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Sample records for hd-zip iv transcription

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor family in Gossypium arboreum and GaHDG11 involved in osmotic tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

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    Chen, Eryong; Zhang, Xueyan; Yang, Zhaoen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Yang, Zuoren; Zhang, Chaojun; Wu, Zhixia; Kong, Depei; Liu, Zhao; Zhao, Ge; Butt, Hamama Islam; Zhang, Xianlong; Li, Fuguang

    2017-06-01

    HD-ZIP IV proteins belong to the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factor family and are involved in trichome development and drought stress in plants. Although some functions of the HD-ZIP IV group are well understood in Arabidopsis, little is known about their function in cotton. In this study, HD-ZIP genes were identified from three Gossypium species (G. arboreum, G. raimondii and G. hirsutum) and clustered into four families (HD-ZIP I, II, III and IV) to separate HD-ZIP IV from the other three families. Systematic analyses of phylogeny, gene structure, conserved domains, and expression profiles in different plant tissues and the expression patterns under osmotic stress in leaves were further conducted in G. arboreum. More importantly, ectopic overexpression of GaHDG11, a representative of the HD-ZIP IV family, confers enhanced osmotic tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, possibly due to elongated primary root length, lower water loss rates, high osmoprotectant proline levels, significant levels of antioxidants CAT, and/or SOD enzyme activity with reduced levels of MDA. Taken together, these observations may lay the foundation for future functional analysis of cotton HD-ZIP IV genes to unravel their biological roles in cotton.

  2. Structure and function of homodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins.

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    Elhiti, Mohamed; Stasolla, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins are transcription factors unique to plants and are encoded by more than 25 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on sequence analyses these proteins have been classified into four distinct groups: HD-Zip I-IV. HD-Zip proteins are characterized by the presence of two functional domains; a homeodomain (HD) responsible for DNA binding and a leucine zipper domain (Zip) located immediately C-terminal to the homeodomain and involved in protein-protein interaction. Despite sequence similarities HD-ZIP proteins participate in a variety of processes during plant growth and development. HD-Zip I proteins are generally involved in responses related to abiotic stress, abscisic acid (ABA), blue light, de-etiolation and embryogenesis. HD-Zip II proteins participate in light response, shade avoidance and auxin signalling. Members of the third group (HD-Zip III) control embryogenesis, leaf polarity, lateral organ initiation and meristem function. HD-Zip IV proteins play significant roles during anthocyanin accumulation, differentiation of epidermal cells, trichome formation and root development.

  3. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

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    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  4. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

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    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  5. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

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    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  6. Comprehensive characterization and RNA-Seq profiling of the HD-Zip transcription factor family in soybean (Glycine max) during dehydration and salt stress

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    The homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is one of the largest plant specific superfamilies, and includes genes with roles in modulation of plant growth and response to environmental stresses. Many HD-Zip genes are well characterized in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), ...

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

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    Zhang, C H; Ma, R J; Shen, Z J; Sun, X; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2014-04-08

    In this study, 33 homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes were identified in peach using the HD-ZIP amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and the individual gene or protein characteristics, the HD-ZIP gene family in peach can be classified into 4 subfamilies, HD-ZIP I, II, III, and IV, containing 14, 7, 4, and 8 members, respectively. The most closely related peach HD-ZIP members within the same subfamilies shared very similar gene structure in terms of either intron/exon numbers or lengths. Almost all members of the same subfamily shared common motif compositions, thereby implying that the HD-ZIP proteins within the same subfamily may have functional similarity. The 33 peach HD-ZIP genes were distributed across scaffolds 1 to 7. Although the primary structure varied among HD-ZIP family proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. The results from this study will be useful in selecting candidate genes from specific subfamilies for functional analysis.

  8. Stage-specific regulation of four HD-ZIP III transcription factors during polar pattern formation in Larix leptolepis somatic embryos.

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    Li, Shui-gen; Li, Wan-feng; Han, Su-ying; Yang, Wen-hua; Qi, Li-wang

    2013-06-15

    Polar auxin transport provides a developmental signal for cell fate specification during somatic embryogenesis. Some members of the HD-ZIP III transcription factors participate in regulation of auxin transport, but little is known about this regulation in somatic embryogenesis. Here, four HD-ZIP III homologues from Larix leptolepis were identified and designated LaHDZ31, 32, 33 and 34. The occurrence of a miR165/166 target sequence in all four cDNA sequences indicated that they might be targets of miR165/166. Identification of the cleavage products of LaHDZ31 and LaHDZ32 in vivo confirmed that they were regulated by miRNA. Their mRNA accumulation patterns during somatic embryogenesis and the effects of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on their transcript levels and somatic embryo maturation were investigated. The results showed that the four genes had higher transcript levels at mature stages than at the proliferation stage, and that NPA treatment down-regulated the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ31, 32 and 33 at cotyledonary embryo stages, but had no effect on the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ34. We concluded that these four members of Larix HD-ZIP III family might participate in polar auxin transport and the development of somatic embryos, providing new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A genome-wide survey of homeodomain-leucine zipper genes and analysis of cold-responsive HD-Zip I members' expression in tomato.

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    Zhang, Zhenzhu; Chen, Xiuling; Guan, Xin; Liu, Yang; Chen, Hongyu; Wang, Tingting; Mouekouba, Liana Dalcantara Ongouya; Li, Jingfu; Wang, Aoxue

    2014-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins are a kind of transcriptional factors that play a vital role in plant growth and development. However, no detailed information of HD-Zip family in tomato has been reported till now. In this study, 51 HD-Zip genes (SlHZ01-51) in this family were identified and categorized into 4 classes by exon-intron and protein structure in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome. The synthetical phylogenetic tree of tomato, Arabidopsis and rice HD-Zip genes were established for an insight into their evolutionary relationships and putative functions. The results showed that the contribution of segmental duplication was larger than that of tandem duplication for expansion and evolution of genes in this family of tomato. The expression profile results under abiotic stress suggested that all SlHZ I genes were responsive to cold stress. This study will provide a clue for the further investigation of functional identification and the role of tomato HD-Zip I subfamily in plant cold stress responses and developmental events.

  10. PpHB22, a member of HD-Zip proteins, activates PpDAM1 to regulate bud dormancy transition in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia White Pear Group).

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    Yang, Qinsong; Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Ma, Yunjing; Bai, Songling; Teng, Yuanwen

    2018-06-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins, which form one of the largest and most diverse families, regulate many biological processes in plants, including differentiation, flowering, vascular development, and stress signaling. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been proved to be one of the key regulators of bud dormancy and to influence several HD-Zip genes expression. However, the role of HD-Zip genes in regulating bud dormancy remains unclear. We identified 47 pear (P. pyrifolia White Pear Group) HD-Zip genes, which were classified into four subfamilies (HD-Zip I-IV). We further revealed that gene expression levels of some HD-Zip members were closely related to ABA concentrations in flower buds during dormancy transition. Exogenous ABA treatment confirmed that PpHB22 and several other HD-Zip genes responded to ABA. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase assay results combining subcellular localization showed that PpHB22 was present in nucleus and directly induced PpDAM1 (dormancy associated MADS-box 1) expression. Thus, PpHB22 is a negative regulator of plant growth associated with the ABA response pathway and functions upstream of PpDAM1. These findings enrich our understanding of the function of HD-Zip genes related to the bud dormancy transition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and expression analysis of four HD-ZIP III family genes targeted by microRNA166 in peach.

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    Zhang, C H; Zhang, B B; Ma, R J; Yu, M L; Guo, S L; Guo, L

    2015-10-30

    MicroRNA166 (miR166) is known to have highly conserved targets that encode proteins of the class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP III) family, in a broad range of plant species. To further understand the relationship between HD-ZIP III genes and miR166, four HD-ZIP III family genes (PpHB14, PpHB15, PpHB8, and PpREV) were isolated from peach (Prunus persica) tissue and characterized. Spatio-temporal expression profiles of the genes were analyzed. Genes of the peach HD-ZIP III family were predicted to encode five conserved domains. Deduced amino acid sequences and tertiary structures of the four peach HD-ZIP III genes were highly conserved, with corresponding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression level of four targets displayed the opposite trend to that of miR166 throughout fruit development, with the exception of PpHB14 from 35 to 55 days after full bloom (DAFB). This finding indicates that miR166 may negatively regulate its four targets throughout fruit development. As for leaf and phloem, the same trend in expression level was observed between four targets and miR166 from 75 to 105 DAFB. However, the opposite trend was observed for the transcript level between four targets and miR166 from 35 to 55 DAFB. miRNA166 may negatively regulate four targets in some but not all developmental stages for a given tissue. The four genes studied were observed to have, exactly or generally, the same change tendency as individual tissue development, a finding that suggests genes of the HD-ZIP III family in peach may have complementary or cooperative functions in various tissues.

  12. Abscisic acid signaling is controlled by a BRANCHED1/HD-ZIP I cascade in Arabidopsis axillary buds.

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    González-Grandío, Eduardo; Pajoro, Alice; Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Tarancón, Carlos; Immink, Richard G H; Cubas, Pilar

    2017-01-10

    Shoot-branching patterns determine key aspects of plant life and are important targets for crop breeding. However, we are still largely ignorant of the genetic networks controlling locally the most important decision during branch development: whether the axillary bud, or branch primordium, grows out to give a lateral shoot or remains dormant. Here we show that, inside the buds, the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF (TCP) transcription factor BRANCHED1 (BRC1) binds to and positively regulates the transcription of three related Homeodomain leucine zipper protein (HD-ZIP)-encoding genes: HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 21 (HB21), HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 40 (HB40), and HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 53 (HB53). These three genes, together with BRC1, enhance 9-CIS-EPOXICAROTENOID DIOXIGENASE 3 (NCED3) expression, lead to abscisic acid accumulation, and trigger hormone response, thus causing suppression of bud development. This TCP/HD-ZIP genetic module seems to be conserved in dicot and monocotyledonous species to prevent branching under light-limiting conditions.

  13. The Populus Class III HD ZIP, popREVOLUTA, influences cambium initiation and patterning of woody stems

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    Marcel Robischon; Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The secondary growth of a woody stem requires the formation of a vascular cambium at an appropriate position and proper patterning of the vascular tissues derived from the cambium. Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD ZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in polarity determination and patterning in lateral organs and primary vascular tissues and in the...

  14. Function of the HD-Zip I gene Oshox22 in ABA-mediated drought and salt tolerances in rice

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    Zhang, S.; Kohlen, W.; Jiang, L.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Meijer, A.H.; Schluepmann, H.; Liu, C.M.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.

    2012-01-01

    Oshox22 belongs to the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) family I of transcription factors, most of which have unknown functions. Here we show that the expression of Oshox22 is strongly induced by salt stress, abscisic acid (ABA), and polyethylene glycol treatment (PEG), and weakly by cold stress.

  15. Environmental regulation of lateral root emergence in Medicago truncatula requires the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1.

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    Ariel, Federico; Diet, Anouck; Verdenaud, Marion; Gruber, Véronique; Frugier, Florian; Chan, Raquel; Crespi, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The adaptation of root architecture to environmental constraints is a major agricultural trait, notably in legumes, the third main crop worldwide. This root developmental plasticity depends on the formation of lateral roots (LRs) emerging from primary roots. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1 is expressed in primary and lateral root meristems and induced by salt stress. Constitutive expression of HB1 in M. truncatula roots alters their architecture, whereas hb1 TILLING mutants showed increased lateral root emergence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, promoter mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays revealed that HB1 directly recognizes a CAATAATTG cis-element present in the promoter of a LOB-like (for Lateral Organ Boundaries) gene, LBD1, transcriptionally regulated by auxin. Expression of these genes in response to abscisic acid and auxin and their behavior in hb1 mutants revealed an HB1-mediated repression of LBD1 acting during LR emergence. M. truncatula HB1 regulates an adaptive developmental response to minimize the root surface exposed to adverse environmental stresses.

  16. JUNGBRUNNEN1 Confers Drought Tolerance Downstream of the HD-Zip I Transcription Factor AtHB13

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    Saghar Ebrahimian-Motlagh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low water availability is the major environmental factor limiting growth and productivity of plants and crops and is therefore considered of high importance for agriculture affected by climate change. Identifying regulatory components controlling the response and tolerance to drought stress is thus of major importance. The NAC transcription factor (TF JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1 from Arabidopsis thaliana extends leaf longevity under non-stress growth conditions, lowers cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 level, and enhances tolerance against heat stress and salinity. Here, we additionally find that JUB1 strongly increases tolerance to drought stress in Arabidopsis when expressed from both, a constitutive (CaMV 35S and an abiotic stress-induced (RD29A promoter. Employing a yeast one-hybrid screen we identified HD-Zip class I TF AtHB13 as an upstream regulator of JUB1. AtHB13 has previously been reported to act as a positive regulator of drought tolerance. AtHB13 and JUB1 thereby establish a joint drought stress control module.

  17. Chickpea WRKY70 Regulates the Expression of a Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) I Transcription Factor CaHDZ12, which Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco and Chickpea.

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    Sen, Senjuti; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Ghosh, Prithwi; Basu, Debabrata; Das, Sampa

    2017-11-01

    Drought and salinity are the two major environmental constraints that severely affect global agricultural productivity. Plant-specific HD-Zip transcription factors are involved in plant growth, development and stress responses. In the present study, we explored the functional characteristics and regulation of a novel HD-Zip (I) gene from chickpea, CaHDZ12, in response to water-deficit and salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco lines over-expressing CaHDZ12 exhibited improved tolerance to osmotic stresses and increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA). Physiological compatibility of transgenic lines was found to be more robust compared to the wild-type plants under drought and salinity stress. Additionally, expression of several stress-responsive genes was significantly induced in CaHDZ12 transgenic plants. On the other hand, silencing of CaHDZ12 in chickpea resulted in increased sensitivity to salt and drought stresses. Analysis of different promoter deletion mutants identified CaWRKY70 transcription factor as a transcriptional regulator of CaHDZ12 expression. In vivo and in vitro interaction studies detected an association between CaWRKY70 and CaHDZ12 promoter during stress responses. Epigenetic modifications underlying histone acetylation at the CaHDZ12 promoter region play a significant role in stress-induced activation of this gene. Collectively, our study describes a crucial and unique mechanistic link between two distinct transcription factors in regulating plant adaptive stress response. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Genome wide identification and expression analysis of Homeodomain leucine zipper subfamily IV (HDZ IV gene family from Musa accuminata

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    Ashutosh ePandey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The homedodomain zipper family (HD-ZIP of transcription factors is present only in plants and plays important role in the regulation of plant-specific processes. The subfamily IV of HDZ transcription factors (HD-ZIP IV has primarily been implicated in the regulation of epidermal structure development. Though this gene family is present in all lineages of land plants, members of this gene family have not been identified in banana, which is one of the major staple fruit crops. In the present work, we identified 21 HDZIV genes in banana by the computational analysis of banana genome resource. Our analysis suggested that these genes putatively encode proteins having all the characteristic domains of HDZIV transcription factors. The phylogenetic analysis of the banana HDZIV family genes further confirmed that after separation from a common ancestor, the banana and poales lineages might have followed distinct evolutionary paths. Further, we conclude that segmental duplication played a major role in the evolution of banana HDZIV genes. All the identified banana HDZIV genes expresses in different banana tissue, however at varying levels. The transcript levels of some of the banana HDZIV genes were also detected in banana fruit pulp, suggesting their putative role in fruit attributes. A large number of genes of this family showed modulated expression under drought and salinity stress. Taken together, the present work lays a foundation for elucidation of functional aspects of the banana HDZIV genes and for their possible use in the banana improvement programs.

  19. bZIPs and WRKYs: two large transcription factor families executing two different functional strategies

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    Carles eMarco Llorca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available bZIPs and WRKYs are two important plant transcription factor families regulating diverse developmental and stress-related processes. Since a partial overlap in these biological processes is obvious, it can be speculated that they fulfill non-redundant functions in a complex regulatory network. Here, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms that are so far described for bZIPs and WRKYs. bZIP factors need to heterodimerize for DNA-binding and regulation of transcription, and based on a bioinformatics approach, bZIPs can build up more than the double of protein interactions than WRKYs. In contrast, an enrichment of the WRKY DNA-binding motifs can be found in WRKY promoters, a phenomenon which is not observed for the bZIP family. Thus, the two transcription factor families follow two different functional strategies in which WRKYs regulate each other’s transcription in a transcriptional network whereas bZIP action relies on intensive heterodimerization.

  20. The role of ZIP transporters and group F bZIP transcription factors in the Zn-deficiency response of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

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    Evens, Nicholas P; Buchner, Peter; Williams, Lorraine E; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of zinc (Zn) uptake and transport in staple cereal crops is critical for improving both Zn content and tolerance to low-Zn soils. This study demonstrates the importance of group F bZIP transcription factors and ZIP transporters in responses to Zn deficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Seven group F TabZIP genes and 14 ZIPs with homeologs were identified in hexaploid wheat. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of Zn-deficiency-response elements (ZDREs) in a number of the ZIPs. Functional complementation of the zrt1/zrt2 yeast mutant by TaZIP3, -6, -7, -9 and -13 supported an ability to transport Zn. Group F TabZIPs contain the group-defining cysteine-histidine-rich motifs, which are the predicted binding site of Zn 2+ in the Zn-deficiency response. Conservation of these motifs varied between the TabZIPs suggesting that individual TabZIPs may have specific roles in the wheat Zn-homeostatic network. Increased expression in response to low Zn levels was observed for several of the wheat ZIPs and bZIPs; this varied temporally and spatially suggesting specific functions in the response mechanism. The ability of the group F TabZIPs to bind to specific ZDREs in the promoters of TaZIPs indicates a conserved mechanism in monocots and dicots in responding to Zn deficiency. In support of this, TabZIPF1-7DL and TabZIPF4-7AL afforded a strong level of rescue to the Arabidopsis hypersensitive bzip19 bzip23 double mutant under Zn deficiency. These results provide a greater understanding of Zn-homeostatic mechanisms in wheat, demonstrating an expanded repertoire of group F bZIP transcription factors, adding to the complexity of Zn homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Flavonoids modify root growth and modulate expression of SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III.

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    Franco, Danilo Miralha; Silva, Eder Marques; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Adachi, Sérgio Akira; Schley, Thayssa Rabelo; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Dokkedal, Anne Ligia; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira; Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Flavonoids are a class of distinct compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism that inhibit or promote plant development and have a relationship with auxin transport. We showed that, in terms of root development, Copaifera langsdorffii leaf extracts has an inhibitory effect on most flavonoid components compared with the application of exogenous flavonoids (glycosides and aglycones). These compounds alter the pattern of expression of the SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III transcription factor gene family and cause morpho-physiological alterations in sorghum roots. In addition, to examine the flavonoid auxin interaction in stress, we correlated the responses with the effects of exogenous application of auxin and an auxin transport inhibitor. The results show that exogenous flavonoids inhibit primary root growth and increase the development of lateral roots. Exogenous flavonoids also change the pattern of expression of specific genes associated with root tissue differentiation. These findings indicate that flavonoid glycosides can influence the polar transport of auxin, leading to stress responses that depend on auxin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Reprogramming of metabolism by the Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP11 transcription factor

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    Ma, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis bZIP11 transcription factor is known to regulate amino acid metabolism, and transcriptomic analysis suggests that bZIP11 has a broader regulatory effects in metabolism. Moreover, sucrose controls its translation via its uORF and all the available evidences point to the fact that

  3. Genomic survey of bZIP transcription factor genes related to tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza

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    Yu Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinones are a class of bioactive components in the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis and regulation have been widely studied. Current studies show that basic leucine zipper (bZIP proteins regulate plant secondary metabolism, growth and developmental processes. However, the bZIP transcription factors involved in tanshinone biosynthesis are unknown. Here, we conducted the first genome-wide survey of the bZIP gene family and analyzed the phylogeny, gene structure, additional conserved motifs and alternative splicing events in S. miltiorrhiza. A total of 70 SmbZIP transcription factors were identified and categorized into 11 subgroups based on their phylogenetic relationships with those in Arabidopsis. Moreover, seventeen SmbZIP genes underwent alternative splicing events. According to the transcriptomic data, the SmbZIP genes that were highly expressed in the Danshen root and periderm were selected. Based on the prediction of bZIP binding sites in the promoters and the co-expression analysis and co-induction patterns in response to Ag+ treatment via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, we concluded that SmbZIP7 and SmbZIP20 potentially participate in the regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis. These results provide a foundation for further functional characterization of the candidate SmbZIP genes, which have the potential to increase tanshinone production. KEY WORDS: bZIP genes, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Phylogenetic analysis, Expression pattern analysis, Tanshinone biosynthesis

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Structural Analysis of bZIP Transcription Factor Genes in Brassica napus.

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    Zhou, Yan; Xu, Daixiang; Jia, Ledong; Huang, Xiaohu; Ma, Guoqiang; Wang, Shuxian; Zhu, Meichen; Zhang, Aoxiang; Guan, Mingwei; Lu, Kun; Xu, Xinfu; Wang, Rui; Li, Jiana; Qu, Cunmin

    2017-10-24

    The basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factor family is one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. bZIP genes have been systematically characterized in some plants, but not in rapeseed ( Brassica napus ). In this study, we identified 247 BnbZIP genes in the rapeseed genome, which we classified into 10 subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis of their deduced protein sequences. The BnbZIP genes were grouped into functional clades with Arabidopsis genes with similar putative functions, indicating functional conservation. Genome mapping analysis revealed that the BnbZIPs are distributed unevenly across all 19 chromosomes, and that some of these genes arose through whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. All expression profiles of 247 bZIP genes were extracted from RNA-sequencing data obtained from 17 different B . napus ZS11 tissues with 42 various developmental stages. These genes exhibited different expression patterns in various tissues, revealing that these genes are differentially regulated. Our results provide a valuable foundation for functional dissection of the different BnbZIP homologs in B . napus and its parental lines and for molecular breeding studies of bZIP genes in B . napus .

  5. Overexpression of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bZIP transcription factor gene, TabZIP6, decreased the freezing tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings by down-regulating the expression of CBFs.

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    Cai, Wangting; Yang, Yaling; Wang, Weiwei; Guo, Guangyan; Liu, Wei; Bi, Caili

    2018-03-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins play important roles against abiotic stress in plants, including cold stress. However, most bZIPs involved in plant freezing tolerance are positive regulators. Only a few bZIPs function negatively in cold stress response. In this study, TabZIP6, a Group C bZIP transcription factor gene from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was cloned and characterized. The transcript of TabZIP6 was strongly induced by cold treatment (4 °C). TabZIP6 is a nuclear-localized protein with transcriptional activation activity. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TabZIP6 showed decreased tolerance to freezing stress. Microarray as well as quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that CBFs and some key COR genes, including COR47 and COR15B, were down-regulated by cold treatment in TabZIP6-overexpressing Arabidopsis lines. TabZIP6 was capable of binding to the G-box motif and the CBF1 and CBF3 promoters in yeast cells. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that TabZIP6, as well as the other two Group S bZIP proteins involved in cold stress tolerance in wheat, Wlip19 and TaOBF1, can form homodimers by themselves and heterodimers with each other. These results suggest that TabZIP6 may function negatively in the cold stress response by binding to the promoters of CBFs, and thereby decreasing the expression of downstream COR genes in TabZIP6-overexpressing Arabidopsis seedlings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Genome-wide systematic characterization of the bZIP transcriptional factor family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

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    Li, Dayong; Fu, Fuyou; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming

    2015-10-12

    Transcription factors of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family represent exclusively in eukaryotes and have been shown to regulate diverse biological processes in plant growth and development as well as in abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, little is known about the bZIP family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The SlbZIP genes were identified using local BLAST and hidden Markov model profile searches. The phylogenetic trees, conserved motifs and gene structures were generated by MEGA6.06, MEME tool and gene Structure Display Server, respectively. The syntenic block diagrams were generated by the Circos software. The transcriptional gene expression profiles were obtained using Genevestigator tool and quantitative RT-PCR. In the present study, we carried out a genome-wide identification and systematic analyses of 69 SlbZIP genes that distributes unevenly on the tomato chromosomes. This family can be divided into 9 groups according to the phylogenetic relationship among the SlbZIP proteins. Six kinds of intron patterns (a-f) within the basic and hinge regions are defined. The additional conserved motifs and their presence of the group specificity were also identified. Further, we predicted the DNA-binding patterns and the dimerization property on the basis of the characteristic features in the basic and hinge regions and the leucine zipper, respectively, which supports our classification greatly and helps to classify 24 distinct subfamilies. Within the SlbZIP family, a total of 40 SlbZIP genes are located in the segmental duplicate regions in the tomato genome, suggesting that the segment chromosomal duplications contribute greatly to the expansion of the tomato SlbZIP family. Expression profiling analyses of 59 SlbZIP genes using quantitative RT-PCR and publicly available microarray data indicate that the tomato SlbZIP genes have distinct and diverse expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages and many of the tomato bZIP genes

  7. OsbZIP58, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, regulates starch biosynthesis in rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Chen; Xu, Heng; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Qiao-Quan; Cai, Xiu-Ling

    2013-08-01

    Starch composition and the amount in endosperm, both of which contribute dramatically to seed yield, cooking quality, and taste in cereals, are determined by a series of complex biochemical reactions. However, the mechanism regulating starch biosynthesis in cereal seeds is not well understood. This study showed that OsbZIP58, a bZIP transcription factor, is a key transcriptional regulator controlling starch synthesis in rice endosperm. OsbZIP58 was expressed mainly in endosperm during active starch synthesis. osbzip58 null mutants displayed abnormal seed morphology with altered starch accumulation in the white belly region and decreased amounts of total starch and amylose. Moreover, osbzip58 had a higher proportion of short chains and a lower proportion of intermediate chains of amylopectin. Furthermore, OsbZIP58 was shown to bind directly to the promoters of six starch-synthesizing genes, OsAGPL3, Wx, OsSSIIa, SBE1, OsBEIIb, and ISA2, and to regulate their expression. These findings indicate that OsbZIP58 functions as a key regulator of starch synthesis in rice seeds and provide new insights into seed quality control.

  8. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Thalor

    Full Text Available Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT. It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  9. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalor, Sunil Kumar; Berberich, Thomas; Lee, Sung Shin; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhu, Xujun; Imai, Ryozo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT). It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF) found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  10. Identification of an Arabidopsis transmembrane bZIP transcription factor involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Hiromi; Iwata, Yuji; Iwano, Megumi; Takayama, Seiji; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2008-01-01

    Among 75 bZIP transcription factors identified in Arabidopsis, 3 (AtbZIP17, AtbZIP28, and AtbZIP49) possess a putative transmembrane domain (TMD) in addition to AtbZIP60, which was characterized previously. In the present study, cDNAs of AtbZIP17 and AtbZIP28 were isolated. Truncated forms of AtbZIP17 and AtbZIP28 lacking the C-terminal domain including TMD were examined as putative active forms. One of them, AtbZIP28ΔC, activated BiP1 and BiP3 promoters through the cis-elements P-UPRE and ERSE responsible for the ER stress response. Subsequently, a fusion protein of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AtbZIP28 was expressed in Arabidopsis cultured cells. Under non-stress conditions, GFP fluorescence localization almost overlapped with an ER marker; however, tunicamycin and dithiothreitol treatment clearly increased GFP fluorescence in the nucleus suggesting that the N-terminal fragment of AtbZIP28 translocates to the nucleus in response to ER stress

  11. Exploring the bZIP transcription factor regulatory network in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chaoguang; Li, Jingyi; Glass, N Louise

    2011-03-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key nodes of regulatory networks in eukaryotic organisms, including filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa. The 178 predicted DNA-binding TFs in N. crassa are distributed primarily among six gene families, which represent an ancient expansion in filamentous ascomycete genomes; 98 TF genes show detectable expression levels during vegetative growth of N. crassa, including 35 that show a significant difference in expression level between hyphae at the periphery versus hyphae in the interior of a colony. Regulatory networks within a species genome include paralogous TFs and their respective target genes (TF regulon). To investigate TF network evolution in N. crassa, we focused on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF family, which contains nine members. We performed baseline transcriptional profiling during vegetative growth of the wild-type and seven isogenic, viable bZIP deletion mutants. We further characterized the regulatory network of one member of the bZIP family, NCU03905. NCU03905 encodes an Ap1-like protein (NcAp-1), which is involved in resistance to multiple stress responses, including oxidative and heavy metal stress. Relocalization of NcAp-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was associated with exposure to stress. A comparison of the NcAp-1 regulon with Ap1-like regulons in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus showed both conservation and divergence. These data indicate how N. crassa responds to stress and provide information on pathway evolution.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of F-bZIP transcription factors indicates conservation of the zinc deficiency response across land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Lilay, Grmay Hailu; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors control important developmental and physiological processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three gene F-bZIP subfamily has been associated with zinc deficiency and salt stress response. Benefiting from the present abundance of plant genomic...... data, we performed an evolutionary and structural characterization of plant F-bZIPs. We observed divergence during seed plant evolution, into two groups and inferred different selective pressures for each. Group 1 contains AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 and appears more conserved, whereas Group 2, containing...... of AtZIP4. A survey of AtZIP4 orthologs promoters across different plant taxa revealed an enrichment of the Zinc Deficiency Response Element (ZDRE) to which both AtbZIP19/23 bind. Overall, our results indicate that while the AtbZIP24 function in the regulation of the salt stress response may...

  13. The transcription factor bZIP14 regulates the TCA cycle in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthijs, Michiel; Fabris, Michele; Obata, Toshihiro; Foubert, Imogen; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Fernie, Alisdair R; Vyverman, Wim; Goossens, Alain

    2017-06-01

    Diatoms are amongst the most important marine microalgae in terms of biomass, but little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms that regulate their versatile metabolism. Here, the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was studied at the metabolite and transcriptome level during nitrogen starvation and following imposition of three other stresses that impede growth. The coordinated upregulation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle during the nitrogen stress response was the most striking observation. Through co-expression analysis and DNA binding assays, the transcription factor bZIP14 was identified as a regulator of the TCA cycle, also beyond the nitrogen starvation response, namely in diurnal regulation. Accordingly, metabolic and transcriptional shifts were observed upon overexpression of bZIP14 in transformed P. tricornutum cells. Our data indicate that the TCA cycle is a tightly regulated and important hub for carbon reallocation in the diatom cell during nutrient starvation and that bZIP14 is a conserved regulator of this cycle. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Transcriptional repression of BODENLOS by HD-ZIP transcription factor HB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, De I.; Lau, S.; Ehrismann, J.S.; Axiotis, I.; Kolb, M.; Kientz, M.; Weijers, D.; Jürgens, G.

    2013-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytohormone auxin is an important patterning agent during embryogenesis and post-embryonic development, exerting effects through transcriptional regulation. The main determinants of the transcriptional auxin response machinery are AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF)

  15. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon-intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138 and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar and leaf

  16. Bioinformatic Analyses of Subgroup-A Members of the Wheat bZIP Transcription Factor Family and Functional Identification of TabZIP174 Involved in Drought Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyin; Feng, Biane; Zhang, Fengjie; Tang, Yimiao; Zhang, Liping; Ma, Lingjian; Zhao, Changping; Gao, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies in Arabidopsis and rice have demonstrated that Subgroup-A members of the bZIP transcription factor family play important roles in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. Although common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world, there are limited investigations into Subgroup A of the bZIP family in wheat. In this study, we performed bioinformatic analyses of the 41 Subgroup-A members of the wheat bZIP family. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that most of the Subgroup-A bZIP proteins involved in abiotic stress responses of wheat, Arabidopsis, and rice clustered in Clade A1 of the phylogenetic tree, and shared a majority of conserved motifs, suggesting the potential importance of Clade-A1 members in abiotic stress responses. Gene structure analysis showed that TabZIP genes with close phylogenetic relationships tended to possess similar exon–intron compositions, and the positions of introns in the hinge regions of the bZIP domains were highly conserved, whereas introns in the leucine zipper regions were at variable positions. Additionally, eleven groups of homologs and two groups of tandem paralogs were also identified in Subgroup A of the wheat bZIP family. Expression profiling analysis indicated that most Subgroup-A TabZIP genes were responsive to abscisic acid and various abiotic stress treatments. TabZIP27, TabZIP74, TabZIP138, and TabZIP174 proteins were localized in the nucleus of wheat protoplasts, whereas TabZIP9-GFP fusion protein was simultaneously present in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TabZIP174 displayed increased seed germination rates and primary root lengths under drought treatments. Overexpression of TabZIP174 in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced drought tolerance, and transgenic plants exhibited lower water loss rates, higher survival rates, higher proline, soluble sugar, and leaf chlorophyll

  17. Capsella rubella TGA4, a bZIP transcription factor, causes delayed flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Maofu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is usually regulated by many environmental factors and endogenous signals. TGA family members are bZIP transcription factors that bind to the octopine synthase element, which has been closely linked to defense/stress responses. Most TGA factors interact with non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1 and plant defense responses are strengthened by this interaction. TGA1and TGA4factors bind to NPR1 only in salicylic acid (SA-induced leaves, suggesting that TGA4 has another function during plant development. Here, we isolated a bZIP transcription factor gene, TGA4, from Capsella rubella. TGA4transcripts were detected in most tissues, with high expression in leaves, low expression in stems and flowering buds, and undetectable in siliques. CruTGA4was over expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana wild typeCol-0 plants. Flowering time and total leaf number in the transgenic plants showed that overexpression of CruTGA4could delay flowering in A. thaliana. Our findings suggest that TGA4 may act as flowering regulator that controls plant flowering.

  18. Functional Analysis of Maize Silk-Specific ZmbZIP25 Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ZmbZIP25 (Zea mays bZIP (basic leucine zipper transcription factor 25 is a function-unknown protein that belongs to the D group of the bZIP transcription factor family. RNA-seq data showed that the expression of ZmbZIP25 was tissue-specific in maize silks, and this specificity was confirmed by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In situ RNA hybridization showed that ZmbZIP25 was expressed exclusively in the xylem of maize silks. A 5′ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay identified an adenine residue as the transcription start site of the ZmbZIP25 gene. To characterize this silk-specific promoter, we isolated and analyzed a 2450 bp (from −2083 to +367 and a 2600 bp sequence of ZmbZIP25 (from −2083 to +517, the transcription start site was denoted +1. Stable expression assays in Arabidopsis showed that the expression of the reporter gene GUS driven by the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking fragment occurred exclusively in the papillae of Arabidopsis stigmas. Furthermore, transient expression assays in maize indicated that GUS and GFP expression driven by the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequences occurred only in maize silks and not in other tissues. However, no GUS or GFP expression was driven by the 2600 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequences in either stable or transient expression assays. A series of deletion analyses of the 2450 bp ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequence was performed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and probable elements prediction analysis revealed the possible presence of negative regulatory elements within the 161 bp region from −1117 to −957 that were responsible for the specificity of the ZmbZIP25 5′-flanking sequence.

  19. Activation of the Arabidopsis membrane-bound transcription factor bZIP28 is mediated by site-2 protease, but not site-1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yuji; Ashida, Makoto; Hasegawa, Chisa; Tabara, Kazuki; Mishiba, Kei-Ichiro; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2017-08-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic cellular response conserved in eukaryotic cells to alleviate the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Arabidopsis bZIP28 is a membrane-bound transcription factor activated by proteolytic cleavage in response to ER stress, thereby releasing its cytosolic portion containing the bZIP domain from the membrane to translocate into the nucleus where it induces the transcription of genes encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes. It has been widely recognized that the proteolytic activation of bZIP28 is mediated by the sequential cleavage of site-1 protease (S1P) and site-2 protease (S2P). In the present study we provide evidence that bZIP28 protein is cleaved by S2P, but not by S1P. We demonstrated that wild-type and s1p mutant plants produce the active, nuclear form of bZIP28 in response to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. In contrast, tunicamycin-treated s2p mutants do not accumulate the active, nuclear form of bZIP28. Consistent with these observations, s2p mutants, but not s1p mutants, exhibited a defective transcriptional response of ER stress-responsive genes and significantly higher sensitivity to tunicamycin. Interestingly, s2p mutants accumulate two membrane-bound bZIP28 fragments with a shorter ER lumen-facing C-terminal domain. Importantly, the predicted cleavage sites are located far from the canonical S1P recognition motif previously described. We propose that ER stress-induced proteolytic activation of bZIP28 is mediated by the sequential actions of as-yet-unidentified protease(s) and S2P, and does not require S1P. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Expression of a truncated ATHB17 protein in maize increases ear weight at silking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Rice

    Full Text Available ATHB17 (AT2G01430 is an Arabidopsis gene encoding a member of the α-subclass of the homeodomain leucine zipper class II (HD-Zip II family of transcription factors. The ATHB17 monomer contains four domains common to all class II HD-Zip proteins: a putative repression domain adjacent to a homeodomain, leucine zipper, and carboxy terminal domain. However, it also possesses a unique N-terminus not present in other members of the family. In this study we demonstrate that the unique 73 amino acid N-terminus is involved in regulation of cellular localization of ATHB17. The ATHB17 protein is shown to function as a transcriptional repressor and an EAR-like motif is identified within the putative repression domain of ATHB17. Transformation of maize with an ATHB17 expression construct leads to the expression of ATHB17Δ113, a truncated protein lacking the first 113 amino acids which encodes a significant portion of the repression domain. Because ATHB17Δ113 lacks the repression domain, the protein cannot directly affect the transcription of its target genes. ATHB17Δ113 can homodimerize, form heterodimers with maize endogenous HD-Zip II proteins, and bind to target DNA sequences; thus, ATHB17Δ113 may interfere with HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional activity via a dominant negative mechanism. We provide evidence that maize HD-Zip II proteins function as transcriptional repressors and that ATHB17Δ113 relieves this HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional repression activity. Expression of ATHB17Δ113 in maize leads to increased ear size at silking and, therefore, may enhance sink potential. We hypothesize that this phenotype could be a result of modulation of endogenous HD-Zip II pathways in maize.

  1. Expression of a truncated ATHB17 protein in maize increases ear weight at silking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Elena A; Khandelwal, Abha; Creelman, Robert A; Griffith, Cara; Ahrens, Jeffrey E; Taylor, J Philip; Murphy, Lesley R; Manjunath, Siva; Thompson, Rebecca L; Lingard, Matthew J; Back, Stephanie L; Larue, Huachun; Brayton, Bonnie R; Burek, Amanda J; Tiwari, Shiv; Adam, Luc; Morrell, James A; Caldo, Rico A; Huai, Qing; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K; Kuehn, Rosemarie; Sant, Anagha M; Wingbermuehle, William J; Sala, Rodrigo; Foster, Matt; Kinser, Josh D; Mohanty, Radha; Jiang, Dongming; Ziegler, Todd E; Huang, Mingya G; Kuriakose, Saritha V; Skottke, Kyle; Repetti, Peter P; Reuber, T Lynne; Ruff, Thomas G; Petracek, Marie E; Loida, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    ATHB17 (AT2G01430) is an Arabidopsis gene encoding a member of the α-subclass of the homeodomain leucine zipper class II (HD-Zip II) family of transcription factors. The ATHB17 monomer contains four domains common to all class II HD-Zip proteins: a putative repression domain adjacent to a homeodomain, leucine zipper, and carboxy terminal domain. However, it also possesses a unique N-terminus not present in other members of the family. In this study we demonstrate that the unique 73 amino acid N-terminus is involved in regulation of cellular localization of ATHB17. The ATHB17 protein is shown to function as a transcriptional repressor and an EAR-like motif is identified within the putative repression domain of ATHB17. Transformation of maize with an ATHB17 expression construct leads to the expression of ATHB17Δ113, a truncated protein lacking the first 113 amino acids which encodes a significant portion of the repression domain. Because ATHB17Δ113 lacks the repression domain, the protein cannot directly affect the transcription of its target genes. ATHB17Δ113 can homodimerize, form heterodimers with maize endogenous HD-Zip II proteins, and bind to target DNA sequences; thus, ATHB17Δ113 may interfere with HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional activity via a dominant negative mechanism. We provide evidence that maize HD-Zip II proteins function as transcriptional repressors and that ATHB17Δ113 relieves this HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional repression activity. Expression of ATHB17Δ113 in maize leads to increased ear size at silking and, therefore, may enhance sink potential. We hypothesize that this phenotype could be a result of modulation of endogenous HD-Zip II pathways in maize.

  2. Expression of a Truncated ATHB17 Protein in Maize Increases Ear Weight at Silking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Robert A.; Griffith, Cara; Ahrens, Jeffrey E.; Taylor, J. Philip; Murphy, Lesley R.; Manjunath, Siva; Thompson, Rebecca L.; Lingard, Matthew J.; Back, Stephanie L.; Larue, Huachun; Brayton, Bonnie R.; Burek, Amanda J.; Tiwari, Shiv; Adam, Luc; Morrell, James A.; Caldo, Rico A.; Huai, Qing; Kouadio, Jean-Louis K.; Kuehn, Rosemarie; Sant, Anagha M.; Wingbermuehle, William J.; Sala, Rodrigo; Foster, Matt; Kinser, Josh D.; Mohanty, Radha; Jiang, Dongming; Ziegler, Todd E.; Huang, Mingya G.; Kuriakose, Saritha V.; Skottke, Kyle; Repetti, Peter P.; Reuber, T. Lynne; Ruff, Thomas G.; Petracek, Marie E.; Loida, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    ATHB17 (AT2G01430) is an Arabidopsis gene encoding a member of the α-subclass of the homeodomain leucine zipper class II (HD-Zip II) family of transcription factors. The ATHB17 monomer contains four domains common to all class II HD-Zip proteins: a putative repression domain adjacent to a homeodomain, leucine zipper, and carboxy terminal domain. However, it also possesses a unique N-terminus not present in other members of the family. In this study we demonstrate that the unique 73 amino acid N-terminus is involved in regulation of cellular localization of ATHB17. The ATHB17 protein is shown to function as a transcriptional repressor and an EAR-like motif is identified within the putative repression domain of ATHB17. Transformation of maize with an ATHB17 expression construct leads to the expression of ATHB17Δ113, a truncated protein lacking the first 113 amino acids which encodes a significant portion of the repression domain. Because ATHB17Δ113 lacks the repression domain, the protein cannot directly affect the transcription of its target genes. ATHB17Δ113 can homodimerize, form heterodimers with maize endogenous HD-Zip II proteins, and bind to target DNA sequences; thus, ATHB17Δ113 may interfere with HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional activity via a dominant negative mechanism. We provide evidence that maize HD-Zip II proteins function as transcriptional repressors and that ATHB17Δ113 relieves this HD-Zip II mediated transcriptional repression activity. Expression of ATHB17Δ113 in maize leads to increased ear size at silking and, therefore, may enhance sink potential. We hypothesize that this phenotype could be a result of modulation of endogenous HD-Zip II pathways in maize. PMID:24736658

  3. Abscisic-acid-dependent basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors in plant abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2017-01-01

    One of the major causes of significant crop loss throughout the world is the myriad of environmental stresses including drought, salinity, cold, heavy metal toxicity, and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays. Plants as sessile organisms have evolved various effective mechanism which enable them to withstand this plethora of stresses. Most of such regulatory mechanisms usually follow the abscisic-acid (ABA)-dependent pathway. In this review, we have primarily focussed on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) activated by the ABA-mediated signalosome. Upon perception of ABA by specialized receptors, the signal is transduced via various groups of Ser/Thr kinases, which phosphorylate the bZIP TFs. Following such post-translational modification of TFs, they are activated so that they bind to specific cis-acting sequences called abscisic-acid-responsive elements (ABREs) or GC-rich coupling elements (CE), thereby influencing the expression of their target downstream genes. Several in silico techniques have been adopted so far to predict the structural features, recognize the regulatory modification sites, undergo phylogenetic analyses, and facilitate genome-wide survey of TF under multiple stresses. Current investigations on the epigenetic regulation that controls greater accessibility of the inducible regions of DNA of the target gene to the bZIP TFs exclusively under stress situations, along with the evolved stress memory responses via genomic imprinting mechanism, have been highlighted. The potentiality of overexpression of bZIP TFs, either in a homologous or in a heterologous background, in generating transgenic plants tolerant to various abiotic stressors have also been addressed by various groups. The present review will provide a coherent documentation on the functional characterization and regulation of bZIP TFs under multiple environmental stresses, with the major goal of generating multiple-stress-tolerant plant cultivars in near future.

  4. A Novel Wheat C-bZIP Gene, TabZIP14-B, Participates in Salt and Freezing Tolerance in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The group C-bZIP transcription factors (TFs are involved in diverse biological processes, such as the regulation of seed storage protein (SSP production and the responses to pathogen challenge and abiotic stress. However, our knowledge of the abiotic functions of group C-bZIP genes in wheat remains limited. Here, we present the function of a novel TabZIP14-B gene in wheat. This gene belongs to the group C-bZIP TFs and contains six exons and five introns; three haplotypes were identified among accessions of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. A subcellular localization analysis indicated that TabZIP14-B was targeted to the nucleus of tobacco epidermal cells. A transactivation assay demonstrated that TabZIP14-B showed transcriptional activation ability and was capable of binding the abscisic acid (ABA responsive element (ABRE in yeast. RT-qPCR revealed that TabZIP14-B was expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, and young spikes and was up-regulated by exogenous ABA, salt, low-temperature, and polyethylene glycol (PEG stress treatments. Furthermore, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TabZIP14-B exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt, freezing stresses and ABA sensitivity. Overexpression of TabZIP14-B resulted in increased expression of the AtRD29A, AtCOR47, AtRD20, AtGSTF6, and AtRAB18 genes and changes in several physiological characteristics. These results suggest that TabZIP14-B could function as a positive regulator in mediating the abiotic stress response.

  5. Arabidopsis IRE1 catalyses unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor

    KAUST Repository

    Nagashima, Yukihiro

    2011-07-01

    IRE1 plays an essential role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in yeast and mammals. We found that a double mutant of Arabidopsis IRE1A and IRE1B (ire1a/ire1b) is more sensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin than the wild-type. Transcriptome analysis revealed that genes whose induction was reduced in ire1a/ire1b largely overlapped those in the bzip60 mutant. We observed that the active form of bZIP60 protein detected in the wild-type was missing in ire1a/ire1b. We further demonstrated that bZIP60 mRNA is spliced by ER stress, removing 23 ribonucleotides and therefore causing a frameshift that replaces the C-terminal region of bZIP60 including the transmembrane domain (TMD) with a shorter region without a TMD. This splicing was detected in ire1a and ire1b single mutants, but not in the ire1a/ire1b double mutant. We conclude that IRE1A and IRE1B catalyse unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor.

  6. The regulatory network of ThbZIP1 in response to abscisic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu eJi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, a bZIP transcription factor from Tamarix hispida, ThbZIP1, was characterized: plants overexpressing ThbZIP1 displayed improved salt stress tolerance but were sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA. In the current study, we further characterized the regulatory network of ThbZIP1 and the mechanism of ABA sensitivity mediated by ThbZIP1. An ABF transcription factor from T. hispida, ThABF1, directly regulates the expression of ThbZIP1. Microarray analysis identified 1,662 and 1,609 genes that were respectively significantly upregulated or downregulated by ThbZIP1 when exposed to ABA. GO analysis showed that the processes including response to stimulus, catalytic activity, binding function, and metabolic process were highly altered in ThbZIP1 expressing plants exposed to ABA. The gene expression in ThbZIP1 transformed plants were compared between exposed to ABA and salt on the genome scale. Genes differentially regulated by both salt and ABA treatment only accounted for 9.75% of total differentially regulated genes. GO analysis showed that structural molecule activity, organelle part, membrane-enclosed lumen, reproduction and reproductive process are enhanced by ABA but inhibited by salt stress. Conversely, immune system and multi-organism process were improved by salt but inhibited by ABA. Transcription regulator activity, enzyme regulator activity and developmental process were significantly altered by ABA but were not affected by salt stress. Our study provides insights into how ThbZIP1 mediates ABA and salt stress response at the molecular level.

  7. SlbZIP38, a Tomato bZIP Family Gene Downregulated by Abscisic Acid, Is a Negative Regulator of Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanglu; Hu, Xin; Li, Chunyan; Xu, Xing; Su, Chenggang; Li, Jinhua; Song, Hongyuan; Zhang, Xingguo; Pan, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors have crucial roles in plant stress responses. In this study, the bZIP family gene SlbZIP38 (GenBank accession No: XM004239373) was isolated from a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) mature leaf cDNA library. The DNA sequence of SlbZIP38 encodes a protein of 484 amino acids, including a highly conserved bZIP DNA-binding domain in the C-terminal region. We found that SlbZIP38 was differentially expressed in various organs of the tomato plant and was downregulated by drought, salt stress, and abscisic acid (ABA). However, overexpression of SlbZIP38 significantly decreased drought and salt stress tolerance in tomatoes (Ailsa Craig). The findings that SlbZIP38 overexpression reduced the chlorophyll and free proline content in leaves but increased the malondialdehyde content may explain the reduced drought and salt tolerance observed in these lines. These results suggest that SlbZIP38 is a negative regulator of drought and salt resistance that acts by modulating ABA signaling. PMID:29261143

  8. Stress sensing in plants by the ER stress sensor/transducer, bZIP28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu eSrivastava

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two classes of ER stress sensors are known in plants, membrane associated bZIP transcription factors and RNA splicing factors. ER stress occurs under adverse environmental conditions and results from the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. One of the membrane-associated transcription factors activated by heat and ER stress agents is bZIP28. In its inactive form, bZIP28 is a type II protein with a single pass transmembrane domain, residing in the ER. bZIP28’s N-terminus, containing a transcriptional activation domain, is oriented towards the cytoplasm and its C-terminal tail is inserted into the ER lumen. In response to stress, bZIP28 exits the ER and moves to the Golgi where it is proteolytically processed, liberating its cytosolic component which relocates to the nucleus to upregulate stress-response genes. bZIP28 is thought to sense stress through its interaction with the major ER chaperone, BIP. BiP binds to bZIP28’s lumenal domain under unstressed conditions and retains it in the ER. BIP binds to the intrinsically disordered regions on bZIP28’s lumen-facing tail. A truncated form of bZIP28, without its C-terminal tail is not retained in the ER but migrates constitutively to the nucleus. Upon stress, BiP releases bZIP28 allowing it to exit the ER. One model to account for the release of bZIP28 by BiP is that BiP is competed away from bZIP28 by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. However, other forces such as changes in energy charge levels, redox conditions or interaction with DNAJ proteins may also promote release of bZIP28 from BiP. Movement of bZIP28 from the ER to the Golgi is assisted by the interaction of elements of the COPII machinery with the cytoplasmic domain of bZIP28. Thus, the mobilization of bZIP28 in response to stress involves the dissociation of factors that retain it in the ER and the association of factors that mediate its further organelle-to-organelle movement.

  9. Score of Inattention Subscale of ADHD Rating Scale-IV is Significantly Higher for AD/HD than PDD.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujibayashi, Hiromi; Kitayama, Shinji; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) must be differentiated because the respective treatments are different. However, they are difficult to distinguish because they often show similar symptoms. At our hospital, we have the rearer of a patient answer both the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), and use the results as an aid for the diagnosis of AD/HD or PDD. These results were compared wit...

  10. Genome Wide Identification of Orthologous ZIP Genes Associated with Zinc and Iron Translocation in Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagarasan, Ganesh; Dubey, Mahima; Aswathy, Kumar S; Chandel, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Genes in the ZIP family encode transcripts to store and transport bivalent metal micronutrient, particularly iron (Fe) and or zinc (Zn). These transcripts are important for a variety of functions involved in the developmental and physiological processes in many plant species, including most, if not all, Poaceae plant species and the model species Arabidopsis. Here, we present the report of a genome wide investigation of orthologous ZIP genes in Setaria italica and the identification of 7 single copy genes. RT-PCR shows 4 of them could be used to increase the bio-availability of zinc and iron content in grains. Of 36 ZIP members, 25 genes have traces of signal peptide based sub-cellular localization, as compared to those of plant species studied previously, yet translocation of ions remains unclear. In silico analysis of gene structure and protein nature suggests that these two were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ZIP gene family in S. italica . NAC, bZIP and bHLH are the predominant Fe and Zn responsive transcription factors present in SiZIP genes. Together, our results provide new insights into the signal peptide based/independent iron and zinc translocation in the plant system and allowed identification of ZIP genes that may be involved in the zinc and iron absorption from the soil, and thus transporting it to the cereal grain underlying high micronutrient accumulation.

  11. Expression analysis of OsbZIP transcription factors in resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zino

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... Plant basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins play an essential role in the genes expression and regulation in higher plants. They have been shown to regulate diverse plant specific phenomena, including germination, floral induction and development, seed maturation, photomorphogenesis, biotic and.

  12. Genome Wide Identification of Orthologous ZIP Genes Associated with Zinc and Iron Translocation in Setaria italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Alagarasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genes in the ZIP family encode transcripts to store and transport bivalent metal micronutrient, particularly iron (Fe and or zinc (Zn. These transcripts are important for a variety of functions involved in the developmental and physiological processes in many plant species, including most, if not all, Poaceae plant species and the model species Arabidopsis. Here, we present the report of a genome wide investigation of orthologous ZIP genes in Setaria italica and the identification of 7 single copy genes. RT-PCR shows 4 of them could be used to increase the bio-availability of zinc and iron content in grains. Of 36 ZIP members, 25 genes have traces of signal peptide based sub-cellular localization, as compared to those of plant species studied previously, yet translocation of ions remains unclear. In silico analysis of gene structure and protein nature suggests that these two were preeminent in shaping the functional diversity of the ZIP gene family in S. italica. NAC, bZIP and bHLH are the predominant Fe and Zn responsive transcription factors present in SiZIP genes. Together, our results provide new insights into the signal peptide based/independent iron and zinc translocation in the plant system and allowed identification of ZIP genes that may be involved in the zinc and iron absorption from the soil, and thus transporting it to the cereal grain underlying high micronutrient accumulation.

  13. Hepatic ZIP14-mediated zinc transport is required for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Aydemir, Tolunay B; Kim, Jinhee; Cousins, Robert J

    2017-07-18

    Extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress damages the liver, causing apoptosis and steatosis despite the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Restriction of zinc from cells can induce ER stress, indicating that zinc is essential to maintain normal ER function. However, a role for zinc during hepatic ER stress is largely unknown despite important roles in metabolic disorders, including obesity and nonalcoholic liver disease. We have explored a role for the metal transporter ZIP14 during pharmacologically and high-fat diet-induced ER stress using Zip14 -/- (KO) mice, which exhibit impaired hepatic zinc uptake. Here, we report that ZIP14-mediated hepatic zinc uptake is critical for adaptation to ER stress, preventing sustained apoptosis and steatosis. Impaired hepatic zinc uptake in Zip14 KO mice during ER stress coincides with greater expression of proapoptotic proteins. ER stress-induced Zip14 KO mice show greater levels of hepatic steatosis due to higher expression of genes involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which are suppressed in ER stress-induced WT mice. During ER stress, the UPR-activated transcription factors ATF4 and ATF6α transcriptionally up-regulate Zip14 expression. We propose ZIP14 mediates zinc transport into hepatocytes to inhibit protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity, which acts to suppress apoptosis and steatosis associated with hepatic ER stress. Zip14 KO mice showed greater hepatic PTP1B activity during ER stress. These results show the importance of zinc trafficking and functional ZIP14 transporter activity for adaptation to ER stress associated with chronic metabolic disorders.

  14. Natural antioxidants exhibit chemopreventive characteristics through the regulation of CNC b-Zip transcription factors in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Singh, Bhupendra; Bhat, Nimee K; Chen, Jie; Bhat, Hari K

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of resveratrol (Res) and vitamin C (VC) in prevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer through regulation of cap "n"collar (CNC) b-zip transcription factors. Human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A was treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and VC or Res with or without E2. mRNA and protein expression levels of CNC b-zip transcription factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 3 (Nrf3), and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were quantified. The treatment with E2 suppressed, whereas VC and Res prevented E2-mediated decrease in the expression levels of SOD3, NQO1, Nrf2 mRNA, and protein in MCF-10A cells. The treatment with E2, Res, or VC significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf1. 17β-Estradiol treatment significantly increased but VC or Res decreased Nrf3 mRNA and protein expression levels. Our studies demonstrate that estrogen-induced breast cancer might be prevented through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes via Nrf-dependent pathways. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The membrane tethered transcription factor EcbZIP17 from finger millet promotes plant growth and enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Chopperla; Singh, Sonam; Raghavendrarao, Sangala; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Mohanty, Sasmita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2018-02-01

    The occurrence of various stresses, as the outcome of global climate change, results in the yield losses of crop plants. Prospecting of genes in stress tolerant plant species may help to protect and improve their agronomic performance. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is a valuable source of superior genes and alleles for stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane tethered bZIP transcription factor from finger millet, EcbZIP17. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing this gene showed better vegetative growth and seed yield compared with wild type (WT) plants under optimal growth conditions and confirmed upregulation of brassinosteroid signalling genes. Under various abiotic stresses, such as 250 mM NaCl, 10% PEG6000, 400 mM mannitol, water withdrawal, and heat stress, the transgenic plants showed higher germination rate, biomass, primary and secondary root formation, and recovery rate, compared with WT plants. The transgenic plants exposed to an ER stress inducer resulted in greater leaf diameter and plant height as well as higher expression of the ER stress-responsive genes BiP, PDIL, and CRT1. Overall, our results indicated that EcbZIP17 improves plant growth at optimal conditions through brassinosteroid signalling and provide tolerance to various environmental stresses via ER signalling pathways.

  16. Spectroscopic studies of O-type binaries. IV. HD 165052 and Hd 167771

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, N.D.; Conti, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    HD 165052, O6.5 V, and HD 167771, 07.5 III ((f)), are double-lined binaries with periods of six and four days, respectively, and velocity semiamplitudes near 100 km s -1 . In our spectroscopic orbital analysis, we investigated the effect of correcting the measured radial velocities for pair blending. The derived velocity amplitudes are increased by roughly 7%, and hence the minimum masses increase by 20%--255. The raw data lead to minimum masses, m sin 3 i, between 2 and 3 mD/sub sun/. Since normal O stars are thought to have masses greater than 20 m/sub sun/, the orbits must be highly inclined to the line of sight. From the luminosities and effective temperatures we derived stellar radii. For HD 167771, the requirement that neither component over fill it Roche lobe implies that each has a mass in the neighborhood of 30m/sub sun/ or larger

  17. Isolation and expression analysis of EcbZIP17 from different finger millet genotypes shows conserved nature of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopperla, Ramakrishna; Singh, Sonam; Mohanty, Sasmita; Reddy, Nanja; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2017-10-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise one of the largest gene families in plants. They play a key role in almost every aspect of plant growth and development and also in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we report isolation and characterization of EcbZIP17 , a group B bZIP transcription factor from a climate smart cereal, finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L.). The genomic sequence of EcbZIP17 is 2662 bp long encompassing two exons and one intron with ORF of 1722 bp and peptide length of 573 aa. This gene is homologous to AtbZIP17 ( Arabidopsis ), ZmbZIP17 (maize) and OsbZIP60 (rice) which play a key role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. In silico analysis confirmed the presence of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and transmembrane (TM) domains in the EcbZIP17 protein. Allele mining of this gene in 16 different genotypes by Sanger sequencing revealed no variation in nucleotide sequence, including the 618 bp long intron. Expression analysis of EcbZIP17 under heat stress exhibited similar pattern of expression in all the genotypes across time intervals with highest upregulation after 4 h. The present study established the conserved nature of EcbZIP17 at nucleotide and expression level.

  18. Nuclear Import of the Parsley bZIP Transcription Factor CPRF2 Is Regulated by Phytochrome Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Stefan; Wellmer, Frank; Nick, Peter; Rügner, Alexander; Schäfer, Eberhard; Harter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    In plants, light perception by photoreceptors leads to differential expression of an enormous number of genes. An important step for differential gene expression is the regulation of transcription factor activities. To understand these processes in light signal transduction we analyzed the three well-known members of the common plant regulatory factor (CPRF) family from parsley (Petroselinum crispum). Here, we demonstrate that these CPRFs, which belong to the basic- region leucine-zipper (bZIP) domain-containing transcription factors, are differentially distributed within parsley cells, indicating different regulatory functions within the regulatory networks of the plant cell. In particular, we show by cell fractionation and immunolocalization approaches that CPRF2 is transported from the cytosol into the nucleus upon irradiation due to action of phytochrome photoreceptors. Two NH2-terminal domains responsible for cytoplasmic localization of CPRF2 in the dark were characterized by deletion analysis using a set of CPRF2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fusion constructs transiently expressed in parsley protoplasts. We suggest that light-induced nuclear import of CPRF2 is an essential step in phytochrome signal transduction. PMID:9922448

  19. Divergence of the bZIP Gene Family in Strawberry, Peach, and Apple Suggests Multiple Modes of Gene Evolution after Duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic leucine zipper (bZIP transcription factors are the most diverse members of dimerizing transcription factors. In the present study, 50, 116, and 47 bZIP genes were identified in Malus domestica (apple, Prunus persica (peach, and Fragaria vesca (strawberry, respectively. Species-specific duplication was the main contributor to the large number of bZIPs observed in apple. After WGD in apple genome, orthologous bZIP genes corresponding to strawberry on duplicated regions in apple genome were retained. However, in peach ancestor, these syntenic regions were quickly lost or deleted. Maybe the positive selection contributed to the expansion of clade S to adapt to the development and environment stresses. In addition, purifying selection was mainly responsible for bZIP sequence-specific DNA binding. The analysis of orthologous pairs between chromosomes indicates that these orthologs derived from one gene duplication located on one of the nine ancient chromosomes in the Rosaceae. The comparative analysis of bZIP genes in three species provides information on the evolutionary fate of bZIP genes in apple and peach after they diverged from strawberry.

