects of salinity on litter quality through changes in plant community composition over time. We used this model to test the effects of alternate scenarios on the response of tidal freshwater forested wetlands and oligohaline marshes to short- and long-term climate-induced disturbances of flooding and salinity. In tidal freshwater forested wetlands, the model predicted less decomposition in response to drought, hurricane salinity pulsing, and long-term sea-level rise. In contrast, in the oligohaline marsh, the model predicted no change in response to sea-level rise, and increased decomposition following a drought or a hurricane salinity pulse. Our results show that it is critical to consider the temporal scale of disturbance and the magnitude of exposure when assessing the effects of salinity intrusion on carbon mineralization in coastal

  2. Limnology of Jagatpur wetland, Bhagalpur (Bihar), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajnandan

    2011-10-01

    The water quality in Jagatpur wetland was assessed in terms of physico - chemical characteristics for two years, between August 2003-July 2005. The variations in different physico-chemical parameters have been discussed in this paper in relation to fluctuating climatic condition. The wetland is experiencing racing eutrophication as evidenced by pH was acidic to alkaline, total hardness was considerably high, bicarbonate was in moderate amount, phosphate-phosphorus content was in a range of medium to high and higher values of COD. The present status of the quality of water of Jagatpur wetland is delineated in this paper.

  3. Reduction of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in Prairie wetlands by common wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R; Fehr, Jessica; Liber, Karsten; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Morrissey, Christy A

    2017-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are frequently detected in wetlands during the early to mid-growing period of the Canadian Prairie cropping season. These detections also overlap with the growth of macrophytes that commonly surround agricultural wetlands which we hypothesized may reduce neonicotinoid transport and retention in wetlands. We sampled 20 agricultural wetlands and 11 macrophyte species in central Saskatchewan, Canada, over eight weeks to investigate whether macrophytes were capable of reducing movement of neonicotinoids from cultivated fields and/or reducing concentrations in surface water by accumulating insecticide residues into their tissues. Study wetlands were surrounded by clothianidin-treated canola and selected based on the presence (n=10) or absence (n=10) of a zonal plant community. Neonicotinoids were positively detected in 43% of wetland plants, and quantified in 8% of all plant tissues sampled. Three plant species showed high rates of detection: 78% Equisetum arvense (clothianidin, range: wetlands had higher detection frequency and water concentrations of clothianidin (β±S.E.: -0.77±0.26, P=0.003) and thiamethoxam (β±S.E.: -0.69±0.35, P=0.049) than vegetated wetlands. We assessed the importance of wetland characteristics (e.g. vegetative zone width, emergent plant height, water depth) on neonicotinoid concentrations in Prairie wetlands over time using linear mixed-effects models. Clothianidin concentrations were significantly lower in wetlands surrounded by taller plants (β±S.E.: -0.57±0.12, P≤0.001). The results of this study suggest that macrophytes can play an important role in mitigating water contamination by accumulating neonicotinoids and possibly slowing transport to wetlands during the growing season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Global meta-analysis of leaf area index in wetlands indicates uncertainties in understanding of their ecosystem function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Taddeo, S.; Foster, K.

    2017-12-01

    Projecting ecosystem responses to global change relies on the accurate understanding of properties governing their functions in different environments. An important variable in models of ecosystem function is canopy leaf area index (LAI; leaf area per unit ground area) declared as one of the Essential Climate Variables in the Global Climate Observing System and extensively measured in terrestrial landscapes. However, wetlands have been largely under-represented in these efforts, which globally limits understanding of their contribution to carbon sequestration, climate regulation and resilience to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. This study provides a global synthesis of >350 wetland-specific LAI observations from 182 studies and compares LAI among wetland ecosystem and vegetation types, biomes and measurement approaches. Results indicate that most wetland types and even individual locations show a substantial local dispersion of LAI values (average coefficient of variation 65%) due to heterogeneity of environmental properties and vegetation composition. Such variation indicates that mean LAI values may not sufficiently represent complex wetland environments, and the use of this index in ecosystem function models needs to incorporate within-site variation in canopy properties. Mean LAI did not significantly differ between direct and indirect measurement methods on a pooled global sample; however, within some of the specific biomes and wetland types significant contrasts between these approaches were detected. These contrasts highlight unique aspects of wetland vegetation physiology and canopy structure affecting measurement principles that need to be considered in generalizing canopy properties in ecosystem models. Finally, efforts to assess wetland LAI using remote sensing strongly indicate the promise of this technology for cost-effective regional-scale modeling of canopy properties similar to terrestrial systems. However, such efforts urgently require more

  5. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  6. Do constructed wetlands remove metals or increase metal bioavailability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Mills, Gary L

    2018-07-15

    The H-02 wetland was constructed to treat building process water and storm runoff water from the Tritium Processing Facility on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC). Monthly monitoring of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations and water quality parameters in surface waters continued from 2014 to 2016. Metal speciation was modeled at each sampling occasion. Total Cu and Zn concentrations released to the effluent stream were below the NPDES limit, and the average removal efficiency was 65.9% for Cu and 71.1% for Zn. The metal-removal processes were found out to be seasonally regulated by sulfur cycling indicated by laboratory and model results. High temperature, adequate labile organic matter, and anaerobic conditions during the warm months (February to August) favored sulfate reduction that produced sulfide minerals to significantly remove metals. However, the dominant reaction in sulfur cycling shifted to sulfide oxidation during the cool months (September to next March). High concentrations of metal-organic complexes were observed, especially colloidal complexes of metal and fulvic acid (FA), demonstrating adsorption to organic matter became the primary process for metal removal. Meanwhile, the accumulation of metal-FA complexes in the wetland system will cause negative effects to the surrounding environment as they are biologically reactive, highly bioavailable, and can be easily taken up and transferred to ecosystems by trophic exchange. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anthropogenic protection alters the microbiome in intertidal mangrove wetlands in Hainan Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juanli; Deng, Yongcui; Zhang, Hongxun

    2017-08-01

    Intertidal mangrove wetlands are of great economic and ecological importance. The regular influence of tides has led to the microbial communities in these wetlands differing significantly from those in other habitats. In this study, we investigated the microbiomes of the two largest mangrove wetlands in Hainan Island, China, which have different levels of anthropogenic protection. Soil samples were collected from the root zone of 13 mangrove species. The microbial composition, including key functional groups, was assessed using Illumina sequencing. Bioinformatics analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the microbiomes between the protected Bamen Bay and the unprotected Dongzhai Bay. The overall microbiome was assigned into 78 phyla and Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum at both sites. In the protected wetland, there were fewer marine-related microbial communities, such as sulfate-reducing bacteria, and more terrestrial-related communities, such as Verrucomicrobia methanotrophs. We also observed distinct microbial compositions among the different mangrove species at the protected site. Our data suggest that the different microbiomes of the two mangrove wetlands are the result of a complex interaction of the different environmental variables at the two sites.

  8. Baseline ecological risk assessment and remediation alternatives for a hydrocarbon-contaminated estuarine wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedagiri, U.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to a property transaction, the groundwater at an industrial refinery site in New Jersey was found to be contaminated with a variety of petroleum-based organic compounds. The highly built-up site included an on-site estuarine wetland and was located in a developed, industrialized area near ecologically important estuarine marshes. A preliminary ecological risk assessment was developed on the basis of available data on site contamination and ecological resources. The onsite wetland and its user fauna were identified as the sensitive receptors of concern and the primary contaminant pathways wee identified. The ecological significance of the contamination was assessed with regard to the onsite wetland and in the context of its position within the landscape and surrounding land uses. The wetland exhibited a combination of impact and vitality, i.e., there were clearly visible signs of contaminant impact as well as a relatively complex and abundant food web. Because of its position within the developed landscape, the onsite wetland appeared to function as a refugium for wildlife despite the level of disturbance. The feasibility of achieving regulatory compliance through natural remediation was also examined with respect to the findings of the risk assessment and the resultant conclusions are discussed

  9. Estimation of wetland evapotranspiration in northern New York using infrared thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.; Chandler, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water budget and often regarded as a major water loss. In freshwater wetlands, cumulative annual ET can equal precipitation under well-watered conditions. Wetland ET is therefore an important control on contaminant and nutrient transport. Yet, quantification of wetland ET is challenged by complex surface characteristics, diverse plant species and density, and variations in wetland shape and size. As handheld infrared (IR) cameras have become available, studies exploiting the new technology have increased, especially in agriculture and hydrology. The benefits of IR cameras include (1) high spatial resolution, (2) high sample rates, (3) real-time imaging, (4) a constant viewing geometry, and (5) no need for atmosphere and cloud corrections. Compared with traditional methods, infrared thermometer is capable of monitoring at the scale of a small pond or localized plant community. This enables finer scale survey of heterogeneous land surfaces rather than strict dependence on atmospheric variables. Despite this potential, there has been a limited number of studies of ET and drought stress with IR cameras. In this study, the infrared thermometry-based method was applied to estimate ET over wetland plant species in St. Lawrence River Valley, NY. The results are evaluated with traditional methods to test applicability over multiple vegetation species in a same area.

  10. Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, G. M. E.; Wolanski, E.; Cahoon, D.R.; Brinson, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea level and the intervention of human populations both along the estuary and in the river catchment. Direct impacts include the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures. Indirect impacts derive from the discharge of pollutants, changes in river flows and sediment supplies, land clearing, and dam operations. As sea level rises, coastal wetlands in most areas of the world migrate landward to occupy former uplands. The competition of these lands from human development is intensifying, making the landward migration impossible in many cases. This book provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide, and suggestions for their management. In this book a CD is included containing color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world.

  11. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  12. Design and maintenance of subsurface gravel wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) evaluation of : a review of Subsurface Gravel Wetlands design and specifications used by the New Hampshire : Department of Transportation (NHDOT or Department). : Subsur...

  13. NOAA C-CAP National Wetland Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The probability rating which covers landcover mapping provides a continuum of wetness from dry to water. The layer is not a wetland classification but provides the...

  14. VT National Wetlands Inventory Map Data - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  15. 76 FR 777 - National Wetland Plant List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... the Wetland Conservation Provisions of the Food Security Act. Other applications of the list include... recommended changes and additions to the NWPL. The process will be supported by an interactive Web site where...

  16. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  17. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Wulker, Brian [Intern, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  18. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Jane; Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John; Wulker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  19. Flora characteristics of Chenier Wetland in Bohai Bay and biogeographic relations with adjacent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; Liu, Jingtao; Hu, Shugang

    2017-12-01

    A key step towards the restoration of heavily disturbed fragile coastal wetland ecosystems is determining the composition and characteristics of the plant communities involved. This study determined and characterized the community of higher plants in the Chenier wetland of Bohai Bay using a combination of field surveys, quadrat approaches, and multivariate statistical analyses. This community was then compared to other adjacent wetlands (Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Laizhouwan, Jiaozhouwan, and Yellow River Delta wetland) located near the Huanghai and Bohai Seas using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Results showed a total of 56 higher plant species belonging to 52 genera from 20 families in Chenier wetland, the majority of which were dicotyledons. Single-species families were predominant, while larger families, including Gramineae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Chenopodiaceae contained a higher number of species (each⩾6 species). Cosmopolitan species were also dominant with apparent intrazonality. Abundance (number of species) of temperate species was twice that of tropical taxa. Species number of perennial herbs, such as Gramineae and Compositae, was generally higher. Plant diversity in the Chenier wetland, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, was observed to be between the Qinhuangdao and Laizhouwan indices, while no significant difference was found in other wetlands using the Simpson index. Despite these slight differences in diversity, PCoA based on species abundance and composition of the wetland flora suggest that the Bohai Chenier community was highly similar to the coastal wetlands in Tianjin and Laizhouwan, further suggesting that these two wetlands could be important breeding grounds and resources for the restoration of the plant ecosystem in the Chenier wetland.

  20. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeun; Ryan, Maureen E; Hamlet, Alan F; Palen, Wendy J; Lawler, Joshua J; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916-2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  1. Projecting the Hydrologic Impacts of Climate Change on Montane Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Alan F.; Palen, Wendy J.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Halabisky, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are globally important ecosystems that provide critical services for natural communities and human society. Montane wetland ecosystems are expected to be among the most sensitive to changing climate, as their persistence depends on factors directly influenced by climate (e.g. precipitation, snowpack, evaporation). Despite their importance and climate sensitivity, wetlands tend to be understudied due to a lack of tools and data relative to what is available for other ecosystem types. Here, we develop and demonstrate a new method for projecting climate-induced hydrologic changes in montane wetlands. Using observed wetland water levels and soil moisture simulated by the physically based Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, we developed site-specific regression models relating soil moisture to observed wetland water levels to simulate the hydrologic behavior of four types of montane wetlands (ephemeral, intermediate, perennial, permanent wetlands) in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. The hybrid models captured observed wetland dynamics in many cases, though were less robust in others. We then used these models to a) hindcast historical wetland behavior in response to observed climate variability (1916–2010 or later) and classify wetland types, and b) project the impacts of climate change on montane wetlands using global climate model scenarios for the 2040s and 2080s (A1B emissions scenario). These future projections show that climate-induced changes to key driving variables (reduced snowpack, higher evapotranspiration, extended summer drought) will result in earlier and faster drawdown in Pacific Northwest montane wetlands, leading to systematic reductions in water levels, shortened wetland hydroperiods, and increased probability of drying. Intermediate hydroperiod wetlands are projected to experience the greatest changes. For the 2080s scenario, widespread conversion of intermediate wetlands to fast-drying ephemeral wetlands will likely reduce

  2. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation

  3. Application of fluorescence spectroscopy for dissolved organic matter characterization in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, A.; Aziz, T. N.; Cottrell, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    . Fractionation of DOM based on hydrophobicity followed by 1H NMR analysis indicated an increase in the complexity and composition of wetland effluent DOM. This presentation will summarize these findings and present results from our new microcosm constructed wetlands built to develop insights into DOM production and photochemical characteristics.

  4. Urban "accidental" wetlands mediate water quality and heat exposure for homeless populations in a desert city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, M.

    2015-12-01

    In urban settings where humans interact in complex ways with ecosystems, there may be hidden or unanticipated benefits (services) or harm (disservices) conferred by the built environment. We examined interactions of a highly vulnerable population, the homeless, with urban waterways and wetlands in the desert city of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. Climate change models project increases in heat, droughts, and extreme floods for the southwestern U.S. These projected changes pose a number of problems for sustainability and quality of future water supply, and the ability of human populations to mitigate heat stress and avoid fatalities. Urban wetlands that are created "accidentally" (by water pooling in abandoned areas of the landscape) have many structural (e.g., soils and hydrology) and functional (e.g., high denitrification) elements that mimic natural, unaltered aquatic systems. Accidental wetland systems in the dry bed of the Salt River, fed by storm and waste water from urban Phoenix, are located within economically depressed sections of the city, and show the potential for pollutant and heat mitigation. We used a mixed-method socio-ecological approach to examine wetland ecosystem functions and the ways in which homeless populations utilize Salt River wetlands for ecosystem services. Interviews and trash surveys indicated that homeless people are accessing and utilizing the wetlands as a source of running water, for sanitary and heat mitigation services, and for recreation and habitation. Environmental monitoring demonstrated that the wetlands can provide a reliable source of running water, nutrient and pathogen removal, heat mitigation, and privacy, but they may also pose a health risk to individuals coming in contact with the water through drinking or bathing. Whether wetlands provided a net benefit vs. harm varied according to site, season, and particular service, and several tradeoffs were identified. For example, heat is highest during the summer storm season

  5. Contracting infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan African wetlands: A question of use? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonj, Carmen; Rechenburg, Andrea; Höser, Christoph; Kistemann, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    , transmission pathways and resulting diseases. All of these have been integrated into a detailed conceptual framework which simplifies the complexity of the relationships, while at the same time identifying missing links which might provide stimulus for future research tackling the potential research gaps. It concludes that socio-cultural and behavioural considerations regarding the wetland users are not sufficiently evaluated and should receive increased attention in future investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A Physically-based Model for Predicting Soil Moisture Dynamics in Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, L.; Rezaeianzadeh, M.; Hantush, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands are promoted as green infrastructures because of their characteristics in retaining and filtering water. In wetlands going through wetting/drying cycles, simulation of nutrient processes and biogeochemical reactions in both ponded and unsaturated wetland zones are needed for an improved understanding of wetland functioning for water quality improvement. The physically-based WetQual model can simulate the hydrology and nutrient and sediment cycles in natural and constructed wetlands. WetQual can be used in continuously flooded environments or in wetlands going through wetting/drying cycles. Currently, WetQual relies on 1-D Richards' Equation (RE) to simulate soil moisture dynamics in unponded parts of the wetlands. This is unnecessarily complex because as a lumped model, WetQual only requires average moisture contents. In this paper, we present a depth-averaged solution to the 1-D RE, called DARE, to simulate the average moisture content of the root zone and the layer below it in unsaturated parts of wetlands. DARE converts the PDE of the RE into ODEs; thus it is computationally more efficient. This method takes into account the plant uptake and groundwater table fluctuations, which are commonly overlooked in hydrologic models dealing with wetlands undergoing wetting and drying cycles. For verification purposes, DARE solutions were compared to Hydrus-1D model, which uses full RE, under gravity drainage only assumption and full-term equations. Model verifications were carried out under various top boundary conditions: no ponding at all, ponding at some point, and no rain. Through hypothetical scenarios and actual atmospheric data, the utility of DARE was demonstrated. Gravity drainage version of DARE worked well in comparison to Hydrus-1D, under all the assigned atmospheric boundary conditions of varying fluxes for all examined soil types (sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, and sand). The full-term version of DARE offers reasonable accuracy compared to the

  7. The spatial distribution of soil organic carbon in tidal wetland soils of the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Audra L; Feagin, Rusty A; Eriksson, Marian; Najjar, Raymond G; Herrmann, Maria; Bianchi, Thomas S; Kemp, Michael; Hutchings, Jack A; Crooks, Steve; Boutton, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Tidal wetlands contain large reservoirs of carbon in their soils and can sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) at a greater rate per unit area than nearly any other ecosystem. The spatial distribution of this carbon influences climate and wetland policy. To assist with international accords such as the Paris Climate Agreement, national-level assessments such as the United States (U.S.) National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, and regional, state, local, and project-level evaluation of CO 2 sequestration credits, we developed a geodatabase (CoBluCarb) and high-resolution maps of soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution by linking National Wetlands Inventory data with the U.S. Soil Survey Geographic Database. For over 600,000 wetlands, the total carbon stock and organic carbon density was calculated at 5-cm vertical resolution from 0 to 300 cm of depth. Across the continental United States, there are 1,153-1,359 Tg of SOC in the upper 0-100 cm of soils across a total of 24 945.9 km 2 of tidal wetland area, twice as much carbon as the most recent national estimate. Approximately 75% of this carbon was found in estuarine emergent wetlands with freshwater tidal wetlands holding about 19%. The greatest pool of SOC was found within the Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bay complex in Louisiana, containing about 10% of the U.S. total. The average density across all tidal wetlands was 0.071 g cm -3 across 0-15 cm, 0.055 g cm -3 across 0-100 cm, and 0.040 g cm -3 at the 100 cm depth. There is inherent variability between and within individual wetlands; however, we conclude that it is possible to use standardized values at a range of 0-100 cm of the soil profile, to provide first-order quantification and to evaluate future changes in carbon stocks in response to environmental perturbations. This Tier 2-oriented carbon stock assessment provides a scientific method that can be copied by other nations in support of international requirements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Design-a-wetland: a tool for generating and assessing constructed wetland designs for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaril, Carolina J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The hydrological cycle is a key cycle affected by current and predicted climate change. Wetlands are one of the key ecosystems within the hydrological cycle and could contribute significantly in facing the challenges of climate change, such as water shortage. The impact of wetlands on greenhouse gas emissions is much debated and, conversely, the impact of climate change on wetlands also raises many questions. There have been many attempts to harness and integrate the natural capacities of wetlands into constructed systems. These systems are especially designed for multiple purposes. They can be used for wastewater treatment and reuse, and have the potential to increase sustainability by changing land and water use practices. This project generates a 'Design-A-Wetland' prototype model, designed to facilitate decision-making in the creation of constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands are specifically tailored to their end use; water treatment fish and fowl habitat, flood buffer zones, or sequestration of greenhouse gases. This project attempts to answer the following questions: Can a single integrated decision model be created for the design and assessment of artificial wetlands, provided either entry or exit standards are known and specified?; Can the elements of a system of interfacing the model with public consultation be specified?; The project identifies model schematics and lays the groundwork for modelling suited to the wide variety of inputs required for decision making

  9. Functional roles of wetlands: a case study of the coastal wetlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Coastal Wetland of the study area is used extensively for a large number of activities. It is also threatened because of their vulnerability and attractiveness for development. These therefore prompted a study of the Wetlands for a period of 18 months (July 1997 – December 1998) to identify the functional roles that ...

  10. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  11. Inclusion of Riparian Wetland Module (RWM) into the SWAT model for assessment of wetland hydrological benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are an integral part of many agricultural watersheds. They provide multiple ecosystem functions, such as improving water quality, mitigating flooding, and serving as natural habitats. Those functions are highly depended on wetland hydrological characteristics and their connectivity to the d...

  12. GlobWetland Africa: Implementing Sustainable Earth Observation Based Wetland Monitoring Capacity in Africa and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun

    and decision support, [iii] receive a freely available, open, flexible and modifiable framework for easy establishment of new wetland observatories, for easy integration in existing observatory infrastructures and for easy adaptation to new requirements, e.g. changes in management processes.......Lack of data, appropriate information and challenges in human and institutional capacity put a serious constraint on effective monitoring and management of wetlands in Africa. Conventional data are often lacking in time or space, of poor quality or available at locations that are not necessarily...... for the conservation, wiseuse and effective management of wetlands in Africa and to provide African stakeholders with the necessary EO methods and tools to better fulfil their commitments and obligations towards the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The main objective of GlobWetland Africa (GW-A) is to provide the major...

  13. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  14. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4, but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005–2006 in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 were 1075 (2005 and 1118 (2006 μg C m−2 (leaf area h−1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005 and 396 (2006 μg C m−2 h−1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N, which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  15. Constructing a Baseline Model of Alpine Wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasik, M.; Ford, R. L.; Bartholomew, L. M.; Welsh, S. B.; Hernandez, M.; Koerner, D.; Muir, M.

    2008-12-01

    Alpine wetlands of the Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, contain a variety of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Unlike their counterparts in other areas of the Rocky Mountains, these systems have been relatively unstudied. The Reader Lakes area on the southern slope of the range was selected for detailed study because of its variety of wetland plant communities, homogenous bedrock geology, and minimal human impact. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study is to establish the functional links between the geomorphology and hydrogeology of these high mountain wetlands and their constituent plant communities. In addition to traditional field studies and water chemistry, geospatial technologies are being used to organize and analyze both field data (water chemistry and wetland vegetation) and archived multispectral imagery (2006 NAIP images). The hydrology of these wetlands is dominated by groundwater discharge and their surface is dominated by string-and-flark morphology of various spatial scales, making these montane wetlands classic patterned fens. The drainage basin is organized into a series of large-scale stair-stepping wetlands, bounded by glacial moraines at their lower end. Wetlands are compartmentalized by a series of large strings (roughly perpendicular to the axial stream) and flarks. This pattern may be related to small ridges on the underlying ground moraine and possibly modified by beaver activity along the axial stream. Small-scale patterning occurs along the margins of the wetlands and in sloping-fen settings. The smaller-scale strings and flarks form a complex; self-regulating system in which water retention is enhanced and surface flow is minimized. Major plant communities have been identified within the wetlands for example: a Salix planifolia community associated with the peaty strings; Carex aquatilis, Carex limosa, and Eriophorum angustifolium communities associated with flarks; as well as a Sphagnum sp.- rich hummocky transition zone

  16. Application of Clean Water (CWA) Section 404 compensatory wetland mitigation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.J.; Straub, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), activities resulting in the discharge of dredge or fill material into waters of the US, including wetlands, require permit authorization from the US Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE). As part of the Section 404 permitting process, compensatory wetland mitigation in the form of wetland enhancement, restoration, or construction may be required to off-set impacts sustained under a Section 404 permit. Under normal circumstances, compensatory mitigation is a relatively straight forward process; however, issues associated with mitigation become more complex at sites undergoing remediation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), because on-site response/remedial actions involving dredged and fill material are not subject to the formal Section 404 permitting process. These actions are conducted in accordance with the substantive permitting requirements of the ACOE's Nationwide and individual permitting programs. Wetland mitigatory requirements are determined through application of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) 040(b) (1) Guidelines promulgated in 40 CFR Part 230 and are implemented through compliance with substantive permitting requirements during the conduct of response/remedial actions. A programmatic approach for implementing wetland mitigatory requirements is being developed at a former US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium refinery undergoing CERCLA remediation in southwestern Ohio. The approach is designed to define the regulatory mechanism that will be used to integrate CWA driven wetland mitigatory requirements into the CERCLA process

  17. Phragmites australis + Typha latifolia Community Enhanced the Enrichment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Soil of Qin Lake Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN and phosphorus (TP in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1 the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P. (2 The efficiency of TN enrichment in wetland soil was enhanced by vegetation covering of P. australis and T. latifolia. (3 Wetland soil P was consumed by P. australis community and this pattern was relieved with the introduction of T. latifolia. (4 According to the grey relativity analysis, the most intensive interaction between plants and soil occurred in summer. In addition, the exchange of N in soil-vegetation system primarily occurred in the 0–15 cm soil layer. Our results indicated that vegetation covering was essential to the enrichment of TN and TP, referring to the biology-related fixation in the wetland soil.

  18. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, Steven L. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States); Duvall, Kenneth W. [Sterling Energy Services, LLC, Atlanta, GA (United States); Nelson, Theresa M. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States); Mensing, Douglas M. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States); Bengtson, Harlan H. [Sterling Energy Services, LLC, Atlanta, GA (United States); Eppich, John [Waterflow Consultants, Champaign, IL (United States); Penhallegon, Clayton [Sterling Energy Services, LLC, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thompson, Ry L. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States)

    2013-12-01

    ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  19. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography (ECOSERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  20. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  1. a comparison of wetland valuation purposes in lagos metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    streams to maintain flow throughout the dry season, and ... consequently the wetland filtration process and the quality of the water in ... restoration versus degradation of wetlands. ... value to individual species based on economic functions and ...

  2. The study of Phosphorus distribution at Putrajaya Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubin Zahari, Nazirul; Malek, Nur Farzana Fasiha Abdul; Fai, Chow Ming; Humaira Haron, Siti; Hafiz Zawawi, Mohd; Nazmi Ismail, Iszmir; Mohamad, Daud; Syamsir, Agusril; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Zakwan Ramli, Mohd; Ismail, Norfariza; Zubir Sapian, Ahmad; Noordin, Normaliza; Rahaman, Nurliyana Abdul; Muhamad, Yahzam; Mat Saman, Jarina

    2018-04-01

    This study is concerning phosphorus distribution in Putrajaya Wetland. Phosphorus is one of the important component in nutrients for living things be it aquatic or non – aquatic organisms. Total phosphorus (TP) results will give some information on the trophic status of surface water in water bodies. The focus of this study is to determine the total phosphorus concentration in Putrajaya Wetland which is in the inlet of the wetland then outlet of the wetland (Central Wetland Lake). The water sample is taken from Putrajaya Wetland and the test was conducted in the laboratory. The result from this study shows the results for total phosphorus according to month, sampling station and cells. Lowest total phosphate at the Central Wetland compare with all the wetland arms cells.

