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Sample records for hcv positive plasma

  1. Molecular Signature in HCV-Positive Lymphomas

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    Valli De Re

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus, which has been associated to different subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL. Cumulative evidence suggests an HCV-related antigen driven process in the B-NHL development. The underlying molecular signature associated to HCV-related B-NHL has to date remained obscure. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in this field with a special mention to different sets of genes whose expression is associated with BCR coupled to Blys signaling which in turn was found to be linked to B-cell maturation stages and NF-κb transcription factor. Even if recent progress on HCV-B-NHL signature has been made, the precise relationship between HCV and lymphoma development and phenotype signature remain to be clarified.

  2. Molecular signature in HCV-positive lymphomas.

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    De Re, Valli; Caggiari, Laura; Garziera, Marica; De Zorzi, Mariangela; Repetto, Ombretta

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus, which has been associated to different subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Cumulative evidence suggests an HCV-related antigen driven process in the B-NHL development. The underlying molecular signature associated to HCV-related B-NHL has to date remained obscure. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in this field with a special mention to different sets of genes whose expression is associated with BCR coupled to Blys signaling which in turn was found to be linked to B-cell maturation stages and NF-κb transcription factor. Even if recent progress on HCV-B-NHL signature has been made, the precise relationship between HCV and lymphoma development and phenotype signature remain to be clarified.

  3. HCV-RNA positivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic HCV-infection: does it really mean viral replication?

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    Volker Meier; Sabine Mihm; Perdita Wietzke-Braun; Guliano Ramadori

    2001-01-01

    AIM To analyze the association of HCV-RNA with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)and to answer the question whether HCV-RNA positivity in PBMC is due to viral replication,METHODS HCV-RNA was monitored in serumand PBMC preparations from 15 patients with chronic HCV infection before, during and after an IFN-α therapy using a nested RT/ PCRtechnique. In a second approach, PBMC from healthy donors were incubated in HCV positive plasma.RESULTS In the IFN-α responding patients,HCV-RNA disappeared first from total RNApreparations of PBMC and then from serum. In contrast, in relapsing patients, HCV-RNAreappeared first in serum and then in PBMC. A quantitative analysis of the HCV-RNAconcentration in serum was performed before and after transition from detectable to nondetectable HCV-RNA in PBMC-RNA and vice versa. When HCV-RNA was detectable in PBMCpreparations, the HCV concentration in serum was significantly higher than the serum HCV-RNA concentration when HCV-RNA in PBMC was not detectable. Furthermore, at no time during the observation period was HCV specific RNA observed in PBMC, if HCV-RNA in serum was under the detection limit. Incubation of PBMCfrom healthy donors with several dilutions of HCV positive plasma for two hours showed a concentration-dependent PCR-positivity for HCV-RNA in reisolated PBMC.CONCLUSION The detectability of HCV-RNA in total RNA from PBMC seems to depend on the HCV concentration in serum. Contamination or passive adsorption by circulating virus could be the reason for detection of HCV-RNA in PBMCpreparations of chronically infected patients.

  4. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific in vitro antibody secretion by peripheral blood lymphocytes: correlation with progression of disease and HCV RNA in HCV antibody-positive patients.

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    Ducos, J.; Bianchi-Mondain, A M; Francois, M.; Boisset, M; Vendrell, J P; Barin, F; Serre, A; Larrey, D

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus-specific in vitro antibody production (HCV IVAP) by peripheral blood lymphocytes in 53 HCV antibody-positive patients was investigated in comparison with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and HCV RNA in serum samples. All 29 HCV IVAP-positive patients were HCV RNA positive; 26 had elevated ALT levels. Among the 24 HCV IVAP-negative patients, 16 were HCV RNA negative, with 12 presenting normal ALT values. These data indicate that HCV IVAP results are highly correlated (P ...

  5. Significance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV core antigen as an alternative plasma marker of active HCV infection