  20. Characterization of pollen-expressed bZIP protein interactions and the role of ATbZIP18 in the male gametophyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibalová, A.; Steinbachová, L.; Hafidh, S.; Bláhová, Veronika; Gadiou, Z.; Michailidis, Ch.; Müller, K.; Pleskot, Roman; Dupľáková, N.; Honys, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17 ISSN 2194-7953 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : bZIP * transcription factors * regulatory network * male gametophyte * Y2H * pollen development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CE - Biochemistry (UOCHB-X) OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology); Biochemistry and molecular biology (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2016

  1. Characterization of pollen-expressed bZIP protein interactions and the role of ATbZIP18 in the male gametophyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibalová, Antónia; Steinbachová, Lenka; Hafidh, Said; Bláhová, Veronika; Gadiou, Zuzana; Michailidis, Christos; Müller, Karel; Pleskot, Roman; Dupľáková, Nikoleta; Honys, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17 ISSN 2194-7953 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22720S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32292S; GA ČR GP13-41444P; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14109 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : reticulum stress-response * transcription factor * arabidopsis-thaliana * molecular-interactions * plant transformation * gene-expression * heterodimerization * dimerization * evolution * specificity * bZIP * Transcription factors * Regulatory network * Male gametophyte * y2h * Pollen development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2016

  2. Zinc transporter ZIP14 functions in hepatic zinc, iron and glucose homeostasis during the innate immune response (endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolunay Beker Aydemir

    Full Text Available ZIP14 (slc39A14 is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn(2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe(2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14(-/- mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14(-/- mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14(-/- mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14-/- mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14(-/- phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  3. bZIP transcription factor SmJLB1 regulates autophagy-related genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 and is required for fruiting-body development and vegetative growth in Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Herzog, Britta; Jakobshagen, Antonia; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-12-01

    Autophagy is a precisely controlled degradation process in eukaryotic cells, during which the bulk of the cytoplasm is engulfed by a double membrane vesicle, the autophagosome. Fusion of the autophagosome with the vacuole leads to breakdown of its contents, such as proteins and organelles, and the recycling of nutrients. Earlier studies of autophagic genes of the core autophagic machinery in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora elucidated the impact of autophagy on fungal viability, vegetative growth and fruiting-body development. To gain further knowledge about the regulation of autophagy in S. macrospora, we analyzed the function of the bZIP transcription factor SmJLB1, a homolog of the Podospora anserina basic zipper-type transcription factor induced during incompatibility 4 (IDI-4) and the Aspergillus nidulans transcription factor jun-like bZIP A (JlbA). Generation of the homokaryotic deletion mutant demonstrated S. macrospora Smjlb1 is associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Deletion of Smjlb1 abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth. SmJLB1 is localized to the cytoplasm and to nuclei. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments revealed an upregulated expression of autophagy-related genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 in the Smjlb1 deletion mutant, suggesting a transcriptional repression function of SmJLB1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ZmbZIP60 mRNA is spliced in maize in response to ER stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yanjie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse environmental conditions produce ER stress and elicit the unfolded protein response (UPR in plants. Plants are reported to have two "arms" of the ER stress signaling pathway-one arm involving membrane-bound transcription factors and the other involving a membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, IRE1. IRE1 in yeast to mammals recognizes a conserved twin loop structure in the target RNA. Results A segment of the mRNA encoding ZmbZIP60 in maize can be folded into a twin loop structure, and in response to ER stress this mRNA is spliced, excising a 20b intron. Splicing converts the predicted protein from a membrane-associated transcription factor to one that is targeted to the nucleus. Splicing of ZmbZIP60 can be elicited in maize seedlings by ER stress agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT or tunicamycin (TM or by heat treatment. Younger, rather than older seedlings display a more robust splicing response as do younger parts of leaf, along a developmental gradient in a leaf. The molecular signature of an ER stress response in plants includes the upregulation of Binding Protein (BIP genes. Maize has numerous BIP-like genes, and ER stress was found to upregulate one of these, ZmBIPb. Conclusions The splicing of ZmbZIP60 mRNA is an indicator of ER stress in maize seedlings resulting from adverse environmental conditions such as heat stress. ZmbZIP60 mRNA splicing in maize leads predictively to the formation of active bZIP transcription factor targeted to the nucleus to upregulate stress response genes. Among the genes upregulated by ER stress in maize is one of 22 BIP-like genes, ZmBIPb.

  5. hZip2 and hZip3 zinc transporters are down regulated in human prostate adenocarcinomatous glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Renty B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The normal human prostate glandular epithelium has the unique function of accumulating high levels of zinc. In prostate cancer this capability is lost as an early event in the development of the malignant cells. The mechanism and factors responsible for the ability of the normal epithelial cells to accumulate zinc and the loss of this capability in the malignant cells need to be identified. We previously reported that Zip1 is an important zinc uptake transporter in prostate cells and is down regulated in the malignant cells in situ along with the depletion of zinc levels. In this report we investigated the expression of two other Zip family zinc transporters, Zip2 and Zip3 in malignant versus nonmalignant (normal and BPH glands. Zip2 and Zip3 relative protein levels were determined by immunohistochemistry analysis of human prostate tissue sections. Results Normal and BPH glandular epithelium consistently exhibited the strong presence of both Zip 2 and Zip3; whereas both transporters consistently were essentially non-detectable in the malignant glands. This represents the first report of the expression of Zip3 in human prostate tissue; and more importantly, reveals that ZiP2 and Zip3 are down regulated in malignant cells in situ as we also had demonstrated for Zip1. Zip2 and Zip3 transporter proteins were localized predominantly at the apical cell membrane, which is in contrast to the Zip1 localization at the basolateral membrane. Zip2 and Zip3 seemingly are associated with the re-uptake of zinc from prostatic fluid. Conclusion These results coupled with previous reports implicate Zip2 and Zip3 along with Zip1 as important zinc uptake transporters involved in the unique ability of prostate cells to accumulate high cellular zinc levels. Zip1 is important for the extraction of zinc from circulation as the primary source of cellular zinc. Zip 2 and Zip3 appear to be important for retention of the zinc in the cellular compartment

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of OsAREB8 from rice, a member of the AREB/ABF family of bZIP transcription factors, in complex with its cognate DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Koura, Tsubasa; Kubota, Keiko; Yoshida, Takuya; Fujita, Yasunari; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    OsAREB8 from rice (O. sativa), a member of the AREB/ABF family of bZIP transcription factors, was expressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A crystal of OsAREB8 in complex with its cognate DNA diffracted X-rays to 3.65 Å resolution. The AREB/ABF family of bZIP transcription factors play a key role in drought stress response and tolerance during the vegetative stage in plants. To reveal the DNA-recognition mechanism of the AREB/ABF family of proteins, the bZIP domain of OsAREB8, an AREB/ABF-family protein from Oryza sativa, was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized with its cognate DNA. Crystals of the OsAREB8–DNA complex were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 277 K with a reservoir solution consisting of 50 mM MES pH 6.4, 29% MPD, 2 mM spermidine, 20 mM magnesium acetate and 100 mM sodium chloride. A crystal diffracted X-rays to 3.65 Å resolution and belonged to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 155.1, b = 206.7, c = 38.5 Å. The crystal contained one OsAREB8–DNA complex in the asymmetric unit

  7. DNA Methylation Influences Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis in Lonicera japonica by Mediating LjbZIP8 to Regulate Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase 2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangping Zha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of active compounds differ in buds and flowers of Lonicera japonica (FLJ and L. japonica var. chinensis (rFLJ. Chlorogenic acid (CGAs were major active compounds of L. japonica and regarded as measurements for quality evaluation. However, little is known concerning the formation of active compounds at the molecular level. We quantified the major CGAs in FLJ and rFLJ, and found the concentrations of CGAs were higher in the buds of rFLJ than those of FLJ. Further analysis of CpG methylation of CGAs biosynthesis genes showed differences between FLJ and rFLJ in the 5′-UTR of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (PAL2. We identified 11 LjbZIP proteins and 24 rLjbZIP proteins with conserved basic leucine zipper domains, subcellular localization, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the transcription factor LjbZIP8 is a nuclear-localized protein that specifically binds to the G-box element of the LjPAL2 5′-UTR. Additionally, a transactivation assay and LjbZIP8 overexpression in transgenic tobacco indicated that LjbZIP8 could function as a repressor of transcription. Finally, treatment with 5-azacytidine decreased the transcription level of LjPAL2 and CGAs content in FLJ leaves. These results raise the possibility that DNA methylation might influence the recruitment of LjbZIP8, regulating PAL2 expression level and CGAs content in L. japonica.

  8. A novel bZIP gene from Tamarix hispida mediates physiological responses to salt stress in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Gao, Caiqiu; Liang, Yenan; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuanping; Liu, Guifeng

    2010-02-15

    Basic leucine zipper proteins (bZIPs) are transcription factors that bind abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements (ABREs) and enable plants to withstand adverse environmental conditions. In the present study, a novel bZIP gene, ThbZIP1 was cloned from Tamarix hispida. Expression studies in T. hispida showed differential regulation of ThbZIP1 in response to treatment with NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, NaHCO(3), and CdCl(2), suggesting that ThbZIP1 is involved in abiotic stress responses. To identify the physiological responses mediated by ThbZIP1, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing exogenous ThbZIP1 were generated. Various physiological parameters related to salt stress were measured and compared between transgenic and wild type (WT) plants. Our results indicate that overexpression of ThbZIP1 can enhance the activity of both peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase the content of soluble sugars and soluble proteins under salt stress conditions. These results suggest that ThbZIP1 contributes to salt tolerance by mediating signaling through multiple physiological pathways. Furthermore, ThbZIP1 confers stress tolerance to plants by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, facilitating the accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and inducing and/or enhancing the biosynthesis of soluble proteins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Speeding cis-trans regulation discovery by phylogenomic analyses coupled with screenings of an arrayed library of Arabidopsis transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castrillo

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is an important mechanism underlying gene expression and has played a crucial role in evolution. The number, position and interactions between cis-elements and transcription factors (TFs determine the expression pattern of a gene. To identify functionally relevant cis-elements in gene promoters, a phylogenetic shadowing approach with a lipase gene (LIP1 was used. As a proof of concept, in silico analyses of several Brassicaceae LIP1 promoters identified a highly conserved sequence (LIP1 element that is sufficient to drive strong expression of a reporter gene in planta. A collection of ca. 1,200 Arabidopsis thaliana TF open reading frames (ORFs was arrayed in a 96-well format (RR library and a convenient mating based yeast one hybrid (Y1H screening procedure was established. We constructed an episomal plasmid (pTUY1H to clone the LIP1 element and used it as bait for Y1H screenings. A novel interaction with an HD-ZIP (AtML1 TF was identified and abolished by a 2 bp mutation in the LIP1 element. A role of this interaction in transcriptional regulation was confirmed in planta. In addition, we validated our strategy by reproducing the previously reported interaction between a MYB-CC (PHR1 TF, a central regulator of phosphate starvation responses, with a conserved promoter fragment (IPS1 element containing its cognate binding sequence. Finally, we established that the LIP1 and IPS1 elements were differentially bound by HD-ZIP and MYB-CC family members in agreement with their genetic redundancy in planta. In conclusion, combining in silico analyses of orthologous gene promoters with Y1H screening of the RR library represents a powerful approach to decipher cis- and trans-regulatory codes.

  10. Reg IV is a direct target of intestinal transcriptional factor CDX2 in gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Naito

    Full Text Available REG4, which encodes Reg IV protein, is a member of the calcium-dependent lectin superfamily and potent activator of the epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt/activator protein-1 signaling pathway. Several human cancers overexpress Reg IV, and Reg IV expression is associated with intestinal phenotype differentiation. However, regulation of REG4 transcription remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether CDX2 regulates Reg IV expression in gastric cancer (GC cells. Expression of Reg IV and CDX2 was analyzed by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 9 GC cell lines and 2 colon cancer cell lines. The function of the 5'-flanking region of the REG4 gene was characterized by luciferase assay. In 9 GC cell lines, endogenous Reg IV and CDX2 expression were well correlated. Using an estrogen receptor-regulated form of CDX2, rapid induction of Reg IV expression was observed in HT-29 cells. Reporter gene assays revealed an important role in transcription for consensus CDX2 DNA binding elements in the 5'-flanking region of the REG4 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that CDX2 binds directly to the 5'-flanking region of REG4. These results indicate that CDX2 protein directly regulates Reg IV expression.

  11. Atractividad local en la bifurcación de zip Local atractivity in zip bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Escobar–Callejas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia la atractividad local del segmento de equilibriosque se forma en el fenómeno de la bifurcación de zip para un sistematridimensional de ecuaciones diferenciales no lineales. Este trabajo puede serconsiderado como una generalización de un resultado de Farkas en bifurcaciónde zip de modelos en competición.In this paper the local segment attractiveness equilibrium that forms on the phenomenon of zip bifurcation for a three–dimensional system of differential equations nonlinear is studied. This work may be regarded as a generalization as a result on Farkas’s zip bifurcation in competition models.

  12. Functional analysis RaZIP1 transporter of the ZIP family from the ectomycorrhizal Zn-accumulating Russula atropurpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Tereza; Sácký, Jan; Kotrba, Pavel

    2018-04-01

    A search of R. atropurpurea transcriptome for sequences encoding the transporters of the Zrt-, Irt-like Protein (ZIP) family, which are in eukaryotes integral to Zn supply into cytoplasm, allowed the identification of RaZIP1 cDNA with a predicted product belonging to ZIP I subfamily; it was subjected to functional studies in mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The expression of RaZIP1, but not RaZIP1 H208A or RaZIP1 H232A mutants lacking conserved-among-ZIPs transmembrane histidyls, complemented Zn uptake deficiency in zrt1Δzrt2Δ yeasts. RaZIP1 substantially increased cellular Zn uptake in this strain and added to Zn sensitivity in zrc1Δcot1Δ mutant. The Fe uptake deficiency in ftr1Δ strain was not rescued and Mn uptake was insufficient for toxicity in Mn-sensitive pmr1Δ yeasts. By contrast, RaZIP1 increased Cd sensitivity in yap1Δ strain and conferred Cd transport activity in yeasts, albeit with substantially lower efficiency compared to Zn transport. In metal uptake assays, the accumulation of Zn in zrt1Δzrt2Δ strain remained unaffected by Cd, Fe, and Mn present in 20-fold molar excess over Zn. Immunofluorescence microscopy detected functional hemagglutinin-tagged HA::RaZIP1 on the yeast cell protoplast periphery. Altogether, these data indicate that RaZIP1 is a high-affinity plasma membrane transporter specialized in Zn uptake, and improve the understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of Zn in R. atropurpurea that is known for its ability to accumulate remarkably high concentrations of Zn.

  13. Geographic data: Zip Codes (Shape File)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains all zip codes in Montgomery County. Zip codes are the postal delivery areas defined by USPS. Zip codes with mailboxes only are not included. As...

  14. A ZIP6-ZIP10 heteromer controls NCAM1 phosphorylation and integration into focal adhesion complexes during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethour, Dylan; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Williams, Declan; Wang, Xinzhu; Ghodrati, Farinaz; Ehsani, Sepehr; Rubie, Elizabeth A; Woodgett, James R; Sevalle, Jean; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2017-01-18

    The prion protein (PrP) evolved from the subbranch of ZIP metal ion transporters comprising ZIPs 5, 6 and 10, raising the prospect that the study of these ZIPs may reveal insights relevant for understanding the function of PrP. Building on data which suggested PrP and ZIP6 are critical during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we investigated ZIP6 in an EMT paradigm using ZIP6 knockout cells, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic methods. Reminiscent of PrP, ZIP6 levels are five-fold upregulated during EMT and the protein forms a complex with NCAM1. ZIP6 also interacts with ZIP10 and the two ZIP transporters exhibit interdependency during their expression. ZIP6 contributes to the integration of NCAM1 in focal adhesion complexes but, unlike cells lacking PrP, ZIP6 deficiency does not abolish polysialylation of NCAM1. Instead, ZIP6 mediates phosphorylation of NCAM1 on a cluster of cytosolic acceptor sites. Substrate consensus motif features and in vitro phosphorylation data point toward GSK3 as the kinase responsible, and interface mapping experiments identified histidine-rich cytoplasmic loops within the ZIP6/ZIP10 heteromer as a novel scaffold for GSK3 binding. Our data suggests that PrP and ZIP6 inherited the ability to interact with NCAM1 from their common ZIP ancestors but have since diverged to control distinct posttranslational modifications of NCAM1.

  15. N-terminal segments modulate the α-helical propensities of the intrinsically disordered basic regions of bZIP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rahul K; Crick, Scott L; Pappu, Rohit V

    2012-02-17

    Basic region leucine zippers (bZIPs) are modular transcription factors that play key roles in eukaryotic gene regulation. The basic regions of bZIPs (bZIP-bRs) are necessary and sufficient for DNA binding and specificity. Bioinformatic predictions and spectroscopic studies suggest that unbound monomeric bZIP-bRs are uniformly disordered as isolated domains. Here, we test this assumption through a comparative characterization of conformational ensembles for 15 different bZIP-bRs using a combination of atomistic simulations and circular dichroism measurements. We find that bZIP-bRs have quantifiable preferences for α-helical conformations in their unbound monomeric forms. This helicity varies from one bZIP-bR to another despite a significant sequence similarity of the DNA binding motifs (DBMs). Our analysis reveals that intramolecular interactions between DBMs and eight-residue segments directly N-terminal to DBMs are the primary modulators of bZIP-bR helicities. We test the accuracy of this inference by designing chimeras of bZIP-bRs to have either increased or decreased overall helicities. Our results yield quantitative insights regarding the relationship between sequence and the degree of intrinsic disorder within bZIP-bRs, and might have general implications for other intrinsically disordered proteins. Understanding how natural sequence variations lead to modulation of disorder is likely to be important for understanding the evolution of specificity in molecular recognition through intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry with Period04: The mCP Stars HD 5797, HD 36792, HD 27309, HD 47913, HD 74521, HD 120198, HD 171263, and HD 215441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Robert J., Jr.; Adelman, Saul J.

    2018-04-01

    We present differential Strömgren uvby Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) observations of eight magnetic chemically peculiar stars: HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 27309, HD 49713, HD 74521, HD 120198, HD 171263, and HD 215441. Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the other four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data sets. The FCAPT has observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region telescopes. We determine very accurate periods and u, v, b, and y amplitudes, as well as if there are any long-term periods. Further, we compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements, when they exist, to help interpret the light curves. For each star, we used the Period04 computer program to analyze the uvby light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities. Our derived periods of 68.0457 ± 0.0200 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 ± 0.00015 days for HD 26792, 1.5688908 ± 0.0000046 days for HD 27309, 2.135361 ± 0.000031 days for HD 49713, 7.05053 ± 0.00024 for days HD 74521, 1.3857690 ± 0.0000058 days for HD 120198, 3.99744 ± 0.00015 days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 ± 0.000049 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the last determinations in the literature. We also found a low-frequency term for HD 49713 in all four filters.

  17. Comparisons of amino acids, body constituents and antioxidative response between long-time HD and normal HD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Akira; Sato, Emiko; Mori, Takefumi; Ieiri, Norio; Takahashi, Chika; Ishida, Yoko; Hotta, Osamu; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress is one of the main mediators of progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the transcription factor of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes and related proteins which play an important role in cellular defense. Long-time hemodialysis (HD) therapy (8 hours) has been considered to be more beneficial compared to normal HD therapy (4 hours). We investigated oxidative response related to Nrf2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of long-time HD and normal HD patients. Methods Eight adult long-time HD therapy patients (44.5 ± 3.0 years) and 10 normal HD therapy patients (68.1 ± 2.7 years) were enrolled. PBMCs were isolated and processed for expression of Nrf2 and its related genes by qRT-PCR. Plasma indoxyl sulfate, amino acids, and body constituents were measured. Findings Plasma indoxyl sulfate was significantly low after long-time HD therapy compare to that of normal HD therapy. Although, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass, mineral and protein were significantly decreased 2 months in normal HD patients, those in long-time HD patients were significantly increased after 2 months. Almost of amino acids were significantly decreased after HD therapy in both HD therapies. Plasma amino acids were significantly low in long-time HD patients compared to normal HD patients. In PBMCs, the expression of Nrf2 was significantly decreased and hemooxygenase-1 expression was significantly increased in long-time HD compared to normal HD. Conclusion These observations indicate the beneficial effects of in long-time HD in improving oxidative stress in patients. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  18. Salt and drought stress and ABA responses related to bZIP genes from V. radiata and V. angularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanfen; Zhu, Jifeng; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Shumin; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-20

    Mung bean and adzuki bean are warm-season legumes widely cultivated in China. However, bean production in major producing regions is limited by biotic and abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes play key roles in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, only several bZIP genes involved in drought and salt stress in legumes, especially Vigna radiata and Vigna angularis, have been identified. In this study, we identified 54 and 50 bZIP proteins from whole-genome sequences of V. radiata and V. angularis, respectively. First, we comprehensively surveyed the characteristics of all bZIP genes, including their gene structure, chromosome distribution and motif composition. Phylogenetic trees showed that VrbZIP and VabZIP proteins were divided into ten clades comprising nine known and one unknown subgroup. The results of the nucleotide substitution rate of the orthologous gene pairs showed that bZIP proteins have undergone strong purifying selection: V. radiata and V. angularis diverged 1.25 million years ago (mya) to 9.20 mya (average of 4.95 mya). We also found that many cis-acting regulatory elements (CAREs) involved in abiotic stress and plant hormone responses were detected in the putative promoter regions of the bZIP genes. Finally, using the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method, we performed expression profiling of the bZIP genes in response to drought, salt and abscisic acid (ABA). We identified several bZIP genes that may be involved in drought and salt responses. Generally, our results provided useful and rich resources of VrbZIP and VabZIP genes for the functional characterization and understanding of bZIP transcription factors (TFs) in warm-season legumes. In addition, our results revealed important and interesting data - a subset of VrbZIP and VabZIP gene expression profiles in response to drought, salt and ABA stress. These results provide gene expression evidence for the selection of

  19. AtbZIP34 is required for Arabidopsis pollen wall patterning and the control of several metabolic pathways in developing pollen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibalová, Antónia; Reňák, David; Matczuk, Katarzyna; Dupľáková, Nikoleta; Cháb, David; Twell, D.; Honys, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 5 (2009), s. 581-601 ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/06/0896; GA ČR GA522/09/0858; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : bZIP transcription factor * AtbZIP34 * Male gametophyte development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.978, year: 2009

  20. Lack of promoter IV-driven BDNF transcription results in depression-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, K; Jin, L; Jha, S

    2010-10-01

    Transcription of Bdnf is controlled by multiple promoters, in which promoter IV contributes significantly to activity-dependent Bdnf transcription. We have generated promoter IV mutant mice [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-KIV] in which promoter IV-driven expression of BDNF is selectively disrupted by inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-STOP cassette within the Bdnf exon IV locus. BDNF-KIV animals exhibited depression-like behavior as shown by the tail suspension test (TST), sucrose preference test (SPT) and learned helplessness test (LHT). In addition, BDNF-KIV mice showed reduced activity in the open field test (OFT) and reduced food intake in the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT). The mutant mice did not display anxiety-like behavior in the light and dark box test and elevated plus maze tests. Interestingly, the mutant mice showed defective response inhibition in the passive avoidance test (PAT) even though their learning ability was intact when measured with the active avoidance test (AAT). These results suggest that promoter IV-dependent BDNF expression plays a critical role in the control of mood-related behaviors. This is the first study that directly addressed the effects of endogenous promoter-driven expression of BDNF in depression-like behavior. © 2010 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. CFLAP1 and CFLAP2 Are Two bHLH Transcription Factors Participating in Synergistic Regulation of AtCFL1-Mediated Cuticle Development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle is a hydrophobic lipid layer covering the epidermal cells of terrestrial plants. Although many genes involved in Arabidopsis cuticle development have been identified, the transcriptional regulation of these genes is largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that AtCFL1 negatively regulates cuticle development by interacting with the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor HDG1. Here, we report that two bHLH transcription factors, AtCFL1 associated protein 1 (CFLAP1 and CFLAP2, are also involved in AtCFL1-mediated regulation of cuticle development. CFLAP1 and CFLAP2 interact with AtCFL1 both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of either CFLAP1 or CFLAP2 led to expressional changes of genes involved in fatty acids, cutin and wax biosynthesis pathways and caused multiple cuticle defective phenotypes such as organ fusion, breakage of the cuticle layer and decreased epicuticular wax crystal loading. Functional inactivation of CFLAP1 and CFLAP2 by chimeric repression technology caused opposite phenotypes to the CFLAP1 overexpressor plants. Interestingly, we find that, similar to the transcription factor HDG1, the function of CFLAP1 in cuticle development is dependent on the presence of AtCFL1. Furthermore, both HDG1 and CFLAP1/2 interact with the same C-terminal C4 zinc finger domain of AtCFL1, a domain that is essential for AtCFL1 function. These results suggest that AtCFL1 may serve as a master regulator in the transcriptional regulation of cuticle development, and that CFLAP1 and CFLAP2 are involved in the AtCFL1-mediated regulation pathway, probably through competing with HDG1 to bind to AtCFL1.

  2. The bZIP transcription factor HY5 interacts with the promoter of the monoterpene synthase gene QH6 in modulating its rhythmic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Sun, Tian-Hu; Zhao, Lei; Pan, Xi-Wu; Lu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    The Artemisia annua L. β-pinene synthase QH6 was previously determined to be circadian-regulated at the transcriptional level, showing a rhythmic fluctuation of steady-state transcript abundances. Here we isolated both the genomic sequence and upstream promoter region of QH6. Different regulatory elements, such as G-box (TGACACGTGGCA, -421 bp from the translation initiation site) which might have effects on rhythmic gene expression, were found. Using the yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we confirmed that the bZIP transcription factor HY5 binds to this motif of QH6. Studies with promoter truncations before and after this motif suggested that this G-box was important for the diurnal fluctuation of the transgenic β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) transcript abundance in Arabidopsis thaliana. GUS gene driven by the promoter region immediately after G-box showed an arrhythmic expression in both light/dark (LD) and constant dark (DD) conditions, whereas the control with G-box retained its fluctuation in both LD and DD. We further transformed A. thaliana with the luciferase gene (LUC) driven by an 1400 bp fragment upstream QH6 with its G-box intact or mutated, respectively. The luciferase activity assay showed that a peak in the early morning disappeared in the mutant. Gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the rhythmic expression of LUC was abolished in the hy5-1 mutant.

  3. BACH transcription factors in innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Roychoudhuri, Rahul

    2017-07-01

    BTB and CNC homology (BACH) proteins are transcriptional repressors of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family. Recent studies indicate widespread roles of BACH proteins in controlling the development and function of the innate and adaptive immune systems, including the differentiation of effector and memory cells of the B and T cell lineages, CD4 + regulatory T cells and macrophages. Here, we emphasize similarities at a molecular level in the cell-type-specific activities of BACH factors, proposing that competitive interactions of BACH proteins with transcriptional activators of the bZIP family form a common mechanistic theme underlying their diverse actions. The findings contribute to a general understanding of how transcriptional repressors shape lineage commitment and cell-type-specific functions through repression of alternative lineage programmes.

  4. Automatic Sequences and Zip-Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabmayer, C.A.; Endrullis, J.; Hendriks, D.; Klop, J.W.; Moss, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    We consider infinite sequences of symbols, also known as streams, and the decidability question for equality of streams defined in a restricted format. This restricted format consists of prefixing a symbol at the head of a stream, of the stream function `zip', and recursion variables. Here `zip'

  5. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  6. Identification of drought, cadmium and root-lesion nematode infection stress-responsive transcription factors in ramie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought, cadmium (Cd stress, and root lesion nematode (RLN infection are three of the most important stresses affecting ramie growth and development; therefore, ramie breeding programs focus on their management more than on any other abiotic or biotic stresses. The fact that only a small number of stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs have been identified so far is a major obstacle in the elucidation of mechanisms regulating the response to these three stresses in ramie. In this study, in order to uncover more stress-responsive TFs, a total of 179 nonredundant genes with full-length open reading frames from the MYB, AP2/ERF, bZIP, HD-ZIP, and COL families were obtained by searching for against the ramie transcriptome. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that most of these genes showed relatively higher expression in the stem xylem and bast than in other tissues. Among these genes, 96 genes were found to be involved in responses to drought, Cd exposure, or RLN-infection. The expression of 54 of these genes was regulated by at least two stresses. These stress-responsive TFs probably have roles in the regulation of stress tolerance. The discovery of these stress-responsive TFs will be helpful for furthering our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate stress responses in ramie.

  7. The bZIP transcription factor HY5 interacts with the promoter of the monoterpene synthase gene QH6 in modulating its rhythmic expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei eZhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Artemisia annua L. β-pinene synthase QH6 was previously determined to be circadian-regulated at the transcriptional level, showing a rhythmic fluctuation of steady-state transcript abundances. Here we isolated both the genomic sequence and upstream promoter region of QH6. Different regulatory elements, such as G-box (TGACACGTGGCA, -421 bp from the translation initiation site which might have effects on rhythmic gene expression, were found. Using the yeast one-hybrid and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, we confirmed that the bZIP transcription factor HY5 binds to this motif of QH6. Studies with promoter truncations before and after this motif suggested that this G-box was important for the diurnal fluctuation of the transgenic β-glucuronidase gene (GUS transcript abundance in Arabidopsis thaliana. GUS gene driven by the promoter region immediately after G-box showed an arrhythmic expression in both light/dark (LD and constant dark (DD conditions, whereas the control with G-box retained its fluctuation in both LD and DD. We further transformed A. thaliana with the luciferase gene (LUC driven by an 1400 bp fragment upstream QH6 with its G-box intact or mutated, respectively. The luciferase activity assay showed that a peak in the early morning disappeared in the mutant. Gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the rhythmic expression of LUC was abolished in the hy5-1 mutant.

  8. BnaA.bZIP1 Negatively Regulates a Novel Small Peptide Gene, BnaC.SP6, Involved in Pollen Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanpeng Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Small peptides secreted to the extracellular matrix control many aspects of the plant’s physiological activities which were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, called ATSPs. Here, we isolated and characterized the small peptide gene Bna.SP6 from Brassica napus. The BnaC.SP6 promoter was cloned and identified. Promoter deletion analysis suggested that the -447 to -375 and -210 to -135 regions are crucial for the silique septum and pollen expression of BnaC.SP6, respectively. Furthermore, the minimal promoter region of p158 (-210 to -52 was sufficient for driving gene expression specifically in pollen and highly conserved in Brassica species. In addition, BnaA.bZIP1 was predominantly expressed in anthers where BnaC.SP6 was also expressed, and was localized to the nuclei. BnaA.bZIP1 possessed transcriptional activation activity in yeast and protoplast system. It could specifically bind to the C-box in p158 in vitro, and negatively regulate p158 activity in vivo. BnaA.bZIP1 functions as a transcriptional repressor of BnaC.SP6 in pollen activity. These results provide novel insight into the transcriptional regulation of BnaC.SP6 in pollen activity and the pollen/anther-specific promoter regions of BnaC.SP6 may have their potential agricultural application for new male sterility line generation.

  9. Isolation and functional characterisation of two new bZIP maize regulators of the ABA responsive gene rab28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, Claudia; Busk, Peter K; Domínguez-Puigjaner, Eva; Lumbreras, Victoria; Testillano, Pilar S; Risueño, Maria-Carmen; Pagès, Montserrat

    2005-08-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid regulates gene expression in response to growth stimuli and abiotic stress. Previous studies have implicated members of the bZIP family of transcription factors as mediators of abscisic acid dependent gene expression through the ABRE cis-element. Here, we identify two new maize bZIP transcription factors, EmBP-2 and ZmBZ-1 related to EmBP-1 and OsBZ-8 families. They are differentially expressed during embryo development; EmBP-2 is constitutive, whereas ZmBZ-1 is abscisic acid-inducible and accumulates during late embryogenesis. Both factors are nuclear proteins that bind to ABREs and activate transcription of the abscisic acid-inducible gene rab28 from maize. EmBP-2 and ZmBZ-1 are phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 and phosphorylation alters their DNA binding properties. Our data suggest that EmBP-2 and ZmBZ-1 are involved in the expression of abscisic acid inducible genes such as rab28 and their activity is modulated by ABA and by phosphorylation.

  10. Pan-Domain Analysis of ZIP Zinc Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Lehtovirta-Morley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ZIP (Zrt/Irt-like protein family of zinc transporters is found in all three domains of life. However, little is known about the phylogenetic relationship amongst ZIP transporters, their distribution, or their origin. Here we employed phylogenetic analysis to explore the evolution of ZIP transporters, with a focus on the major human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Pan-domain analysis of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and human proteins revealed a complex relationship amongst the ZIP family members. Here we report (i a eukaryote-wide group of cellular zinc importers, (ii a fungal-specific group of zinc importers having genetic association with the fungal zincophore, and, (iii a pan-kingdom supercluster made up of two distinct subgroups with orthologues in bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic phyla.

  11. The bZIP protein from Tamarix hispida, ThbZIP1, is ACGT elements binding factor that enhances abiotic stress signaling in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Liu, Guifeng; Liu, Yujia; Zheng, Lei; Nie, Xianguang; Wang, Yucheng

    2013-10-04

    Tamarix spp. are woody halophyte, which are very tolerant to abiotic stresses such as salinity and drought, but little is known about their specific stress response systems. Basic leucine zipper proteins (bZIPs) play important roles in the ability of plants to withstand adverse environmental conditions. However, their exact roles in abiotic stress tolerance are still not fully known. In the current study, we functionally characterized a bZIP gene (ThbZIP1) from Tamarix hispida in response to abiotic stresses. We addressed the regulatory network of ThbZIP1 in three levels, i.e. its upstream regulators, the cis-acting elements recognized by ThbZIP1, and its downstream target genes. Two MYCs were found to bind to E-box, in the promoter of ThbZIP1 to activate its expression. Expression of ThbZIP1 is induced by ABA, salt, drought, methyl viologen and cold. ThbZIP1 can specifically bind to ACGT elements, with the highest binding affinity to the C-box, followed by the G-box and lastly the A-box. Compared with wild-type (Col-0) Arabidopsis, transgenic plants expressing ThbZIP1 had an increased tolerance to drought and salt, but had an increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and root growth; meanwhile, ROS level, cell death and water loss rate in transgenic plants were significantly reduced. Microarray analyses showed that many ROS scavenging genes were up-regulated by ThbZIP1 under salt stress conditions. Based on these data, we suggest that ThbZIP1 confers abiotic stress tolerance through activating stress tolerance genes to modulate ROS scavenging ability and other physiological changes involved in stress tolerance, and plays an important role in the ABA-mediated stress response of T. hispida.

  12. HDAC4-Myogenin Axis As an Important Marker of HD-Related Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Cleo J. L. M.; Franklin, Sophie A.; Bondulich, Marie K.; Jolinon, Nelly; Muller, Thomas; Ahmed, Mhoriam; Dick, James R. T.; Piotrowska, Izabela; Greensmith, Linda; Smolenski, Ryszard T.; Bates, Gillian P.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle remodelling and contractile dysfunction occur through both acute and chronic disease processes. These include the accumulation of insoluble aggregates of misfolded amyloid proteins that is a pathological feature of Huntington’s disease (HD). While HD has been described primarily as a neurological disease, HD patients’ exhibit pronounced skeletal muscle atrophy. Given that huntingtin is a ubiquitously expressed protein, skeletal muscle fibres may be at risk of a cell autonomous HD-related dysfunction. However the mechanism leading to skeletal muscle abnormalities in the clinical and pre-clinical HD settings remains unknown. To unravel this mechanism, we employed the R6/2 transgenic and HdhQ150 knock-in mouse models of HD. We found that symptomatic animals developed a progressive impairment of the contractile characteristics of the hind limb muscles tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), accompanied by a significant loss of motor units in the EDL. In symptomatic animals, these pronounced functional changes were accompanied by an aberrant deregulation of contractile protein transcripts and their up-stream transcriptional regulators. In addition, HD mouse models develop a significant reduction in muscle force, possibly as a result of a deterioration in energy metabolism and decreased oxidation that is accompanied by the re-expression of the HDAC4-DACH2-myogenin axis. These results show that muscle dysfunction is a key pathological feature of HD. PMID:25748626

  13. Identification and characterization of bZIP-type transcription factors involved in carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yucheng; Ren, Haibo; Xie, He; Ma, Zeyang; Chen, Fan

    2009-10-01

    Seed dormancy is an important adaptive trait that enables seeds of many species to remain quiescent until conditions become favorable for germination. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in these developmental processes. Like dormancy and germination, the elongation of carrot somatic embryo radicles is retarded by sucrose concentrations at or above 6%, and normal growth resumes at sucrose concentrations below 3%. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening system, we isolated two bZIP-type transcription factors, CAREB1 and CAREB2, from a cDNA library prepared from carrot somatic embryos cultured in a high-sucrose medium. Both CAREB1 and CAREB2 were localized to the nucleus, and specifically bound to the ABA response element (ABRE) in the Dc3 promoter. Expression of CAREB2 was induced in seedlings by drought and exogenous ABA application; whereas expression of CAREB1 increased during late embryogenesis, and reduced dramatically when somatic embryos were treated with fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. Overexpression of CAREB1 caused somatic embryos to develop slowly when cultured in low-sucrose medium, and retarded the elongation of the radicles. These results indicate that CAREB1 and CAREB2 have similar DNA-binding activities, but play different roles during carrot development. Our results indicate that CAREB1 functions as an important trans-acting factor in the ABA signal transduction pathway during carrot somatic embryogenesis.

  14. Zipping dielectric elastomer actuators: characterization, design and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffli, L; Rosset, S; Shea, H R

    2013-01-01

    We report on miniature dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) operating in zipping mode with an analytical model that predicts their behavior. Electrostatic zipping is a well-known mechanism in silicon MEMS to obtain large deformations and forces at lower voltages than for parallel plate electrostatic actuation. We extend this concept to DEAs, which allows us to obtain much larger out-of-plane displacements compared to silicon thanks to the softness of the elastomer membrane. We study experimentally the effect of sidewall angles and elastomer prestretch on 2.3 mm diameter actuators with PDMS membranes. With 15° and 22.5° sidewall angles, the devices zip in a bistable manner down 300 μm to the bottom of the chambers. The highly tunable bistable behavior is controllable by both chamber geometry and membrane parameters. Other specific characteristics of zipping DEAs include well-controlled deflected shape, tunable displacement versus voltage characteristics to virtually any shape, including multi-stable modes, sealing of embedded holes or channels for valving action and the reduction of the operating voltage. These properties make zipping DEAs an excellent candidate for applications such as integrated microfluidics actuators or Braille displays. (paper)

  15. Tribbles ortholog NIPI-3 and bZIP transcription factor CEBP-1 regulate a Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal immune surveillance pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Deborah L; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; Stroustrup, Nicholas; Haas, Wilhelm; Conery, Annie L; Anselmo, Anthony; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2016-12-07

    Many pathogens secrete toxins that target key host processes resulting in the activation of immune pathways. The secreted Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Exotoxin A (ToxA) disrupts intestinal protein synthesis, which triggers the induction of a subset of P. aeruginosa-response genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We show here that one ToxA-induced C. elegans gene, the Tribbles pseudokinase ortholog nipi-3, is essential for host survival following exposure to P. aeruginosa or ToxA. We find that NIPI-3 mediates the post-developmental expression of intestinal immune genes and proteins and primarily functions in parallel to known immune pathways, including p38 MAPK signaling. Through mutagenesis screening, we identify mutants of the bZIP C/EBP transcription factor cebp-1 that suppress the hypersusceptibility defects of nipi-3 mutants. NIPI-3 is a negative regulator of CEBP-1, which in turn negatively regulates protective immune mechanisms. This pathway represents a previously unknown innate immune signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells that is involved in the surveillance of cellular homeostasis. Because NIPI-3 and CEBP-1 are also essential for C. elegans development, NIPI-3 is analogous to other key innate immune signaling molecules such as the Toll receptors in Drosophila that have an independent role during development.

  16. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Guo, Rongrong; Guo, Chunlei; Hou, Hongmin; Wang, Xiping; Gao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu) zipper (bZIP) TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling, and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh) bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes). Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in 10 different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones. PMID:27066030

  17. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao eZhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu zipper (bZIP TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes. Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in ten different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones.

  18. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  19. Chromospherically active stars. IV - HD 178450 = V478 Lyr: An early-type BY Draconis type binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the variable star HD 178450 = V478 Lyr is a chromospherically active G8 V single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 2.130514 days. This star is characterized by strong UV emission features and a filled-in H-alpha absorption line which is variable in strength. Classified as an early-type BY Draconis system, it is similar to the BY Dra star HD 175742 = V775 Her. The unseen secondary of HD 178450 has a mass of about 0.3 solar masses and is believed to be an M2-M3 dwarf.

  20. Characterization of StABF1, a stress-responsive bZIP transcription factor from Solanum tuberosum L. that is phosphorylated by StCDPK2 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz García, María Noelia; Giammaria, Verónica; Grandellis, Carolina; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Ulloa, Rita María; Capiati, Daniela Andrea

    2012-04-01

    ABF/AREB bZIP transcription factors mediate plant abiotic stress responses by regulating the expression of stress-related genes. These proteins bind to the abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive element (ABRE), which is the major cis-acting regulatory sequence in ABA-dependent gene expression. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress resistance in cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), we have cloned and characterized an ABF/AREB-like transcription factor from potato, named StABF1. The predicted protein shares 45-57% identity with A. thaliana ABFs proteins and 96% identity with the S. lycopersicum SlAREB1 and presents all of the distinctive features of ABF/AREB transcription factors. Furthermore, StABF1 is able to bind to the ABRE in vitro. StABF1 gene is induced in response to ABA, drought, salt stress and cold, suggesting that it might be a key regulator of ABA-dependent stress signaling pathways in cultivated potato. StABF1 is phosphorylated in response to ABA and salt stress in a calcium-dependent manner, and we have identified a potato CDPK isoform (StCDPK2) that phosphorylates StABF1 in vitro. Interestingly, StABF1 expression is increased during tuber development and by tuber-inducing conditions (high sucrose/nitrogen ratio) in leaves. We also found that StABF1 calcium-dependent phosphorylation is stimulated by tuber-inducing conditions and inhibited by gibberellic acid, which inhibits tuberization.

  1. Zip Codes - MDC_WCSZipcode

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The WCSZipcode polygon feature class was created by Miami-Dade Enterprise Technology Department to be used in the WCS batch jobs to assign the actual zip code of...

  2. Cis-regulatory signatures of orthologous stress-associated bZIP transcription factors from rice, sorghum and Arabidopsis based on phylogenetic footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Fuyu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of upstream sequence variation to the unique features of orthologous genes is just beginning to be unraveled. A core subset of stress-associated bZIP transcription factors from rice (Oryza sativa formed ten clusters of orthologous groups (COG with genes from the monocot sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and dicot Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana. The total cis-regulatory information content of each stress-associated COG was examined by phylogenetic footprinting to reveal ortholog-specific, lineage-specific and species-specific conservation patterns. Results The most apparent pattern observed was the occurrence of spatially conserved ‘core modules’ among the COGs but not among paralogs. These core modules are comprised of various combinations of two to four putative transcription factor binding site (TFBS classes associated with either developmental or stress-related functions. Outside the core modules are specific stress (ABA, oxidative, abiotic, biotic or organ-associated signals, which may be functioning as ‘regulatory fine-tuners’ and further define lineage-specific and species-specific cis-regulatory signatures. Orthologous monocot and dicot promoters have distinct TFBS classes involved in disease and oxidative-regulated expression, while the orthologous rice and sorghum promoters have distinct combinations of root-specific signals, a pattern that is not particularly conserved in Arabidopsis. Conclusions Patterns of cis-regulatory conservation imply that each ortholog has distinct signatures, further suggesting that they are potentially unique in a regulatory context despite the presumed conservation of broad biological function during speciation. Based on the observed patterns of conservation, we postulate that core modules are likely primary determinants of basal developmental programming, which may be integrated with and further elaborated by additional intrinsic or extrinsic signals in

  3. Solvent extraction of hafnium(IV) by dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid from mixed aqueous-organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Piperkovova, H.

    1979-01-01

    The extraction of hafnium(IV) by heptane and toluene solutions of dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HD) from mixed aqueous-organic solutions has been studied. Alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, cyclic ethers, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide were used as the organic component of the mixed phase. Methanol, ethanol, formic acid and dioxane increased the extractability of Hf(IV) whereas other solvents showed only an antagonistic effect. The results were discussed from the point of view of the changes in micellar structure of HD, and compared with the uptake of Hf(IV) by resinous cation exchangers. The solubilization by HD of alcohols, carboxylic acids and dimethylsulfoxide was demonstrated by using the corresponding 14 C and 35 S labelled compounds. (author)

  4. Chemical analysis of three barium stars: HD 51959, HD 88035, and HD 121447

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna; Sridhar, Navin; Masseron, Thomas; Purandardas, Meenakshi

    2018-05-01

    We present elemental abundance results from high-resolution spectral analysis of three nitrogen-enhanced barium stars. The analysis is based on spectra obtained with the fibre-fed extended range optical spectrograph attached to 1.52 m telescope at European Southern Observatory, Chile. The spectral resolution is R ˜ 48,000 and the spectral coverage spans from 3500 to 9000Å . For the objects HD 51959 and HD 88035, we present the first-time abundance analyses results. Although a few studies are available in literature on the object HD 121447, the results are significantly different from each other. We have therefore carried out a detailed chemical composition study for this object based on a high-resolution spectrum with high S/N ratio, for a better understanding of the origin of the abundance patterns observed in this star. Stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulence, and metallicity of the stars are determined from the local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. The metallicities of HD 51959 and HD 88035 are found to be near-solar; they exhibit enhanced abundances of neutron-capture elements. HD 121447 is found to be moderately metal-poor with [Fe/H] = -0.65. While carbon is near-solar in the other two objects, HD 121447 shows carbon enhancement at a level, [C/Fe] = 0.82. Neutron-capture elements are highly enhanced with [X/Fe] > 2 (X: Ba, La, Pr, Nd, Sm) in this object. The α- and iron-peak elements show abundances very similar to field giants with the same metallicity. From kinematic analysis all the three objects are found to be members of thin disc population with a high probability of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.92 for HD 51959, HD 88035, and HD 121447, respectively.

  5. IUE observations of interstellar Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.J.; Willis, A.J.; Wilson, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent IUE observations of Wolf-Rayet stars show narrow absorption lines in the highly ionized species of Si IV and C IV. The strengths of these 'interstellar' Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of 10 WR stars and two other early-type stars are compared. Of the WR sample, six stars exhibit very strong Si IV and C IV lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.3 to 0.5 A) whilst the other four stars show much weaker lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.1 A). There is no correlation between the strengths of these lines with either stellar distance or colour excess. The weaker absorptions may arise in the individual stellar H II regions, the observed strengths being consistent with those expected for stars with Tsub(eff) = 30 000 K. Five of the other stars which exhibit very strong absorptions lie in the line of sight to active interstellar regions (Cygnus and Carina nebulae) and it is considered probable that, in addition to their H II region components, the bulk of the strong Si IV and C IV absorptions originate in hot gas associated with these active regions. In the case of the WN5 star HD 50896 violet-displaced components are observed in the interstellar lines of low ionization species. These are thought to be produced in the ring nebula S308 surrounding HD 50896. (author)

  6. Arabidopsis IRE1 catalyses unconventional splicing of bZIP60 mRNA to produce the active transcription factor

    KAUST Repository

    Nagashima, Yukihiro; Mishiba, Kei-ichiro; Suzuki, Eiji; Shimada, Yukihisa; Iwata, Yuji; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2011-01-01

    -type. Transcriptome analysis revealed that genes whose induction was reduced in ire1a/ire1b largely overlapped those in the bzip60 mutant. We observed that the active form of bZIP60 protein detected in the wild-type was missing in ire1a/ire1b. We further demonstrated

  7. Biophysical properties of regions flanking the bHLH-Zip motif in the p22 Max protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursglove, Sharon E.; Fladvad, Malin; Bellanda, Massimo; Moshref, Ahmad; Henriksson, Marie; Carey, Jannette; Sunnerhagen, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The Max protein is the central dimerization partner in the Myc-Max-Mad network of transcriptional regulators, and a founding structural member of the family of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-leucine zipper (Zip) proteins. Biologically important regions flanking its bHLH-Zip motif have been disordered or absent in crystal structures. The present study shows that these regions are resistant to proteolysis in both the presence and absence of DNA, and that Max dimers containing both flanking regions have significantly higher helix content as measured by circular dichroism than that predicted from the crystal structures. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in the absence of DNA also support the inferred structural order. Deletion of both flanking regions is required to achieve maximal DNA affinity as measured by EMSA. Thus, the previously observed functionalities of these Max regions in DNA binding, phosphorylation, and apoptosis are suggested to be linked to structural properties

  8. Interaction between C/EBPβ and Tax down-regulates human T-cell leukemia virus type I transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hivin, P.; Gaudray, G.; Devaux, C.; Mesnard, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax protein trans-activates viral transcription through three imperfect tandem repeats of a 21-bp sequence called Tax-responsive element (TxRE). Tax regulates transcription via direct interaction with some members of the activating transcription factor/CRE-binding protein (ATF/CREB) family including CREM, CREB, and CREB-2. By interacting with their ZIP domain, Tax stimulates the binding of these cellular factors to the CRE-like sequence present in the TxREs. Recent observations have shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) forms stable complexes on the CRE site in the presence of CREB-2. Given that C/EBPβ has also been found to interact with Tax, we analyzed the effects of C/EBPβ on viral Tax-dependent transcription. We show here that C/EBPβ represses viral transcription and that Tax is no more able to form a stable complex with CREB-2 on the TxRE site in the presence of C/EBPβ. We also analyzed the physical interactions between Tax and C/EBPβ and found that the central region of C/EBPβ, excluding its ZIP domain, is required for direct interaction with Tax. It is the first time that Tax is described to interact with a basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) factor without recognizing its ZIP domain. Although unexpected, this result explains why C/EBPβ would be unable to form a stable complex with Tax on the TxRE site and could then down-regulate viral transcription. Lastly, we found that C/EBPβ was able to inhibit Tax expression in vivo from an infectious HTLV-I molecular clone. In conclusion, we propose that during cell activation events, which stimulate the Tax synthesis, C/EBPβ may down-regulate the level of HTLV-I expression to escape the cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte response

  9. Novel mechanism of aberrant ZIP4 expression with zinc supplementation in oral tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Sho; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Nakashima, Dai; Koide, Nao; Takahara, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Iyoda, Manabu; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Zrt-Irt-like protein 4 (ZIP4) is critical molecule for proper mammalian development and releasing zinc from vesicular compartments. Recent studies suggested that ZIP4 plays an important role of tumor progression in pancreatic, prostate, and hepatocellular cancers, however, little is known about the detail mechanism of ZIP4 in their cancers. In the present study, we examined the possibility of ZIP4 as a new molecular target for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We evaluated ZIP4 expression in OSCC-derived cell lines and primary OSCC samples by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also analyzed the clinical correlation between ZIP4 status and clinical behaviors in patients with OSCC. In addition, ZIP4 knockdown cells (shZIP4 cells) and ZnCl 2 treatment were used for functional experiments, including cellular proliferation assay, zinc uptake assay, and cell-cycle analysis. ZIP4 mRNA and protein were up-regulated significantly in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. IHC showed that ZIP4 expression in the primary OSCC was positively correlated with primary tumoral size. The shZIP4 cells showed decrease accumulation of intercellular zinc and decreased cellular growth by cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, resulting from up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and down-regulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Since cellular growth of OSCC cells after treatment with zinc was significantly greater than control cells, we speculated that intercellular ZnCl 2 accumulation is an important factor for cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, not only decreased zinc uptake by ZIP4 knockdown but also chelating agent, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), showed inhibitory effects of cellular proliferation. Therefore, our data provide evidence for an essential role of ZIP4 and intracellular zinc for tumoral growth in OSCC, suggesting that zinc uptake might be a

  10. MEMS variable capacitance devices utilizing the substrate: II. Zipping varactors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2010-03-22

    This paper, the second and last in this series, introduces PolyMUMPS zipping varactors that exploit the substrate and provide a high tuning range and a high quality factor. Building on the important findings of part I of this paper, the substrate was utilized effectively once again in the design and fabrication of zipping varactors to attain devices with very good performance. Two zipping varactors are proposed, analysed theoretically, simulated, fabricated and tested successfully. The tuning range, quality factor and actuation voltage of those varactors are 4.5, 16.4, 55 V and 4.2, 17, 55 V respectively. Finally, and based on one of the proposed zipping varactors, a very large capacitance value varactor array, with a tuning range of 5.3, was designed and tested. To the best of our knowledge, these zipping varactors exhibit the best reported characteristics in PolyMUMPS to date within their category in terms of tuning range, quality factor, required actuation voltage and total area consumed. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Polarized Disk Emission from Herbig Ae/Be Stars Observed Using Gemini Planet Imager: HD 144432, HD 150193, HD 163296, and HD 169142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, John D.; Aarnio, Alicia; Adams, Fred C.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee [Astronomy Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Harries, Tim J.; Hinkley, Sasha; Kraus, Stefan [University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 91023 (United States); Espaillat, Catherine [Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); McClure, Melissa [European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany); Oppenheimer, Rebecca [American Museum of Natural History, New York (United States); Perrin, Marshall [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-03-20

    In order to look for signs of ongoing planet formation in young disks, we carried out the first J -band polarized emission imaging of the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 150193, HD 163296, and HD 169142 using the Gemini Planet Imager, along with new H band observations of HD 144432. We confirm the complex “double ring” structure for the nearly face-on system HD 169142 first seen in H -band, finding the outer ring to be substantially redder than the inner one in polarized intensity. Using radiative transfer modeling, we developed a physical model that explains the full spectral energy distribution and J - and H -band surface brightness profiles, suggesting that the differential color of the two rings could come from reddened starlight traversing the inner wall and may not require differences in grain properties. In addition, we clearly detect an elongated, off-center ring in HD 163296 (MWC 275), locating the scattering surface to be 18 au above the midplane at a radial distance of 77 au, co-spatial with a ring seen at 1.3 mm by ALMA linked to the CO snow line. Lastly, we report a weak tentative detection of scattered light for HD 150193 (MWC 863) and a non-detection for HD 144432; the stellar companion known for each of these targets has likely disrupted the material in the outer disk of the primary star. For HD 163296 and HD 169142, the prominent outer rings we detect could be evidence for giant planet formation in the outer disk or a manifestation of large-scale dust growth processes possibly related to snow-line chemistry.

  12. Polarized Disk Emission from Herbig Ae/Be Stars Observed Using Gemini Planet Imager: HD 144432, HD 150193, HD 163296, and HD 169142

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, John D.; Aarnio, Alicia; Adams, Fred C.; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Harries, Tim J.; Hinkley, Sasha; Kraus, Stefan; Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David; Espaillat, Catherine; McClure, Melissa; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Perrin, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    In order to look for signs of ongoing planet formation in young disks, we carried out the first J -band polarized emission imaging of the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 150193, HD 163296, and HD 169142 using the Gemini Planet Imager, along with new H band observations of HD 144432. We confirm the complex “double ring” structure for the nearly face-on system HD 169142 first seen in H -band, finding the outer ring to be substantially redder than the inner one in polarized intensity. Using radiative transfer modeling, we developed a physical model that explains the full spectral energy distribution and J - and H -band surface brightness profiles, suggesting that the differential color of the two rings could come from reddened starlight traversing the inner wall and may not require differences in grain properties. In addition, we clearly detect an elongated, off-center ring in HD 163296 (MWC 275), locating the scattering surface to be 18 au above the midplane at a radial distance of 77 au, co-spatial with a ring seen at 1.3 mm by ALMA linked to the CO snow line. Lastly, we report a weak tentative detection of scattered light for HD 150193 (MWC 863) and a non-detection for HD 144432; the stellar companion known for each of these targets has likely disrupted the material in the outer disk of the primary star. For HD 163296 and HD 169142, the prominent outer rings we detect could be evidence for giant planet formation in the outer disk or a manifestation of large-scale dust growth processes possibly related to snow-line chemistry.

  13. Angiotensin IV possibly acts through PKMzeta in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yu-Hui; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2015-10-01

    Ang IV is an endogenous peptide generated from the degradation of angiotensin II. Ang IV was found to enhance learning and memory in CNS. PKMzeta was identified to be a fragment of PKCzeta (protein kinase Czeta). Its continuous activation was demonstrated to be correlated with the formation of memory in the hippocampus. Therefore, we investigated whether PKMzeta participates in the effects of Ang IV on memory. We first examined the effect of Ang IV on non-spatial memory/cognition in modified object recognition test in rats. Our data showed that Ang IV could increase the exploration time on novel object. The co-administration of ZIP (PKMzeta inhibitor) with Ang IV significantly blocked the effect by Ang IV. The effects of Ang IV on hippocampal LTP at the CA1 region were also evaluated. Ang IV significantly increased the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs, which was consistent with other reports. Surprisingly, instead of potentiating LTP, Ang IV caused a failed maintenance of LTP. Moreover, there was no quantitative change in PKMzeta induced by Ang IV and/or ZIP after behavioral experiments. Taken together, our data re-confirmed the finding of the positive effect of Ang IV to enhance memory/cognition. The increased strength of EPSPs with Ang IV could also have certain functional relevance. Since the behavioral results suggested the involvement of PKMzeta, we hypothesized that the enhancement of memory/cognition by Ang IV may rely on an increase in PKMzeta activity. Overall, the present study provided important advances in our understanding of the action of Ang IV in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  15. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Junhyeok; Hyun, Wooyoung; Nguyen, Hoai Nguyen; Jeong, Chanyoung; Xiong, Liming; Hong, Sukwhan; Lee, Hojoung

    2014-01-01

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. AtMyb7, a subgroup 4 R2R3 Myb, negatively regulates ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination by blocking the expression of the bZIP transcription factor ABI5

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Junhyeok

    2014-08-27

    Various Myb proteins have been shown to play crucial roles in plants, including primary and secondary metabolism, determination of cell fate and identity, regulation of development and involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The 126 R2R3 Myb proteins (with two Myb repeats) have been found in Arabidopsis; however, the functions of most of these proteins remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we characterized the function of AtMyb7 using molecular biological and genetic analyses. We used qRT-PCR to determine the levels of stress-response gene transcripts in wild-type and atmyb7 plants. We showed that ArabidopsisAtMyb7 plays a critical role in seed germination. Under abscisic acid (ABA) and high-salt stress conditions, atmyb7 plants showed a lower germination rate than did wild-type plants. Furthermore, AtMyb7 promoter:GUS seeds exhibited different expression patterns in response to variations in the seed imbibition period. AtMyb7 negatively controls the expression of the gene encoding bZIP transcription factor, ABI5, which is a key transcription factor in ABA signalling and serves as a crucial regulator of germination inhibition in Arabidopsis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. HD 38451: J.R. Hind's star that changed colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, B.; Cape Town Univ.; Snedon, C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in colour. We show that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra and ground-based photometry we find HD 38451 to be a normal A2IV shell star. Its current value of E(B-V) approx. ident to 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time. (author)

  18. Variation Analysis of Physiological Traits in Betula platyphylla Overexpressing TaLEA-ThbZIP Gene under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang Zhao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla ectopic overexpressing a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA gene and a basic leucine zipper (bZIP gene from the salt-tolerant genus Tamarix (salt cedar show increased tolerance to salt (NaCl stress. Co-transfer of TaLEA and ThbZIP in birch under the control of two independent CaMV 35S promoters significantly enhanced salt stress. PCR and northern blot analyses indicated that the two genes were ectopically overexpressed in several dual-gene transgenic birch lines. We compared the effects of salt stress among three transgenic birch lines (L-4, L-5, and L-8 and wild type (WT. In all lines, the net photosynthesis values were higher before salt stress treatment than afterwards. After the salt stress treatment, the transgenic lines L-4 and L-8 showed higher values for photosynthetic traits, chlorophyll fluorescence, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, and lower malondialdehyde and Na+ contents, compared with those in WT and L-5. These different responses to salt stress suggested that the transcriptional level of the TaLEA and ThbZIP genes differed among the transgenic lines, resulting in a variety of genetic and phenotypic effects. The results of this research can provide a theoretical basis for the genetic engineering of salt-tolerant trees.