  3. New species of Eunotia from small isolated wetlands in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatom species composition of small wetlands is diverse and unique due to a plethora of spatial and temporal variables. Diatoms from small wetlands can contribute greatly to better understanding microbial biodiversity, distribution, dispersal and populations.

  4. Wetland Polygons, California, 2016, California Aquatic Resources Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains polgon features depicting wetlands that are standardized to a common wetland classification system (CARI) and provide additional source...

  5. Geothermal wetlands: an annotated bibliography of pertinent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, N.E.; Thurow, T.L.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-05-01

    This annotated bibliography covers the following topics: algae, wetland ecosystems; institutional aspects; macrophytes - general, production rates, and mineral absorption; trace metal absorption; wetland soils; water quality; and other aspects of marsh ecosystems. (MHR)

  6. Kansas Protects and Restores Wetlands, Streams and Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Program Development Grant (WPDG) in 2007 when the Kansas State Conservation Commission began identifying team members interested in developing a framework for a comprehensive Kansas Wetland and Aquatic Resources Conservation Plan.

  7. Local institutions for sustaining wetland resources and community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Data collection methods. Qualitative ..... Sondu-Miriu wetland some traditional fishing methods, for example, the ... ted processing, cooking and trading activities in the three wetlands. .... water access was making the water dirty after collection.

  8. Gas Research Institute wetland research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    As part of three ongoing research projects, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is studying the natural gas industry's impacts on wetlands and how to manage operations so that impacts can be minimized or eliminated. The objective of the first project is to gain a better understanding of the causes and processes of wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain and what role gas pipeline canals play in wetland loss. On the basis of information gathered from the first projects, management and mitigation implications for pipeline construction and maintenance will be evaluated. The objective of the second project is to assess the floral and faunal communities on existing rights-of-way (ROWs) that pass through numerous types of wetlands across the United States. The emphasis of the project is on pipelines that were installed within the past five years. The objective of the third project is to evaluate the administrative, jurisdictional, technical, and economic issues of wetland mitigation banking. This paper discusses these projects, their backgrounds, some of the results to date, and the deliverables

  9. Forms of organic phosphorus in wetland soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, A. W.; Turner, B. L.; Reddy, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) cycling in freshwater wetlands is dominated by biological mechanisms, yet there has been no comprehensive examination of the forms of biogenic P (i.e., forms derived from biological activity) in wetland soils. We used solution 31P NMR spectroscopy to identify and quantify P forms in surface soils of 28 palustrine wetlands spanning a range of climatic, hydrogeomorphic, and vegetation types. Total P concentrations ranged between 51 and 3516 μg P g-1, of which an average of 58% was extracted in a single-step NaOH-EDTA procedure. The extracts contained a broad range of P forms, including phosphomonoesters (averaging 24% of the total soil P), phosphodiesters (averaging 10% of total P), phosphonates (up to 4% of total P), and both pyrophosphate and long-chain polyphosphates (together averaging 6% of total P). Soil P composition was found to be dependant upon two key biogeochemical properties: organic matter content and pH. For example, stereoisomers of inositol hexakisphosphate were detected exclusively in acidic soils with high mineral content, while phosphonates were detected in soils from a broad range of vegetation and hydrogeomorphic types but only under acidic conditions. Conversely inorganic polyphosphates occurred in a broad range of wetland soils, and their abundance appears to reflect more broadly that of a "substantial" and presumably active microbial community with a significant relationship between total inorganic polyphosphates and microbial biomass P. We conclude that soil P composition varies markedly among freshwater wetlands but can be predicted by fundamental soil properties.

  10. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J.; Alm, J.; Saarnio, S. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  11. Broken connections of wetland cultural knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    As global agriculture intensifies, cultural knowledge of wetland utilization has eroded as natural resources become more stressed, and marginal farmers move away from the land. The excellent paper by Fawzi et al. (2016) documents a particularly poignant case of traditional knowledge loss among the Marsh Arab women of Iraq. Through interviews, the authors document the breakdown of skill transfer from the older to younger generation of women. The authors link the loss of their cultural knowledge with the loss of wetlands in the region. Women no longer can help provide for their families using wetland products, and along with that, their ancient knowledge of plant usage is lost. These ancient skills included medicinal uses, and reed harvesting for weaving and water buffalo fodder. As, the majority of the Mesopotamian Marshes have dried, this way of life is being forgotten (Fawzi et al. 2015). The global tragedy is that while the careful alliance of wetlands and people have sustained human cultures for millennia, degraded wetlands lose their ability to provide these services (Maltby 1980).

  12. Greenhouse gas flux dynamics in wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvola, J; Alm, J; Saarnio, S [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Martikainen, P J [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1997-12-31

    Two important greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, are closely connected to the carbon cycling of wetlands. Although virgin wetlands are mostly carbon accumulating ecosystems, major proportion of the CO{sub 2} bound annually in photosynthesis is released back to the atmosphere. Main portion of the carbon cycling in wetlands is quite fast while a small proportion of carbon diffusing from soil is released from organic matter, which may be ten thousand years old. Methane is formed in the anaerobic layers of wetlands, from where it is released gradually to the atmosphere. The decomposition in anaerobic conditions is very slow, which means that usually only a few percent of the annual carbon cycling takes place as methane. Research on CO{sub 2} fluxes of different virgin and managed peatlands was the main topic of this project during the first phase of SILMU. The measurements were made during two seasons in varying conditions in c. 30 study sites. In the second phase of SILMU the research topics were the spatial and temporal variation of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes, the relationships between vegetation and gas fluxes as well as carbon balance studies in wetlands at some intensive sites

  13. Climatic Controls on the Porewater Chemistry of Mid-Continental Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Zeno Francis

    Wetlands develop where climate and physiography conspire to maintain saturated soils at the land surface, support diverse plant and animal communities, and serve as globally important sinks for atmospheric carbon. The chemistry of wetland porewaters impacts near-surface biological communities and subsurface biogeochemical processes that influence carbon cycling in the environment. Wetland porewater chemistry is a dynamic byproduct of complex hydrogeological processes that cause meteoric waters to enter groundwater systems (recharge) or groundwater to flow to the land surface (discharge). Changes in climate can alter subsurface hydraulic gradients that determine the recharge and discharge functions of wetlands, which in turn control the hydrogeochemical evolution of wetland porewaters. The climate of mid-continental North America is influenced by competing air masses with vastly different temperature and moisture contents originating from the Pacific Coast, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Arctic. The interactions of these air masses result in large dynamic shifts of climate regimes characterized by decadal-scale oscillations between periods of drought and heavy rain. Over the course of the 20th century, a shift occurred towards wetter climate in the mid-continental region. This dissertation examines the impact of this climate shift on the porewater chemistry of two very different wetland systems, located only 350 km apart: the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands (GLAP) of northern Minnesota and the Cottonwood Lake Study Area (CLSA) of North Dakota. The former study site consists of a large (7,600 km2), circumboreal peatland that developed an extensive blanket of peat over the last 5000 years on a relatively flat glacial lake bed within a sub-humid to semi-arid climate gradient characterized by small annual atmospheric moisture surpluses and frequent droughts. The latter study site consists of a 0.92 km2 complex of small (meter-scale) "prairie pothole" wetlands located on a

  14. Responses of Isolated Wetland Herpetofauna to Upland Forest Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.R.; Hanlin, H.G.; Wigley, T.B.; Guynn, D.C. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of responses of herpetofauna at isolated wetlands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina to disturbance of adjacent loblolly pine forest. Many species of isolated wetland herpetofauna in the Southeastern Coastal Plain may tolerate some disturbance in adjacent upland stands. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland silviculture and the need for adjacent forested buffers likely depend on the specific landscape context in which the wetlands occur and composition of the resident herpetofaunal community

  15. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  16. Development of a "Hydrologic Equivalent Wetland" Concept for Modeling Cumulative Effects of Wetlands on Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, T.; Li, R.; Yang, X.; Duan, L.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect, in combination rather than individually, hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models, such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), can be a best resort if wetlands can be appropriately represented in the models. However, the exact method that should be used to incorporate wetlands into hydrologic models is the subject of much disagreement in the literature. In addition, there is a serious lack of information about how to model wetland conservation-restoration effects using such kind of integrated modeling approach. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a "hydrologic equivalent wetland" (HEW) concept; and 2) demonstrate how to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba of Canada, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota of the United States. The HEWs were defined in terms of six calibrated parameters: the fraction of the subbasin area that drains into wetlands (WET_FR), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their normal water level (WET_NVOL), the volume of water stored in the wetlands when filled to their maximum water level (WET_MXVOL), the longest tributary channel length in the subbasin (CH_L1), Manning's n value for the tributary channels (CH_N1), and Manning's n value for the main channel (CH_N2). The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes

  17. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Flats Wetlands in the Everglades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noble, Chris

    2002-01-01

    .... However, a variety of other potential uses have been identified, including the determination of minimal effects under the Food Security Act, design of wetland restoration projects, and management of wetlands...

  18. The road to higher permanence and biodiversity in exurban wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mark C; Roehm, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Exurban areas are expanding throughout the world, yet their effects on local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Wetlands, in particular, face ongoing and substantial threats from exurban development. We predicted that exurbanization would reduce the diversity of wetland amphibian and invertebrate communities and that more spatially aggregated residential development would leave more undisturbed natural land, thereby promoting greater local diversity. Using structural equation models, we tested a series of predictions about the direct and indirect pathways by which exurbanization extent, spatial pattern, and wetland characteristics might affect diversity patterns in 38 wetlands recorded during a growing season. We used redundancy, indicator species, and nested community analyses to evaluate how exurbanization affected species composition. In contrast to expectations, we found higher diversity in exurban wetlands. We also found that housing aggregation did not significantly affect diversity. Exurbanization affected biodiversity indirectly by increasing roads and development, which promoted permanent wetlands with less canopy cover and more aquatic vegetation. These pond characteristics supported greater diversity. However, exurbanization was associated with fewer temporary wetlands and fewer of the species that depend on these habitats. Moreover, the best indicator species for an exurban wetland was the ram's head snail, a common disease vector in disturbed ponds. Overall, results suggest that exurbanization is homogenizing wetlands into more permanent water bodies. These more permanent, exurban ponds support higher overall animal diversity, but exclude temporary wetland specialists. Conserving the full assemblage of wetland species in expanding exurban regions throughout the world will require protecting and creating temporary wetlands.

  19. Mitigating Losses of Wetland Ecosystems: A Context for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Rosanna L.

    1994-01-01

    Preservation of our wetlands has been an issue for many years. Today, despite current laws and those adopted 200 years ago, the wetlands remain insufficiently protected and developed. A holistic guide and suggestions for the classroom are provided to aid in efforts directed at wetland education, research and management. (ZWH)

  20. Changes in Landscape Pattern of Wetland around Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Hangzhou Bay is an important estuarial coastal wetland, which offers a large number of land and ecological resources. It plays a significant role in the sustainable development of resources, environment and economy. In this paper, based on the remote sensing images in 1996, 2005 and 2013, we extracted the coastal wetland data and analyzed the wetland landscape pattern of the Hangzhou Bay in the past 20 years. The results show that: (1) the area of coastal wetland is heading downwards in the recent decades. Paddy field and the coastal wetland diminish greatly. (2) the single dynamic degree of wetland of the Hangzhou Bay displays that paddy fields and coastal wetlands are shrinking, but lakes, reservoirs and ponds are constantly expanding. (3) the wetland landscape pattern index shows that total patch area of the coastal wetland and paddy fields have gradually diminished. The Shannon diversity index, the Shannon evenness index as well as the landscape separation index of the coastal wetlands in the Hangzhou Bay increase steadily. The landscape pattern in the study area has shown a trend of high fragmentation, dominance decreases, but some dominant landscape still exist in this region. (4) Urbanization and natural factors lead to the reduction of wetland area. Besides the pressure of population is a major threat to the wetland. The study will provide scientific basis for long-term planning for this region.

  1. Balancing carbon sequestration and GHG emissions in a constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, de J.J.M.; Werf, van der A.K.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries wetlands are constructed or restored for removing nutrients from surface water. At the same time vegetated wetlands can act as carbon sinks when CO2 is sequestered in biomass. However, it is well known that wetlands also produce substantial amounts of greenhouse gasses CH4 and N2O.

  2. HANDBOOK FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS RECEIVING ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 1987, a pilot constructed wetland was built at the Big Five Tunnel in Idaho Springs, Colorado. This report details the theory, design and construction of wetlands receiving acid mine drainages, based on the second and third year of operation of this wetland, whic...

  3. Geographically Isolated Wetlands: Why We Should Keep the Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the term "isolated wetlands" in the U.S. Supreme Court’s SWANCC decision created confusion, since it could imply functional isolation. In response, the term "geographically isolated wetlands" (GIWs) - wetlands surrounded by uplands - was introduced in 2003. A recent arti...

  4. 7 CFR 623.13 - Wetlands reserve plan of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wetlands reserve plan of operations. 623.13 Section... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.13 Wetlands reserve plan of operations. (a) After NRCS has accepted the applicant for enrollment in the...

  5. Socio-Economic Determinants of Wetland Cultivation in Kemise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of wetland use in Kemise, central Illubabor, southwestern Ethiopia, shows food shortage as the main factor behind wetland cultivation in the locality. However, discriminant analysis results indicate that it is the wealthier farmers who tend to cultivate wetlands rather than the economically less fortunate ones.

  6. Biodiversity studies in three Coastal Wetlands in Ghana, West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biodiversity studies of three coastal wetlands in Ghana were made. The wetlands are the Sakumo, Muni-Pomadze and Densu Delta Ramsar sites. Each wetland is made up of a flood plain which consists of salt marsh (about 20%), mangrove swamps (between 15 and 30%), fresh water swamp (about 40 - 45%), and in ...

  7. Managing Wetlands for Improved Food Security in Uganda | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will determine the food security status of households adjacent to wetlands and the part that wetlands resources contribute to it. They will analyze the tradeoffs in using wetlands for crop production. And, they will test, adapt and promote agricultural technologies that enhance productivity while minimizing ...

  8. 32 CFR 644.319 - Protection of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Protection of wetlands. 644.319 Section 644.319... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.319 Protection of wetlands. The requirements of Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, 42 FR 26961, (24 May 1977) are applicable to the disposal of Federal lands and...

  9. 7 CFR 1410.11 - Farmable Wetlands Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farmable Wetlands Program. 1410.11 Section 1410.11... Wetlands Program. (a) In addition to other allowable enrollments, land may be enrolled in this program through the Farmable Wetlands Program (FWP) within the overall Conservation Reserve Program provided for...

  10. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  11. Development of soil properties and nitrogen cycling in created wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, K.L.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation wetlands are expected to compensate for the loss of structure and function of natural wetlands within 5–10 years of creation; however, the age-based trajectory of development in wetlands is unclear. This study investigates the development of coupled structural (soil properties) and functional (nitrogen cycling) attributes of created non-tidal freshwater wetlands of varying ages and natural reference wetlands to determine if created wetlands attain the water quality ecosystem service of nitrogen (N) cycling over time. Soil condition component and its constituents, gravimetric soil moisture, total organic carbon, and total N, generally increased and bulk density decreased with age of the created wetland. Nitrogen flux rates demonstrated age-related patterns, with younger created wetlands having lower rates of ammonification, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification potential than older created wetlands and natural reference wetlands. Results show a clear age-related trajectory in coupled soil condition and N cycle development, which is essential for water quality improvement. These findings can be used to enhance N processing in created wetlands and inform the regulatory evaluation of mitigation wetlands by identifying structural indicators of N processing performance.

  12. Book review: Southern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    The southern region has the largest proportion of wetlands in the conterminous US. The majority of that wetland resource is forested by diverse vegetation communities reflecting differences in soil, hydrology, geomorphology, climatic conditions and past management. Wetland resources in the southern US are very important to the economy providing both commodity and non-...

  13. Accumulation and bioaccessibility of trace elements in wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulation of trace metals in sediment can cause severe ecological impacts. In this study, determination of elemental concentrations in water and sediment was done. Shadegan wetland is one of the most important wetlands in southwest of Iran and is among the Ramsar-listed wetlands. Wastewaters from industries ...

  14. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Patrick Hunt; Carl Trettin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides methodologies and guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks at the entity scale for managed wetland systems. More specifically, it focuses on methods for managed palustrine wetlands.1 Section 4.1 provides an overview of wetland systems and resulting GHG emissions, system boundaries and temporal scale, a summary of the...

  15. Multiple factors influence the vegetation composition of Southeast U.S. wetlands restored in the Wetlands Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of wetlands on agricultural lands contributes to the loss of local or regional vegetation diversity. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) funds the restoration of degraded wetlands on private ‘working lands’, but these WRP projects have not been studied in the Southeast United States. Wetland hydrogeomorphic type influences...

  16. Wetland biogeochemical processes and simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Gao, Haifeng; Jia, Jia; Wang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    As the important landscape with rich biodiversity and high productivity, wetlands can provide numerous ecological services including playing an important role in regulating global biogeochemical cycles, filteringpollutants from terrestrial runoff and atmospheric deposition, protecting and improving water quality, providing living habitats for plants and animals, controlling floodwaters, and retaining surface water flow during dry periods (Reddy and DeLaune, 2008; Qin and Mitsch, 2009; Zhao et al., 2016). However, more than 50% of the world's wetlands had been altered, degraded or lost through a wide range of human activities in the past 150 years, and only a small percentage of the original wetlands remained around the world after over two centuries of intensive development and urbanization (O'connell, 2003; Zhao et al., 2016).

  17. The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2013-09-15

    The hybrid systems were developed in the 1960s but their use increased only during the late 1990 s and in the 2000s mostly because of more stringent discharge limits for nitrogen and also more complex wastewaters treated in constructed wetlands (CWs). The early hybrid CWs consisted of several stages of vertical flow (VF) followed by several stages of horizontal flow (HF) beds. During the 1990 s, HF-VF and VF-HF hybrid systems were introduced. However, to achieve higher removal of total nitrogen or to treat more complex industrial and agricultural wastewaters other types of hybrid constructed wetlands including free water surface (FWS) CWs and multistage CWs have recently been used as well. The survey of 60 hybrid constructed wetlands from 24 countries reported after 2003 revealed that hybrid constructed wetlands are primarily used on Europe and in Asia while in other continents their use is limited. The most commonly used hybrid system is a VF-HF constructed wetland which has been used for treatment of both sewage and industrial wastewaters. On the other hand, the use of a HF-VF system has been reported only for treatment of municipal sewage. Out of 60 surveyed hybrid systems, 38 have been designed to treat municipal sewage while 22 hybrid systems were designed to treat various industrial and agricultural wastewaters. The more detailed analysis revealed that VF-HF hybrid constructed wetlands are slightly more efficient in ammonia removal than hybrid systems with FWS CWs, HF-VF systems or multistage VF and HF hybrid CWs. All types of hybrid CWs are comparable with single VF CWs in terms of NH4-N removal rates. On the other hand, CWs with FWS units remove substantially more total nitrogen as compared to other types of hybrid constructed wetlands. However, all types of hybrid constructed wetlands are more efficient in total nitrogen removal than single HF or VF constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrological disturbance diminishes predator control in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Nathan J; Cook, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Effects of predators on prey populations can be especially strong in aquatic ecosystems, but disturbances may mediate the strength of predator limitation and even allow outbreaks of some prey populations. In a two-year study we investigated the numerical responses of crayfish (Procambarus fallax) and small fishes (Poeciliidae and Fundulidae) to a brief hydrological disturbance in replicated freshwater wetlands with an experimental drying and large predatory fish reduction. The experiment and an in situ predation assay tested the component of the consumer stress model positing that disturbances release prey from predator limitation. In the disturbed wetlands, abundances of large predatory fish were seasonally reduced, similar to dynamics in the Everglades (southern Florida). Densities of small fish were unaffected by the disturbance, but crayfish densities, which were similar across all wetlands before drying, increased almost threefold in the year after the disturbance. Upon re-flooding, juvenile crayfish survival was inversely related to the abundance of large fish across wetlands, but we found no evidence for enhanced algal food quality. At a larger landscape scale (500 km2 of the Everglades), crayfish densities over eight years were positively correlated with the severity of local dry disturbances (up to 99 days dry) during the preceding dry season. In contrast, densities of small-bodied fishes in the same wetlands were seasonally depressed by dry disturbances. The results from our experimental wetland drought and the observations of crayfish densities in the Everglades represent a large-scale example of prey population release following a hydrological disturbance in a freshwater ecosystem. The conditions producing crayfish pulses in the Everglades appear consistent with the mechanics of the consumer stress model, and we suggest crayfish pulses may influence the number of nesting wading birds in the Everglades.

  19. Species interactions and the effects of climate variability on a wetland amphibian metacommunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Courtney L.; Miller, David A.W.; Walls, Susan C.; Barichivich, William J.; Riley, Jeffrey W.; Brown, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    demonstrate that the effects of changes in water availability depend on interactions with predators and wetland type and are influenced by the life history of each of our species. The dynamic species occurrence modeling approach we used offers promise for other systems when the goal is to disentangle the complex interactions that determine species responses to environmental variability.

  20. Biotic development comparisons of a wetland constructed to treat mine water drainage with a natural wetland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, H.J.; Hummer, J.W.; Lacki, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Using 5-yr of baseline data from a constructed wetland, the authors compared the biotic changes in this wetland to conditions in a natural wetland to determine if biotic development patterns were similar. The constructed wetland was built in 1985 to treat a coal mine discharge and was planted with broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia) within the three-cell, 0.26 ha wetland. Species richness in permanent quadrants of the constructed wetland declined over the study period, while cattail coverage increased. Plant species composition diversified at the edges, with several species becoming established. The constructed wetland deepened and expanded slightly in area coverage during the study period. The constructed wetland supported herptofaunal communities that appeared more stable through time than those of the natural wetland and sustained a rudimentary food chain dependent upon autotrophic algal populations. Despite fundamental differences in substrate base, morphology, and water flow patterns, biotic trends for the constructed wetland coincided with succession-like patterns at the natural wetland. They suggest that further shifts in the biotic composition of the constructed wetland are likely, but the system should continue to persist if primary production meets or exceeds the microbial metabolic requirements necessary to treat mine drainage

  1. Investigating public decisions about protecting wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzner, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative analyses of species protection decisions taken by public authorities regularly show that ecological factors, such as the probability of extinction, often play a minor role in the decision-making process. The taxonomy of the species or its potential conflict with economic development is a more powerful factor. This paper presents quantitative empirical research on the protection of wetlands in Austria. Econometrically estimated models show that geographical and ecological factors (such as the size of the area, elevation and importance for biodiversity) play a significant role in the protection of wetlands. Additional influences include conflict variables encoding the negative effects of the primary economic sector (agriculture) or tourism.

  2. Methane emissions in Danish riparian wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audet, Joachim; Johansen, Jan Ravn; Andersen, Peter Mejlhede

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating the spat......The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating...

  3. Resource competition model predicts zonation and increasing nutrient use efficiency along a wetland salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald; Stagg, Camille L.

    2018-01-01

    A trade-off between competitive ability and stress tolerance has been hypothesized and empirically supported to explain the zonation of species across stress gradients for a number of systems. Since stress often reduces plant productivity, one might expect a pattern of decreasing productivity across the zones of the stress gradient. However, this pattern is often not observed in coastal wetlands that show patterns of zonation along a salinity gradient. To address the potentially complex relationship between stress, zonation, and productivity in coastal wetlands, we developed a model of plant biomass as a function of resource competition and salinity stress. Analysis of the model confirms the conventional wisdom that a trade-off between competitive ability and stress tolerance is a necessary condition for zonation. It also suggests that a negative relationship between salinity and production can be overcome if (1) the supply of the limiting resource increases with greater salinity stress or (2) nutrient use efficiency increases with increasing salinity. We fit the equilibrium solution of the dynamic model to data from Louisiana coastal wetlands to test its ability to explain patterns of production across the landscape gradient and derive predictions that could be tested with independent data. We found support for a number of the model predictions, including patterns of decreasing competitive ability and increasing nutrient use efficiency across a gradient from freshwater to saline wetlands. In addition to providing a quantitative framework to support the mechanistic hypotheses of zonation, these results suggest that this simple model is a useful platform to further build upon, simulate and test mechanistic hypotheses of more complex patterns and phenomena in coastal wetlands.

  4. Mapping long-term wetland response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Gallant, A.; Rover, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands provide unique feeding and breeding habitat for numerous waterfowl species. The distribution of wetlands has been considerably changed due to agricultural land conversion and hydrologic modification. Climate change may further impact wetlands through altered moisture regimes. This study characterized long-term variation in wetland conditions by using dense time series from all available Landsat data from 1985 to 2014. We extracted harmonic frequencies from 30 years to two years to delineate the long-term variation in all seven Landsat bands. A cluster analysis and unsupervised classification then enabled us to map different classes of wetland response. We demonstrated the method in the Prairie Pothole Region in North Dakota.

  5. Conservation of Mexican wetlands: role of the North American Wetlands Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's wetlands support a tremendous biological diversity and provide significant natural resource benefits to local communities. Because they are also critical stopover and wintering grounds for much of North America's waterfowl and other migratory birds, Mexico has become an important participant in continental efforts to conserve these resources through the North American Wetlands Conservation Act. Funding from the Act has supported partnerships in a number of Mexico's priority wetlands to conduct data analyses and dissemination, mapping, environmental education, wetland restoration, development of sustainable economic alternatives for local people, and reserve planning and management. These partnerships, with the close involvement of Mexico's Federal Government authority, the Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, have advanced conservation in a uniquely Mexican model that differs from that employed in the United States and Canada.

  6. Connecting the Dots: Hydrologic Connectivity Between Wetlands and Other Wetlands and Waterbodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands perform numerous ecosystem functions that in turn provide abundant ecosystem services beneficial to humankind. These may include, but are not limited to, flood water storage and release, nutrient transformations, carbon sequestration, and the provision of habitat or ref...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: WETLANDS (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing coastal wetlands classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification system for...

  8. Using Halogens (Cl, Br, F, I) and Stable Isotopes of Water (δ18O, δ2H) to Trace Hydrological and Biogeochemical Processes in Prairie Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Z. F.; Lu, Z.; Mills, C. T.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Mushet, D.; Siegel, D. I.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Gade, M.; Spradlin, J.

    2014-12-01

    Prairie pothole wetlands are ubiquitous features of the Great Plains of North America, and important habitat for amphibians and migratory birds. The salinity of proximal wetlands varies highly due to groundwater-glacial till interactions, which influence wetland biota and associated ecosystem functions. Here we use halogens and stable isotopes of water to fingerprint hydrological and biogeochemical controls on salt cycling in a prairie wetland complex. We surveyed surface, well, and pore waters from a groundwater recharge wetland (T8) and more saline closed (P1) and open (P8) basin discharge wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake Study Area (ND) in August/October 2013 and May 2014. Halogen concentrations varied over a broad range throughout the study area (Cl = 2.2 to 170 mg/L, Br = 13 to 2000 μg/L, F = evaporation-enriched pond water (δ18O = -9.5 to -2.71 ‰) mixes with shallow groundwater in the top 0.6 m of fringing wetland soils and 1.2 m of the substrate in the center of P1. Our results suggest endogenous sources for Br and I within the prairie landscape that may be controlled by biological mechanisms or weathering of shale from glacial till.