  19. Comorbid externalising behaviour in AD/HD: evidence for a distinct pathological entity in adolescence.

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    Sharnel Perera

    Full Text Available While the profiling of subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD have been the subject of considerable scrutiny, both psychometrically and psychophysiologically, little attention has been paid to the effect of diagnoses comorbid with AD/HD on such profiles. This is despite the greater than 80% prevalence of comorbidity under the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic definitions. Here we investigate the event related potential (ERP and psychometric profiles of Controls, AD/HD, and comorbid AD/HD (particularly AD/HD+ODD/CD groups on six neurocognitive tasks thought to probe the constructs of selective and sustained attention, response inhibition and executive function. Data from 29 parameters extracted from a child group (age range 6 to 12; 52 Controls and 64 AD/HD and from an adolescent group (age range 13 to 17; 79 Controls and 88 AD/HD were reduced via a Principal Components Analysis, the 6 significant eigenvectors then used as determinants of cluster membership via a Two-Step Cluster Analysis. Two clusters were found in the analysis of the adolescent age group--a cluster dominated by Control and AD/HD participants without comorbidity, while the second cluster was dominated by AD/HD participants with externalising comorbidity (largely oppositional defiant/conduct disorder ODD/CD. A similar segregation within the child age group was not found. Further analysis of these objectively determined clusters in terms of their clinical diagnoses indicates a significant effect of ODD/CD comorbidity on a concurrent AD/HD diagnosis. We conclude that comorbid externalising behaviour in AD/HD constitutes a distinct pathological entity in adolescence.

  20. Efficient Proximity Computation Techniques Using ZIP Code Data for Smart Cities †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdani, Muhammad Harist; Kwon, Joonho; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Hong, Bonghee

    2018-03-24

    In this paper, we are interested in computing ZIP code proximity from two perspectives, proximity between two ZIP codes ( Ad-Hoc ) and neighborhood proximity ( Top-K ). Such a computation can be used for ZIP code-based target marketing as one of the smart city applications. A naïve approach to this computation is the usage of the distance between ZIP codes. We redefine a distance metric combining the centroid distance with the intersecting road network between ZIP codes by using a weighted sum method. Furthermore, we prove that the results of our combined approach conform to the characteristics of distance measurement. We have proposed a general and heuristic approach for computing Ad-Hoc proximity, while for computing Top-K proximity, we have proposed a general approach only. Our experimental results indicate that our approaches are verifiable and effective in reducing the execution time and search space.

  1. Efficient Proximity Computation Techniques Using ZIP Code Data for Smart Cities †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Harist Murdani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested in computing ZIP code proximity from two perspectives, proximity between two ZIP codes (Ad-Hoc and neighborhood proximity (Top-K. Such a computation can be used for ZIP code-based target marketing as one of the smart city applications. A naïve approach to this computation is the usage of the distance between ZIP codes. We redefine a distance metric combining the centroid distance with the intersecting road network between ZIP codes by using a weighted sum method. Furthermore, we prove that the results of our combined approach conform to the characteristics of distance measurement. We have proposed a general and heuristic approach for computing Ad-Hoc proximity, while for computing Top-K proximity, we have proposed a general approach only. Our experimental results indicate that our approaches are verifiable and effective in reducing the execution time and search space.

  2. Functional analysis of rice HOMEOBOX4 (Oshox4) gene reveals a negative function in gibberellin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingqiu; Hu, Yongfeng; Ma, Qian; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2008-02-01

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) putative transcription factor genes are divided into 4 families. In this work, we studied the function of a rice HD-Zip I gene, H OME O BO X4 (Oshox4). Oshox4 transcripts were detected in leaf and floral organ primordia but excluded from the shoot apical meristem and the protein was nuclear localized. Over-expression of Oshox4 in rice induced a semi-dwarf phenotype that could not be complemented by applied GA3. The over-expression plants accumulated elevated levels of bioactive GA, while the GA catabolic gene GA2ox3 was upregulated in the transgenic plants. In addition, over-expression of Oshox4 blocked GA-dependent alpha-amylase production. However, down-regulation of Oshox4 in RNAi transgenic plants induced no phenotypic alteration. Interestingly, the expression of YAB1 that is involved in the negative feedback regulation of the GA biosynthesis was upregulated in the Oshox4 over-expressing plants. One-hybrid assays showed that Oshox4 could interact with YAB1 promoter in yeast. In addition, Oshox4 expression was upregulated by GA. These data together suggest that Oshox4 may be involved in the negative regulation of GA signalling and may play a role to fine tune GA responses in rice.

  3. Infrared absorption spectra of gaseous HD. II. Collision-induced fundamental band of HD in HD--Ne and HD--Ar mixtures at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.D.G.; Reddy, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The collision-induced infrared absorption spectra of the fundamental band of HD in binary mixtures of HD with Ne and Ar at room temperature have been studied with an absorption path length of 105.2 cm for different base densities of HD in the range 8--20 amagat and a number of total gas densities up to 175 amagat. The observed features of the profiles of the enhancement of absorption in these mixtures resemble closely those of the corresponding profiles of the fundamental band of H 2 in binary mixtures with Ne and Ar. The binary absorption coefficients of the band obtained from the measured integrated intensities are (1.84 +- 0.06) x 10 -35 and (4.41 +- 0.06) x 10 -35 cm 6 s -1 for HD--Ne and HD--Ar, respectively. The characteristic half-width parameters, delta/subd/ and delta/subc/ of the overlap transitions and delta/subq/ (and delta/subq//sub prime/) of the quadrupolar transitions, are obtained from an analysis of the profiles of the enhancement of absorption in both these mixtures. The quantity delta/subc/ which is the half-width of the intercollisional interference dip of the Q branch increases with the density of the perturbing gas Ne or Ar, and for HD--Ne it varies in a manner similar to that for HD--He as described in Paper I of this series

  4. Separable Crossover-Promoting and Crossover-Constraining Aspects of Zip1 Activity during Budding Yeast Meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Voelkel-Meiman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on the presence of crossover events distributed among all chromosomes. MutSγ and MutLγ homologs (Msh4/5 and Mlh1/3 facilitate the formation of a prominent group of meiotic crossovers that mature within the context of an elaborate chromosomal structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC. SC proteins are required for intermediate steps in the formation of MutSγ-MutLγ crossovers, but whether the assembled SC structure per se is required for MutSγ-MutLγ-dependent crossover recombination events is unknown. Here we describe an interspecies complementation experiment that reveals that the mature SC is dispensable for the formation of Mlh3-dependent crossovers in budding yeast. Zip1 forms a major structural component of the budding yeast SC, and is also required for MutSγ and MutLγ-dependent crossover formation. Kluyveromyces lactis ZIP1 expressed in place of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIP1 in S. cerevisiae cells fails to support SC assembly (synapsis but promotes wild-type crossover levels in those nuclei that progress to form spores. While stable, full-length SC does not assemble in S. cerevisiae cells expressing K. lactis ZIP1, aggregates of K. lactis Zip1 displayed by S. cerevisiae meiotic nuclei are decorated with SC-associated proteins, and K. lactis Zip1 promotes the SUMOylation of the SC central element protein Ecm11, suggesting that K. lactis Zip1 functionally interfaces with components of the S. cerevisiae synapsis machinery. Moreover, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers rely on S. cerevisiae synapsis initiation proteins Zip3, Zip4, Spo16, as well as the Mlh3 protein, as do the crossovers mediated by S. cerevisiae Zip1. Surprisingly, however, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers are largely Msh4/Msh5 (MutSγ-independent. This separation-of-function version of Zip1 thus reveals that neither assembled SC nor MutSγ is required for Mlh3-dependent crossover formation per se in budding yeast

  5. Accurate effective temperatures of the metal-poor benchmark stars HD 140283, HD 122563, and HD 103095 from CHARA interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovicova, I.; White, T. R.; Nordlander, T.; Lind, K.; Casagrande, L.; Ireland, M. J.; Huber, D.; Creevey, O.; Mourard, D.; Schaefer, G. H.; Gilmore, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Wittkowski, M.; Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Thévenin, F.; Asplund, M.

    2018-03-01

    Large stellar surveys of the Milky Way require validation with reference to a set of `benchmark' stars whose fundamental properties are well determined. For metal-poor benchmark stars, disagreement between spectroscopic and interferometric effective temperatures has called the reliability of the temperature scale into question. We present new interferometric measurements of three metal-poor benchmark stars, HD 140283, HD 122563, and HD 103095, from which we determine their effective temperatures. The angular sizes of all the stars were determined from observations with the PAVO beam combiner at visible wavelengths at the CHARA array, with additional observations of HD 103095 made with the VEGA instrument, also at the CHARA array. Together with photometrically derived bolometric fluxes, the angular diameters give a direct measurement of the effective temperature. For HD 140283, we find θLD = 0.324 ± 0.005 mas, Teff = 5787 ± 48 K; for HD 122563, θLD = 0.926 ± 0.011 mas, Teff = 4636 ± 37 K; and for HD 103095, θLD = 0.595 ± 0.007 mas, Teff = 5140 ± 49 K. Our temperatures for HD 140283 and HD 103095 are hotter than the previous interferometric measurements by 253 and 322 K, respectively. We find good agreement between our temperatures and recent spectroscopic and photometric estimates. We conclude some previous interferometric measurements have been affected by systematic uncertainties larger than their quoted errors.

  6. Regulating expressin of cell and tissue-specific genes by modifying transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, Roger N. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Dai, Shunhong [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Transcriptional regulation is the primary step to control gene expression, therefore function. Such regulation is achieved primarily via a combination of the activities of the promoter cis regulatory DNA elements and trans regulatory proteins that function through binding to these DNA elements. Our research supported by this program has led to the identification of rice bZIP transcription factors RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 that play key roles in regulating the activity of a vascular tissue specific promoter isolated from Rice Tungro Bacilliform Virus (RTBV) through their interactions with the Box II essential cis element located in the promoter. RF2a, RF2b and RLP1 possess multiple regulatory domains. Functional characterization reveals that those domains can activate or repress the activity of the RTBV promoter. Studies of transcriptional regulation of the RTBV promoter by this group of bZIP proteins not only provide insights about gene expression in the vascular tissue, but also insights about general mechanisms of transcription activation and repression. The knowledge gained from this research will also enable us to develop a well-described set of tools that can be used to control expression of multiple genes in transgenic plants and to improve biofuel feedstock.

  7. ZipA binds to FtsZ with high affinity and enhances the stability of FtsZ protofilaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Kuchibhatla

    Full Text Available A bacterial membrane protein ZipA that tethers FtsZ to the membrane is known to promote FtsZ assembly. In this study, the binding of ZipA to FtsZ was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. ZipA was found to bind to FtsZ with high affinities at three different (6.0, 6.8 and 8.0 pHs, albeit the binding affinity decreased with increasing pH. Further, thick bundles of FtsZ protofilaments were observed in the presence of ZipA under the pH conditions used in this study indicating that ZipA can promote FtsZ assembly and stabilize FtsZ polymers under unfavorable conditions. Bis-ANS, a hydrophobic probe, decreased the interaction of FtsZ and ZipA indicating that the interaction between FtsZ and ZipA is hydrophobic in nature. ZipA prevented the dilution induced disassembly of FtsZ polymers suggesting that it stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ZipA was found to be uniformly distributed along the length of the FtsZ protofilaments indicating that ZipA stabilizes FtsZ protofilaments by cross-linking them.

  8. Theory on the Mechanism of DNA Renaturation: Stochastic Nucleation and Zipping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanapragasam Niranjani

    Full Text Available Renaturation of the complementary single strands of DNA is one of the important processes that requires better understanding in the view of molecular biology and biological physics. Here we develop a stochastic dynamical model on the DNA renaturation. According to our model there are at least three steps in the renaturation process viz. nonspecific-contact formation, correct-contact formation and nucleation, and zipping. Most of the earlier two-state models combined nucleation with nonspecific-contact formation step. In our model we suggest that it is considerably meaningful when we combine the nucleation with the zipping since nucleation is the initial step of zipping and nucleated and zipping molecules are indistinguishable. Nonspecific contact formation step is a pure three-dimensional diffusion controlled collision process. Whereas nucleation involves several rounds of one-dimensional slithering and internal displacement dynamics of one single strand of DNA on the other complementary strand in the process of searching for the correct-contact and then initiate nucleation. Upon nucleation, the stochastic zipping follows to generate a fully renatured double stranded DNA. It seems that the square-root dependency of the overall renaturation rate constant on the length of reacting single strands originates mainly from the geometric constraints in the diffusion controlled nonspecific-contact formation step. Further the inverse scaling of the renaturation rate on the viscosity of reaction medium also originates from nonspecific contact formation step. On the other hand the inverse scaling of the renaturation rate with the sequence complexity originates from the stochastic zipping which involves several rounds of crossing over the free-energy barrier at microscopic levels. When the sequence of renaturing single strands of DNA is repetitive with less complexity then the cooperative effects will not be noticeable since the parallel zipping will be a

  9. Slc39a7/zip7 plays a critical role in development and zinc homeostasis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Slc39a7/Zip7, also known as Ke4, is a member of solute carrier family 39 (Slc39a and plays a critical role in regulating cell growth and death. Because the function of Zip7 in vivo was unclear, the present study investigated the function of zip7 in vertebrate development and zinc metabolism using zebrafish as a model organism. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using real-time PCR to determine the gene expression pattern of zip7 during zebrafish development, we found that zip7 mRNA is expressed throughout embryonic development and into maturity. Interestingly, whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that while zip7 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed until 12 hours post-fertilization (hpf; at 24 hpf and beyond, zip7 mRNA was specifically detected only in eyes. Morpholino-antisense (MO gene knockdown assay revealed that downregulation of zip7 expression resulted in several morphological defects in zebrafish including decreased head size, smaller eyes, shorter palates, and shorter and curved spinal cords. Analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF showed reduced concentrations of zinc in brain, eyes, and gills of zip7-MO-injected embryos. Furthermore, incubation of the zip7 knockdown embryos in a zinc-supplemented solution was able to rescue the MO-induced morphological defects. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that zip7 is required for eye, brain, and skeleton formation during early embryonic development in zebrafish. Moreover, zinc supplementation can partially rescue defects resulting from zip7 gene knockdown. Taken together, our data provide critical insight into a novel function of zip7 in development and zinc homeostasis in vivo in zebrafish.

  10. Detection of planet candidates around K giants. HD 40956, HD 111591, and HD 113996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, G.; Lee, B.-C.; Han, I.; Omiya, M.; Izumiura, H.; Sato, B.; Harakawa, H.; Kambe, E.; Mkrtichian, D.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: The purpose of this paper is to detect and investigate the nature of long-term radial velocity (RV) variations of K-type giants and to confirm planetary companions around the stars. Methods: We have conducted two planet search programs by precise RV measurement using the 1.8 m telescope at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO) and the 1.88 m telescope at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO). The BOAO program searches for planets around 55 early K giants. The OAO program is looking for 190 G-K type giants. Results: In this paper, we report the detection of long-period RV variations of three K giant stars, HD 40956, HD 111591, and HD 113996. We investigated the cause of the observed RV variations and conclude the substellar companions are most likely the cause of the RV variations. The orbital analyses yield P = 578.6 ± 3.3 d, m sin i = 2.7 ± 0.6 MJ, a = 1.4 ± 0.1 AU for HD 40956; P = 1056.4 ± 14.3 d, m sin i = 4.4 ± 0.4 MJ, a = 2.5 ± 0.1 AU for HD 111591; P = 610.2 ± 3.8 d, m sin i = 6.3 ± 1.0 MJ, a = 1.6 ± 0.1 AU for HD 113996. Based on observations made with the BOES at BOAO in Korea and HIDES at OAO in Japan.Tables 3-5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A3

  11. A model of competing species that exhibits zip bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Echeverri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un modelo concreto d e poblaciones de especies en competición que exhibe la bifurc ación Zip. La bifurcación zip fue introducida por Farkas en 1984 para un si stema tridi- mensional de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias que desc ribe un quimiostato. Estudiaremos un sistema tridimensional de ecuaciones dife renciales ordinarias que modela la competición de dos poblaciones distintas de pr edadores por una única población presa. El sistema usa funciones trigonomét ricas concretas pa- ra representar la tasa de crecimiento de la presa y la respues ta funcional del predador. El modelo exhibe diferentes clases de comportami entos y muestra ejemplos de los llamados principio de exclusión competitiva y la competición de un r-estratega contra un k-estratega . Adicionalmente, para ilustrar la bi- furcacion zip, presentaremos algunas simulaciones numéri cas.

  12. Using Wireless Pedometers to Measure Children’s Physical Activity: How Reliable is the Fitbit Zip?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of wireless pedometers in measuring elementary school children’s physical activity. Activity measurement using a wireless pedometer Fitbit ZipTM was compared to activity measurement using Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 for a group of randomly selected 25 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometers were found to have an appropriate degree (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994 of accuracy and reliability compared to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer. The Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometer collected more step counts than the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Participants reported that they preferred wearing the Fitbit ZipTM to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 because the Fitbit ZipTM was more comfortable to wear and less likely to fall off. Participants also reported being more motivated to move while wearing the Fitbit ZipTM.

  13. A specific role for the ZipA protein in cell division: stabilization of the FtsZ protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Manuel; Natale, Paolo; Vicente, Miguel

    2013-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, the cell division protein FtsZ is anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane by the action of the bitopic membrane protein ZipA and the cytoplasmic protein FtsA. Although the presence of both ZipA and FtsA is strictly indispensable for cell division, an FtsA gain-of-function mutant FtsA* (R286W) can bypass the ZipA requirement for cell division. This observation casts doubts on the role of ZipA and its need for cell division. Maxicells are nucleoid-free bacterial cells used as a whole cell in vitro system to probe protein-protein interactions without the need of protein purification. We show that ZipA protects FtsZ from the ClpXP-directed degradation observed in E. coli maxicells and that ZipA-stabilized FtsZ forms membrane-attached spiral-like structures in the bacterial cytoplasm. The overproduction of the FtsZ-binding ZipA domain is sufficient to protect FtsZ from degradation, whereas other C-terminal ZipA partial deletions lacking it are not. Individual overproduction of the proto-ring component FtsA or its gain-of-function mutant FtsA* does not result in FtsZ protection. Overproduction of FtsA or FtsA* together with ZipA does not interfere with the FtsZ protection. Moreover, neither FtsA nor FtsA* protects FtsZ when overproduced together with ZipA mutants lacking the FZB domain. We propose that ZipA protects FtsZ from degradation by ClpP by making the FtsZ site of interaction unavailable to the ClpX moiety of the ClpXP protease. This role cannot be replaced by either FtsA or FtsA*, suggesting a unique function for ZipA in proto-ring stability.

  14. A modified detector concept for SuperCDMS: The HiZIP and its charge performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Kedar Mohan [Queen' s U.

    2013-01-01

    SuperCDMS (Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) is a leading direct dark mat-ter search experiment which uses solid state detectors (Ge crystals) at milliKelvintemperatures to look for nuclear recoils caused by dark matter interactions in the de-tector. `Weakly Interacting Massive Particles' (WIMPs) are the most favoured darkmatter candidate particles. SuperCDMS, like many other direct dark matter searchexperiments, primarily looks for WIMPs. The measurement of both the ionizationand the lattice vibration (phonon) signals from an interaction in the detector allow itto discriminate against electron recoils which are the main source of background forWIMP detection.SuperCDMS currently operates about 9 kg of Ge detectors at the Soudan under-ground lab in northern Minnesota. In its next phase, SuperCDMS SNOLAB plansto use 100-200 kg of target mass (Ge) which would allow it to probe more of theinteresting and and as of yet unexplored parameter space for WIMPs predicted bytheoretical models. The SuperCDMS Queen's Test Facility is a detector test facilitywhich is intended to serve as detector testing and detector research and developmentpurposes for the SuperCDMS experiment.A modifed detector called the HiZIP (Half-iZIP), which is reduced in complex-ity in comparison to the currently used iZIP (interleaved Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon mediated) detectors, is studied in this thesis. The HiZIP detector designalso serves to discriminate against background from multiple scatter events occurringclose to the surfaces in a single detector. Studies carried out to compare the surfaceevent leakage in the HiZIP detector using limited information from iZIP data takenat SuperCDMS test facility at UC Berkley produce a highly conservative upper limitof 5 out of 10,000 events at 90% condence level. This upper limit is the best amongmany different HiZIP congurations that were investigated and is comparable to theupper limit calculated for an HiZIP detector in the same way

  15. Elucidation of the Specific Formation of Homo- and Heterodimeric Forms of ThbZIP1 and Its Role in Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianguang Nie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein–protein interactions are important for the molecular understanding of the biological processes of proteins. The dimerization of bZIPs (basic leucine zipper proteins is involved in modifying binding site specificities, altering dimer stability, and permitting a new set of specific protein-to-protein interactions to occur at the promoter. In the present study, we studied the whether ThbZIP1 form homo- and heterodimers using the yeast two-hybrid method. Five bZIP genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida to investigate their interaction with ThbZIP1. Our results showed that ThbZIP1 can form homodimers with itself, and three out of five bZIPs could interact with the ThbZIP1 protein to form heterodimers. Real-time RT-PCR results suggested that these ThbZIPs can all respond to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid (ABA, and shared very similar expression patterns in response to NaCl, ABA or PEG6000. Subcellular localization studies showed that all ThbZIPs are targeted to the nucleus. Our results showed that ThbZIP1 are dimeric proteins, which can form homo- or heterodimers.

  16. Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Wakana; Kimura, Shunsuke; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Irié, Tarou; Izumi, Hironori; Watanabe, Takashi; Hara, Takafumi; Ohara, Osamu; Koseki, Haruhiko; Sato, Toshiro; Robine, Sylvie; Mori, Hisashi; Hattori, Yuichi; Mishima, Kenji; Ohno, Hiroshi; Hase, Koji; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27736879

  17. Zinc Transporter SLC39A7/ZIP7 Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Self-Renewal by Resolving ER Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Ohashi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc transporters play a critical role in spatiotemporal regulation of zinc homeostasis. Although disruption of zinc homeostasis has been implicated in disorders such as intestinal inflammation and aberrant epithelial morphology, it is largely unknown which zinc transporters are responsible for the intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Here, we show that Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP transporter ZIP7, which is highly expressed in the intestinal crypt, is essential for intestinal epithelial proliferation. Mice lacking Zip7 in intestinal epithelium triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in proliferative progenitor cells, leading to significant cell death of progenitor cells. Zip7 deficiency led to the loss of Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells and the degeneration of post-mitotic Paneth cells, indicating a fundamental requirement for Zip7 in homeostatic intestinal regeneration. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the importance of ZIP7 in maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis through the regulation of ER function in proliferative progenitor cells and maintenance of intestinal stem cells. Therapeutic targeting of ZIP7 could lead to effective treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

  18. A modified detector concept for SuperCDMS: The HiZIP and its charge performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kedar Mohan

    SuperCDMS is a leading direct dark matter search experiment which uses solid state detectors (Ge crystals) at milliKelvin temperatures to look for nuclear recoils caused by dark matter interactions in the detector. 'Weakly Interacting Massive Particles' (WIMPs) are the most favoured dark matter candidate particles. SuperCDMS, like many other direct dark matter search experiments, primarily looks for WIMPs. The measurement of both the ionization and the lattice vibration (phonon) signals from an interaction in the detector allow it to discriminate against electron recoils which are the main source of background for WIMP detection. SuperCDMS currently operates about 9 kgs worth of germanium detectors at the Soudan underground lab in northern Minnesota. In its next phase, SuperCDMS SNOLAB, it plans to use 100-200 kg of target mass (Ge) which would allow it to probe more of the interesting and unexplored parameter space for WIMPs predicted by theoretical models. The SuperCDMS Queen's Test Facility is a detector testing facility which is intended to serve detector testing and detector research and development purposes for the SuperCDMS experiment. A modified detector called the 'HiZIP' (Half-iZIP), which is reduced in complexity in comparison to the currently used iZIP (interleaved Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon mediated) detectors, is studied in this thesis. The HiZIP detector design also serves to discriminate against background from multiple scatter events occurring close to the surfaces in a single detector. Studies carried out to compare the surface event leakage in the HiZIP detector using limited information from iZIP data taken at SuperCDMS test facility at UC Berkley produce a highly conservative upper limit of 5 out of 10,000 events at 90% confidence level. This upper limit is the best among many different HiZIP configurations that were investigated and is comparable to the upper limit calculated for an iZIP detector in the same way using the same data. A

  19. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary: High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report...... were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs...... in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  20. ZIP13: A Study of Drosophila Offers an Alternative Explanation for the Corresponding Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiran Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become an important model organism to investigate metal homeostasis and human diseases. Previously we identified dZIP13 (CG7816, a member of the ZIP transporter family (SLC39A and presumably a zinc importer, is in fact physiologically primarily responsible to move iron from the cytosol into the secretory compartments in the fly. This review will discuss the implication of this finding for the etiology of Spondylocheirodysplasia-Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (SCD–EDS, a human disease defective in ZIP13. We propose an entirely different model in that lack of iron in the secretory compartment may underlie SCD-EDS. Altogether three different working models are discussed, supported by relevant findings made in different studies, with uncertainties, and questions remained to be solved. We speculate that the distinct ZIP13 sequence features, different from those of all other ZIP family members, may confer it special transport properties.

  1. Control of Huntington’s Disease-Associated Phenotypes by the Striatum-Enriched Transcription Factor Foxp2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea J. Hachigian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Alteration of corticostriatal glutamatergic function is an early pathophysiological change associated with Huntington’s disease (HD. The factors that regulate the maintenance of corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses post-developmentally are not well understood. Recently, the striatum-enriched transcription factor Foxp2 was implicated in the development of these synapses. Here, we show that, in mice, overexpression of Foxp2 in the adult striatum of two models of HD leads to rescue of HD-associated behaviors, while knockdown of Foxp2 in wild-type mice leads to development of HD-associated behaviors. We note that Foxp2 encodes the longest polyglutamine repeat protein in the human reference genome, and we show that it can be sequestered into aggregates with polyglutamine-expanded mutant Huntingtin protein (mHTT. Foxp2 overexpression in HD model mice leads to altered expression of several genes associated with synaptic function, genes that present additional targets for normalization of corticostriatal dysfunction in HD. : Hachigian et al. demonstrate that manipulating levels of the striatum-enriched transcription factor Foxp2 can either rescue or mimic HD-associated behaviors in vivo. They link Foxp2 to the post-developmental regulation of the structure and function of the corticostriatal synapse. Keywords: Huntington’s disease, Foxp2, striatum, corticostriatal synapse

  2. Up-regulation of Slc39A2(Zip2) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yan-ting; Huang, Qing; Jiang, Ya-li; Wang, Xiao-lei; Sun, Ping; Tian, Yuanyuan; Wu, Hai-liang; Zhang, Min; Meng, Si-bo; Wang, Yu-shu; Sun, Qing; Zhang, Lian-ying

    2013-08-01

    Zinc is the most common trace mineral after iron in the human body. In organisms, zinc transporters help zinc influx and efflux from cells. A previous study has reported that Zip2 was up-regulated over 27-fold in human monocytic THP-1 cells, when intracellular zinc was depleted by TPEN. Our study found Zip2 was over-expressed in leukocytes of asthmatic infants, especially those in which the serum zinc level was lower than those in healthy infants. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients have significantly low serum zinc levels. Here we investigated whether Zip2 level was changed in the patients with PTB. Zip2 mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from PTB (n1=23) and healthy controls (n2=42) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. mRNA expression levels of another four zinc transporters, Zip1, Zip6, Zip8 and ZnT1, were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Zip2 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in PTB patients (P=0.001), and Zip8 mRNA level was significantly down-regulated compared with control individuals (Plevels of Zip1, Zip6 and ZnT1 in either group (P>0.05). Zip2 protein expression levels increased in PTB patients compared with control individuals. Our study found that knockdown of ZIP2 with siRNA caused a decrease in Zip2 levels in PBMC of PTB patients, while reducing the expression of INF-γ (Pinitial infection control of the human body, by promoting and maintaining the immune response of adaptive T cells.

  3. The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Oliver, Eduardo; Maratou, Klio; Atanur, Santosh S; Dubois, Olivier D; Cotroneo, Emanuele; Chen, Chien-Nien; Wang, Lei; Arce, Cristina; Chabosseau, Pauline L; Ponsa-Cobas, Joan; Frid, Maria G; Moyon, Benjamin; Webster, Zoe; Aldashev, Almaz; Ferrer, Jorge; Rutter, Guy A; Stenmark, Kurt R; Aitman, Timothy J; Wilkins, Martin R

    2015-08-20

    The typical response of the adult mammalian pulmonary circulation to a low oxygen environment is vasoconstriction and structural remodelling of pulmonary arterioles, leading to chronic elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (pulmonary hypertension) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Some mammals, however, exhibit genetic resistance to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We used a congenic breeding program and comparative genomics to exploit this variation in the rat and identified the gene Slc39a12 as a major regulator of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling. Slc39a12 encodes the zinc transporter ZIP12. Here we report that ZIP12 expression is increased in many cell types, including endothelial, smooth muscle and interstitial cells, in the remodelled pulmonary arterioles of rats, cows and humans susceptible to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We show that ZIP12 expression in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells is hypoxia dependent and that targeted inhibition of ZIP12 inhibits the rise in intracellular labile zinc in hypoxia-exposed pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells and their proliferation in culture. We demonstrate that genetic disruption of ZIP12 expression attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats housed in a hypoxic atmosphere. This new and unexpected insight into the fundamental role of a zinc transporter in mammalian pulmonary vascular homeostasis suggests a new drug target for the pharmacological management of pulmonary hypertension.

  4. The prion-ZIP connection: From cousins to partners in iron uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neena; Asthana, Abhishek; Baksi, Shounak; Desai, Vilok; Haldar, Swati; Hari, Sahi; Tripathi, Ajai K

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Converging observations from disparate lines of inquiry are beginning to clarify the cause of brain iron dyshomeostasis in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), a neurodegenerative condition associated with the conversion of prion protein (PrPC), a plasma membrane glycoprotein, from α-helical to a β-sheet rich PrP-scrapie (PrPSc) isoform. Biochemical evidence indicates that PrPC facilitates cellular iron uptake by functioning as a membrane-bound ferrireductase (FR), an activity necessary for the transport of iron across biological membranes through metal transporters. An entirely different experimental approach reveals an evolutionary link between PrPC and the Zrt, Irt-like protein (ZIP) family, a group of proteins involved in the transport of zinc, iron, and manganese across the plasma membrane. Close physical proximity of PrPC with certain members of the ZIP family on the plasma membrane and increased uptake of extracellular iron by cells that co-express PrPC and ZIP14 suggest that PrPC functions as a FR partner for certain members of this family. The connection between PrPC and ZIP proteins therefore extends beyond common ancestry to that of functional cooperation. Here, we summarize evidence supporting the facilitative role of PrPC in cellular iron uptake, and implications of this activity on iron metabolism in sCJD brains. PMID:26689487

  5. Memory Retrieval Has a Dynamic Influence on the Maintenance Mechanisms That Are Sensitive to ζ-Inhibitory Peptide (ZIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Figueroa, Joshua A; Reid, Emily E; Yoshida, Takashi; Barry, Nicholas C; Russo, Abigail; Katz, Donald B

    2016-10-12

    In neuroscientists' attempts to understand the long-term storage of memory, topics of particular importance and interest are the cellular and system mechanisms of maintenance (e.g., those sensitive to ζ-inhibitory peptide, ZIP) and those induced by memory retrieval (i.e., reconsolidation). Much is known about each of these processes in isolation, but less is known concerning how they interact. It is known that ZIP sensitivity and memory retrieval share at least some molecular targets (e.g., recycling α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, AMPA, receptors to the plasma membrane); conversely, the fact that sensitivity to ZIP emerges only after consolidation ends suggests that consolidation (and by extension reconsolidation) and maintenance might be mutually exclusive processes, the onset of one canceling the other. Here, we use conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats, a cortically dependent learning paradigm, to test this hypothesis. First, we demonstrate that ZIP infusions into gustatory cortex begin interfering with CTA memory 43-45 h after memory acquisition-after consolidation ends. Next, we show that a retrieval trial administered after this time point interrupts the ability of ZIP to induce amnesia and that ZIP's ability to induce amnesia is reengaged only 45 h after retrieval. This pattern of results suggests that memory retrieval and ZIP-sensitive maintenance mechanisms are mutually exclusive and that the progression from one to the other are similar after acquisition and retrieval. They also reveal concrete differences between ZIP-sensitive mechanisms induced by acquisition and retrieval: the latency with which ZIP-sensitive mechanisms are expressed differ for the two processes. Memory retrieval and the molecular mechanisms that are sensitive to ζ-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) are the few manipulations that have been shown to effect memory maintenance. Although much is known about their effect on maintenance separately, it is unknown how they

  6. Pro Tools HD

    CERN Document Server

    Camou, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide for using Pro Tools HD 11 effectively.This book is ideal for anyone who already uses ProTools and wants to learn more, or is new to Pro Tools HD and wants to use it effectively in their own audio workstations.

  7. Phosphorylation of the Synaptonemal Complex Protein Zip1 Regulates the Crossover/Noncrossover Decision during Yeast Meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interhomolog crossovers promote proper chromosome segregation during meiosis and are formed by the regulated repair of programmed double-strand breaks. This regulation requires components of the synaptonemal complex (SC, a proteinaceous structure formed between homologous chromosomes. In yeast, SC formation requires the "ZMM" genes, which encode a functionally diverse set of proteins, including the transverse filament protein, Zip1. In wild-type meiosis, Zmm proteins promote the biased resolution of recombination intermediates into crossovers that are distributed throughout the genome by interference. In contrast, noncrossovers are formed primarily through synthesis-dependent strand annealing mediated by the Sgs1 helicase. This work identifies a conserved region on the C terminus of Zip1 (called Zip1 4S, whose phosphorylation is required for the ZMM pathway of crossover formation. Zip1 4S phosphorylation is promoted both by double-strand breaks (DSBs and the meiosis-specific kinase, MEK1/MRE4, demonstrating a role for MEK1 in the regulation of interhomolog crossover formation, as well as interhomolog bias. Failure to phosphorylate Zip1 4S results in meiotic prophase arrest, specifically in the absence of SGS1. This gain of function meiotic arrest phenotype is suppressed by spo11Δ, suggesting that it is due to unrepaired breaks triggering the meiotic recombination checkpoint. Epistasis experiments combining deletions of individual ZMM genes with sgs1-md zip1-4A indicate that Zip1 4S phosphorylation functions prior to the other ZMMs. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Zip1 at DSBs commits those breaks to repair via the ZMM pathway and provides a mechanism by which the crossover/noncrossover decision can be dynamically regulated during yeast meiosis.

  8. Identification of the G13 (cAMP-response-element-binding protein-related protein) gene product related to activating transcription factor 6 as a transcriptional activator of the mammalian unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze, K; Okada, T; Yoshida, H; Yanagi, H; Yura, T; Negishi, M; Mori, K

    2001-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells control the levels of molecular chaperones and folding enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by a transcriptional induction process termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR is mediated by the cis-acting ER stress response element consisting of 19 nt (CCAATN(9)CCACG), the CCACG part of which is considered to provide specificity. We recently identified the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein ATF6 as a mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor; ATF6 is activated by ER stress-induced proteolysis and binds directly to CCACG. Here we report that eukaryotic cells express another bZIP protein closely related to ATF6 in both structure and function. This protein encoded by the G13 (cAMP response element binding protein-related protein) gene is constitutively synthesized as a type II transmembrane glycoprotein anchored in the ER membrane and processed into a soluble form upon ER stress as occurs with ATF6. The proteolytic processing of ATF6 and the G13 gene product is accompanied by their relocation from the ER to the nucleus; their basic regions seem to function as a nuclear localization signal. Overexpression of the soluble form of the G13 product constitutively activates the UPR, whereas overexpression of a mutant lacking the activation domain exhibits a strong dominant-negative effect. Furthermore, the soluble forms of ATF6 and the G13 gene product are unable to bind to several point mutants of the cis-acting ER stress response element in vitro that hardly respond to ER stress in vivo. We thus concluded that the two related bZIP proteins are crucial transcriptional regulators of the mammalian UPR, and propose calling the ATF6 gene product ATF6alpha and the G13 gene product ATF6beta.

  9. Search for Exoplanets around Northern Circumpolar Stars. II. The Detection of Radial Velocity Variations in M Giant Stars HD 36384, HD 52030, and HD 208742

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Jeong, Gwanghui; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Kang-Min [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Myeong-Gu; Oh, Hyeong-Il [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mkrtichian, David E. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Hatzes, Artie P. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (TLS), Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Gu, Shenghong; Bai, Jinming, E-mail: bclee@kasi.re.kr [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2017-07-20

    We present the detection of long-period RV variations in HD 36384, HD 52030, and HD 208742 by using the high-resolution, fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) for the precise radial velocity (RV) survey of about 200 northern circumpolar stars. Analyses of RV data, chromospheric activity indicators, and bisector variations spanning about five years suggest that the RV variations are compatible with planet or brown dwarf companions in Keplerian motion. However, HD 36384 shows photometric variations with a period very close to that of RV variations as well as amplitude variations in the weighted wavelet Z-transform (WWZ) analysis, which argues that the RV variations in HD 36384 are from the stellar pulsations. Assuming that the companion hypothesis is correct, HD 52030 hosts a companion with minimum mass 13.3 M {sub Jup} orbiting in 484 days at a distance of 1.2 au. HD 208742 hosts a companion of 14.0 M {sub Jup} at 1.5 au with a period of 602 days. All stars are located at the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage on the H–R diagram after undergoing the helium flash and leaving the giant clump.With stellar radii of 53.0 R {sub ⊙} and 57.2 R {sub ⊙} for HD 52030 and HD 208742, respectively, these stars may be the largest yet, in terms of stellar radius, found to host substellar companions. However, given possible RV amplitude variations and the fact that these are highly evolved stars, the planet hypothesis is not yet certain.

  10. Positive evolutionary selection of an HD motif on Alzheimer precursor protein orthologues suggests a functional role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklós, István; Zádori, Zoltán

    2012-02-01

    HD amino acid duplex has been found in the active center of many different enzymes. The dyad plays remarkably different roles in their catalytic processes that usually involve metal coordination. An HD motif is positioned directly on the amyloid beta fragment (Aβ) and on the carboxy-terminal region of the extracellular domain (CAED) of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and a taxonomically well defined group of APP orthologues (APPOs). In human Aβ HD is part of a presumed, RGD-like integrin-binding motif RHD; however, neither RHD nor RXD demonstrates reasonable conservation in APPOs. The sequences of CAEDs and the position of the HD are not particularly conserved either, yet we show with a novel statistical method using evolutionary modeling that the presence of HD on CAEDs cannot be the result of neutral evolutionary forces (pHD motif is underrepresented in the proteomes of all species of the animal kingdom. Position migration can be explained by high probability occurrence of multiple copies of HD on intermediate sequences, from which only one is kept by selective evolutionary forces, in a similar way as in the case of the "transcription binding site turnover." CAED of all APP orthologues and homologues are predicted to bind metal ions including Amyloid-like protein 1 (APLP1) and Amyloid-like protein 2 (APLP2). Our results suggest that HDs on the CAEDs are most probably key components of metal-binding domains, which facilitate and/or regulate inter- or intra-molecular interactions in a metal ion-dependent or metal ion concentration-dependent manner. The involvement of naturally occurring mutations of HD (Tottori (D7N) and English (H6R) mutations) in early onset Alzheimer's disease gives additional support to our finding that HD has an evolutionary preserved function on APPOs.

  11. THE MASS OF HD 38529c FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ASTROMETRY AND HIGH-PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Bean, Jacob L.; Barnes, Rory; Harrison, Thomas E.; Hatzes, Artie; Martioli, Eder; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2010-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor astrometric observations of the G4 IV star HD 38529 are combined with the results of the analysis of extensive ground-based radial velocity (RV) data to determine the mass of the outermost of two previously known companions. Our new RVs obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and velocities from the Carnegie-California group now span over 11 yr. With these data we obtain improved RV orbital elements for both the inner companion, HD 38529b, and the outer companion, HD 38529c. We identify a rotational period of HD 38529 (P rot = 31.65 ± 0fd17) with Fine Guidance Sensor photometry. The inferred star spot fraction is consistent with the remaining scatter in velocities being caused by spot-related stellar activity. We then model the combined astrometric and RV measurements to obtain the parallax, proper motion, perturbation period, perturbation inclination, and perturbation size due to HD 38529c. For HD 38529c we find P = 2136.1 ± 0.3 d, perturbation semimajor axis α = 1.05 ± 0.06 mas, and inclination i = 48. 0 3 ± 3. 0 7. Assuming a primary mass M * = 1.48 M sun , we obtain a companion mass M c = 17.6 +1.5 -1.2 M Jup , 3σ above a 13 M Jup deuterium burning, brown dwarf lower limit. Dynamical simulations incorporating this accurate mass for HD 38529c indicate that a near-Saturn mass planet could exist between the two known companions. We find weak evidence of an additional low amplitude signal that can be modeled as a planetary-mass (∼0.17 M Jup ) companion at P ∼194 days. Including this component in our modeling lowers the error of the mass determined for HD 38529c. Additional observations (RVs and/or Gaia astrometry) are required to validate an interpretation of HD 38529d as a planetary-mass companion. If confirmed, the resulting HD 38529 planetary system may be an example of a 'Packed Planetary System'.

  12. LiZIP3 is a cellular zinc transporter that mediates the tightly regulated import of zinc in Leishmania infantum parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; da Silva, Rosa Barreira; Shawki, Ali; Castro, Helena; Lamy, Márcia; Eide, David; Costa, Vítor; Mackenzie, Bryan; Tomás, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cellular zinc homeostasis ensures that the intracellular concentration of this element is kept within limits that enable its participation in critical physiological processes without exerting toxic effects. We report here the identification and characterization of the first mediator of zinc homeostasis in Leishmania infantum, LiZIP3, a member of the ZIP family of divalent metal-ion transporters. The zinc transporter activity of LiZIP3 was first disclosed by its capacity to rescue the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in zinc acquisition. Subsequent expression of LiZIP3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes was shown to stimulate the uptake of a broad range of metal ions, among which Zn2+ was the preferred LiZIP3 substrate (K0.5 ≈ 0.1 μM). Evidence that LiZIP3 functions as a zinc importer in L. infantum came from the observations that the protein locates to the cell membrane and that its overexpression leads to augmented zinc internalization. Importantly, expression and cell-surface location of LiZIP3 are lost when parasites face high zinc bioavailability. LiZIP3 decline in response to zinc is regulated at the mRNA level in a process involving (a) short-lived protein(s). Collectively, our data reveal that LiZIP3 enables L. infantum to acquire zinc in a highly regulated manner, hence contributing to zinc homeostasis. PMID:25644708

  13. Overexpression of ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 Enhances Iron and Zinc Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Li

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are important micronutrients for both the growth and nutrient availability of crop plants, and their absorption is tightly controlled by a metal uptake system. Zinc-regulated transporters, iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP, is considered an essential metal transporter for the acquisition of Fe and Zn in graminaceous plants. Several ZIPs have been identified in maize, although their physiological function remains unclear. In this report, ZmIRT1 was shown to be specifically expressed in silk and embryo, whereas ZmZIP3 was a leaf-specific gene. Both ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were shown to be localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ZmIRT1 or ZmZIP3 were generated, and the metal contents in various tissues of transgenic and wild-type plants were examined based on ICP-OES and Zinpyr-1 staining. The Fe and Zn concentration increased in roots and seeds of ZmIRT1-overexpressing plants, while the Fe content in shoots decreased. Overexpressing ZmZIP3 enhanced Zn accumulation in the roots of transgenic plants, while that in shoots was repressed. In addition, the transgenic plants showed altered tolerance to various Fe and Zn conditions compared with wild-type plants. Furthermore, the genes associated with metal uptake were stimulated in ZmIRT1 transgenic plants, while those involved in intra- and inter- cellular translocation were suppressed. In conclusion, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 are functional metal transporters with different ion selectivities. Ectopic overexpression of ZmIRT1 may stimulate endogenous Fe uptake mechanisms, which may facilitate metal uptake and homeostasis. Our results increase our understanding of the functions of ZIP family transporters in maize.

  14. HTLV-1 bZIP factor induces T-cell lymphoma and systemic inflammation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorifumi Satou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the causal agent of a neoplastic disease of CD4+ T cells, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, and inflammatory diseases including HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, dermatitis, and inflammatory lung diseases. ATL cells, which constitutively express CD25, resemble CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (T(reg. Approximately 60% of ATL cases indeed harbor leukemic cells that express FoxP3, a key transcription factor for T(reg cells. HTLV-1 encodes an antisense transcript, HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ, which is expressed in all ATL cases. In this study, we show that transgenic expression of HBZ in CD4+ T cells induced T-cell lymphomas and systemic inflammation in mice, resembling diseases observed in HTLV-1 infected individuals. In HBZ-transgenic mice, CD4+Foxp3+ T(reg cells and effector/memory CD4+ T cells increased in vivo. As a mechanism of increased T(reg cells, HBZ expression directly induced Foxp3 gene transcription in T cells. The increased CD4+Foxp3+ T(reg cells in HBZ transgenic mice were functionally impaired while their proliferation was enhanced. HBZ could physically interact with Foxp3 and NFAT, thereby impairing the suppressive function of T(reg cells. Thus, the expression of HBZ in CD4+ T cells is a key mechanism of HTLV-1-induced neoplastic and inflammatory diseases.

  15. Effects of Hd2 in the presence of the photoperiod-insensitive functional allele of Hd1 in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Hua Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of photoperiod sensitivity (PS of flowering genes have become well recognized in rice, whereas little attention has been drawn to the non-PS component of these genes, especially to their influence on gene-by-gene interactions. Rice populations in which the photoperiod-sensitive allele at Hd1 has become insensitive to photoperiod but continued to affect heading date (HD were used in this study to fine-map a quantitative trait locus (QTL for HD and analyze its genetic relationship to Hd1. The QTL was delimitated to a 96.3-kb region on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 7. Sequence comparison revealed that this QTL is identical to Hd2. In the near-isogenic line (NIL populations analyzed, Hd1 and Hd2 were shown to be photoperiod insensitive and have pleiotropic effects for HD, plant height and yield traits. The two genes were found to largely act additively in regulating HD and yield traits. The results indicate that non-PS components of flowering genes involved in photoperiod response play an important role in controlling flowering time and grain yield in rice, which should allow breeders to better manipulate pleiotropic genes for balancing adaptability and high-yielding accumulation.

  16. The Polycistronic miR166k-166h Positively Regulates Rice Immunity via Post-transcriptional Control of EIN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salvador-Guirao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs acting as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In plants, most miRNAs are generated from independent transcriptional units, and only a few polycistronic miRNAs have been described. miR166 is a conserved miRNA in plants targeting the HD-ZIP III transcription factor genes. Here, we show that a polycistronic miRNA comprising two miR166 family members, miR166k and miR166h, functions as a positive regulator of rice immunity. Rice plants with activated MIR166k-166h expression showed enhanced resistance to infection by the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agents of the rice blast and bakanae disease, respectively. Disease resistance in rice plants with activated MIR166k-166h expression was associated with a stronger expression of defense responses during pathogen infection. Stronger induction of MIR166k-166h expression occurred in resistant but not susceptible rice cultivars. Notably, the ethylene-insensitive 2 (EIN2 gene was identified as a novel target gene for miR166k. The regulatory role of the miR166h-166k polycistron on the newly identified target gene results from the activity of the miR166k-5p specie generated from the miR166k-166h precursor. Collectively, our findings support a role for miR166k-5p in rice immunity by controlling EIN2 expression. Because rice blast is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice worldwide, unraveling miR166k-166h-mediated mechanisms underlying blast resistance could ultimately help in designing appropriate strategies for rice protection.

  17. Development of the HD-Teen Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessnack, Martha; Williams, Janet K; Barnette, J Jackson; Sparbel, Kathleen J; Paulsen, Jane S

    2012-05-01

    Adolescents, who have a parent with Huntington Disease (HD), not only are at genetic risk for HD but also are witness to its onset and devastating clinical progression as their parent declines. To date, no mechanism has been developed to direct health care providers to the atypical adolescent experiences of these teens. The purpose of this report is to describe the process of developing the HD-Teen Inventory clinical assessment tool. Forty-eight teens and young adults from 19 U.S. states participated in the evaluation of the HD-Teen Inventory tool. Following item analysis, the number of items was reduced and item frequency and reaction scales were combined, based on the strong correlation (r = .94). The resultant tool contains 15 inventory and 2 open-ended response items. The HD-Teen Inventory emerged as a more compact and efficient tool for identifying the most salient concerns of at-risk teens in HD families in research and/or clinical practice.

  18. The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) class I transcription factors ATHB7 and ATHB12 modulate abscisic acid signalling by regulating protein phosphatase 2C and abscisic acid receptor gene activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Ana Elisa; Overnäs, Elin; Johansson, Henrik; Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro; Engström, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Plants perceiving drought activate multiple responses to improve survival, including large-scale alterations in gene expression. This article reports on the roles in the drought response of two Arabidopsis thaliana homeodomain-leucine zipper class I genes; ATHB7 and ATHB12, both strongly induced by water-deficit and abscisic acid (ABA). ABA-mediated transcriptional regulation of both genes is shown to depend on the activity of protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C). ATHB7 and ATHB12 are, thus, targets of the ABA signalling mechanism defined by the PP2Cs and the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors, with which the PP2C proteins interact. Our results from chromatin immunoprecipitation and gene expression analyses demonstrate that ATHB7 and ATHB12 act as positive transcriptional regulators of PP2C genes, and thereby as negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. In support of this notion, our results also show that ATHB7 and ATHB12 act to repress the transcription of genes encoding the ABA receptors PYL5 and PYL8 in response to an ABA stimulus. In summary, we demonstrate that ATHB7 and ATHB12 have essential functions in the primary response to drought, as mediators of a negative feedback effect on ABA signalling in the plant response to water deficit.

  19. The leucine zipper domains of the transcription factors GCN4 and c-Jun have ribonuclease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Nikolaev

    Full Text Available Basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP proteins are one of the largest transcription factor families that regulate a wide range of cellular functions. Owing to the stability of their coiled coil structure leucine zipper (LZ domains of bZIP factors are widely employed as dimerization motifs in protein engineering studies. In the course of one such study, the X-ray structure of the retro-version of the LZ moiety of yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 suggested that this retro-LZ may have ribonuclease activity. Here we show that not only the retro-LZ but also the authentic LZ of GCN4 has weak but distinct ribonuclease activity. The observed cleavage of RNA is unspecific, it is not suppressed by the ribonuclease A inhibitor RNasin and involves the breakage of 3',5'-phosphodiester bonds with formation of 2',3'-cyclic phosphates as the final products as demonstrated by HPLC/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Several mutants of the GCN4 leucine zipper are catalytically inactive, providing important negative controls and unequivocally associating the enzymatic activity with the peptide under study. The leucine zipper moiety of the human factor c-Jun as well as the entire c-Jun protein are also shown to catalyze degradation of RNA. The presented data, which was obtained in the test-tube experiments, adds GCN4 and c-Jun to the pool of proteins with multiple functions (also known as moonlighting proteins. If expressed in vivo, the endoribonuclease activity of these bZIP-containing factors may represent a direct coupling between transcription activation and controlled RNA turnover. As an additional result of this work, the retro-leucine zipper of GCN4 can be added to the list of functional retro-peptides.

  20. Wheat Transcription Factor TaAREB3 Participates in Drought and Freezing Tolerances in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Li, Qian; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-01-01

    AREB (ABA response element binding) proteins in plants play direct regulatory roles in response to multiple stresses, but their functions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are not clear. In the present study, TaAREB3, a new member of the AREB transcription factor family, was isolated from wheat. Sequence analysis showed that the TaAREB3 protein is composed of three parts, a conserved N-terminal, a variable M region, and a conserved C-terminal with a bZIP domain. It belongs to the group A subfamily of bZIP transcription factors. TaAREB3 was constitutively expressed in stems, leaves, florets, anthers, pistils, seeds, and most highly, in roots. TaAREB3 gene expression was induced with abscisic acid (ABA) and low temperature stress, and its protein was localized in the nucleus when transiently expressed in tobacco epidermal cells and stably expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. TaAREB3 protein has transcriptional activation activity, and can bind to the ABRE cis-element in vitro. Overexpression of TaAREB3 in Arabidopsis not only enhanced ABA sensitivity, but also strengthened drought and freezing tolerances. TaAREB3 also activated RD29A, RD29B, COR15A, and COR47 by binding to their promoter regions in transgenic Arabidopsis. These results demonstrated that TaAREB3 plays an important role in drought and freezing tolerances in Arabidopsis.

  1. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Ora [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghan [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yun-jeong [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Young [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hee-Jong, E-mail: heejkoh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Choong-Ill, E-mail: ccheon@sookmyung.ac.kr [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-18

    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. - Highlights: • Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (AtNAP1) interacts with RPS6 as well as with AtHD2B. • rDNA transcription is regulated S6K1. • Overexpression or down regulation of AtNAP1 results in concomitant increase or decrease in rDNA transcription.

  2. Sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of sub-chronic low dose testicular injury in the Fischer 344 rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Pacheco

    Full Text Available Current human reproductive risk assessment methods rely on semen and serum hormone analyses, which are not easily comparable to the histopathological endpoints and mating studies used in animal testing. Because of these limitations, there is a need to develop universal evaluations that reliably reflect male reproductive function. We hypothesized that toxicant-induced testicular injury can be detected in sperm using mRNA transcripts as indicators of insult. To test this, we exposed adult male Fischer 344 rats to low doses of model testicular toxicants and classically characterized the testicular injury while simultaneously evaluating sperm mRNA transcripts from the same animals. Overall, this study aimed to: 1 identify sperm transcripts altered after exposure to the model testicular toxicant, 2,5-hexanedione (HD using microarrays; 2 expand on the HD-induced transcript changes in a comprehensive time course experiment using qRT-PCR arrays; and 3 test these injury indicators after exposure to another model testicular toxicant, carbendazim (CBZ. Microarray analysis of HD-treated adult Fischer 344 rats identified 128 altered sperm mRNA transcripts when compared to control using linear models of microarray analysis (q<0.05. All transcript alterations disappeared after 3 months of post-exposure recovery. In the time course experiment, time-dependent alterations were observed for 12 candidate transcripts selected from the microarray data based upon fold change and biological relevance, and 8 of these transcripts remained significantly altered after the 3-month recovery period (p<0.05. In the last experiment, 8 candidate transcripts changed after exposure to CBZ (p<0.05. The two testicular toxicants produced distinct molecular signatures with only 4 overlapping transcripts between them, each occurring in opposite directions. Overall, these results suggest that sperm mRNA transcripts are indicators of low dose toxicant-induced testicular injury in the rat.

  3. TWO SMALL PLANETS TRANSITING HD 3167

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Mayo, Andrew W.; Berlind, Perry; Duev, Dmitry A.; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Riddle, Reed; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Nieberding, Megan N.; Salama, Maïssa

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of two super-Earth-sized planets transiting the bright (V = 8.94, K = 7.07) nearby late G-dwarf HD 3167, using data collected by the K2 mission. The inner planet, HD 3167 b, has a radius of 1.6 R ⊕ and an ultra-short orbital period of only 0.96 days. The outer planet, HD 3167 c, has a radius of 2.9 R ⊕ and orbits its host star every 29.85 days. At a distance of just 45.8 ± 2.2 pc, HD 3167 is one of the closest and brightest stars hosting multiple transiting planets, making HD 3167 b and c well suited for follow-up observations. The star is chromospherically inactive with low rotational line-broadening, ideal for radial velocity observations to measure the planets’ masses. The outer planet is large enough that it likely has a thick gaseous envelope that could be studied via transmission spectroscopy. Planets transiting bright, nearby stars like HD 3167 are valuable objects to study leading up to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope .

  4. CHARACTERIZING THE RIGIDLY ROTATING MAGNETOSPHERE STARS HD 345439 AND HD 23478

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, J. P.; Lomax, J. R. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Chojnowski, S. D. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, 1780 E University Avenue, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Davenport, J. R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bartz, J.; Pepper, J. [Lehigh University, Department of Physics, 413 Deming Lewis Lab, 16 Memorial Drive, East Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Whelan, D. G. [Department of Physics, Austin College, 900 N. Grand Avenue, Sherman, TX 75090 (United States); Eikenberry, S. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Majewski, S. R.; Skrutskie, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Richardson, N. D., E-mail: wisniewski@ou.edu [Département de Physique and Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Québec (CRAQ), Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    The SDSS III APOGEE survey recently identified two new σ Ori E type candidates, HD 345439 and HD 23478, which are a rare subset of rapidly rotating massive stars whose large (kGauss) magnetic fields confine circumstellar material around these systems. Our analysis of multi-epoch photometric observations of HD 345439 from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope, Wide Angle Search for Planets, and ASAS surveys reveals the presence of a ∼0.7701 day period in each data set, suggesting the system is among the faster known σ Ori E analogs. We also see clear evidence that the strength of Hα, H i Brackett series lines, and He i lines also vary on a ∼0.7701 day period from our analysis of multi-epoch, multi-wavelength spectroscopic monitoring of the system from the APO 3.5 m telescope. We trace the evolution of select emission line profiles in the system, and observe coherent line profile variability in both optical and infrared H i lines, as expected for rigidly rotating magnetosphere stars. We also analyze the evolution of the H i Br-11 line strength and line profile in multi-epoch observations of HD 23478 from the SDSS-III APOGEE instrument. The observed periodic behavior is consistent with that recently reported by Sikora and collaborators in optical spectra.

  5. Decryption-decompression of AES protected ZIP files on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tan Nhat; Pham, Phong Hong; Nguyen, Duc Huu; Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Le, Hung Duc

    2011-10-01

    AES is a strong encryption system, so decryption-decompression of AES encrypted ZIP files requires very large computing power and techniques of reducing the password space. This makes implementations of techniques on common computing system not practical. In [1], we reduced the original very large password search space to a much smaller one which surely containing the correct password. Based on reduced set of passwords, in this paper, we parallel decryption, decompression and plain text recognition for encrypted ZIP files by using CUDA computing technology on graphics cards GeForce GTX295 of NVIDIA, to find out the correct password. The experimental results have shown that the speed of decrypting, decompressing, recognizing plain text and finding out the original password increases about from 45 to 180 times (depends on the number of GPUs) compared to sequential execution on the Intel Core 2 Quad Q8400 2.66 GHz. These results have demonstrated the potential applicability of GPUs in this cryptanalysis field.

  6. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Coninx

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree’s Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus, a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus. Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  7. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein) Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Laura; Thoonen, Anneleen; Slenders, Eli; Morin, Emmanuelle; Arnauts, Natascha; Op De Beeck, Michiel; Kohler, Annegret; Ruytinx, Joske; Colpaert, Jan V

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree's Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus , a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein) family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus . Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  8. TWO SMALL PLANETS TRANSITING HD 3167

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Mayo, Andrew W.; Berlind, Perry [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Duev, Dmitry A.; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Baranec, Christoph [University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Nieberding, Megan N. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Salama, Maïssa, E-mail: avanderburg@cfa.harvard.edu [University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We report the discovery of two super-Earth-sized planets transiting the bright (V = 8.94, K = 7.07) nearby late G-dwarf HD 3167, using data collected by the K2 mission. The inner planet, HD 3167 b, has a radius of 1.6 R {sub ⊕} and an ultra-short orbital period of only 0.96 days. The outer planet, HD 3167 c, has a radius of 2.9 R {sub ⊕} and orbits its host star every 29.85 days. At a distance of just 45.8 ± 2.2 pc, HD 3167 is one of the closest and brightest stars hosting multiple transiting planets, making HD 3167 b and c well suited for follow-up observations. The star is chromospherically inactive with low rotational line-broadening, ideal for radial velocity observations to measure the planets’ masses. The outer planet is large enough that it likely has a thick gaseous envelope that could be studied via transmission spectroscopy. Planets transiting bright, nearby stars like HD 3167 are valuable objects to study leading up to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope .

  9. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainza-Cortés Felipe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient

  10. Study on diagnosis of HD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuran; Yang Yumei; Zhang Guangli

    1994-01-01

    The study suggests a three-step diagnostic method for diagnosing HD. The first step is to make TgA, TmA examination; the second step is to make differential diagnosis for the cases of negative TgA, TmA through FNAB examination; the third step is to make TgA, TmA and FNAB examination for dynamic observation of controversial cases left over in the former two steps to achieve accurate diagnosis. Differential diagnosis has been made with the method in 87 cases of HD (clinical diagnosis only). The result shows that 7 cases have been diagnosed as thyropathy through comprehensive evaluation; definite diagnosis of HD has been made in 62 cases through TgA, TmA and in 77 cases through FNAB; 3 cases of negative TgA and TmA failed to accept FNAB examination, and were later diagnosed as HD through operation pathology or clinical treatment

  11. HD5980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberger, C.

    HD5980 is a multiple system containing at least 3 very massive and luminous stars. Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud, it is an ideal system for studying the massive star structure and evolutionary processes in low-metallicity environments. Intensely observed over the past few decades, HD5980 is a treasure trove of information on stellar wind structure, on wind-wind collisions and on the formation of wind-blown circumstellar structures. In addition, its characteristics suggest that the eclipsing WR+LBV stars of the system are the product of quasihomogeneous chemical evolution, thus making them candidate pair production supernovae or GRB progenitors. This paper summarizes some of the outstanding results derived from half a century of observations and recent theoretical studies.

  12. ZIP4H (TEX11 deficiency in the mouse impairs meiotic double strand break repair and the regulation of crossing over.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Adelman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that hypomorphic Mre11 complex mouse mutants exhibit defects in the repair of meiotic double strand breaks (DSBs. This is associated with perturbation of synaptonemal complex morphogenesis, repair and regulation of crossover formation. To further assess the Mre11 complex's role in meiotic progression, we identified testis-specific NBS1-interacting proteins via two-hybrid screening in yeast. In this screen, Zip4h (Tex11, a male germ cell specific X-linked gene was isolated. Based on sequence and predicted structural similarity to the S. cerevisiae and A. thaliana Zip4 orthologs, ZIP4H appears to be the mammalian ortholog. In S. cerevisiae and A. thaliana, Zip4 is a meiosis-specific protein that regulates the level of meiotic crossovers, thus influencing homologous chromosome segregation in these organisms. As is true for hypomorphic Nbs1 (Nbs1(DeltaB/DeltaB mice, Zip4h(-/Y mutant mice were fertile. Analysis of spermatocytes revealed a delay in meiotic double strand break repair and decreased crossover formation as inferred from DMC1 and MLH1 staining patterns, respectively. Achiasmate chromosomes at the first meiotic division were also observed in Zip4h(-/Y mutants, consistent with the observed reduction in MLH1 focus formation. These results indicate that meiotic functions of Zip4 family members are conserved and support the view that the Mre11 complex and ZIP4H interact functionally during the execution of the meiotic program in mammals.

  13. MEMS variable capacitance devices utilizing the substrate: II. Zipping varactors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; El-Masry, Ezz I.

    2010-01-01

    and tested. To the best of our knowledge, these zipping varactors exhibit the best reported characteristics in PolyMUMPS to date within their category in terms of tuning range, quality factor, required actuation voltage and total area consumed. © 2010 IOP

  14. An alternatively spliced heat shock transcription factor, OsHSFA2dI, functions in the heat stress-induced unfolded protein response in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q; Zhou, Y; Liu, Z; Zhang, L; Song, G; Guo, Z; Wang, W; Qu, X; Zhu, Y; Yang, D

    2015-03-01

    As sessile organisms, plants have evolved a wide range of defence pathways to cope with environmental stress such as heat shock. However, the molecular mechanism of these defence pathways remains unclear in rice. In this study, we found that OsHSFA2d, a heat shock transcriptional factor, encodes two main splice variant proteins, OsHSFA2dI and OsHSFA2dII in rice. Under normal conditions, OsHSFA2dII is the dominant but transcriptionally inactive spliced form. However, when the plant suffers heat stress, OsHSFA2d is alternatively spliced into a transcriptionally active form, OsHSFA2dI, which participates in the heat stress response (HSR). Further study found that this alternative splicing was induced by heat shock rather than photoperiod. We found that OsHSFA2dI is localised to the nucleus, whereas OsHSFA2dII is localised to the nucleus and cytoplasm. Moreover, expression of the unfolded protein response (UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE) sensors, OsIRE1, OsbZIP39/OsbZIP60 and the UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE marker OsBiP1, was up-regulated. Interestingly, OsbZIP50 was also alternatively spliced under heat stress, indicating that UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE signalling pathways were activated by heat stress to re-establish cellular protein homeostasis. We further demonstrated that OsHSFA2dI participated in the unfolded protein response by regulating expression of OsBiP1. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Transcription Factor Functional Protein-Protein Interactions in Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Responses to biotic stress in plants lead to dramatic reprogramming of gene expression, favoring stress responses at the expense of normal cellular functions. Transcription factors are master regulators of gene expression at the transcriptional level, and controlling the activity of these factors alters the transcriptome of the plant, leading to metabolic and phenotypic changes in response to stress. The functional analysis of interactions between transcription factors and other proteins is very important for elucidating the role of these transcriptional regulators in different signaling cascades. In this review, we present an overview of protein-protein interactions for the six major families of transcription factors involved in plant defense: basic leucine zipper containing domain proteins (bZIP, amino-acid sequence WRKYGQK (WRKY, myelocytomatosis related proteins (MYC, myeloblastosis related proteins (MYB, APETALA2/ ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTORS (AP2/EREBP and no apical meristem (NAM, Arabidopsis transcription activation factor (ATAF, and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC (NAC. We describe the interaction partners of these transcription factors as molecular responses during pathogen attack and the key components of signal transduction pathways that take place during plant defense responses. These interactions determine the activation or repression of response pathways and are crucial to understanding the regulatory networks that modulate plant defense responses.

  16. The Danish HD Registrya nationwide family registry of HD families in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, M.; Budtz-Jorgensen, E.; Boonen, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    -8:100 000. 1451 individuals in the DHR had the size of the HTT CAG repeat determined of which 975 had 36 CAG repeats or more (mean ± SD: 43,5 ± 4,8). Two unrelated individuals were compound heterozygous for alleles ≥36 CAGs, and 60 individuals from 34 independent families carried an intermediate allele.......The Danish Huntington's Disease Registry (DHR) is a nationwide family registry comprising 14 245 individuals from 445 Huntington's disease (HD) families of which the largest family includes 845 individuals in 8 generations. 1136 DNA and/or blood samples and 18 fibroblast cultures are stored...... in a local biobank. The birthplace of the oldest HD carrier in each of the 261 families of Danish origin was unevenly distributed across Denmark with a high number of families in the middle part of the peninsula Jutland and in Copenhagen, the capital. The prevalence of HD in Denmark was calculated to be 5...

  17. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, T., E-mail: takeshi@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Bouchigny, S. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay (France); CEA LIST, BP6-92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France); Didelez, J.-P. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay (France); Fujiwara, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fukuda, K. [Kansai University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Shizuki Awaji 656-2131 (Japan); Kohri, H.; Kunimatsu, T.; Morisaki, C.; Ono, S. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Rouille, G. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay (France); Tanaka, M. [Kobe Tokiwa University, Ohtani-cho 2-6-2, Nagata, Kobe 653-0838 (Japan); Ueda, K.; Uraki, M.; Utsuro, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Wang, S.Y. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China); Yosoi, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H{sub 2} ({approx}0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1-5% impurities of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to purify the HD gas up to {approx}99.99%. The distillation system is equipped with a cryogenic distillation unit filled with many small stainless steel cells called 'Heli-pack'. The distillation unit consists of a condenser part, a rectification part, and a reboiler part. The unit is kept at the temperature of 17-21 K. The Heli-pack has a large surface area that makes a good contact between gases and liquids. An amount of 5.2 mol of commercial HD gas is fed into the distillation unit. Three trials were carried out to purify the HD gas by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. One mol of HD gas with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained for the first time. The effective NTP (Number of Theoretical Plates), which is an indication of the distillation performances, is obtained to be 37.2{+-}0.6. This value is in good agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by adding an optimal amount of ortho-H{sub 2} to the purified HD gas.

  18. Genome-wide Analysis of RARβ Transcriptional Targets in Mouse Striatum Links Retinoic Acid Signaling with Huntington's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska-Cimicka, Anna; Krzyżosiak, Agnieszka; Ye, Tao; Podleśny-Drabiniok, Anna; Dembélé, Doulaye; Dollé, Pascal; Krężel, Wojciech

    2017-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) signaling through retinoic acid receptors (RARs), known for its multiple developmental functions, emerged more recently as an important regulator of adult brain physiology. How RAR-mediated regulation is achieved is poorly known, partly due to the paucity of information on critical target genes in the brain. Also, it is not clear how reduced RA signaling may contribute to pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the first genome-wide analysis of RAR transcriptional targets in the brain. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing and transcriptomic analysis of RARβ-null mutant mice, we identified genomic targets of RARβ in the striatum. Characterization of RARβ transcriptional targets in the mouse striatum points to mechanisms through which RAR may control brain functions and display neuroprotective activity. Namely, our data indicate with statistical significance (FDR 0.1) a strong contribution of RARβ in controlling neurotransmission, energy metabolism, and transcription, with a particular involvement of G-protein coupled receptor (p = 5.0e -5 ), cAMP (p = 4.5e -4 ), and calcium signaling (p = 3.4e -3 ). Many identified RARβ target genes related to these pathways have been implicated in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease (HD), raising the possibility that compromised RA signaling in the striatum may be a mechanistic link explaining the similar affective and cognitive symptoms in these diseases. The RARβ transcriptional targets were particularly enriched for transcripts affected in HD. Using the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD, we show that partial sequestration of RARβ in huntingtin protein aggregates may account for reduced RA signaling reported in HD.

  19. Fundamental parameters of massive stars in multiple systems: The cases of HD 17505A and HD 206267A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucq, F.; Rauw, G.; Mahy, L.; Simón-Díaz, S.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Many massive stars are part of binary or higher multiplicity systems. The present work focusses on two higher multiplicity systems: HD 17505A and HD 206267A. Aims: Determining the fundamental parameters of the components of the inner binary of these systems is mandatory to quantify the impact of binary or triple interactions on their evolution. Methods: We analysed high-resolution optical spectra to determine new orbital solutions of the inner binary systems. After subtracting the spectrum of the tertiary component, a spectral disentangling code was applied to reconstruct the individual spectra of the primary and secondary. We then analysed these spectra with the non-LTE model atmosphere code CMFGEN to establish the stellar parameters and the CNO abundances of these stars. Results: The inner binaries of these systems have eccentric orbits with e 0.13 despite their relatively short orbital periods of 8.6 and 3.7 days for HD 17505Aa and HD 206267Aa, respectively. Slight modifications of the CNO abundances are found in both components of each system. The components of HD 17505Aa are both well inside their Roche lobe, whilst the primary of HD 206267Aa nearly fills its Roche lobe around periastron passage. Whilst the rotation of the primary of HD 206267Aa is in pseudo-synchronization with the orbital motion, the secondary displays a rotation rate that is higher. Conclusions: The CNO abundances and properties of HD 17505Aa can be explained by single star evolutionary models accounting for the effects of rotation, suggesting that this system has not yet experienced binary interaction. The properties of HD 206267Aa suggest that some intermittent binary interaction might have taken place during periastron passages, but is apparently not operating anymore. Based on observations collected with the TIGRE telescope (La Luz, Mexico), the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute Provence (France), the Nordic Optical Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los

  20. DINÁMICA DE LA BIFURCACIÓN DE HOPF EN UNA CLASE DE MODELOS DE COMPETENCIA QUE EXHIBEN LA BIFURCACIÓN ZIP Hopf Bifurcation Dynamic in a Class of Competence Model Exhibiting Zip Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Escobar Callejas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo de investigación se caracteriza el tipo de bifurcación de Hopf que se presenta en el fenómeno de la bifurcación de zip para un sistema tridimensional no lineal de ecuaciones diferenciales que satisface las condiciones planteadas por Butler y Farkas, las cuales modelan la competición de dos especies predadoras por una presa singular que se regenera. Se demuestra que en todas las variedades bidimensionales invariantes del sistema considerado se desarrolla una bifurcación de Hopf supercrítica lo cual es una extensión de algunos resultados sobre el tipo de bifurcación de Hopf que se forma en el fenómeno de la bifurcación de zip en sistema con respuesta funcional del predador del tipo Holling II, [1].This research article characterizes the type of Hopf bifurcation occurring in the Zip bifurcation phenomenon for a non-linear 3D system of differential equations which meets the conditions stated by Butler and Farkas to model competition of two predators struggling for a prey. It is shown that a supercritical Hopf bifurcation is developed in all invariant two-dimensional varieties of the system considered, which is an extension of some results about the kind of Hopf bifurcation which is formed in the Zip bifurcation phenomenon in a system with functional response of the Holling-type predator.

  1. The Star-grazing Bodies in the HD 172555 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Brown, Alexander; Welsh, Barry; Roberge, Aki; Kamp, Inga; Rivière Marichalar, P.

    2018-06-01

    Kiefer et al. reported the detection of infalling Ca II absorption in HD 172555, a member of the β Pictoris Moving Group (βPMG). We obtained HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectroscopy of this star at 2 epochs separated by a week, and we report the discovery of infalling gas in resonant transitions of Si III and IV, C II and IV, and neutral atomic oxygen. Variable absorption is seen in the C II transitions and is optically thick, with covering factors which range between 58% and 68%, similar to features seen in β Pictoris. The O I spectral profile resembles that of C II, showing a strong low-velocity absorption to +50 km s‑1 in the single spectral segment obtained during orbital night, as well as what may be higher-velocity absorption. Studies of the mid-IR spectrum of this system have suggested the presence of silica. The O I absorption differs from that seen in Si III, suggesting that the neutral atomic oxygen does not originate in SiO dissociation products but in a more volatile parent molecule such as CO.

  2. Behavior of Abundances in Chemically Peculiar Dwarf and Subgiant A-Type Stars: HD 23193 and HD 170920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçoğlu, Tolgahan; Çalışkan, Şeyma; Ünal, Kübraözge

    2018-01-01

    To understand the origin of the abundance peculiarities of non-magnetic A-type stars, we present the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of a metallic line star HD 23193 (A2m) and an A-type subgiant HD 170920 (A5), which could have been a HgMn star on the main sequence. Our analysis is based on medium (R ∼ 14,000) and high (R ∼ 40,000) resolution spectroscopic data of the stars. The abundances of 18 elements are derived: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, and Ba. The masses of HD 23193 and HD 170920 are estimated from evolutionary tracks as 2.3 ± 0.1 M ⊙ and 2.9 ± 0.1 M ⊙. The ages are found to be 635 ± 33 Myr for HD 23193 and 480 ± 50 Myr for HD 170920 using isochrones. The abundance pattern of HD 23193 shows deviations from solar values in the iron-peak elements and indicates remarkable overabundances of Sr (1.16), Y (1.03), and Ba (1.24) with respect to the solar abundances. We compare the derived abundances of this moderately rotating (v\\sin i =37.5 km s‑1) Am star to the theoretical chemical evolution models including rotational mixing. The theoretically predicted abundances resemble our derived abundance pattern, except for a few elements (Si and Cr). For HD 170920, we find nearly solar abundances, except for C (‑0.43), S (0.16), Ti (0.15), Ni (0.16), Zn (0.41), Y (0.57), and Ba (0.97). Its low rotational velocity (v\\sin i=14.5 km s‑1), reduced carbon abundance, and enhanced heavy element abundances suggest that the star is most likely an evolved HgMn star. Based on observations made at the TÜBITAK National Observatory (Program ID 14BRTT150–671), and the Ankara University Observatory, Turkey.

  3. HD 30187 B and HD 39927 B: Two suspected nearby hot subdwarfs in resolved binaries (based on observations made with the ESA Hipparcos satellite)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, V.V.; Fabricius, C.

    1999-01-01

    Stars: Individual: HD 30187 B -- Stars: Individual: HD 39927 B - Stars: White dwarfs - Stars: Binaries: Visual......Stars: Individual: HD 30187 B -- Stars: Individual: HD 39927 B - Stars: White dwarfs - Stars: Binaries: Visual...

  4. HD 97658 and its super-Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Grootel V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition. We present the confirmation, based on Spitzer observations, that the super-Earth HD 97658 b transits its host star. HD 97658 is a low-mass (M* = 0.77 ± 0.05 M⊙ K1 dwarf, as determined from the Hipparcos parallax and stellar evolution modeling. To constrain the planet parameters, we carry out Bayesian global analyses of Keck-HIRES radial velocities, and MOST and Spitzer photometry. HD 97658 b is a massive (MP = 7.55−0.79+0.83 M⊕ and large (RP = 2.247−0.095+0.098 R⊕ at 4.5 μm super-Earth. We investigate the possible internal compositions for HD 97658 b. Our results indicate a large rocky component, by at least 60% by mass, and very little H-He components, at most 2% by mass. We also discuss how future asteroseismic observations can improve the knowledge of the HD 97658 system, in particular by constraining its age.

  5. Weekly infusional high-dose fluorouracil (HD-FU), HD-FU plus folinic acid (HD-FU/FA), or HD-FU/FA plus biweekly cisplatin in advanced gastric cancer: randomized phase II trial 40953 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Gastrointestinal Group and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Manfred P; Wilke, Hansjochen; Wagener, D J Theo; Vanhoefer, Udo; Jeziorski, Krzysztof; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanna; Balleisen, Leopold; Joossens, Eric; Jansen, Rob L; Debois, Muriel; Bethe, Ullrich; Praet, Michel; Wils, Jacques; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2007-06-20

    This multicentric, randomized, two-stage phase II trial evaluated three simplified weekly infusional regimens of fluorouracil (FU) or FU plus folinic acid (FA) and cisplatin (Cis) with the aim to select a regimen for future phase III trials. A total of 145 patients with advanced gastric cancer where randomly assigned to weekly FU 3,000 mg/m2/24 hours (HD-FU), FU 2,600 mg/m2/24 hours plus dl-FA 500 mg/m2 or l-FA 250 mg/m2 (HD-FU/FA), or FU 2000 mg/m2/24 hours plus FA plus biweekly Cis 50 mg/m2, each administered for 6 weeks with a 1-week rest. The primary end point was the response rate. Confirmed responses were observed in 6.1% (two of 33) of the eligible patients treated with HD-FU, in 25% (12 of 48, including one complete remission [CR]) with HD-FU/FA, and in 45.7% (21 of 46, including four CRs) with HD-FU/FA/Cis. The HD-FU arm was closed after stage 1 because the required minimum number of responses was not met. The median progression-free survival of all patients in the HD-FU, HD-FU/FA, and HD-FU/FA/Cis arm was 1.9, 4.0, and 6.1 months, respectively. The median overall survival was 7.1, 8.9, and 9.7 months, and the survival rate at 1 year was 24.3%, 30.3%, and 45.3%, respectively. Grade 4 toxicities were rare. The most relevant grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia in 1.9%, 5.4%, and 19.6%, and diarrhea in 2.7%, 1.9%, and 3.9% of the cycles in the HD-FU, HD-FU/FA, and HD-/FU/Cis arms, respectively. Weekly infusional FU/FA plus biweekly Cis is effective and safe in patients with gastric cancer.

  6. Expression Patterns and Correlations with Metabolic Markers of Zinc Transporters ZIP14 and ZNT1 in Obesity and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxel, Trine; Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Smidt, Kamille; Lauridsen, Jesper Krogh; Brock, Birgitte; Pedersen, Steen Bønlykke; Rungby, Jørgen; Larsen, Agnete

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with infertility, increased androgen levels, and insulin resistance. In adipose tissue, zinc facilitates insulin signaling. Circulating zinc levels are altered in obesity, diabetes, and PCOS; and zinc supplementation can ameliorate metabolic disturbances in PCOS. In adipose tissue, expression of zinc influx transporter ZIP14 varies with body mass index (BMI), clinical markers of metabolic syndrome, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). In this study, we investigated expression levels of ZIP14 and PPARG in subcutaneous adipose tissue of 36 PCOS women (17 lean and 19 obese women) compared with 23 healthy controls (7 lean and 16 obese women). Further, expression levels of zinc transporter ZIP9, a recently identified androgen receptor, and zinc efflux transporter ZNT1 were investigated, alongside lipid profile and markers of glucose metabolism [insulin degrading enzyme, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)]. We find that ZIP14 expression is reduced in obesity and positively correlates with PPARG expression, which is downregulated with increasing BMI. ZNT1 is upregulated in obesity, and both ZIP14 and ZNT1 expression significantly correlates with clinical markers of altered glucose metabolism. In addition, RBP4 and GLUT4 associate with obesity, but an association with PCOS as such was present only for PPARG and RBP4. ZIP14 and ZNT1 does not relate to clinical androgen status and ZIP9 is unaffected by all parameters investigated. In conclusion, our findings support the existence of a zinc dyshomeostasis in adipose tissue in metabolic disturbances including PCOS-related obesity. PMID:28303117

  7. ABI-like transcription factor gene TaABL1 from wheat improves multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Bei; Gao, Shi-Qing; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Tang, Yi-Miao; Li, Xue-Yin; Li, Lian-Cheng; Chen, Yao-Feng; Chen, Ming

    2014-12-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in adaptive responses of plants to abiotic stresses. ABA-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic leucine zipper transcription factors that regulate the expression of downstream genes containing ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) in promoter regions. A novel ABI-like (ABA-insensitive) transcription factor gene, named TaABL1, containing a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain was cloned from wheat. Southern blotting showed that three copies were present in the wheat genome. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that TaABL1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP transcription factor family and was most closely related to ZmABI5 in maize and OsAREB2 in rice. Expression of TaABL1 was highly induced in wheat roots, stems, and leaves by ABA, drought, high salt, and low temperature stresses. TaABL1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed wheat mesophyll protoplast. Overexpression of TaABL1 enhanced responses of transgenic plants to ABA and hastened stomatal closure under stress, thereby improving tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Furthermore, overexpression of TaABL1 upregulated or downregulated the expression of some stress-related genes controlling stomatal closure in transgenic plants under ABA and drought stress conditions, suggesting that TaABL1 might be a valuable genetic resource for transgenic molecular breeding.

  8. Aureochrome 1 illuminated: structural changes of a transcription factor probed by molecular spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Kerruth

    Full Text Available Aureochrome 1 from Vaucheria frigida is a recently identified blue-light receptor that acts as a transcription factor. The protein comprises a photosensitive light-, oxygen- and voltage-sensitive (LOV domain and a basic zipper (bZIP domain that binds DNA rendering aureochrome 1 a prospective optogenetic tool. Here, we studied the photoreaction of full-length aureochrome 1 by molecular spectroscopy. The kinetics of the decay of the red-shifted triplet state and the blue-shifted signaling state were determined by time-resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of the bZIP domain further prolongs the lifetime of the LOV390 signaling state in comparison to the isolated LOV domain whereas bound DNA does not influence the photocycle kinetics. The light-dark Fourier transform infrared (FTIR difference spectrum shows the characteristic features of the flavin mononucleotide chromophore except that the S-H stretching vibration of cysteine 254, which is involved in the formation of the thio-adduct state, is significantly shifted to lower frequencies compared to other LOV domains. The presence of the target DNA influences the light-induced FTIR difference spectrum of aureochrome 1. Vibrational bands that can be assigned to arginine and lysine side chains as well to the phosphate backbone, indicate crucial changes in interactions between transcription factor and DNA.

  9. Abscisic acid-dependent multisite phosphorylation regulates the activity of a transcription activator AREB1

    OpenAIRE

    Furihata, Takashi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Fujita, Yasunari; Umezawa, Taishi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2006-01-01

    bZIP-type transcription factors AREBs/ABFs bind an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive cis-acting element named ABRE and transactivate downstream gene expression in Arabidopsis. Because AREB1 overexpression could not induce downstream gene expression, activation of AREB1 requires ABA-dependent posttranscriptional modification. We confirmed that ABA activated 42-kDa kinase activity, which, in turn, phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues of R-X-X-S/T sites in the conserved regions of AREB1. Amino acid subs...

  10. An active Mitochondrial Complex II Present in Mature Seeds Contains an Embryo-Specific Iron-Sulfur Subunit Regulated by ABA and bZIP53 and Is Involved in Germination and Seedling Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restovic, Franko; Espinoza-Corral, Roberto; Gómez, Isabel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Jordana, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) is an essential mitochondrial enzyme involved in both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the respiratory chain. In Arabidopsis thaliana , its iron-sulfur subunit (SDH2) is encoded by three genes, one of them ( SDH2.3 ) being specifically expressed during seed maturation in the embryo. Here we show that seed SDH2.3 expression is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and we define the promoter region (-114 to +49) possessing all the cis -elements necessary and sufficient for high expression in seeds. This region includes between -114 and -32 three ABRE (ABA-responsive) elements and one RY-enhancer like element, and we demonstrate that these elements, although necessary, are not sufficient for seed expression, our results supporting a role for the region encoding the 5' untranslated region (+1 to +49). The SDH2.3 promoter is activated in leaf protoplasts by heterodimers between the basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP53 (group S1) and bZIP10 (group C) acting through the ABRE elements, and by the B3 domain transcription factor ABA insensitive 3 (ABI3). The in vivo role of bZIP53 is further supported by decreased SDH2.3 expression in a knockdown bzip53 mutant. By using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and sdh2 mutants we have been able to conclusively show that complex II is already present in mature embryos before imbibition, and contains mainly SDH2.3 as iron-sulfur subunit. This complex plays a role during seed germination sensu-stricto since we have previously shown that seeds lacking SDH2.3 show retarded germination and now we demonstrate that low concentrations of thenoyltrifluoroacetone, a complex II inhibitor, also delay germination. Furthermore, complex II inhibitors completely block hypocotyl elongation in the dark and seedling establishment in the light, highlighting an essential role of complex II in the acquisition of photosynthetic competence and the transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy.

  11. New ALMA Images of the HD 32297 and HD 61005 Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Meredith Ann; Weinberger, Alycia; Wilner, David; Hughes, A. Meredith; debes, John Henry; Redfield, Seth; Donaldson, Jessica; Nesvold, Erika; Schneider, Glenn; Currie, Thayne; Roberge, Aki; Rodriguez, David

    2018-01-01

    HD 61005 (G-type star, “The Moth") and HD 32297 (A-type star) host two of the most iconic debris disks. Scattered light images show that both disks are nearly edge-on with dramatic swept-back wings of dust. Previous studies have proposed a range of mechanisms to explain this distinctive morphology including interactions with the interstellar medium, secular perturbations of grains by low-density, neutral interstellar gas, and gravitational interactions with an inclined, eccentric companion. We present new observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 1.3 mm that provide the highest resolution images at millimeter wavelengths to date of both systems. Observations at millimeter wavelengths are especially critical to our understanding of the physical mechanisms shaping the structure of these disks, since the large grains that dominate emission at these wavelengths are less affected by stellar radiation and winds and more reliably trace the underlying planetesimal distribution. We fit models directly to the observed visibilities within a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework to characterize the continuum emission and place constraints on the structure of these unique debris disks. Our new ALMA images reveal that despite differences in spectral type, both systems are best described by a two-component structure with (1) a parent body belt, and (2) an outer halo aligned with the scattered light disk. Such halos have typically been assumed to be composed of small grains visible in scattered light, so these images are some of the first observational evidence that larger grains may also populate extended halos. In addition, we detect significant 12CO gas emission from HD 32297, and determine a robust upper limit for HD 61005.

  12. ZIP8 zinc transporter: indispensable role for both multiple-organ organogenesis and hematopoiesis in utero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gálvez-Peralta

    Full Text Available Previously this laboratory characterized Slc39a8-encoded ZIP8 as a Zn(2+/(HCO(3(-(2 symporter; yet, the overall physiological importance of ZIP8 at the whole-organism level remains unclear. Herein we describe the phenotype of the hypomorphic Slc39a8(neo/neo mouse which has retained the neomycin-resistance gene in intron 3, hence causing significantly decreased ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels in embryo, fetus, placenta, yolk sac, and several tissues of neonates. The Slc39a8(neo allele is associated with diminished zinc and iron uptake in mouse fetal fibroblast and liver-derived cultures; consequently, Slc39a8(neo/neo newborns exhibit diminished zinc and iron levels in several tissues. Slc39a8(neo/neo homozygotes from gestational day(GD-11.5 onward are pale, growth-stunted, and die between GD18.5 and 48 h postnatally. Defects include: severely hypoplastic spleen; hypoplasia of liver, kidney, lung, and lower limbs. Histologically, Slc39a8(neo/neo neonates show decreased numbers of hematopoietic islands in yolk sac and liver. Low hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, serum iron, and total iron-binding capacity confirmed severe anemia. Flow cytometry of fetal liver cells revealed the erythroid series strikingly affected in the hypomorph. Zinc-dependent 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, required for heme synthesis, was not different between Slc39a8(+/+ and Slc39a8(neo/neo offspring. To demonstrate further that the mouse phenotype is due to ZIP8 deficiency, we bred Slc39a8(+/neo with BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 line (carrying three extra copies of the Slc39a8 allele; this cross generated viable Slc39a8(neo/neo_BTZIP8-3(+/+ pups showing none of the above-mentioned congenital defects-proving Slc39a8(neo/neo causes the described phenotype. Our study demonstrates that ZIP8-mediated zinc transport plays an unappreciated critical role during in utero and neonatal growth, organ morphogenesis, and hematopoiesis.

  13. THE DISCOVERY OF HD 37605c AND A DISPOSITIVE NULL DETECTION OF TRANSITS OF HD 37605b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sharon Xuesong; Wright, Jason T.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cochran, William; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Kane, Stephen R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Henry, Gregory W.; Payne, Matthew J.; Ford, Eric B.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Antoci, Victoria; Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    We report the radial velocity discovery of a second planetary mass companion to the K0 V star HD 37605, which was already known to host an eccentric, P ∼ 55 days Jovian planet, HD 37605b. This second planet, HD 37605c, has a period of ∼7.5 years with a low eccentricity and an Msin i of ∼3.4 M Jup . Our discovery was made with the nearly 8 years of radial velocity follow-up at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and Keck Observatory, including observations made as part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey effort to provide precise ephemerides to long-period planets for transit follow-up. With a total of 137 radial velocity observations covering almost 8 years, we provide a good orbital solution of the HD 37605 system, and a precise transit ephemeris for HD 37605b. Our dynamic analysis reveals very minimal planet-planet interaction and an insignificant transit time variation. Using the predicted ephemeris, we performed a transit search for HD 37605b with the photometric data taken by the T12 0.8 m Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) and the MOST satellite. Though the APT photometry did not capture the transit window, it characterized the stellar activity of HD 37605, which is consistent of it being an old, inactive star, with a tentative rotation period of 57.67 days. The MOST photometry enabled us to report a dispositive null detection of a non-grazing transit for this planet. Within the predicted transit window, we exclude an edge-on predicted depth of 1.9% at the >>10σ level, and exclude any transit with an impact parameter b > 0.951 at greater than 5σ. We present the BOOTTRAN package for calculating Keplerian orbital parameter uncertainties via bootstrapping. We made a comparison and found consistency between our orbital fit parameters calculated by the RVLIN package and error bars by BOOTTRAN with those produced by a Bayesian analysis using MCMC.

  14. Does it really matter that people zip through ads? Testing the effectiveness of simultaneous presentation advertising in an IDTV environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoonjae; Kwon, Kyonghee H; Lee, Sungjoon

    2010-04-01

    In an IDTV environment, which facilitates self-scheduling, skipping advertisements by zipping is an emerging ad-avoidance behavior. This study explores whether an alternative ad format, called simultaneous presentation advertising (SPA), may overcome the limitations of classical sequential advertising (CSA) in controlling zipping behavior and increasing the effectiveness of ads. The experiment revealed that SPA is more effective than CSA in reducing zipping and increasing recall, but SPA was more intrusive and produced a negative product image. There was no difference regarding cognitive avoidance. This work discusses the implications of these findings in the interactive media environment.

  15. Potential novel bZIP-like gene for resistance to Erysiphe necator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... In this study, a novel bZIP-like gene was isolated from Chinese wild Vitis ... Results reveal that it was in lower lever in flower than in leaf, stem, tendril and fruit. .... First-strand cDNA was synthesized from 1 µg of DNase treated.

  16. Engineering of a novel zipFv using leucine zipper motif against rabies virus glycoprotein G with improved protection potency in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hualong; Zhang, Kaixin; Yin, Yanchun; Gu, Tiejun; Sun, Qing; Li, Zhuang; Cheng, Yue; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2017-06-01

    Rabies is an acute zoonotic infectious disease with a high fatality rate but is preventable with vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The single-chain Fv fragment (scFv), a small engineered antigen-binding protein derived from antibody variable heavy (V H ) and light (V L ) chains connected by a peptide linker, can potentially be used to replace RIG. Here, we produced two peptides V H -JUN-HIS and V L -FOS-HA separately in Escherichia coli and assembled them to form zipFv successfully in vitro. The new zipFv utilizes FOS and JUN leucine zippers to form an antibody structure similar to the IgG counterpart with two free N-terminal ends of V H and V L . The zipFv protein showed notable improvement in binding ability and affinity over its corresponding scFv. The zipFv also demonstrated greater stability in serum and the same protective rate as RIG against challenge with a standard rabies virus (CVS-24) in mice. Our results indicated zipFv as a novel and efficient antibody form with enhanced neutralizing potency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Computing travel time when the exact address is unknown: a comparison of point and polygon ZIP code approximation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Ethan M; Shi, Xun

    2009-04-29

    Travel time is an important metric of geographic access to health care. We compared strategies of estimating travel times when only subject ZIP code data were available. Using simulated data from New Hampshire and Arizona, we estimated travel times to nearest cancer centers by using: 1) geometric centroid of ZIP code polygons as origins, 2) population centroids as origin, 3) service area rings around each cancer center, assigning subjects to rings by assuming they are evenly distributed within their ZIP code, 4) service area rings around each center, assuming the subjects follow the population distribution within the ZIP code. We used travel times based on street addresses as true values to validate estimates. Population-based methods have smaller errors than geometry-based methods. Within categories (geometry or population), centroid and service area methods have similar errors. Errors are smaller in urban areas than in rural areas. Population-based methods are superior to the geometry-based methods, with the population centroid method appearing to be the best choice for estimating travel time. Estimates in rural areas are less reliable.

  18. HD 101065, the Most Peculiar Star

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper we discuss the prospects for asteroseismology with spatial resolution and motivate studies of the most chemically peculiar roAp star HD 101065. We present the first results from a high-precision radial velocity (RV) study of HD 101065 based on data spanning four nights that were acquired ...

  19. Effect of copy number and spacing of the ACGT and GT cis elements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    cognized by transcription factors of the bZIP family. The core ACGT element occurs at different relative positions in one or more copies upstream of the minimal promoter region. Protein-DNA interaction studies have shown that sequences flanking the ACGT core affect bZIP protein binding specificity. The bZIP transcription ...

  20. Hd86 mRNA expression profile in Hyalomma scupense life stages, could it contribute to explain anti-tick vaccine effect discrepancy between adult and immature instars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Galaï, Yousr; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Gharbi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Jedidi, Mohamed; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-11-15

    Bm86 midgut protein has been used in order to control ticks of the Hyalomma genus. Previous studies demonstrated the inefficacity of this antigen in the control of Hyalomma scupense, whereas recombinant Hd86 antigen, the Bm86 ortholog in H. scupense produced in Pichia pastoris, was protective against larval H. scupense tick stage infestations but ineffective in the control of the adult stage. One possible explanation for this result is the variation in Hd86 expression levels between these two developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, Hd86 mRNA levels were characterized in H. scupense developmental stages. The expression profile of Hd86 demonstrated a significant variation between tick life stages and showed a significant reduction in the number of transcripts during feeding and, particularly after molting to adults. The most interesting result was noted after molting of engorged nymphs in unfed adults where the expression levels decreased significantly by 12.78 (10.77-17.39) (pstages might explain, in part, the discrepancy of the Hd86 vaccine efficacy against these two life stages of H. scupense. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality control of involved field radiotherapy in the HD 13 and HD 14 trials. Report of the radiotherapy panel of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, J.; Haverkamp, U.; Eich, H.T. [University of Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Baues, C. [University of Cologne, Department of Radiation Oncology, Cologne (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [University of Marburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Marburg (Germany); Herfarth, K. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Lukas, P. [University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Innsbruck (Austria); Pluetschow, A.; Fuchs, M.; Engert, A. [University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine, Cologne (Germany); Schmidberger, H. [University of Mainz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mainz (Germany); Staar, S. [Bremen Mitte, Department of Radiation Oncology, Bremen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    As part of the foundation of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) in 1978, a central radiotherapy (RT) reference centre was established to evaluate and to improve the quality of treatment. During the study generations, the quality assurance programs (QAP) were continued and adapted to the demands of each study. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the results of the fifth study generation and to compare them to the previous findings. With the start of the fourth GHSG study generation (HD10-12), a central prospective review of all diagnostic images was established to create an individual treatment plan for each early stage study patient. The quality of involved field RT was retrospectively evaluated by an expert panel of radiation oncologists. In the fifth study generation (HD13-15), the retrospective review of radiotherapy performed was refined and the results were compared with the findings of the fourth generation. The expert panel analyzed the RT planning and application of 1037 (28 %) patients (HD13 n = 465, HD14 n = 572). Simulation films were available in 85 % of cases and verification films in 87 %. RT was assessed as major violation in 46 % (HD13 = 38 %, HD14 = 52 %), minor violation in 9 % (HD13 = 9 %, HD14 = 9 %) and according to the protocol in 45 % (HD13 = 52 %, HD14 = 38 %). The value for QAP of RT within the GHSG trials is well known. Still there were several protocol violations. In the future, the QAP program has to be adapted to the requirements of ''modern RT'' in malignant lymphoma. (orig.) [German] Seit Gruendung der German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) im Jahr 1978 wurde ein zentrales Qualitaetssicherungsprogramm (QAP) der Radiotherapie (RT) etabliert, um die Qualitaet der RT sicherzustellen. Waehrend der fortlaufenden Studiengenerationen wurde dieses QAP kontinuierlich weiterentwickelt. In dieser Auswertung werden die Ergebnisse der fuenften Studiengeneration (HD13-15) praesentiert und mit frueheren Ergebnissen

  2. Design of a polarized target made of pure HD: analysis and distillation of HD, resonant virtual Compton scattering on the nucleon at TJNAF; Developpement d'une cible polarisee de pur HD: analyse et distillation du HD, diffusion compton virtuelle resonante sur le nucleon a TJNAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchigny, S

    2004-04-01

    The first part describe my work on the frozen spin target project HYDILE. This target has to be made of very pure HD (Hydrogen Deuterium), better than 99.95%. However, commercial HD is never found with a concentration better than 98%. The goal was, then, to build an HD distillation facility which could produce pure HD. We describe, in this thesis, the design of the distillator and the implementation of a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor the HD purity during the distillation process. The second part of the thesis concerns the analysis taken at the electron accelerator facility TJNAF (Virginia, USA). We look at the electroproduction of Delta resonances involving Deep Virtual Compton Scattering (DeltaVCS). The interpretation of this reaction in terms of GPDs (Generalized Parton Distribution) can provide new insights to the nucleon structure. We focus on the measurement of the beam spin asymmetry which comes from the interference of the Bethe Heitler process with the DeltaVCS. (author)

  3. Elemental abundance studies of CP stars. II. The silicon stars HD 133029 and HD 192913

    CERN Document Server

    López-García, Z

    1999-01-01

    For pt.1 see ibid., vol.107, no.2, p.353-63 (1994). Fine analyses of the silicon stars HD 133029 and HD 192913 are presented using ATLAS9 model atmospheres whose predictions fit the optical region spectrophotometry and H gamma profiles and have the same bulk metallicity as the deduced abundances. Both are very He poor stars. The light elements are mostly solar except for silicon, and all the heavier elements, except nickel in HD 133029 which is solar, are greatly overabundant. The iron peak elements are typically 10 times overabundant. SrYZr are of order of 100 times solar. The rare earths are 1000 or more times overabundant. Table 4 is is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. (50 refs).

  4. 5' diversity of human hepatic PXR (NR1I2) transcripts and identification of the major transcription initiation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, Kouichi; Koyano, Satoru; Ikeda, Shinobu; Tohkin, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Ryuichi; Sawada, Jun-Ichi

    2005-05-01

    The human pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a crucial regulator of the genes encoding several major cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters, such as CYP3A4 and MDR1, but its own transcriptional regulation remains unclear. To elucidate the transcriptional mechanisms of human PXR gene, we first endeavored to identify the transcription initiation site of human PXR using 5'-RACE. Five types of 5'-variable transcripts (a, b, c, d, and e) with common exon 2 sequence were found, and comparison of these sequences with the genomic sequence suggested that their 5' diversity is derived from initiation by alternative promoters and alternative splicing. None of the exons found in our study contain any new in-frame coding regions. Newly identified introns IVS-a and IVS-b were found to have CT-AC splice sites that do not follow the GT-AG rule of conventional donor and acceptor splice sites. Of the five types of 5' variable transcripts identified, RT-PCR showed that type-a was the major transcript type. Four transcription initiation sites (A-D) for type-a transcript were identified by 5'-RACE using GeneRacer RACE Ready cDNA (human liver) constructed by the oligo-capping method. Putative TATA boxes were located approximately 30 bp upstream from the transcriptional start sites of the major transcript (C) and the longest minor transcript (A) expressed in the human liver. These results indicate that the initiation of transcription of human PXR is more complex than previously reported.

  5. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 confers tolerance to water deficit and salinity to transgenic Arabidopsis and alfalfa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Gómez, María C; Chan, Raquel L

    2017-09-10

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom; members of subfamily I are known to be involved in abiotic stress responses. HaHB11 belongs to this subfamily and it was previously shown that it is able to confer improved yield and tolerance to flooding via a quiescent strategy. Here we show that HaHB11 expression is induced by ABA, NaCl and water deficit in sunflower seedlings and leaves. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11, controlled either by its own promoter or by the constitutive 35S CaMV, presented rolled leaves and longer roots than WT when grown under standard conditions. In addition, these plants showed wider stems and more vascular bundles. To deal with drought, HaHB11 transgenic plants closed their stomata faster and lost less water than controls, triggering an enhanced tolerance to such stress condition and also to salinity stress. Concomitantly, ABA-synthesis and sensing related genes were differentially regulated in HaHB11 transgenic plants. Either under long-term salinity stress or mild drought stress, HaHB11 transgenic plants did not exhibit yield penalties. Moreover, alfalfa transgenic plants were generated which also showed enhanced drought tolerance. Altogether, the results indicated that HaHB11 was able to confer drought and salinity tolerance via a complex mechanism which involves morphological, physiological and molecular changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  7. Further investigation of the role of HLA-DPB1 in adult Hodgkin's disease (HD) suggests an influence on susceptibility to different HD subtypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, G.M.; Gokhale, D.A.; Crowther, D.; Woll, P.J.; Harris, M.; Ryder, D.; Ayres, M.; Radford, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested in a number of studies that susceptibility to adult Hodgkin's disease (HD) is influenced by the HLA class II region, and specifically by alleles at the HLA-DPB1 locus. Since HD is diagnostically complex, it is not clear whether different HLA-DPB1 alleles confer susceptibility to different HD subtypes. To clarify this we have extended a previous study to type DPB1 alleles in 147 adult HD patients from a single centre. We have analysed patients with nodular sclerosing (NS)...

  8. Listeria monocytogenes infection of HD11, chicken macrophage-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, N A; Donaldson, J R; O'Bryan, C A; Ricke, S C; Crandall, P G

    2017-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can be carried by and infect poultry, although the clinical disease in birds is rare. Escape from macrophage phagocytosis is a key step in pathogenesis for L. monocytogenes. Therefore, we investigated the infection of the chicken macrophage-like cell line HD11 with 2 strains of L. monocytogenes EGD-e and Scott A. After infection, L. monocytogenes was quantified by spread plating and HD11 was quantified with trypan blue exclusion stain before enumeration. The standard macrophage killing protocols require washing the cell monolayers 3 times with PBS, which was found to negatively influence HD11 monolayers. Maximum bacterial densities within macrophages were not different between the 2 Listeria strains. HD11 required more than 11 h to effectively reduce intracellular L. monocytogenes Scott A, and Scott A was more susceptible to HD11 killing than EGD-e. It appears that Listeria infection initially causes attenuation of HD11 growth, and infected HD11 cells do not begin to lyse until at least 11 h post infection. These results suggest that there are subtle strain to strain differences in response to HD11 macrophage phagocytosis. The long lead-time required for HD11 to kill L. monocytogenes cells means that there is sufficient time available for chicken macrophages to circulate in the blood and transfer the intracellular Listeria to multiple tissues. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Game-based combined cognitive and neurofeedback training using Focus Pocus reduces symptom severity in children with diagnosed AD/HD and subclinical AD/HD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Stuart J; Roodenrys, Steven J; Johnson, Kirsten; Bonfield, Rebecca; Bennett, Susan J

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies report reductions in symptom severity after combined working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) training in children with AD/HD. Based on theoretical accounts of the role of arousal/attention modulation problems in AD/HD, the current study examined the efficacy of combined WM, IC, and neurofeedback training in children with AD/HD and subclinical AD/HD. Using a randomized waitlist control design, 85 children were randomly allocated to a training or waitlist condition and completed pre- and post-training assessments of overt behavior, trained and untrained cognitive task performance, and resting and task-related EEG activity. The training group completed twenty-five sessions of training using Focus Pocus software at home over a 7 to 8-week period. Trainees improved at the trained tasks, while enjoyment and engagement declined across sessions. After training, AD/HD symptom severity was reduced in the AD/HD and subclinical groups according to parents, and in the former group only according to blinded teachers and significant-others. There were minor improvements in two of six near-transfer tasks, and evidence of far-transfer of training effects in four of five far-transfer tasks. Frontal region changes indicated normalization of atypical EEG features with reduced delta and increased alpha activity. It is concluded that technology developments provide an interesting a vehicle for delivering interventions and that, while further research is needed, combined WM, IC, and neurofeedback training can reduce AD/HD symptom severity in children with AD/HD and may also be beneficial to children with subclinical AD/HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dataset of the HOX1 gene sequences of the wheat polyploids and their diploid relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey B. Shcherban

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The TaHOX-1 gene of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. (BAD-genome encodes transcription factor (HD-Zip I which is characterized by the presence of a DNA-binding homeodomain (HD with an adjacent Leucine zipper (LZ motif. This gene can play a role in adapting plant to a variety of abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, salinity etc., which strongly affect wheat production. However, it's both functional role in stress resistance and divergence during wheat evolution has not yet been elucidated. This data in brief article is associated with the research paper “Structural and functional divergence of homoeologous copies of the TaHOX-1 gene in polyploid wheats and their diploid ancestors”. The data set represents a recent survey of the primary HOX-1 gene sequences isolated from the first wheat allotetraploids (BA-genome and their corresponding Triticum and Aegilops diploid relatives. Specifically, we provide detailed information about the HOX-1 nucleotide sequences of the promoter region and both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the gene. The sequencing data used here is available at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession numbers MG000630-MG000698. Keywords: Wheat, Polyploid, HOX-1 gene, Homeodomain, Transcription factor, Promoter, Triticum, Aegilops

  11. Absolute parameters of southern detached eclipsing binary: HD 53570

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürgit, D.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we conducted the first analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the eclipsing binary star HD 53570. Spectroscopic observations of HD 53570 were made at the Sutherland Station of the South African Astronomical Observatory in 2013 and 2014. The radial velocities of the components were determined using the cross-correlation technique. The spectroscopic mass ratio obtained for the system was 1.13 ( ± 0.07). The All Sky Automated Survey V light curve of HD 53570 was analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code combined with the Monte Carlo search method. The final model showed that HD 53570 has a detached configuration. The mass and radii of the primary and secondary components of HD 53570 were derived as 1.06 ( ± 0.07) M⊙, 1.20 ( ± 0.16) M⊙, and 1.42 ( ± 0.14) R⊙, 2.07 ( ± 0.16) R⊙, respectively. The distance of HD 53570 was computed as 248 ( ± 38) pc considering interstellar extinction. The evolutionary status of the component stars was also investigated using Geneva evolutionary models.

  12. Recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73 strain that synthesizes Cry1Ac and chimeric ChiA74∆sp chitinase inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ponce, Karen S; Casados-Vázquez, Luz E; Salcedo-Hernández, Rubén; Bideshi, Dennis K; Del Rincón-Castro, María C; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the endochitinase chiA74 gene lacking its secretion signal peptide sequence (chiA74∆sp) was fused in frame with the sequence coding for the C-terminal crystallization domain and transcription terminator of cry1Ac. The chimeric gene was expressed under the strong pcytA-p/STAB-SD promoter system in an acrystalliferous Cry - B strain of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73. We showed that the chimeric ChiA74∆sp produced amorphous inclusions in both Cry - B and HD73. In addition to the amorphous inclusions putatively composed of the chimera, bipyramidal Cry1Ac crystals, smaller than the wild-type crystal, were observed in recombinant HD73, and chitinase activity was remarkably higher (75-fold) in this strain when compared with parental HD73. Moreover, we observed that lyophilized samples of a mixture containing Cry1Ac, amorphous inclusions, and spores maintained chitinase activity. Amorphous inclusions could not be separated from Cry1Ac crystals by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Interestingly, the chitinase activity of purified Cry1Ac/amorphous inclusions was 51-fold higher compared to purified Cry1Ac inclusions of parental HD73, indicating that the increased enzymatic activity was due primarily to the presence of the atypical amorphous component. The possibility that the chimera is occluded with the Cry1Ac crystal, thereby contributing to the increased endochitinolytic activity, cannot be excluded. Finally, bioassays against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda with spore/crystals of HD73 or spore-crystal ChiA74∆sp chimeric inclusions of recombinant HD73 strain showed LC 50 s of 396.86 and 290.25 ng/cm 2 , respectively. Our study suggests a possible practical application of the chimera in formulations of B. thuringiensis-based lepidopteran larvicides.

  13. Fusion of the BCL9 HD2 domain to E1A increases the cytopathic effect of an oncolytic adenovirus that targets colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittet Anne-Laure

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wnt signaling pathway is activated by mutations in the APC and β-catenin genes in many types of human cancer. β-catenin is stabilized by these mutations and activates transcription in part by acting as a bridge between Tcf/LEF proteins and the HD2 domain of the BCL9 coactivator. We have previously described oncolytic adenoviruses with binding sites for Tcf/LEF transcription factors inserted into the early viral promoters. These viruses replicate selectively in cells with activation of the Wnt pathway. To increase the activity of these viruses we have fused the viral transactivator E1A to the BCL9 HD2 domain. Methods Luciferase assays, co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, immunofluorescent cell staining and cytopathic effect assays were used to characterize the E1A-HD2 fusion protein and virus in vitro. Growth curves of subcutaneous SW620 colon cancer xenografts were used to characterize the virus in vivo. Results The E1A-HD2 fusion protein binds to β-catenin in vivo and activates a Tcf-regulated luciferase reporter better than wild-type E1A in cells with activated Wnt signaling. Expression of the E1A-HD2 protein promotes nuclear import of β-catenin, mediated by the strong nuclear localization signal in E1A. Tcf-regulated viruses expressing the fusion protein show increased expression of viral proteins and a five-fold increase in cytopathic effect (CPE in colorectal cancer cell lines. There was no change in viral protein expression or CPE in HeLa cells, indicating that E1A-HD2 viruses retain selectivity for cells with activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Despite increasing the cytopathic effect of the virus in vitro, fusion of the HD2 domain to E1A did not increase the burst size of the virus in vitro or the anti-tumor effect of the virus in an SW620 xenograft model in vivo. Conclusion Despite an increase in the nuclear pool of β-catenin, the effects on viral activity in colon cancer cells were small

  14. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION MODELS OF HD 189733b AND HD 209458b WITH CONSISTENT MAGNETIC DRAG AND OHMIC DISSIPATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Emily; Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional circulation models for extrasolar gas giant atmospheres with geometrically and energetically consistent treatments of magnetic drag and ohmic dissipation. Atmospheric resistivities are continuously updated and calculated directly from the flow structure, strongly coupling the magnetic effects with the circulation pattern. We model the hot Jupiters HD 189733b (T eq ≈ 1200 K) and HD 209458b (T eq ≈ 1500 K) and test planetary magnetic field strengths from 0 to 30 G. We find that even at B = 3 G the atmospheric structure and circulation of HD 209458b are strongly influenced by magnetic effects, while the cooler HD 189733b remains largely unaffected, even in the case of B = 30 G and super-solar metallicities. Our models of HD 209458b indicate that magnetic effects can substantially slow down atmospheric winds, change circulation and temperature patterns, and alter observable properties. These models establish that longitudinal and latitudinal hot spot offsets, day-night flux contrasts, and planetary radius inflation are interrelated diagnostics of the magnetic induction process occurring in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters and other similarly forced exoplanets. Most of the ohmic heating occurs high in the atmosphere and on the dayside of the planet, while the heating at depth is strongly dependent on the internal heat flux assumed for the planet, with more heating when the deep atmosphere is hot. We compare the ohmic power at depth in our models, and estimates of the ohmic dissipation in the bulk interior (from general scaling laws), to evolutionary models that constrain the amount of heating necessary to explain the inflated radius of HD 209458b. Our results suggest that deep ohmic heating can successfully inflate the radius of HD 209458b for planetary magnetic field strengths of B ≥ 3-10 G.

  15. FIRST SCATTERED-LIGHT IMAGE OF THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND HD 131835 WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Li-Wei; Arriaga, Pauline; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Esposito, Thomas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Duchêne, Gaspard; Kalas, Paul G.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Graham, James R. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley CA 94720-3411 (United States); Maire, Jérôme; Chilcote, Jeffrey K. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Marois, Christian [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Bruzzone, Sebastian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centre for Planetary and Space Exploration, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Rajan, Abhijith [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Konopacky, Quinn [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Ammons, S. Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94040 (United States); Draper, Zachary H. [University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); and others

    2015-12-10

    We present the first scattered-light image of the debris disk around HD 131835 in the H band using the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 131835 is a ∼15 Myr old A2IV star at a distance of ∼120 pc in the Sco-Cen OB association. We detect the disk only in polarized light and place an upper limit on the peak total intensity. No point sources resembling exoplanets were identified. Compared to its mid-infrared thermal emission,  in scattered light the disk shows similar orientation but different morphology. The scattered-light disk extends from ∼75 to ∼210 AU in the disk plane with roughly flat surface density. Our Monte Carlo radiative transfer model can describe the observations with a model disk composed of a mixture of silicates and amorphous carbon. In addition to the obvious brightness asymmetry due to stronger forward scattering, we discover a weak brightness asymmetry along the major axis, with the northeast side being 1.3 times brighter than the southwest side at a 3σ level.

  16. Quality control of involved field radiotherapy in the HD 13 and HD 14 trials. Report of the radiotherapy panel of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriz, J.; Haverkamp, U.; Eich, H.T.; Baues, C.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Herfarth, K.; Lukas, P.; Pluetschow, A.; Fuchs, M.; Engert, A.; Schmidberger, H.; Staar, S.

    2017-01-01

    As part of the foundation of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) in 1978, a central radiotherapy (RT) reference centre was established to evaluate and to improve the quality of treatment. During the study generations, the quality assurance programs (QAP) were continued and adapted to the demands of each study. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the results of the fifth study generation and to compare them to the previous findings. With the start of the fourth GHSG study generation (HD10-12), a central prospective review of all diagnostic images was established to create an individual treatment plan for each early stage study patient. The quality of involved field RT was retrospectively evaluated by an expert panel of radiation oncologists. In the fifth study generation (HD13-15), the retrospective review of radiotherapy performed was refined and the results were compared with the findings of the fourth generation. The expert panel analyzed the RT planning and application of 1037 (28 %) patients (HD13 n = 465, HD14 n = 572). Simulation films were available in 85 % of cases and verification films in 87 %. RT was assessed as major violation in 46 % (HD13 = 38 %, HD14 = 52 %), minor violation in 9 % (HD13 = 9 %, HD14 = 9 %) and according to the protocol in 45 % (HD13 = 52 %, HD14 = 38 %). The value for QAP of RT within the GHSG trials is well known. Still there were several protocol violations. In the future, the QAP program has to be adapted to the requirements of ''modern RT'' in malignant lymphoma. (orig.) [de

  17. HD 285507b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, Samuel N.; White, Russel J.; Latham, David W.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first hot Jupiter in the Hyades open cluster. HD 285507b orbits a V = 10.47 K4.5V dwarf (M * = 0.734 M ☉; R * = 0.656 R ☉) in a slightly eccentric () orbit with a period of days. The induced stellar radial velocity corresponds to a minimum companion mass of M Psin i...... timescale for HD 285507b to be larger than the age of the Hyades, which may indicate that this planet's non-zero eccentricity is the result of migration via interactions with a third body. We also demonstrate a significant difference between the eccentricity distributions of hot Jupiters that have had time...... to tidally circularize and those that have not, which we interpret as evidence against Type II migration in the final stages of hot Jupiter formation. Finally, the dependence of the circularization timescale on the planetary tidal quality factor, Q P, allows us to constrain the average value for hot Jupiters to be ....

  18. DISEQUILIBRIUM CARBON, OXYGEN, AND NITROGEN CHEMISTRY IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF HD 189733b AND HD 209458b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Visscher, C.; Fortney, J. J.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K.; Griffith, C. A.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Shabram, M.; Friedson, A. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a one-dimensional photochemical and thermochemical kinetics and diffusion model to study the effects of disequilibrium chemistry on the atmospheric composition of 'hot-Jupiter' exoplanets. Here we investigate the coupled chemistry of neutral carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen species on HD 189733b and HD 209458b and we compare the model results with existing transit and eclipse observations. We find that the vertical profiles of molecular constituents are significantly affected by transport-induced quenching and photochemistry, particularly on the cooler HD 189733b; however, the warmer stratospheric temperatures on HD 209458b help maintain thermochemical equilibrium and reduce the effects of disequilibrium chemistry. For both planets, the methane and ammonia mole fractions are found to be enhanced over their equilibrium values at pressures of a few bar to less than an mbar due to transport-induced quenching, but CH 4 and NH 3 are photochemically removed at higher altitudes. Disequilibrium chemistry also enhances atomic species, unsaturated hydrocarbons (particularly C 2 H 2 ), some nitriles (particularly HCN), and radicals like OH, CH 3 , and NH 2 . In contrast, CO, H 2 O, N 2 , and CO 2 more closely follow their equilibrium profiles, except at pressures ∼ 2 O, and N 2 are photochemically destroyed and CO 2 is produced before its eventual high-altitude destruction. The enhanced abundances of CH 4 , NH 3 , and HCN are expected to affect the spectral signatures and thermal profiles of HD 189733b and other relatively cool, transiting exoplanets. We examine the sensitivity of our results to the assumed temperature structure and eddy diffusion coefficients and discuss further observational consequences of these models.

  19. ROVIBRATIONAL QUENCHING RATE COEFFICIENTS OF HD IN COLLISIONS WITH He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, J. L.; Stancil, P. C.; Lee, T.-G.; Balakrishnan, N.; Forrey, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Along with H 2 , HD has been found to play an important role in the cooling of the primordial gas for the formation of the first stars and galaxies. It has also been observed in a variety of cool molecular astrophysical environments. The rate of cooling by HD molecules requires knowledge of collisional rate coefficients with the primary impactors, H, He, and H 2 . To improve knowledge of the collisional properties of HD, we present rate coefficients for the He-HD collision system over a range of collision energies from 10 –5 to 5 × 10 3 cm –1 . Fully quantum mechanical scattering calculations were performed for initial HD rovibrational states of j = 0 and 1 for v = 0-17 which utilized accurate diatom rovibrational wave functions. Rate coefficients of all Δv = 0, –1, and –2 transitions are reported. Significant discrepancies with previous calculations, which adopted a small basis and harmonic HD wave functions for excited vibrational levels, were found for the highest previously considered vibrational state of v = 3. Applications of the He-HD rate coefficients in various astrophysical environments are briefly discussed.

  20. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  1. HD271791: dynamical versus binary-supernova ejection scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2009-05-01

    The atmosphere of the extremely high-velocity (530-920kms-1) early B-type star HD271791 is enriched in α-process elements, which suggests that this star is a former secondary component of a massive tight binary system and that its surface was polluted by the nucleosynthetic products after the primary star exploded in a supernova. It was proposed that the (asymmetric) supernova explosion unbind the system and that the secondary star (HD271791) was released at its orbital velocity in the direction of Galactic rotation. In this Letter, we show that to explain the Galactic rest-frame velocity of HD271791 within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario, the stellar remnant of the supernova explosion (a =750-1200kms-1. We therefore consider the binary-supernova scenario as highly unlikely and instead propose that HD271791 attained its peculiar velocity in the course of a strong dynamical three- or four-body encounter in the dense core of the parent star cluster. Our proposal implies that by the moment of encounter HD271791 was a member of a massive post-supernova binary.

  2. Recipients of Excess Food by Zip Code, US and Territories, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent generalized USPS 5-digit zip code boundaries for the US and its territories. Data is licensed to US EPA by...

  3. Thermodynamics of dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raieh, M.A.; Aly, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the extraction of the trivalent actinides Am 3+ , Cm 3+ and Cf 3+ with the liquid cation exchanger dinonylnaphtalenesulphonic acid (HD) in toluene is studied. The different thermodynamic functions of this system are determined from the experimental results. It is found that the free energy variation for the extraction of these metal ions by HD is mainly determined by the entropic terms arising from the hydration-dehydration process of the exchanged ions. (author)

  4. Automatic anterior chamber angle assessment for HD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Marziliano, Pina; Baskaran, Mani; Wong, Hong-Tym; Aung, Tin

    2011-11-01

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a major blinding eye disease and could be detected by measuring the anterior chamber angle in the human eyes. High-definition OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) is an emerging noninvasive, high-speed, and high-resolution imaging modality for the anterior segment of the eye. Here, we propose a novel algorithm which automatically detects a new landmark, Schwalbe's line, and measures the anterior chamber angle in the HD-OCT images. The distortion caused by refraction is corrected by dewarping the HD-OCT images, and three biometric measurements are defined to quantitatively assess the anterior chamber angle. The proposed algorithm was tested on 40 HD-OCT images of the eye and provided accurate measurements in about 1 second.

  5. NV-CMOS HD camera for day/night imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsong, T.; Tower, J.; Sudol, Thomas; Senko, T.; Chodelka, D.

    2014-06-01

    SRI International (SRI) has developed a new multi-purpose day/night video camera with low-light imaging performance comparable to an image intensifier, while offering the size, weight, ruggedness, and cost advantages enabled by the use of SRI's NV-CMOS HD digital image sensor chip. The digital video output is ideal for image enhancement, sharing with others through networking, video capture for data analysis, or fusion with thermal cameras. The camera provides Camera Link output with HD/WUXGA resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels operating at 60 Hz. Windowing to smaller sizes enables operation at higher frame rates. High sensitivity is achieved through use of backside illumination, providing high Quantum Efficiency (QE) across the visible and near infrared (NIR) bands (peak QE camera, which operates from a single 5V supply. The NVCMOS HD camera provides a substantial reduction in size, weight, and power (SWaP) , ideal for SWaP-constrained day/night imaging platforms such as UAVs, ground vehicles, fixed mount surveillance, and may be reconfigured for mobile soldier operations such as night vision goggles and weapon sights. In addition the camera with the NV-CMOS HD imager is suitable for high performance digital cinematography/broadcast systems, biofluorescence/microscopy imaging, day/night security and surveillance, and other high-end applications which require HD video imaging with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The camera comes with an array of lens mounts including C-mount and F-mount. The latest test data from the NV-CMOS HD camera will be presented.