  9. Vertical distribution of mercury and MeHg in Nandagang and Beidagang wetlands: Influence of microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruhai; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Jin; Shan, Huayao

    2018-02-01

    Wetlands often show different small-scale topography, such as riffle, habitat island, deep water, shallow water zone and dry zone. Core soils in different micro topographical landforms of Nandagang and Beidagang wetlands in North China were sampled for THg and MeHg to analyze the influence of microtopography. Results showed that THg content in surface soil (pollution in past. High THg content in undisturbed natural wetland soil implied accumulation of mercury. Harvest of plant, drained water decreased the accumulation of mercury in wetlands. Water level caused by microtopography affected the production of MeHg. Depth of the highest MeHg content decreased from N1, N2, N6, N3 to N4 following the increase of water level. Plant type and coverage also affected the vertical distribution of MeHg. More detailed profiles of MeHg, organic matter and total phosphorus in different sites show strong differences in soil chemistry, suggesting a complex interplay among hydrology, biogeochemistry and microtopography.

  10. Connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters: An integrated systems framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Scott G.; Wigington, Parker J.; Schoefield, Kate A.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Golden, Heather E.

    2018-01-01

    Interest in connectivity has increased in the aquatic sciences, partly because of its relevance to the Clean Water Act. This paper has two objectives: (1) provide a framework to understand hydrological, chemical, and biological connectivity, focusing on how headwater streams and wetlands connect to and contribute to rivers; and (2) briefly review methods to quantify hydrological and chemical connectivity. Streams and wetlands affect river structure and function by altering material and biological fluxes to the river; this depends on two factors: (1) functions within streams and wetlands that affect material fluxes; and (2) connectivity (or isolation) from streams and wetlands to rivers that allows (or prevents) material transport between systems. Connectivity can be described in terms of frequency, magnitude, duration, timing, and rate of change. It results from physical characteristics of a system, e.g., climate, soils, geology, topography, and the spatial distribution of aquatic components. Biological connectivity is also affected by traits and behavior of the biota. Connectivity can be altered by human impacts, often in complex ways. Because of variability in these factors, connectivity is not constant but varies over time and space. Connectivity can be quantified with field‐based methods, modeling, and remote sensing. Further studies using these methods are needed to classify and quantify connectivity of aquatic ecosystems and to understand how impacts affect connectivity.

  11. Use of Isotopic Techniques for the Assessment of Hydrological Processes in Wetlands (Cienaga Colombia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancur, T.; Santa, D.; Palacio, P.; Palacio, C.; Wills, B.; Hoyos, D. A. [Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-07-15

    The Cienaga Colombia wetland is located in the Bajo Cauca Antioqueno region where the 'Man' river flows into the Cauca River. Hydrological processes on the Cienaga Colombia wetland are complex because of the interactive effects of both local and regional elements, associated with a typical tropical wet climatic regime. In this groundwater dependent wetland hydrological studies have been conducted, including hydrochemical analyses and isotope tracers, to describe and understand the interactions between groundwater and surface water, not only for the wetland itself but also for the entire catchment area. Rain samples (five year record) were used to obtain the LML: {delta}{sup 2}H = 8.03 {delta}{sup 18}O +9.9. The evaporation line is: {delta}{sup 2}H = 5.9 {delta}{sup 18}O - 7.3. According to the analyses, both groundwater and surface waters have the same isotopic signatures. Unsustainable land use practices along with current and predicted global environmental changes may cause negative impacts on the hydrological functioning of the region, affecting primarily, but not exclusively, evapotranspiration-recharge processes and the sustainability of the entire system. (author)

  12. Evaluation of a market in wetland credits: entrepreneurial wetland banking in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Morgan; Hayden, Nicholas

    2008-06-01

    With the rise of market-led approaches to environmental policy, compensation for permitted discharge of dredge or fill material into wetlands under Section 404 of the U.S. Clean Water Act has been purchased increasingly from entrepreneurial third-party providers. The growth of this practice (i.e., entrepreneurial wetland banking) has resolved many challenges associated with wetland compensation. But it has also produced (1) quantifiable temporal loss of wetland ecological functions, (2) spatial redistribution of wetland area, and (3) a degree of regulatory instability that may pose a threat to entrepreneurial compensation as a sustainable component of wetland-compensation policy. We used achieved compensation ratios, lapse between bank credit sale and the attainment of performance standards, distance between impact and bank site, and changes in bank market area to examine these 3 factors. We analyzed data from a census of all such transactions in the Chicago District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled from site visits, Corps databases, and contacts with consultants and Section 404 permittees. Entrepreneurial banking provided compensation at a lower overall ratio than nonbank forms of compensation. Approximately 60% of bank credits were sold after site-protection standards were met but before ecological performance standards were met at the bank site. The average distance between bank and impact site was approximately 26 km. The area of markets within which established banks can sell wetland credits has fluctuated considerably over the study period. Comparing these data with similar data for other compensation mechanisms will assist in evaluating banking as an element of conservation policy. Data characterizing the performance of entrepreneurial wetland banks in actual regulatory environments are scarce, even though it is the most established of similar markets that have become instrumental to federal policy in administering several major environmental

  13. Hydrological science and wetland restoration: some case studies from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, wetlands are increasingly being recognised as important elements of the landscape because of their high biodiversity and goods and services they provide to mankind. After many decades of wetland destruction and conversion, large areas of wetlands are now protected under the International Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar and regional or national legislation such as the European Union Habitats Directive. In many cases, there is a need to restore the ecological character of the wetland through appropriate water management. This paper provides examples of scientific knowledge of wetland hydrology that can guide such restoration. It focuses on the need for sound hydrological science on a range of issues including water level control, topography, flood storage, wetland connections with rivers and sustainability of water supply under climate change.

  14. Stakeholder Involvement in Tourism Destination Development: A Case of Dunga Beach and Wetland, Kisumu County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Otieno Wanga

    2014-09-01

    In Kenya, Tourism is the second largest source of foreign exchange revenue following agriculture; it however, faces numerous challenges sustainability due the complex nature of tourism destinations. Tourism destinations are complex and dynamic systems that involve various stakeholders each with different understanding of same tourism system. These different perceptions can be tapped to develop a common tourism model that helps achieve the overall sustainable tourism development objective of a given destination. This paper describes participatory systems approach to develop a shared understanding amongst stakeholders of the tourism system in Dunga Beach and Wetland, in Kisumu County, Kenya. The process includes the development of a systems model that represents a holistic understanding of the interconnectedness and relationships between the various components that impact on sustainable development of tourism in Dunga. The model is intended for use as a framework for enhancing ecotourism experiences by stakeholders who are ecotourism experience providers in Dunga for the satisfaction of tourists in Dunga beach and wetland.

  15. Exploring drivers of wetland hydrologic fluxes across parameters and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. N.; Cheng, F. Y.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Basu, N. B.; Lang, M.; Alexander, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Depressional wetlands provide diverse ecosystem services, ranging from critical habitat to the regulation of landscape hydrology. The latter is of particular interest, because while hydrologic connectivity between depressional wetlands and downstream waters has been a focus of both scientific research and policy, it remains difficult to quantify the mode, magnitude, and timing of this connectivity at varying spatial and temporary scales. To do so requires robust empirical and modeling tools that accurately represent surface and subsurface flowpaths between depressional wetlands and other landscape elements. Here, we utilize a parsimonious wetland hydrology model to explore drivers of wetland water fluxes in different archetypal wetland-rich landscapes. We validated the model using instrumented sites from regions that span North America: Prairie Pothole Region (south-central Canada), Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain), and Big Cypress Swamp (southern Florida). Then, using several national scale datasets (e.g., National Wetlands Inventory, USFWS; National Hydrography Dataset, USGS; Soil Survey Geographic Database, NRCS), we conducted a global sensitivity analysis to elucidate dominant drivers of simulated fluxes. Finally, we simulated and compared wetland hydrology in five contrasting landscapes dominated by depressional wetlands: prairie potholes, Carolina and Delmarva bays, pocosins, western vernal pools, and Texas coastal prairie wetlands. Results highlight specific drivers that vary across these regions. Largely, hydroclimatic variables (e.g., PET/P ratios) controlled the timing and magnitude of wetland connectivity, whereas both wetland morphology (e.g., storage capacity and watershed size) and soil characteristics (e.g., ksat and confining layer depth) controlled the duration and mode (surface vs. subsurface) of wetland connectivity. Improved understanding of the drivers of wetland hydrologic connectivity supports enhanced, region

  16. Education and training of future wetland scientists and managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Wetland science emerged as a distinct discipline in the 1980s. In response, courses addressing various aspects of wetland science and management were developed by universities, government agencies, and private firms. Professional certification of wetland scientists began in the mid-1990s to provide confirmation of the quality of education and experience of persons involved in regulatory, management, restoration/construction, and research involving wetland resources. The education requirements for certification and the need for persons with specific wetland training to fill an increasing number of wetland-related positions identified a critical need to develop curriculum guidelines for an undergraduate wetland science and management major for potential accreditation by the Society of Wetland Scientists. That proposed major contains options directed toward either wetland science or management. Both options include required basic courses to meet the general education requirements of many universities, required upper-level specialized courses that address critical aspects of physical and biological sciences applicable to wetlands, and a minimum of four additional upper-level specialized courses that can be used to tailor a degree to students' interests. The program would be administered by an independent review board that would develop guidelines and evaluate university applications for accreditation. Students that complete the required coursework will fulfill the education requirements for professional wetland scientist certification and possess qualifications that make them attractive candidates for graduate school or entry-level positions in wetland science or management. Universities that offer this degree program could gain an advantage in recruiting highly qualified students with an interest in natural resources. Alternative means of educating established wetland scientists are likewise important, especially to provide specialized knowledge and experience or

  17. The Legal Structure of Taiwan’s Wetland Conservation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In July of 2013, Taiwan passed its Wetland Conservation Act and will begin the implementation of the Act on 2 February 2015. With this Act, Taiwan has become the second Asian country to have specific legislation on wetland conservation and protection. This new law enables the society to achieve sustainable utilization on wetland ecological services. The core concepts of the Wetland Conversation Act include biological diversity conservation and wise use of wetland resources. Special political circumstances prevent Taiwan from registering its wetlands as a conservation priority under the Ramsar Convention. This new law allows the government to evaluate and assign a specific area as a “Wetland of Importance.” Under this status, any development activities within the designated area shall be prohibited unless the developer prepares a usage plan for review. The usage plan and the original usage of the natural resources within the wetland area shall also follow the “wise use” principle to protect the wetland and biological service system. However, this new law does not provide clear separation between the two different “wise use” standards. If the development is deemed necessary, new law provides compensation mitigation measures to extend the surface of the wetland and provides additional habitats for various species. Wetland conservation and management rely heavily on systematic research and fundamental data regarding Taiwan’s wetlands. Determining how to adopt these scientific methodologies and transfer them into enforceable mechanisms is a sizeable challenge for both biologists and lawyers as the Wetland Conservation Act creates many legal norms without clarifying definitions. This article will review the current wetland regulations from the legal perspective and provide suggestions for enforcement in the future.

  18. Ecohydrological characterization of the Nyando wetland, Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ihe

    hydrological factors that have influenced wetland evolution. Multi-temporal .... ongoing experimental and modeling investigations by the authors of this paper. Soils .... season (dry) imagery due to the lack of suitable (cloud free) wet season scenes. ..... basins where the interactions between land use, climatic characteristics ...

  19. Wetlands as energy-dissipating systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, J.; Květ, Jan; Rejšková, A.; Brom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 12 (2010), s. 1299-1305 ISSN 1367-5435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : wetlands * vegetation * energy fluxes * primary production * landscape management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y5t4750647q84553/

  20. Wetlands Conservation and Use. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview stresses the significance of wetland habitats in all 50 states. The needs of wildlife and humans are also considered in respect to…

  1. Quantification of Seepage in Groundwater Dependent Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Beven, Keith; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2018-01-01

    Restoration and management of groundwater dependent wetlands require tools for quantifying the groundwater seepage process. A method for determining point estimates of the groundwater seepage based on water level observations is tested. The study is based on field data from a Danish rich fen...

  2. Methane emission from wetland rice fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    1996-01-01


    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic

  3. River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation planning in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... regional- or provincial-scale conservation planning. The hierarchical structure of the classifications provides scope for finer resolution, by the addition of further levels, for application at a sub-regional or municipal scale.

  4. Distribution of clonal growth forms in wetlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosnová, Monika; van Diggelen, R.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2010), s. 33-39 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : clonal growth organ * the Netherlands * wetland plant community Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.087, year: 2010

  5. Radar geomorphology of coastal and wetland environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A. J.; Macdonald, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    Details regarding the collection of radar imagery over the past ten years are considered together with the geomorphic, geologic, and hydrologic data which have been extracted from radar imagery. Recent investigations were conducted of the Louisiana swamp marsh and the Oregon coast. It was found that radar imagery is a useful tool to the scientist involved in wetland research.

  6. A description of the wetlands research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available ) What is the relationship between soil moisture and vegetation type? 2) What is the relationship between soil type and vegetation type? 3 ) What are the environmental requirements of wetland dependent animals? 4) What are the roles of microbiota...

  7. Spatial and stress-related variation in benthic microbial gas flux in northeastern Alberta wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Gardner Costa, J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of oil sands process material (OSPM) on the sediment microbial respiration in newly constructed wetlands located in northeastern Alberta. The sediment gas flux in 10 wetlands with various sediment characteristics and ages was studied. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to contrast the mean wetland production of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with season, wetland status, wetland age, and wetland zones. The study showed that CH 4 was significantly higher in reference wetlands than in OSPM-impacted wetlands. A significant relationship between the status and zone of the wetland was observed for CH 4 fluxes in reference wetlands. CH 4 fluxes were higher in the non-vegetated zones of reference wetlands than in the vegetated zones of reference wetlands. CO 2 fluxes were low and not significantly different in any of the studied sites. Results indicated that the wetlands contributed little atmospheric carbon.

  8. Turnover and transport of greenhouse gases in a Danish wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Juncher

    2011-01-01

    involving plants, soil and microorganisms. These processes are regulated by different physio-chemical drivers such as soil moisture content, soil temperature, nutrient and oxygen (O2) availability. In wetlands, the position of the free standing water level (WL) influences the spatiotemporal variation...... in these drivers, thereby influencing the net emission or uptake of greenhouse gas. In this PhD thesis the complex aspects in the exchange of N2O across the soil-atmosphere is investigated with special focus on the spatiotemporal variations in drivers for N2O production and consumption in the soil...... net N2O dynamics. Similarly, plant-mediated gas transport by the subsurface aerating macrophyte Phalaris arundinacea played a major part in regulating and facilitating emissions of greenhouse gases across the soil-atmosphere interface. It is concluded that the spatiotemporal distribution of dominating...

  9. Simplified hydraulic model of French vertical-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Luis; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc; Molle, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Designing vertical-flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) to treat both rain events and dry weather flow is a complex task due to the stochastic nature of rain events. Dynamic models can help to improve design, but they usually prove difficult to handle for designers. This study focuses on the development of a simplified hydraulic model of French VFCWs using an empirical infiltration coefficient--infiltration capacity parameter (ICP). The model was fitted using 60-second-step data collected on two experimental French VFCW systems and compared with Hydrus 1D software. The model revealed a season-by-season evolution of the ICP that could be explained by the mechanical role of reeds. This simplified model makes it possible to define time-course shifts in ponding time and outlet flows. As ponding time hinders oxygen renewal, thus impacting nitrification and organic matter degradation, ponding time limits can be used to fix a reliable design when treating both dry and rain events.

  10. Wetland Management - A Success Story In Transition - Restoration of Bhoj Wetland, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, M. K.; Tech, B. M.; Miwwa

    Wetlands are beautiful, biologically diverse, hydrologically disperse and ecological vibrant landscape world wide, embracing soils, water, plants, animals and human be- ing. The population growth in the catchment of wetlands led to multifarious human interventions for deriving maximum benefit from the wetlands and their catchments neglecting and disrespecting the principles of sustainability. This act of destruction has been pronounced in developing countries which are under the grip of poverty, illiteracy and lack of environmental education. SBhoj WetlandS is a Lake situated ´ in Central India, Earthen Dam across the river KOLANS in 1061 AD by then ruler king BHOJ. Till 1950 this Wetland was served as a principal source of water supply, even not requiring filtration. As the city grew and the wetland started getting encir- cled by habitation and urban development, the anthropogenic pressures on the lake increased, thus accelerating the process of eutrophication, making the water unfit for human consumption without due treatment due to deterioration of quality of water. For the conservation and management of Bhoj Wetland (Lake Bhopal) a project is under- taken in the financial assistance from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC, Japan). The project envisages tackle various issues of conservation and management ofn the wetlands under a multi prongs strategies and manner. Although these issues are deeply interrelated and interlinked but for operational and management ease, these issues have been divided into various sub projects which are being tackled indepen- dently, albeit with undercurrent knowledge and understanding of the related issues and interconnectivity with each other. The Project itself is an apt example of the spectrum of varied problems and issues that come to light when attempts are made for sustain- able conservation and management of a wetland. The Project as envisaged intends to conserve and manage through 14 sub projects as under:- Sub

  11. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  12. Working group report on wetlands, wildlife and fisheries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, L.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to discuss the impacts of climatic change on wetlands, wildlife and fisheries. Impacts that could occur as a result of climatic change include: sea level rise affecting coastal wetlands by inundation, erosion and saltwater intrusion; temperature rise/moisture balance changes on other wetlands; lake level changes affecting shoreline wetlands; vegetation species/community modification of biological systems; and changes in values derived from wetlands impacting socio-economic systems. The Great Lakes shoreline is considered to be at high risk, and it is predicted that there will be profound effects on the ecological and socio-economic value of the Great Lakes wetlands. Presentations were given on wildlife as biological indicators, modelling the effects of climate warming on the stream habitats of brook trout, and the effects of an altered water regime on Great Lakes coastal wetlands. It was concluded that a fundamental research program of an interdisciplinary nature be established to determine current linkages of climatic variables to the function, distribution and productivity of wetlands and associated fish and wildlife resources. A national wetlands monitoring network should be established to trace the influence of climatic variables on wetlands and fish, to identify environmental indicators for reporting and to complement other monitoring programs

  13. The cost of wetland creation and restoration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.; Bohlen, C.

    1995-08-01

    This report examines the economics of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement projects, especially as they are used within the context of mitigation for unavoidable wetland losses. Complete engineering-cost-accounting profiles of over 90 wetland projects were developed in collaboration with leading wetland restoration and creation practitioners around the country to develop a primary source database. Data on the costs of over 1,000 wetland projects were gathered from published sources and other available databases to develop a secondary source database. Cases in both databases were carefully analyzed and a set of baseline cost per acre estimates were developed for wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement. Observations of costs varied widely, ranging from $5 per acre to $1.5 million per acre. Differences in cost were related to the target wetland type, and to site-specific and project-specific factors that affected the preconstruction, construction, and post-construction tasks necessary to carry out each particular project. Project-specific and site-specific factors had a much larger effect on project costs than wetland type for non-agricultural projects. Costs of wetland creation and restoration were also shown to differ by region, but not by as much as expected, and in response to the regulatory context. The costs of wetland creation, restoration, and enhancement were also analyzed in a broader economic context through examination of the market for wetland mitigation services, and through the development of a framework for estimating compensation ratios-the number of acres of created, restored, or enhanced wetland required to compensate for an acre of lost natural wetland. The combination of per acre creation, restoration, and enhancement costs and the compensation ratio determine the overall mitigation costs associated with alternative mitigation strategies.

  14. Observation of Wetland Dynamics with Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffada, C.; Shah, R.; Nghiem, S. V.; Cardellach, E.; Chew, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dynamics is crucial to changes in both atmospheric methane and terrestrial water storage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) highlights the role of wetlands as a key driver of methane (CH4) emission, which is more than one order of magnitude stronger than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the centennial time scale. Among the multitude of methane emission sources (hydrates, livestock, rice cultivation, freshwaters, landfills and waste, fossil fuels, biomass burning, termites, geological sources, and soil oxidation), wetlands constitute the largest contributor with the widest uncertainty range of 177-284 Tg(CH4) yr-1 according to the IPCC estimate. Wetlands are highly susceptible to climate change that might lead to wetland collapse. Such wetland destruction would decrease the terrestrial water storage capacity and thus contribute to sea level rise, consequently exacerbating coastal flooding problems. For both methane change and water storage change, wetland dynamics is a crucial factor with the largest uncertainty. Nevertheless, a complete and consistent map of global wetlands still needs to be obtained as the Ramsar Convention calls for a wetlands inventory and impact assessment. We develop a new method for observations of wetland change using Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry (GNSS-R) signatures for global wetland mapping in synergy with the existing capability, not only as a static inventory but also as a temporal dataset, to advance the capability for monitoring the dynamics of wetland extent relevant to addressing the science issues of CH4 emission change and terrestrial water storage change. We will demonstrate the capability of the new GNSS-R method over a rice field in the Ebro Delta wetland in Spain.

  15. Methyl mercury dynamics in a tidal wetland quantified using in situ optical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fleck, J.A.; Downing, B.D.; Boss, E.; Pellerin, B.; Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Byington, A.A.; Heim, W.A.; Stephenson, M.; Fujii, R.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed monomethylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in a tidal wetland over three seasons using a novel method that employs a combination of in situ optical measurements as concentration proxies. MeHg concentrations measured over a single spring tide were extended to a concentration time series using in situ optical measurements. Tidal fluxes were calculated using modeled concentrations and bi-directional velocities obtained acoustically. The magnitude of the flux was the result of complex interactions of tides, geomorphic features, particle sorption, and random episodic events such as wind storms and precipitation. Correlation of dissolved organic matter quality measurements with timing of MeHg release suggests that MeHg is produced in areas of fluctuating redox and not limited by buildup of sulfide. The wetland was a net source of MeHg to the estuary in all seasons, with particulate flux being much higher than dissolved flux, even though dissolved concentrations were commonly higher. Estimated total MeHg yields out of the wetland were approximately 2.5 μg m−2 yr−1—4–40 times previously published yields—representing a potential loading to the estuary of 80 g yr−1, equivalent to 3% of the river loading. Thus, export from tidal wetlands should be included in mass balance estimates for MeHg loading to estuaries. Also, adequate estimation of loads and the interactions between physical and biogeochemical processes in tidal wetlands might not be possible without long-term, high-frequency in situ measurements.

  16. Estimating evapotranspiration and groundwater flow from water-table fluctuations for a general wetland scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lisa C.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of diurnal water-table fluctuation methods to calculate evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater flow is of increasing interest in ecohydrological studies. Most studies of this type, however, have been located in riparian wetlands of semi-arid regions where groundwater levels are consistently below topographic surface elevations and precipitation events are infrequent. Current methodologies preclude application to a wider variety of wetland systems. In this study, we extended a method for estimating sub-daily ET and groundwater flow rates from water-level fluctuations to fit highly dynamic, non-riparian wetland scenarios. Modifications included (1) varying the specific yield to account for periodic flooded conditions and (2) relating empirically derived ET to estimated potential ET for days when precipitation events masked the diurnal signal. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we estimated ET and groundwater fluxes over two growing seasons (2006–2007) in 15 wetlands within a ridge-and-swale wetland complex of the Laurentian Great Lakes under flooded and non-flooded conditions. Mean daily ET rates for the sites ranged from 4.0 mm d−1 to 6.6 mm d−1. Shallow groundwater discharge rates resulting from evaporative demand ranged from 2.5 mm d−1 to 4.3 mm d−1. This study helps to expand our understanding of the evapotranspirative demand of plants under various hydrologic and climate conditions. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcin Martins, Paula; Hoyt, David W; Bansal, Sheel; Mills, Christopher T; Tfaily, Malak; Tangen, Brian A; Finocchiaro, Raymond G; Johnston, Michael D; McAdams, Brandon C; Solensky, Matthew J; Smith, Garrett J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Wilkins, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses, we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield noncompetitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalcin Martins, Paula [Microbiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Hoyt, David W. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland WA 99350 USA; Bansal, Sheel [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Mills, Christopher T. [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Building 20, Denver Federal Center Denver CO 80225 USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Richland WA 99350 USA; Tangen, Brian A. [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Finocchiaro, Raymond G. [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Johnston, Michael D. [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; McAdams, Brandon C. [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Solensky, Matthew J. [United States Geological Survey - Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown ND 58401 USA; Smith, Garrett J. [Microbiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Chin, Yu-Ping [School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; Wilkins, Michael J. [Microbiology Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA; School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 USA

    2017-02-23

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR, and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations, or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield non-competitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. The role of constructed wetlands for biomass production within the water-soil-waste nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellan, C T; Ardakanian, R; Gremillion, P

    2017-05-01

    The use of constructed wetlands for water pollution control has a long standing tradition in urban, peri-urban, rural, agricultural and mining environments. The capacity of wetland plants to take up nutrients and to filter organic matter has been widely discussed and presented in diverse fora and published in hundreds of articles. In an ever increasingly complex global world, constructed wetlands not only play a role in providing safe sanitation in decentralized settings, shelter for biodiversity, and cleansing of polluted sites, in addition, they produce biomass that can be harvested and used for the production of fodder and fuel. The United Nations University Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources (UNU-FLORES) was established in December 2012 in Dresden, Germany, to assess the trade-offs between and among resources when making sustainable decisions. Against the backdrop of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus, which was introduced as a critical element for the discussions on sustainability at Rio +20, the UNU was mandated to pay critical attention to the interconnections of the underlying resources, namely, water, soil and waste. Biomass for human consumption comes in the form of food for direct use, as fodder for livestock, and as semi-woody biomass for fuelling purposes, be it directly for heating and cooking or for the production of biogas and/or biofuel. Given the universal applicability of constructed wetlands in virtually all settings, from arid to tropical, from relatively high to low nutrient loads, and from a vast variety of pollutants, we postulate that the biomass produced in constructed wetlands can be used more extensively in order to enhance the multi-purpose use of these sites.

  20. Effect of antecedent terrestrial land-use on C and N cycling in created wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalley, C. K.; Al Graiti, T.; Williams, T.; Huang, S.; McGowan, M. B.; Eddingsaas, N. C.; Tyler, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Land-use legacies and their interaction with both management actions and climate variability has a poorly characterized impact on the development of ecosystem functions and the trajectory of climate-carbon feedbacks. The complex structure-function relationships in wetlands foster delivery of valuable, climate sensitive, ecosystem services (carbon sequestration, nutrient removal, flood control, etc.) but also make them susceptible to colonization by invasive plants and lead to emission of key greenhouse gases. This project uses created wetland ecosystems as a model to understand how heterogeneity in antecedent conditions interacts with management options to create unique structure-function scenarios and a range of climate feedback outcomes. We utilized ongoing experiments in created wetlands that differ in antecedent conditions (crop agriculture, livestock grazing) and investigated how management options (invasive species removal, organic matter addition) interact with legacy impacts to promote key ecosystem functions, including greenhouse gas emissions, carbon sequestration, denitrification and plant biodiversity. The effects of antecedent land-use on soil chemistry, coupled with hydrologic patterns resulted in wetlands with divergent C and N dynamics despite their similar creation history. Additionally, the occurrence of extreme weather events (drought and excessive flooding) during the study period highlighted the overarching role that increased climate variability will play in determining key ecosystem processes in wetlands. Responses to management were linked to hydro-period: while organic matter addition successfully increased soil organic matter to more closely replicate natural systems at all sites, it had the largest impact on C and N cycling when soils were saturated. Overall, environmental conditions that promoted saturated soils, both those shaped by human activities or climate extremes, enhanced primary productivity, nutrient removal and greenhouse gas

  1. Fate of Uranium in Wetlands: Impact of Drought Followed by Re-flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, E.; Huang, S.; Koster van Groos, P. G.; Scheckel, K.; Peacock, A. D.; Kaplan, D. I.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Uranium contamination in groundwater can be mitigated in anoxic zones by iron-reducing bacteria that reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) and by uranium immobilization through complexation and sorption. Wetlands often link ground and surface-waters, making them strategic systems for potentially limiting migration of uranium contamination. Little is known about how drought periods that result in the drying of wetland soils, and consequent redox changes, affect uranium fate and transport in wetlands. In order to better understand the fate and stability of immobilized uranium in wetland soils, and how dry periods affect the uranium stability, we dosed saturated wetland mesocosms planted with Scirpus acutus with low levels of uranyl-acetate for 5 months before imposing a 9-day drying period followed by a 13-day rewetting period. Concentrations of uranium in mesocosm effluent increased after rewetting, but the cumulative amount of uranium released in the 13 days following the drying constituted less than 1% of the uranium immobilized in the soil during the 5 months prior to the drought. This low level of remobilization suggests that the uranium immobilized in these soils was not primarily bioreduced U(IV), which could have been oxidized to soluble U(VI) during the drought and released in the effluent during the subsequent flood. XANES analyses confirm that most of the uranium immobilized in the mesocosms was U(VI) sorbed to iron oxides. Compared to mesocosms that did not experience drying or rewetting, mesocosms that were sacrificed immediately after drying and after 13 days of rewetting had less uranium in soil near roots and more uranium on root surfaces. Metal-reducing bacteria only dominated the bacterial community after 13 days of rewetting and not immediately after drying, indicating that these bacteria are not responsible for this redistribution of uranium after the drying and rewetting. Results show that short periods of drought conditions in a wetland may

  2. Eco-geomorphological Response of an Estuarine Wetland to Changes in the Hydraulic Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A.; Rodrí Guez, J.

    2006-12-01

    In the Hunter Estuary, NSW, Australia, tidal regimes of numerous wetlands have been affected by extensive anthropomorphic intervention, including harbour dredging, land reclamation, and construction of infrastructure. The importance of these wetlands to ecosystem services such as primary productivity, flood attenuation and water quality enhancement has led to an increased effort to rehabilitate degraded sites by reintroduction of tidal flows. Because of the complex and dynamics interactions among hydraulic regime, vegetation and geomorphology, it is difficult to predict how wetlands will respond to the reintroduction of these flows and whether the resulting habitat distribution will achieve desired management outcomes. Eco-geomorphology research conducted at a rehabilitated wetland comprised of mangrove forest and saltmarsh has tracked the response of estuarine vegetation distribution and wetland geomorphology to reinstatement of tidal flows following removal of impediments in 1995. The wetland is an important site for migratory shorebirds and is highly compartmentalized due to the presence of roads and culverts. Our research methodology integrates historical analysis, field measurements and laboratory experiments. Historical analysis matched vegetation evolution obtained from aerial photography to bird roosting habitat use, which is in decline. Field data collection carried out in the last two years included topographic, vegetation and soil surveys; velocity, water quality and water level profiling; and high precision measurements of substrate shallow subsidence and vertical accretion. Laboratory studies focussed on the effects of estuarine vegetation on flow resistance. All this information has allowed for the characterization and conceptualization of the system, which includes zones with different tidal attenuation levels and vegetation distribution. It was found that an increased tidal frame resulting from hydraulic manipulation lead to a landward shift in

  3. Landsat classification of surface-water presence during multiple years to assess response of playa wetlands to climatic variability across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2018-02-15

    To improve understanding of the distribution of ecologically important, ephemeral wetland habitats across the Great Plains, the occurrence and distribution of surface water in playa wetland complexes were documented for four different years across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) region. This information is important because it informs land and wildlife managers about the timing and location of habitat availability. Data with an accurate timestamp that indicate the presence of water, the percent of the area inundated with water, and the spatial distribution of playa wetlands with water are needed for a host of resource inventory, monitoring, and research applications. For example, the distribution of inundated wetlands forms the spatial pattern of available habitat for resident shorebirds and water birds, stop-over habitats for migratory birds, connectivity and clustering of wetland habitats, and surface waters that recharge the Ogallala aquifer; there is considerable variability in the distribution of playa wetlands holding water through time. Documentation of these spatially and temporally intricate processes, here, provides data required to assess connections between inundation and multiple environmental drivers, such as climate, land use, soil, and topography. Climate drivers are understood to interact with land cover, land use and soil attributes in determining the amount of water that flows overland into playa wetlands. Results indicated significant spatial variability represented by differences in the percent of playas inundated among States within the GPLCC. Further, analysis-of-variance comparison of differences in inundation between years showed significant differences in all cases. Although some connections with seasonal moisture patterns may be observed, the complex spatial-temporal gradients of precipitation, temperature, soils, and land use need to be combined as covariates in multivariate models to effectively account for

  4. Placing prairie pothole wetlands along spatial and temporal continua to improve integration of wetland function in ecological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Newton, Wesley E.; Otto, Clint R.V.; Nelson, Richard D.; LaBaugh, James W.; Scherff, Eric J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of using chemical characteristics to rank wetland relation to surface and groundwater along a hydrologic continuum ranging from groundwater recharge to groundwater discharge. We used 27 years (1974–2002) of water chemistry data from 15 prairie pothole wetlands and known hydrologic connections of these wetlands to groundwater to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in chemical characteristics that correspond to the unique ecosystem functions each wetland performed. Due to the mineral content and the low permeability rate of glacial till and soils, salinity of wetland waters increased along a continuum of wetland relation to groundwater recharge, flow-through or discharge. Mean inter-annual specific conductance (a proxy for salinity) increased along this continuum from wetlands that recharge groundwater being fresh to wetlands that receive groundwater discharge being the most saline, and wetlands that both recharge and discharge to groundwater (i.e., groundwater flow-through wetlands) being of intermediate salinity. The primary axis from a principal component analysis revealed that specific conductance (and major ions affecting conductance) explained 71% of the variation in wetland chemistry over the 27 years of this investigation. We found that long-term averages from this axis were useful to identify a wetland’s long-term relation to surface and groundwater. Yearly or seasonal measurements of specific conductance can be less definitive because of highly dynamic inter- and intra-annual climate cycles that affect water volumes and the interaction of groundwater and geologic materials, and thereby influence the chemical composition of wetland waters. The influence of wetland relation to surface and groundwater on water chemistry has application in many scientific disciplines and is especially needed to improve ecological understanding in wetland investigations. We suggest ways that monitoring in situ wetland conditions could be linked

  5. Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Gu, Binhe; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Jiang, Shijun; Xu, Yingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades – a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (> 600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have

  6. Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic impacts on aquatic food web dynamics and mercury cycling in a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@magnet.fsu.edu [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4100 (United States); Gu, Binhe [South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL 33406 (United States); Lee, Ming-Kuo [Department of Geology and Geography, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36839 (United States); Jiang, Shijun, E-mail: sjiang@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Hydrobiology/Laboratory of Eutrophication and Red Tide Prevention of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632 (China); Xu, Yingfeng [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4100 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying and predicting the food web consequences of anthropogenic changes is difficult using traditional methods (based on gut content analysis) because natural food webs are variable and complex. Here, stable and radioactive carbon isotopes are used, in conjunction with nitrogen isotopes and mercury (Hg) concentration data, to document the effects of land-use change on food webs and Hg bioaccumulation in the Everglades – a subtropical wetland ecosystem in the US. Isotopic signatures of largemouth bass and sunfish in reference (relatively pristine) wetlands indicate reliance on the food supply of modern primary production within the wetland. In contrast, both fish in areas impacted by agricultural runoff had radiocarbon ages as old as 540 years B.P., and larger isotopic variability than counterparts in reference wetlands, reflecting differences in the food web between impacted and reference wetlands. Consistent with this difference, particulate and dissolved organic matter in impacted areas had old radiocarbon ages (> 600 years B.P.), indicating that old carbon derived from historic peat deposits in the Everglades Agricultural Area was passed along the food chain to consumers. Significant radiocarbon deficiencies in largemouth bass and sunfish, relative to mosquitofish, in impacted areas most likely indicate a reduced dependence on small fish. Furthermore, largemouth bass and sunfish from impacted areas had much lower Hg contents than those from reference wetlands. Taken together, these data suggest a shift toward lower trophic levels and a possible reduction in mercury methylation in impacted wetlands. Our study provides clear evidence that hydrological modification and land-use change in the Everglades have changed the system from one driven primarily by in-situ productivity to one that is partially dependent on allochthonous carbon input from peat soils in the agricultural area and altered the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the wetlands. The results have

  7. Methane emissions from global wetlands: An assessment of the uncertainty associated with various wetland extent data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bowen; Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Anderson, Christopher; Poulter, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    A wide range of estimates on global wetland methane (CH4) fluxes has been reported during the recent two decades. This gives rise to urgent needs to clarify and identify the uncertainty sources, and conclude a reconciled estimate for global CH4 fluxes from wetlands. Most estimates by using bottom-up approach rely on wetland data sets, but these data sets show largely inconsistent in terms of both wetland extent and spatiotemporal distribution. A quantitative assessment of uncertainties associated with these discrepancies among wetland data sets has not been well investigated yet. By comparing the five widely used global wetland data sets (GISS, GLWD, Kaplan, GIEMS and SWAMPS-GLWD), it this study, we found large differences in the wetland extent, ranging from 5.3 to 10.2 million km2, as well as their spatial and temporal distributions among the five data sets. These discrepancies in wetland data sets resulted in large bias in model-estimated global wetland CH4 emissions as simulated by using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). The model simulations indicated that the mean global wetland CH4 emissions during 2000-2007 were 177.2 ± 49.7 Tg CH4 yr-1, based on the five different data sets. The tropical regions contributed the largest portion of estimated CH4 emissions from global wetlands, but also had the largest discrepancy. Among six continents, the largest uncertainty was found in South America. Thus, the improved estimates of wetland extent and CH4 emissions in the tropical regions and South America would be a critical step toward an accurate estimate of global CH4 emissions. This uncertainty analysis also reveals an important need for our scientific community to generate a global scale wetland data set with higher spatial resolution and shorter time interval, by integrating multiple sources of field and satellite data with modeling approaches, for cross-scale extrapolation.

  8. Recreating wetland ecosystems in an oil sands disturbed landscape : Suncor consolidated-tailings demonstration wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, C. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada). Aquatic Reclamation Research; Tedder, W.; Marlowe, P. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Div.

    2009-10-01

    Open pit oil sands mining involves the disturbance of thin overburden covers of Boreal forest lands that must be returned to equivalent land capability after mining activities have ceased. Before mining starts, any wetlands are drained, timber is harvested, and peat, topsoils and subsoils are stockpiled for later use. This article discussed wetland reclamation activities conducted by Suncor Energy at its open pit mining operations. Research facilities were constructed in order to determine if wetlands constructed with consolidated tailings (CT) and pond effluent water (PEW) were able to support a sustainable vegetation community. Thirty-three cat-tail plots were established at the facility as well as unplanted plots in order to determine how quickly natural establishment occurred. Shoreline plug transplants and transplants from a natural saline lake were also introduced. Within 5 years, over 23 plant species had naturally colonized the CT wetlands. However, diversity was lower in CT and PEW-constructed wetlands. It was concluded that the application of a native peat-mineral mix soil may help to increase plant diversity. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Applicability Assessment of Uavsar Data in Wetland Monitoring: a Case Study of Louisiana Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Niu, Y.; Lu, Z.; Yang, J.; Li, P.; Liu, W.

    2018-04-01

    Wetlands are highly productive and support a wide variety of ecosystem goods and services. Monitoring wetland is essential and potential. Because of the repeat-pass nature of satellite orbit and airborne, time-series of remote sensing data can be obtained to monitor wetland. UAVSAR is a NASA L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor compact pod-mounted polarimetric instrument for interferometric repeat-track observations. Moreover, UAVSAR images can accurately map crustal deformations associated with natural hazards, such as volcanoes and earthquakes. And its polarization agility facilitates terrain and land-use classification and change detection. In this paper, the multi-temporal UAVSAR data are applied for monitoring the wetland change. Using the multi-temporal polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data, the change detection maps are obtained by unsupervised and supervised method. And the coherence is extracted from the interfometric SAR (InSAR) data to verify the accuracy of change detection map. The experimental results show that the multi-temporal UAVSAR data is fit for wetland monitor.

  10. Resilience of coastal wetlands to extreme hydrologicevents in Apalachicola Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, S. C.; Singh, A.; Tahsin, S.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme hydrologic events such as hurricanes and droughts continuously threaten wetlands which provide key ecosystem services in coastal areas. The recovery time for vegetation after impact fromthese extreme events can be highly variable depending on the hazard type and intensity. Apalachicola Bay in Florida is home to a rich variety of saltwater and freshwater wetlands and is subject to a wide rangeof hydrologic hazards. Using spatiotemporal changes in Landsat-based empirical vegetation indices, we investigate the impact of hurricane and drought on both freshwater and saltwater wetlands from year 2000to 2015 in Apalachicola Bay. Our results indicate that saltwater wetlands are more resilient than freshwater wetlands and suggest that in response to hurricanes, the coastal wetlands took almost a year to recover,while recovery following a drought period was observed after only a month.

  11. Study of Wetland Ecosystem Vegetation Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, E. A.; Alekseeva, M. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to estimate the aboveground net production (ANP) of wetland ecosystems for the key area at the South Taiga zone of West Siberia. The vegetation index and aboveground production are related by linear dependence and are specific for each wetland ecosystem. The NDVI grows with an increase in the ANP at wooded oligotrophic ecosystems. Open oligotrophic bogs and eutrophic wetlands are characterized by an opposite relation. Maps of aboveground production for wetland ecosystems are constructed for each study year and for the whole period of studies. The average aboveground production for all wetland ecosystems of the key area, which was estimated with consideration for the area they occupy and using the data of satellite measurements of the vegetation index, is 305 g C/m2/yr. The total annual carbon accumulation in aboveground wetland vegetation in the key area is 794600 t.

  12. Integrating geographically isolated wetlands into land management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Heather E.; Creed, Irena F.; Ali, Genevieve; Basu, Nandita; Neff, Brian; Rains, Mark C.; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Ameli, Ali A.; Christensen, Jay R.; Evenson, Grey R.; Jones, Charles N.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands across the globe provide extensive ecosystem services. However, many wetlands – especially those surrounded by uplands, often referred to as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) – remain poorly protected. Protection and restoration of wetlands frequently requires information on their hydrologic connectivity to other surface waters, and their cumulative watershed‐scale effects. The integration of measurements and models can supply this information. However, the types of measurements and models that should be integrated are dependent on management questions and information compatibility. We summarize the importance of GIWs in watersheds and discuss what wetland connectivity means in both science and management contexts. We then describe the latest tools available to quantify GIW connectivity and explore crucial next steps to enhancing and integrating such tools. These advancements will ensure that appropriate tools are used in GIW decision making and maintaining the important ecosystem services that these wetlands support.

  13. Landscape hydrology. The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C; Shulmeister, J; Larsen, J; Jacobsen, G E; Zawadzki, A

    2014-11-14

    Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases by up to 15% of annual precipitation. This can convert ephemeral swamps to permanent lakes or even create new wetlands. This effect is globally significant, with 9 to 12% of wetlands affected, including 20 to 40% of Ramsar wetlands, but is widely unrecognized because human impact studies rarely test for it. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action

  15. Ecosystem Development after Mangrove Wetland Creation: Plant-Soil Change across a 20-year Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland loss. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands is poorly understood. We compared a 20-yr chrono...

  16. Tree establishment in response to hydrology at IDOT wetland mitigation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has compensated for unavoidable impacts to wetlands in transportation : project corridors by restoring and creating wetlands throughout Illinois. As part of the IDOT Wetlands Program, monitoring : of p...

  17. Guidelines for Developing Wetlands in Agricultural Catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication presents the results of an international research project on optimizing the capture and storage of water by assessing nutrient using water conservation zones in agricultural landscapes. Eight countries from Asia-Pacific, Africa and Europe participated in the project. Field studies were established in all participating countries using isotopic and nuclear techniques to assess three types of water conservation zones that are used to harvest water for irrigation, crop production and improve downstream water quality. In addition, isotopic and nuclear techniques were used to collect data to identify the ideal locations in the landscapes for developing wetlands. The publication provides information to researchers working in the area of soil and water management, natural resource managers, policy makers and farmers. For those working to develop wetlands, information is provided to support planning, monitoring and evaluation.

  18. The state of oil sands wetland reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The state of oil sand and wetlands reclamation was the subject of this presentation. Wildlife habitat and response, plant community and production, and microbial biology were examples of research areas surrounding this body of knowledge. Hydrological research and landscape ecology were discussed along with peatlands and marshes such as the Corvette and the Kia. A few examples of what has been learned in the area of wetlands reclamation was presented. Other topics were also discussed, such as timeframes, pragmatic policy approaches, reclamation costs, research needs and some ideas on maturing the field. It was concluded that environmental conditions change with time and area because of time, chemistry, physics, stoichiometry, as well as biotic mediation and facilitation. figs.

  19. Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Smith, Kevin G.; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims to communi......The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims...... to communicate best practices in conserving biodiversity and sustaining ecosystem services to potential users and to promote the wise-use of aquatic resources, improve livelihoods and enhance policy information....

  20. Internal aeration development and the zonation of plants in wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith

    differing in flooding tolerance. Maintaining species diversity in managed wetlands therefore involves hydrological conditions suitable for a variety of plants that differ in their flooding tolerance. The shallowest areas of wetlands, in which soils are waterlogged but there is little standing water, can...... of pressurized gas flows in their aerenchyma. These close linkages between flooding tolerance and species distributions are key considerations for maintaining species diversity in wetlands....

  1. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Foti, R.; del Jesus, M.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2012-01-01

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of ...

  2. Wetland forest statistics for the South Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown; Greg M. Smith; Joseph McCollum

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one percent, or 17.6 million acres, of the timberland in the South Atlantic States was classified as wetland timberland. Sixty percent of the region’s wetland timberland was under nonindustrial private forest ownership. Forty-eight percent of the region’s wetland timberland was classified as sawtimber-sized stands. Lowland hardwood types made up 62 percent of...

  3. Establishing a tracer-based sediment budget to preserve wetlands in Mediterranean mountain agroecosystems (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana, E-mail: anavas@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); López-Vicente, Manuel, E-mail: mvicente@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Gaspar, Leticia, E-mail: leticia.gaspar@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, Plymouth University, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Palazón, Leticia, E-mail: lpalazon@eead.csic.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Quijano, Laura, E-mail: lquijano@eead.cisc.es [Department of Soil and Water, Estación Experimental de Aula Dei, EEAD-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Mountain wetlands in Mediterranean regions are particularly threatened in agricultural environments due to anthropogenic activity. An integrated study of source-to-sink sediment fluxes was carried out in an agricultural catchment that holds a small permanent lake included in the European NATURA 2000 Network. More than 1000 yrs of human intervention and the variety of land uses pose a substantial challenge when attempting to estimate sediment fluxes which is the first requirement to protect fragile wetlands. To date, there have been few similar studies and those that have been carried out have not addressed such complex terrain. Geostatistical interpolation and GIS tools were used to derive the soil spatial redistribution from point {sup 137}Cs inventories, and to establish the sediment budget in a catchment located in the Southern Pyrenees. The soil redistribution was intense and soil erosion predominated over soil deposition. On the areas that maintained natural vegetation the median soil erosion and deposition rates were moderate, ranging from 2.6 to 6 Mg ha yr{sup −1} and 1.5 to 2.1 Mg ha yr{sup −1}, respectively. However, in cultivated fields both erosion and deposition were significantly higher (ca. 20 Mg ha yr{sup −1}), and the maximum rates were always associated with tillage practices. Farming activities in the last part of the 20th century intensified soil erosion, as evidenced by the 1963 {sup 137}Cs peaks in the lake cores and estimates from the sediment budget indicated a net deposition of 671 Mg yr{sup −1}. Results confirm a siltation risk for the lake and provide a foundation for designing management plans to preserve this threatened wetland. This comprehensive approach provides information useful for understanding processes that influence the patterns and rates of soil transfer and deposition within fragile Mediterranean mountain wetlands subjected to climate and anthropogenic stresses. - Highlights: • Soil erosion threatens long

  4. Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Stanley, Emily H.; Spawn, Seth A.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr−1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.

  5. Community-based wetland comanagement in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record This chapter explains new solutions to problems resulting from top-down approaches to resource conservation and sustainability. The management of natural resources - in this case, wetlands - is complicated and risky. To address the risks involved with resource management, a case study was done in Bangladesh to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based comanagement. Using multidisciplinary approaches and adaptive management strategies, the Management of Aquatic Ecos...

  6. Soil Redox Dynamics Vary with Landscape Position and Hydroperiod in the Pantanal Wetland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.; Pinto-jr, O.; Leite, N. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Pantanal wetland ecosystem of central South America is the largest tropical wetland complex in the world. Nevertheless, biogeochemistry in the Pantanal is quite limited. A unimodal precipitation regime averages approximately 1200 mm y-1 during the six-month rainy season, leading to seasonal flooding on much, but not all, of the landscape. We investigated the impact of landscape position and hydroperiod on soil redox potential (Eh) in four research locations in the Northern Pantanal near Poconé, Mato Grosso: two locations subject to flooding (a flooded forest and a flooded scrub forest) and two locations with infrequent surface flooding (tree islands known as cordilheiras). Redox sensors were installed at 10 cm and 30 cm depths at each of the four locations with half-hourly data recorded over all hydro-periods (dry season, rising water, flood and falling water). Here we summarize results to date in this ongoing study. Reducing conditions were observed in response to both precipitation events saturating soil from the surface downward, as well as in response to regional flooding dynamics that saturate soil from below. These are helping to guide design of a study on methane dynamics in the Pantanal wetland complex.

  7. Effects of sediment removal on vegetation communities in Rainwater Basin playa wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beas, Benjamin J; Smith, Loren M; LaGrange, Theodore G; Stutheit, Randy

    2013-10-15

    Sedimentation from cultivated agricultural land use has altered the natural hydrologic regimes of depressional wetlands in the Great Plains. These alterations can negatively affect native wetland plant communities. Our objective was to determine if restored wetlands are developing plant communities similar to reference wetland conditions following hydrologic restoration. For this study, hydrology was restored via sediment removal. Thirty-four playa wetlands in reference, restored, and agricultural condition within the Rainwater Basin Region of Nebraska were sampled in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness and more native, annual, and perennial species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands had similar exotic species richness compared to reference and agricultural wetlands; however, reference wetlands contained more than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands proportion of exotics was 3.5 and 2 times less than agricultural wetlands and reference wetlands respectively. In 2009, reference and restored wetlands had higher species richness, more perennial species, and more native species than agricultural wetlands. Restored wetlands contained a greater number and proportion of annuals than reference and agricultural wetlands. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that reference, restored, and agricultural wetlands are dominated by different plant species and guilds. Restored wetland plant communities do not appear to be acting as intermediates between reference and agricultural wetland conditions or on a trajectory to reach reference conditions. This may be attributed to differing seed bank communities between reference and restored wetlands, dispersal limitations of perennial plant guilds associated with reference wetland conditions, and/or management activities may be preventing restored wetlands from reaching reference status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Lebel, Peter J.; Koller, Albert M.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-02-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases are presented that were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide (CO2) normalized emission ratios (ΔX/ΔCO2; V/V; where X is trace gas) for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak (Quercus spp) and saw palmetto (Screnoa repens) were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. We believe that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes (both small-size fuels) burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly diminished.

  9. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Lebel, Peter J.; Winstead, Edward L.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxide were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak and saw palmetto were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. It is believed that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly deminished.

  10. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  11. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands. | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. We provide unbiased estimates of soil carbon stocks for wetlands at regional and national scales and describe how soil carbon stocks vary by anthropogenic disturbance to the wetland. To estimate the quantity and distribution of carbon stocks in wetlands of the conterminous US, we used data gathered in the field as part of the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA) conducted by USEPA. During the growing season, field crews collected soil samples by horizon from 120-cm deep soil pits at 967 randomly selected wetland sites. Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density and organic carbon. We applied site carbon stock averages by soil depth back to the national population of wetlands and to several subpopulations, including five geographic areas and anthropogenic disturbance level. Disturbance levels were categorized by the NWCA as least, intermediately, or most disturbed using a priori defined physical, chemical, and biological indicators that were observable at the time of the site visit.Results/Conclusions We find that wetlands in the conterminous US store a total of 11.52 PgC – roughly equivalent to four years of annual carbon emissions by the US, with the greatest soil ca

  12. Structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Freshwater basin wetlands are found in depressions of various depths, generally in areas where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration or where the depression intersects the water table creating groundwater seeps or springs. Forested basins are those that contain woody vegetation with the potential for reaching tree stature; they do not include woody shrub wetlands. In North America these areas are mainly in the central and eastern region. Pertinent information and reviews on the distribution, floristic composition, structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands are summarized. The major emphasis is on freshwater wetlands, but data for saltwater wetlands mainly from Florida and tropical America are included. The external factors affecting basin wetlands or the important components of a wetlands energy signature are described as well as the distribution and floristic composition of representative basin wetlands. Sections on structural characteristics, organic matter dynamics, and nutrient cycling comprise the bulk of quantitative information. The effects of disturbances, both natural and human induced, with varying degrees of impact depending upon the intensity and on the part of the ecosystem to which the stressor is applied are evaluated. Examples of stressors in basin wetlands include water impoundment, water diversion, thermal stress from hot water, sedimentation, addition of toxic substances, addition of wastewater, oil spills, and harvesting. 86 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  13. Wetlands in a changing climate: Science, policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, William R.; Chmura, G.L.; Davies, Gillian T.; Finlayson, Max; Middleton, Beth A.; Natali, Sue M.; Perry, James; Roulet, Nigel; Sutton-Grier, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Part 1 of this review synthesizes recent research on status and climate vulnerability of freshwater and saltwater wetlands, and their contribution to addressing climate change (carbon cycle, adaptation, resilience). Peatlands and vegetated coastal wetlands are among the most carbon rich sinks on the planet sequestering approximately as much carbon as do global forest ecosystems. Estimates of the consequences of rising temperature on current wetland carbon storage and future carbon sequestration potential are summarized. We also demonstrate the need to prevent drying of wetlands and thawing of permafrost by disturbances and rising temperatures to protect wetland carbon stores and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services. Preventing further wetland loss is found to be important in limiting future emissions to meet climate goals, but is seldom considered. In Part 2, the paper explores the policy and management realm from international to national, subnational and local levels to identify strategies and policies reflecting an integrated understanding of both wetland and climate change science. Specific recommendations are made to capture synergies between wetlands and carbon cycle management, adaptation and resiliency to further enable researchers, policy makers and practitioners to protect wetland carbon and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services.