  6. Polarized proton and deuteron solid HD targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1977-01-01

    A decade has now elapsed since HD was proposed as a polarized proton and deuteron target with exceptionally desirable properties. These include a very high free proton proportion, independently polarizable proton and deuteron systems, and a ''frozen-spin'' mode of operation which allows separation of the functions of production and utilization of the highly polarized target. A discussion is given of what can be expected of the polarized HD system right now, without further research. The basic features of solid HD pertinent to its use as a ''frozen-spin'' target are outlined, then a summary is given of the particular experimental results which support the contention that the target will perform successfully, and finally, some feasible operating modes and the expected performances from them are presented

  7. Assessment of uncertainties in core melt phenomenology and their impact on risk at the Z/IP facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, W.T.; Ludewig, H.; Bari, R.A.; Meyer, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of core meltdown accidents in the Z/IP facilities has been performed. Containment event trees have been developed to relate the progression of a given accident to various potential containment building failure modes. An extensive uncertainty analysis related to core melt phenomenology has been performed. A major conclusion of the study is that large variations in parameters associated with major phenomenological uncertainties have a relatively minor impact on risk when external initiators are considered. This is due to the inherent capability fo the Z/IP containment buildings to contain a wide range of core meltdown accidents. 12 references, 2 tables

  8. Datablock: hd141

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-15

    Jan 15, 2016 ... checkCIF/PLATON page 2 http://checkcif.iucr.org/cgibin/checkcif_hkl.pl. 1/3. checkCIF (basic structural check) running. checkCIF/PLATON (basic structural check). Structure factors have been supplied for datablock(s) hd141. THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW.

  9. Transcript-specific effects of adrenalectomy on seizure-induced BDNF expression in rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterborn, J C; Poulsen, F R; Stinis, C T

    1998-01-01

    Activity-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is negatively modulated by circulating adrenal steroids. The rat BDNF gene gives rise to four major transcript forms that each contain a unique 5' exon (I-IV) and a common 3' exon (V) that codes for BDNF protein. Exon-specific i......Activity-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is negatively modulated by circulating adrenal steroids. The rat BDNF gene gives rise to four major transcript forms that each contain a unique 5' exon (I-IV) and a common 3' exon (V) that codes for BDNF protein. Exon...... and in exon II-containing mRNA with 30-days survival. In the dentate gyrus granule cells, adrenalectomy markedly potentiated increases in exon I and II cRNA labeling, but not increases in exon III and IV cRNA labeling, elicited by one hippocampal afterdischarge. Similarly, for the granule cells and CA1...... no effect on exon IV-containing mRNA content. These results demonstrate that the negative effects of adrenal hormones on activity-induced BDNF expression are by far the greatest for transcripts containing exons I and II. Together with evidence for region-specific transcript expression, these results suggest...

  10. Dosimetry during mango irradiation using Gafchromic HD-810 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S. D.; Chilkulwar, R. H.; Kumar, R.

    2009-01-01

    The dosimetric characteristics of Gafchromic HD-810 film were evaluated for its possible use as a high-dose dosemeter for routine dosimetry during mango irradiation. The film dosemeter sample of size 2 x 2 cm 2 was used throughout the course of this work. The irradiation of the film dosemeter for characterisation and calibration purposes was carried out in a gamma irradiator. The dose-response of the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosemeter at 550 nm was found to be linear in the dose range 50-1000 Gy, which indicates the feasibility of using this film for dosimetry up to 1000 Gy. The mean inter-dosemeter variation was within 2%, which gives better dose-response consistency of the HD-810 film. The radiation absorbed dose measured by the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosemeter during mango irradiation was compared with that measured by a standard Ceric-cerous dosemeter. This study establishes the Gafchromic HD-810 film as a convenient and technically suitable dosemeter for high-dose dosimetry up to 1.0 kGy during mango irradiation. (authors)

  11. Condensation of chromatin in transcriptional regions of an inactivated plant transgene: evidence for an active role of transcription in gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blokland, R; ten Lohuis, M; Meyer, P

    1997-12-01

    The chromatin structures of two epigenetic alleles of a transgene were investigated by measuring the local accessibility of transgene chromatin to endonucleases. The two epialleles represented the active, hypomethylated state of a transgene in line 17-I of Petunia hybrida, and a transcriptionally inactive, hypermethylated derivative of the same transgene in line 17-IV. In nuclear preparations the inactive epiallele was significantly less sensitive to DNasel digestion and nuclease S7 digestion than the transcriptionally active epiallele, whereas no significant differences in accessibility were observed between naked DNA samples of the two epialleles. Our data suggest that a condensed chromatin structure is specifically imposed on transcribed regions of the construct in line 17-IV. In contrast, in both epialleles the plasmid region of the transgene, which is not transcriptionally active in plants, retains the same accessibility to endonucleases as the chromosomal integration site. These data suggest that transcriptional inactivation is linked to the process of transcription, and imply that control of transgene expression via the use of inducible or tissue-specific promoters might prevent transgene silencing and conserve the active state of transgenes during sexual propagation.

  12. Phenomena of g-u symmetry-breakdown in HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, A.; Reinhold, E.M.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Phenomena associated with the breakdown of inversion symmetry in the HD molecule are reviewed and discussed. A distinction is made between three kinds of physical effects observed in HD spectra. The existence of a small electric dipole moment in the ground state gives rise to vibrational and pure

  13. ATF3, an HTLV-1 bZip factor binding protein, promotes proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohshima Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL is an aggressive malignancy of CD4+ T-cells caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ gene, which is encoded by the minus strand of the viral genome, is expressed as an antisense transcript in all ATL cases. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 as an HBZ-interacting protein. ATF3 has been reported to be expressed in ATL cells, but its biological significance is not known. Results Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that ATF3 interacts with HBZ. Expression of ATF3 was upregulated in ATL cell lines and fresh ATL cases. Reporter assay revealed that ATF3 could interfere with the HTLV-1 Tax's transactivation of the 5' proviral long terminal repeat (LTR, doing so by affecting the ATF/CRE site, as well as HBZ. Suppressing ATF3 expression inhibited proliferation and strongly reduced the viability of ATL cells. As mechanisms of growth-promoting activity of ATF3, comparative expression profiling of ATF3 knockdown cells identified candidate genes that are critical for the cell cycle and cell death, including cell division cycle 2 (CDC2 and cyclin E2. ATF3 also enhanced p53 transcriptional activity, but this activity was suppressed by HBZ. Conclusions Thus, ATF3 expression has positive and negative effects on the proliferation and survival of ATL cells. HBZ impedes its negative effects, leaving ATF3 to promote proliferation of ATL cells via mechanisms including upregulation of CDC2 and cyclin E2. Both HBZ and ATF3 suppress Tax expression, which enables infected cells to escape the host immune system.

  14. Mitochondrial fragmentation in neuronal degeneration: Toward an understanding of HD striatal susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Marta; Ginés, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny neurons within the striatum. HD is caused by inheritance of an expanded CAG repeat in the HTT gene, resulting in a mutant huntingtin (mHtt) protein containing extra glutamine residues. Despite the advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in HD the preferential vulnerability of the striatum remains an intriguing question. This review discusses current knowledge that links altered mitochondrial dynamics with striatal susceptibility in HD. We also highlight how the modulation of mitochondrial function may constitute an attractive therapeutic approach to reduce mHtt-induced toxicity and therefore prevent the selective striatal neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • Mitochondrial dynamics is unbalanced towards fission in HD. • Excessive mitochondrial fragmentation plays a critical role in the selective vulnerability of the striatum in HD. • Therapeutic approaches aimed to inhibit mitochondrial fission could contribute to prevent striatal neurodegeneration in HD.

  15. The use of ZIP and CART to model cryptosporidiosis in relation to climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Tong, Shilu

    2010-07-01

    This research assesses the potential impact of weekly weather variability on the incidence of cryptosporidiosis disease using time series zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and classification and regression tree (CART) models. Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases and population size in Brisbane were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Both time series ZIP and CART models show a clear association between weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed) and cryptosporidiosis disease. The time series CART models indicated that, when weekly maximum temperature exceeded 31 degrees C and relative humidity was less than 63%, the relative risk of cryptosporidiosis rose by 13.64 (expected morbidity: 39.4; 95% confidence interval: 30.9-47.9). These findings may have applications as a decision support tool in planning disease control and risk-management programs for cryptosporidiosis disease.

  16. NBM-HD-1: A Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor with Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jan Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HDAC inhibitors (HDACis have been developed as promising anticancer agents in recent years. In this study, we synthesized and characterized a novel HDACi, termed NBM-HD-1. This agent was derived from the semisynthesis of propolin G, isolated from Taiwanese green propolis (TGP, and was shown to be a potent suppressor of tumor cell growth in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and rat glioma cells (C6, with an IC50 ranging from 8.5 to 10.3 μM. Western blot demonstrated that levels of p21(Waf1/Cip1, gelsolin, Ac-histone 4, and Ac-tubulin markedly increased after treatment of cancer cells with NBM-HD-1. After NBM-HD-1 treatment for 1–4 h, p-PTEN and p-AKT levels were markedly decreased. Furthermore, we also found the anticancer activities of NBM-HD-1 in regulating cell cycle regulators. Treatment with NBM-HD-1, p21(Waf1/Cip1 gene expression had markedly increased while cyclin B1 and D1 gene expressions had markedly decreased. On the other hand, we found that NBM-HD-1 increased the expressions of tumor-suppressor gene p53 in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, we showed that NBM-HD-1 exhibited potent antitumor activity in a xenograft model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that this compound, NBM-HD-1, is a novel and potent HDACi with anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Catalytic properties of RNA polymerases IV and V: accuracy, nucleotide incorporation and rNTP/dNTP discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Michelle; Li, Weiyi; Lynch, Michael; Pikaard, Craig S

    2017-11-02

    All eukaryotes have three essential nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases, abbreviated as Pol I, Pol II and Pol III. Plants are remarkable in having two additional multisubunit RNA polymerases, Pol IV and Pol V, which synthesize noncoding RNAs that coordinate RNA-directed DNA methylation for silencing of transposons and a subset of genes. Based on their subunit compositions, Pols IV and V clearly evolved as specialized forms of Pol II, but their catalytic properties remain undefined. Here, we show that Pols IV and V differ from one another, and Pol II, in nucleotide incorporation rate, transcriptional accuracy and the ability to discriminate between ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides. Pol IV transcription is considerably more error-prone than Pols II or V, which may be tolerable in its synthesis of short RNAs that serve as precursors for siRNAs targeting non-identical members of transposon families. By contrast, Pol V exhibits high fidelity transcription, similar to Pol II, suggesting a need for Pol V transcripts to faithfully reflect the DNA sequence of target loci to which siRNA-Argonaute silencing complexes are recruited. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Crystal structure and DNA binding of the homeodomain of the stem cell transcription factor Nanog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Ralf; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Saikatendu, Kumar Singh; Stevens, Raymond C; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2008-02-22

    The transcription factor Nanog is an upstream regulator in early mammalian development and a key determinant of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Nanog binds to promoter elements of hundreds of target genes and regulates their expression by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure of the murine Nanog homeodomain (HD) and analysis of its interaction with a DNA element derived from the Tcf3 promoter. Two Nanog amino acid pairs, unique among HD sequences, appear to affect the mechanism of nonspecific DNA recognition as well as maintain the integrity of the structural scaffold. To assess selective DNA recognition by Nanog, we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays using a panel of modified DNA binding sites and found that Nanog HD preferentially binds the TAAT(G/T)(G/T) motif. A series of rational mutagenesis experiments probing the role of six variant residues of Nanog on its DNA binding function establish their role in affecting binding affinity but not binding specificity. Together, the structural and functional evidence establish Nanog as a distant member of a Q50-type HD despite having considerable variation at the sequence level.

  19. Crystal Structure and DNA Binding of the Homeodomain of the Stem Cell Transcription Factor Nanog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, Ralf; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Saikatendu, Kumar Singh; Stevens, Raymond C.; Kolatkar, Prasanna R. (GI-Singapore); (Scripps)

    2010-02-08

    The transcription factor Nanog is an upstream regulator in early mammalian development and a key determinant of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. Nanog binds to promoter elements of hundreds of target genes and regulates their expression by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure of the murine Nanog homeodomain (HD) and analysis of its interaction with a DNA element derived from the Tcf3 promoter. Two Nanog amino acid pairs, unique among HD sequences, appear to affect the mechanism of nonspecific DNA recognition as well as maintain the integrity of the structural scaffold. To assess selective DNA recognition by Nanog, we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays using a panel of modified DNA binding sites and found that Nanog HD preferentially binds the TAAT(G/T)(G/T) motif. A series of rational mutagenesis experiments probing the role of six variant residues of Nanog on its DNA binding function establish their role in affecting binding affinity but not binding specificity. Together, the structural and functional evidence establish Nanog as a distant member of a Q50-type HD despite having considerable variation at the sequence level.

  20. Quality of Life in Prodromal HD: Qualitative Analyses of Discourse from Participants and Companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Ready

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons who are at risk for Huntington's Disease (HD can be tested for the HD gene expansion before symptom onset. People with the gene expansion, but no clinical diagnosis, are in the prodromal phase of HD. This study explored quality of life (QOL in prodromal HD. Interviews about QOL, conducted with 9 prodromal HD participants and 6 companions, were transcribed. Discourse was coded for emotional valence, content (e.g., coping, spirituality, interpersonal relationships, HD in others, and employment, and time frame (e.g., current, past, and future. Respondents were more positive than negative about the present, which was their major focus. The most common statements were about positive attitudes. Positive statements were made about spirituality, and negative statements were made about HD in other people. Relationships, employment, and coping with HD reflected both positivity and negativity. Participants and companions spoke of the future with different concerns. Applicability of findings to the clinical management of HD are discussed.

  1. The Bphi008a gene interacts with the ethylene pathway and transcriptionally regulates MAPK genes in the response of rice to brown planthopper feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Zhou, Jiangbo; Peng, Xinxin; Xu, Henghao; Liu, Caixiang; Du, Bo; Yuan, Hongyu; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2011-06-01

    We examined ways in which the Brown planthopper induced008a (Bphi008a; AY256682) gene of rice (Oryza sativa) enhances the plant's resistance to a specialist herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Measurement of the expression levels of ethylene synthases and of ethylene emissions showed that BPH feeding rapidly initiated the ethylene signaling pathway and up-regulated Bphi008a transcript levels after 6 to 96 h of feeding. In contrast, blocking ethylene transduction (using 1-methylcyclopropene) reduced Bphi008a transcript levels in wild-type plants fed upon by BPH. In vitro kinase assays showed that Bphi008a can be phosphorylated by rice Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase5 (OsMPK5), and yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal proline-rich region of Bphi008a interacts directly with this kinase. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that this interaction occurs in the nucleus. Subsequently, we found that Bphi008a up-regulation and down-regulation were accompanied by different changes in transcription levels of OsMPK5, OsMPK12, OsMPK13, and OsMPK17 in transgenic plants. Immunoblot analysis also showed that the OsMPK5 protein level increased in overexpressing plants and decreased in RNA interference plants after BPH feeding. In transgenic lines, changes in the expression levels of several enzymes that are important components of the defenses against the BPH were also observed. Finally, yeast two-hybrid screening results showed that Bphi008a is able to interact with a b-ZIP transcription factor (OsbZIP60) and a RNA polymerase polypeptide (SDRP).

  2. DYNAMICAL MASS OF THE SUBSTELLAR BENCHMARK BINARY HD 130948BC , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.; Ireland, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We present Keck adaptive optics imaging of the L4+L4 binary HD 130948BC along with archival Hubble Space Telescope and Gemini North observations, which together span ∼ 70% of the binary's orbital period. From the relative orbit, we determine a total dynamical mass of 0.109 ± 0.003 M sun (114 ± 3 M Jup ). The flux ratio of HD 130948BC is near unity, so both components are unambiguously substellar for any plausible mass ratio. An independent constraint on the age of the system is available from the primary HD 130948A (G2V, [M/H] = 0.0). The ensemble of available indicators suggests an age comparable to Hyades, with the most precise age being 0.79 +0.22 -0.15 Gyr based on gyrochronology. Therefore, HD 130948BC is now a unique benchmark among field L and T dwarfs, with a well-determined mass, luminosity, and age. We find that substellar theoretical models disagree with our observations. (1) Both components of HD 130948BC appear to be overluminous by a factor of ∼ 2-3 times compared to evolutionary models. The age of the system would have to be notably younger than the gyro age to ameliorate the luminosity disagreement. (2) Effective temperatures derived from evolutionary models for HD 130948B and C are inconsistent with temperatures determined from spectral synthesis for objects of similar spectral type. Overall, regardless of the adopted age, evolutionary and atmospheric models give inconsistent results, which indicate systematic errors in at least one class of models, possibly both. The masses of HD 130948BC happen to be very near the theoretical mass limit for lithium burning, and thus measuring the differential lithium depletion between B and C will provide a uniquely discriminating test of theoretical models. The potential underestimate of luminosities by evolutionary models would have wide-ranging implications; therefore, a more refined estimate age for HD 130948A is critically needed.

  3. H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Huijser, A.; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2015-01-01

    The atomic mass ratio of ca. 2 between deuterium and hydrogen is the highest for any pair of stable isotopes and results in significant and measurable H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors containing these species. This paper discusses H/D isotope effects manifested in O-H/O-D...

  4. Cloning and Molecular Analysis of HlbZip1 and HlbZip2 Transcription Factors Putatively Involved in the Regulation of the Lupulin Metabolome in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Kocábek, Tomáš; Patzak, J.; Stehlík, Jan; Füssy, Zoltán; Krofta, K.; Heyerick, A.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Maloukh, L.; De Keukeleire, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2010), s. 902-912 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/08/0740; GA MZe QH81052; GA MŠk ME 940 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : secondary metabolites transcriptional regulation * cDNA-AFLP analysis * hop cDNA library screening * Nicotiana benthamiana * Petunia hybrida Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2010

  5. Efforts towards a dynamically polarised HD-target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, E.; Goertz, St.; Harmsen, J.; Heckmann, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.

    2004-01-01

    The molecular hydrogen isotopes contain no unpolarisable background. From this point of view they appear to be the material of choice for a polarised bulk target in scattering experiments. The fast nuclear relaxation of H 2 and D 2 is one reason that these substances are not highly polarisable. This fact brings hydrogendeuteride (HD) into focus. In Bochum a device to freeze out gases into the consisting 4 He-cryostat has been built up. The principle of the Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation requires a sufficient amount of paramagnetic electrons. These have been produced by cracking HD molecules at 1 K using a 90 Sr β-source with an activity of 3.7 GBq. Six days of effective irradiation resulted in a density of paramagnetic centres in the order of 10 18 spins/cm 3 . This could be estimated from bolometric electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. Dynamic polarisation could not be achieved. This is accounted to isotopic impurities in the used HD, which accelerate the nuclear relaxation. The constant of ortho-para conversion in H 2 could be confirmed to be 1.9%/h

  6. Cutaneous Uptake of 14C-HD Vapor by the Hairless Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    guinea pig (HGP) is used by our laboratory to model the human cutaneous response to sulfur mustard (HD) exposure. We have determined the HD content in the skin of HOP after 7-minute exposures to vapors saturated with a mixture of HD and 14C-HD. Concentration/time (C1) values in the range of 2 mg/sq cm/min were determined by counting skin 14C disintegrations per minute (dpm) in animals euthanized immediately after exposure. These values are similar to human penetration rates obtained by other investigators. A direct relationship between C1 and relative humidity was

  7. Phylogenetic analysis reveals conservation and diversification of micro RNA166 genes among diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Suvakanta; SarkarDas, Shabari; Singh, Archita; Gautam, Vibhav; Kumar, Pramod; Majee, Manoj; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2014-01-01

    Similar to the majority of the microRNAs, mature miR166s are derived from multiple members of MIR166 genes (precursors) and regulate various aspects of plant development by negatively regulating their target genes (Class III HD-ZIP). The evolutionary conservation or functional diversification of miRNA166 family members remains elusive. Here, we show the phylogenetic relationships among MIR166 precursor and mature sequences from three diverse model plant species. Despite strong conservation, some mature miR166 sequences, such as ppt-miR166m, have undergone sequence variation. Critical sequence variation in ppt-miR166m has led to functional diversification, as it targets non-HD-ZIPIII gene transcript (s). MIR166 precursor sequences have diverged in a lineage specific manner, and both precursors and mature osa-miR166i/j are highly conserved. Interestingly, polycistronic MIR166s were present in Physcomitrella and Oryza but not in Arabidopsis. The nature of cis-regulatory motifs on the upstream promoter sequences of MIR166 genes indicates their possible contribution to the functional variation observed among miR166 species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HD-DVD: the next consumer electronics revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topiwala, Pankaj N.

    2003-11-01

    The DVD is emerging as one of the world's favorite consumer electronics product, rapidly replacing analog videotape in the US and many other markets at prodigious rates. It is capable of offering a full feature-length, standard-definition movie in crisp rendition on TV. TV technology is itself in the midst of switching from analog to digital TV, with high-definition being the main draw. In fact, the US government has been advocating that switch over to digital TC, with both carrot and stick approaches, for nearly two decades, with only modest results--about 2% penetration. Under FCC herding, broadcasters are falling in the digital line--slowly, and sans profit. Meanwhile, delivery of HD content on portable media would be a great solution. Indeed, a new disk technology based on blue lasers is coming; but its widespread adoption may yet be four to five yeras away. But a promising new video codec--H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, the latest coding standard jointly developed by the Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) of ITU-T and Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) of ISO/IEC, just might be the missing link. It offers substantial coding gains over MPEG-2, used in today's DVDs. With H.264, it appears possible to put HD movies on today's red-laser DVDs. Since consumers love DVDs, and HD--when they can see it, can H.264 and HD-DVD ignite a new revolution, now? It may have a huge impact on (H)DTV adoption rates.

  9. Evidences of extragalactic origin and planet engulfment in the metal-poor twin pair HD 134439/HD 134440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies of chemical abundances in metal-poor halo stars show the existence of different populations, which is important for studies of Galaxy formation and evolution. Here, we revisit the twin pair of chemically anomalous stars HD 134439 and HD 134440, using high resolution (R ˜ 72 000) and high S/N ratio (S/N ˜ 250) HDS/Subaru spectra. We compare them to the well-studied halo star HD 103095, using the line-by-line differential technique to estimate precise stellar parameters and LTE chemical abundances. We present the abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm. We compare our results to the precise abundance patterns of Nissen & Schuster (2010) and data from dwarf Spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We show that the abundance pattern of these stars appears to be closely linked to that of dSphs with [α/Fe] knee below [Fe/H] < -1.5. We also find a systematic difference of 0.06 ± 0.01 dex between the abundances of these twin binary stars, which could be explained by the engulfment of a planet, thus suggesting that planet formation is possible at low metallicities ([Fe/H] = -1.4).

  10. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase IV: possible involvement in double strand break DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, S H; Ropp, P A; Sugino, A

    1994-08-11

    We identified and purified a new DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase IV), which is similar to mammalian DNA polymerase beta, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and suggested that it is encoded by YCR14C (POLX) on chromosome III. Here, we provided a direct evidence that the purified DNA polymerase IV is indeed encoded by POLX. Strains harboring a pol4 deletion mutation exhibit neither mitotic growth defect nor a meiosis defect, suggesting that DNA polymerase IV participates in nonessential functions in DNA metabolism. The deletion strains did not exhibit UV-sensitivity. However, they did show weak sensitivity to MMS-treatment and exhibited a hyper-recombination phenotype when intragenic recombination was measured during meiosis. Furthermore, MAT alpha pol4 delta segregants had a higher frequency of illegitimate mating with a MAT alpha tester strain than that of wild-type cells. These results suggest that DNA polymerase IV participates in a double-strand break repair pathway. A 3.2kb of the POL4 transcript was weakly expressed in mitotically growing cells. During meiosis, a 2.2 kb POL4 transcript was greatly induced, while the 3.2 kb transcript stayed at constant levels. This induction was delayed in a swi4 delta strain during meiosis, while no effect was observed in a swi6 delta strain.

  11. The dynamic changes of DNA methylation and histone modifications of salt responsive transcription factor genes in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Song

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modification contributes to the regulation of gene expression and plant development under salinity stress. Here we describe the identification of 49 soybean transcription factors by microarray analysis as being inducible by salinity stress. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR-based expression assay confirmed the salinity stress inducibility of 45 of these 49 transcription factors, and showed that ten of them were up-regulated when seedlings were exposed to the demethylation agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Salinity stress was shown to affect the methylation status of four of these ten transcription factors (one MYB, one b-ZIP and two AP2/DREB family members using a combination of bisulfite sequencing and DNA methylation-sensitive DNA gel blot analysis. ChIP analysis indicated that the activation of three of the four DNA methylated transcription factors was correlated with an increased level of histone H3K4 trimethylation and H3K9 acetylation, and/or a reduced level of H3K9 demethylation in various parts of the promoter or coding regions. Our results suggest a critical role for some transcription factors' activation/repression by DNA methylation and/or histone modifications in soybean tolerance to salinity stress.

  12. Determining Market Categorization of United States Zip Codes for Purposes of Army Recruiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Army uses commercial market segmentation data to analyze markets and past accessions to assign recruiters and quotas to maximize production. We use...Army Recruiting Command to rely on proprietary data with 66 market segments per ZIP code for market analysis and predicting recruiting potential...have different densities of potential recruits; the Army uses commercial market segmentation data to analyze markets and past accessions to assign

  13. In vitro experiments for the development of a high density (HD) barium sulfate contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro experiments with the high-density (HD) barium meal Falibaryt HD are described. Several charges of BaSO 4 were tested together with certain additives influencing dispersion, stability of the suspension, flowability, surface tension etc. Particle size spectra were measured by the manufacturer, VEB Fahlberg-List. With a simple PVC test plate containing several grooves simulating small details (areae gastricae) the diagnostic capabilities of the HD contrast medium were evaluated in an in vitro test. The developed barium meal Falibaryt HD is in its physical and chemical parameters comparable with Prontobario-HD, one of the best HD barium meals. (author)

  14. Fear-of-intimacy-mediated zinc transport controls the function of zinc-finger transcription factors involved in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Rando, Marta; Atienza-Manuel, Alexandra; Martín, Paloma; Burke, Richard; Ruiz-Gómez, Mar

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a component of one-tenth of all human proteins. Its cellular concentration is tightly regulated because its dyshomeostasis has catastrophic health consequences. Two families of zinc transporters control zinc homeostasis in organisms, but there is little information about their specific developmental roles. We show that the ZIP transporter Fear-of-intimacy (Foi) is necessary for the formation of Drosophila muscles. In foi mutants, myoblasts segregate normally, but their specification is affected, leading to the formation of a misshapen muscle pattern and distorted midgut. The observed phenotypes could be ascribed to the inactivation of specific zinc-finger transcription factors (ZFTFs), supporting the hypothesis that they are a consequence of intracellular depletion of zinc. Accordingly, foi phenotypes can be rescued by mesodermal expression of other ZIP members with similar subcellular localization. We propose that Foi acts mostly as a transporter to regulate zinc intracellular homeostasis, thereby impacting on the activity of ZFTFs that control specific developmental processes. Our results additionally suggest a possible explanation for the presence of large numbers of zinc transporters in organisms based on differences in ion transport specificity and/or degrees of activity among transporters. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. HD271791: dynamical versus binary-supernova ejection scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    The atmosphere of the extremely high-velocity (530-920 km/s) early B-type star HD271791 is enriched in $\\alpha$-process elements, which suggests that this star is a former secondary component of a massive tight binary system and that its surface was polluted by the nucleosynthetic products after the primary star exploded in a supernova. It was proposed that the (asymmetric) supernova explosion unbind the system and that the secondary star (HD271791) was released at its orbital velocity in the...

  16. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies of the rat thyroid transcription factor 1 homeodomain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Gennaro; Fogolari, Federico; Damante, Giuseppe; Formisano, Silvestro; Tell, Gianluca; Leonardi, Antonio; Di Lauro, Roberto; Viglino, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    The 1 H NMR solution structure of the rat thyroid transcription factor 1 homeodomain (TTF-1 HD) showed that the molecule folds like classical homeodomains. The C-terminal extension of helix III (fragment 51-59) appeared to adopt a helical geometry, albeit not as rigid as the preceding portion, but the hydrogen-deuterium exchange of backboneamides and the NOE data provided evidence of a discontinuity between the two moieties of helix III at the highly conserved fragmentAsn 51 -His 52 -Arg 53 .Analysis of quantitative measurements of isotope exchange rates allows one to recognize the general occurrence, in that region of HD motifs, of opposite effects to helix III stability. Asparagine, histidine and arginine residues occur most frequently at the beginning and end of protein helices.In TTF-1 HD a local fluctuation is observed in the fragment 51-53 which either kinks or tightens the α-helix. A search through the protein structure database reveals that the three most common variants of HD fragments 51-53 are often involved in helices and, frequently, in helix initiation or termination. For homeodomains in general, the nature of the fragment 51-53 may be related to the conformational dynamics of their DNA-recognition helix (helix III). Besides the specific results on fragment 51-53, the complete isotope exchange analysis of TTF-1 HD data shows that the partially solvent-exposed recognition helix is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, like most of the structured regions of the molecule. Hydrophobic stabilization of the contacting regions meets the requirements of a DNA-interaction mechanism which, as shown with other DNA-protein complexes, should entail negative heat capacity variations due to changes in solvent exposure of the nonpolar protein surface

  17. Late Thyroid Sequlae after Treatment of Hodgkin's Disease (HD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaza, A.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the late effects of radio- chemotherapy (CTH) on thyroid gland in long-term survivors (LTS) HD patients regularly attending the pediatric oncology clinic of National Cancer Institute (NCI), 42 LTS (33 males and 9 females) were studied, together with 26 newly-diagnosed (ND) HD patients (15 males and 11 females) and 28 healthy controls. During 3 years period, all patients subjected to through clinical history/ examination. Files of LTS were revised for date of diagnoses, original site (s), stage, histopathological subtypes and dose/ duration of therapy. Clinical examination was done with laying stress on neck examination for thyroid swelling and lymphadenopathy. Lab investigations include hormonal assay of thyroid and parathyroid (T3, T4, TSH, Thyroglobin, and parathormone). In LTS the mean age was 14.9±3.4 yrs. versus 9.5±3.7 yrs. in ND patients. In LTS, treatment modalities included radiotherapy (RT) alone (2.4%), CTH alone (26.2%) or combination chemo-RT (71.4%). The mean followup time was 7.47±2.19 yrs. The incidence of hyper-/hypo-thyroidism was significantly higher in LTS. High TSH was found only among patients who received chemo-RT (11/26) with thyroid irradiation (IR) in the whole neck field. Finally, the study documented that the hyper-/hypo-thyroidism was one of the long-term complication of radio-CTH in HD patients. Recommendations regarding the follow-up of therapy for HD were discussed. New strategies and evidence based surveillance of the long-term effects are needed for dealing with HD, especially in children

  18. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devchand, Pallavi R; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Primo, Valeria C; Zhang, Qing-yin; Arnaout, M Amin; Serhan, Charles N; Nikolic, Boris

    2005-02-01

    Lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA(4) are potent endogenous lipid mediators thought to define the inflammatory set-point. We used single prophylactic administrations of a synthetic aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4) signal mimetic, ATLa, to probe dynamics of early host-donor interactions in a mouse model for the inflammation-associated multifactorial disease of allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) -induced graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD). We first demonstrated that both host and donor are responsive to the ATLa signals. The simple and restricted regimen of a single prophylactic administration of ATLa [100 ng/mL to donor cells or 1 microg (approximately 50 microg/kg) i.v. to host] was sufficient to delay death. Clinical indicators of weight, skin lesions, diarrhea and eye inflammation were monitored. Histological analyses on day 45 post-BMT showed that the degree of cellular trafficking, particularly neutrophil infiltrate, and protection of end-organ target pathology are different, depending on whether the host or donor was treated with ATLa. Taken together, these results chart some ATLa protective effects on GvHD cellular dynamics over time and identify a previously unrecognized effect of host neutrophils in the early phase post-BMT as important determinants in the dynamics of GvHD onset and progression.-Devchand, P. R., Schmidt, B. A., Primo, V. C., Zhang, Q.-y., Arnaout, M. A., Serhan, C. N., Nikolic, B. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

  19. AtchitIV gene expression is stimulated under abiotic stresses and is spatially and temporally regulated during embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane B. de A. Gerhardt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of AtchitIV gene was analysed in Arabidopsis plants submitted to abiotic stresses. Transcript accumulation was detected in leaves in response to UV light exposure, exogenous salicylic acid administration and wounding. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying AtchitIV promoter::gus fusion also showed differential expression of the reporter gene in response to these treatments. The AtchitIV expression was also analysed during Arabidopsis embryo development. GUS assay demonstrated AtchitIV promoter activation in zygotic embryos from torpedo stage up to full maturation. Promoter deletion analysis indicated that all the 5' cis-acting elements responsible for the specific tissue expression are located in a region of 1083 bp, adjacent to the start of transcription. A negative regulatory region located between portions -1083 and -600 was also observed.

  20. Elemental abundances of the field horizontal-branch stars HD 86986, 130095 and 202759

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fine analyses of limited spectral regions of the field horizontal-branch A Stars HD86986, 130095 and 202759 confirm that these stars have abundances typical of Population II stars. HD 86986 has a metallicity of about 1/200 solar while HD 130095 and 202759 are even more metal poor. (author)

  1. Introduction and feasibility study of the HD-270 MLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Young; Kim Won Taek; Lee, Hwa Jung; Lee, Kang Hyeok

    2003-01-01

    The multileaf collimator(MLC) has many advantages, but use of the MLC increased effective penumbra and isodose undulation in dose distribution compared with that of an alloy block. In this work, we introduced the HD-270 MLC, which can improve the above disadvantages of MLC, and reported its feasibility study. The HD-270 MLC is a technique which combines the use of the existing Siemens multileaf collimator(3D MLC) with patient translation perpendicular to the leaf plane. The technique produces a smoothed isodose distribution with the reduced isodose undulation and effective penumbra. To assess the efficacy of the HD-270 technique and determine the appropriate resolution, a polygonal shaped MLC field was made to produce field edge angles from 0 degree to 75 degree with a step of 15 degree. Each HD-270 group was generated according to the allowed resolution, i. e., 5, 3, and 2 mm. The experiment was carried out on Primus, a Siemens linear accelerator configured with HD-270 MLC. The total 60 MU of 6 MV photon beam was delivered to X-Omat film (Kodak, USA) at a SAD of 100 cm and 1.5 cm depth in solid water phantom. Exposed films were scanned by Lumiscan75(LUMISYS) and analyzed using RIT113 software (Radiological Imaging Technology Inc., USA). To test the mechanical accuracy of table movement, the transverse, longitudinal, and vertical positions were controlled by a consol with ±5 mm, ±4 mm, ±3 mm, and ±2 mm steps, and then measured using a dial gauge with an accuracy of 0.001 inch. During the experiments, the table loaded with about 50 Kg human phantom to simulate the real treatment situation. The effective penumbra and isodose undulation became larger with increase the resolution and field edge angle. The accuracy of the table movement on each direction is good within the ±1 mm. Clinical use of the MLC can be increased by using of the HD-270 MLC which complements to the disadvantages of the MLC.

  2. Extreme Population Differences in the Human Zinc Transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4) Are Explained by Positive Selection in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pybus, Marc; Andrews, Glen K.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Comas, David; Sekler, Israel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Stoneking, Mark; Valverde, Miguel A.; Vicente, Rubén; Bosch, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Extreme differences in allele frequency between West Africans and Eurasians were observed for a leucine-to-valine substitution (Leu372Val) in the human intestinal zinc uptake transporter, ZIP4, yet no further evidence was found for a selective sweep around the ZIP4 gene (SLC39A4). By interrogating allele frequencies in more than 100 diverse human populations and resequencing Neanderthal DNA, we confirmed the ancestral state of this locus and found a strong geographical gradient for the derived allele (Val372), with near fixation in West Africa. In extensive coalescent simulations, we show that the extreme differences in allele frequency, yet absence of a classical sweep signature, can be explained by the effect of a local recombination hotspot, together with directional selection favoring the Val372 allele in Sub-Saharan Africans. The possible functional effect of the Leu372Val substitution, together with two pathological mutations at the same codon (Leu372Pro and Leu372Arg) that cause acrodermatitis enteropathica (a disease phenotype characterized by extreme zinc deficiency), was investigated by transient overexpression of human ZIP4 protein in HeLa cells. Both acrodermatitis mutations cause absence of the ZIP4 transporter cell surface expression and nearly absent zinc uptake, while the Val372 variant displayed significantly reduced surface protein expression, reduced basal levels of intracellular zinc, and reduced zinc uptake in comparison with the Leu372 variant. We speculate that reduced zinc uptake by the ZIP4-derived Val372 isoform may act by starving certain pathogens of zinc, and hence may have been advantageous in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, these functional results may indicate differences in zinc homeostasis among modern human populations with possible relevance for disease risk. PMID:24586184

  3. Extreme population differences in the human zinc transporter ZIP4 (SLC39A4 are explained by positive selection in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Engelken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme differences in allele frequency between West Africans and Eurasians were observed for a leucine-to-valine substitution (Leu372Val in the human intestinal zinc uptake transporter, ZIP4, yet no further evidence was found for a selective sweep around the ZIP4 gene (SLC39A4. By interrogating allele frequencies in more than 100 diverse human populations and resequencing Neanderthal DNA, we confirmed the ancestral state of this locus and found a strong geographical gradient for the derived allele (Val372, with near fixation in West Africa. In extensive coalescent simulations, we show that the extreme differences in allele frequency, yet absence of a classical sweep signature, can be explained by the effect of a local recombination hotspot, together with directional selection favoring the Val372 allele in Sub-Saharan Africans. The possible functional effect of the Leu372Val substitution, together with two pathological mutations at the same codon (Leu372Pro and Leu372Arg that cause acrodermatitis enteropathica (a disease phenotype characterized by extreme zinc deficiency, was investigated by transient overexpression of human ZIP4 protein in HeLa cells. Both acrodermatitis mutations cause absence of the ZIP4 transporter cell surface expression and nearly absent zinc uptake, while the Val372 variant displayed significantly reduced surface protein expression, reduced basal levels of intracellular zinc, and reduced zinc uptake in comparison with the Leu372 variant. We speculate that reduced zinc uptake by the ZIP4-derived Val372 isoform may act by starving certain pathogens of zinc, and hence may have been advantageous in Sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, these functional results may indicate differences in zinc homeostasis among modern human populations with possible relevance for disease risk.

  4. The impact of reinforcement contingencies on AD/HD: a review and theoretical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2005-02-01

    One of the core deficits in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is thought to be an aberrant sensitivity to reinforcement, such as reward and response cost. Twenty-two studies (N=1181 children) employing AD/HD and reinforcement contingencies are reviewed from vantage points: task performance, motivation, and psychophysiology. Results indicate that reinforcement contingencies have a positive impact on task performance and levels of motivation for both children with AD/HD and normal controls. There is evidence that the effect related to task performance is somewhat more prominent in AD/HD. There is some evidence that a high intensity of reinforcement is highly effective in AD/HD. Children with AD/HD prefer immediate over delayed reward. From a psychophysiological point of view, children with AD/HD seem less sensitive to reinforcement compared to controls. While comorbid disorders are suggested to be confounders of the dependent variables, many studies do not examine the effect of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). We discuss the implications of the findings for five theoretical frameworks, including the model by, the cognitive-energetic model (CEM), the dual-pathway model and the BIS/BAS model. Results show a discrepancy between the theoretical models and the behavioural findings.

  5. In situ hybridization detection methods for HPV16 E6/E7 mRNA in identifying transcriptionally active HPV infection of oropharyngeal carcinoma: an updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara C; Ciniselli, Chiara M; Gualeni, Ambra V; Plebani, Maddalena; Alfieri, Salvatore; Verderio, Paolo; Locati, Laura; Perrone, Federica; Quattrone, Pasquale; Carbone, Antonino; Pilotti, Silvana; Gloghini, Annunziata

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare 2 in situ hybridization (ISH) detection methods for human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 mRNA, that is, the RNAscope 2.0 High Definition (HD) and the upgraded RNAscope 2.5 HD version. The RNAscope 2.5 HD has recently replaced the RNAscope 2.0 HD detection kit. Therefore, this investigation starts from the need to analytically validate the new mRNA ISH assay and, possibly, to refine the current algorithm for HPV detection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with the final goal of applying it to daily laboratory practice. The study was based on HPV status and on generated data, interpreted by a scoring algorithm. The results highlighted that the compared RNAscope HPV tests had a good level of interchangeability and enabled to identify oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma that are truly driven by high-risk HPV infection. This was also supported by the comparison of the RNAscope HPV test with HPV E6/E7 mRNA real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in a fraction of cases where material for HPV E6/E7 mRNA real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was available. Furthermore, the algorithm that associates p16 immunohistochemistry with the identification of HPV mRNA by RNAscope was more effective than the one that associated p16 immunohistochemistry with the identification of HPV DNA by ISH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Light variations of the population II F-type supergiant HD 46703

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, H. E.; Carney, B. W.; Grauer, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Photometric monitoring has revealed brightness variations of 0.1 m on a time scale of weeks for HD 46703, a metal-deficient F-type field analog of the stars lying above the horizontal branch in globular clusters. It is suggested that HD 46703 belongs to the '89 Her' class of luminous F-type variables. Since HD 46703 is unquestionably a halo object, it is almost certainly a low-mass star. It is suggested that it, and probably the other 89 Her variables, are masquerading as supergiants during their final evolution off the asymptotic giant branch.

  7. Bidirectional uncompressed HD video distribution over fiber employing VCSELs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodes, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a bidirectional system in which VCSELs are simultaneously modulated with two uncompressed HD video signals. The results show a large power budget and a negligible penalty over 10 km long transmission links.......We report on a bidirectional system in which VCSELs are simultaneously modulated with two uncompressed HD video signals. The results show a large power budget and a negligible penalty over 10 km long transmission links....

  8. The massive multiple system HD 64315

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Vilardell, F.; Garcia, M.; Evans, C. J.; Montes, D.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The O6 Vn star HD 64315 is believed to belong to the star-forming region known as NGC 2467, but previous distance estimates do not support this association. Moreover, it has been identified as a spectroscopic binary, but existing data support contradictory values for its orbital period. Aims: We explore the multiple nature of this star with the aim of determining its distance, and understanding its connection to NGC 2467. Methods: A total of 52 high-resolution spectra have been gathered over a decade. We use their analysis, in combination with the photometric data from All Sky Automated Survey and Hipparcos catalogues, to conclude that HD 64315 is composed of at least two spectroscopic binaries, one of which is an eclipsing binary. We have developed our own program to fit four components to the combined line shapes. Once the four radial velocities were derived, we obtained a model to fit the radial-velocity curves using the Spectroscopic Binary Orbit Program (SBOP). We then implemented the radial velocities of the eclipsing binary and the light curves in the Wilson-Devinney code iteratively to derive stellar parameters for its components. We were also able to analyse the non-eclipsing binary, and to derive minimum masses for its components which dominate the system flux. Results: HD 64315 contains two binary systems, one of which is an eclipsing binary. The two binaries are separated by 0.09 arcsec (or 500 AU) if the most likely distance to the system, 5 kpc, is considered. The presence of fainter companions is not excluded by current observations. The non-eclipsing binary (HD 64315 AaAb) has a period of 2.70962901 ± 0.00000021 d. Its components are hotter than those of the eclipsing binary, and dominate the appearance of the system. The eclipsing binary (HD 64315 BaBb) has a shorter period of 1.0189569 ± 0.0000008 d. We derive masses of 14.6 ± 2.3 M⊙ for both components of the BaBb system. They are almost identical; both stars are overfilling their

  9. Maternal Emotions and Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Relation to Boys and Girls with AD/HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child gender on mothers' emotional responses to AD/HD, self-efficacy beliefs and perceived severity of AD/HD. Mothers (N = 118) of pre-schoolers were presented with a vignette describing a typical boy or girl with AD/HD and then completed three scales relating to their emotional response to AD/HD behaviour, their…

  10. Gene expression of the zinc transporter ZIP14 (SLC39a14) is affected by weight loss and metabolic status and associates with PPARγ in human adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Trine Maxel; Smidt, Kamille; Larsen, Agnete

    2015-01-01

    of clinical importance, including body mass index, triglyceride, and insulin resistance, were inversely correlated with ZIP14. During early adipogensis an up-regulation of ZIP14 gene expression was found. PPARγ gene expression was positively correlated with the ZIP14 gene expression in both adipose tissue......BACKGROUND: The expansion and function of adipose tissue are important during the development of insulin resistance and inflammation in obesity. Zinc dyshomeostasis is common in obese individuals. In the liver, zinc influx transporter ZIP14, affects proliferation and glucose metabolism but the role...

  11. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Catharanthus roseus possessing Mendelian inheritance. Renu Kumari, Vishakha ...... Bowman J. L. 2004 Class III HD-Zip gene regulation, the golden fleece of .... Arabidopsis has multiple effects on plant development, includ- ing early flowering and .... germination is revealed by the misexpression of a homologous gene ...

  12. A systems biology perspective on the role of WRKY transcription factors in drought responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Rushton, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Drought is one of the major challenges affecting crop productivity and yield. However, water stress responses are notoriously multigenic and quantitative with strong environmental effects on phenotypes. It is also clear that water stress often does not occur alone under field conditions but rather in conjunction with other abiotic stresses such as high temperature and high light intensities. A multidisciplinary approach with successful integration of a whole range of -omics technologies will not only define the system, but also provide new gene targets for both transgenic approaches and marker-assisted selection. Transcription factors are major players in water stress signaling and some constitute major hubs in the signaling webs. The main transcription factors in this network include MYB, bHLH, bZIP, ERF, NAC, and WRKY transcription factors. The role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress signaling networks is just becoming apparent and systems biology approaches are starting to define their places in the signaling network. Using systems biology approaches, there are now many transcriptomic analyses and promoter analyses that concern WRKY transcription factors. In addition, reports on nuclear proteomics have identified WRKY proteins that are up-regulated at the protein level by water stress. Interactomics has started to identify different classes of WRKY-interacting proteins. What are often lacking are connections between metabolomics, WRKY transcription factors, promoters, biosynthetic pathways, fluxes and downstream responses. As more levels of the system are characterized, a more detailed understanding of the roles of WRKY transcription factors in drought responses in crops will be obtained.

  13. Transcriptional Response of Human Neurospheres to Helper-Dependent CAV-2 Vectors Involves the Modulation of DNA Damage Response, Microtubule and Centromere Gene Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Piersanti

    Full Text Available Brain gene transfer using viral vectors will likely become a therapeutic option for several disorders. Helper-dependent (HD canine adenovirus type 2 vectors (CAV-2 are well suited for this goal. These vectors are poorly immunogenic, efficiently transduce neurons, are retrogradely transported to afferent structures in the brain and lead to long-term transgene expression. CAV-2 vectors are being exploited to unravel behavior, cognition, neural networks, axonal transport and therapy for orphan diseases. With the goal of better understanding and characterizing HD-CAV-2 for brain therapy, we analyzed the transcriptomic modulation induced by HD-CAV-2 in human differentiated neurospheres derived from midbrain progenitors. This 3D model system mimics several aspects of the dynamic nature of human brain. We found that differentiated neurospheres are readily transduced by HD-CAV-2 and that transduction generates two main transcriptional responses: a DNA damage response and alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes. Future investigations on the biochemistry of processes highlighted by probe modulations will help defining the implication of HD-CAV-2 and CAR receptor binding in enchaining these functional pathways. We suggest here that the modulation of DNA damage genes is related to viral DNA, while the alteration of centromeric and microtubule probes is possibly enchained by the interaction of the HD-CAV-2 fibre with CAR.

  14. HD 12098 and Other Results from Nainital–Cape Survey V. Girish

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strömgren colours (δm1) of HD 12098, the first roAp star discovered under the ... 2, we can see an unresolved frequency very close to the alias peak (marked ... Figure 3. Lightcurve of HD 25499 observed on the night of 10th November 2003.

  15. The HD+ dissociative recombination rate coefficient at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rotational temperature of the ions is considered for low-energy dissociative recombination (DR of HD+. Merged beams measurements with HD+ ions of a rotational temperature near 300 K are compared to multichannel quantum defect theory calculations. The thermal DR rate coefficient for a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution is derived from the merged-beams data and compared to theoretical results for a range of rotational temperatures. Good agreement is found for the theory with 300 K rotational temperature. For a low-temperature plasma environment where also the rotational temperature assumes 10 K, theory predicts a considerably higher thermal DR rate coefficient. The origin of this is traced to predicted resonant structures of the collision-energy dependent DR cross section at few-meV collision energies for the particular case of HD+ ions in the rotational ground state.

  16. Battles and hijacks: Noncoding transcription in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ariel, Federico

    2015-06-01

    Noncoding RNAs have emerged as major components of the eukaryotic transcriptome. Genome-wide analyses revealed the existence of thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in several plant species. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by the plant-specific RNA polymerases Pol IV and Pol V, leading to transcriptional gene silencing, as well as by Pol II. They are involved in a wide range of regulatory mechanisms impacting on gene expression, including chromatin remodeling, modulation of alternative splicing, fine-tuning of miRNA activity, and the control of mRNA translation or accumulation. Recently, dual noncoding transcription by alternative RNA polymerases was implicated in epigenetic and chromatin conformation dynamics. This review integrates the current knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms acting through plant noncoding transcription. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Relationship between characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD and mothers' parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Shoko; Uno, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) have an authoritarian parenting style. However, the psychological process of developing an authoritarian parenting style has yet to be clearly defined. To clarify this psychological process, the present study examined the hypothesis that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD initially increase the mothers' parenting stress, which influences their parenting style. Thirty-six mothers of children with AD/HD (children's mean age: 8.1 years) and the same number of controls (children's mean age: 8.4 years) participated in the present study. The mothers' parenting stress was assessed using the Japanese Parenting Stress Index. Parenting styles were assessed using the TK-style scale for evaluating the relationships between parents and children. The results indicated that the mothers of children with AD/HD had significantly higher scores than controls for all parenting stress items and negative parenting style variables (dissatisfaction, reproach, strictness, interference, inconsistency and disagreement of 10 attitudes). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD were associated with the degree of attachment in mothers, which was related to the strict and reproachful parenting style in the AD/HD group. These results suggest that mothers of children with AD/HD are likely to have a strict and reproachful parenting style as a result of a lack of attachment with the child.

  18. Testing stellar evolution models with the retired A star HD 185351

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørringgaard, J. G.; Silva Aguirre, V.; White, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    The physical parameters of the retired A star HD 185351 were analysed in great detail by Johnson et al. using interferometry, spectroscopy, and asteroseismology. Results from all independent methods are consistent with HD 185351 having a mass in excess of 1.5 M⊙. However, the study also showed th...

  19. Quantum stereodynamics study for the reaction F + HD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Fang, Liu; Wei, Zhang; De-Heng, Shi; Jin-Feng, Sun

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the quantum stereodynamics of the F + HD(ν = 0,j = 0) → HD + F/HF + D reaction at the collision energies of 0.52 and 0.87 kcal/mol. The quantum scattering calculations, based on Stark–Werner potential energy surfaces, show that the differential cross sections for the HF(ν' = 2) + D and DF(ν' = 3) + H channels are consistent with the recent theoretical results. Furthermore, the product rotational angular momentum orientation and alignment have been determined for some selected rovibrational states of the HF + D and DF + H channels. (atomic and molecular physics)

  20. Bias with respect to socioeconomic status: A closer look at zip code matching in a pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Link-Gelles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 was introduced in the US for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Individual-level socioeconomic status (SES is a potential confounder of the estimated effectiveness of PCV13 and is often controlled for in observational studies using zip code as a proxy. We assessed the utility of zip code matching for control of SES in a post-licensure evaluation of the effectiveness of PCV13 (calculated as [1-matched odds ratio]*100. We used a directed acyclic graph to identify subsets of confounders and collected SES variables from birth certificates, geocoding, a parent interview, and follow-up with medical providers. Cases tended to be more affluent than eligible controls (for example, 48.3% of cases had private insurance vs. 44.6% of eligible controls, but less affluent than enrolled controls (52.9% of whom had private insurance. Control of confounding subsets, however, did not result in a meaningful change in estimated vaccine effectiveness (original estimate: 85.1%, 95% CI 74.8–91.9%; adjusted estimate: 82.5%, 95% CI 65.6–91.1%. In the context of a post-licensure vaccine effectiveness study, zip code appears to be an adequate, though not perfect, proxy for individual SES. Keywords: Socioeconomic status, PCV13, Pneumococcus, Pneumococcal vaccine, Vaccine effectiveness, Matched case-control

  1. AD/HD: POSSIBLE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl REICHELT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that a more exact diagnosis and dietary intervention in AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Di­sor­der is possible and probable. The clinical symptom based diagnosis we suggest may be supplemented with physiological tests. A ge­netic and environmental inter-action is clearly involved and explainable using phenyl­ke­tonuria as a model.Method: Examining peer reviewed published papers on gut to blood, blood to brain inter­action and effect of interventions in AD/HD and our own studies in the field. The various treatment options are discussed.Results: It can be shown that a gut to brain activity is possible and probable, and dietary intervention is useful and probably safer than drugs. Preliminary data on a small five year follow up of dietary intervention is shown.

  2. Involvement of transcription factor encoded by the mouse mi locus (MITF) in apoptosis of cultured mast cells induced by removal of interleukin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Morii, E.; Tunio, G. M.; Tsujino, K.; Kondo, T.; Kanakura, Y.; Kitamura, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Mast cells develop when spleen cells of mice are cultured in the medium containing interleukin (IL)-3. Cultured mast cells (CMCs) show apoptosis when they are incubated in the medium without IL-3. We obtained CMCs from tg/tg mice that did not express the transcription factor encoded by the mi gene (MITF) due to the integration of a transgene at its 5' flanking region. MITF is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) protein family of transcription factors. We investigated the effect of MITF on the apoptosis of CMCs after removal of IL-3. When cDNA encoding normal MITF ((+)-MITF) was introduced into tg/tg CMCs with the retroviral vector, the apoptosis of tg/tg CMCs was significantly accelerated. The mutant mi allele represents a deletion of an arginine at the basic domain of MITF. The apoptosis of tg/tg CMCs was not accelerated by the introduction of cDNA encoding mi-MITF. The overexpression of (+)-MITF was not prerequisite to the acceleration of the apoptosis, as the apoptotic process proceeded faster in +/+ CMCs than in mi/mi CMCs. The Ba/F3 lymphoid cell line is also dependent on IL-3, and Ba/F3 cells show apoptosis after removal of IL-3. The c-myc gene encodes another transcription factor of the bHLH-Zip family, and the overexpression of the c-myc gene accelerated the apoptosis of Ba/F3 cells. However, the overexpression of (+)-MITF did not accelerate the apoptosis of Ba/F3 cells. The (+)-MITF appeared to play some roles for the acceleration of the apoptosis specifically in the mast cell lineage. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9327738

  3. No hydrogen exosphere detected around the super-Earth HD 97658 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D.; King, G.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Wheatley, P. J.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Pepe, F.; Udry, S.

    2017-01-01

    The exoplanet HD 97658 b provides a rare opportunity to probe the atmospheric composition and evolution of moderately irradiated super-Earths. It transits a bright K star at a moderate orbital distance of 0.08 au. Its low density is compatible with a massive steam envelope that could photodissociate at high altitudes and become observable as escaping neutral hydrogen. Our analysis of three transits with HST/STIS at Lyman-α reveals no such signature, suggesting that the thermosphere of HD 97658 b is not hydrodynamically expanding and is subjected to a low escape of neutral hydrogen (soft X-ray source with signs of chromospheric variability in the Lyman-α line core. We determine an average reference for the intrinsic Lyman-α line and X-EUV (XUV) spectrum of the star, and show that HD 97658 b is in mild conditions of irradiation compared to other known evaporating exoplanets with an XUV irradiation about three times lower than the evaporating warm Neptune GJ436 b. This could be the reason why the thermosphere of HD 97658 b is not expanding: the low XUV irradiation prevents an efficient photodissociation of any putative steam envelope. Alternatively, it could be linked to a low hydrogen content or inefficient conversion of the stellar energy input. The HD 97658 system provides clues for understanding the stability of low-mass planet atmospheres in terms of composition, planetary density, and irradiation. Our study of HD 97658 b can be seen as a control experiment of our methodology, confirming that it does not bias detections of atmospheric escape and underlining its strength and reliability. Our results show that stellar activity can be efficiently discriminated from absorption signatures by a transiting exospheric cloud. They also highlight the potential of observing the upper atmosphere of small transiting planets to probe their physical and chemical properties.

  4. HD 101065, the Most Peculiar Star: First Results from Precise Radial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we discuss the prospects for asteroseismology with spatial resolution and motivate studies of the most chemically peculiar. roAp star HD 101065. We present the first results from a high-precision radial velocity (RV) study of HD 101065 based on data spanning four nights that were acquired using the ...

  5. Characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk, a bifunctional DNA/RNA end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2',3' -phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5' -OH polynucleotide kinase domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Annum; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-11-28

    5' and 3' end healing are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5' -OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase and 3' -PO 4 or 2',3' -cyclic-PO 4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate the 5' -PO 4 and 3' -OH termini required for sealing by classic polynucleotide ligases. End healing and sealing enzymes are present in diverse bacterial taxa, often organized as modular units within a single multifunctional polypeptide or as subunits of a repair complex. Here we identify and characterize Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as a novel bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2',3' -phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5' -OH polynucleotide kinase P-loop domain. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5' -OH polynucleotides (9-mers or longer) in the presence of magnesium and any NTP donor. HD-Pnk dephosphorylates RNA 2',3' -cyclic phosphate, RNA 3' -phosphate, RNA 2' -phosphate, and DNA 3' -phosphate ends in the presence of a transition metal cofactor, which can be nickel, copper or cobalt. HD-Pnkp homologs are present in genera from eleven bacterial phyla and are often encoded in an operon with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase. The present study provides insights to the diversity of nucleic acid repair strategies via the characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnkp as the exemplar of a novel clade of dual 5' and 3' end-healing enzymes that phosphorylate 5' -OH termini and dephosphorylate 2',3' -cyclic-PO 4 , 3' -PO 4 , and 2' -PO 4 ends. The distinctive feature of HD-Pnk is its domain composition: a fusion of an N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase module to a C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase module. Homologs of Runella HD-Pnk with the same domain composition, domain order, and similar polypeptide size are distributed widely among genera from eleven bacterial phyla. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. AtHD2D gene plays a role in plant growth, development and response to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofen eHan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts: The histone deacetylases play important roles in the regulation of gene expression and the subsequent control of a number of important biological processes, including those involved in the response to environmental stress. A specific group of histone deacetylase genes, HD2, is present in plants. In Arabidopsis, HD2s include HD2A, HD2B, HD2C and HD2D. Previous research showed that HD2A, HD2B and HD2C are more related in terms of expression and function, but not HD2D. In this report, we studied different aspects of AtHD2D in Arabidopsis with respect to plant response to drought and other abiotic stresses. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that HD2D is distantly related to other HD2 genes. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and stable expression in Arabidopsis of AtHD2D fused with gfp showed that AtHD2D was expressed in the nucleus. Overexpression of AtHD2D resulted in developmental changes including fewer main roots, more lateral roots, and a higher root:shoot ratio. Seed germination and plant flowering time were delayed in transgenic plants expressing AtHD2D, but these plants exhibited higher degrees of tolerance to abiotic stresses, including drought, salt and cold stresses. Physiological studies indicated that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was high in wild-type plants but in plants overexpressing HD2D the MDA level increased slowly in response to stress conditions of drought, cold, and salt stress. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage in leaf cells of wild type plants increased but remained stable in transgenic plants. Our results indicate that AtHD2D is unique among HD2 genes and it plays a role in plant growth and development regulation and these changes can modulate plant stress responses.

  7. Clarifying the Status of HD 100546 as Observed by the Gemini Planet Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Brittain, Sean; Grady, Carol A.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Muto, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    HD 100546 is a young, early-type star and key laboratory for studying gas giant planet formation. GPI data taken in 2015 and reported by Currie et al. (2015) recover the previously-identified protoplanet candidate HD 100546 b and identify a second emission source at ~13--14 au: either a disk hot spot or a second protoplanetary candidate (HD 100546 "c"). In this short research note, we update the status of HD 100546 as observed by the Gemini Planet Imager by rereducing our original data using a different PSF subtraction method (KLIP instead of A-LOCI), rereducing recently public GPI Campaign Team (GPIES) data, and comparing the quality of the two data sets. Our results support the original findings in Currie et al. (2015).