  14. Description of floodplains and wetlands, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Floodplains and wetlands are important features of the Texas Panhandle landscape, and are found on the Deaf Smith County site and in its vicinity. Use or disturbance of floodplains and wetlands in relation to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is subject to environmental review requirements implementing two Executive Orders. This report provides general information on playa wetlands in the Texas Panhandle, and describes and maps floodplains and wetlands on the Deaf Smith site and in its vicinity. The report is based on the published literature, with information from limited field reconnaissance included

  15. Constructed wetlands for pollution control: processes, performance, design and operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Types of constructed wetland, major design parameters, role of vegetation, hydraulic patterns, loadings, treatment efficiency, construction, operation and maintenance costs are discussed in depth...

  16. Disturbance metrics predict a wetland Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Mack, John; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas in the USA. Knowledge of the best predictors of VIBIs would enable management agencies to make better decisions regarding mitigation site selection and performance monitoring criteria. We use a novel statistical technique to develop predictive models for an established index of wetland vegetation integrity (Ohio VIBI), using as independent variables 20 indices and metrics of habitat quality, wetland disturbance, and buffer area land use from 149 wetlands in Ohio, USA. For emergent and forest wetlands, predictive models explained 61% and 54% of the variability, respectively, in Ohio VIBI scores. In both cases the most important predictor of Ohio VIBI score was a metric that assessed habitat alteration and development in the wetland. Of secondary importance as a predictor was a metric that assessed microtopography, interspersion, and quality of vegetation communities in the wetland. Metrics and indices assessing disturbance and land use of the buffer area were generally poor predictors of Ohio VIBI scores. Our results suggest that vegetation integrity of emergent and forest wetlands could be most directly enhanced by minimizing substrate and habitat disturbance within the wetland. Such efforts could include reducing or eliminating any practices that disturb the soil profile, such as nutrient enrichment from adjacent farm land, mowing, grazing, or cutting or removing woody plants.

  17. Remotely sensed MODIS wetland components for assessing the variability of methane emissions in Indian tropical/subtropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sangeeta; Katyal, Deeksha; Saluja, Ridhi; Chakraborty, Monojit; Garg, J. K.

    2018-02-01

    Temperature and area fluctuations in wetlands greatly influence its various physico-chemical characteristics, nutrients dynamic, rates of biomass generation and decomposition, floral and faunal composition which in turn influence methane (CH4) emission rates. In view of this, the present study attempts to up-scale point CH4 flux from the wetlands of Uttar Pradesh (UP) by modifying two-factor empirical process based CH4 emission model for tropical wetlands by incorporating MODIS derived wetland components viz. wetland areal extent and corresponding temperature factors (Ft). This study further focuses on the utility of remotely sensed temperature response of CH4 emission in terms of Ft. Ft is generated using MODIS land surface temperature products and provides an important semi-empirical input for up-scaling CH4 emissions in wetlands. Results reveal that annual mean Ft values for UP wetlands vary from 0.69 (2010-2011) to 0.71(2011-2012). The total estimated area-wise CH4 emissions from the wetlands of UP varies from 66.47 Gg yr-1with wetland areal extent and Ft value of 2564.04 km2 and 0.69 respectively in 2010-2011 to 88.39 Gg yr-1with wetland areal extent and Ft value of 2720.16 km2 and 0.71 respectively in 2011-2012. Temporal analysis of estimated CH4 emissions showed that in monsoon season estimated CH4 emissions are more sensitive to wetland areal extent while in summer season sensitivity of estimated CH4 emissions is chiefly controlled by augmented methanogenic activities at high wetland surface temperatures.

  18. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Laijian Wang; Lachun Wang; Pengcheng Yin; Haiyang Cui; Longwu Liang; Zhenbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model...

  19. Quantifying the Impact of geographically isolated wetlands on the downstream hydrology of a Canadian Prairie watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A.; Evenson, G. R.; Boluwade, A.; Jha, S. K.; Rasmussen, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrological processes are highly complex and strongly nonlinear and cannot be represented through simple means. Models are built to replicate these processes. However, models due to various sources of uncertainty including their structural capability often lead to inaccurate results. The aim of this study is to setup the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) for a watershed that is dominated by potholes in the Prairie region of Canada. The potholes not connected to the stream, also known as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), are dynamic in nature leading to a fill and spill situation due to varying surface runoff conditions. Significant land use changes have resulted in almost 70% of wetlands being lost and have posed threat of flooding to downstream areas. While some studies were devoted to identify the presence of potholes only few have explored the impacts of wetlands on the downstream hydrology. In this study, we follow Evenson et al., (2016) approach of modifying SWAT model. The modification enhances structural capability of SWAT while depicting the dynamics of wetlands at HRUs level. Redefining the formation of HRUs in such way effectively captures the spatial presence of potholes. We then routed the potholes' fill and spill hydrology to direct the flow to the potholes immediately downstream. The model was calibrated for 2005-2008 and verified over 2009-2011 at a daily time step. We tested our model with three land use change scenarios by varying the presence of potholes and evaluated its impact on the downstream hydrograph. We foresee a significant improvement in replicating stream flow using this novel approach. We believe that it will effectively improve the predictive power of SWAT for this highly complex sub basin (Upper Assiniboine catchment at Kamsack) located in Canadian Prairie.

  20. Process-Based Modeling of Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S.; Brovelli, A.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are widespread facilities for wastewater treatment. In subsurface flow wetlands, contaminated wastewater flows through a porous matrix, where oxidation and detoxification phenomena occur. Despite the large number of working CWs, system design and optimization are still mainly based upon empirical equations or simplified first-order kinetics. This results from an incomplete understanding of the system functioning, and may in turn hinder the performance and effectiveness of the treatment process. As a result, CWs are often considered not suitable to meet high water quality-standards, or to treat water contaminated with recalcitrant anthropogenic contaminants. To date, only a limited number of detailed numerical models have been developed and successfully applied to simulate constructed wetland behavior. Among these, one of the most complete and powerful is CW2D, which is based on Hydrus2D. The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive simulator tailored to model the functioning of horizontal flow constructed wetlands and in turn provide a reliable design and optimization tool. The model is based upon PHWAT, a general reactive transport code for saturated flow. PHWAT couples MODFLOW, MT3DMS and PHREEQC-2 using an operator-splitting approach. The use of PHREEQC to simulate reactions allows great flexibility in simulating biogeochemical processes. The biogeochemical reaction network is similar to that of CW2D, and is based on the Activated Sludge Model (ASM). Kinetic oxidation of carbon sources and nutrient transformations (nitrogen and phosphorous primarily) are modeled via Monod-type kinetic equations. Oxygen dissolution is accounted for via a first-order mass-transfer equation. While the ASM model only includes a limited number of kinetic equations, the new simulator permits incorporation of an unlimited number of both kinetic and equilibrium reactions. Changes in pH, redox potential and surface reactions can be easily incorporated

  1. Ecosystem function in oil sands wetlands : rates of detrital decomposition, moss growth, and microbial respiration in oilsands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykush, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Hornung, J. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted in which leaf litter breakdown and biomass accrual in 31 reference and oilsands affected (OSPM) wetlands in Northeastern Alberta was examined. The purpose was to determine how the decomposition of dead plant matter controls the primary productivity in wetlands. The data collected from this study will provide information about carbon flow and dynamics in oilsands affected wetlands. The study involved the investigation of wetlands that contrasted in water origin (OSPM vs. reference), sediment origin (OSPM vs. natural), sediment organic content and age. Mesh bags containing 5 g of dried Typha (cattail) or 20 g of damp moss were placed into 31 wetlands in order to monitor the rate at which biomass was lost to decomposition, as measured by changes in dry mass. After 1 year, moss growth was found to be greatest in younger wetlands with natural sediments. Cattail decomposition was found to be slower in wetlands containing OSPM water than that in reference wetlands. Preliminary analysis of respiration rates of biota associated with decomposing cattail indicate that the amount of oxygen consumed is not affected by wetland water source, sediment source, level of initial sediment organic content, or age.

  2. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Rainwater Basin Depressional Wetlands in Nebraska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stutheit, Randy

    2004-01-01

    .... However, a variety of other potential uses have been identified, including the determination of minimal effects under the Food Security Act, design of wetland restoration projects, and management...

  3. Pre-Construction Biogeochemical Analysis of Mercury in Wetlands Bordering the Hamilton Army Airfield (HAAF) Wetlands Restoration Site. Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, Elly P; Fredrickson, Herbert L; Hintelmann, Holger; Clarisse, Olivier; Dimock, Brian; Lutz, Charles H; Lotufo, Gui R; Millward, Rod N; Bednar, Anthony J; Furey, John S

    2007-01-01

    ...) is working with the San Francisco Basin Regional Water Board, California State Coastal Conservancy, and San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission to reconstruct wetlands at the former...

  4. Restoration of Bhoj Wetlands At Bhopal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S. S.; Kulshrestha, M.; Wetland Project, Bhoj

    Bhoj Wetlands comprise the two lakes at Bhopal, India. These wetlands are listed amongst the 21 lakes recognized by Ministry of Environment and Forest, India and are under consideration for Ramsar lake status. The twin lakes have a total water- spread area of 32.29 sq. kms and catchment area of 370.6 sq. kms and both lakes support a rich and diverse range of flora and fauna. Currently with the help of 7055-m Yen soft loan from Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), a comprehen- sive project called the Bhoj Wetland Project has been launched for Eco-conservation management of twin lakes and this is one of the most reputed projects of its kind being undertaken in India. This paper presents details of the various works being undertaken for restoration of these wetlands at Bhopal. The Bhoj Wetlands are located at Bhopal, a city founded in 11th century AD by King Bhoj and which became known for the worst industrial Gas tragedy in 1984 when thousands lost their lives. The city is still recovering and the Bhoj Wetland Project is playing a very crucial role in improving the overall environmental status of the City. These wetlands are at present facing acute en- vironmental degradation due to pollution from a number of sources such as inflow of untreated sewage and solid waste, silt erosion and inflow from catchment, commercial activities like washing of clothes and cleaning of vehicles etc., inflow of agricultural residues and pesticides, and encroachment by builders all of which are fast eroding the rich eco-culture, flora fauna in and around the wetlands. The Bhoj Wetland Project is being implemented since the year 1995 and is scheduled to end in March 2002. The project works are being undertaken under the overall aegis of Ministry of Housing Environment, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh (M.P.) State, India. All the detailed project reports (DPRs) and preliminary ground work was undertaken by the in-house staff of Bhoj Wetland project, resulting in huge amounts of

  5. Assessment of nutrient retention by Natete wetland Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyiginya, V.; Kansiime, F.; Kimwaga, R.; Mashauri, D. A.

    Natete wetland which is located in a suburb of Kampala city in Uganda is dominated by C yperus papyrus and covers an area of approximately 1 km 2. The wetland receives wastewater and runoff from Natete town which do not have a wastewater treatment facility. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient retention of Natete wetland and specifically to: determine the wastewater flow patterns in the wetland; estimate the nutrient loads into and out of the wetland; determine the nutrient retention by soil, plants and water column in the wetland; and assess the above and belowground biomass density of the dominant vegetation. Soil, water and plant samples were taken at 50 m intervals along two transects cut through the wetland; soil and water samples were taken at 10 cm just below the surface. Physico-chemical parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity and temperature were measured in situ. Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate and total phosphorus. Electrical conductivity ranged between 113 μS/cm and 530 μS/cm and the wastewater flow was concentrated on the eastern side of the wetland. pH varied between 6 and 7, temperature ranged from 19 °C to 24 °C. NH 4-N, NO 3-N, and TN concentrations were retained by 21%, 98%, and 35% respectively. Phosphorus concentration was higher at the outlet of the wetland possibly due to release from sediments and leaching. Nutrient loads were higher at the inlet (12,614 ± 394 kgN/day and 778 ± 159 kgP/day) than the outlet (2368 ± 425 kgN/day and 216 ± 56 kgP/day) indicating retention by the wetland. Plants stored most nutrients compared to soil and water. The belowground biomass of papyrus vegetation in the wetland was higher (1288.4 ± 8.3 gDW/m 2) than the aboveground biomass (1019.7 ± 13.8 gDW/m 2). Plant uptake is one of the important routes of nutrient retention in Natete wetland. It is recommended that harvesting papyrus can be an

  6. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.

    1991-11-01

    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.

  7. Effects of landscape composition and wetland fragmentation on frog and toad abundance and species richness in Iowa and Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Olsen, D.A.; Mossman, M.J.; Hemesath, L.M.; Lannoo, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Management of amphibian populations to reverse recent declines will require defining high-quality habitat for individual species or groups of species, followed by efforts to retain or restore these habitats on the landscape. We examined landscape-level habitat relationships for frogs and toads by measuring associations between relative abundance and species richness based on survey data derived from anuran calls and features of land-cover maps for Iowa and Wisconsin. The most consistent result across all anuran guilds was a negative association with the presence of urban land. Upland and wetland forests and emergent wetlands tended to be positively associated with anurans. Landscape metrics that represent edges and patch diversity also had generally positive associations, indicating that anurans benefit from a complex of habitats that include wetlands. In Iowa the most significant associations with relative abundance were the length of the edge between wetland and forest (positive) and the presence of urban land (negative). In Wisconsin the two most significant associations with relative abundance were forest area and agricultural area (both positive). Anurans had positive associations with agriculture in Wisconsin but not in Iowa. Remnant forest patches in agricultural landscapes may be providing refuges for some anuran species. Differences in anuran associations with deep water and permanent wetlands between the two states suggest opportunities for management action. Large-scale maps can contribute to predictive models of amphibian habitat use, but water quality and vegetation information collected from individual wetlands will likely be needed to strengthen those predictions. Landscape habitat analyses provide a framework for future experimental and intensive research on specific factors affecting the health of anurans.

  8. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between Rice Landsat and Rice NLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  9. The landscape pattern characteristics of coastal wetlands in Jiaozhou Bay under the impact of human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongqi; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Xuliang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we interpreted coastal wetland types from an ASTER satellite image in 2002, and then compared the results with the land-use status of coastal wetlands in 1952 to determine the wetland loss and degradation around Jiaozhou Bay. Seven types of wetland landscape were classified, namely: shallow open water, inter-tidal flats, estuarine water, brackish marshes, salt ponds, fishery ponds and ports. Several landscape pattern indices were analysed: the results indicate that the coastal wetlands have been seriously degraded. More and more natural wetlands have been transformed into artificial wetlands, which covered about 33.7% of the total wetlands in 2002. In addition, we used a defined model to assess the impacts of human activities on coastal wetlands. The results obtained show that the coastal wetlands of Jiaozhou Bay have suffered severe human disturbance. Effective coastal management and control is therefore needed to solve the issues of the coastal wetland loss and degradation existing in this area.

  10. Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALVERSON, NANCY

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to use existing documentation to review the effectiveness of subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and to demonstrate the viability of treating effluent from Savannah River Site outfalls H-02 and H-04 with a subsurface flow constructed wetland to lower copper, lead and zinc concentrations to within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits. Constructed treatment wetlands are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to use the natural functions of wetlands for wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands have significantly lower total lifetime costs and often lower capital costs than conventional treatment systems. The two main types of constructed wetlands are surface flow and subsurface flow. In surface flow constructed wetlands, water flows above ground. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to keep the water level below the top of the rock or gravel media, thus minimizing human and ecological exposure. Subsurface flow wetlands demonstrate higher rates of contaminant removal per unit of land than surface flow (free water surface) wetlands, therefore subsurface flow wetlands can be smaller while achieving the same level of contaminant removal. Wetlands remove metals using a variety of processes including filtration of solids, sorption onto organic matter, oxidation and hydrolysis, formation of carbonates, formation of insoluble sulfides, binding to iron and manganese oxides, reduction to immobile forms by bacterial activity, and uptake by plants and bacteria. Metal removal rates in both subsurface flow and surface flow wetlands can be high, but can vary greatly depending upon the influent concentrations and the mass loading rate. Removal rates of greater than 90 per cent for copper, lead and zinc have been demonstrated in operating surface flow and subsurface flow wetlands. The constituents that exceed NPDES limits at outfalls H-02 a nd H

  11. Analysis of wetland change in the Songhua River Basin from 1995 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L H; Jiang, W G; Liu, Y H; Luo, Z L; He, X H

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands in the Songhua River Basin in both 1995 and 2008 were mapped from land use/land cover maps generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. These maps were then divided into two categories, i.e. artificial wetland and natural wetland. From 1995 to 2008, the total area of wetland in the Songhua River Basin increased from 93 072.3 km 2 to 99 179.6 km 2 a net increase of 6107.3 km 2 . The area of natural wetland decreased by 4043.7 km 2 while the area of artificial wetland increased by 10 166.2 km 2 . Swamp wetland and paddy field wetland became the dominant wetlands and the swamp wetland in the east of the Heilong River system and the north of the Wusuli River system disappeared, being transformed into paddy field wetland. The diversity of wetland landscape is worsening and the distribution of wetland landscape is becoming more unbalanced; the fragmentation of natural wetland has intensified whereas the patch connectivity of artificial wetland has increased. Changes in natural wetlands were primarily caused by climate and socio-economic changes, while changes in artificial wetland were mainly caused by the growth of population and gross domestic product

  12. A Constructed Freshwater Wetland Shows Signs of Declining Net Ecosystem Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F. E.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Windham-Myers, L.; Byrd, K. B.; Drexler, J. Z.; Fujii, R.

    2014-12-01

    The USGS constructed a freshwater-wetland complex on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta), California, USA, in 1997 and maintained it until 2012 to investigate strategies for biomass accretion and reduction of oxidative soil loss. We studied an area of the wetland complex covered mainly by dense patches of hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattails (Typha spp.), with smaller areas of floating and submerged vegetation, that was maintained at an average depth of 55 cm. Using eddy covariance measurements of carbon and energy fluxes, we found that the combination of water management and the region's Mediterranean climate created conditions where peak growing season daily means of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) reached -45 gCO2 m-2 d-1 and averaged around -30 gCO2 m-2 d-1 between 2002 through 2004. However, when measurements resumed in 2010, NEE rates were a fraction of the rates previously measured, approximately -6 gCO2 m-2 d-1. Interestingly, NEE rates in 2011 doubled compared to 2010 (-13 gCO2 m-2 d-1). Methane fluxes, collected in 2010 to assess a complete atmospheric carbon budget, were positive throughout the year, with daily mean flux values ranging from 50 to 300 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. As a result, methane flux reduced NEE values by approximately one-third, and when the global warming potential was considered, the wetland became a net global warming potential source. We found that carbon cycling in a constructed wetland is complex and can change over annual and decadal timescales. We investigated possible reasons for differences between flux measurements from 2002 to 2004 and those from 2010 and 2011: (1) changes in methodology, (2) differences in weather conditions, (3) differences in gross primary productivity relative to respiration rates, and (4) the amount of living plant tissue relative to brown accumulations of senesced plant litter. We hypothesize that large mats of senesced material within the flux footprint could have

  13. Human wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions through participatory approach in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are an important source of natural resources upon which rural economies depend. They have increasingly been valuable for their goods and services, and the intrinsic ecological value they provide to local populations, as well as people living outside the periphery of the wetlands. Stakeholders' participation is essential to the protection and preservation of wetlands because it plays a very important role economically as well as ecologically in the wetland system. The objective of this study was to determine whether gender, educational status, mouzas (which are constituents of a block according to the land reform of the West Bengal Government in India, and wetland functions have any influence on the annual income of the local community. Considering a floodplain wetland in rural India, the focus was extended to recognize the pattern of wetland functions according to the nature of people's involvement through cluster analysis of the male and female populations. Using the statistical software R-2.8.1, an ANOVA (analysis of variance table was constructed. Since the p value (significance level was lower than 0.05 for each case, it can be concluded that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have a significant influence on annual income. However, S-PLUS-2000 was applied to obtain a complete scenario of the pattern of wetland functions, in terms of involvement of males and females, through cluster analysis. The main conclusion is that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have significant impacts on annual income, while the pattern of occupation of the local community based on wetland functions is completely different for the male and female populations.

  14. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7), USA. Our assessment...

  15. SYNOPTIC ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND FUNCTION: A PLANNING TOOL FOR PROTECTION OF WETLAND SPECIES BIODIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a synoptic assessment intended to maximize the benefits to wetland species biodiversity gained through Clean Water Act regulatory efforts within 225 sub-basins in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas (U.S. EPA, Region 7) USA. Our assessment provides a method for identif...

  16. Classifying and mapping wetlands and peat resources using digital cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Emery, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Digital cartography allows the portrayal of spatial associations among diverse data types and is ideally suited for land use and resource analysis. We have developed methodology that uses digital cartography for the classification of wetlands and their associated peat resources and applied it to a 1:24 000 scale map area in New Hampshire. Classifying and mapping wetlands involves integrating the spatial distribution of wetlands types with depth variations in associated peat quality and character. A hierarchically structured classification that integrates the spatial distribution of variations in (1) vegetation, (2) soil type, (3) hydrology, (4) geologic aspects, and (5) peat characteristics has been developed and can be used to build digital cartographic files for resource and land use analysis. The first three parameters are the bases used by the National Wetlands Inventory to classify wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. The fourth parameter, geological aspects, includes slope, relief, depth of wetland (from surface to underlying rock or substrate), wetland stratigraphy, and the type and structure of solid and unconsolidated rock surrounding and underlying the wetland. The fifth parameter, peat characteristics, includes the subsurface variation in ash, acidity, moisture, heating value (Btu), sulfur content, and other chemical properties as shown in specimens obtained from core holes. These parameters can be shown as a series of map data overlays with tables that can be integrated for resource or land use analysis.

  17. The ecological value of constructed wetlands for treating urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, S; Young, T; Cuevas-Arellano-, H; Kumar, R; Ambrose, R F; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    The Sweetwater Authority's urban runoff diversion system (URDS) comprises constructed wetlands on a hillside between the town of Spring Valley and the Sweetwater Reservoir, California, USA. The URDS were designed to divert dry-weather and first-flush urban runoff flows from the Sweetwater reservoir. However, these constructed wetlands have developed into ecologically valuable habitat. This paper evaluates the following ecological questions related to the URDS: (1) the natural development of the species present and their growth pattern; (2) the biodiversity and pollutant stress on the plants and invertebrates; and (3) the question of habitat provided for endangered species. The URDS wetlands are comprised primarily of rush (Scirpus spp.) and cattails (Typha spp.). This vegetative cover ranged from 39-78% of the area of the individual wetland ponds. Current analyses of plant tissues and wetland sediment indicates the importance of sediment sorption for metals and plant uptake of nutrients. Analyses of URDS water following runoff events show the URDS wetlands do reduce the amount of nutrients and metals in the water column. Invertebrate surveys of the wetland ponds revealed lower habitat quality and environmental stress compared to unpolluted natural habitat. The value of the wetlands as wildlife habitat is constrained by low plant biodiversity and pollution stress from the runoff. Since the primary Sweetwater Authority goal is to maintain good water quality for drinking, any secondary utilization of URDS habitat by species (endangered or otherwise) is deemed an added benefit.

  18. Remote sensing of wetlands at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) occupies about 300 sq mi along a 10-mile stretch of the Savannah River. Large areas of wetlands cover the site, especially along tributary stream floodplains and the Savannah River. Some of these areas have been altered by cooling water discharges from nuclear production reactors onsite. To assess the effects of current and future plant operations on SRP and regional wetlands, an accurate quantitative survey was needed. Several studies were initiated to provide wetland acreage and distribution information: regional wetland inventories were provided from an analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) satellite data. Wetlands were mapped throughout the entire Savannah River watershed and in the Savannah River floodplain. SRP wetlands were identified using a combination of LANDSAT MSS and Thematic Mapper satellite data and aerial photography. Wetlands in the SRP Savannah River swamp and thermally affected areas were mapped using high resolution MSS data collected from a low-flying aircraft. Vegetation communities in areas receiving cooling water discharges were then compared to surface temperatures measured from the airborne scanner at the same time to evaluate plant temperature tolerance. Historic changes to SRP wetlands from cooling water discharges were tabulated using aerial photography

  19. Healthy Wetlands: Valuing Both the Wet and the Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kim; Panizzon, Debra

    2009-01-01

    February 2nd of each year is World Wetlands Day. It commemorates the signing of the Ramsar Convention in Iran in 1971 and the crucial role wetlands play in terms of ecological health. Not only do they provide essential habitats for many aquatic species of organisms but they are used by many terrestrial animals as temporary havens for food, or…

  20. Assessing the value of wetlands to waterbirds: exploring a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, species richness, species diversity, total count, biomass, energy consumption and the Ramsar '1% threshold' have been used to assess the importance of wetlands for waterbirds. Designation of wetlands of international importance (Ramsar sites) based on waterbirds has focused on those species meeting the ...

  1. ('fingerponds\\') in the wetlands of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential effect on ecosystem integrity of the use of natural wetlands for seasonal wetland fishponds ('fingerponds\\'), integrated with vegetable production for livelihood demands, was evaluated using experimental sites at Lake Victoria, Kenya. Soluble reactive phosphorous and total phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and ...

  2. Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands for mitigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of using constructed wetlands (CWs) for the mitigation of pesticide runoff has been studied in the last decade. However, a lack of related data was verified when subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) are considered for this purpose. In the present work, SSF CWs were submitted to continuous ...

  3. Prospects for extirpating small populations of the wetland invader ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad-leaved paper bark tree Melaleuca quinquenervia is a major invader in the wetlands of the Florida Everglades, USA. In South Africa, this introduced species is known from eight locality records and is naturalising at two of these sites. The potential for its spread to other wetlands and estuaries is of concern.

  4. Hydraulic loading, stability and water quality of Nakivubo wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nakivubo wetland, which has performed tertiary water treatment for Kampala city for the past 40 years, is ecologically stressed by agricultural and infrastructural developments. Field studies were carried out to assess the hydraulic loading, pollution profile, stability and water quality of this wetland. The upper and lower ...

  5. The Impacts of wetland restoration on Fish Productivity in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, O. A.; Okunade, K. M.; Agboola, D. M.; Adesokan, Z. A.

    2016-02-01

    Wetland is one of the resources of high value which has been exposed to indiscriminate use. It is an important ecosystem to fish and loss or degradation of wetland will have a direct consequence on sustainable fisheries. This paper reviewed the term "wetland", its functions and values, importance to fish production in Nigeria and threats to its sustainability. The term "wetland" has been defined by various researchers especially based on their profession and their needs but up till today there is no single definition accepted by all users. In Nigeria, the most commonly adopted is that of RAMSAR convention. Wetland has both marketed and non-marketed functions and values. They provide essential link in the life cycle of 75 percent of the fish and shell fish commercially harvested in the world and are vital to fish health. Despite the importance, there have been exceptional losses of wetlands. Lagos state alone has witnessed more than 96 percent loss. Major threats to wetlands are: agriculture, development, pollution and climate change. Therefore proper management of the wetland ecosystem is important in other to ensure continuous fish production.

  6. Modeling Vertical Flow Treatment Wetland Hydraulics to Optimize Treatment Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    be forced to flow in a 90 serpentine manner back and forth as it moves upward through the wetland (think waiting in line at Disneyland ). This...Flow Treatment Wetland Hydraulics to Optimize Treatment Efficiency 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  7. Aquatic herbivores facilitate the emission of methane from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, B.J.J.; Bakker, E.S.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are significant sources of atmospheric methane. Methane produced by microbes enters roots and escapes to the atmosphere through the shoots of emergent wetland plants. Herbivorous birds graze on helophytes, but their effect on methane emission remains unknown. We hypothesized that grazing on

  8. Mine-drainage treatment wetland as habitat for herptofaunal wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacki, Michael J.; Hummer, Joseph W.; Webster, Harold J.

    1992-07-01

    Land reclamation techniques that incorporate habitat features for herptofaunal wildlife have received little attention. We assessed the suitability of a wetland, constructed for the treatment of mine-water drainage, for supporting herptofaunal wildlife from 1988 through 1990 using diurnal and nocturnal surveys. Natural wetlands within the surrounding watershed were also monitored for comparison. The treatment wetland supported the greatest abundance and species richness of herptofauna among the sites surveyed. Abundance was a function of the frog density, particularly green frogs ( Rana clamitans) and pickerel frogs ( R. palustris), while species richness was due to the number of snake species found. The rich mix of snake species present at the treatment wetland was believed due to a combination of an abundant frog prey base and an amply supply of den sites in rock debris left behind from earlier surface-mining activities. Nocturnal surveys of breeding male frogs demonstrated highest breeding activity at the treatment wetland, particularly for spring peepers ( Hyla crucifer). Whole-body assays of green frog and bullfrog ( R. catesbeiana) tissues showed no differences among sites in uptake of iron, aluminum, and zinc; managanese levels in samples from the treatment wetland were significantly lower than those from natural wetlands. These results suggest that wetlands established for water quality improvement can provide habitat for reptiles and amphibians, with the species composition dependent on the construction design, the proximity to source populations, and the degree of acidity and heavy-metal concentrations in drainage waters.

  9. Gas Transport and Exchange through Wetland Plant Aerenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Aerenchyma, the large airspaces in aquatic plants, is a rapid gas transport pathway between atmosphere and soil in wetlands. Oxygen transport aerates belowground tissue and oxidizes rhizosphere soil, an important process in wetland biogeochemistry. Most plant O2 transport occurs by diffusion...

  10. Managing Wetlands for Improved Food Security in Uganda | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, little is known about the contribution of wetland resources to household food security or the environmental impact of using wetlands for agriculture or other purposes. Researchers will ... IDRC is pleased to announce the results of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  11. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Wetland Conservation Effects Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Lang; Greg McCarty; Mark Walbridge; Patrick Hunt; Tom Ducey; Clinton Church; Jarrod Miller; Laurel Kluber; Ali Sadeghi; Martin Rabenhorst; Amir Sharifi; In-Young Yeo; Andrew Baldwin; Margaret Palmer; Tom Fisher; Dan Fenstermaher; Sanchul Lee; Owen McDonough; Metthea Yepsen; Liza McFarland; Anne Gustafson; Rebecca Fox; Chris Palardy; William Effland; Mari-Vaughn Johnson; Judy Denver; Scott Ator; Joseph Mitchell; Dennis Whigham

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands impart many important ecosystem services, including maintenance of water quality, regulation of the climate and hydrological flows, and enhancement of biodiversity through the provision of food and habitat. The conversion of natural lands to agriculture has led to broad scale historic wetland loss, but current US Department of Agriculture conservation programs...

  12. Conservation and restoration of forested wetlands: new techniques and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Johnston; Steve Hartley; Antonio Martucci

    2000-01-01

    A partnership of state and federal agencies and private organizations is developing advanced spatial analysis techniques applied for conservation and restoration of forested wetlands. The project goal is to develop an application to assist decisionmakers in defining the eligibility of land sites for entry in the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) of the U.S. Department of...

  13. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  14. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theroux, Susanna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Hartman, Wyatt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; He, Shaomei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tringe, Susannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  15. Land Use in Korean Tidal Wetlands: Impacts and Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R.; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses.

  16. Methane emissions from different coastal wetlands in New England, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Tang, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Gonneea, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    According to the IPCC, methane have 25 times warming effect than CO2, and natural wetlands contribute 20-39 % to the global emission of methane. Although most of these methane was from inland wetlands, there was still large uncertain in the methane emissions in coastal wetlands. In the past three years, we have investigated methane emissions in coastal wetlands in MA, USA. Contrary to previous assumptions, we have observed relative larger methane flux in some salt marshes than freshwater wetlands. We further detect the methane source, and found that plant activities played an important role in methane flux, for example, the growth of S. aterniflora, the dominate plants in salt marsh, could enhance methane emission, while in an fresh water wetland that was dominated by cattail, plant activity oxided methane and reduced total flux. Phragmite, an invasive plant at brackish marsh, have the highest methane flux among all coastal wetland investigated. This study indicated that coastal wetland could still emit relatively high amount of methane even under high water salinity condiations, and plant activity played an important role in methane flux, and this role was highly species-specific.

  17. Contribution of wetland agriculture to farmers' livelihood in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabahungu, N.L.; Visser, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes factors that contribute to the livelihood of smallholder farmers living in the vicinity of the Cyabayaga and Rugeramigozi wetlands. Three tools were used: 1) focus group discussion 2) formal surveys and 3) Monitoring for Quality Improvement (MONQI). Farming systems in wetlands

  18. Determining wetland spatial extent and seasonal variations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, done in the Witbank Dam Catchment in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, explores a remote-sensing technique to delineate wetland extent and assesses the seasonal variations of the inundated area. The objective was to monitor the spatio-temporal changes of wetlands over time through remote sensing ...

  19. Planktonic Biodiversity of Bhoj Wetland, Bhopal, India | Neelam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, which is the product of nearly 3.5 billion years of evolution. This article deals with planktonic distribution of Bhoj Wetland, Bhopal, India . Bhoj Wetland comprises of two lakes i.e. Upper and Lower lakes of Bhopal. The Upper lake is ...

  20. Wetland restoration in Central Europe : aims and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfadenhauer, Joerg; Grootjans, Ab

    . Wetlands have always been of particular significance for mankind. While originally attractive as hunting grounds, they were later cultivated and modified from sinks into sources. Today, great efforts are being made to restore disturbed or destroyed wetland areas. Different models and goals for

  1. Quantifying spatial variability of depth of peat burn in wetlands in relation to antecedent characteristics using field data, multi-temporal and multi-spectral LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Flade, L.; Virk, R.; Montgomery, J. S.; Hopkinson, C.; Thompson, D. K.; Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape changes in the hydrological characteristics of wetlands in some parts of the Boreal region of Canada are occurring as a result of climate-induced feedbacks and anthropogenic disturbance. Wetlands are largely resilient to wildfire, however, natural, climatic and anthropogenic disturbances can change surface water regimes and predispose wetlands to greater depth of peat burn. Over broad areas, peat loss contributes to significant pollution emissions, which can affect community health. In this study, we a) quantify depth of peat burn and relationships to antecedent conditions (species type, topography, surficial geology) within three classified wetlands found in the Boreal Plains ecoregion of western Canada; and b) examine the impacts of wildfire on post-fire ground surface energy balance to determine how peat loss might affect local hydro-climatology and surface water feedbacks. High-resolution optical imagery, pre- and post-burn multi-spectral Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), airborne thermal infrared imagery, and field validation data products are integrated to identify multiple complex interactions within the study wetlands. LiDAR-derived depth of peat burn is within 1 cm (average) compared with measured (RMSE = 9 cm over the control surface), demonstrating the utility of LiDAR with high point return density. Depth of burn also correlates strongly with variations in Normalised Burn Ratio (NBR) determined for ground surfaces only. Antecedent conditions including topographic position, soil moisture, soil type and wetland species also have complex interactions with depth of peat loss within wetlands observed in other studies. However, while field measurements are important for validation and understanding eco-hydrological processes, results from remote sensing are spatially continuous. Temporal LiDAR data illustrate the full range of variability in depth of burn and wetland characteristics following fire. Finally, measurements of instantaneous surface

  2. Evaluating the significance of wetland restoration scenarios on phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Fariborz; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Adhikari, Umesh; Elahi, Behin; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Martinez-Martinez, Edwin; Calappi, Timothy J; Rohn, Bridget G

    2017-05-01

    Freshwater resources are vital for human and natural systems. However, anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural practices, have led to the degradation of the quality of these limited resources through pollutant loading. Agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), such as wetlands, are recommended as a valuable solution for pollutant removal. However, evaluation of their long-term impacts is difficult and requires modeling since performing in-situ monitoring is expensive and not feasible at the watershed scale. In this study, the impact of natural wetland implementation on total phosphorus reduction was evaluated both at the subwatershed and watershed levels. The study area is the Saginaw River Watershed, which is largest watershed in Michigan. The phosphorus reduction performances of four different wetland sizes (2, 4, 6, and 8 ha) were evaluated within this study area by implementing one wetland at a time in areas identified to have the highest potential for wetland restoration. The subwatershed level phosphorus loads were obtained from a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. These loads were then incorporated into a wetland model (System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis IntegratioN-SUSTAIN) to evaluate phosphorus reduction at the subwatershed level and then the SWAT model was again used to route phosphorus transport to the watershed outlet. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the spatial impact of wetland size and placement on phosphorus reduction. Overall, the performance of 2 ha wetlands in total phosphorus reduction was significantly lower than the larger sizes at both the subwatershed and watershed levels. Regarding wetland implementation sites, wetlands located in headwaters and downstream had significantly higher phosphorus reduction than the ones located in the middle of the watershed. More specifically, wetlands implemented at distances ranging from 200 to 250 km and 50-100 km from the outlet had the

  3. Transport and transformation of nitrate in a riparian wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Jes; Prinds, Christian; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    Even though riparian wetlands have been intensively studied during the past 30 years these areas still function as a “black box” with regards to removal of nitrogen input from surrounding areas. To comply with regulations of the European Water Framework Directive, Danish agriculture is to reduce....... Depending on the saturation state of the wetland soils and the amount of water entering during precipitation events, a part of the water infiltrates into the wetland sediments and travels towards the stream. Some of the infiltrated water may be caught by drains within the wetland soils and transported...... directly to the stream. The remaining water can be either evapotranspired or transported directly to the stream via overland flow. Preliminary results show an efficient denitrification of nitrate infiltrating into the studied wetland soils. The nitrogen removal efficiency at different drain outlets seems...

  4. Aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities of Prairie-Pothole wetlands and lakes under a changed climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Mushet, David M.; Renton, David A.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities respond to changes in climate is important for biodiversity conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region and other wetland-rich landscapes. We sampled macroinvertebrate communities of 162 wetlands and lakes previously sampled from 1966 to 1976, a much drier period compared to our 2012–2013 sampling timeframe. To identify possible influences of a changed climate and predation pressures on macroinvertebrates, we compared two predictors of aquatic-macroinvertebrate communities: ponded-water dissolved-ion concentration and vertebrate-predator presence/abundance. Further, we make inferences of how macroinvertebrate communities were structured during the drier period when the range of dissolved-ion concentrations was much greater and fish occurrence in aquatic habitats was rare. We found that aquatic-macroinvertebrate community structure was influenced by dissolved-ion concentrations through a complex combination of direct and indirect relationships. Ion concentrations also influenced predator occurrence and abundance, which indirectly affected macroinvertebrate communities. It is important to consider both abiotic and biotic gradients when predicting how invertebrate communities will respond to climate change. Generally, in the wetlands and lakes we studied, freshening of ponded water resulted in more homogenous communities than occurred during a much drier period when salinity range among sites was greater.

  5. Co-occurrence of Photochemical and Microbiological Transformation Processes in Open-Water Unit Process Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Carsten; Wenk, Jannis; Jasper, Justin T; Ternes, Thomas A; Sedlak, David L

    2015-12-15

    The fate of anthropogenic trace organic contaminants in surface waters can be complex due to the occurrence of multiple parallel and consecutive transformation processes. In this study, the removal of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, acyclovir, emtricitabine, lamivudine and zidovudine) via both bio- and phototransformation processes, was investigated in laboratory microcosm experiments simulating an open-water unit process wetland receiving municipal wastewater effluent. Phototransformation was the main removal mechanism for abacavir, zidovudine, and emtricitabine, with half-lives (t1/2,photo) in wetland water of 1.6, 7.6, and 25 h, respectively. In contrast, removal of acyclovir and lamivudine was mainly attributable to slower microbial processes (t1/2,bio = 74 and 120 h, respectively). Identification of transformation products revealed that bio- and phototransformation reactions took place at different moieties. For abacavir and zidovudine, rapid transformation was attributable to high reactivity of the cyclopropylamine and azido moieties, respectively. Despite substantial differences in kinetics of different antiviral drugs, biotransformation reactions mainly involved oxidation of hydroxyl groups to the corresponding carboxylic acids. Phototransformation rates of parent antiviral drugs and their biotransformation products were similar, indicating that prior exposure to microorganisms (e.g., in a wastewater treatment plant or a vegetated wetland) would not affect the rate of transformation of the part of the molecule susceptible to phototransformation. However, phototransformation strongly affected the rates of biotransformation of the hydroxyl groups, which in some cases resulted in greater persistence of phototransformation products.

  6. [Dynamic changes of landscape pattern and hemeroby in Ximen Island wetland, Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cui; Xie, Xue-Fen; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Guo-Jun; Bian, Hua-Jing; Xu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Abstract: The hemeroby type classification system of Ximen Island wetland of Zhejiang Province was established based on the multiple datasets: SOPT-5 image data with a spatial resolution of 5 m in 2007 and 2010, its wetland land cover and land use status, the National Land Use Classification (on trail), and sea area use classification of marine industry standards as well as remote sensing data features. Meanwhile, the dynamic relationship between the landscape pattern and the degree of hemeroby in Ximen Island was investigated with the landscape indices and hemeroby index (HI) derived from the landscape pattern index and GIS spatial analysis. The results showed that the wetland landscape spatial heterogeneity, fragmentation and dominance index dropped, and the landscape shape index complexity was low. The human disturbance center developed from a dispersion type to a concentration type. The landscape type of the disturbance center was bare land and settlement. The HI rose up from the sea to the land. Settlement, wharf and traffic land had the highest HI. The HI of the mudflat cultivation, mudflats and raft-cultivation dramatically changed. Marine-terrestrial interlaced zone showed a low total HI with unstable characteristics. The number of patches declined of undisturbed, partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes. Mean patch areas of partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes increased, and that of the undisturbed decreased. Mean shape index of the undisturbed landscape decreased, while the partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes showed a trend of shape complication.

  7. EVALUATION OF WATER RETENTION CAPABILITY IN WETLANDS AT SMALL FOREST CATCHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researches carried out in the middle part of Pizza Zielonka forest complex. The aim was the evaluation of retention changes at wetlands and mid-forest ponds. The object of the study was the catchment of the Trojanka watercourse, considering from the origin to the cross-section of Zielonka Lake. The catchment is located in in the central part of the Wielkopolska region, approximatelly 20 km on the North-East of Poznań. The area of this forestall catchment is about 223 ha. In the paper an analysis of the results from three hydrological years was presented. The results of the years 1987 (wet year, 2003 (dry year and 2009 (medium year were analysed against meteorological conditions. Retention capacity in each wetlands, as well as the possibility of water retention in the Trojanka watercourse was calculated. The researches confirmed significant meteorological conditions influence the amount of retentioned water. The calculated capacity of retentioned water was 15 852 m3 considering the total area of wetland and swamp (8,58 ha and precipitation sum of 555 mm. 18% increase of water capacity was observed in wet year (1987 In this year the sum of precipitation was 100 mm higher than multiyear average sum. Meanwhile 62% decrease of water capacity was observed in dry year (2003, when the precipitation sum was 208 mm lower than multiyear average one.

  8. Oligotrophic wetland sediments susceptible to shifts in microbiomes and mercury cycling with dissolved organic matter addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. Graham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances have allowed for greater investigation into microbial regulation of mercury toxicity in the environment. In wetlands in particular, dissolved organic matter (DOM may influence methylmercury (MeHg production both through chemical interactions and through substrate effects on microbiomes. We conducted microcosm experiments in two disparate wetland environments (oligotrophic unvegetated and high-C vegetated sediments to examine the impacts of plant leachate and inorganic mercury loadings (20 mg/L HgCl2 on microbiomes and MeHg production in the St. Louis River Estuary. Our research reveals the greater relative capacity for mercury methylation in vegetated over unvegetated sediments. Further, our work shows how mercury cycling in oligotrophic unvegetated sediments may be susceptible to DOM inputs in the St. Louis River Estuary: unvegetated microcosms receiving leachate produced substantially more MeHg than unamended microcosms. We also demonstrate (1 changes in microbiome structure towards Clostridia, (2 metagenomic shifts toward fermentation, and (3 degradation of complex DOM; all of which coincide with elevated net MeHg production in unvegetated microcosms receiving leachate. Together, our work shows the influence of wetland vegetation in controlling MeHg production in the Great Lakes region and provides evidence that this may be due to both enhanced microbial activity as well as differences in microbiome composition.

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to identify value for money solutions to government policies or projects. Environmental policy appraisal is typically complicated by the fact that thre are a number of feasible solutions to a decision problem - each yielding a different mix of environ...... is to illustrate the application of CBA within the field of river restoration. The Skjern River restoration project in Denmark is used as an empirical example of how these methods can be applied in the wetland restoration context....

  10. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

  11. Plant biodiversity changes in Carboniferous tropical wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleal, C. J.; Uhl, D.; Cascales-Miñana, B.

    2012-01-01

    and Sydney coal basins. In all cases, species richness expansion followed an essentially logistic curve typical of that associated with ecologically closed habitats, with niche saturation being achieved in about three million years. The resulting steady-state (“climax”) coal swamp vegetation had a local......Using a combination of species richness, polycohort and constrained cluster analyses, the plant biodiversity of Pennsylvanian (late Carboniferous) tropical wetlands (“coal swamps”) has been investigated in five areas in Western Europe and eastern North America: South Wales, Pennines, Ruhr, Saarland...

  12. The geomorphology of wetlands in drylands: Resilience, nonresilience, or …?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Over the last decade, much attention has focused on wetland resilience to disturbances such as extreme weather events, longer climate change, and human activities. In geomorphology and cognate disciplines, resilience is defined in various ways and has physical and socioeconomic dimensions but commonly is taken to mean the ability of a system to (A) withstand disturbance, (B) recover from disturbance, or (C) adapt and evolve in response to disturbance to a more desirable (e.g., stable) configuration. Most studies of wetland resilience have tended to focus on the more-or-less permanently saturated humid region wetlands, but whether the findings can be readily transferred to wetlands in drylands remains unclear. Given the natural climatic variability and overall strong moisture deficit characteristic of drylands, are such wetlands likely to be more resilient or less resilient? Focusing on wetlands in the South African drylands, this paper uses existing geomorphological, sedimentological, and geochronological data sets to provide the spatial (up to 50 km2) and temporal (late Quaternary) framework for an assessment of geomorphological resilience. Some wetlands have been highly resilient to environmental (especially climate) change, but others have been nonresilient with marked transformations in channel-floodplain structure and process connectivity having been driven by natural factors (e.g., local base-level fall, drought) or human activities (e.g., channel excavation, floodplain drainage). Key issues related to the assessment of wetland resilience include channel-floodplain dynamics in relation to geomorphological thresholds, wetland geomorphological 'life cycles', and the relative roles of natural and human activities. These issues raise challenges for the involvement of geomorphologists in the practical application of the resilience concept in wetland management. A key consideration is how geomorphological resilience interfaces with other dimensions of resilience

  13. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laijian Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model for the artificial wetland was established based on cost–benefit analysis by means of field monitoring, social surveys, GIS geostatistics, raster calculation methods, etc. Empirical analysis and calculations were performed on the case study region. The following conclusions were drawn: (1 after ecological restoration, ecosystem services of Jiuli Lake wetland which has become a national level wetland park yield positive values; (2 the improved environment of the Jiuli Lake wetland has a spillover effect on the price of surrounding land, resulting in land price appreciation; (3 using GIS geostatistics and raster calculation methods, the impact range, strength, and value of the spillover effect can be explicitly measured; (4 through the establishment of a value assessment model of the artificial wetland, incomes of the ecological restoration was found to be sufficient to cover the implementation costs, which provides a research foundation for economic feasibility of ecological restoration of mining subsided lakes.

  14. Regional paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic settings of wetland/lacustrine depositional systems in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Western Interior, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.P.; Turner, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    During deposition of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, water that originated as precipitation in uplands to the west of the Western Interior depositional basin infiltrated regional aquifers that underlay the basin. This regional groundwater system delivered water into the otherwise dry continental interior basin where it discharged to form two major wetland/lacustrine successions. A freshwater carbonate wetland/lacustrine succession formed in the distal reaches of the basin, where regional groundwater discharged into the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which was a smaller structural basin within the more extensive Western Interior depositional basin. An alkaline-saline wetland/lacustrine complex (Lake T'oo'dichi') formed farther upstream, where shallower aquifers discharged into the San Juan/Paradox Basin, which was another small structural basin in the Western Interior depositional basin. These were both wetlands in the sense that groundwater was the major source of water. Input from surface and meteoric water was limited. In both basins, lacustrine conditions developed during episodes of increased input of surface water. Inclusion of wetlands in our interpretation of what had previously been considered largely lacustrine systems has important implications for paleohydrology and paleoclimatology. The distal carbonate wetland/lacustrine deposits are well developed in the Morrison Formation of east-central Colorado, occupying a stratigraphic interval that is equivalent to the "lower" Morrison but extends into the "upper" Morrison Formation. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic evidence indicate that regional groundwater discharge maintained shallow, hydrologically open, well oxygenated, perennial carbonate wetlands and lakes despite the semi-arid climate. Wetland deposits include charophyte-rich wackestone and green mudstone. Lacustrine episodes, in which surface water input was significant, were times of carbonate and siliciclastic deposition in scarce deltaic

  15. Hydrological threats to riparian wetlands of international importance – a global quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schneider

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Riparian wetlands have been disappearing at an accelerating rate. Their ecological integrity as well as their vital ecosystem services for humankind depend on regular patterns of inundation and drying provided by natural flow regimes. However, river hydrology has been altered worldwide. Dams cause less variable flow regimes and water abstractions decrease the amount of flow so that ecologically important flood pulses are often reduced. Given growing population pressure and projected climate change, immediate action is required. However, the implementation of counteractive measures is often a complex task. This study develops a screening tool for assessing hydrological threats to riparian wetlands on global scales. The approach is exemplified on 93 Ramsar sites, many of which are located in transboundary basins. First, the WaterGAP3 hydrological modeling framework is used to quantitatively compare current and future modified flow regimes to reference flow conditions. In our simulations current water resource management seriously impairs riparian wetland inundation at 29 % of the analyzed sites. A further 8 % experience significantly reduced flood pulses. In the future, eastern Europe, western Asia, as well as central South America could be hotspots of further flow modifications due to climate change. Second, a qualitative analysis of the 93 sites determined potential impact on overbank flows resulting from planned or proposed dam construction projects. They take place in one-third of the upstream areas and are likely to impair especially wetlands located in South America, Asia, and the Balkan Peninsula. Third, based on the existing legal/institutional framework and water resource availability upstream, further qualitative analysis evaluated the capacity to preserve overbank flows given future streamflow changes due to dam construction and climate change. Results indicate hotspots of vulnerability exist, especially in northern Africa and the

  16. Economic Governance to Expand Commercial Wetlands: Within- and Cross-Scale Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaeij, de A.T.; Polman, N.B.P.; Reinhard, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial wetlands are defined as wetlands directed by an entrepreneur with the intention of making a profit. The combination of ecosystem services that commercial wetlands can provide seems to be an attractive societal perspective. Nevertheless, these wetlands are not developed on a large scale in

  17. Values of natural and human-made wetlands: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghermandi, A.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Brander, L.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.; Nunes, P.A.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    The values of goods and services provided by wetland ecosystems are examined through a meta-analysis of an expanded database of wetland value estimates and with a focus on human-made wetlands. This study extends and improves upon previous meta-analyses of the wetland valuation literature in terms of

  18. Alfred pilot wetland to treat municipal lagoon effluent - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C.

    2002-01-01

    A constructed wetland demonstration system has been built to polish the municipal lagoon effluent from the village of Alfred. The treatment lagoons have an annual discharge in the spring and have currently reached maximum capacity; inhibiting further population growth or expansion of the local agri-food industries. The demonstration wetland system is designed to treat 15% of the municipal lagoon influent, that is, 155 m 3 /day or 23,250 m 3 /year. A three year monitoring program (2000-2002) was put in place to evaluate the wetland as a cost effective means to treat municipal lagoon wastewater for the village of Alfred. The 2000 and 2001 monitoring seasons have been completed, and the 2002 monitoring season will operate between June and October 2002. At the completion of the three year monitoring program the Alfred wetland system will be evaluated for its ability to polish the municipal lagoon effluent to meet the Spring/Summer/Fall discharge criteria, set by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), for the receiving water body (Azatica Brook). As phosphorus is the most difficult element to remove down to MOE guidelines, the Alfred research wetland includes slag phosphorus adsorption filters and a vegetated filter as phosphorus polishing systems. Once the wetland system is approved by the MOE, the village of Alfred will be able to increase its capacity for municipal wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are still considered innovative systems in Ontario and government ministries (MOE, OMAFRA) are insisting upon 3-4 years of monitoring data for each constructed wetland system established. There is a clear need for monitoring data to be gathered on established systems, and for this data to be evaluated with the goal of developing reliable design guidelines. Ultimately this should result in having constructed wetlands recognised as viable wastewater treatment options in Ontario. With fewer grant programs for rural municipalities, cost effective systems such

  19. Wetlands in changed landscapes: the influence of habitat transformation on the physico-chemistry of temporary depression wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Matthew S; Day, Jenny A

    2014-01-01

    Temporary wetlands dominate the wet season landscape of temperate, semi-arid and arid regions, yet, other than their direct loss to development and agriculture, little information exists on how remaining wetlands have been altered by anthropogenic conversion of surrounding landscapes. This study investigates relationships between the extent and type of habitat transformation around temporary wetlands and their water column physico-chemical characteristics. A set of 90 isolated depression wetlands (seasonally inundated) occurring on coastal plains of the south-western Cape mediterranean-climate region of South Africa was sampled during the winter/spring wet season of 2007. Wetlands were sampled across habitat transformation gradients according to the areal cover of agriculture, urban development and alien invasive vegetation within 100 and 500 m radii of each wetland edge. We hypothesized that the principal drivers of physico-chemical conditions in these wetlands (e.g. soil properties, basin morphology) are altered by habitat transformation. Multivariate multiple regression analyses (distance-based Redundancy Analysis) indicated significant associations between wetland physico-chemistry and habitat transformation (overall transformation within 100 and 500 m, alien vegetation cover within 100 and 500 m, urban cover within 100 m); although for significant regressions the amount of variation explained was very low (range: ∼2 to ∼5.5%), relative to that explained by purely spatio-temporal factors (range: ∼35.5 to ∼43%). The nature of the relationships between each type of transformation in the landscape and individual physico-chemical variables in wetlands were further explored with univariate multiple regressions. Results suggest that conservation of relatively narrow (∼100 m) buffer strips around temporary wetlands is likely to be effective in the maintenance of natural conditions in terms of physico-chemical water quality.