  8. Profile of He I lambda5876 in the P-Cygni-type of star HD 152408

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walborn, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    The blue-shifted absorption component of the P-Cygni profile at He I lambda 5876 in HD 152408 (O8: Iafpe) has been found to be extremely broad, extending -1000 km sec -1 from the emission maximum. This unusual profile is probably due to overpopulation of the lower level of lambda 5876, which permits it to form throughout a greater extent of the expanding atmosphere than most other lines. This observation confirms Hutchings' identification of very large velocities in the blue-violet spectrum of HD 152408, and in particular his interpretation of a similar feature at He I lambda 3889, which is metastable. The lambda 5876 profile in HD 152408 is compared to those in the similar but less extreme P-Cygni star HD 151804 (O8 Iaf), and in the Wolf-Rayet star HD 151932 (WN7-A). The similarity between the absorption components in HD 152408 and the WN star is striking

  9. Major zircon megacryst suites of the Indo-Pacific lithospheric margin (ZIP) and their petrogenetic and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lin; Graham, Ian; Yaxley, Gregory; Armstrong, Richard; Giuliani, Gaston; Hoskin, Paul; Nechaev, Victor; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Zircon megacrysts (± gem corundum) appear in basalt fields of Indo-Pacific origin over a 12,000 km zone (ZIP) along West Pacific continental margins. Age-dating, trace element, oxygen and hafnium isotope studies on representative zircons (East Australia-Asia) indicate diverse magmatic sources. The U-Pb (249 to 1 Ma) and zircon fission track (ZFT) ages (65 to 1 Ma) suggest thermal annealing during later basalt transport, with < 1 to 203 Ma gaps between the U-Pb and ZFT ages. Magmatic growth zonation and Zr/Hf ratios (0.01-0.02) suggest alkaline magmatic sources, while Ti—in—zircon thermometry suggests that most zircons crystallized within ranges between 550 and 830 °C. Chondrite-normalised multi-element plots show variable enrichment patterns, mostly without marked Eu depletion, indicating little plagioclase fractionation in source melts. Key elements and ratios matched against zircons from magmatic rocks suggest a range of ultramafic to felsic source melts. Zircon O-isotope ratios (δ18O in the range 4 to 11‰) and initial Hf isotope ratios (ɛHf in the range +2 to +14) encompass ranges for both mantle and crustal melts. Calculated Depleted Mantle (TDM 0.03-0.56 Ga) and Crustal Residence (0.20-1.02 Ga) model ages suggest several mantle events, continental break-ups (Rodinia and Gondwana) and convergent margin collisions left imprints in the zircon source melts. East Australian ZIP sites reflect prolonged intraplate magmatism (~85 Ma), often during times of fast-migrating lithosphere. In contrast, East Asian-Russian ZIP sites reflect later basaltic magmatism (<40 Ma), often linked to episodes of back-arc rifting and spreading, slow-migrating lithosphere and slab subduction.

  10. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Caggiano, Monica Pia

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-...... show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets....

  11. Production and processing of siRNA precursor transcripts from the highly repetitive maize genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hale

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutations affecting the maintenance of heritable epigenetic states in maize identify multiple RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM factors including RMR1, a novel member of a plant-specific clade of Snf2-related proteins. Here we show that RMR1 is necessary for the accumulation of a majority of 24 nt small RNAs, including those derived from Long-Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the most common repetitive feature in the maize genome. A genetic analysis of DNA transposon repression indicates that RMR1 acts upstream of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RDR2 (MOP1. Surprisingly, we show that non-polyadenylated transcripts from a sampling of LTR retrotransposons are lost in both rmr1 and rdr2 mutants. In contrast, plants deficient for RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV function show an increase in polyadenylated LTR RNA transcripts. These findings support a model in which Pol IV functions independently of the small RNA accumulation facilitated by RMR1 and RDR2 and support that a loss of Pol IV leads to RNA Polymerase II-based transcription. Additionally, the lack of changes in general genome homeostasis in rmr1 mutants, despite the global loss of 24 nt small RNAs, challenges the perceived roles of siRNAs in maintaining functional heterochromatin in the genomes of outcrossing grass species.

  12. The first murine zygotic transcription is promiscuous and uncoupled from splicing and 3' processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abe, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Franke, V.; Cao, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, M.G.; Vlahovicek, K.; Svoboda, Petr; Schultz, R. M.; Aoki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 11 (2015), s. 1523-1537 ISSN 0261-4189. [GBP305/12/G034. CZ] EU Projects: European Commission(BE) 315997 Grant - others:GA MŠk LH13084; GA AV ČR M200521202; NIH(US) HD022681; Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports(HR) 119-0982913-1211 Program:LH Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene expression * preimplantation mouse embryo * pre-mRNA splicing * RNA-Seq * transcription Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.643, year: 2015

  13. Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase AtDNMT2 associates with histone deacetylase AtHD2s activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yuan; Wu, Keqiang; Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta; An, Lizhe; Tian, Lining

    2010-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase2 (DNMT2) is always deemed to be enigmatic, because it contains highly conserved DNA methyltransferase motifs but lacks the DNA methylation catalytic capability. Here we show that Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase2 (AtDNMT2) is localized in nucleus and associates with histone deacetylation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and pull-down assays show AtDNMT2 interacts with type-2 histone deacetylases (AtHD2s), a unique type of histone deacetylase family in plants. Through analyzing the expression of AtDNMT2: ss-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein, we demonstrate that AtDNMT2 has the ability to repress gene expression at transcription level. Meanwhile, the expression of AtDNMT2 gene is altered in athd2c mutant plants. We propose that AtDNMT2 possibly involves in the activity of histone deacetylation and plant epigenetic regulatory network.

  14. Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase AtDNMT2 associates with histone deacetylase AtHD2s activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada); Wu, Keqiang [Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada); An, Lizhe, E-mail: lizhean@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Tian, Lining, E-mail: tianl@agr.gc.ca [Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON, Canada N5V4T3 (Canada)

    2010-05-28

    DNA methyltransferase2 (DNMT2) is always deemed to be enigmatic, because it contains highly conserved DNA methyltransferase motifs but lacks the DNA methylation catalytic capability. Here we show that Arabidopsis DNA methyltransferase2 (AtDNMT2) is localized in nucleus and associates with histone deacetylation. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and pull-down assays show AtDNMT2 interacts with type-2 histone deacetylases (AtHD2s), a unique type of histone deacetylase family in plants. Through analyzing the expression of AtDNMT2: ss-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion protein, we demonstrate that AtDNMT2 has the ability to repress gene expression at transcription level. Meanwhile, the expression of AtDNMT2 gene is altered in athd2c mutant plants. We propose that AtDNMT2 possibly involves in the activity of histone deacetylation and plant epigenetic regulatory network.

  15. Mechanical Analysis of the Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet HD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steve A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, Aurelio R.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has recently fabricated and tested HD1, a Nb3Sn dipole magnet. The magnet reached a 16 T field, and exhibited training quenches in the end regions and in the straight section. After the test, HD1 was disassembled and inspected, and a detailed 3D finite element mechanical analysis was done to investigate for possible quench triggers. The study led to minor modifications to mechanical structure and assembly procedure, which were verified in a second test (HD1b). This paper presents the results of the mechanical analysis, including strain gauge measurements and coil visual inspection. The adjustments implemented in the magnet structure are reported and their effect on magnet training discussed

  16. Mechanical analysis of the Nb3Sn dipole magnet HD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steve A.; Hannaford, Carles R.; Hafalia, Aurelio R.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has recently fabricated and tested HD1, a Nb 3 Sn dipole magnet. The magnet reached a 16 T field, and exhibited training quenches in the end regions and in the straight section. After the test, HD1 was disassembled and inspected, and a detailed 3D finite element mechanical analysis was done to investigate for possible quench triggers. The study led to minor modifications to mechanical structure and assembly procedure, which were verified in a second test (HD1b). This paper presents the results of the mechanical analysis, including strain gauge measurements and coil visual inspection. The adjustments implemented in the magnet structure are reported and their effect on magnet training discussed

  17. SUBSTELLAR-MASS COMPANIONS TO THE K-GIANTS HD 240237, BD +48 738, AND HD 96127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettel, S.; Wolszczan, A.; Niedzielski, A.; Nowak, G.; Adamów, M.; Zieliński, P.; Maciejewski, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of substellar-mass companions to three giant stars by the ongoing Penn State-Toruń Planet Search conducted with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The most massive of the three stars, K2-giant HD 240237, has a 5.3 M J minimum mass companion orbiting the star at a 746 day period. The K0-giant BD +48 738 is orbited by a ≥0.91 M J planet which has a period of 393 days and shows a nonlinear, long-term radial velocity (RV) trend that indicates a presence of another, more distant companion, which may have a substellar mass or be a low-mass star. The K2-giant HD 96127 has a ≥4.0 M J mass companion in a 647 day orbit around the star. The two K2-giants exhibit a significant RV noise that complicates the detection of low-amplitude, periodic variations in the data. If the noise component of the observed RV variations is due to solar-type oscillations, we show, using all the published data for the substellar companions to giants, that its amplitude is anti-correlated with stellar metallicity.

  18. The Discovery of HD 37605c and a Dispositive Null Detection of Transits of HD 37605b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuesong Wang, Sharon; Wright, Jason T.; Cochran, William

    2012-01-01

    the predicted ephemeris, we performed a transit search for HD 37605b with the photometric data taken by the T12 0.8-m Automatic Photoelectric Telescope (APT) and the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) satellite. Though the APT photometry did not capture the transit window, it characterized...

  19. Three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and function analysis of the chitin-binding domain 3 protein HD73_3189 from Bacillus thuringiensis HD73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yiling; Guo, Shuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is capable of producing a chitin-binding protein believed to be functionally important to bacteria during the stationary phase of its growth cycle. In this paper, the chitin-binding domain 3 protein HD73_3189 from B. thuringiensis has been analyzed by computer technology. Primary and secondary structural analyses demonstrated that HD73_3189 is negatively charged and contains several α-helices, aperiodical coils and β-strands. Domain and motif analyses revealed that HD73_3189 contains a signal peptide, an N-terminal chitin binding 3 domains, two copies of a fibronectin-like domain 3 and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding domain classified as CBM_5_12. Moreover, analysis predicted the protein's associated localization site to be the cell wall. Ligand site prediction determined that amino acid residues GLU-312, TRP-334, ILE-341 and VAL-382 exposed on the surface of the target protein exhibit polar interactions with the substrate.

  20. Symmetry Breakdown in Ground State Dissociation of HD+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Wells, E.; Carnes, K. D.; Krishnamurthi, Vidhya; Weaver, O. L.; Esry, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies of the dissociation of the electronic ground state of HD + following ionization of HD by fast proton impact indicate that the H + +D 1s dissociation channel is more likely than the H1s+D + dissociation channel by about 7% . This isotopic symmetry breakdown is due to the finite nuclear mass correction to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation which makes the 1sσ state 3.7 meV lower than the 2pσ state at the dissociation limit. The measured fractions of the two dissociation channels are in agreement with coupled-channels calculations of 1sσ to 2pσ transitions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. Transcriptomic Profiling of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaf Response to Abiotic Stresses at the Seedling Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengcheng; Cao, Wei; Fang, Huimin; Xu, Shuhui; Yin, Shuangyi; Zhang, Yingying; Lin, Dezhou; Wang, Jianan; Chen, Yufei; Xu, Chenwu; Yang, Zefeng

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, heat, and cold, negatively affect maize ( Zea mays L.) development and productivity. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of resistance to abiotic stresses in maize, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of B73 seedling leaves exposed to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stress. A total of 5,330 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in differential comparisons between the control and each stressed sample, with 1,661, 2,019, 2,346, and 1,841 DEGs being identified in comparisons of the control with salinity, drought, heat, and cold stress, respectively. Functional annotations of DEGs suggested that the stress response was mediated by pathways involving hormone metabolism and signaling, transcription factors (TFs), very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid signaling, among others. Of the obtained DEGs (5,330), 167 genes are common to these four abiotic stresses, including 10 up-regulated TFs (five ERFs, two NACs, one ARF, one MYB, and one HD-ZIP) and two down-regulated TFs (one b-ZIP and one MYB-related), which suggested that common mechanisms may be initiated in response to different abiotic stresses in maize. This study contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of maize leaf responses to abiotic stresses and could be useful for developing maize cultivars resistant to abiotic stresses.

  2. Transcriptional regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals configures the early response mechanisms of japonica rice to chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijaya Edward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcriptional regulatory network involved in low temperature response leading to acclimation has been established in Arabidopsis. In japonica rice, which can only withstand transient exposure to milder cold stress (10°C, an oxidative-mediated network has been proposed to play a key role in configuring early responses and short-term defenses. The components, hierarchical organization and physiological consequences of this network were further dissected by a systems-level approach. Results Regulatory clusters responding directly to oxidative signals were prominent during the initial 6 to 12 hours at 10°C. Early events mirrored a typical oxidative response based on striking similarities of the transcriptome to disease, elicitor and wounding induced processes. Targets of oxidative-mediated mechanisms are likely regulated by several classes of bZIP factors acting on as1/ocs/TGA-like element enriched clusters, ERF factors acting on GCC-box/JAre-like element enriched clusters and R2R3-MYB factors acting on MYB2-like element enriched clusters. Temporal induction of several H2O2-induced bZIP, ERF and MYB genes coincided with the transient H2O2 spikes within the initial 6 to 12 hours. Oxidative-independent responses involve DREB/CBF, RAP2 and RAV1 factors acting on DRE/CRT/rav1-like enriched clusters and bZIP factors acting on ABRE-like enriched clusters. Oxidative-mediated clusters were activated earlier than ABA-mediated clusters. Conclusion Genome-wide, physiological and whole-plant level analyses established a holistic view of chilling stress response mechanism of japonica rice. Early response regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals is critical for prolonged survival under sub-optimal temperature. Integration of stress and developmental responses leads to modulated growth and vigor maintenance contributing to a delay of plastic injuries.

  3. Transcriptional regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals configures the early response mechanisms of japonica rice to chilling stress

    KAUST Repository

    Yun, Kil-Young

    2010-01-25

    Background: The transcriptional regulatory network involved in low temperature response leading to acclimation has been established in Arabidopsis. In japonica rice, which can only withstand transient exposure to milder cold stress (10C), an oxidative-mediated network has been proposed to play a key role in configuring early responses and short-term defenses. The components, hierarchical organization and physiological consequences of this network were further dissected by a systems-level approach.Results: Regulatory clusters responding directly to oxidative signals were prominent during the initial 6 to 12 hours at 10C. Early events mirrored a typical oxidative response based on striking similarities of the transcriptome to disease, elicitor and wounding induced processes. Targets of oxidative-mediated mechanisms are likely regulated by several classes of bZIP factors acting on as1/ocs/TGA-like element enriched clusters, ERF factors acting on GCC-box/JAre-like element enriched clusters and R2R3-MYB factors acting on MYB2-like element enriched clusters.Temporal induction of several H2O2-induced bZIP, ERF and MYB genes coincided with the transient H2O2spikes within the initial 6 to 12 hours. Oxidative-independent responses involve DREB/CBF, RAP2 and RAV1 factors acting on DRE/CRT/rav1-like enriched clusters and bZIP factors acting on ABRE-like enriched clusters. Oxidative-mediated clusters were activated earlier than ABA-mediated clusters.Conclusion: Genome-wide, physiological and whole-plant level analyses established a holistic view of chilling stress response mechanism of japonica rice. Early response regulatory network triggered by oxidative signals is critical for prolonged survival under sub-optimal temperature. Integration of stress and developmental responses leads to modulated growth and vigor maintenance contributing to a delay of plastic injuries. 2010 Yun et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. FIVE PLANETS AND AN INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATION OF HD 196885Ab FROM LICK OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Debra; Isaacson, Howard; Giguere, Matt; McCarthy, Chris; Driscoll, Peter; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew; Peek, Katherine; Valenti, Jeff; Wright, Jason T.; Henry, Gregory W.; Johnson, John Asher

    2009-01-01

    We present time series Doppler data from Lick Observatory that reveal the presence of long-period planetary companions orbiting nearby stars. The typical eccentricity of these massive planets are greater than the mean eccentricity of known exoplanets. HD 30562b has Msin i = 1.29 M Jup , with semimajor axis of 2.3 AU and eccentricity 0.76. The host star has a spectral type F8V and is metal rich. HD 86264b has Msin i = 7.0 M Jup , a rel = 2.86 AU, an eccentricity e = 0.7 and orbits a metal-rich, F7V star. HD 87883b has Msin i = 1.78 M Jup , a rel = 3.6 AU, e = 0.53 and orbits a metal-rich K0V star. HD 89307b has Msin i = 1.78 M Jup , a rel = 3.3 AU, e = 0.24 and orbits a G0V star with slightly subsolar metallicity. HD 148427b has Msin i = 0.96 M Jup , a rel = 0.93 AU, eccentricity of 0.16 and orbits a metal rich K0 subgiant. We also present velocities for a planet orbiting the F8V metal-rich binary star, HD 196885A. The planet has Msin i = 2.58 M Jup , a rel = 2.37 AU, and orbital eccentricity of 0.48, in agreement with the independent discovery by Correia et al.

  5. AD/HD Symptoms and Conduct Problems: Similarities and Differences in Maternal Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniadaki, Katerina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Kakouros, Efthymios; Karaba, Rania

    2006-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the high co-occurrence of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Conduct Problems (CP). A strong possibility is that AD/HD behaviours lead to the development of CP, due to family coercive interaction patterns, maintained through parental false beliefs regarding child problem behaviour. We compared…

  6. Dayside atmospheric structure of HD209458b from Spitzer eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Matthew; Harrington, Joseph; Challener, Ryan; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina

    2017-10-01

    HD209458b is a hot Jupiter with a radius of 1.26 ± 0.08 Jupiter radii (Richardson et al, 2006) and a mass of 0.64 ± 0.09 Jupiter masses (Snellen et al, 2010). The planet orbits a G0 type star with an orbital period of 3.52472 ± 2.81699e-05 days, and a relatively low eccentricity of 0.0082 +0.0078/-0.0082 (Wang and Ford 2013). We report the analysis of observations of HD209458b during eclipse, taken in the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels by the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (Program 90186). We produce a photometric light curve of the eclipses in both channels, using our Photometry for Orbits Eclipses and Transits (POET) code, and calculate the brightness temperatures and eclipse depths. We also present best estimates of the atmospheric parameters of HD209458b using our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code. These are some preliminary results of what will be an analysis of all available Spitzer data for HD209458b. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  7. Plant transducers of the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response

    KAUST Repository

    Iwata, Yuji; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2012-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) activates a set of genes to overcome accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a condition termed ER stress, and constitutes an essential part of ER protein quality control that ensures efficient maturation of secretory and membrane proteins in eukaryotes. Recent studies on Arabidopsis and rice identified the signaling pathway in which the ER membrane-localized ribonuclease IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1) catalyzes unconventional cytoplasmic splicing of mRNA, thereby producing the active transcription factor Arabidopsis bZIP60 (basic leucine zipper 60) and its ortholog in rice. Here we review recent findings identifying the molecular components of the plant UPR, including IRE1/bZIP60 and the membrane-bound transcription factors bZIP17 and bZIP28, and implicating its importance in several physiological phenomena such as pathogen response. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Plant transducers of the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response

    KAUST Repository

    Iwata, Yuji

    2012-12-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) activates a set of genes to overcome accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a condition termed ER stress, and constitutes an essential part of ER protein quality control that ensures efficient maturation of secretory and membrane proteins in eukaryotes. Recent studies on Arabidopsis and rice identified the signaling pathway in which the ER membrane-localized ribonuclease IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1) catalyzes unconventional cytoplasmic splicing of mRNA, thereby producing the active transcription factor Arabidopsis bZIP60 (basic leucine zipper 60) and its ortholog in rice. Here we review recent findings identifying the molecular components of the plant UPR, including IRE1/bZIP60 and the membrane-bound transcription factors bZIP17 and bZIP28, and implicating its importance in several physiological phenomena such as pathogen response. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of HD-tDCS on memory and metamemory for general knowledge questions that vary by difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Elizabeth F.; Ahmed, Rifat; Garcia, Sandry

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to monitor one’s own memory is an important feature of normal memory and is an aspect of ‘metamemory’. Lesion studies have shown dissociations between memory and metamemory, but only single dissociations have been shown using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). One potential reason that only single dissociations have been shown is that tDCS effects may be moderated by task difficulty. Objective/Hypothesis We used high definition (HD) tDCS to test for dissociable roles of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic long-term memory and metamemory tasks. We also tested whether general knowledge question difficulty moderated the effects of HD-tDCS. Methods Across 3 sessions, participants received active HD-tDCS over the left DLPFC or left ATL, or sham HD-tDCS during general knowledge recall and recognition tests, and a ‘feeling-of-knowing’ metamemory task. General knowledge questions were blocked by difficulty. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to examine the effects of HD-tDCS on memory and metamemory tasks by memory question difficulty. Results HD-tDCS over the ATL led to improved recall compared to DLPFC and sham HD-tDCS, and this occurred only for medium difficulty questions. In contrast, for non-recalled questions, HD-tDCS over the DLPFC led to improved recognition accuracy and improved feeling-of-knowing accuracy compared to ATL and sham HD-tDCS, and this was not moderated by memory question difficulty. Conclusion(s) HD-tDCS can be used to dissociate the roles of the ATL and DLPFC in different memory and ‘metamemory’ tasks. The effects of HD-tDCS on task may be moderated by task difficulty, depending on the nature of the task and site of stimulation. PMID:27876306

  10. On the origin of the hypervelocity runaway star HD271791

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the origin of the runaway early B-type star HD271791 and show that its extremely high velocity (\\simeq 530-920 km/s) cannot be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova ejection scenario. Instead, we suggest that HD271791 attained its peculiar velocity in the course of a strong dynamical encounter between two hard massive binaries or via an exchange encounter between a hard massive binary and a very massive star, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary massive stars...

  11. ABF2, an ABRE-binding bZIP factor, is an essential component of glucose signaling and its overexpression affects multiple stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Kang, Jung-Youn; Cho, Dong-Im; Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Soo Young

    2004-10-01

    Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates stress-responsive gene expression during vegetative growth, which is mediated largely by cis-elements sharing the ACGTGGC consensus. Although many transcription factors are known to bind the elements in vitro, only a few have been demonstrated to have in vivo functions and their specific roles in ABA/stress responses are mostly unknown. Here, we report that ABF2, an ABF subfamily member of bZIP proteins interacting with the ABA-responsive elements, is involved in ABA/stress responses. Its overexpression altered ABA sensitivity, dehydration tolerance, and the expression levels of ABA/stress-regulated genes. Furthermore, ABF2 overexpression promoted glucose-induced inhibition of seedling development, whereas its mutation impaired glucose response. The reduced sugar sensitivity was not observed with mutants of two other ABF family members, ABF3 and ABF4. Instead, these mutants displayed defects in ABA, salt, and dehydration responses, which were not observed with the abf2 mutant. Our data indicate distinct roles of ABF family members: whereas ABF3 and ABF4 play essential roles in ABA/stress responses, ABF2 is required for normal glucose response. We also show that ABF2 overexpression affects multiple stress tolerance.

  12. 76 FR 2243 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS ® HD System Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Storage Casks: NUHOMS [supreg] HD System Revision 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Direct... fuel storage regulations by revising the Transnuclear, Inc. (TN) NUHOMS [supreg] HD System listing... NUHOMS [supreg] HD System cask design listed in Sec. 72.214 (List of approved spent fuel storage casks...

  13. Two ABREs, two redundant root-specific and one W-box cis-acting elements are functional in the sunflower HAHB4 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavella, Pablo A; Dezar, Carlos A; Ariel, Federico D; Chan, Raquel L

    2008-10-01

    HAHB4 is a sunflower gene encoding a homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor. It was previously demonstrated that this gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by several abiotic factors and hormones. A previous analysis in the PLACE database revealed the presence of four putative ABREs. In this work these four elements and also one W-box and two root-specific expression elements were characterized as functional. Site-directed mutagenesis on the promoter, stable transformation of Arabidopis plants as well as transient transformation of sunflower leaves, were performed. The analysis of the transformants was carried out by histochemistry and real time RT-PCR. The results indicate that just one ABRE out of the four is responsible for ABA, NaCl and drought regulation. However, NaCl induction occurs also by an additional ABA-independent way involving another two overlapped ABREs. On the other hand, it was determined that the W-box located 5' upstream is responsive to ethylene and only two root-specific expression elements, among the several detected, are functional but redundant. Conservation of molecular mechanisms between sunflower and Arabidopsis is strongly supported by this experimental work.

  14. Capsicum annuum homeobox 1 (CaHB1) is a nuclear factor that has roles in plant development, salt tolerance, and pathogen defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Yoon, Joonseon [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seou1 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Gyung Ja [Screening Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hyun A; Kwon, Suk-Yoon [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yusung, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doil, E-mail: doil@snu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seou1 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •The CaHB1 is a nuclear factor, belonging to HD-Zip proteins. •SA and ET, as signal molecules, modulate CaHB1-mediated responses. •Overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato resulted in a thicker cell wall. •CaHB1-transgenic tomato confers resistance to Phytophthora infestans. •CaHB1 enhanced tolerance to saline stress in tomato. -- Abstract: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) family proteins are unique to plants, but little is known about their role in defense responses. CaHB1 is a nuclear factor in peppers, belonging to subfamily II of HD-Zip proteins. Here, we determined the role of CaHB1 in the defense response. CaHB1 expression was induced when pepper plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici, a plant pathogen to which peppers are susceptible, or environmental stresses such as drought and salt stimuli. CaHB1 was also highly expressed in pepper leaves following application of SA, whereas ethephon and MeJA had a moderate effect. To further investigate the function of CaHB1 in plants, we performed gain-of-function study by overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato. CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes showed significant growth enhancement including increased leaf thickness and enlarged cell size (1.8-fold larger than control plants). Microscopic analysis revealed that leaves from CaHB1-transgenic plants had thicker cell walls and cuticle layers than those from controls. Moreover, CaHB1-transgenic plants displayed enhanced resistance against Phytophthora infestans and increased tolerance to salt stress. Additionally, RT-PCR analysis of CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes revealed constitutive up-regulation of multiple genes involved in plant defense and osmotic stress. Therefore, our findings suggest roles for CaHB1 in development, salt stress, and pathogen defense.

  15. Capsicum annuum homeobox 1 (CaHB1) is a nuclear factor that has roles in plant development, salt tolerance, and pathogen defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Yoon, Joonseon; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Hyun A; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The CaHB1 is a nuclear factor, belonging to HD-Zip proteins. •SA and ET, as signal molecules, modulate CaHB1-mediated responses. •Overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato resulted in a thicker cell wall. •CaHB1-transgenic tomato confers resistance to Phytophthora infestans. •CaHB1 enhanced tolerance to saline stress in tomato. -- Abstract: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) family proteins are unique to plants, but little is known about their role in defense responses. CaHB1 is a nuclear factor in peppers, belonging to subfamily II of HD-Zip proteins. Here, we determined the role of CaHB1 in the defense response. CaHB1 expression was induced when pepper plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici, a plant pathogen to which peppers are susceptible, or environmental stresses such as drought and salt stimuli. CaHB1 was also highly expressed in pepper leaves following application of SA, whereas ethephon and MeJA had a moderate effect. To further investigate the function of CaHB1 in plants, we performed gain-of-function study by overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato. CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes showed significant growth enhancement including increased leaf thickness and enlarged cell size (1.8-fold larger than control plants). Microscopic analysis revealed that leaves from CaHB1-transgenic plants had thicker cell walls and cuticle layers than those from controls. Moreover, CaHB1-transgenic plants displayed enhanced resistance against Phytophthora infestans and increased tolerance to salt stress. Additionally, RT-PCR analysis of CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes revealed constitutive up-regulation of multiple genes involved in plant defense and osmotic stress. Therefore, our findings suggest roles for CaHB1 in development, salt stress, and pathogen defense

  16. Clinical and biomarker changes in premanifest Huntington disease show trial feasibility: a decade of the PREDICT-HD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S Paulsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing consensus that intervention and treatment of Huntington disease (HD should occur at the earliest stage possible. Various early-intervention methods for this fatal neurodegenerative disease have been identified, but preventive clinical trials for HD are limited by a lack of knowledge of the natural history of the disease and a dearth of appropriate outcome measures. Objectives of the current study are to document the natural history of premanifest HD progression in the largest cohort ever studied and to develop a battery of imaging and clinical markers of premanifest HD progression that can be used as outcome measures in preventive clinical trials. PREDICT-HD is a 32-site, international, observational study of premanifest HD, with annual examination of 1013 participants with premanifest HD and 301 gene-expansion negative controls between 2001 and 2012. Findings document 39 variables representing imaging, motor, cognitive, functional, and psychiatric domains, showing different rates of decline between premanifest Huntington disease and controls. Required sample size and models of premanifest HD are presented to inform future design of clinical and preclinical research. Preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD with participants who have a medium or high probability of motor onset are calculated to be as resource-effective as those conducted in diagnosed HD and could interrupt disease seven to twelve years earlier. Methods and measures for preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD more than a dozen years from motor onset are also feasible. These findings represent the most thorough documentation of a clinical battery for experimental therapeutics in stages of premanifest HD, the time period for which effective intervention may provide the most positive possible outcome for patients and their families affected by this devastating disease.

  17. Sequence Classification: 889214 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available elix-leucine zipper (bHLH/Zip) transcription factor that forms a complex with another bHLH/Zip protein, Rtg1p, to activate the retrog...rade (RTG) and TOR pathways; Rtg3p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6319365 ...

  18. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale.

  19. A central integrator of transcription networks in plant stress and energy signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-González, Elena; Rolland, Filip; Thevelein, Johan M; Sheen, Jen

    2007-08-23

    Photosynthetic plants are the principal solar energy converter sustaining life on Earth. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known about how plants sense and adapt to darkness in the daily light-dark cycle, or how they adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses that compromise photosynthesis and respiration and deplete energy supplies. Current models emphasize diverse stress perception and signalling mechanisms. Using a combination of cellular and systems screens, we show here that the evolutionarily conserved Arabidopsis thaliana protein kinases, KIN10 and KIN11 (also known as AKIN10/At3g01090 and AKIN11/At3g29160, respectively), control convergent reprogramming of transcription in response to seemingly unrelated darkness, sugar and stress conditions. Sensing and signalling deprivation of sugar and energy, KIN10 targets a remarkably broad array of genes that orchestrate transcription networks, promote catabolism and suppress anabolism. Specific bZIP transcription factors partially mediate primary KIN10 signalling. Transgenic KIN10 overexpression confers enhanced starvation tolerance and lifespan extension, and alters architecture and developmental transitions. Significantly, double kin10 kin11 deficiency abrogates the transcriptional switch in darkness and stress signalling, and impairs starch mobilization at night and growth. These studies uncover surprisingly pivotal roles of KIN10/11 in linking stress, sugar and developmental signals to globally regulate plant metabolism, energy balance, growth and survival. In contrast to the prevailing view that sucrose activates plant SnRK1s (Snf1-related protein kinases), our functional analyses of Arabidopsis KIN10/11 provide compelling evidence that SnRK1s are inactivated by sugars and share central roles with the orthologous yeast Snf1 and mammalian AMPK in energy signalling.

  20. HD-PTP is a catalytically inactive tyrosine phosphatase due to a conserved divergence in its phosphatase domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Gingras

    Full Text Available The HD-PTP protein has been described as a tumor suppressor candidate and based on its amino acid sequence, categorized as a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP. To date, no HD-PTP phosphorylated substrate has been identified and controversial results concerning its catalytic activity have been recently reported.Here we report a rigorous enzymatic analysis demonstrating that the HD-PTP protein does not harbor tyrosine phosphatase or lipid phosphatase activity using the highly sensitive DiFMUP substrate and a panel of different phosphatidylinositol phosphates. We found that HD-PTP tyrosine phosphatase inactivity is caused by an evolutionary conserved amino acid divergence of a key residue located in the HD-PTP phosphatase domain since its back mutation is sufficient to restore the HD-PTP tyrosine phosphatase activity. Moreover, in agreement with a tumor suppressor activity, HD-PTP expression leads to colony growth reduction in human cancer cell lines, independently of its catalytic PTP activity status.In summary, we demonstrate that HD-PTP is a catalytically inactive protein tyrosine phosphatase. As such, we identify one residue involved in its inactivation and show that its colony growth reduction activity is independent of its PTP activity status in human cancer cell lines.

  1. Hearily reddened Hg-Mn star HD 29647

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strajzhis, V.; Glagolevskij, Yu.V.; Romanyuk, I.I.; Bychkov, V.D.; AN SSSR, Nizhnij Arkhyz. Spetsial'naya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1982-01-01

    A heavily reddened HD 29647 (V=8sup(m).4) star is investigated using the 6-meter telescope spectrograms with dispersions 9 and 28 A/mm and photometric observations in the Vilnius seven- color system. Parameters Tsub(e)=15600 K (corresponding spectral type B5) and log g=3.70 from hydrogen lines and Balmer jump were obtained. HD 29647 is a peculiar star of the Hg-Mn type. The radial velocity of the star is+14.1+-1.0 km/s, almost identical with that of the dark Taurus cloud and its T Tauri-type variables. If the star is near the front edge of the dark cloud at the distance of 165 pc and has Esub(B-V)=1.06, its visual absolute magnitude is - 0sup(m).9. Photometric observations permit to suspect a slight varia bility in the U, P, and X colors [ru

  2. The Stroop Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of Interference Control in AD/HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mourik, Rosa; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: An inhibition deficit, including poor interference control, has been implicated as one of the core deficits in AD/HD. Interference control is clinically measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the strength of an interference deficit in AD/HD as measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task…

  3. CHANDRA CHARACTERIZATION OF X-RAY EMISSION IN THE YOUNG F-STAR BINARY SYSTEM HD 113766

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisse, C. M.; Christian, D. J.; Wolk, S. J.; Günther, H. M.; Chen, C. H.; Grady, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Using Chandra , we have obtained imaging X-ray spectroscopy of the 10–16 Myr old F-star binary HD 113766. We individually resolve the 1.″4 separation binary components for the first time in the X-ray and find a total 0.3–2.0 keV luminosity of 2.2 × 10 29 erg s −1 , consistent with previous RASS estimates. We find emission from the easternmost, infrared-bright, dusty member HD 113766A to be only ∼10% that of the western, infrared-faint member HD 113766B. There is no evidence for a 3rd late-type stellar or substellar member of HD 113766 with L x  > 6 × 10 25 erg s −1 within 2′ of the binary pair. The ratio of the two stars’ X-ray luminosity is consistent with their assignments as F2V and F6V by Pecaut et al. The emission is soft for both stars, kT Apec  = 0.30–0.50 keV, suggesting X-rays produced by stellar rotation and/or convection in young dynamos, but not accretion or outflow shocks, which we rule out. A possible 2.8 ± 0.15 (2 σ ) hr modulation in the HD 113766B X-ray emission is seen, but at very low confidence and of unknown provenance. Stellar wind drag models corresponding to L x  ∼ 2 × 10 29 erg s −1 argue for a 1 mm dust particle lifetime around HD 113766B of only ∼90,0000 years, suggesting that dust around HD 113766B is quickly removed, whereas 1 mm sized dust around HD 113766A can survive for >1.5 × 10 6 years. At 10 28 –10 29 erg s −1 X-ray luminosity, astrobiologically important effects, like dust warming and X-ray photolytic organic synthesis, are likely for any circumstellar material in the HD 113766 systems.

  4. ZIP MK 2 : A Fortran code for calculating the eigenvalues (poles and zeros and frequency responses of large sets of linear equations representing complex dynamic systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, H.M.

    1969-03-01

    The KDF9/EGDON program ZIP MK 2 is the third of a series of programs for off-line digital computer analysis of dynamic systems: it has been designed specifically to cater for the needs of the design or control engineer in having an input scheme which is minimally computer-oriented. It uses numerical algorithms which are as near fool-proof as the author could discover or devise, and has comprehensive diagnostic sections to help the user in the event of faulty data or machine execution. ZIP MK 2 accepts mathematical models comprising first order linear differential and linear algebraic equations, and from these computes and factorises the transfer functions between specified pairs of output and input variables; if desired, the frequency response may be computed from the computed transfer function. The model input scheme is fully compatible with the frequency response programs FRP MK 1 and MK 2, except that, for ZIP MK 2, transport, or time-delays must be converted by the user to Pade or Bode approximations prior to input. ZIP provides the pole-zero plot, (or complex plane analysis), while FRP provides the frequency response and FIFI the time domain analyses. The pole-zero method of analysis has been little used in the past for complex models, especially where transport delays occur, and one of its primary purposes is as a research tool to investigate the usefulness of this method, for process plant, whether nuclear, chemical or other continuous processes. (author)

  5. New investigations of polarized solid HD targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Whisnant, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Polarized solid HD targets in a frozen-spin mode, with superior nuclear physics characteristics and simple operational configurations, have previously been restricted in their deployment due to a disproportionate target production time with respect to utilization time. Recent investigations have yielded frozen-spin polarization lifetimes, at a convenient target temperature of 1.5 K, of nearly a year for both H and D at high holding fields, and of more than a week at sub-Tesla holding fields. These results, taken together with the advent of new interesting spin-physics using relatively weakly ionizing beams, such as polarized photon beams, remove the above impediment and open up the use of polarized solid HD to long duration nuclear spin-physics experiments. Large, multiple targets can be produced, retrieved from the polarization-production apparatus with a cold-transport (4 K) device, stored for very long times in inexpensive (1.5 K, 7 T) cryostats, and introduced 'off-the-shelf' into in-beam cryostats via the portable cold-transport apparatus. Various modes for achieving polarized H and/or D, as well as already achieved and expected polarization values, are reported. Experimental results are given on Kapitza resistance between the solid HD and the cooling wires necessary to obtain low temperatures during the heat-evolving polarization process. 15 mK is achievable using gold-plated aluminum wires, which constitute 15% extraneous nucleons over the number of polarizable H or D nucleons. Application to more highly ionizing beams is also given consideration. ((orig.))

  6. Modeling the HD 32297 Debris Disk With Far-Infrared Herschel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J.K.; Lebreton, J.; Roberge, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    HD 32297 is a young A-star (approx. 30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 micron..We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains>2 micron consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7 sigma detection of [C ii] emission at 158 micron with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected

  7. Conformations of cationized linear oligosaccharides revealed by FTMS combined with in-ESI H/D exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Previously (Kostyukevich et al. Anal Chem 2014, 86, 2595), we have reported that oligosaccharides anions are produced in the electrospray in two different conformations, which differ by the rate of gas phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reaction. In the present paper, we apply the in-electrospray ionization (ESI) source H/D exchange approach for the investigation of the oligosaccharides cations formed by attaching of metal ions (Na, K) to the molecule. It was observed that the formation of different conformers can be manipulated by varying the temperature of the desolvating capillary of the ESI interphase. Separation of the conformers was performed using gas phase H/D approach. Because the conformers have different rates of the H/D exchange reaction, the deuterium distribution spectrum becomes bimodal. It was found that the conformation corresponding to the slow H/D exchange rate dominates in the spectrum when the capillary temperature is low (~200 °C), and the conformation corresponding to the fast H/D exchange rate dominates at high (~400 °C) temperatures. In the intermediate temperature region, two conformers are present simultaneously. It was also observed that large oligosaccharide requires higher temperature for the formation of another conformer. It was found that the presence of the conformers considerably depends on the solvent used for ESI and the pH. We have compared these results with the previously performed in-ESI source H/D exchange experiments with peptides and proteins. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. EGFR mediates astragaloside IV-induced Nrf2 activation to protect cortical neurons against in vitro ischemia/reperfusion damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Da-min [Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Yixing People' s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Yixing (China); Lu, Pei-Hua, E-mail: lphty1_1@163.com [Department of Medical Oncology, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi (China); Zhang, Ke; Wang, Xiang [Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Yixing People' s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Yixing (China); Sun, Min [Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Yixing People' s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Yixing (China); Chen, Guo-Qian [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi (China); Wang, Qiong, E-mail: WangQiongprof1@126.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Wuxi People' s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi (China)

    2015-02-13

    In this study, we tested the potential role of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) against oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R)-induced damages in murine cortical neurons, and studied the associated signaling mechanisms. AS-IV exerted significant neuroprotective effects against OGD/R by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, thereby attenuating oxidative stress and neuronal cell death. We found that AS-IV treatment in cortical neurons resulted in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, evidenced by Nrf2 Ser-40 phosphorylation, and its nuclear localization, as well as transcription of antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-regulated genes: heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) and sulphiredoxin 1 (SRXN-1). Knockdown of Nrf2 through lentiviral shRNAs prevented AS-IV-induced ARE genes transcription, and abolished its anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. Further, we discovered that AS-IV stimulated heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) release to trans-activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cortical neurons. Blockage or silencing EGFR prevented Nrf2 activation by AS-IV, thus inhibiting AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities against OGD/R. In summary, AS-IV protects cortical neurons against OGD/R damages through activating of EGFR-Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • Pre-treatment of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) protects murine cortical neurons from OGD/R. • AS-IV activates Nrf2-ARE signaling in murine cortical neurons. • Nrf2 is required for AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. • AS-IV stimulates HB-EGF release to trans-activate EGFR in murine cortical neurons. • EGFR mediates AS-IV-induced Nrf2 activation and neuroprotection against OGD/R.

  9. EGFR mediates astragaloside IV-induced Nrf2 activation to protect cortical neurons against in vitro ischemia/reperfusion damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Da-min; Lu, Pei-Hua; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Min; Chen, Guo-Qian; Wang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the potential role of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) against oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R)-induced damages in murine cortical neurons, and studied the associated signaling mechanisms. AS-IV exerted significant neuroprotective effects against OGD/R by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, thereby attenuating oxidative stress and neuronal cell death. We found that AS-IV treatment in cortical neurons resulted in NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling activation, evidenced by Nrf2 Ser-40 phosphorylation, and its nuclear localization, as well as transcription of antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-regulated genes: heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) and sulphiredoxin 1 (SRXN-1). Knockdown of Nrf2 through lentiviral shRNAs prevented AS-IV-induced ARE genes transcription, and abolished its anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. Further, we discovered that AS-IV stimulated heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) release to trans-activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cortical neurons. Blockage or silencing EGFR prevented Nrf2 activation by AS-IV, thus inhibiting AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities against OGD/R. In summary, AS-IV protects cortical neurons against OGD/R damages through activating of EGFR-Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • Pre-treatment of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) protects murine cortical neurons from OGD/R. • AS-IV activates Nrf2-ARE signaling in murine cortical neurons. • Nrf2 is required for AS-IV-mediated anti-oxidant and neuroprotective activities. • AS-IV stimulates HB-EGF release to trans-activate EGFR in murine cortical neurons. • EGFR mediates AS-IV-induced Nrf2 activation and neuroprotection against OGD/R

  10. Characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk, a Bifunctional DNA/RNA End-Healing Enzyme Composed of an N-Terminal 2′,3′-Phosphoesterase HD Domain and a C-Terminal 5′-OH Polynucleotide Kinase Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Annum

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT 5′- and 3′-end-healing reactions are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5′-OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase (Pnk) and 3′-PO4 or 2′,3′-cyclic-PO4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate the 5′-PO4 and 3′-OH termini required for sealing by classic polynucleotide ligases. End-healing and sealing enzymes are present in diverse bacterial taxa, often organized as modular units within a single multifunctional polypeptide or as subunits of a repair complex. Here we identify and characterize Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as a novel bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2′,3′-phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5′-OH polynucleotide kinase P-loop domain. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5′-OH polynucleotides (9-mers or longer) in the presence of magnesium and any nucleoside triphosphate donor. HD-Pnk dephosphorylates RNA 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate, RNA 3′-phosphate, RNA 2′-phosphate, and DNA 3′-phosphate ends in the presence of a transition metal cofactor, which can be nickel, copper, or cobalt. HD-Pnk homologs are present in genera from 11 bacterial phyla and are often encoded in an operon with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase. IMPORTANCE The present study provides insights regarding the diversity of nucleic acid repair strategies via the characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as the exemplar of a novel clade of dual 5′- and 3′-end-healing enzymes that phosphorylate 5′-OH termini and dephosphorylate 2′,3′-cyclic-PO4, 3′-PO4, and 2′-PO4 ends. The distinctive feature of HD-Pnk is its domain composition, i.e., a fusion of an N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase module and a C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase module. Homologs of Runella HD-Pnk with the same domain composition, same domain order, and similar polypeptide sizes are distributed widely among genera from 11 bacterial phyla. PMID:27895092

  11. Radiofrequency/infrared double resonance spectroscopy of the HD+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, Alan; McNab, I.R.; Montgomerie, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a double resonance technique for obtaining radiofrequency spectra of the HD + ion in vibration-rotation levels close to the dissociation limit. Infrared transitions are driven by Doppler tuning an HD + ion beam into resonance with a carbon dioxide infrared laser, and are detected by measuring H + fragment ions produced by electric field dissociation of the upper vibration-rotation level. Radiofrequency transitions between nuclear hyperfine components of the lower vibration-rotation level are then detected through resonant increases in the H + fragment ion current. The high spectroscopic resolution obtained, and the ability to measure magnetic dipole hyperfine transitions, will enable the hyperfine constants to be determined accurately. (author)

  12. The transcription factor Th-POK negatively regulates Th17 differentiation in Vα14i NKT cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Isaac; Zhao, Meng; Kappes, Dietmar; Taniuchi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mouse Vα14 invariant natural killer T (Vα14i NKT) cells produce several cytokines, including IFNγ and IL-4, very rapidly after activation. A subset of these cells, known as NKT17 cells, however, differentiates in the thymus to preferentially produce IL-17. Here, we show that the transcription factor—known as T helper, Poxviruses, and Zinc-finger and Krüppel family, (Th-POK)—represses the formation of NKT17 cells. Vα14i NKT cells from Th-POK–mutant helper deficient (hd/hd) mice have increased transcripts of genes normally expressed by Th17 and NKT17 cells, and even heterozygosity for this mutation leads to dramatically increased numbers of Vα14i NKT cells that are poised to express IL-17, especially in the thymus and lymph nodes. In addition, using gene reporter mice, we demonstrate that NKT17 cells from wild-type mice express lower amounts of Th-POK than the majority population of Vα14i NKT cells. We also show that retroviral transduction of Th-POK represses the expression of the Th17 master regulator RORγT in Vα14i NKT-cell lines. Our data suggest that NKT17-cell differentiation is intrinsically regulated by Th-POK activity, with only low levels of Th-POK permissive for the differentiation of NKT17 cells. PMID:23034280

  13. OsLOL1, a C2C2-type zinc finger protein, interacts with OsbZIP58 to promote seed germination through the modulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiahe; Zhu, Chuanfeng; Pang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Chunlin; Xia, Guixian; Tian, Yingchuan; He, Chaozu

    2014-12-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process in the plant life cycle that is influenced by various environmental cues and phytohormones through gene expression and a series of metabolism pathways. In the present study, we investigated a C2C2-type finger protein, OsLOL1, which promotes gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and affects seed germination in Oryza sativa (rice). We used OsLOL1 antisense and sense transgenic lines to explore OsLOL1 functions. Seed germination timing in antisense plants was restored to wild type when exogenous GA3 was applied. The reduced expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsKO2 and the accumulation of ent-kaurene were observed during germination in antisense plants. Based on yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation analyses, OsLOL1 interacted with the basic leucine zipper protein OsbZIP58. The results from electrophoretic mobility shift and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that OsbZIP58 binds the G-box cis-element of the OsKO2 promoter and activates LUC reporter gene expression, and that interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 activates OsKO2 gene expression. In addition, OsLOL1 decreased SOD1 gene expression and accelerated programmed cell death (PCD) in the aleurone layer of rice grains. These findings demonstrate that the interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 influences GA biosynthesis through the activation of OsKO2 via OsbZIP58, thereby stimulating aleurone PCD and seed germination. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Abscisic acid-dependent multisite phosphorylation regulates the activity of a transcription activator AREB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Takashi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Fujita, Yasunari; Umezawa, Taishi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2006-02-07

    bZIP-type transcription factors AREBs/ABFs bind an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive cis-acting element named ABRE and transactivate downstream gene expression in Arabidopsis. Because AREB1 overexpression could not induce downstream gene expression, activation of AREB1 requires ABA-dependent posttranscriptional modification. We confirmed that ABA activated 42-kDa kinase activity, which, in turn, phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues of R-X-X-S/T sites in the conserved regions of AREB1. Amino acid substitutions of R-X-X-S/T sites to Ala suppressed transactivation activity, and multiple substitution of these sites resulted in almost complete suppression of transactivation activity in transient assays. In contrast, substitution of the Ser/Thr residues to Asp resulted in high transactivation activity without exogenous ABA application. A phosphorylated, transcriptionally active form was achieved by substitution of Ser/Thr in all conserved R-X-X-S/T sites to Asp. Transgenic plants overexpressing the phosphorylated active form of AREB1 expressed many ABA-inducible genes, such as RD29B, without ABA treatment. These results indicate that the ABA-dependent multisite phosphorylation of AREB1 regulates its own activation in plants.

  15. Identification of RegIV as a novel GLI1 target gene in human pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available GLI1 is the key transcriptional factor in the Hedgehog signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer. RegIV is associated with regeneration, and cell growth, survival, adhesion and resistance to apoptosis. We aimed to study RegIV expression in pancreatic cancer and its relationship to GLI1.GLI1 and RegIV expression were evaluated in tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissues of pancreatic cancer patients and 5 pancreatic cancer cell lines by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC, and the correlation between them. The GLI1-shRNA lentiviral vector was constructed and transfected into PANC-1, and lentiviral vector containing the GLI1 expression sequence was constructed and transfected into BxPC-3. GLI1 and RegIV expression were evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Finally we demonstrated RegIV to be the target of GLI1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA.The results of IHC and qRT-PCR showed that RegIV and GLI1 expression was higher in pancreatic cancer tissues versus adjacent normal tissues (p<0.001. RegIV expression correlated with GLI1 expression in these tissues (R = 0.795, p<0.0001. These results were verified for protein (R = 0.939, p = 0.018 and mRNA expression (R = 0.959, p = 0.011 in 5 pancreatic cancer cell lines. RegIV mRNA and protein expression was decreased (94.7±0.3%, 84.1±0.5%; respectively when GLI1 was knocked down (82.1±3.2%, 76.7±2.2%; respectively by the RNAi technique. GLI1 overexpression in mRNA and protein level (924.5±5.3%, 362.1±3.5%; respectively induced RegIV overexpression (729.1±4.3%, 339.0±3.7%; respectively. Moreover, CHIP and EMSA assays showed GLI1 protein bound to RegIV promotor regions (GATCATCCA in pancreatic cancer cells.GLI1 promotes RegIV transcription by binding to the RegIV gene promoter in pancreatic cancer.

  16. On the origin of the hypervelocity runaway star HD 271791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the origin of the early-B-type runaway star HD 271791 and show that its extremely high velocity (≃530 - 920km s-1) cannot be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova ejection scenario. Instead, we suggest that HD 271791 attained its peculiar velocity in the course of a strong dynamical encounter between two hard, massive binaries or through an exchange encounter between a hard, massive binary and a very massive star, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary massive stars in the dense core of a young massive star cluster.

  17. Treating AD/HD with Hypnosis and Neurotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Presents details of Instant Alert Hypnosis procedure as an adjunct to neurotherapy in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Discusses AD/HD diagnostic issues, demographics, traditional treatments, neurological basis, EEG assessment, implications for the use of hypnosis, and the efficacy and promise of neurotherapy with and…

  18. A SEARCH FOR THE TRANSIT OF HD 168443b: IMPROVED ORBITAL PARAMETERS AND PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilyavsky, Genady; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wright, Jason T.; Wang, Xuesong X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Dragomir, Diana; Von Braun, Kaspar [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Pree, Chris; Marlowe, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Agnes Scott College, 141 East College Avenue, Decatur, GA 30030 (United States); Fischer, Debra [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Henry, Gregory W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Jensen, Eric L. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States); Laughlin, Gregory [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Rabus, Markus, E-mail: gcp5017@psu.edu, E-mail: suvrath@astro.psu.edu [Departamento de Astonomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2011-12-20

    The discovery of transiting planets around bright stars holds the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of planetary atmospheres. In this work we present the search for transits of HD 168443b, a massive planet orbiting the bright star HD 168443 (V = 6.92) with a period of 58.11 days. The high eccentricity of the planetary orbit (e = 0.53) significantly enhances the a priori transit probability beyond that expected for a circular orbit, making HD 168443 a candidate for our ongoing Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey. Using additional radial velocities from Keck High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer, we refined the orbital parameters of this multi-planet system and derived a new transit ephemeris for HD 168443b. The reduced uncertainties in the transit window make a photometric transit search practicable. Photometric observations acquired during predicted transit windows were obtained on three nights. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 1.0 m photometry acquired on 2010 September 7 had the required precision to detect a transit but fell just outside of our final transit window. Nightly photometry from the T8 0.8 m automated photometric telescope at Fairborn Observatory, acquired over a span of 109 nights, demonstrates that HD 168443 is constant on a timescale of weeks. Higher-cadence photometry on 2011 April 28 and June 25 shows no evidence of a transit. We are able to rule out a non-grazing transit of HD 168443b.

  19. A Search for the Transit of HD 168443b: Improved Orbital Parameters and Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilyavsky, Genady; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Kane, Stephen R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Ciardi, David R.; de Pree, Chris; Dragomir, Diana; Fischer, Debra; Henry, Gregory W.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Laughlin, Gregory; Marlowe, Hannah; Rabus, Markus; von Braun, Kaspar; Wright, Jason T.; Wang, Xuesong X.

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of transiting planets around bright stars holds the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of planetary atmospheres. In this work we present the search for transits of HD 168443b, a massive planet orbiting the bright star HD 168443 (V = 6.92) with a period of 58.11 days. The high eccentricity of the planetary orbit (e = 0.53) significantly enhances the a priori transit probability beyond that expected for a circular orbit, making HD 168443 a candidate for our ongoing Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey. Using additional radial velocities from Keck High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer, we refined the orbital parameters of this multi-planet system and derived a new transit ephemeris for HD 168443b. The reduced uncertainties in the transit window make a photometric transit search practicable. Photometric observations acquired during predicted transit windows were obtained on three nights. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 1.0 m photometry acquired on 2010 September 7 had the required precision to detect a transit but fell just outside of our final transit window. Nightly photometry from the T8 0.8 m automated photometric telescope at Fairborn Observatory, acquired over a span of 109 nights, demonstrates that HD 168443 is constant on a timescale of weeks. Higher-cadence photometry on 2011 April 28 and June 25 shows no evidence of a transit. We are able to rule out a non-grazing transit of HD 168443b.

  20. Supporting autonomous vehicles by creating HD maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Barsi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maps are constantly developing, also, the newly defined High Definition (HD maps increase the map content remarkably. They are based on three-dimensional survey, like laser scanning, and then stored in a fully new structured way to be able to support modern-day vehicles. Beyond the traditional lane based map content, they contain information about the roads’ neighbourhood. The goal of these maps is twofold. Primarily, they store the connections where the vehicles can travel with the description of the road-environment. Secondly, they efficiently support the exact vehicle positioning. The paper demonstrates the first results of a pilot study in the creation of HD map of an urban and a rural environment. The applied data collection technology was the terrestrial laser scanning, where the obtained point cloud was evaluated. The data storage has been solved by an in-house developed information storage model with the ability to help in vehicle control processes.

  1. Huntington's disease and its therapeutic target genes: a global functional profile based on the HD Research Crossroads database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathur, Ravi Kiran Reddy; Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A; Futschik, Matthias E

    2012-06-28

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of the polyglutamine repeat region in the huntingtin gene. Although the disease is triggered by the mutation of a single gene, intensive research has linked numerous other genes to its pathogenesis. To obtain a systematic overview of these genes, which may serve as therapeutic targets, CHDI Foundation has recently established the HD Research Crossroads database. With currently over 800 cataloged genes, this web-based resource constitutes the most extensive curation of genes relevant to HD. It provides us with an unprecedented opportunity to survey molecular mechanisms involved in HD in a holistic manner. To gain a synoptic view of therapeutic targets for HD, we have carried out a variety of bioinformatical and statistical analyses to scrutinize the functional association of genes curated in the HD Research Crossroads database. In particular, enrichment analyses were performed with respect to Gene Ontology categories, KEGG signaling pathways, and Pfam protein families. For selected processes, we also analyzed differential expression, using published microarray data. Additionally, we generated a candidate set of novel genetic modifiers of HD by combining information from the HD Research Crossroads database with previous genome-wide linkage studies. Our analyses led to a comprehensive identification of molecular mechanisms associated with HD. Remarkably, we not only recovered processes and pathways, which have frequently been linked to HD (such as cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and calcium signaling), but also found strong indications for other potentially disease-relevant mechanisms that have been less intensively studied in the context of HD (such as the cell cycle and RNA splicing, as well as Wnt and ErbB signaling). For follow-up studies, we provide a regularly updated compendium of molecular mechanism, that are associated with HD, at http://hdtt.sysbiolab.eu Additionally

  2. Huntington's Disease and its therapeutic target genes: a global functional profile based on the HD Research Crossroads database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalathur Ravi Kiran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington’s disease (HD is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of the polyglutamine repeat region in the huntingtin gene. Although the disease is triggered by the mutation of a single gene, intensive research has linked numerous other genes to its pathogenesis. To obtain a systematic overview of these genes, which may serve as therapeutic targets, CHDI Foundation has recently established the HD Research Crossroads database. With currently over 800 cataloged genes, this web-based resource constitutes the most extensive curation of genes relevant to HD. It provides us with an unprecedented opportunity to survey molecular mechanisms involved in HD in a holistic manner. Methods To gain a synoptic view of therapeutic targets for HD, we have carried out a variety of bioinformatical and statistical analyses to scrutinize the functional association of genes curated in the HD Research Crossroads database. In particular, enrichment analyses were performed with respect to Gene Ontology categories, KEGG signaling pathways, and Pfam protein families. For selected processes, we also analyzed differential expression, using published microarray data. Additionally, we generated a candidate set of novel genetic modifiers of HD by combining information from the HD Research Crossroads database with previous genome-wide linkage studies. Results Our analyses led to a comprehensive identification of molecular mechanisms associated with HD. Remarkably, we not only recovered processes and pathways, which have frequently been linked to HD (such as cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and calcium signaling, but also found strong indications for other potentially disease-relevant mechanisms that have been less intensively studied in the context of HD (such as the cell cycle and RNA splicing, as well as Wnt and ErbB signaling. For follow-up studies, we provide a regularly updated compendium of molecular mechanism, that are

  3. THz/Infrared Double Resonance Two-Photon Spectroscopy of HD+ for Determination of Fundamental Constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Lucian Constantin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A double resonance two-photon spectroscopy scheme is discussed to probe jointly rotational and rovibrational transitions of ensembles of trapped HD+ ions. The two-photon transition rates and lightshifts are calculated with the two-photon tensor operator formalism. The rotational lines may be observed with sub-Doppler linewidth at the hertz level and good signal-to-noise ratio, improving the resolution in HD+ spectroscopy beyond the 10−12 level. The experimental accuracy, estimated at the 10−12 level, is comparable with the accuracy of theoretical calculations of HD+ energy levels. An adjustment of selected rotational and rovibrational HD+ lines may add clues to the proton radius puzzle, may provide an independent determination of the Rydberg constant, and may improve the values of proton-to-electron and deuteron-to-proton mass ratios beyond the 10−11 level.

  4. Skylab ultraviolet stellar spectra - A new white dwarf, HD 149499 B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. B.; Wray, J. D.; Benedict, G. F.; Henize, K. G.; Laget, M.

    1976-01-01

    The letter reports the discovery of a cool star with excess brightness in the vacuum ultraviolet on an objective-prism photograph obtained during the second Skylab mission. This star, HD 149499, is of type K0 V and has a companion with an apparent magnitude of about 11.8; the relatively flat UV spectrum observed at the position of HD 149499 is characteristic of a 10th or 11th magnitude unreddened O- or early B-type star. It is shown that the excess VUV brightness is due to the companion, HD 149499B, which probably lies in the region of the H-R diagram occupied by the hot white dwarfs. Inspection of white dwarf lists indicates that this star is the sixth or seventh brightest white dwarf known. A maximum orbital motion of 0.025 arcsec/yr is estimated along with a period of just under 500 yr.

  5. Steroid treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease grade I: a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Milone, Giuseppe; Cupri, Alessandra; Severino, Antonio; Fagioli, Franca; Berger, Massimo; Santarone, Stella; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Sica, Simona; Mammoliti, Sonia; Sorasio, Roberto; Massi, Daniela; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Patients with acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grade I were randomized to an observation arm (n=85) or to a treatment arm (n=86) consisting of 6-methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day, after stratification for age and donor type. The primary end point was development of grade II–IV GvHD. The cumulative incidence of grade II–IV GvHD was 50% in the observation arm and 33% in the treatment arm (P=0.005). However, grade III–IV GvHD was comparable (13% vs. 10%, respectively; P=0.6), and this was tru...