  20. Wetlands in changed landscapes: the influence of habitat transformation on the physico-chemistry of temporary depression wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Bird

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands dominate the wet season landscape of temperate, semi-arid and arid regions, yet, other than their direct loss to development and agriculture, little information exists on how remaining wetlands have been altered by anthropogenic conversion of surrounding landscapes. This study investigates relationships between the extent and type of habitat transformation around temporary wetlands and their water column physico-chemical characteristics. A set of 90 isolated depression wetlands (seasonally inundated occurring on coastal plains of the south-western Cape mediterranean-climate region of South Africa was sampled during the winter/spring wet season of 2007. Wetlands were sampled across habitat transformation gradients according to the areal cover of agriculture, urban development and alien invasive vegetation within 100 and 500 m radii of each wetland edge. We hypothesized that the principal drivers of physico-chemical conditions in these wetlands (e.g. soil properties, basin morphology are altered by habitat transformation. Multivariate multiple regression analyses (distance-based Redundancy Analysis indicated significant associations between wetland physico-chemistry and habitat transformation (overall transformation within 100 and 500 m, alien vegetation cover within 100 and 500 m, urban cover within 100 m; although for significant regressions the amount of variation explained was very low (range: ∼2 to ∼5.5%, relative to that explained by purely spatio-temporal factors (range: ∼35.5 to ∼43%. The nature of the relationships between each type of transformation in the landscape and individual physico-chemical variables in wetlands were further explored with univariate multiple regressions. Results suggest that conservation of relatively narrow (∼100 m buffer strips around temporary wetlands is likely to be effective in the maintenance of natural conditions in terms of physico-chemical water quality.

  1. Forested wetland area and distribution: A forest and paper industry policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubensky, M.M.; Berg, R.S.; Berry, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The policy statement from the 1988 National Wetlands Policy Forum included the amorphous and ambiguous phase no overall net loss of the nation's remaining wetlands base. To industry and thousands of non-industrial landowners, timber production represents a major function of wetlands. The authors cover historical aspects of wetlands protection, the controversial and politicized issue of wetlands delineation, proposed revisions to the wetlands criteria, regulatory issues related to the US Corp of Engineers and EPA, and compensatory mitigation. A package of economic incentives, education, and favorable tax treatment to encourage landowners to maintain their forested wetlands is suggested. 5 refs

  2. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  3. Bioassessment of Choghakhor Wetland using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fathi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, besides investigating benthic communities and their demographics in Choghakhor wetland, the water quality has been evaluated and classified. Then, 10 stations were selected and sampling of benthos was done every 45 days since April 2010 to March 2011, with 3 replications at each station. Samples were obtained by Ekman grab Sampler (surface 400 cm2. The collected samples were separated and fixed by formalin (4%. The Macroinvertebrates samples were identified and counted in laboratory. Generally 25 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 5 classes and 12 orders were identified. The results were calculated as community measures, including total richness, Shannon - Wiener diversity index and Hilsenhoff Biological index at family level. The results obtained from temporal and spatial changes of data (Statgeraphics software and water qualitative classification using Shannon diversity index conformed to biological Hilsenhoff index. And finally, water quality of wetland was assessed to be polluted in average to high level. According to this study findings, it seems that, these indicators could be used as useful tools for evaluating water supplies quality.

  4. Environmental footprint of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine environmentally friendlier construction materials for constructed wetland facilities treating wastewater. This is done by computing the environmental footprint of the facility based on the methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA). This methodology reveals the dominant aggravating processes during the construction of a constructed wetland (CW) and can help to create alternative environmentally friendlier solutions. This methodology was applied for the determination of the overall environmental profile of a hybrid CW facility. The LCA was applied first to the facility as originally designed, where reinforced concrete was used in some components. Then, alternative construction materials to reinforced concrete were used, such as earth covered with high density polyethylene (HDPE) or clay, and LCA was applied again. Earth structures were found to have reduced environmental impact compared to concrete ones, and clay was found environmentally friendlier compared to HDPE. Furthermore, estimation of the construction costs of the three scenarios indicate that the last scenario is also the least expensive.

  5. Floral diversity of Baanganga Wetland, Uttarakhand, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Baanganga wetland, a 45 km long channel originates near Bishenpur and flows in Idrishpur-Chakheri forestblock of Haridwar district in Uttarakhand, India represents riverine ecosystem. The study area harbors many islands,varying in shape and size, which remains underwater during the rainy season and provide a good habitat to various planttaxa, birds (resident as well as migratory and animals mainly Swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli, a criticallyendangered species and Hog deer (Axis procinus. To asses the status and distribution of flora, trips were conducted inthe intensive study area. The plants were classified based on their habit and their presence was visually observed. Atotal of 178 plant species were recorded, of which 40 species (hydrophytes were found in aquatic habitat, 122 specieson moist shores and 117 species in upland habitat. Phragmites karka, Polygonum barbatum, Ipomoea carnea, and Typhaelephantina were the most common species in all the habitats. The majority of plants (40 are from Indian orientalregion. The moist shore and upland habitats had maximum similarity (64 % followed by aquatic and moist shore (26% habitats. The status of flora and management of Baanganga wetland ecosystem has been discussed in the paper.

  6. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels 0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution and fractionation of mercury in the soils of a unique tropical agricultural wetland ecosystem, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, C; Gopikrishna, V G; Arunbabu, V; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-12-01

    Mercury biogeochemistry is highly complex in the aquatic ecosystems and it is very difficult to predict. The speciation of mercury is the primary factor controlling its behavior, movement, and fate in these systems. The fluctuating water levels in wetlands could play a major role in the mercury transformations and transport. Hence, the agricultural wetlands may have a significant influence on the global mercury cycling. Kuttanad agricultural wetland ecosystem is a unique one as it is lying below the sea level and most of the time it is inundated with water. To understand the mobility and bioavailability of Hg in the soils of this agricultural wetland ecosystem, the present study analyzed the total mercury content as well as the different fractions of mercury. Mercury was detected using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. The total mercury content varied from 0.002 to 0.683 mg/kg, and most of the samples are having concentrations below the background value. The percentage of mercury found in the initial three fractions F1, F2, and F3 are more available and it may enhance the methylation potential of the Kuttanad agroecosystem.

  8. Effect of design and operational conditions on the performance of subsurface flow treatment wetlands: Emerging organic contaminants as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Stefanie; Nivala, Jaime; van Afferden, Manfred; Müller, Roland A; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2017-11-15

    Six pilot-scale subsurface flow treatment wetlands loaded with primary treated municipal wastewater were monitored over one year for classical wastewater parameters and a set of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) serving as process indicators for biodegradation: caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, benzotriazole, diclofenac, acesulfame, and carbamazepine. The wetland technologies investigated included conventional horizontal flow, unsaturated vertical flow (single and two-stage), horizontal flow with aeration, vertical flow with aeration, and reciprocating. Treatment efficiency for classical wastewater parameters and EOCs generally increased with increasing design complexity and dissolved oxygen concentrations. The two aerated wetlands and the two-stage vertical flow system showed the highest EOC removal, and the best performance in warm season and most robust performance in the cold season. These three systems performed better than the adjacent conventional WWTP with respect to EOC removal. Acesulfame was observed to be removed (>90%) by intensified wetland systems and with use of a tertiary treatment sand filter during the warm season. Elevated temperature and high oxygen content (aerobic conditions) proved beneficial for EOC removal. For EOCs of moderate to low biodegradability, the co-occurrence of aerobic conditions and low content of readily available carbon appears essential for efficient removal. Such conditions occurred in the aerated systems and with use of a tertiary treatment sand filter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring Microbial Iron Oxidation in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Muyzer, G.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; den Oudsten, F.; Laanbroek, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and is essential for life. Because of its importance, iron cycling and its interaction with other chemical and microbial processes has been the focus of many studies. Iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) have been detected in a wide variety of environments. Among those is the rhizosphere of wetland plants roots which release oxygen into the soil creating suboxic conditions required by these organisms. It has been reported that in these rhizosphere microbial iron oxidation proceeds up to four orders of magnitude faster than strictly abiotic oxidation. On the roots of these wetland plants iron plaques are formed by microbial iron oxidation which are involved in the sequestering of heavy metals as well organic pollutants, which of great environmental significance.Despite their important role being catalysts of iron-cycling in wetland environments, little is known about the diversity and distribution of iron-oxidizing bacteria in various environments. This study aimed at developing a PCR-DGGE assay enabling the detection of iron oxidizers in wetland habitats. Gradient tubes were used to enrich iron-oxidizing bacteria. From these enrichments, a clone library was established based on the almost complete 16s rRNA gene using the universal bacterial primers 27f and 1492r. This clone library consisted of mainly α- and β-Proteobacteria, among which two major clusters were closely related to Gallionella spp. Specific probes and primers were developed on the basis of this 16S rRNA gene clone library. The newly designed Gallionella-specific 16S rRNA gene primer set 122f/998r was applied to community DNA obtained from three contrasting wetland environments, and the PCR products were used in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. A second 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed using the PCR products from one of our sampling sites amplified with the newly developed primer set 122f/998r. The cloned 16S rRNA gene

  10. Wetland and waterbody restoration and creation associated with mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Published and unpublished reports are reviewed and the strategies and techniques used to facilitate the establishment of wetlands and waterbodies during mine reclamation are summarized. Although the emphasis is on coal, phosphate, and sand and gravel operations, the methods are relevant to other types of mining and mitigation activities. The following key points should receive attention during planning and mitigation processes: (1) development of site-specific objectives that are related to regional wetland trends; (2) integration of wetland mitigation plans with mining operations and reclamation at the beginning of any project; (3) wetland designs that mimic natural systems and provide flexibility for unforeseen events; (4) assurance that basin morphometry and control of the hydrologic regime are properly addressed before considering other aspects of a project; and (5) identification of mandatory monitoring as a known cost. Well-designed studies that use comparative approaches are needed to increase the database on wetland restoration technology. Meanwhile, regional success criteria for different classes of wetlands need to be developed by consensus agreement among professionals. The rationale for a particular mitigation strategy must have a sound, scientific basis if the needs of mining industries are to be balanced against the necessity of wetland operation. 93 refs., 3 figs

  11. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  12. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Will Tidal Wetland Restoration Enhance Populations of Native Fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of tidal wetlands might enhance populations of native fishes in the San Francisco Estuary of California. The purpose of this paper is to: (1 review the currently available information regarding the importance of tidal wetlands to native fishes in the San Francisco Estuary, (2 construct conceptual models on the basis of available information, (3 identify key areas of scientific uncertainty, and (4 identify methods to improve conceptual models and reduce uncertainty. There are few quantitative data to suggest that restoration of tidal wetlands will substantially increase populations of native fishes. On a qualitative basis, there is some support for the idea that tidal wetland restoration will increase populations of some native fishes; however, the species deriving the most benefit from restoration might not be of great management concern at present. Invasion of the San Francisco Estuary by alien plants and animals appears to be a major factor in obscuring the expected link between tidal wetlands and native fishes. Large-scale adaptive management experiments (>100 hectares appear to be the best available option for determining whether tidal wetlands will provide significant benefit to native fishes. Even if these experiments are unsuccessful at increasing native fish populations, the restored wetlands should benefit native birds, plants, and other organisms.

  14. A novel algorithm for delineating wetland depressions and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In reality, however, many depressions in the DEM are actual wetland landscape features that are seldom fully filled with water. For instance, wetland depressions in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) are seasonally to permanently flooded wetlands characterized by nested hierarchical structures with dynamic filling- spilling-merging surface-water hydrological processes. The objectives of this study were to delineate hierarchical wetland catchments and model their hydrologic connectivity using high-resolution LiDAR data and aerial imagery. We proposed a novel algorithm delineate the hierarchical wetland catchments and characterize their geometric and topological properties. Potential hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and streams were simulated using the least-cost path algorithm. The resulting flow network delineated putative temporary or seasonal flow paths connecting wetland depressions to each other or to the river network at scales finer than available through the National Hydrography Dataset. The results demonstrated that our proposed framework is promising for improving overland flow modeling and hydrologic connectivity analysis. Presentation at AWRA Spring Specialty Conference in Sn

  15. Estimating restorable wetland water storage at landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles Nathan; Evenson, Grey R.; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Lang, Megan W.; McCarty, Greg W.; Golden, Heather E.; Lane, Charles R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2018-01-01

    Globally, hydrologic modifications such as ditching and subsurface drainage have significantly reduced wetland water storage capacity (i.e., volume of surface water a wetland can retain) and consequent wetland functions. While wetland area has been well documented across many landscapes and used to guide restoration efforts, few studies have directly quantified the associated wetland storage capacity. Here, we present a novel raster-based approach to quantify both contemporary and potential (i.e., restorable) storage capacities of individual depressional basins across landscapes. We demonstrate the utility of this method by applying it to the Delmarva Peninsula, a region punctuated by both depressional wetlands and drainage ditches. Across the entire peninsula, we estimated that restoration (i.e., plugging ditches) could increase storage capacity by 80%. Focusing on an individual watershed, we found that over 59% of restorable storage capacity occurs within 20 m of the drainage network, and that 93% occurs within 1 m elevation of the drainage network. Our demonstration highlights widespread ditching in this landscape, spatial patterns of both contemporary and potential storage capacities, and clear opportunities for hydrologic restoration. In Delmarva and more broadly, our novel approach can inform targeted landscape-scale conservation and restoration efforts to optimize hydrologically mediated wetland functions.

  16. Engineered wetlands for on-site groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Engineered wetlands have been touted as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and water. They incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems that enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. Engineered wetlands generally emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. Design parameters include biodegradation rate coefficients, flowrate, hydraulic residence time plus influent and required effluent concentrations. This paper described the installation of an engineered wetland system at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery in Wyoming where a pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and ammonia. The wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of contaminated ground water per day and has been in operation since May 2003. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Bacterial carbon utilization in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Alexandra; Langergraber, Günter; Watzinger, Andrea; Haberl, Raimund; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2008-03-01

    Subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands with intermittent loading are considered as state of the art and can comply with stringent effluent requirements. It is usually assumed that microbial activity in the filter body of constructed wetlands, responsible for the removal of carbon and nitrogen, relies mainly on bacterially mediated transformations. However, little quantitative information is available on the distribution of bacterial biomass and production in the "black-box" constructed wetland. The spatial distribution of bacterial carbon utilization, based on bacterial (14)C-leucine incorporation measurements, was investigated for the filter body of planted and unplanted indoor pilot-scale constructed wetlands, as well as for a planted outdoor constructed wetland. A simple mass-balance approach was applied to explain the bacterially catalysed organic matter degradation in this system by comparing estimated bacterial carbon utilization rates with simultaneously measured carbon reduction values. The pilot-scale constructed wetlands proved to be a suitable model system for investigating microbial carbon utilization in constructed wetlands. Under an ideal operating mode, the bulk of bacterial productivity occurred within the first 10cm of the filter body. Plants seemed to have no significant influence on productivity and biomass of bacteria, as well as on wastewater total organic carbon removal.

  18. Annual monitoring report for the Gunnison, Colorado, wetlands mitigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project to clean up uranium mill tailings and other surface contamination at 24 abandoned uranium mill sites in 10 states. One of these abandoned mill sites is near the town of Gunnison, Colorado; surface remediation and the environmental impacts of remedial action are described in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA) (DOE, 1992). Remedial action resulted in the elimination of 4.3 acres (ac) 1.7 hectares (ha) of wetlands and mitigation of this loss of wetlands is being accomplished through the enhance of 18.4 ac (7.5 ha) of riparian plant communities in six spring feed areas on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land. The description of the impacted and mitigation wetlands is provided in the Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for Impacted Wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project Site, Gunnison, Colorado (DOE, 1994), which is attached to the US Army corps of Engineers (USACE) Section 404 Permit. As part of the wetlands mitigation plan, the six mitigation wetlands were fenced in the fall of 1993 to exclude livestock grazing. Baseline of grazed conditions of the wetlands vegetation was determined during the summer of 1993 (DOE, 1994). A 5-year monitoring program of these six sites has been implemented to document the response of vegetation and wildlife to the exclusion of livestock. This annual monitoring report provides the results of the first year of the 5-year monitoring period

  19. Replacing natural wetlands with stormwater management facilities: Biophysical and perceived social values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, R C; Foote, L; Krogman, N; Pattison, J K; Wilson, M J; Bayley, S E

    2015-04-15

    Urban expansion replaces wetlands of natural origin with artificial stormwater management facilities. The literature suggests that efforts to mimic natural wetlands in the design of stormwater facilities can expand the provision of ecosystem services. Policy developments seek to capitalize on these improvements, encouraging developers to build stormwater wetlands in place of stormwater ponds; however, few have compared the biophysical values and social perceptions of these created wetlands to those of the natural wetlands they are replacing. We compared four types of wetlands: natural references sites, natural wetlands impacted by agriculture, created stormwater wetlands, and created stormwater ponds. We anticipated that they would exhibit a gradient in biodiversity, ecological integrity, chemical and hydrologic stress. We further anticipated that perceived values would mirror measured biophysical values. We found higher biophysical values associated with wetlands of natural origin (both reference and agriculturally impacted). The biophysical values of stormwater wetlands and stormwater ponds were lower and indistinguishable from one another. The perceived wetland values assessed by the public differed from the observed biophysical values. This has important policy implications, as the public are not likely to perceive the loss of values associated with the replacement of natural wetlands with created stormwater management facilities. We conclude that 1) agriculturally impacted wetlands provide biophysical values equivalent to those of natural wetlands, meaning that land use alone is not a great predictor of wetland value; 2) stormwater wetlands are not a substantive improvement over stormwater ponds, relative to wetlands of natural origin; 3) stormwater wetlands are poor mimics of natural wetlands, likely due to fundamental distinctions in terms of basin morphology, temporal variation in hydrology, ground water connectivity, and landscape position; 4) these

  20. Wetland Plants of Great Salt Lake, A Guide to Identification, Communities, & Bird Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Downard, Rebekah; Frank, Maureen; Perkins, Jennifer; Kettenring, Karin; Larese-Casanova, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Wetland Plants of Great Salt Lake: a guide to identification, communities, & bird habitat is a wetland plant identification guide, resulting from collaborative research efforts about Great Salt Lake (GSL) wetland conditions and bird habitat. Dr. Rebekah Downard collected dissertation field data from GSL wetlands during 2012–2015, the majority of which informed this work. Dr. Maureen Frank contributed her guide to GSL wetland vegetation and how to manage native plants as high-quality habitat f...

  1. A Place to Call Home: Amphibian Use of Created and Restored Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Donald J.; Street, Garrett M.; Nairn, Robert W.; Forstner, Michael R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Loss and degradation of wetland habitats are major contributing factors to the global decline of amphibians. Creation and restoration of wetlands could be a valuable tool for increasing local amphibian species richness and abundance. We synthesized the peer-reviewed literature addressing amphibian use of created and restored wetlands, focusing on aquatic habitat, upland habitat, and wetland connectivity and configuration. Amphibian species richness or abundance at created and restored wetland...

  2. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Kitajima, Masaaki; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3 log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4 log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (10(4) to 10(7) genome copies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1 log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21 days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4 log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainable wetland management and support of ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Brinson, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    This article is a follow-up on a previous piece in the National Wetlands Newsletter in which we outlined problems associated with a static, local approach to wetland management versus an alternative that proposes a temporal and geomorphic approach (Euliss et al. 2009). We extend that concept by drawing on companion papers recently published in the journal Wetlands (Euliss et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2008). Here we highlight reasons for the failure of many managed wetlands to provide a suite of ecosystem services (e.g., carbon storage, diodiversity, ground-water recharge, contaminant filtering, floodwater storage). Our principal theme is that wetland management is best approached by giving consideration to the hydrogeomorphic processes that maintain productive ecosystems and by removing physical and social impediments to those processes. Traditional management actions are often oriented toward maintaining static conditions in wetlands without considering the temporal cycles that wetlands need to undergo or achieve productivity for specific groups of wildlife, such as waterfowl. Possibly more often, a manager's ability to influence hydrogeomorphic processes is restricted by activities in surrounding watersheds. These could be dams, for example, which do not allow management of flood-pulse processes essential to productivity of riparian systems. In most cases, sediments and nutrients associated with land use in contributing watersheds complicate management of wetlands for a suite of services, including wildlife. Economic or policy forces far-removed from a wetland often interact to prevent occurrence of basic ecosystem processes. Our message is consistent with recommendation of supply-side sustainability of Allen et al. (2002) in which ecosystems are managed "for the system that produces outputs rather than the outputs themselves."

  4. ``Living off the land'': resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Odum, H. T.; Brown, M. T.; Alling, A.

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens™) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require 1/5 the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save 2/3 of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  5. Methylmercury in water, sediment, and invertebrates in created wetlands of Rouge Park, Toronto, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Kathleen A.; Xie Qun; Mitchell, Carl P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of hectares of wetlands are created annually because wetlands provide beneficial ecosystem services. Wetlands are also key sites for production of the bioaccumulative neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), but little is known about MeHg production in created systems. Here, we studied methylmercury in sediment, water, and invertebrates in created wetlands of various ages. Sediment MeHg reached 8 ng g −1 in the newest wetland, which was significantly greater than in natural, control wetlands. This trend was mirrored in several invertebrate taxa, whose concentrations reached as high as 1.6 μg g −1 in the newest wetland, above levels thought to affect reproduction in birds. The MeHg concentrations in created wetland invertebrate taxa generally decreased with increasing wetland age, possibly due to a combination of deeper anoxia and less organic matter accumulation in younger wetlands. A short-term management intervention and/or improved engineering design may be necessary to reduce the mercury-associated risk in newly created wetlands. - Highlights: ► Investigated methylmercury accumulation in created wetland ecosystems. ► Concentrations and bioaccumulation significantly elevated in new created wetlands. ► Short-term effect may be due to deeper anoxia, less organic matter in new wetlands. ► Intervention or improved design required to reduce short-term ecological risk. - Sediment methylmercury concentrations and bioaccumulation in many invertebrate taxa are significantly elevated in newly created wetlands.

  6. Influence of multi-source and multi-temporal remotely sensed and ancillary data on the accuracy of random forest classification of wetlands in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jennifer M.; Knight, Joseph F.; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Wetland mapping at the landscape scale using remotely sensed data requires both affordable data and an efficient accurate classification method. Random forest classification offers several advantages over traditional land cover classification techniques, including a bootstrapping technique to generate robust estimations of outliers in the training data, as well as the capability of measuring classification confidence. Though the random forest classifier can generate complex decision trees with a multitude of input data and still not run a high risk of over fitting, there is a great need to reduce computational and operational costs by including only key input data sets without sacrificing a significant level of accuracy. Our main questions for this study site in Northern Minnesota were: (1) how does classification accuracy and confidence of mapping wetlands compare using different remote sensing platforms and sets of input data; (2) what are the key input variables for accurate differentiation of upland, water, and wetlands, including wetland type; and (3) which datasets and seasonal imagery yield the best accuracy for wetland classification. Our results show the key input variables include terrain (elevation and curvature) and soils descriptors (hydric), along with an assortment of remotely sensed data collected in the spring (satellite visible, near infrared, and thermal bands; satellite normalized vegetation index and Tasseled Cap greenness and wetness; and horizontal-horizontal (HH) and horizontal-vertical (HV) polarization using L-band satellite radar). We undertook this exploratory analysis to inform decisions by natural resource managers charged with monitoring wetland ecosystems and to aid in designing a system for consistent operational mapping of wetlands across landscapes similar to those found in Northern Minnesota.

  7. Federal wetlands law: the cases and the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    Like environmental statutes generally, wetlands laws have engendered much litigation, accompanied by the judicial establishment of general legal doctrine. The Supreme Court has ruled on questions of taking and private rights of action. Lower courts have decided issues of strict liability, estoppel, ripeness, injunction requirements, and hearing rights. This article surveys federal wetlands cases, presenting the issues litigated and the principles established. The author concludes with the hope that the administration's and environmentalists' disagreement on whether wetlands regulation is excessive will not end in a sacrifice of this important resource. 487 references.

  8. Using dual classifications in the development of avian wetland indices of biological integrity for wetlands in West Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Walter; Anderson, James T; Kordek, Walter S

    2010-05-01

    Considerable resources are being used to develop and implement bioassessment methods for wetlands to ensure that "biological integrity" is maintained under the United States Clean Water Act. Previous research has demonstrated that avian composition is susceptible to human impairments at multiple spatial scales. Using a site-specific disturbance gradient, we built avian wetland indices of biological integrity (AW-IBI) specific to two wetland classification schemes, one based on vegetative structure and the other based on the wetland's position in the landscape and sources of water. The resulting class-specific AW-IBI was comprised of one to four metrics that varied in their sensitivity to the disturbance gradient. Some of these metrics were specific to only one of the classification schemes, whereas others could discriminate varying levels of disturbance regardless of classification scheme. Overall, all of the derived biological indices specific to the vegetative structure-based classes of wetlands had a significant relation with the disturbance gradient; however, the biological index derived for floodplain wetlands exhibited a more consistent response to a local disturbance gradient. We suspect that the consistency of this response is due to the inherent nature of the connectivity of available habitat in floodplain wetlands.

  9. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Low-Gradient, Blackwater Riverine Wetlands in Peninsular Florida

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uranowski, Christina

    2003-01-01

    The Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Approach is a collection of concepts and methods for developing functional indices and subsequently using them to assess the capacity of a wetland to perform functions relative to similar wetlands in a region...

  10. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Selected Regional Wetland Subclasses, Yazoo Basin, Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SMith, R

    2002-01-01

    .... However, a variety of other potential uses have been identified, including the determination of minimal effects under the Food Security Act, design of wetland restoration projects, and management of wetlands...

  11. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Depression Wetlands in the Upper Des Plaines River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Jeff P

    2006-01-01

    .... The HGM approach is a collection of concepts and methods used to develop functional indices to assess the capacity of a particular wetland to perform functions relative to similar wetlands in a region...

  12. Methane Cycling in a Warming Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, G. L.; Megonigal, P.; Rich, R.; Kirwan, M. L.; Herbert, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are global hotspots of carbon (C) storage, but the future of these systems is uncertain. In June 2016, we initiated an in-situ, active, whole-ecosystem warming experiment in the Smithsonian's Global Change Research Wetland to quantify how warming and elevated CO2 affect the stability of coastal wetland soil C pools and contemporary rates of C sequestration. Transects are located in two plant communities, dominated by C3 sedges or C4 grasses. The experiment has a gradient design with air and soil warming treatments ranging from ambient to +5.1 °C and heated plots consistently maintain their target temperature year-round. In April 2017, an elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with temperature in the C3community. Ongoing measurements include soil elevation, C fluxes, porewater chemistry and redox potential, and above- and below-ground growth and biomass. In both years, warming increased methane (CH4) emissions (measured at 3-4 week intervals) from spring through fall at the C3 site, but had little effect on emissions from the C4 site. Winter (Dec-Mar) emissions showed no treatment effect. Stable isotope analysis of dissolved CH4 and DIC also indicated that warming had differing effects on CH4 pathways in the two vegetation communities. To better understand temperature effects on rates of CH4 production and oxidation, 1 m soil cores were collected from control areas of the marsh in summer 2017 and incubated at temperatures ranging from 4 °C to 35 °C. Warming increased CH4 production and oxidation rates in surface samples and oxidation rates in the rooting zone samples from both sites, but temperature responses in deep (1 m) soil samples were minimal. In the surface and rooting zone samples, production rates were also consistently higher in C3 soils compared to C4 soils, but, contrary to our expectations, the temperature response was stronger in the C4 soils. However, oxidation in C3 rooting zone samples did have a strong temperature response. The

  13. Differences in Fish, Amphibian, and Reptile Communities Within Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System in Northwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishment of a water recycling system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to store subirriga...