  6. Extraction and Analysis of Sulfur Mustard (HD) from Various Food Matrices by Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    9 8. (a) GC chromatogram and (b) mass spectrum for HD extracted from hot dog; (c) mass spectrum at Rt = 5.08 min (benzoic acid ...shows the mass spectrum for benzoic acid . Percent recoveries were calculated based on an external calibration curve for HD (Figure 14). The recoveries...EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF SULFUR MUSTARD ( HD ) FROM VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY–MASS

  7. Mapping temperature-induced conformational changes in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma 32 by amide hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Roepstorff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Stress conditions such as heat shock alter the transcriptional profile in all organisms. In Escherichia coli the heat shock transcription factor, sigma 32, out-competes upon temperature up-shift the housekeeping sigma-factor, sigma 70, for binding to core RNA polymerase and initiates heat shock...... gene transcription. To investigate possible heat-induced conformational changes in sigma 32 we performed amide hydrogen (H/D) exchange experiments under optimal growth and heat shock conditions combined with mass spectrometry. We found a rapid exchange of around 220 of the 294 amide hydrogens at 37...... degrees C, indicating that sigma 32 adopts a highly flexible structure. At 42 degrees C we observed a slow correlated exchange of 30 additional amide hydrogens and localized it to a helix-loop-helix motif within domain sigma 2 that is responsible for the recognition of the -10 region in heat shock...

  8. CHANDRA CHARACTERIZATION OF X-RAY EMISSION IN THE YOUNG F-STAR BINARY SYSTEM HD 113766

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [Planetary Exploration Branch, Space Exploration Sector, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Wolk, S. J. [Chandra X-ray Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Günther, H. M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, NE83-569, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grady, C. A., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: damian.christian@csun.edu, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: hgunther@mit.edu, E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu, E-mail: carol.a.grady@nasa.gov [Eureka Scientific and Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Using Chandra , we have obtained imaging X-ray spectroscopy of the 10–16 Myr old F-star binary HD 113766. We individually resolve the 1.″4 separation binary components for the first time in the X-ray and find a total 0.3–2.0 keV luminosity of 2.2 × 10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1}, consistent with previous RASS estimates. We find emission from the easternmost, infrared-bright, dusty member HD 113766A to be only ∼10% that of the western, infrared-faint member HD 113766B. There is no evidence for a 3rd late-type stellar or substellar member of HD 113766 with L {sub x} > 6 × 10{sup 25} erg s{sup −1} within 2′ of the binary pair. The ratio of the two stars’ X-ray luminosity is consistent with their assignments as F2V and F6V by Pecaut et al. The emission is soft for both stars, kT {sub Apec} = 0.30–0.50 keV, suggesting X-rays produced by stellar rotation and/or convection in young dynamos, but not accretion or outflow shocks, which we rule out. A possible 2.8 ± 0.15 (2 σ ) hr modulation in the HD 113766B X-ray emission is seen, but at very low confidence and of unknown provenance. Stellar wind drag models corresponding to L {sub x} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1} argue for a 1 mm dust particle lifetime around HD 113766B of only ∼90,0000 years, suggesting that dust around HD 113766B is quickly removed, whereas 1 mm sized dust around HD 113766A can survive for >1.5 × 10{sup 6} years. At 10{sup 28}–10{sup 29} erg s{sup −1} X-ray luminosity, astrobiologically important effects, like dust warming and X-ray photolytic organic synthesis, are likely for any circumstellar material in the HD 113766 systems.

  9. The Schooling Experience of Adolescent Boys with AD/HD: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Kathryn; Mercer, K. Louise; Carrington, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the experience of schooling of six adolescent boys diagnosed with AD/HD from the perspectives of the boys, their mothers and their teachers. The study utilised social constructionism as the theoretical orientation and the Dynamic Developmental Theory (DDT) of AD/HD as the explanatory framework. Utilising a multiple,…

  10. Left and right reaction time differences to the sound intensity in normal and AD/HD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Golnaz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Rostami, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Right hemisphere, which is attributed to the sound intensity discrimination, has abnormality in people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). However, it is not studied whether the defect in the right hemisphere has influenced on the intensity sensation of AD/HD subjects or not. In this study, the sensitivity of normal and AD/HD children to the sound intensity was investigated. Nineteen normal and fourteen AD/HD children participated in the study and performed a simple auditory reaction time task. Using the regression analysis, the sensitivity of right and left ears to various sound intensity levels was examined. The statistical results showed that the sensitivity of AD/HD subjects to the intensity was lower than the normal group (p Left and right pathways of the auditory system had the same pattern of response in AD/HD subjects (p > 0.05). However, in control group the left pathway was more sensitive to the sound intensity level than the right one (p = 0.0156). It can be probable that the deficit of the right hemisphere has influenced on the auditory sensitivity of AD/HD children. The possible existent deficits of other auditory system components such as middle ear, inner ear, or involved brain stem nucleuses may also lead to the observed results. The development of new biomarkers based on the sensitivity of the brain hemispheres to the sound intensity has been suggested to estimate the risk of AD/HD. Designing new technique to correct the auditory feedback has been also proposed in behavioral treatment sessions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez D, Juan F; Egan, Gary F; Gray, Marcus A; Poudel, Govinda R; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Stout, Julie C; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2013-01-01

    IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively). In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume) and microstructural (diffusivity) longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter) and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change). Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years), close to diagnosis (fractional anisotropy, FA), only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  12. Purification and characterization of antifungal compounds from Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 isolated from kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Hye; Yang, Eun Ju; Woo, Eun Rhan; Chang, Hae Choon

    2014-08-01

    Strain HD1 with antifungal activity was isolated from kimchi and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Antifungal compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were active against food- and feed-borne filamentous fungi and yeasts in a spot-on-the-lawn assay. Antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 was stronger against filamentous fungi than yeast. Antifungal compounds were purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and recycling preparative-HPLC. Structures of the antifungal compounds were elucidated by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Active compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were identified as 5-oxododecanoic acid (MW 214), 3-hydroxy decanoic acid (MW 188), and 3-hydroxy-5-dodecenoic acid (MW 214). To investigate the potential application of these antifungal compounds for reduction of fungal spoilage in foods, Korean draft rice wine was used as a food model. White film-forming yeasts were observed in control draft rice wine after 11 days of incubation. However, film-forming yeasts were not observed in draft rice wine treated with SPE-prepared culture supernatant of Lb. plantarum HD1 (equivalent to 2.5% addition of culture supernatant) until 27 days of incubation. The addition of antifungal compounds to Korean draft rice wine extended shelf-life up to 27 days at 10 °C without any sterilization process. Therefore, the antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 may lead to the development of powerful biopreservative systems capable of preventing food- and feed-borne fungal spoilage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The AT-Hook motif as a versatile minor groove anchor for promoting DNA binding of transcription factor fragments? ?Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Peptide synthesis, full experimental procedures and analytical data of the peptides and products obtained. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01415h Click here for additional data file.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr?guez, J?ssica; Mosquera, Jes?s; Couceiro, Jose R.; V?zquez, M. Eugenio; Mascare?as, Jos? L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of chimeric DNA binding peptides comprising a DNA binding fragment of natural transcription factors (the basic region of a bZIP protein or a monomeric zinc finger module) and an AT-Hook peptide motif. The resulting peptide conjugates display high DNA affinity and excellent sequence selectivity. Furthermore, the AT-Hook motif also favors the cell internalization of the conjugates.

  14. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Domínguez D

    Full Text Available IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively. In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume and microstructural (diffusivity longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change. Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years, close to diagnosis (<15 years and after diagnosis. Of the two diffusion metrics (mean diffusivity, MD; fractional anisotropy, FA, only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  15. Disagreement between theory and experiment grows with increasing rotational excitation of HD(v', j') product for the H + D2 reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunas, Justin; Sneha, Mahima; Zare, Richard N; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2013-03-07

    The Photoloc technique has been employed to measure the state-resolved differential cross sections of the HD(v', j(')) product in the reaction H + D2 over a wide range of collision energies and internal states. The experimental results were compared with fully dimensional, time-dependent quantum mechanical calculations on the refined Boothroyd-Keogh-Martin-Peterson potential energy surface. We find nearly perfect agreement between theory and experiment for HD(v', j(')) product states with low to medium rotational excitation, e.g., HD(v' = 1, j(') = 3) at a collision energy, Ecoll, of 1.72 eV, HD(v' = 1, j(') = 3, 5) at Ecoll = 1.97 eV, and HD(v' = 3, j(') = 3) at Ecoll = 1.97 eV. As the rotational angular momentum, j('), of HD(v', j(')) increases, the agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements worsens but not in a simple fashion. A moderate disagreement between theory and experiment has been found for HD(v' = 0, j(') = 12) at Ecoll = 1.76 eV and increased monotonically for HD(v' = 0, j(') = 13) at Ecoll = 1.74 eV, HD(v' = 0, j(') = 14) at Ecoll = 1.72 eV, and HD(v' = 0, j(') = 15) at Ecoll = 1.70 eV. Disagreement was not limited to vibrationless HD(v', j(')) product states: HD(v' = 1, j(') = 12) at Ecoll = 1.60 eV and HD(v' = 3, j(') = 8, 10) at Ecoll = 1.97 eV followed a similar trend. Theoretical calculations suggest more sideways∕forward scattering than has been observed experimentally for high j(') HD(v', j(')) states. The source of this discrepancy is presently unknown but might be the result of inaccuracy in the potential energy surface.

  16. Fungal Morphology, Iron Homeostasis, and Lipid Metabolism Regulated by a GATA Transcription Factor in Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber J Marty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0-48 hours, gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C and during the phase transition to mold (22°C. This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition.

  17. Evidence for a modifier of onset age in Huntington disease linked to the HD gene in 4p16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Knowlton, Beth; Hayden, Michael R.; Almqvist, Elisabeth W.; Brinkman, Ryan R.; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russel L.; Rosenblatt, Adam; Durr, Alexandra; Dode, Catherine; Morrison, Patrick J.; Novelletto, Andrea; Frontali, Marina; Trent, Ronald J. A.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Gómez-Tortosa, Estrella; Mayo Cabrero, David; Jones, Randi; Zanko, Andrea; Nance, Martha; Abramson, Ruth K.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Paulsen, Jane S.; Harrison, Madaline B.; Yang, Qiong; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Gusella, James F.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2007-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal expansion of CAG repeats in the HD gene on chromosome 4p16.3. A recent genome scan for genetic modifiers of age at onset of motor symptoms (AO) in HD suggests that one modifier may reside in the region close to the HD gene itself. We used data from 535 HD participants of the New England Huntington cohort and the HD MAPS cohort to assess whether AO was influenced by any of the three markers in the 4p16 region: MSX1 (Drosophila homeo box homologue 1, formerly known as homeo box 7, HOX7), Δ2642 (within the HD coding sequence), and BJ56 (D4S127). Suggestive evidence for an association was seen between MSX1 alleles and AO, after adjustment for normal CAG repeat, expanded repeat, and their product term (model P value 0.079). Of the variance of AO that was not accounted for by HD and normal CAG repeats, 0.8% could be attributed to the MSX1 genotype. Individuals with MSX1 genotype 3/3 tended to have younger AO. No association was found between Δ2642 (P=0.44) and BJ56 (P=0.73) and AO. This study supports previous studies suggesting that there may be a significant genetic modifier for AO in HD in the 4p16 region. Furthermore, the modifier may be present on both HD and normal chromosomes bearing the 3 allele of the MSX1 marker. PMID:15029481

  18. Feasibility of using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) to enhance treatment outcomes in persons with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jessica; Datta, Abhishek; Dmochowski, Jacek; Parra, Lucas C; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhances treatment outcomes post-stroke. Feasibility and tolerability of high-definition (HD) tDCS (a technique that increases current focality and intensity) for consecutive weekdays as an adjuvant to behavioral treatment in a clinical population has not been demonstrated. To determine HD-tDCS feasibility outcomes: 1) ability to implement study as designed, 2) acceptability of repeated HD-tDCS administration to patients, and 3) preliminary efficacy. Eight patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia participated in a randomized crossover trial with two arms: conventional sponge-based (CS) tDCS and HD-tDCS. Computerized anomia treatment was administered for five consecutive days during each treatment arm. Individualized modeling/targeting procedures and an 8-channel HD-tDCS device were developed. CS-tDCS and HD-tDCS were comparable in terms of implementation, acceptability, and outcomes. Naming accuracy and response time improved for both stimulation conditions. Change in accuracy of trained items was numerically higher (but not statistically significant) for HD-tDCS compared to CS-tDCS for most patients. Regarding feasibility, HD-tDCS treatment studies can be implemented when designed similarly to documented CS-tDCS studies. HD-tDCS is likely to be acceptable to patients and clinicians. Preliminary efficacy data suggest that HD-tDCS effects, using only 4 electrodes, are at least comparable to CS-tDCS.

  19. HD 38452 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.

  20. Acetone and Water on TiO(110): H/D Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Isotopic H/D exchange between coadsorbed acetone and water on the TiO(110) surface was examined using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) as a function of coverage and two surface pretreatments (oxidation and reduction). Coadsorbed acetone and water interact repulsively on reduced TiO(110) based on results from the companion paper to this study, with water exerting a greater influence in destabilizing acetone and acetone having only a nominal influence on water. Despite the repulsive interaction between these coadsorbates, about 0.02 ML of a 1 ML d6-acetone on the reduced surface exhibits H/D exchange with coadsorbed water, with the exchange occurring exclusively in the high temperature region of the d?-acetone TPD spectrum at ∼340 K. The effect was confirmed with combinations of d?-acetone and D?O. The extent of exchange decreased on the reduced surface with water coverages above ∼0.3 ML due to the ability of water to displace coadsorbed acetone from first layer sites to the multilayer. In contrast, the extent of exchange increased by a factor of 3 when the surface was pre-oxidized prior to coadsorption. In this case, there was no evidence for the negative influence of high water coverages on the extent of H/D exchange. Comparison of the TPD spectra from the exchange products (either d?- or d?-acetone depending on the coadsorption pairing) suggests that, in addition to the 340 K exchange process seen on the reduced surface, a second exchange process was observed on the oxidized surface at ∼390 K. In both cases (oxidized and reduced), desorption of the H/D exchange products appeared to be reaction limited and to involve the influence of OH/OD groups (or water formed during recombinative desorption of OH/OD groups) instead of molecularly adsorbed water. The 340 K exchange process is assigned to reaction at step sites and the 390 K exchange process is attributed to the influence of oxygen adatoms deposited during surface oxidation. The H/D exchange

  1. HD Photo: a new image coding technology for digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Tu, Chengjie; Regunathan, Shankar L.; Sullivan, Gary J.

    2007-09-01

    This paper introduces the HD Photo coding technology developed by Microsoft Corporation. The storage format for this technology is now under consideration in the ITU-T/ISO/IEC JPEG committee as a candidate for standardization under the name JPEG XR. The technology was developed to address end-to-end digital imaging application requirements, particularly including the needs of digital photography. HD Photo includes features such as good compression capability, high dynamic range support, high image quality capability, lossless coding support, full-format 4:4:4 color sampling, simple thumbnail extraction, embedded bitstream scalability of resolution and fidelity, and degradation-free compressed domain support of key manipulations such as cropping, flipping and rotation. HD Photo has been designed to optimize image quality and compression efficiency while also enabling low-complexity encoding and decoding implementations. To ensure low complexity for implementations, the design features have been incorporated in a way that not only minimizes the computational requirements of the individual components (including consideration of such aspects as memory footprint, cache effects, and parallelization opportunities) but results in a self-consistent design that maximizes the commonality of functional processing components.

  2. Analysis of spectra of V471 Tau and HD 115404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, V. V.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the chemical composition of the atmospheres of a single K-type star HD 115404 and the secondary component of the V471 Tau variable. We use the technique of modeling of synthetic spectra to analyze the high-resolution spectra of these stars, taken with the RTT 150 Russian-Turkish telescope and find the abundances of 23 and 17 elements in the atmospheres of HD 115404 and V471 Tau, respectively. We demonstrate the lack of composition anomalies in the HD 115404 and show it to be consistent with the published data, inferred from equivalent widths of spectral lines. We find the abundances of 15 elements from Na to Ba to be consistent with the metallicity of the atmosphere of V471 Tau ([Fe/H] = -0.22 ± 0.12dex), which differs significantly from the average metallicity of the Hyades cluster. We show the existence of strong carbon and oxygen overabundances (by more than 1dex) due to the enrichment of the secondary by the nucleosynthesis products during the common-envelope stage of the system. On the whole, we demonstrate that V471 Tau and the other precataclysmic variables share similar composition anomalies.

  3. Dedicated Searches for Low and High Mass Wimps with the SuperCDMS Soudan iZIP Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welliver, Bradford [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recent cosmological evidence suggests most of the mass of the universe takes the form of a type of particle that we have not been able to directly detect. Nearly 80 years that have elapsed since the rst hints of this dark matter started to appear from astronomers without any direct detection. The high precision era of cosmology and unifying models of particle physics developed in the 20 th century have presented us with an exciting mystery at the intersection of these two elds that needs to be solved. SuperCDMS Soudan operates specialized germanium detectors (iZIPs) that are cooled to milliKelvin temperatures deep underground in the Soudan Underground Laboratory with the hope of detecting a rare collision between dark matter and a nucleus. A search for low-mass dark matter comes with multiple unique challenges since the background discrimination abilities of these detectors becomes less powerful at the low energies needed to probe low-mass dark matter since the signal to noise ratio deteriorates. Using a sophisticated background model via a pulse rescaling technique, SuperCDMS Soudan was able to produce a world leading exclusion limit on low-mass dark matter. Effort is to extend the analysis to higher masses require long running times during which many aspects of the detectors or the environment can change. Additional challenges are offered by the powerful background discrimination ability of the iZIP. The background distributions are well separated from the signal region, meaning most of the leakage arises from low-probability tails of the background distributions. In the absence of an enormous dataset, extrapolations from the bulk of the distribution are required. While attempting to obtain a model of gamma induced electron-recoils leaking into the signal region of the detector from high radius a curious asymmetry between the sides of the detectors was discovered potentially indicating an electronics or detector design problem. This thesis describes the physics

  4. An Agent-Based Model for Zip-Code Level Diffusion of Electric Vehicles and Electricity Consumption in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Ahkamiraad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Current power grids in many countries are not fully prepared for high electric vehicle (EV penetration, and there is evidence that the construction of additional grid capacity is constantly outpaced by EV diffusion. If this situation continues, then it will compromise grid reliability and cause problems such as system overload, voltage and frequency fluctuations, and power losses. This is especially true for densely populated areas where the grid capacity is already strained with existing old infrastructure. The objective of this research is to identify the zip-code level electricity consumption that is associated with large-scale EV adoption in New York City, one of the most densely populated areas in the United States (U.S.. We fuse the Fisher and Pry diffusion model and Rogers model within the agent-based simulation to forecast zip-code level EV diffusion and the required energy capacity to satisfy the charging demand. The research outcomes will assist policy makers and grid operators in making better planning decisions on the locations and timing of investments during the transition to smarter grids and greener transportation.

  5. Permeation of a H2 + HD + D2 gas mixture through a polymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercea, P.; Cuna, S.; Kreibik, S.; Ursu, I.

    1990-01-01

    The selective permeation of a H 2 + HD + D 2 gas mixture through a polyethylene terephthalate membrane was studied at T 20 0 C. It was found that the permeation of the HD through the membrane leads to a smaller overall hydrogen-deuterium separation factor than that determined in the permeation experiments with pure H 2 and D 2 . On the other hand, a process of isotopic exchange between deuterium atoms from the penetrant gas stream and hydrogen atoms from the polymer membrane is assumed and discussed in order to explain temporal variations of the H 2 , HD and D 2 concentrations of the permanent gas stream. (author)

  6. PHOTOELECTRIC OBSERVATIONS OF HD 8358

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Baik Lee

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available UBV photoelectric observations of RS CVn type variable star HD 8358 were made using the 61cm reflector at Sobaeksan Astronomical Observatory. The data were obtained on 15 nights from October 1987 to December 1988. Double peaks of maximum light is seen from the light curve and continuous change of phase in notified from the times of maximum lights. The colors of October, 1987 - January, 1988 observations are bluer in ∆(b-u, but redder in ∆(u-b, than those of November -December, 1988 observations.

  7. α-Defensin HD5 Inhibits Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection via Capsid Stabilization and Redirection to the Lysosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayim E. Wiens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Defensins are an important class of abundant innate immune effectors that are potently antiviral against a number of nonenveloped viral pathogens; however, a common mechanism to explain their ability to block infection by these unrelated viruses is lacking. We previously found that human defensin 5 (HD5 blocks a critical host-mediated proteolytic processing step required for human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Here, we show that bypassing the requirement for this cleavage failed to abrogate HD5 inhibition. Instead, HD5 altered HPV trafficking in the cell. In the presence of an inhibitory concentration of HD5, HPV was internalized and reached the early endosome. The internalized capsid became permeable to antibodies and proteases; however, HD5 prevented dissociation of the viral capsid from the genome, reduced viral trafficking to the trans-Golgi network, redirected the incoming viral particle to the lysosome, and accelerated the degradation of internalized capsid proteins. This mechanism is equivalent to the mechanism by which HD5 inhibits human adenovirus. Thus, our data support capsid stabilization and redirection to the lysosome during infection as a general antiviral mechanism of α-defensins against nonenveloped viruses.

  8. HD 208905: um sistema múltiplo de estrelas quentes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeias, J. P.; Daflon, S.; Cunha, K.

    2003-08-01

    Durante o survey de associações OB do disco Galáctico, foi constatada a multiplicidade do sistema HD 208905, pertencentes à associação de Cep OB2. Este objeto está classificado como uma estrela pertencente a um sistema múltiplo, com magnitude mv = 7.0 e tipo espectral B1V. De fato, os espectros de HD 208905 apresentam perfis de absorção triplicados. Dois dos perfis são bastante similares entre si, e são estreitos e bem definidos, sugerindo que as velocidades rotacionais projetadas (v sin i) das duas estrelas são baixas. Os espectros obtidos também apresentam perfis mais alargados que poderiam ser atribuídos a uma terceira componente estelar com v sin i mais alto. A análise de HD 208905 é baseada no estudo da variação da posição relativa dos perfis espectrais de acordo com a fase do sistema. Nossos dados observacionais são um conjunto de espectros de alta resolução obtidos no McDonald Observatory (Universidade do Texas, Austin), Kitt Peak National Observatory e Palomar Observatory, cobrindo o período de 10/91 até 12/95. Inicialmente, calculamos a velocidade radial de cada componente do sistema, considerando o desvio Doppler sofrido por cada estrela. As velocidades radiais medidas foram, em seguida, corrigidas para velocidades radiais heliocêntricas. O passo seguinte constituiu na determinação da periodicidade da série temporal definida pelas medidas das velocidades radiais heliocêntricas através da análise de Fourier. A nossa base de dados não permitiu definir uma solução única para o sistema HD 208905. As possíveis soluções encontradas têm períodos entre 1 e 27 dias e serão apresentadas e discutidas.

  9. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N. VI. HD 238914 and TYC 3318-01333-1: two more Li-rich giants with planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamów, M.; Niedzielski, A.; Kowalik, K.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.; Maciejewski, G.; Gromadzki, M.

    2018-05-01

    Context. We present the latest results of our search for planets with HARPS-N at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo under the Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems project: an in-depth study of the 15 most Li abundant giants from the PennState - Toruń Planet Search sample. Aims: Our goals are first, to obtain radial velocities of the most Li-rich giants we identified in our sample to search for possible low-mass substellar companions, and second, to perform an extended spectral analysis to define the evolutionary status of these stars. Methods: This work is based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and its High Resolution Spectrograph, and with the HARPS-N spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Two stars, HD 181368 and HD 188214, were also observed with UVES at the VLT to determine beryllium abundances. Results: We report i) the discovery of two new planetary systems around the Li-rich giant stars: HD 238914 and TYC 3318-01333-1 (a binary system); ii) reveal a binary Li-rich giant, HD 181368; iii) although our current phase coverage is not complete, we suggest the presence of planetary mass companions around TYC 3663-01966-1 and TYC 3105-00152-1; iv) we confirm the previous result for BD+48 740 and present updated orbital parameters, and v) we find a lack of a relation between the Li enhancement and the Be abundance for the stars HD 181368 and HD 188214, for which we acquired blue spectra. Conclusions: We found seven stars with stellar or potential planetary companions among the 15 Li-rich giant stars. The binary star frequency of the Li-rich giants in our sample appears to be normal, but the planet frequency is twice that of the general sample, which suggests a possible connection between hosting a companion and enhanced Li abundance in giant stars. We also found most of the companions orbits to be highly eccentric. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the

  10. Hepatic imaging in stage IV-S neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Cohen, M.D.; Kisker, C.T.; Platz, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Stage IV-S neuroblastoma describes a group of infants with tumor spread limited to liver, skin, or bone marrow. Such patients, who constitute about 25% of affected infants with neuroblastoma, may expect spontaneous tumor remission. We report 18 infants with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, 83% of whom had liver involvement. Imaging investigations included Technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, ultrasound, and CT. Two patterns of liver metastasis were noted: ill-defined nodules or diffuse tumor throughout the liver. Distinction of normal and abnormal liver with diffuse type metastasis could be quite difficult, particularly with liver scans. We conclude that patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma have ultrasound or CT examination as an initial workup, with nuclear medicine scans reserved for followup studies. (orig.)

  11. Cold quantum-controlled rotationally inelastic scattering of HD with H2 and D2 reveals collisional partner reorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, William E.; Mukherjee, Nandini; Zare, Richard N.

    2018-05-01

    Molecular interactions are best probed by scattering experiments. Interpretation of these studies has been limited by lack of control over the quantum states of the incoming collision partners. We report here the rotationally inelastic collisions of quantum-state prepared deuterium hydride (HD) with H2 and D2 using a method that provides an improved control over the input states. HD was coexpanded with its partner in a single supersonic beam, which reduced the collision temperature to 0-5 K, and thereby restricted the involved incoming partial waves to s and p. By preparing HD with its bond axis preferentially aligned parallel and perpendicular to the relative velocity of the colliding partners, we observed that the rotational relaxation of HD depends strongly on the initial bond-axis orientation. We developed a partial-wave analysis that conclusively demonstrates that the scattering mechanism involves the exchange of internal angular momentum between the colliding partners. The striking differences between H2/HD and D2/HD scattering suggest the presence of anisotropically sensitive resonances.

  12. Calculation of the inter-nuclei separation of HD+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhousen; Shi Miangong; Tang Ayou; Yang Baifang; Miao Jingwei

    1993-01-01

    With the Ritz variational principle, the authors calculate the inter nuclei separation of the HD + molecular ion, and introduces a method to calculate the inter nuclei separations of other simple non-symmetry two-atom molecular ions. One way to work out the trial wave function is provided

  13. Observation of the v′=8←v=0 vibrational overtone in cold trapped HD +

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Koelemeij; D.W.E. Noom; D. de Jong; M.A. Haddad; W. Ubachs

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe report the observation of the hitherto undetected v′=8←v=0 vibrational overtone in trapped HD+molecular ions, sympathetically cooled by laser-cooled Be+ions. The overtone is excited using 782 nm laser radiation, after which HD+ions in v=8 are photodissociated by the 313 nm laser used

  14. Chromospherically active stars. III - HD 26337 = EI Eri: An RS CVn candidate for the Doppler-imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Quigley, Robert; Gillies, Kim; Africano, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the chromospherically active G5 IV single-lined binary HD 26337 = EI Eri are presented. An orbital period of 1.94722 days is found for the star. It has moderately strong Ca II H and K emission and strong ultraviolet emission features, while H-alpha is a weak absorption feature that is variable in strength. The inclination of the system is 46 + or - 12 deg, and the unseen secondary is probably a late K or early M dwarf. The v sin i of the primary is 50 + or - 3 km/s, resulting in a minimum radius of 1.9 + or - 0.1 solar radius. The star is within the required limits for Doppler imaging. The primary is close to filling its Roche lobe, resulting in a strong constraint that the mass ratio is 2.6 or greater, with a primary mass of at least 1.4 solar mass. The distance to the system is estimated at 75 pc.

  15. 76 FR 2277 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS[supreg] HD System Revision 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to include Amendment No. 1 to... the NUHOMS[supreg] HD Horizontal Modular Storage System for Irradiated Nuclear Fuel. [[Page 2279...

  16. Dlf1, a WRKY transcription factor, is involved in the control of flowering time and plant height in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Cai

    Full Text Available Flowering time and plant height are important agronomic traits for crop production. In this study, we characterized a semi-dwarf and late flowering (dlf1 mutation of rice that has pleiotropic effects on these traits. The dlf1 mutation was caused by a T-DNA insertion and the cloned Dlf1 gene was found to encode a WRKY transcription factor (OsWRKY11. The dlf1 mutant contains a T-DNA insertion at the promoter region, leading to enhanced accumulation of Dlf1 transcripts, resulting in a semidominant mutation. The dlf1 mutation suppressed the transcription of Ehd2/RID1/OsId1 and its downstream flowering-time genes including Hd1, Ehd1 and Hd3a under both long-day (LD and short-day (SD conditions. Knock-down of Dlf1 expression exhibited early flowering at LD condition related to the wild-type plants. Accumulation of Dlf1 mRNA was observed in most tissues, and two splicing forms of Dlf1 cDNAs were obtained (OsWRKY11.1 and OsWRKY11.2. These two proteins showed transactivation activity in yeast cells. Dlf1 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. Enhanced expression of OsWRKY11.2 or its 5' truncated gene showed similar phenotypes to the dlf1 mutant, suggesting that it might function as a negative regulator. We conclude that Dlf1 acts as a transactivator to downregulate Ehd2/RID1/OsId1 in the signal transduction pathway of flowering and plays an important role in the regulation of plant height in rice.

  17. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  18. BD+15 2940 AND HD 233604: TWO GIANTS WITH PLANETS CLOSE TO THE ENGULFMENT ZONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, G.; Niedzielski, A.; Adamów, M.; Maciejewski, G.; Wolszczan, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of planetary-mass companions to two red giants by the ongoing Penn State-Toruń Planet Search (PTPS) conducted with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The 1.1 M ☉ K0-giant, BD+15 2940, has a 1.1 M J minimum mass companion orbiting the star at a 137.5 day period in a 0.54 AU orbit what makes it the closest—in planet around a giant and possible subject of engulfment as the consequence of stellar evolution. HD 233604, a 1.5 M ☉ K5-giant, is orbited by a 6.6 M J minimum mass planet which has a period of 192 days and a semi-major axis of only 0.75 AU making it one of the least distant planets to a giant star. The chemical composition analysis of HD 233604 reveals a relatively high 7 Li abundance which may be a sign of its early evolutionary stage or recent engulfment of another planet in the system. We also present independent detections of planetary-mass companions to HD 209458 and HD 88133, and stellar activity-induced radial velocity variations in HD 166435, as part of the discussion of the observing and data analysis methods used in the PTPS project.

  19. Nanodiamonds around HD 97048 and Elias 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kerckhoven, C; Tielens, AGGM; Waelkens, C

    We present an analysis of ISO-SWS observations of the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 97048 and Elias 1. Besides the well-known family of IR emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, "7.7", 8.6 and 11.2 mum these objects show strong, peculiar emission features at 3.43 and 3.53 mum. The latter two features show pronounced

  20. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Roa, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(IV) species was lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other tetravalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  1. The Reality of Living with AD/HD: Children's Concern about Educational and Medical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    A diagnosis of AD/HD may tell us that the child has the core characteristics of inattentiveness, impulsivity and or hyperactivity, but it fails to convey the extent to which the social context of the child's environment manipulates these characteristics. This article reports on how children with a diagnosis of AD/HD view the impact their social…

  2. IRF-4-mediated CIITA transcription is blocked by KSHV encoded LANA to inhibit MHC II presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Cai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides presentation to T cells by MHC class II molecules is of importance in initiation of immune response to a pathogen. The level of MHC II expression directly influences T lymphocyte activation and is often targeted by various viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV encoded LANA is known to evade MHC class I peptide processing, however, the effect of LANA on MHC class II remains unclear. Here, we report that LANA down-regulates MHC II expression and presentation by inhibiting the transcription of MHC II transactivator (CIITA promoter pIII and pIV in a dose-dependent manner. Strikingly, although LANA knockdown efficiently disrupts the inhibition of CIITA transcripts from its pIII and pIV promoter region, the expression of HLA-DQβ but no other MHC II molecules was significantly restored. Moreover, we revealed that the presentation of HLA-DQβ enhanced by LANA knockdown did not help LANA-specific CD4+ T cell recognition of PEL cells, and the inhibition of CIITA by LANA is independent of IL-4 or IFN-γ signaling but dependent on the direct interaction of LANA with IRF-4 (an activator of both the pIII and pIV CIITA promoters. This interaction dramatically blocked the DNA-binding ability of IRF-4 on both pIII and pIV promoters. Thus, our data implies that LANA can evade MHC II presentation and suppress CIITA transcription to provide a unique strategy of KSHV escape from immune surveillance by cytotoxic T cells.

  3. Asymmetric H-D exchange reactions of fluorinated aromatic ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yujun; Lim, XiaoZhi; Pan, Yuanhang; Zong, Lili; Feng, Wei; Tan, Choonhong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Chiral bicyclic guanidine catalyzes the asymmetric H-D exchange reactions. Up to 30% ee was achieved. DFT calculations were employed to elucidate and explain the origin of the reaction's stereoselectivity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. 75 FR 24786 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS[supreg] HD System Revision 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... storage regulations by revising the Transnuclear, Inc. (TN) NUHOMS[supreg] HD System listing within the... System cask design within the list of approved spent fuel storage casks that power reactor licensees can...

  5. RNA-binding proteins involved in post-transcriptional regulation in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke eVan Assche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional regulation is a very important mechanism to control gene expression in changing environments. In the past decade, a lot of interest has been directed towards the role of small RNAs in bacterial post-transcriptional regulation. However, small RNAs are not the only molecules controlling gene expression at this level, RNA-binding proteins play an important role as well. CsrA and Hfq are the two best studied bacterial proteins of this type, but recently, additional proteins involved in post-transcriptional control have been identified. This review focuses on the general working mechanisms of post-transcriptionally active RNA-binding proteins, which include (i adaptation of the susceptibility of mRNAs and sRNAs to RNases, (ii modulating the accessibility of the ribosome binding site of mRNAs, (iii recruiting and assisting in the interaction of mRNAs with other molecules and (iv regulating transcription terminator / antiterminator formation, and gives an overview of both the well-studied and the newly identified proteins that are involved in post-transcriptional regulatory processes. Additionally, the post-transcriptional mechanisms by which the expression or the activity of these proteins is regulated, are described. For many of the newly identified proteins, however, mechanistic questions remain. Most likely, more post-transcriptionally active proteins will be identified in the future.

  6. A Preliminary Multiple Case Report of Neurocognitive Training for Children With AD/HD in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary multiple case study examined the behavioral outcomes of neurocognitive training on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD in China, as well as parent acceptance of the treatment. The training approach targeted working memory, impulse control, and attention/relaxation (via brain electrical activity. Outcome measures included overt behavior as rated by parents and teachers, AD/HD symptom frequency, and parent opinion/feedback. Training was completed by five individuals and delivered via a themed computer game with electroencephalogram (EEG input via a wireless, single-channel, dry-sensor, portable measurement device. The objective (i.e., training outcomes and EEG and subjective (i.e., parent ratings/feedback and teacher ratings data suggested that use of the neurocognitive training resulted in reduced AD/HD behaviors and improvement in socially meaningful outcomes. The parents expressed satisfaction with the training procedure and outcomes. It is concluded that the innovative neurocognitive training approach is effective for improving behavior and reducing symptoms of AD/HD for children in China.

  7. Search for Black-Holes: the nature of the Unseen Companions of the Systems HD 152667 and 72754

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Pacheco, J.A. de

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the unseen companions in the single spectroscopic binary systems HD 152667 and HD 72754 is analysed. In the first system, the secondary is likely to be a normal B4 main sequence star while in HD 72754, the secondary, in spite of being the more massive star, is not detected. We cannot at the present, disregard the possibility that this massive object be associated with a collapsed star - a black-hole [pt

  8. About the structure and stability of complex carbonates of thorium (IV), cerium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, Jacqueline

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the study of complex carbonates of cations of metals belonging to the IV A column, i.e. thorium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV), and also cerium (IV) and uranium (VI), and more particularly focused on ionic compounds formed in solution, and also on the influence of concentration and nature of cations on stability and nature of the formed solid. The author first presents methods used in this study, discusses their precision and scope of validity. She reports the study of the formation of different complex ions which have been highlighted in solution, and the determination of their formation constants. She reports the preparation and study of the stability domain of solid complexes. The next part reports the use of thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectrometry, and crystallography for the structural study of these compounds

  9. Steroid treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease grade I: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Milone, Giuseppe; Cupri, Alessandra; Severino, Antonio; Fagioli, Franca; Berger, Massimo; Santarone, Stella; Chiusolo, Patrizia; Sica, Simona; Mammoliti, Sonia; Sorasio, Roberto; Massi, Daniela; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Raiola, Anna Maria; Gualandi, Francesca; Selleri, Carmine; Sormani, Maria Pia; Signori, Alessio; Risitano, Antonio; Bonifazi, Francesca

    2017-12-01

    Patients with acute graft- versus -host disease (GvHD) grade I were randomized to an observation arm (n=85) or to a treatment arm (n=86) consisting of 6-methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day, after stratification for age and donor type. The primary end point was development of grade II-IV GvHD. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV GvHD was 50% in the observation arm and 33% in the treatment arm ( P =0.005). However, grade III-IV GvHD was comparable (13% vs 10%, respectively; P =0.6), and this was true for sibling and alternative donor transplants. Moderate/severe chronic GvHD was also comparable (17% vs 9%). In multivariate analysis, an early interval between transplant and randomization (IV GvHD. Patients in the observation arm had less infectious bacterial episodes (12 vs 25; P =0.04), less severe infectious fungal episodes (0 vs 3; P =0.04), and less severe adverse events (3 vs 11; P =0.07). At five years, non-relapse mortality was 20% versus 26% ( P =0.2), relapse-related mortality 25% versus 21%, and actuarial survival was 51% versus 41% ( P =0.3) in the observation and treatment arms, respectively. In multivariate analysis, advanced disease phase, older age and an early onset of GvHD were significant negative predictors of survival, independent of the randomization arm. In conclusion, steroid treatment of acute grade I GvHD prevents progression to grade II but not to grade III-IV GvHD, and there is no effect on non-relapse mortality and survival. Patients treated with steroids are at a higher risk of developing infections and have more adverse events. ( Trial registered as EUDTRACT 2008-000413-29 ). Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  10. Asymmetric H-D exchange reactions of fluorinated aromatic ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Chiral bicyclic guanidine catalyzes the asymmetric H-D exchange reactions. Up to 30% ee was achieved. DFT calculations were employed to elucidate and explain the origin of the reaction\\'s stereoselectivity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Novel theory of the HD dipole moment. II. Computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, W.R.; Choi, J.H.; Knudson, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    In the preceding paper we derived a new theory of the dipole moments of homopolar but isotopically asymmetric molecules (such as HD, HT, and DT) in which the electrical asymmetry appears directly in the electronic Hamiltonian (in an appropriate Born-Oppenheimer separation) and the dipole moment may be computed as a purely electronic property. In the present paper we describe variation-perturbation calculations and convergence studies on the dipole moment for HD, which is found to have the value 8.51 x 10 -4 debye at 1.40 a.u. Using the two alternative formulations of the electronic problem, we can provide a test of basis-set adequacy and convergence of the results, and such convergence studies are reported here. We have also computed vibration-rotation transition matrix elements and these are compared with experimental and other theoretical results

  12. 75 FR 25120 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...] RIN 3150-AI75 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS[supreg] HD System Revision 1 AGENCY...), NUHOMS[supreg] HD System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to include... Modular Storage System for Irradiated Nuclear Fuel. Docket Number: 72-1030. Certificate Expiration Date...

  13. Secondary electron emission from solid HD and a solid H2-D2 mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Børgesen, P.; Hao-Ming, Chen

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electron emission from solid HD and a solid 0.6 H2 + 0.4 D2 mixture has been studied for electron and hydrogen ion bombardment at primary energies from 0.5 to 3 keV and 2 to 10 keV/amu, respectively. The yield for solid HD is well explained by a simple stoichiometric model of the low...

  14. Hybrids of the bHLH and bZIP protein motifs display different DNA-binding activities in vivo vs. in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiu-Kwan Chow

    Full Text Available Minimalist hybrids comprising the DNA-binding domain of bHLH/PAS (basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim protein Arnt fused to the leucine zipper (LZ dimerization domain from bZIP (basic region-leucine zipper protein C/EBP were designed to bind the E-box DNA site, CACGTG, targeted by bHLHZ (basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper proteins Myc and Max, as well as the Arnt homodimer. The bHLHZ-like structure of ArntbHLH-C/EBP comprises the Arnt bHLH domain fused to the C/EBP LZ: i.e. swap of the 330 aa PAS domain for the 29 aa LZ. In the yeast one-hybrid assay (Y1H, transcriptional activation from the E-box was strong by ArntbHLH-C/EBP, and undetectable for the truncated ArntbHLH (PAS removed, as detected via readout from the HIS3 and lacZ reporters. In contrast, fluorescence anisotropy titrations showed affinities for the E-box with ArntbHLH-C/EBP and ArntbHLH comparable to other transcription factors (K(d 148.9 nM and 40.2 nM, respectively, but only under select conditions that maintained folded protein. Although in vivo yeast results and in vitro spectroscopic studies for ArntbHLH-C/EBP targeting the E-box correlate well, the same does not hold for ArntbHLH. As circular dichroism confirms that ArntbHLH-C/EBP is a much more strongly alpha-helical structure than ArntbHLH, we conclude that the nonfunctional ArntbHLH in the Y1H must be due to misfolding, leading to the false negative that this protein is incapable of targeting the E-box. Many experiments, including protein design and selections from large libraries, depend on protein domains remaining well-behaved in the nonnative experimental environment, especially small motifs like the bHLH (60-70 aa. Interestingly, a short helical LZ can serve as a folding- and/or solubility-enhancing tag, an important device given the focus of current research on exploration of vast networks of biomolecular interactions.

  15. Quasiparticle propagation in aluminum fins and tungsten TES dynamics in the CDMS ZIP detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyle, M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: mpyle1@stanford.edu; Brink, P.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cabrera, B. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Castle, J.P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Colling, P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chang, C.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cooley, J. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lipus, T. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ogburn, R.W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Young, B.A. [Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    With the aim of improving the rejection of surface beta contamination on the CDMS ZIP detector, we have studied the effectiveness of our phonon pulse-shape discrimination by matching a Monte Carlo calculation to data from a 350{mu}m long Al fin with W TESs (Transition-Edge Sensors) at both ends. From this fit, we determined the Al film diffusivity to be D{sub Al}=0.010+/-0.001m{sup 2}/s, the quasiparticle trapping length in the Al fin to be l{sub trap}=180+/-10{mu}m, and the Al to W TES transmission to be f{sub Al/W}=0.002+/-0.001.

  16. AAV-mediated delivery of the transcription factor XBP1s into the striatum reduces mutant Huntingtin aggregation in a mouse model of Huntington’s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleta, Amparo; Vidal, Rene L.; Armentano, Donna; Parsons, Geoffrey; Hetz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The contribution of ER stress to HD has not been directly addressed. ► Expression of XBP1s using AAVs decreases Huntingtin aggregation in vivo. ► We describe a new in vivo model of HD based on the expression of a large fragment of mHtt-RFP. -- Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is caused by mutations that expand a polyglutamine region in the amino-terminal domain of Huntingtin (Htt), leading to the accumulation of intracellular inclusions and progressive neurodegeneration. Recent reports indicate the engagement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in human HD post mortem samples and animal models of the disease. Adaptation to ER stress is mediated by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an integrated signal transduction pathway that attenuates protein folding stress by controlling the expression of distinct transcription factors including X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1). Here we targeted the expression of XBP1 on a novel viral-based model of HD. We delivered an active form of XBP1 locally into the striatum of adult mice using adeno-associated vectors (AAVs) and co-expressed this factor with a large fragment of mutant Htt as a fusion protein with RFP (Htt588 Q95 -mRFP) to directly visualize the accumulation of Htt inclusions in the brain. Using this approach, we observed a significant reduction in the accumulation of Htt588 Q95 -mRFP intracellular inclusion when XBP1 was co-expressed in the striatum. These results contrast with recent findings indicating a protective effect of XBP1 deficiency in neurodegeneration using knockout mice, and suggest a potential use of gene therapy strategies to manipulate the UPR in the context of HD.

  17. Resolving the HD 100546 Protoplanetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager: Evidence for Multiple Forming, Accreting Planets

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Brittain, Sean; Grady, Carol; Burrows, Adam; Muto, Takayuki; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kuchner, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    We report Gemini Planet Imager H band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 $Myr$-old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared bright (super)jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal-infrared (IR) bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission originates an unresolved, po...

  18. Identification of Heading Date Six (Hd6 Gene Derived from Rice Mutant Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryanti Aryanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genes which were associated with flowering time to indicate the early maturity is known as heading date (Hd. Heading date six (Hd6 gene was identified from rice mutant varieties were Atomita 2, Atomita 3, Atomita 4, Bestari, Cilosari, Diah Suci, Sidenuk, Kahayan, Mayang, Meraoke, Mira-1, Pandan Putri, Superwin, Suluttan Unsrat 1, Suluttan Unsrat 2, Winongo, Woyla, Yuwono, while the rice var. Nipponbare was used as a positive control. All of rice mutant varieties derived from mutation induction by the dose of 0.2 kGy. The aim of this experiment was to find out the data base of mutant varieties which could be used as parent material with earlier maturity trait genetically. To obtain the DNA of plants, young leaves of each variety were extracted by liquid nitrogen, and then lysis and extracted by Kit Plant Genomic DNA. The amplification of DNA with 7 primers of Hd6 conducted of 40 cycles by PCR and were continues to separated by 1 % agarose. The results were shown that the rice Mira-1 and Bestari varieties obtained from mutation of Cisantana highly different from one to another on 7 primers of Hd6 used. Mayang variety from mutation of cross breeding between Cilosari and IR64, Pandan putri from Pandan wangi and Woyla from mutation of cross breeding from Atomita 2 and IR64 were highly different with those of their parents. Identification of Hd6 gene on Sidenuk variety was shown the same bands pattern with Nipponbare as control positive toward all primers used, this variety would be better for earlier maturity parent material compared to others. The information could be useful for breeding programs aiming to develop early maturing widely adaptive and high yielding rice cultivars.

  19. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Myoungryoul

    2010-09-28

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Yun, Kil-Young; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Herath, Venura; Xu, Fuyu; Wijaya, Edward; Bajic, Vladimir B; Yun, Song-Joong; De Los Reyes, Benildo G

    2010-12-01

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Trigger Hypoxia-Induced Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, N. S.; Maltepe, E.; Goldwasser, E.; Mathieu, C. E.; Simon, M. C.; Schumacker, P. T.

    1998-09-01

    Transcriptional activation of erythropoietin, glycolytic enzymes, and vascular endothelial growth factor occurs during hypoxia or in response to cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in Hep3B cells. However, neither the mechanism of cellular O2 sensing nor that of cobalt is fully understood. We tested whether mitochondria act as O2 sensors during hypoxia and whether hypoxia and cobalt activate transcription by increasing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results show (i) wild-type Hep3B cells increase ROS generation during hypoxia (1.5% O2) or CoCl2 incubation, (ii) Hep3B cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 cells) fail to respire, fail to activate mRNA for erythropoietin, glycolytic enzymes, or vascular endothelial growth factor during hypoxia, and fail to increase ROS generation during hypoxia; (iii) ρ 0 cells increase ROS generation in response to CoCl2 and retain the ability to induce expression of these genes; and (iv) the antioxidants pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and ebselen abolish transcriptional activation of these genes during hypoxia or CoCl2 in wild-type cells, and abolish the response to CoCl2 in ρ 0 cells. Thus, hypoxia activates transcription via a mitochondria-dependent signaling process involving increased ROS, whereas CoCl2 activates transcription by stimulating ROS generation via a mitochondria-independent mechanism.

  2. Dynamic behavior of PE-HD pipes grade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Buchar, Jaroslav; Nezbedová, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 373, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 1700038. ISSN 1022-1360 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : dynamic behavior * PE-HD * split Hopkinson pressure bar test * strain rate Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/masy.201700038/full

  3. Understanding evaporation characteristics of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) chemical agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H., E-mail: junghs@add.re.kr; Lee, H.W.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Evaporation rates of HD are obtained from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. • The rates increase with temperature and are linearly proportional to drop size. • HD evaporation from stainless steel follows only constant contact area mechanism. • HD evaporation from aluminum proceeds by a combined mechanism. - Abstract: We report herein the evaporation rates and mechanism of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. For systematic analysis, we used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorption (TD) connected to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and drop shape analysis (DSA). We found that the evaporation rates of HD from stainless steel and aluminum increased with temperature. The rates were also linearly proportional to drop size. The time-dependent contact angle measurement showed that the evaporation of the drop of HD proceeded only by constant contact area mechanism from stainless steel surface. On the other hand, the evaporation of HD from aluminum proceeded by a combined mechanism of constant contact area mode and constant contact angle mode. Our experimental data sets and analysis could be used to predict vapor and contact hazard persistence of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the air and on exterior surfaces with chemical releases, which assists the military decision influencing personnel safety and decontamination of the site upon a chemical attack event.

  4. Understanding evaporation characteristics of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) chemical agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H.; Lee, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaporation rates of HD are obtained from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. • The rates increase with temperature and are linearly proportional to drop size. • HD evaporation from stainless steel follows only constant contact area mechanism. • HD evaporation from aluminum proceeds by a combined mechanism. - Abstract: We report herein the evaporation rates and mechanism of a drop of distilled sulfur mustard (HD) agent from stainless steel and aluminum substrates. For systematic analysis, we used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorption (TD) connected to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and drop shape analysis (DSA). We found that the evaporation rates of HD from stainless steel and aluminum increased with temperature. The rates were also linearly proportional to drop size. The time-dependent contact angle measurement showed that the evaporation of the drop of HD proceeded only by constant contact area mechanism from stainless steel surface. On the other hand, the evaporation of HD from aluminum proceeded by a combined mechanism of constant contact area mode and constant contact angle mode. Our experimental data sets and analysis could be used to predict vapor and contact hazard persistence of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the air and on exterior surfaces with chemical releases, which assists the military decision influencing personnel safety and decontamination of the site upon a chemical attack event

  5. [Cloning and expression analysis of a zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein encoding gene in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Li, Yi-Min; Li, Biao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP) plays an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, a full length cDNA of ZIP encoding gene, designed as DoZIP1 (GenBank accession KJ946203), was identified from Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoZIP1 consisted of a 1,056 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoded a 351-aa protein with a molecular weight of 37.57 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.09. The deduced DoZIP1 protein contained the conserved ZIP domain, and its secondary structure was composed of 50.71% alpha helix, 11.11% extended strand, 36.18% random coil, and beta turn 1.99%. DoZIP1 protein exhibited a signal peptide and eight transmembrane domains, presumably locating in cell membrane. The amino acid sequence had high homology with ZIP proteins from Arabidopsis, alfalfa and rice. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that DoZIP1 was closely related to AtZIP10 and OsZIP3, and they were clustered into one clade. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of DoZIP1 in D. officinale roots was the highest (4.19 fold higher than that of stems), followed by that of leaves (1.12 fold). Molecular characters of DoZIP1 will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in the growth and development of D. officinale.

  6. State resolved rotational excitation in HD+D2 collisions. II. Angular dependence of 0→2 transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, U.; Huisken, F.; Maneke, G.; Schaefer, J.

    1983-01-01

    Time-of-flight spectra for the scattering of HD molecules from D 2 molecules have been measured at a collision energy of E = 70.3 meV over a range of center-of-mass scattering angles from 45 0 to 158 0 . The spectra reveal clearly resolved transitions at the energy loss ΔE = 33 meV which corresponds to 0→2 transitions of HD and the double transition 0→1 of HD and 0→2 of D 2 . The differential cross sections derived from these spectra increase with increasing scattering angle from 1.7% to 34.7% of the elastic cross section. The pure 0→2 transition of D 2 which only needs 22 meV to be induced could not be detected within our experimental sensitivity of 0.02 A 2 /sr. Closed coupled calculations based on the ab initio potential surface of Meyer and Schaefer show that this result can be explained by the different coupling terms which are responsible for these transitions. In contrast to the 0→1 transition the 0→2 transition of HD proved to be sensitive to the anisotropic part of the interaction potential for the homonuclear system. The comparison of experimental and calculated cross sections for the ab initio potential of Meyer and Schaefer reveals discrepancies for the 0→1 transition of HD, but shows agreement for the 0→2 transition of HD at intermediate angles

  7. Development of a new high density (HD) barium meal (Falibaryt HD) for double contrast investigation of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, R.

    1986-01-01

    During the development of a new double contrast barium meal barium sulfate preparations with various densities, additives and particle size distributions were tested. Phantoms made of leather, rubber and the opened stomachs of cows and pigs were used. A HD bariumsulfate suspension (200 - 250% W/V) of low viscosity and suitable grain size spectrum containing additives improving the adherence (e.g. natrium citrate) showed the best quality parameters for an optimal imaging of the fine mucosal relief. (author)

  8. Resonant ion-pair formation in electron collisions with HD+ and OH+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Aa.; Djuric, N.; Zong, W.; Greene, C. H.; Orel, A. E.; Al-Khalili, A.; Derkatch, A. M.; Le Padellec, A.; Neau, A.; Rosen, S.

    2000-01-01

    Resonant ion-pair formation from collisions of electrons with electronic and vibronic ground-state diatomic molecular ions has been studied in the present work for HD + and OH + . The cross section for HD + has a magnitude of the order of 3x10 -19 cm 2 and is characterized by an energy threshold and 14 resolved peaks in the energy range up to 16 eV. A theoretical study confirms that the structures derive primarily from quantum interference of the multiple dissociation pathways. Measurements for OH + reveal that the cross section for H + and O - formation is lower than 10 -21 cm 2 at energies of 6 and 12 eV. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  9. Some measurements of H/D polarizability isotope effects using differential refractometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster Smith, M; Van Hook, W A [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1989-05-01

    Refractive index differences between the H and D isomers of some common molecules in the liquid phase were measured between 404.7 and 690.0 nm. The data are combined with information on molar volume isotope effects to yield values for H/D isotope effects on the static polarizability, the vibrational contribution to the static and frequency dependent parts of the polarizability, and the H/D isotope effect on the second moment of the electronic charge distribution. The present results suffice to demonstrate the practicability of this technique to measure the components of the polarizability listed above. However for accurate resolution of the vibrational and second moment contributions, refractive index data of still greater precision will be required. (orig.).

  10. Some measurements of H/D polarizability isotope effects using differential refractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster Smith, M.; Van Hook, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    Refractive index differences between the H and D isomers of some common molecules in the liquid phase were measured between 404.7 and 690.0 nm. The data are combined with information on molar volume isotope effects to yield values for H/D isotope effects on the static polarizability, the vibrational contribution to the static and frequency dependent parts of the polarizability, and the H/D isotope effect on the second moment of the electronic charge distribution. The present results suffice to demonstrate the practicability of this technique to measure the components of the polarizability listed above. However for accurate resolution of the vibrational and second moment contributions, refractive index data of still greater precision will be required. (orig.)

  11. 75 FR 27401 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Storage Casks: NUHOMS[reg] HD System Revision 1; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... HD spent fuel storage cask system. This action is necessary to correctly specify the effective date... on May 6, 2010 (75 FR 24786), that amends the regulations that govern storage of spent nuclear fuel...

  12. IUE observations of an active region of HD206860

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, C; Catalano, S; Marilli, E [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1979-08-23

    The results of UV observations, with the IUE, of the Mg II H and k lines of HD206860, a GOV star, are reported. The aim of the observations was to search for short-term variability of the chromospheric emission connected with the rotation of the star.

  13. THE PECULIAR DEBRIS DISK OF HD 111520 AS RESOLVED BY THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, Zachary H.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Gerard, Benjamin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Rd., Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Duchêne, Gaspard; Wang, Jason J.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R. [Department of Astronomy, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Padgett, Deborah [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ammons, S. Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bulger, Joanna [Subaru Telescope, NAOJ, 650 North Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chen, Christine; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chilcote, Jeffrey K. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Doyon, René [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes, Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Fitzgerald, Michael P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Follette, Kate B.; Macintosh, Bruce [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hibon, Pascale [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Hinkley, Sasha [University of Exeter, Astrophysics Group, Physics Building, Stocker Rd., Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-08-01

    Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we have resolved the circumstellar debris disk around HD 111520 at a projected range of ∼30–100 AU in both total and polarized H -band intensity. The disk is seen edge-on at a position angle of 165° along the spine of emission. A slight inclination and asymmetric warp are covariant and alter the interpretation of the observed disk emission. We employ three point-spread function subtraction methods to reduce the stellar glare and instrumental artifacts to confirm that there is a roughly 2:1 brightness asymmetry between the NW and SE extension. This specific feature makes HD 111520 the most extreme example of asymmetric debris disks observed in scattered light among similar highly inclined systems, such as HD 15115 and HD 106906. We further identify a tentative localized brightness enhancement and scale height enhancement associated with the disk at ∼40 AU away from the star on the SE extension. We also find that the fractional polarization rises from 10% to 40% from 0.″5 to 0.″8 from the star. The combination of large brightness asymmetry and symmetric polarization fraction leads us to believe that an azimuthal dust density variation is causing the observed asymmetry.

  14. Simulation of polarimetric effects in planetary system HD 189733

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantseva, K.; Kostogryz, N. M.; Yakobchuk, T. M.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present results of linear polarization modelling for HD 189733 in the U filter using the Monte Carlo method. Our simulations are based on the well known effect that linear polarization of a centrosymmetric unresolved star becomes non-zero during the planet transit or in the presence of spots on its surface. HD 189733 is currently the brightest (m_{V}=7.67^{m}) known star to harbour a transiting exoplanet. This fact, along with the short orbital period (2.2 d), makes it very suitable for different types of observations including polarimetry. Since we are interested in occultation effects, a very important parameter is the ratio of the planet to star radii, which is also very large (0.15). As the host star is active and spots may cover up to 1% of the planetary surface, we perform our simulations for different spot parameters such as sizes, locations on the stellar disk, and temperatures.

  15. Identifying Motor, Emotional-Behavioral, and Cognitive Deficits that Comprise the Triad of HD Symptoms from Patient, Caregiver, and Provider Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Victorson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to identify important attributes associated with the triad of symptoms (cognition, emotional–behavioral, and motor of Huntington's disease (HD from patient, caregiver, and medical provider perspectives to facilitate development of a new disease‐specific, health‐related quality of life (HRQOL instrument. Methods: We conducted a targeted literature review of HD and HRQOL instruments, expert surveys, and patient and caregiver phone‐based interviews to extract information on the symptoms and issues most relevant to the HD symptom triad (HD triad. The data collected from these sources were used to generate themes and subdomains and to develop an integrated schema that highlights the key dimensions of the triad. Results: The search identified the following areas: emotional functioning/behavioral changes (e.g., positive emotions, sadness/depression; cognitive functioning (e.g., memory/learning, attention/comprehension; physical functioning (e.g., motor functioning, medication; social functioning (e.g., leisure, interpersonal relationships; end‐of‐life concerns/planning; and gene testing. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with HD and 16 HD caregivers, recruited from several Huntington's Disease Society of America support group networks, completed phone interviews. Nineteen US medical providers who specialize in HD completed the online survey. Twenty‐six subdomains of the HD symptom triad (seven cognition, 12 emotional–behavioral, and seven motor emerged relatively consistently across patient, caregiver, and provider samples. These included movements/chorea, memory impairment, depression, and anxiety. Discussion: Based on an integrated, mixed‐methods approach, important HD triad symptom were identified and organized into a guiding schema. These patient‐, caregiver‐, and provider‐triangulated data served as the basis for development of a HD‐specific HRQOL instrument, the HD‐PRO‐TRIAD™.

  16. 75 FR 27463 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS[supreg] HD System Revision 1; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... fuel storage casks to add revision 1 to the NUHOMS HD spent fuel storage cask system. This action is... Federal Register on May 7, 2010 (75 FR 25120), that proposes to amend the regulations that govern storage...

  17. Mesenchymal stromal cells for treatment of steroid-refractory GvHD: a review of the literature and two pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernicke Caroline M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Severe acute graft versus host disease (GvHD is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs play an important role in endogenous tissue repair and possess strong immune-modulatory properties making them a promising tool for the treatment of steroid-refractory GvHD. To date, a few reports exist on the use of MSCs in treatment of GvHD in children indicating that children tend to respond better than adults, albeit with heterogeneous results. We here present a review of the literature and the clinical course of two instructive pediatric patients with acute steroid-refractory GvHD after haploidentical stem cell transplantation, which exemplify the beneficial effects of third-party transplanted MSCs in treatment of acute steroid-refractory GvHD. Moreover, we provide a meta-analysis of clinical studies addressing the outcome of patients with steroid-refractory GvHD and treatment with MSCs in adults and in children (n = 183; 122 adults, 61 children. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the overall response-rate is high (73.8% and confirms, for the first time, that children indeed respond better to treatment of GvHD with MSCs than adults (complete response 57.4% vs. 45.1%, respectively. These data emphasize the significance of this therapeutic approach especially in children and indicate that future prospective studies are needed to assess the reasons for the observed differential response-rates in pediatric and adult patients.