  14. A comparison of the vegetation and soils of natural, restored, and created coastal lowland wetlands in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meris Bantilan-Smith; Gregory L. Bruland; Richard A. MacKenzie; Adonia R. Henry; Christina R. Ryder

    2009-01-01

    The loss of coastal wetlands throughout the Hawaiian Islands has increased the numbers of created (CW) and restored (RW) wetlands. An assessment of these wetlands has yet to occur, and it has not been determined whether CWs and RWs provide the same functions as natural wetlands (NWs). To address these concerns, vegetation and soil characteristics of 35 wetlands were...

  15. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Depression Wetlands in the Upper Des Plaines River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Wetlands and Coastal Ecology Branch; Dr. David J. Tazik, Chief, Eco- system Evaluation and Engineering Division; and Dr. Edwin A. Theriot, Direc- tor, EL...wetlands (Euliss and Mushet 1996, Azous and Horner 2001, Bhaduri et al. 1997) and nutrient loading into those wetlands. The overall LU score is...Euliss, N. H., and Mushet , D. M. (1996). “Water-level fluctuation in wetlands as a function of landscape condition in the prairie pothole region

  16. Modelling wetland-groundwater interactions in the boreal Kälväsvaara esker, Northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Anna; Rossi, Pekka; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Many types of boreal peatland ecosystems such as alkaline fens, aapa mires and Fennoscandia spring fens rely on the presence of groundwater. In these ecosystems groundwater creates unique conditions for flora and fauna by providing water, nutrients and constant water temperature enriching local biodiversity. The groundwater-peatland interactions and their dynamics are not, however, in many cases fully understood and their measurement and quantification is difficult due to highly heterogeneous structure of peatlands and large spatial extend of these ecosystems. Understanding of these interactions and their changes due to anthropogenic impact on groundwater resources would benefit the protection of the groundwater dependent peatlands. The groundwater-peatland interactions were investigated using the fully-integrated physically-based groundwater-surface water code HydroGeoSphere in a case study of the Kälväsvaara esker aquifer, Northern Finland. The Kälväsvaara is a geologically complex esker and it is surrounded by vast aapa mire system including alkaline and springs fens. In addition, numerous small springs occur in the discharge zone of the esker. In order to quantify groundwater-peatland interactions a simple steady-state model was built and results were evaluated using expected trends and field measurements. The employed model reproduced relatively well spatially distributed hydrological variables such as soil water content, water depths and groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes within the wetland and esker areas. The wetlands emerged in simulations as a result of geological and topographical conditions. They could be identified by high saturation levels at ground surface and by presence of shallow ponded water over some areas. The model outputs exhibited also strong surface water-groundwater interactions in some parts of the aapa system. These areas were noted to be regions of substantial diffusive groundwater discharge by the earlier studies. In

  17. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  18. Rainfall spatiotemporal variability relation to wetlands hydroperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Hidalgo, Carmen; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Fernandez-Naranjo, Nuria

    2017-04-01

    Doñana natural space (Southwestern Spain) is one of the largest protected wetlands in Europe. The wide marshes present in this natural space have such ecological value that this wetland has been declared a Ramsar reserve in 1982. Apart from the extensive marsh, there are also small lagoons and seasonally flooded areas which are likewise essential to maintain a wide variety of valuable habitats. Hydroperiod, the length of time each point remains flooded along an annual cycle, is a critical ecological parameter that shapes aquatic plants and animals distribution and determines available habitat for many of the living organisms in the marshes. Recently, there have been published two different works estimating the hydroperiod of Doñana lagoons with Landsat Time Series images (Cifuentes et al., 2015; Díaz-Delgado et al., 2016). In both works the flooding cycle hydroperiod in Doñana marshes reveals a flooding regime mainly driven by rainfall, evapotranspiration, topography and local hydrological management actions. The correlation found between rainfall and hydroperiod is studied differently in both works. While in one the rainfall is taken from one raingauge (Cifuentes et al., 2015), the one performed by Díaz-Delgado (2016) uses annual rainfall maps interpolated with the inverse of the distance method. The rainfall spatiotemporal variability in this area can be highly significant; however the amount of this importance has not been quantified at the moment. In the present work the geostatistical tool known as spatiotemporal variogram is used to study the rainfall spatiotemporal variability. The spacetime package implemented in R (Pebesma, 2012) facilities its computation from a high rainfall data base of more than 100 raingauges from 1950 to 2016. With the aid of these variograms the rainfall spatiotemporal variability is quantified. The principal aim of the present work is the study of the relation between the rainfall spatiotemporal variability and the

  19. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  20. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO2, and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone.

  1. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lihu; Zhu, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO2, and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone. PMID:28286690

  2. Investigation of Methane and Soil Carbon Dynamics Using Near Surface Geophysical Methods at the Tanoma Educational Wetland Site, Tanoma, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A. D.; Mount, G.

    2017-12-01

    Studies to constrain methane budgets of Pennsylvania have sought to quantify the amount and rate of fugitive methane released during industrial natural gas development. However, contributions from other environmental systems such as artificial wetlands used to treat part of the 300 million gallons per day of acid mine drainage (AMD) are often not understated or not considered. The artificial wetlands are sources of both biogenic and thermogenic methane and are used to treat AMD which would otherwise flow untreated into Pennsylvania surface waters. Our research utilizes a combination of indirect non-invasive geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar, GPR) and the complex refractive index model, aerial imagery, and direct measurements (coring and gas traps) to estimate the contribution of biogenic methane from wetlands and legacy thermogenic methane from acid mine drainage from a flooded coal mine at an artificial wetland designed to treat these polluted waters at Tanoma, Pennsylvania. Our approach uses (3D) GPR surveys to define the thickness of the soil from the surface to the regolith-bedrock interface to create a volume model of potential biogenic gas stores. Velocity data derived from the GPR is then used to calculate the dielectric permittivity of the soil and then modeled for gas content when considering the saturation, porosity and amount of soil present. Depth-profile cores are extracted to confirm soil column interfaces and determine changes in soil carbon content. Comparisons of gas content are made with gas traps placed across the wetlands that measure the variability of gaseous methane released. In addition, methane dissolved in the waters from biogenic processes in the wetland and thermogenic processes underground are analyzed by a gas chromatograph to quantify those additions. In sum, these values can then be extrapolated to estimate carbon stocks in AMD areas such as those with similar water quality and vegetation types in the Appalachian region

  3. Columbia River ESI: NWI (National Wetlands Inventory - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the wetlands of Columbia River classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification...

  4. Taxonomic Report on Small Mammals from Two Coastal Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Abstract. Surveys of the small mammal populations of two coastal wetlands in Ghana, .... Captured animals were euthanized with chloroform, according to the American Society of. Mammalogy Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines.

  5. VT National Wetlands Inventory appended data - boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  6. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  7. History, recent variability and restoration of oligotrophic wetlands: editorial

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Michal; Pyšek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2013), s. 209-214 ISSN 0032-7786 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : history of wetlands * recent variability * restoration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2013

  8. Contamination of sediments in the floodplain wetlands of the lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samantha Naidoo

    2018-03-29

    Mar 29, 2018 ... threat to the health of existing wetland ecosystems. (Gren et al. 1994). ... mental to their biotic constituents and dependents. (Ayeni et al. 2010). ... South Durban Community Environmental Alliance. 2011). Considering the ...

  9. VT National Wetlands Inventory appended data - area polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VCGI downloaded NWI quads from the US FWS web site and reprojected to VCS NAD83. NWI digital data files are records of wetlands location and...

  10. Risk Perception and Vulnerability of Wetlands Areas on South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 mars 2017 ... They will identify and evaluated for climate change stressors and then analyze factors affecting wetland management and the local ... Site internet ... Un commerce plus inclusif permettrait-il de promouvoir l'égalité des sexes ?

  11. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  12. Potential Wetland Restoration Indicators data for the EnviroAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data is based on overlap of topographic, soil drainage, and national wetland inventory areas. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Horvath, E.,...

  13. Assessing Wetland Health Using a Newly Developed Land Cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citizen science combines environmental research with environmental education .... health of the wetland using land cover type impacts. Once the impact is ... to interpret the findings of the quantitative method using the qualitative findings.

  14. A preliminary analysis of water chemistry of the Mkuze Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... The Mkuze Wetland System in northern KwaZulu-Natal constitutes an ... water, groundwater, pan and reed swamp sites, as well as a rainwater sample. ... runoff that drains catchments, whereas aquatic ecosystems are.

  15. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. White

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the soil. We review relevant laboratory research on these various mechanisms and provide data on the few studies that have examined wetland removal. There is a need to document the degree to which various pharmaceutical compounds are removed in full-scale treatment wetlands, as there is a paucity of data on overall pharmaceutical removal rates.

  16. Control of invasive plant species in created wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) has been using a herbicide in the form of glyphosate for the control of unwanted species in created wetlands. Results with this particular herbicide have been somewhat mixed. It was requested that the ...

  17. Determination of dominant biogeochemical processes in a contaminated aquifer-wetland system using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez-Cazull, S. E.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Voytek, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the processes governing aqueous biogeochemistry in a wetland hydrologically linked to an underlying contaminated aquifer is challenging due to the complex exchange between the systems and their distinct responses to changes in precipitation, recharge, and biological activities. To evaluate temporal and spatial processes in the wetland-aquifer system, water samples were collected using cm-scale multichambered passive diffusion samplers (peepers) to span the wetland-aquifer interface over a period of 3 yr. Samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, methane, and a suite of organic acids resulting in a large dataset of over 8000 points, which was evaluated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was chosen with the purpose of exploring the sources of variation in the dataset to expose related variables and provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that control the water chemistry of the system. Factor scores computed from PCA were mapped by date and depth. Patterns observed suggest that (i) fermentation is the process controlling the greatest variability in the dataset and it peaks in May; (ii) iron and sulfate reduction were the dominant terminal electron-accepting processes in the system and were associated with fermentation but had more complex seasonal variability than fermentation; (iii) methanogenesis was also important and associated with bacterial utilization of minerals as a source of electron acceptors (e.g., barite BaSO4); and (iv) seasonal hydrological patterns (wet and dry periods) control the availability of electron acceptors through the reoxidation of reduced iron-sulfur species enhancing iron and sulfate reduction. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; Zhang, Changkuan; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd 2+ /NH 4 + sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH 4 + and Cd 2+ , with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g −1 , respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g −1 ) for Cd 2+ . Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd 2+ sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd 2+ . • NH 4 + and Cd 2+ sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  19. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  20. A Place to Call Home: Amphibian Use of Created and Restored Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of wetland habitats are major contributing factors to the global decline of amphibians. Creation and restoration of wetlands could be a valuable tool for increasing local amphibian species richness and abundance. We synthesized the peer-reviewed literature addressing amphibian use of created and restored wetlands, focusing on aquatic habitat, upland habitat, and wetland connectivity and configuration. Amphibian species richness or abundance at created and restored wetlands was either similar to or greater than reference wetlands in 89% of studies. Use of created and restored wetlands by individual species was driven by aquatic and terrestrial habitat preferences, as well as ability to disperse from source wetlands. We conclude that creating and restoring wetlands can be valuable tools for amphibian conservation. However, the ecological needs and preferences of target species must be considered to maximize the potential for successful colonization and long-term persistence.

  1. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  2. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  3. Wetland plant influence on sediment ecosystem structure and trophic function

    OpenAIRE

    Whitcraft, Christine René

    2007-01-01

    Vascular plants structure wetland ecosystems. To examine mechanisms behind their influence, plants were studied under different scenarios of change: experimental manipulation of cover, invasion, and response to flushing regimes. I tested the hypothesis that wetland plants alter benthic communities through modification of abiotic factors, with cascading effects on microalgae and invertebrate communities. Major plant effects were observed in all systems studied, but the magnitude of, mechanisms...

  4. The use of artificial wetlands to treat greenhouse effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Lévesque, Vicky; Dorais, Martine; Gravel, Valérie; Ménard, Claudine; Antoun, Hani; Rochette, Philippe; Roy, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Untreated greenhouse effluents or leak solution constitute a major environmental burden because their nitrate and phosphate concentrations may induce eutrophication. Artificial wetlands may offer a low cost alternative treatment of greenhouse effluents and consequently improve the sustainability of greenhouse growing systems. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the efficiency of different types of wetland to reduce ion content of greenhouse tomato effluent, and 2) improve the...

  5. Drivers of wetland conversion: a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H; Vermaat, Jan E; Janse, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability), mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors) are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification). Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have determined historic

  6. Impact of chloride on denitrification potential in roadside wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Nakita A; Bushey, Joseph T; Tobias, Craig R; Song, Bongkeun; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-05-01

    Developed landscapes are exposed to changes in hydrology and water chemistry that limit their ability to mitigate detrimental impacts to coastal water bodies, particularly those that result from stormwater runoff. The elevated level of impervious cover increases not only runoff but also contaminant loading of nutrients, metals, and road salt used for deicing to water bodies. Here we investigate the impact that road salt has on denitrification in roadside environments. Sediments were collected from a series of forested and roadside wetlands and acclimated with a range of Cl(-) concentrations from 0 to 5000 mg L(-1) for 96 h. Denitrification rates were measured by the isotope pairing technique using (15)N-NO3(-), while denitrifying community structures were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ). Chloride significantly (p wetlands at a Cl(-) dosage of 2500 or 5000 mg L(-1), but the decrease in denitrification rates was less and not significant for the roadside wetlands historically exposed to elevated concentrations of Cl(-). The difference could not be attributed to other significant changes in conditions, such as DOC concentrations, N species concentrations, or pH levels. Denitrifying communities, as measured by T-RFs of the nosZ gene, in the roadside wetlands with elevated concentration of Cl(-) were distinctly different and more diverse compared to forested wetlands, and also different in roadside wetlands after 96 h exposures to Cl(-). The shifts in denitrifying communities seem to minimize the decrease in denitrification rates in the wetlands previously exposed to Cl. As development results in more Cl(-) use and exposure to a broad range of natural or manmade wetland structures, an understanding of the seasonal effect of Cl on denitrification processes in these systems would aid in design or mitigation of the effects on N removal rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the global carbon cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L; Turner, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of global change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ carbon gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year−1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year−1 are released from tropical wetlands globally. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable carbon balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into global climate change models. PMID:26074666

  8. A Summary of the San Francisco Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The four topical articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series summarized and synthesized much of what is known about tidal wetlands and tidal wetland restoration in the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Despite a substantial amount of available information, major uncertainties remain. A major uncertainty with regard to fishes is the net benefit of restored tidal wetlands relative to other habitats for native fishes in different regions of the Estuary given the presence of numerous invasive alien species. With regard to organic carbon, a major uncertainty is the net benefit of land use change given uncertainty about the quantity and quality of different forms of organic carbon resulting from different land uses. A major challenge is determining the flux of organic carbon from open systems like tidal wetlands. Converting present land uses to tidal wetlands will almost certainly result in increased methylation of mercury at the local scale with associated accumulation of mercury within local food webs. However, it is unclear if such local accumulation is of concern for fish, wildlife or humans at the local scale or if cumulative effects at the regional scale will emerge. Based on available information it is expected that restored tidal wetlands will remain stable once constructed; however, there is uncertainty associated with the available data regarding the balance of sediment accretion, sea-level rise, and sediment erosion. There is also uncertainty regarding the cumulative effect of many tidal restoration projects on sediment supply. The conclusions of the articles highlight the need to adopt a regional and multidisciplinary approach to tidal wetland restoration in the Estuary. The Science Program of the CALFED effort provides an appropriate venue for addressing these issues.

  9. Floristic Quality Index of Restored Wetlands in Coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 5 Ecosystem Management and Restoration Research Program Floristic Quality Index of Restored Wetlands in Coastal...of Wisconsin Lake Plant Communities with Example Applications. Lake and Reservoir Management 15(2): 133-141. Rocchio, J. 2007. Floristic Quality ... quality in Ohio wetlands. Science of the Total Environment 551: (556-562). Steyer, G. D., and R. E. Stewart, Jr. 1992. Monitoring Program for Coastal

  10. Characteristics of biosolids from sludge treatment wetlands for agricultural reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Nielsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) consist of constructed wetlands systems specifically developed for sludge treatment over the last decades. Sludge dewatering and stabilisation are the main features of this technology, leading to a final product which may be recycled as an organic fertiliser or soi...... legal limits for land application of the sludge. Our results suggest that biosolids from the studied STW can be valorised in agriculture, especially as soil conditioner....

  11. Climatic Alterations of Wetlands: Conservation and Adaptation Practices in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Unique geographic location and geo-morphological conditions of Bangladesh have made the wetlands of this country one of the most vulnerable to climate change. Wetland plays a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of ecosystems and cultural figures and which occupy around 50% of the area. Drought, excessive temperature, mountain snowfields and glaciers melting, riverbank erosion, salinity intrusion, flashflood, storm surges, higher water temperatures, precipitation anomalies, coastal cyclones, seasonal anomalies and extremes are main threats to the wetland ecosystem. Enhanced UV-B radiation and increased summer precipitation will significantly increase dissolved organic carbon concentrations altering major biogeochemical cycles and also will result into the expansion of range for many invasive aquatic weeds. Generally, rising temperature will lower water quality through a fall in oxygen concentrations, release of phosphorus from sediments, increased thermal stability, and altered mixing patterns. As a result biodiversity is getting degraded, many species of flora and fauna are getting threatened, and wetland-based ecosystem is getting degenerated. At the same time, the living conditions of local people are deteriorating as livelihoods, socioeconomic institutions, and extensive cultural values as well. For conserving and managing wetlands technology, legislation, educational knowledge, action plan strategy and restoration practices are required. In order to address the human needs in the changing climate community-based adaptation approaches and wetland restoration, practices had been taken in almost every type of wetlands in Bangladesh. Therefore, Bangladesh now needs a comprehensive strategy and integrated system combining political, economic, social, technological approaches and institutional supports to address sustainable wetland restoration, conservation and the newly added crisis, climate change.

  12. Status of wetland birds of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary, Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary (76036-76046 E and 29052-30000 N, situated in Kurukshetra District of Haryana provides an important wintering ground for a diverse range of wetland birds. This study was carried out from April 2009 to March 2012 to document the diversity of wetland birds. Altogether 57 species of wetland birds belonging to 37 genera and 16 families were recorded from the study area. Family Anatidae dominated the wetland bird community with 13 species. Among recorded species, 33 were winter migrants, two summer migrants and 22 were resident species. The winter migratory birds did not arrive at this wetland in one lot and at one time. Instead, they displayed a definite pattern specific to species for arrival and departure. They appeared at the wetland during mid-October and stayed up to early April. The composition of birds in major feeding guilds in the study area showed that the insectivore guild was the most common with 35.09% species, followed by carnivore (29.82%, omnivore (19.30%, herbivore (10.53% and piscivore (5.26%. Among the birds recorded in this study area, Darter (Anhinga melanogaster and Painted Stork (Mycterialeucocephala were Near Threatened species. Comb Duck (Sarkidiornismelanotos, listed in Appendix II of CITES, was also spotted in the sanctuary. The spotting of these threatened bird species highlights the importance of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary as a significant wetland bird habitat in Haryana. However, anthropogenic activities like fire wood collection, livestock grazing, cutting of emergent and fringe vegetation and improper management of the wetland are major threats to the ecology of this landscape.

  13. Halophyte filters as saline treatment wetlands; Applicators and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, J.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purification of wastewater rich in nutrients and organic pollutants is essential for the protection of receiving waters and to enable water reuse. This report investigates the possibilities and constraints of constructed wetlands for treatment of slightly saline wastewater from aquaculture systems. As the body of literature for saline treatment wetlands is relatively small, the reports starts with a summary of processes in freshwater systems. It is then explained that these processes are also...

  14. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Wastewater: Wetland Treatment as a Potential Solution

    OpenAIRE

    White, John R.; Belmont, Marco A.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds are being released into the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge around the globe. While there is limited removal of these compounds within wastewater treatment plants, wetland treatment might prove to be an effective means to reduce the discharge of the compounds into the environment. Wetlands can promote removal of these pharmaceutical compounds through a number of mechanisms including photolysis, plant uptake, microbial degradation, and sorption to the ...

  15. User Guide for Automated Wetland Determination Data Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-25

    are not visible to the user . As a result, it is important that users open a fresh copy of the Excel® file for every use and ensure that macros are...input on the ADS and this user guide. REFERENCES Berkowitz, J. F. 2011a. Regionalizing the Corps of Engineers wetland delineation manual : Process...Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program ERDC/TN WRAP-17-1 July 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. User Guide for

  16. Assessing ecosystem carbon stocks of Indonesia's threatened wetland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M.; Kauffman, B.; Murdiyarso, D.; Kurnianto, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over millennia, atmospheric carbon dioxide has been sequestered and stored in Indonesia's tropical wetland forests. Waterlogged conditions impede decomposition, allowing the formation of deep organic soils. These globally significant C pools are highly vulnerable to deforestation, degradation and climate change which can potentially switch their function as C sinks to long term sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also at risk are critical ecosystem services which sustain millions of people and the conservation of unique biological communities. The multiple benefits derived from wetland forest conservation makes them attractive for international C offset programs such as the proposed Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) mechanism. Yet, ecosystem C pools and fluxes in wetland forests remain poorly quantified. Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding how land use changes impact C dynamics in tropical wetlands, and very few studies have simultaneously assessed above- and belowground ecosystem C pools in Indonesia's freshwater peat swamps and mangroves. In addition, most of what is known about Indonesia's tropical wetland forests is derived from few geographic locations where long-standing research has focused, despite their broad spatial distribution. Here we present results from an extensive survey of ecosystem C stocks across several Indonesian wetland forests. Ecosystem C stocks were measured in freshwater peat swamp forests in West Papua, Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and Sumatra. Carbon storage was also measured for mangrove forests in W. Papua, W. Kalimantan, and Sumatra. One overarching goal of this research is to support the development of REDD+ for tropical wetlands by informing technical issues related to carbon measuring, monitoring, and verification (MRV) and providing baseline data about the variation of ecosystem C storage across and within several Indonesian wetland forests.

  17. Driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhai

    2016-09-01

    This research revealed important driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands (DFEMW) in China. Using China's provincial panel data from 1978 to 2008, a fixed-effects model was used to analyze the impacts of agricultural production systems on wetlands. We identified three DFEMW as follows: the change of wetland resources and protection measures in China; declaration and implementation of the provincial Wetland Protection Ordinance; and wetland degradation by agricultural production systems, which necessitated the establishment of a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. In addition to the DFEMW, a significant positive correlation between wetland area and both rural population and gross agricultural production was identified, in addition to a negative correlation with chemical fertilizer usage, reservoir storage capacity, and irrigation area. The underlying reasons for the serious degradation and inadequate protection of wetlands were market failure and government failure; these were the driving forces behind the need to establish a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. From a governmental perspective, it has been difficult to rectify market failures in resource distribution and thus to prevent wetland degradation. Factors include conflicts of interest, lack of investment, effective special laws, a simple means to protect wetlands, and a multidisciplinary management system. Therefore, the key factor is the coordination of interest relationships between those who utilize wetlands and those who seek to minimize wetland degradation and effectively protect wetlands.

  18. Interaction between continental and estuarine waters in the wetlands of the northern coastal plain of Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carol, Eleonora; Mas-Pla, Josep; Kruse, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Inland and estuarine water flows define wetland hydrology on the Samborombón Bay. • Hydrochemistry in shell-ridges and tidal plains is due to water–rock interaction. • Mixing, evaporation and halite dissolution determine salinity in marshes. • Water flow from the shell-ridges control the overall wetland water quality. • These wetlands are complex hydrological systems with vulnerable water resources. - Abstract: On the Samborombón Bay coastline, located in the Río de la Plata estuary in Buenos Aires province (Argentina), a complex hydrological system has developed at the interface between continental and estuarine water, where significant wetlands develop. The main hydrogeological units, namely the shell ridges, the tidal plain and the marsh areas, have been identified using geomorphological criteria. Water table, hydrochemical and isotopic data have been used to determine their hydrological features, as well as those of the streams and canals. Evaporation processes, in particular, have been considered when depicting chemical and isotopic changes in surface waters in streams and marsh areas. The shell ridges represent a hydrogeological unit in which rainwater is stored, constituting a lens-shaped freshwater aquifer. In this unit, just as in the tidal plain, carbonate dissolution and ion exchange are the main processes regulating water chemistry. On the other hand, in the marsh and surface waters, processes such as mixing with estuarine water and evaporation predominate. These processes control water fluxes and the salinity of the wetland areas and, consequently, their ability to preserve the existing biodiversity. This study shows the importance of knowledge of hydrochemical processes in any proposal concerning the management and preservation of this type of wetland

  19. Advancing Wetlands Mapping and Monitoring with GNSS Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffada, Cinzia; Chew, Clara; Nghiem, Son V.; Shah, Rashmi; Podest, Erika; Bloom, A. Anthony; Koning, Alexandra; Small, Eric; Schimel, David; Reager, J. T.; Mannucci, Anthony; Williamson, Walton; Cardellach, Estel

    2016-08-01

    Wetland dynamics is crucial to address changes in both atmospheric methane (CH4) and terrestrial water storage. Yet, both spatial distribution and temporal variability of wetlands remain highly unconstrained despite the existence of remote sensing products from past and present satellite sensors. An innovative approach to mapping wetlands is offered by the Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R), which is a bistatic radar concept that takes advantage of the ever increasing number of GNSS transmitting satellites to yield many randomly distributed measurements with broad-area global coverage and rapid revisit time. Hence, this communication presents the science motivation for mapping of wetlands and monitoring of their dynamics, and shows the relevance of the GNSS-R technique in this context, relative to and in synergy with other existing measurement systems. Additionally, the communication discusses results of our data analysis on wetlands in the Amazon, specifically from the initial analysis of satellite data acquired by the TechDemoSat-1 mission launched in 2014. Finally, recommendations are provided for the design of a GNSS-R mission specifically to address wetlands science issues.

  20. Climate and land-use change in wetlands: A dedication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2017-01-01

    Future climate and land-use change may wreak havoc on wetlands, with the potential to erode their values as harbors for biota and providers of human services. Wetlands are important to protect, particularly because these provide a variety of ecosystem services including wildlife habitat, water purification, flood storage, and storm protection (Mitsch, Bernal, and Hernandez 2015). Without healthy wetlands, future generations may become increasingly less in harmony with the sustainability of the Earth. To this end, the thematic feature on climate and land-use change in wetlands explores the critical role of wetlands in the overall health and well-being of humans and our planet. Our special feature contributes to the understanding of the idea that the health of natural ecosystems and humans are linked and potentially stressed by climate change and land-use change (Horton and Lo 2015; McDonald 2015). In particular, this special issue considers the important role of wetlands in the environment, and how land-use and environmental change might affect them in the future.