  18. Overexpression of the transcription factor NF-YC9 confers abscisic acid hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chao; Ma, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) family proteins are involved in many developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in plants, but whether and how they regulate phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) signaling need further studies. In the present study, we showed that over-expression of the NF-YC9 gene confers ABA hypersensitivity in both the early seedling growth and stomatal response, while down-regulation of NF-YC9 does not affect ABA response in these processes. We also showed that over-expression of the NF-YC9 gene confers salt and osmotic hypersensitivity in early seedling growth, which is likely to be directly associated with the ABA hypersensitivity. Further, we observed that NF-YC9 physically interacts with the ABA-responsive bZIP transcription factor ABA-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), and facilitates the function of ABI5 to bind and activate the promoter of a target gene EM6. Additionally, NF-YC9 up-regulates expression of the ABI5 gene in response to ABA. These findings show that NF-YC9 may be involved in ABA signaling as a positive regulator and likely functions redundantly together with other NF-YC members, and support the model that the NF-YC9 mediates ABA signaling via targeting to and aiding the ABA-responsive transcription factors such as ABI5.

  19. Long-term safety and efficacy of autologous platelet lysate drops for treatment of ocular GvHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotta, S; Del Fante, C; Scudeller, L; Rossi, G C; Perotti, C; Bianchi, P E; Antoniazzi, E

    2017-01-01

    Current ocular GvHD (oGvHD) treatments are suboptimal. We investigated the safety and efficacy of long-term continuous treatment with autologous platelet lysate (PL) drops in patients with oGvHD Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) score 2-3 refractory to topical conventional therapy. Ophthalmic evaluation was performed at 6 month intervals. Symptoms were assessed using the Glaucoma Symptom Scale (GSS). Patients were defined 'responders' when showing a reduction at least one grade on National Institutes of Health Eye Score from baseline at the 6 month visit. Thirty-one patients were included, and 16 (51%) completed 36 months of follow-up (range 6.5-72.7). At 6 months all patients were classified as responders: median GSS symptom score decreased from 70 to 41 (33 at 36 months), median GSS function score reduced from 68 to 46 (33 at 36 months) (all P<0.001). Median Tear Break Up Time improved from 3 to 6 s after 6 months and was maintained over time. All signs improved at 6 and 36 months (clinical and statistical significance). No severe adverse events occurred. Long-term treatment with PL drops is secure and effective for oGvHD and can be an efficient therapy option from initial stages of oGvHD to prevent permanent ocular impairment and improving quality of life.

  20. Spectrum variability of the silicon Ap star HD 192913

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riabchikova, T.A.; Davidova, E.S.; Adelman, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The metal lines in the spectrum of the silicon Ap star HD 192913 are found to change with the photometric period. Many commonly found atomic species have lines which vary together in phase. The spectrum contains lines of most of the doubly ionized rare earth elements. 27 refs

  1. RESOLVING THE HD 100546 PROTOPLANETARY SYSTEM WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE FORMING, ACCRETING PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, Thayne [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope (Japan); Cloutier, Ryan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Brittain, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Grady, Carol; Kuchner, Marc J. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysics Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We report Gemini Planet Imager H-band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 Myr old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared (IR) bright (super-)Jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal IR-bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission plausibly originates from an unresolved point source. The point-source component of HD 100546 b has extremely red IR colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy super-Jovian planets; however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point-source-like peak at r{sub proj} ∼ 14 AU, located just interior to or at the inner disk wall consistent with being a <10–20 M{sub J} candidate second protoplanet—“HD 100546 c”—and lying within a weakly polarized region of the disk but along an extension of the thermal IR-bright spiral arm. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that this feature is a weakly polarized but locally bright region of the inner disk wall. Astrometric monitoring of this feature over the next 2 years and emission line measurements could confirm its status as a protoplanet, rotating disk hot spot that is possibly a signpost of a protoplanet, or a stationary emission source from within the disk.

  2. RESOLVING THE HD 100546 PROTOPLANETARY SYSTEM WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE FORMING, ACCRETING PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Brittain, Sean; Grady, Carol; Kuchner, Marc J.; Burrows, Adam; Muto, Takayuki; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    We report Gemini Planet Imager H-band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 Myr old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared (IR) bright (super-)Jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal IR-bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission plausibly originates from an unresolved point source. The point-source component of HD 100546 b has extremely red IR colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy super-Jovian planets; however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point-source-like peak at r proj ∼ 14 AU, located just interior to or at the inner disk wall consistent with being a <10–20 M J candidate second protoplanet—“HD 100546 c”—and lying within a weakly polarized region of the disk but along an extension of the thermal IR-bright spiral arm. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that this feature is a weakly polarized but locally bright region of the inner disk wall. Astrometric monitoring of this feature over the next 2 years and emission line measurements could confirm its status as a protoplanet, rotating disk hot spot that is possibly a signpost of a protoplanet, or a stationary emission source from within the disk

  3. Locus-specific microemulsion catalysts for sulfur mustard (HD) chemical warfare agent decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Ian A; Griffiths, Peter C; Cosgrove, Terence; Dreiss, Cecile A; Govan, Norman; Heenan, Richard K; Holden, Ian; Jenkins, Robert L; Mitchell, Stephen J; Notman, Stuart; Platts, Jamie A; Riches, James; Tatchell, Thomas

    2009-07-22

    The rates of catalytic oxidative decontamination of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chlororethyl) sulfide) and a range (chloroethyl) sulfide simulants of variable lipophilicity have been examined using a hydrogen peroxide-based microemulsion system. SANS (small-angle neutron scattering), SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering), PGSE-NMR (pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR), fluorescence quenching, and electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) were implemented to examine the distribution of HD, its simulants, and their oxidation/hydrolysis products in a model oil-in-water microemulsion. These measurements not only present a means of interpreting decontamination rates but also a rationale for the design of oxidation catalysts for these toxic materials. Here we show that by localizing manganese-Schiff base catalysts at the oil droplet-water interface or within the droplet core, a range of (chloroethyl) sulfides, including HD, spanning some 7 orders of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)), may be oxidized with equal efficacy using dilute (5 wt. % of aqueous phase) hydrogen peroxide as a noncorrosive, environmentally benign oxidant (e.g., t(1/2) (HD) approximately 18 s, (2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide, C(6)H(5)SCH(2)CH(2)Cl) approximately 15 s, (thiodiglycol, S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)) approximately 19 s {20 degrees C}). Our observations demonstrate that by programming catalyst lipophilicity to colocalize catalyst and substrate, the inherent compartmentalization of the microemulsion can be exploited to achieve enhanced rates of reaction or to exert control over product selectivity. A combination of SANS, ESI-MS and fluorescence quenching measurements indicate that the enhanced catalytic activity is due to the locus of the catalyst and not a result of partial hydrolysis of the substrate.

  4. SCExAO and GPI Y JH band photometry and integral field spectroscopy of the young brown dwarf companion to HD 1160

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Eugenio Victor; Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present high signal-to-noise ratio, precise Y JH photometry and Y band (0.957–1.120 μm) spectroscopy of HD 1160 B, a young substellar companion discovered from the Gemini NICI Planet Finding Campaign using the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics instrument and the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 1160 B has typical mid-M dwarf-like infrared colors and a spectral type of M5.5_−_0_._5"+"1"."0, where the blue edge of our Y band spectrum rules out earlier spectral types. Atmospheric modeling suggests HD 1160 B has an effective temperature of 3000–3100 K, a surface gravity of log g = 4–4.5, a radius of 1.55 ± 0.10 R J, and a luminosity of log L/L _⊙ = –2.76 ± 0.05. Neither the primary's Hertzspring–Russell diagram position nor atmospheric modeling of HD 1160 B show evidence for a subsolar metallicity. Interpretation of the HD 1160 B spectroscopy depends on which stellar system components are used to estimate the age. Considering HD 1160 A, B and C jointly, we derive an age of 80–125 Myr, implying that HD 1160 B straddles the hydrogen-burning limit (70–90 M _J). If we consider HD 1160 A alone, younger ages (20–125 Myr) and a brown dwarf-like mass (35–90 M _J) are possible. Interferometric measurements of the primary, a precise Gaia parallax, and moderate-resolution spectroscopy can better constrain the system's age and how HD 1160 B fits within the context of (sub)stellar evolution.

  5. Perception, experience, and response to genetic discrimination in Huntington disease: the international RESPOND-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Cheryl; Williams, Janet K; Juhl, Andrew R; Mengeling, Michelle; Mills, James A; Bombard, Yvonne; Hayden, Michael R; Quaid, Kimberly; Shoulson, Ira; Taylor, Sandra; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-07-01

    Genetic discrimination-defined as the denial of rights, privileges, or opportunities or other adverse treatment based solely on genetic information (including family history)-is an important concern to patients, healthcare professionals, lawmakers, and family members at risk for carrying a deleterious gene. Data from the United States, Canada, and Australia were collected from 433 individuals at risk for Huntington disease (HD) who have tested either positive or negative for the gene that causes HD and family members of affected individuals who have a 50% risk for developing the disorder but remain untested. Across all three countries, a total of 46.2% of respondents report genetic discrimination or stigma based on either their family history of HD or genetic testing for the HD gene mutation. We report on the overall incidence of discrimination and stigma in the domains of insurance (25.9%), employment (6.5%), relationships (32.9%), and other transactions (4.6%) in the United States, Canada, and Australia combined. The incidence of self-reported discrimination is less than the overall worry about the risk of discrimination, which is more prevalent in each domain. Despite a relatively low rate of perceived genetic discrimination in the areas of health insurance and employment, compared to the perception of discrimination and stigma in personal relationships, the cumulative burden of genetic discrimination across all domains of experience represents a challenge to those at risk for HD. The effect of this cumulative burden on daily life decisions remains unknown. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibody in childhood Hodgkin's disease (HD at Imam khomeini Medical Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid M

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Association of EBV with the tumor cells of HD has been proven by a variety of the methods, using serologic and immunohistochemical techniques and in the recent years with molecular biologic techniques which can detect EBV genome in tumor biopsies. In this regard we prompted to perform a case control study on 25 childhood HD cases with respected to their antibodies gainst EBNA and EBV-IgM antibodies in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. In our study the ratio of positive titers was significantly higher among HD patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy controls.

  7. Enhanced neuronal glucose transporter expression reveals metabolic choice in a HD Drosophila model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Marie Thérèse; Alegría, Karin; Garrido-Gerter, Pamela; Barros, Luis Felipe; Liévens, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by toxic insertions of polyglutamine residues in the Huntingtin protein and characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive and motor functions. Altered brain glucose metabolism has long been suggested and a possible link has been proposed in HD. However, the precise function of glucose transporters was not yet determined. Here, we report the effects of the specifically-neuronal human glucose transporter expression in neurons of a Drosophila model carrying the exon 1 of the human huntingtin gene with 93 glutamine repeats (HQ93). We demonstrated that overexpression of the human glucose transporter in neurons ameliorated significantly the status of HD flies by increasing their lifespan, reducing their locomotor deficits and rescuing eye neurodegeneration. Then, we investigated whether increasing the major pathways of glucose catabolism, glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) impacts HD. To mimic increased glycolytic flux, we overexpressed phosphofructokinase (PFK) which catalyzes an irreversible step in glycolysis. Overexpression of PFK did not affect HQ93 fly survival, but protected from photoreceptor loss. Overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the key enzyme of the PPP, extended significantly the lifespan of HD flies and rescued eye neurodegeneration. Since G6PD is able to synthesize NADPH involved in cell survival by maintenance of the redox state, we showed that tolerance to experimental oxidative stress was enhanced in flies co-expressing HQ93 and G6PD. Additionally overexpressions of hGluT3, G6PD or PFK were able to circumvent mitochondrial deficits induced by specific silencing of genes necessary for mitochondrial homeostasis. Our study confirms the involvement of bioenergetic deficits in HD course; they can be rescued by specific expression of a glucose transporter in neurons. Finally, the PPP and, to a lesser extent, the glycolysis seem to mediate the hGluT3

  8. Enhanced neuronal glucose transporter expression reveals metabolic choice in a HD Drosophila model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Thérèse Besson

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by toxic insertions of polyglutamine residues in the Huntingtin protein and characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive and motor functions. Altered brain glucose metabolism has long been suggested and a possible link has been proposed in HD. However, the precise function of glucose transporters was not yet determined. Here, we report the effects of the specifically-neuronal human glucose transporter expression in neurons of a Drosophila model carrying the exon 1 of the human huntingtin gene with 93 glutamine repeats (HQ93. We demonstrated that overexpression of the human glucose transporter in neurons ameliorated significantly the status of HD flies by increasing their lifespan, reducing their locomotor deficits and rescuing eye neurodegeneration. Then, we investigated whether increasing the major pathways of glucose catabolism, glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP impacts HD. To mimic increased glycolytic flux, we overexpressed phosphofructokinase (PFK which catalyzes an irreversible step in glycolysis. Overexpression of PFK did not affect HQ93 fly survival, but protected from photoreceptor loss. Overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, the key enzyme of the PPP, extended significantly the lifespan of HD flies and rescued eye neurodegeneration. Since G6PD is able to synthesize NADPH involved in cell survival by maintenance of the redox state, we showed that tolerance to experimental oxidative stress was enhanced in flies co-expressing HQ93 and G6PD. Additionally overexpressions of hGluT3, G6PD or PFK were able to circumvent mitochondrial deficits induced by specific silencing of genes necessary for mitochondrial homeostasis. Our study confirms the involvement of bioenergetic deficits in HD course; they can be rescued by specific expression of a glucose transporter in neurons. Finally, the PPP and, to a lesser extent, the glycolysis seem to

  9. Competition H(D) kinetic isotope effects in the autoxidation of hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchalski, Hubert; Levonyak, Alexander J; Xu, Libin; Ingold, Keith U; Porter, Ned A

    2015-01-14

    Hydrogen atom transfer is central to many important radical chain sequences. We report here a method for determination of both the primary and secondary isotope effects for symmetrical substrates by the use of NMR. Intramolecular competition reactions were carried out on substrates having an increasing number of deuterium atoms at symmetry-related sites. Products that arise from peroxyl radical abstraction at each position of the various substrates reflect the competition rates for H(D) abstraction. The primary KIE for autoxidation of tetralin was determined to be 15.9 ± 1.4, a value that exceeds the maximum predicted by differences in H(D) zero-point energies (∼7) and strongly suggests that H atom abstraction by the peroxyl radical occurs with substantial quantum mechanical tunneling.

  10. Serum Bicarbonate And Survival In Peritoneal Dialysis (Pd: Comparison With Hemodialysis (Hd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Correction of metabolic acidosis is one of the goals of effective dialysis. The KDOQI guidelines recommend serum bicarbonate >22 meq/L irrespective of dialysis modality. Since the measured bicarbonate reflects the steady state in PD patients and the lowest inter-dialytic value in HD patients, we compared the survival predictability of serum bicarbonate 10,400 PD and 110,951 HD patients treated in DaVita facilities from 7/2001-6/2006 with follow-up through 6/2007. PD patients were substantially less likely to have lower serum bicarbonate (adjusted odds, 22 meq/L for all end-stage renal disease irrespective of dialysis modality.fx1

  11. Effect of Insulin Infusion on Liver Protein Synthesis during Hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan; Jespersen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure that may contribute to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients receiving maintenance HD. The present study investigated the additional effect of glucose and glucose-insulin infusion on liver protein synthesis during HD...... compared with a meal alone. Methods In a randomized cross-over study with three arms, 11 non-diabetic HD patients were assigned to receive a conventional HD session with either: • no treatment (NT) • IV infusion of glucose (G) • IV infusion of glucose-insulin (GI) During infusions blood glucose levels were...... maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before infusion and followed by the only meal allowed during the study. Results Blood...

  12. Brain urea increase is an early Huntington's disease pathogenic event observed in a prodromal transgenic sheep model and HD cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Renee R; Reid, Suzanne J; Brauning, Rudiger; Maclean, Paul; Mears, Emily R; Fourie, Imche; Patassini, Stefano; Cooper, Garth J S; Rudiger, Skye R; McLaughlan, Clive J; Verma, Paul J; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Waldvogel, Henry J; Bawden, C Simon; Faull, Richard L M; Snell, Russell G

    2017-12-26

    The neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease (HD) is typically characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons and the midlife onset of debilitating and progressive chorea, dementia, and psychological disturbance. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin ( HTT ) gene, translating to an elongated glutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The pathogenic mechanism resulting in cell dysfunction and death beyond the causative mutation is not well defined. To further delineate the early molecular events in HD, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on striatal tissue from a cohort of 5-y-old OVT73 -line sheep expressing a human CAG-expansion HTT cDNA transgene. Our HD OVT73 sheep are a prodromal model and exhibit minimal pathology and no detectable neuronal loss. We identified significantly increased levels of the urea transporter SLC14A1 in the OVT73 striatum, along with other important osmotic regulators. Further investigation revealed elevated levels of the metabolite urea in the OVT73 striatum and cerebellum, consistent with our recently published observation of increased urea in postmortem human brain from HD cases. Extending that finding, we demonstrate that postmortem human brain urea levels are elevated in a larger cohort of HD cases, including those with low-level neuropathology (Vonsattel grade 0/1). This elevation indicates increased protein catabolism, possibly as an alternate energy source given the generalized metabolic defect in HD. Increased urea and ammonia levels due to dysregulation of the urea cycle are known to cause neurologic impairment. Taken together, our findings indicate that aberrant urea metabolism could be the primary biochemical disruption initiating neuropathogenesis in HD.

  13. Affordable headphones for accessible screening audiometry: An evaluation of the Sennheiser HD202 II supra-aural headphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Aerschot, Mathieu; Swanepoel, De Wet; Mahomed-Asmail, Faheema; Myburgh, Herman Carel; Eikelboom, Robert Henry

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of the Sennheiser HD 202 II supra-aural headphones as an alternative headphone to enable more affordable hearing screening. Study 1 measured the equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) of the Sennheiser HD 202 II. Study 2 evaluated the attenuation of the headphones. Study 3 determined headphone characteristics by analyzing the total harmonic distortion (THD), frequency response and force of the headband. Twenty-five participants were included in study 1 and 15 in study 2 with ages ranging between 18 and 25. No participants were involved in study 3. The Sennheiser HD 202 II ETSPLs (250-16000 Hz) showed no significant effects on ETSPL for ear laterality, gender or age. Attenuation was not significantly different (p > 0.01) to TDH 39 except at 8000 Hz (p 3%. Sennheiser HD 202 II supra-aural headphones can be used as an affordable headphone for screening audiometry provided reported MPANLs, maximum intensities and ETSPL values are employed.

  14. The zygomatic implant perforated (ZIP) flap: a new technique for combined surgical reconstruction and rapid fixed dental rehabilitation following low-level maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, C J; Rogers, S N

    2017-12-01

    This aim of this report is to describe the development and evolution of a new surgical technique for the immediate surgical reconstruction and rapid post-operative prosthodontic rehabilitation with a fixed dental prosthesis following low-level maxillectomy for malignant disease.The technique involves the use of a zygomatic oncology implant perforated micro-vascular soft tissue flap (ZIP flap) for the primary management of maxillary malignancy with surgical closure of the resultant maxillary defect and the installation of osseointegrated support for a zygomatic implant-supported maxillary fixed dental prosthesis.The use of this technique facilitates extremely rapid oral and dental rehabilitation within a few weeks of resective surgery, providing rapid return to function and restoring appearance following low-level maxillary resection, even in cases where radiotherapy is required as an adjuvant treatment post-operatively. The ZIP flap technique has been adopted as a standard procedure in the unit for the management of low-level maxillary malignancy, and this report provides a detailed step-by-step approach to treatment and discusses modifications developed over the treatment of an initial cohort of patients.

  15. Genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the weak A phenotype in Ael blood type with IVS6 + 5G>A ABO gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D-P; Sun, C-F; Ning, H-C; Peng, C-T; Wang, W-T; Tseng, C-P

    2015-01-01

    Ael is a rare blood type that is characterized by weak agglutination of RBCs when reacts with anti-A antibody in adsorption-elution test. Although IVS6 + 5G→A mutation is known to associate with the Ael blood type, genetic and mechanistic evaluation for the weak agglutination of Ael with IVS6 + 5G→A mutation has not yet been completely addressed. In this study, five cases of confirmed Ael individuals were analysed. The cDNAs for the A(el) alleles were obtained by cloning method for sequence analyses. The erythroleukemia K562 cells were used as the cell study model and were transfected with the A(el) expression construct. Flow cytometry analysis was then performed to determine the levels of surface antigen expression. The results indicated that IVS6 + 5G→A attributes to all cases of Ael . RT-PCR analyses revealed the presence of at least 10 types of aberrant A(el) splicing transcripts. Most of the transcripts caused early termination and produced non-functional protein during translation. Nevertheless, the transcript without exons 5-6 was predicted to generate functional Ael glycosyltransferase lacking 57 amino acids at the N-terminal segment. When the exons 5-6 deletion transcript was stably expressed in the K562 cells, weak agglutination of the cells can be induced by adding anti-A antibody followed by adsorption-elution test. This study demonstrates that aberrant splicing of A transcripts contributes to weak A expression and the weak agglutination of Ael -RBCs, adding to the complexity for the regulatory mechanisms of ABO gene expression. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. THE NASA-UC ETA-EARTH PROGRAM. I. A SUPER-EARTH ORBITING HD 7924

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Johnson, John Asher; Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Isaacson, Howard; Wright, Jason T.; Henry, Gregory W.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Anderson, Jay; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first low-mass planet to emerge from the NASA-UC Eta-Earth Program, a super-Earth orbiting the K0 dwarf HD 7924. Keplerian modeling of precise Doppler radial velocities reveals a planet with minimum mass M P sin i = 9.26 M + in a P = 5.398 d orbit. Based on Keck-HIRES measurements from 2001 to 2008, the planet is robustly detected with an estimated false alarm probability of less than 0.001. Photometric observations using the Automated Photometric Telescopes at Fairborn Observatory show that HD 7924 is photometrically constant over the radial velocity period to 0.19 mmag, supporting the existence of the planetary companion. No transits were detected down to a photometric limit of ∼0.5 mmag, eliminating transiting planets with a variety of compositions. HD 7924b is one of only eight planets detected by the radial velocity technique with M P sin i + and as such is a member of an emerging family of low-mass planets that together constrain theories of planet formation.

  17. THE ROTATION PERIOD OF HD-77581 (VELA X-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZUIDERWIJK, EJ

    The rotation period of HD 77581, supergiant primary in the X-ray binary Vela X-1, is determined from an analysis of selected absorption line profiles. The rotation rate determined from He I line profiles is 0.67 +/- 0.04 times that of the binary angular velocity, corresponding to a rotation velocity

  18. Spectroscopic Variability of Supergiant Star HD14134, B3Ia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. M. Maharramov

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... the hot supergiant HD14134 studied in the present paper has a mass-loss rate of ...... tific program for the priority fields of research of the. National .... emission-line stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, Astron. Astrophys., 158 ...

  19. Production of H,D(2s, 2p) by electron impact (0 - 2000 eV) on simple hydrogen containing molecules, ch. 2, A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlman, G.R.; Heer, F.J. de

    1977-01-01

    Absolute emission cross sections of Ly-α (H,D(2p → 1s)) radiation have been determined for 0 - 2000 eV electrons incident on H 2 , HD, HCl, H 2 O, NH 3 and CH 4 . By means of the application of electric quenching, the excitation cross sections of H,D(2s) could be obtained from the increase of the resulting Ly-α radiation for these molecules. Only in the case of electrons on H 2 , D 2 and HD was excitation of H,D(2s) found

  20. Interfacial Interactions and Nano structure Changes in DPPG/HD Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.; Zhang, P.; Sun, R.; Hao, Ch.; Wang, J.; Zhu, H.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, P.; Li, Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Lung surfactant (LS) plays a crucial role in regulating surface tension during normal respiration cycles by decreasing the work associated with lung expansion and therefore decreases the metabolic energy consumed. Monolayer surfactant films composed of a mixture of phospholipids and spreading additives are of optional utility for applications in lung surfactant-based therapies. A simple, minimal model of such a lung surfactant system, composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phosphor-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DPPG) and hexadecanol (HD), was prepared, and the surface pressure-area π-A) isotherms and nano structure characteristics of the binary mixture were investigated at the air/water interface using a combination of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Based on the regular solution theory, the miscibility and stability of the two components in the monolayer were analyzed in terms of compression modulusC_s"-1) , excess Gibbs free energy (δG"π_exc) , activity coefficients (γ), and interaction parameterζ. The results of this paper provide valuable insight into basic thermodynamics and nano structure of mixed DPPG/HD monolayers; it is helpful to understand the thermodynamic behavior of HD as spreading additive in LS monolayer with a view toward characterizing potential improvements to LS performance brought about by addition of HD to lung phospholipids

  1. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics relating to inertial confinement with spin polarized hydrogen targets: low temperature implementation of mating a target to omega; dilution-refrigerator cold-entry and retrieval system; target shell tensile strength characterization at low temperatures; and proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation measurements in HD in the millikelvin temperature range

  2. 76 FR 12825 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1; Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Storage Casks: NUHOMS[supreg] HD System Revision 1; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Nuclear... direct final rule amended the NRC's spent fuel storage regulations at Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 72.214) to revise the NUHOMS[supreg] HD System listing to include Amendment Number 1 to...

  3. THE McDONALD OBSERVATORY PLANET SEARCH: NEW LONG-PERIOD GIANT PLANETS AND TWO INTERACTING JUPITERS IN THE HD 155358 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Barnes, Stuart I.; Caldwell, Caroline; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, J.; Simon, Attila E.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-precision radial velocity (RV) observations of four solar-type (F7-G5) stars—HD 79498, HD 155358, HD 197037, and HD 220773—taken as part of the McDonald Observatory Planet Search Program. For each of these stars, we see evidence of Keplerian motion caused by the presence of one or more gas giant planets in long-period orbits. We derive orbital parameters for each system and note the properties (composition, activity, etc.) of the host stars. While we have previously announced the two-gas-giant HD 155358 system, we now report a shorter period for planet c. This new period is consistent with the planets being trapped in mutual 2:1 mean-motion resonance. We therefore perform an in-depth stability analysis, placing additional constraints on the orbital parameters of the planets. These results demonstrate the excellent long-term RV stability of the spectrometers on both the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope and the Hobby-Eberly telescope.

  4. Spectroscopic Binaries near the North Galactic Pole Paper 15: HD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Galactic Pole field he treated HD 106947 as if nothing were already known ... By good fortune a Palomar radial-velocity observing run in late 1986 fell near to a .... obvious to the naked eye as a grouping of fifth- and sixth-magnitude stars in an.

  5. Spectroscopic Binaries near the North Galactic Pole Paper 24: HD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Paper 24: HD 106104, 109281, 109463 and 110743. R. F. Griffin, The ... with photoelectric radial-velocity spectrometers for many years. They have ..... G3 V against the principal star's F9 V, so the two objects would very well pass for a physical ...

  6. An ABRE promoter sequence is involved in osmotic stress-responsive expression of the DREB2A gene, which encodes a transcription factor regulating drought-inducible genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June-Sik; Mizoi, Junya; Yoshida, Takuya; Fujita, Yasunari; Nakajima, Jun; Ohori, Teppei; Todaka, Daisuke; Nakashima, Kazuo; Hirayama, Takashi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2011-12-01

    In plants, osmotic stress-responsive transcriptional regulation depends mainly on two major classes of cis-acting elements found in the promoter regions of stress-inducible genes: ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) and dehydration-responsive elements (DREs). ABRE has been shown to perceive ABA-mediated osmotic stress signals, whereas DRE is known to be involved in an ABA-independent pathway. Previously, we reported that the transcription factor DRE-BINDING PROTEIN 2A (DREB2A) regulates DRE-mediated transcription of target genes under osmotic stress conditions in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the transcriptional regulation of DREB2A itself remains largely uncharacterized. To elucidate the transcriptional mechanism associated with the DREB2A gene under osmotic stress conditions, we generated a series of truncated and base-substituted variants of the DREB2A promoter and evaluated their transcriptional activities individually. We found that both ABRE and coupling element 3 (CE3)-like sequences located approximately -100 bp from the transcriptional initiation site are necessary for the dehydration-responsive expression of DREB2A. Coupling our transient expression analyses with yeast one-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays indicated that the ABRE-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (AREB1), AREB2 and ABRE-BINDING FACTOR 3 (ABF3) bZIP transcription factors can bind to and activate the DREB2A promoter in an ABRE-dependent manner. Exogenous ABA application induced only a modest accumulation of the DREB2A transcript when compared with the osmotic stress treatment. However, the osmotic stress-induced DREB2A expression was found to be markedly impaired in several ABA-deficient and ABA-insensitive mutants. These results suggest that in addition to an ABA-independent pathway, the ABA-dependent pathway plays a positive role in the osmotic stress-responsive expression of DREB2A.

  7. XUV-laser spectroscopy of HD at 92-98 nm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, P.C.; Werners, S.E.; Stolte, S.; Hogervorst, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Sub-Doppler excitation spectra of HD have been recorded in the range 9298 nm with the use of a narrow-band and tunable extreme ultraviolet laser in combination with a molecular beam. Frequencies of 147 transitions to the B 1u+, C 1 u, and EF 1g+ states have been calibrated with an average absolute

  8. Spectroscopic abundance analyses of the 3He stars HD 185330 and 3 Cen A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakane, Kozo; Nishimura, Masayoshi

    2018-04-01

    Abundances of 21 elements in two 3He stars, HD 185330 and 3 Cen A, have been analysed relative to the well-studied sharp-lined B3 V star ι Her. Six elements (P, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Br) are over-abundant in these two peculiar stars, while six elements (C, O, Mg, Al, S, and Cl) are under-abundant. Absorption lines of the two rarely observed heavy elements Br II and Kr II are detected in both stars and these elements are both over-abundant. The centroid wavelengths of the Ca II infrared triplet lines in these stars are redshifted relative to those lines in ι Her and the presence of heavy isotopes of Ca (mass number 44-46) in these two stars is confirmed. In spite of these similarities, there are several remarkable differences in abundance pattern between these two stars. N is under-abundant in HD 185330, as in many Hg-Mn stars, while it is significantly over-abundant in 3 Cen A. P and Ga are both over-abundant in 3 Cen A, while only P is over-abundant and no trace of absorption line of Ga II can be found in HD 185330. Large over-abundances of Kr and Xe are found in both stars, while the abundance ratio Kr/Xe is significantly different between them (-1.4 dex in HD 185330 and +1.2 dex in 3 Cen A). Some physical explanations are needed to account for these qualitative differences.

  9. Relationships between Neighborhood Walkability and Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Maggie; Ye, Xiaoling; Preciado, Priscila; Williams, Schantel; Campos, Israel; Bonner, Marcee; Young, Candace; Marsh, Daniel; Larkin, John W; Usvyat, Len A; Maddux, Franklin W; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Kotanko, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Neighborhood walkability is associated with indicators of health in the general population. We explored the association between neighborhood walkability and daily steps in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We measured daily steps over 5 weeks using Fitbit Flex (Fitbit, San Francisco, CA, USA) and retrieved Walk Score® (WS) data by patient's home ZIP code (www.walkscore.com; 0 = poorest walkability; 100 = greatest walkability). HD patients took a mean of 6,393 ± 3,550 steps/day (n = 46). Median WS of the neighborhood where they resided was 28. Patients in an above-median WS (n = 27) neighborhood took significantly more daily steps compared to those (n = 19) in a below-median WS neighborhood (7,514 ± 3,900 vs. 4,800 ± 2,228 steps/day; p walkability and the actual steps taken. These results should be considered when designing initiatives to increase and improvise exercise routines in HD populations. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Arene-mercury complexes stabilized by gallium chloride: relative rates of H/D and arene exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Catherine S; Barron, Andrew R

    2002-11-27

    We have previously proposed that the Hg(arene)(2)(GaCl(4))(2) catalyzed H/D exchange reaction of C(6)D(6) with arenes occurs via an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction in which the coordinated arene protonates the C(6)D(6). To investigate this mechanism, the kinetics of the Hg(C(6)H(5)Me)(2)(GaCl(4))(2) catalyzed H/D exchange reaction of C(6)D(6) with naphthalene has been studied. Separate second-order rate constants were determined for the 1- and 2-positions on naphthalene; that is, the initial rate of H/D exchange = k(1i)[Hg][C-H(1)] + k(2i)[Hg][C-H(2)]. The ratio of k(1i)/k(2i) ranges from 11 to 2.5 over the temperature range studied, commensurate with the proposed electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Observation of the reactions over an extended time period shows that the rates change with time, until they again reach a new and constant second-order kinetics regime. The overall form of the rate equation is unchanged: final rate = k(1f)[Hg][C-H(1)] + k(2f)[Hg][C-H(2)]. This change in the H/D exchange is accompanied by ligand exchange between Hg(C(6)D(6))(2)(GaCl(4))(2) and naphthalene to give Hg(C(10)H(8))(2)(GaCl(4))(2,) that has been characterized by (13)C CPMAS NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy. The activation parameters for the ligand exchange may be determined and are indicative of a dissociative reaction and are consistent with our previously calculated bond dissociation for Hg(C(6)H(6))(2)(AlCl(4))(2). The initial Hg(arene)(2)(GaCl(4))(2) catalyzed reaction of naphthalene with C(6)D(6) involves the deuteration of naphthalene by coordinated C(6)D(6); however, as ligand exchange progresses, the pathway for H/D exchange changes to where the protonation of C(6)D(6) by coordinated naphthalene dominates. The site selectivity for the H/D exchange is initially due to the electrophilic aromatic substitution of naphthalene. As ligand exchange occurs, this selectivity is controlled by the activation of the naphthalene C-H bonds by mercury.

  11. Gelidium amansii extract ameliorates obesity by down-regulating adipogenic transcription factors in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Hak-Ju; Han, Ji-Sook

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated whether Gelidium amansii extract (GAE) ameliorates obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HD) for 5 weeks to generate the DIO mouse model. And then mice fed HD plus 0.5% (GAE1), 1% (GAE2) or 2% (GAE3) for 8 weeks. After the experimental period, GAE-supplemented groups were significantly lower than the HD group in body weight gain and liver weight. GAE supplemented groups were significantly lower than the HD group in both epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue mass. The plasma leptin level was significantly higher in the HD group than in GAE-supplemented groups. The leptin level of HD+GAE3 group was significantly lower than that of the HD+conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) group. In contrast, plasma adiponectin level of the HD group was significantly lower than those of HD+GAE2 and HD+GAE3 groups. The expression levels of adipogenic proteins such as fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α in the GAE supplemented groups were significantly decreased than those in HD group, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of HD+GAE2 and HD+GAE3 groups are significantly decreased compared to those of HD+CLA group. On the contrary, the expression levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, proteins associated with lipolysis, were significantly increased in the GAE supplemented groups compared to those in the HD group. HD+GAE3 group showed the highest level among the GAE supplemented groups. These results suggested that GAE supplementation stimulated the expressions of lipid metabolic factors and reduced weight gain in HD-fed C57BL/6J obese mice.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of the specificity of transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juillerat, Alexandre; Dubois, Gwendoline; Valton, Julien

    2014-01-01

    A key issue when designing and using DNA-targeting nucleases is specificity. Ideally, an optimal DNA-targeting tool has only one recognition site within a genomic sequence. In practice, however, almost all designer nucleases available today can accommodate one to several mutations within...... their target site. The ability to predict the specificity of targeting is thus highly desirable. Here, we describe the first comprehensive experimental study focused on the specificity of the four commonly used repeat variable diresidues (RVDs; NI:A, HD:C, NN:G and NG:T) incorporated in transcription activator......-like effector nucleases (TALEN). The analysis of >15 500 unique TALEN/DNA cleavage profiles allowed us to monitor the specificity gradient of the RVDs along a TALEN/DNA binding array and to present a specificity scoring matrix for RVD/nucleotide association. Furthermore, we report that TALEN can only...

  13. HD 91669B: A NEW BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE FROM THE MCDONALD OBSERVATORY PLANET SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Ramirez, Ivan; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Shetrone, Matthew; Reffert, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of a brown dwarf candidate orbiting the metal-rich K dwarf HD 91669, based on radial-velocity data from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search. HD 91669b is a substellar object in an eccentric orbit (e = 0.45) at a separation of 1.2 AU. The minimum mass of 30.6M Jup places this object firmly within the brown dwarf desert for inclinations i ∼> 23 0 . This is the second rare close-in brown dwarf candidate discovered by the McDonald planet search program.

  14. Effects of superglue fuming on materials characterization of zip-lock polyethylene bags for route forensic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, C.J.; Grant, P.M.; Blankenship, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Using cyanoacrylate or 'superglue' fuming to develop latent dermatoglyphic prints significantly altered the volatile and semivolatile compounds within the material of polyethylene zip-lock bags. Comparisons of SPME-GC/MS analyses of poly bags obtained before and after application of a glue fuming fingermark-developing technique resulted in markedly different material profiles of the bags. Not only were species added to the chemical composition of a bag, but other compounds that had been initially present were removed. These effects are particularly important for nuclear forensic investigations in the realm of route (pathway) analyses, and may also be of general interest to criminalistics laboratories that examine illicit drugs and their packaging. (author)

  15. THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. III. A FAINT WHITE DWARF COMPANION ORBITING HD 114174

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin; Wright, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    The nearby Sun-like star HD 114174 exhibits a strong and persistent Doppler acceleration indicating the presence of an unseen distant companion. We have acquired high-contrast imaging observations of this star using NIRC2 at Keck and report the direct detection of the body responsible for causing the ''trend''. HD 114174 B has a projected separation of 692 ± 9 mas (18.1 AU) and is 10.75 ± 0.12 mag (contrast of 5 × 10 –5 ) fainter than its host in the K-band, requiring aggressive point-spread function subtraction to identify. Our astrometric time baseline of 1.4 yr demonstrates physical association through common proper motion. We find that the companion has absolute magnitude, M J = 13.97 ± 0.11, and colors, J – K = 0.12 ± 0.16 mag. These characteristics are consistent with an ≈T3 dwarf, initially leading us to believe that HD 114174 B was a substellar object. However, a dynamical analysis that combines radial velocity measurements with available imaging data indicates a minimum mass of 0.260 ± 0.010 M ☉ . We conclude that HD 114174 B must be a white dwarf. Assuming a hydrogen-rich composition, atmospheric and evolutionary model fits yield an effective temperature T eff = 8200 ± 4000 K, surface gravity log g = 8.90 ± 0.02, and cooling age of t c ≈ 3.4 Gyr, which is consistent with the 4.7 +2.3 -2.6 Gyr host star isochronal age estimate. HD 114174 B is a benchmark object located only 26.14 ± 0.37 pc from the Sun. It may be studied at a level of detail comparable to Sirius and Procyon, and used to understand the link between the mass of white dwarf remnants with that of their progenitors

  16. THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. III. A FAINT WHITE DWARF COMPANION ORBITING HD 114174

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Department of Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Wright, Jason T., E-mail: jcrepp@nd.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The nearby Sun-like star HD 114174 exhibits a strong and persistent Doppler acceleration indicating the presence of an unseen distant companion. We have acquired high-contrast imaging observations of this star using NIRC2 at Keck and report the direct detection of the body responsible for causing the ''trend''. HD 114174 B has a projected separation of 692 {+-} 9 mas (18.1 AU) and is 10.75 {+-} 0.12 mag (contrast of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}) fainter than its host in the K-band, requiring aggressive point-spread function subtraction to identify. Our astrometric time baseline of 1.4 yr demonstrates physical association through common proper motion. We find that the companion has absolute magnitude, M{sub J} = 13.97 {+-} 0.11, and colors, J - K = 0.12 {+-} 0.16 mag. These characteristics are consistent with an Almost-Equal-To T3 dwarf, initially leading us to believe that HD 114174 B was a substellar object. However, a dynamical analysis that combines radial velocity measurements with available imaging data indicates a minimum mass of 0.260 {+-} 0.010 M{sub Sun }. We conclude that HD 114174 B must be a white dwarf. Assuming a hydrogen-rich composition, atmospheric and evolutionary model fits yield an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 8200 {+-} 4000 K, surface gravity log g = 8.90 {+-} 0.02, and cooling age of t{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 3.4 Gyr, which is consistent with the 4.7{sup +2.3}{sub -2.6} Gyr host star isochronal age estimate. HD 114174 B is a benchmark object located only 26.14 {+-} 0.37 pc from the Sun. It may be studied at a level of detail comparable to Sirius and Procyon, and used to understand the link between the mass of white dwarf remnants with that of their progenitors.

  17. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Zhang, Hongxia; Gan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yuchao; Nie, Fengjie; Shi, Lei; Li, Miao; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhang, Guohui; Song, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT) and re-watering treatment (RWT) at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG) examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT) plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1), auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2), GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6), Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19), abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO) and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gong

    Full Text Available Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L. variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT and re-watering treatment (RWT at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C, Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1, auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2, GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6, Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19, abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  19. Delay Tolerance: A Therapeutic Possibility for AD/HD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke

    2004-01-01

    on these two insights to explore the possibility that the motivational alterations underpinning delay aversion can be modified through specific training regimes in a way equivalent to that found with executive and attentional training. The requirements for such an approach are set out. Delay fading is proposed as a possible basis for reorganizing delay experience, altering the incentive value of delay (e.g., increasing tolerance for delay, thereby reducing AD/HD symptoms.

  20. Compensation in Preclinical Huntington's Disease: Evidence From the Track-On HD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Klöppel

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation: Our findings provide evidence for active compensatory processes in premanifest-HD for cognitive demands and suggest a higher vulnerability of the left hemisphere to the effects of regional atrophy.

  1. Differential Rickettsial Transcription in Bloodfeeding and Non-Bloodfeeding Arthropod Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I Verhoeve

    Full Text Available Crucial factors influencing the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis rickettsiosis include pathogenesis and transmission. Detection of R. felis DNA in a number of arthropod species has been reported, with characterized isolates, R. felis strain LSU and strain LSU-Lb, generated from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, and the non-hematophagous booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, respectively. While it is realized that strain influence on host biology varies, the rickettsial response to these distinct host environments remained undefined. To identify a panel of potential rickettsial transmission determinants in the cat flea, the transcriptional profile for these two strains of R. felis were compared in their arthropod hosts using RNAseq. Rickettsial genes with increased transcription in the flea as compared to the booklouse were identified. Genes previously associated with bacterial virulence including LPS biosynthesis, Type IV secretion system, ABC transporters, and a toxin-antitoxin system were selected for further study. Transcription of putative virulence-associated genes was determined in a flea infection bioassay for both strains of R. felis. A host-dependent transcriptional profile during bloodfeeding, specifically, an increased expression of selected transcripts in newly infected cat fleas and flea feces was detected when compared to arthropod cell culture and incubation in vertebrate blood. Together, these studies have identified novel, host-dependent rickettsial factors that likely contribute to successful horizontal transmission by bloodfeeding arthropods.

  2. Genome-wide investigation of transcription factors provides insights into transcriptional regulation in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Dongna; Huang, Yuping; He, Weiyi; Li, Yiying; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2018-04-01

    Transcription factors (TFs), which play a vital role in regulating gene expression, are prevalent in all organisms and characterization of them may provide important clues for understanding regulation in vivo. The present study reports a genome-wide investigation of TFs in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a worldwide pest of crucifers. A total of 940 TFs distributed among 133 families were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of insect species showed that some of these families were found to have expanded during the evolution of P. xylostella or Lepidoptera. RNA-seq analysis showed that some of the TF families, such as zinc fingers, homeobox, bZIP, bHLH, and MADF_DNA_bdg genes, were highly expressed in certain tissues including midgut, salivary glands, fat body, and hemocytes, with an obvious sex-biased expression pattern. In addition, a number of TFs showed significant differences in expression between insecticide susceptible and resistant strains, suggesting that these TFs play a role in regulating genes related to insecticide resistance. Finally, we identified an expansion of the HOX cluster in Lepidoptera, which might be related to Lepidoptera-specific evolution. Knockout of this cluster using CRISPR/Cas9 showed that the egg cannot hatch, indicating that this cluster may be related to egg development and maturation. This is the first comprehensive study on identifying and characterizing TFs in P. xylostella. Our results suggest that some TF families are expanded in the P. xylostella genome, and these TFs may have important biological roles in growth, development, sexual dimorphism, and resistance to insecticides. The present work provides a solid foundation for understanding regulation via TFs in P. xylostella and insights into the evolution of the P. xylostella genome.

  3. Characterization of Rice Homeobox Genes, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24, and Over-expression of OsHOX24 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Suggest their Role in Abiotic Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna eBhattacharjee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24. These genes were highly upregulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, auxin, salicylic acid and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/TATTG and AH2 (CAAT(C/GATTG. Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses.

  4. Development, validation, and application of ELISA for detection of anti-HD105 antibodies in pre-clinical safety evaluation using monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Hyuck; Jo, Hye Ryun; Jeon, Eun-Jeong; Youm, So-Young; Jeon, Jang Su; Son, Yong-Gyu; You, Weon-Kyoo; Koh, Woo Suk; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2016-11-30

    Unwanted immunogenicity of protein therapeutics can result in severe side effects and should be assessed in animals before applying the treatment to humans. Monkeys are the most relevant choice for pre-clinical toxicity testing of antibody-based therapeutics. To assess the immunogenicity of HD105, a novel antibody therapeutic that targets both vascular endothelial growth factor and Delta-like-ligand 4, a bridging enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed as an anti-drug antibody (ADA) assay and validated for use in pre-clinical studies using non-human primates. This method was found to have suitable assay sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay precision, confirmation, drug tolerance, recovery, and sample stability for measuring ADA in monkey serum samples. The results showed that ADA elevation occurred following repeated doses of HD105, and that ADA production was negatively associated with serum HD105 concentration. These results suggest that intravenous administration of HD105 induces production of ADA in monkeys and that the detection of ADA may be negatively influenced by free HD105 in serum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In Planta Single-Molecule Pull-Down Reveals Tetrameric Stoichiometry of HD-ZIPIII:LITTLE ZIPPER Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Aman Y; Aggarwal, Vasudha; Ha, Taekjip; Timmermans, Marja C P

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering complex biological processes markedly benefits from approaches that directly assess the underlying biomolecular interactions. Most commonly used approaches to monitor protein-protein interactions typically provide nonquantitative readouts that lack statistical power and do not yield information on the heterogeneity or stoichiometry of protein complexes. Single-molecule pull-down (SiMPull) uses single-molecule fluorescence detection to mitigate these disadvantages and can quantitatively interrogate interactions between proteins and other compounds, such as nucleic acids, small molecule ligands, and lipids. Here, we establish SiMPull in plants using the HOMEODOMAIN LEUCINE ZIPPER III (HD-ZIPIII) and LITTLE ZIPPER (ZPR) interaction as proof-of-principle. Colocalization analysis of fluorophore-tagged HD-ZIPIII and ZPR proteins provides strong statistical evidence of complex formation. In addition, we use SiMPull to directly quantify YFP and mCherry maturation probabilities, showing these differ substantially from values obtained in mammalian systems. Leveraging these probabilities, in conjunction with fluorophore photobleaching assays on over 2000 individual complexes, we determined HD-ZIPIII:ZPR stoichiometry. Intriguingly, these complexes appear as heterotetramers, comprising two HD-ZIPIII and two ZPR molecules, rather than heterodimers as described in the current model. This surprising result raises new questions about the regulation of these key developmental factors and is illustrative of the unique contribution SiMPull is poised to make to in planta protein interaction studies. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Iron Starvation Conditions Upregulate Ehrlichia ruminantium Type IV Secretion System, tr1 Transcription Factor and map1 Genes Family through the Master Regulatory Protein ErxR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Moumène

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia ruminantium is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes heartwater, a fatal disease in ruminants. Due to its intracellular nature, E. ruminantium requires a set of specific virulence factors, such as the type IV secretion system (T4SS, and outer membrane proteins (Map proteins in order to avoid and subvert the host's immune response. Several studies have been conducted to understand the regulation of the T4SS or outer membrane proteins, in Ehrlichia, but no integrated approach has been used to understand the regulation of Ehrlichia pathogenicity determinants in response to environmental cues. Iron is known to be a key nutrient for bacterial growth both in the environment and within hosts. In this study, we experimentally demonstrated the regulation of virB, map1, and tr1 genes by the newly identified master regulator ErxR (for Ehrlichia ruminantium expression regulator. We also analyzed the effect of iron depletion on the expression of erxR gene, tr1 transcription factor, T4SS and map1 genes clusters in E. ruminantium. We show that exposure of E. ruminantium to iron starvation induces erxR and subsequently tr1, virB, and map1 genes. Our results reveal tight co-regulation of T4SS and map1 genes via the ErxR regulatory protein at the transcriptional level, and, for the first time link map genes to the virulence function sensu stricto, thereby advancing our understanding of Ehrlichia's infection process. These results suggest that Ehrlichia is able to sense changes in iron concentrations in the environment and to regulate the expression of virulence factors accordingly.

  7. A testis-specific and testis developmentally regulated tumor protein D52 (TPD52)-like protein TPD52L3/hD55 interacts with TPD52 family proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qinhong; Chen Jie; Zhu Li; Liu Yun; Zhou Zuomin; Sha Jiahao; Wang Shui; Li Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    Tumor protein D52-like proteins (TPD52) are small coiled-coil motif bearing proteins that were first identified in breast cancer. TPD52 and related proteins have been implicated in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. To date, three human TPD52 members had been identified, named hD52 (TPD52), hD53 (TPD52L1), and hD54 (TPD52L2). The most important characteristic of the protein family is a highly conserved coiled-coil motif that is required for homo- and heteromeric interaction with other TPD52-like proteins. Herein, we identified a novel TPD52-like sequence (TPD52L3, or hD55) in human testis using cDNA microarray. Sequence analysis of the deduced protein suggests that hD55 contains a coiled-coil motif and is highly conserved compared with other TPD52-like sequences. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays revealed that hD55 interacts with hD52, hD53, hD54, and itself. cDNA microarray detection found that hD55 was expressed at 5.6-fold higher levels in adult testis than in fetal testis. Additionally, the expression profile shows that hD55 is testis-specific, indicating a potential role for hD55 in testis development and spermatogenesis

  8. The period of the magnetic star HD 133 029

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, K.; Schoeneich, W.

    1976-01-01

    The period of 0.741285 days for the light variability of the magnetic star HD 133 029 was obtained from UBV observations. The observations of the effective magnetic field by Babcock show variations with a period of 0.7447 days. A small change of the period and a slow change of the magnitude of this magnetic star seems to be present. (author)

  9. Bound energy levels at the n=2 dissociation threshold in HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, T.G.P.; de Lange, A.; Brandi, F.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Level energies of g symmetry states lying just below the n = 2 dissociation threshold have been determined in a XUV + IR multi-step laser excitation experiment in HD, with an absolute accuracy of the excitation energy of 0.015 cm

  10. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  11. Lycopene activates antioxidant enzymes and nuclear transcription factor systems in heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, N; Hayirli, A; Bilgili, S; Kucuk, O

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, and muscle nuclear transcription factor [Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] expressions in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress (HS). A total of 180 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned randomly to one of 2×3 factorially arranged treatments: two housing temperatures (22°C for 24 h/d; thermoneutral, TN or 34°C for 8 h/d HS) and three dietary lycopene levels (0, 200, or 400 mg/kg). Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 10 birds. Birds were reared to 42 d of age. Heat stress caused reductions in feed intake and weight gain by 12.2 and 20.7% and increased feed efficiency by 10.8% (Plycopene level improved performance in both environments. Birds reared under the HS environment had lower serum and muscle lycopene concentration (0.34 vs. 0.50 μg/mL and 2.80 vs. 2.13 μg/g), activities of superoxide dismutase (151 vs. 126 U/mL and 131 vs. 155 U/mg protein), glutathione peroxidase (184 vs. 154 U/mL and 1.39 vs. 1.74 U/mg protein), and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (0.53 vs. 0.83 μg/mL and 0.78 vs. 0.45 μg/ mg protein) than birds reared under the TN environment. Changes in levels of lycopene and MDA and activities of enzymes in serum and muscle varied by the environmental temperature as dietary lycopene level increased. Moreover, increasing dietary lycopene level suppressed muscle Keap1 expression and enhanced muscle Nrf2 expression, which had increased by 150% and decreased by 40%, respectively in response to HS. In conclusion, lycopene supplementation alleviates adverse effects of HS on performance through modulating expressions of stress-related nuclear transcription factors. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Project VeSElkA: a search for the vertical stratification of element abundances in HD 157087

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalack, V.

    2018-06-01

    The new spectropolarimetric spectra of HD 157087 obtained recently with ESPaDOnS (Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for Observations of Stars) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are analysed to verify the nature of this object. The fundamental stellar parameters Teff = 8882 K, log g = 3.57 were obtained for HD 157087 from the analysis of nine Balmer line profiles in two available spectra. A comparison of the results of our abundance analysis with previously published data shows a variability of the average abundance with time for some chemical species, while the abundances of other elements remain almost constant. The abundance analysis also reveals evidence of a significant abundance increase towards the deeper atmospheric layers for C, S, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Zr. Together with the discovered enhanced abundance of Ca and Sc, this finding contradicts the classification of HD 157087 as a marginal Am star. An analysis of the available measurements of radial velocity revealed long- and short-period variations. The long-period variation supports the idea that HD 157087 is an astrometric binary system with a period longer than 6 yr. The presence of the short-period variation of Vr, as well as the detection of the temporal variation of the average abundance, suggests that HD 157087 may be a triple system, in which a short-period binary rotates around a third star. In this case, the short-period binary may consist of slowly rotating Am and A (or Ap with a weak magnetic field) stars that have similar effective temperatures and surface gravities, but different abundance peculiarities.

  13. Zipping, entanglement, and the elastic modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yoonjin; Gao, Yuan; Panzer, Matthew A.; Xiang, Rong; Maruyama, Shigeo; Kenny, Thomas W.; Cai, Wei; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Reliably routing heat to and from conversion materials is a daunting challenge for a variety of innovative energy technologies––from thermal solar to automotive waste heat recovery systems––whose efficiencies degrade due to massive thermomechanical stresses at interfaces. This problem may soon be addressed by adhesives based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, which promise the revolutionary combination of high through-plane thermal conductivity and vanishing in-plane mechanical stiffness. Here, we report the data for the in-plane modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films using a microfabricated resonator method. Molecular simulations and electron microscopy identify the nanoscale mechanisms responsible for this property. The zipping and unzipping of adjacent nanotubes and the degree of alignment and entanglement are shown to govern the spatially varying local modulus, thereby providing the route to engineered materials with outstanding combinations of mechanical and thermal properties. PMID:24309375

  14. Direct complexonometric determination of thorium (IV), uranium (IV), neptunium (IV), plutonium (IV) by titration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid with xylenol orange as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykov, A.G.; Piskunov, E.M.; Timofeev, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a method of determining Th(IV), U(IV), Np(N) and Pu(IV) in acid solutions by titration with diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid, the indicator being xylenol orange. It has been established that Th, U, Np and Pu can be determined to within 0.5-1.5%. Th and U in quantities of tens of milligrams can be determined with greater accuracy, attaining hundredths of one per cent. During titration the determination is not hindered by singly- and doubly-charged metal ions, trivalent lanthanides and actinides, except plutonium. The proposed method can be used to determine U(IV) in the presence of considerable quantities of U(VI) and Np(IV) in the presence of Np(V). Total concentrations of uranium or neptunium are determined by reducing uranium (VI) or neptunium (V) by a standard method (for example, using metallic lead, cadmium or zinc amalgam) to the tetravalent state and applying the method described in the paper. (E.P.)

  15. Transit confirmation and improved stellar and planet parameters for the super-Earth HD 97658 b and its host star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Grootel, V.; Gillon, M.; Scuflaire, R. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 17 Allée du 6 Août, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Valencia, D. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Madhusudhan, N.; Demory, B.-O.; Queloz, D. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Dragomir, D. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr. Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Howe, A. R.; Burrows, A. S. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Deming, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Ehrenreich, D.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Pepe, F.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S. [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Seager, S., E-mail: valerie.vangrootel@ulg.ac.be [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition. We present here the confirmation, based on Spitzer transit observations, that the super-Earth HD 97658 b transits its host star. HD 97658 is a low-mass (M {sub *} = 0.77 ± 0.05 M {sub ☉}) K1 dwarf, as determined from the Hipparcos parallax and stellar evolution modeling. To constrain the planet parameters, we carry out Bayesian global analyses of Keck-High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (Keck-HIRES) radial velocities and Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) and Spitzer photometry. HD 97658 b is a massive (M{sub P}=7.55{sub −0.79}{sup +0.83} M{sub ⊕}) and large (R{sub P}=2.247{sub −0.095}{sup +0.098}R{sub ⊕} at 4.5 μm) super-Earth. We investigate the possible internal compositions for HD 97658 b. Our results indicate a large rocky component, of at least 60% by mass, and very little H-He components, at most 2% by mass. We also discuss how future asteroseismic observations can improve the knowledge of the HD 97658 system, in particular by constraining its age. Orbiting a bright host star, HD 97658 b will be a key target for upcoming space missions such as the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), the Characterizing Exoplanet Satellite (CHEOPS), the Planetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO), and the James Webb Space Telescope to characterize thoroughly its structure and atmosphere.

  16. KNOW THE STAR, KNOW THE PLANET. V. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STELLAR COMPANION TO THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR HD 177830

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Beichman, Charles; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Lockhart, Thomas G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States); Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Brenner, Douglas; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Nilsson, Ricky [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Dekany, Richard; Hillenbrand, Lynne [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); King, David; Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road., Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Pueyo, Laurent [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Rice, Emily L., E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); and others

    2015-10-15

    HD 177830 is an evolved K0IV star with two known exoplanets. In addition to the planetary companions it has a late-type stellar companion discovered with adaptive optics imagery. We observed the binary star system with the PHARO near-IR camera and the Project 1640 coronagraph. Using the Project 1640 coronagraph and integral field spectrograph we extracted a spectrum of the stellar companion. This allowed us to determine that the spectral type of the stellar companion is a M4 ± 1 V. We used both instruments to measure the astrometry of the binary system. Combining these data with published data, we determined that the binary star has a likely period of approximately 800 years with a semimajor axis of 100–200 AU. This implies that the stellar companion has had little or no impact on the dynamics of the exoplanets. The astrometry of the system should continue to be monitored, but due to the slow nature of the system, observations can be made once every 5–10 years.

  17. Light response and potential interacting proteins of a grape flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Run-Ze; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), a member of cytochrome P450 protein family, introduces B-ring hydroxyl group in the 3' position of the flavonoid. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a F3'H gene (VviF3'H), which contains an open reading frame of 1530 bp encoding a polypeptide of 509 amino acids, was cloned and characterized from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. VviF3'H showed high homology to known F3'H genes, especially F3'Hs from the V. vinifera reference genome (Pinot Noir) and lotus. Expression profiling analysis using real-time PCR revealed that VviF3'H was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues including berries, leaves, flowers, roots, stems and tendrils, suggesting its important physiological role in plant growth and development. Moreover, the transcript level of VviF3'H gene in grape berries was relatively higher at early developmental stages and gradually decreased during véraison, and then increased in the mature phase. In addition, the promoter of VviF3'H was isolated by using TAIL-PCR. Yeast one-hybrid screening of the Cabernet Sauvignon cDNA library and subsequent in vivo/vitro validations revealed the interaction between VviF3'H promoter and several transcription factors, including members of HD-Zip, NAC, MYB and EIN families. A transcriptional regulation mechanism of VviF3'H expression is proposed for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. KEPLER-21b: A 1.6 R{sub Earth} PLANET TRANSITING THE BRIGHT OSCILLATING F SUBGIANT STAR HD 179070

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Steve B. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Quinn, Samuel N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Metcalfe, Travis S. [High Altitude Observatory and Scientific Computing Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Monteiro, Mario J. P. F. G. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Appourchaux, Thierry [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris XI-CNRS (UMR8617), Batiment 121, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Creevey, Orlagh L. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Quirion, Pierre-Olivier [Canadian Space Agency, 6767 Boulevard de l' Aeroport, Saint-Hubert, QC, J3Y 8Y9 (Canada); Stello, Denis [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Garcia, Rafael A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot-IRFU/SAp, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2012-02-20

    We present Kepler observations of the bright (V = 8.3), oscillating star HD 179070. The observations show transit-like events which reveal that the star is orbited every 2.8 days by a small, 1.6 R{sub Earth} object. Seismic studies of HD 179070 using short cadence Kepler observations show that HD 179070 has a frequency-power spectrum consistent with solar-like oscillations that are acoustic p-modes. Asteroseismic analysis provides robust values for the mass and radius of HD 179070, 1.34 {+-} 0.06 M{sub Sun} and 1.86 {+-} 0.04 R{sub Sun }, respectively, as well as yielding an age of 2.84 {+-} 0.34 Gyr for this F5 subgiant. Together with ground-based follow-up observations, analysis of the Kepler light curves and image data, and blend scenario models, we conservatively show at the >99.7% confidence level (3{sigma}) that the transit event is caused by a 1.64 {+-} 0.04 R{sub Earth} exoplanet in a 2.785755 {+-} 0.000032 day orbit. The exoplanet is only 0.04 AU away from the star and our spectroscopic observations provide an upper limit to its mass of {approx}10 M{sub Earth} (2{sigma}). HD 179070 is the brightest exoplanet host star yet discovered by Kepler.

  19. Spectral analysis of the He-enriched sdO-star HD 127493

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Matti; Latour, Marilyn; Heber, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    The bright sdO star HD127493 is known to be of mixed H/He composition and excellent archival spectra covering both optical and ultraviolet ranges are available. UV spectra play a key role as they give access to many chemical species that do not show spectral lines in the optical, such as iron and nickel. This encouraged the quantitative spectral analysis of this prototypical mixed H/He composition sdO star. We determined atmospher