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    Daniel HDJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the role of core antigen (Ortho trak-C assay as a marker of active HCV infection in comparison to HCV RNA as detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Methods: This evaluation was carried out during January 2000 to December 2003 in HCV infected individuals who were treatment naοve or were on anti-viral therapy. Additionally, sequential plasma samples from patients on clinical follow-up were included in this study. A total of 167 samples from 61 patients were tested by trak-C and RT-PCR. HCV RNA detection was achieved by a RT-PCR. Trak-C assay results were also compared in a limited proportion of these samples with known HCV viral load and genotype. Results: Of 167 samples tested, 56.9% were RNA positive and 43.1% were RNA negative while 50.3% were trak-C positive and 49.7% were trak-C negative, yielding a sensitivity of 85.3% and a specificity of 95.8% for the trak-C assay (Kappa co-efficient = 0.8. The concentration of HCVcAg and HCV RNA showed significant correlation (n=38, r=0.334, P =0.04. The trak-C assay detected the most prevalent HCV genotypes in India without significant difference ( P =0.335. The difference between mean absorbance values of HCV RNA positive samples compared to HCV RNA negative samples in the trak-C assay was highly significant ( P < 0.000. Qualitative results of trak-C assay and RT-PCR were comparable in 93% of follow-up samples. Conclusions: Trak-C assay can be recommended for confirmation of HCV infection and follow-up in laboratories with resource-poor facilities.

  6. No evidence of occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in serum of HCV antibody-positive HCV RNA-negative kidney-transplant patients.

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    Nicot, Florence; Kamar, Nassim; Mariamé, Bernard; Rostaing, Lionel; Pasquier, Christophe; Izopet, Jacques

    2010-06-01

    Persistence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients who cleared HCV is still debated. Occult HCV infection is described as the presence of detectable HCV RNA in liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with undetectable plasma HCV-RNA by conventional PCR assays. We have assessed the persistence of HCV in 26 kidney-transplant patients, followed up for 10.5 years (range 2-16), after HCV elimination while on hemodialysis. If HCV really did persist, arising out of the loss of immune control caused by institution of the regimen of immunosuppressive drugs after kidney transplantation, HCV reactivation would have taken place. Their immunosuppression relied on calcineurin inhibitors (100%), and/or steroids (62%), and/or antimetabolites (94%). An induction therapy, given to 22 patients, relied on rabbit antithymocyte globulin (59%) or anti-IL2-receptor blockers (32%). All patients had undetectable HCV RNA as ascertained by several conventional tests. At the last follow-up, no residual HCV RNA was detected in the five liver biopsies, the 26 plasma, and in the 37 nonstimulated and 24 stimulated PBMCs tested with an ultrasensitive RT-PCR assay (detection limit, 2 IU/ml). No biochemical or virologic relapse was seen during follow-up. The absence of HCV relapse in formerly HCV-infected immunocompromised patients suggests the complete eradication of HCV after its elimination while on dialysis.

  7. Correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients

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    Matera Antonio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of intrafamilial HCV transmission are still being debated. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients in Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 175 HCV positive patients (index cases, recruited from Policlinico Gemelli in Rome as well as other hospitals in Central Italy between 1995 and 2000 (40% female, mean age 57 ± 15.2 years, and 259 familial contacts. Differences in proportions of qualitative variables were tested with non-parametric tests (χ2, Yates correction, Fisher exact test, and a p value Results Seropositivity for HCV was found in 8.9% of the contacts. From the univariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated to HCV positivity in the contacts were: intravenous drug addiction (p = 0.004 and intercourse with drug addicts (p = 0.005. The only variables associated significantly and independently to HCV seropositivity in patients' contacts were intercourse with drug addicts (OR = 19.28; 95% CI: 2.01 – 184.94, the retirement status from work (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.17 – 11.98, the time of the relationship (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.11 and tattoos (OR = 7.68; 95% CI: 1.00 – 60.20. Conclusion The present study confirms that having intercourse with a drug addict is the most significant risk factor for intrafamilial HCV transmission. The association with retirement status from work could be related to both a long-term relationship with an index case and past exposure to common risk factors.

  8. Dynamic of Mixed HCV Infection in Plasma and PBMC of HIV/HCV Patients Under Treatment With Peg-IFN/Ribavirin.

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    Bagaglio, Sabrina; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Di Serio, Clelia; Trentini, Filippo; Andolina, Andrea; Hasson, Hamid; Messina, Emanuela; Merli, Marco; Porrino, Lucy; Lazzarin, Adriano; Morsica, Giulia

    2015-10-01

    The extent of mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype in different compartments (plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell, PBMC) and possible association with treatment efficacy in HIV/HCV coinfected patients remains to be unknown.The objective of this study was to elucidate the frequency of mixed genotype infection (MG), its profile in different compartments during anti-HCV treatment, and the possible influence of different genotypes on the response rate.The compartmentalization of HCV population was investigated by next-generation sequencing in 19 HIV/HCV coinfected patients under anti-HCV treatment with peginterferon/ribavirin (P-R). Ten individuals were nonresponder (NR) or relapser (RE) to P-R treatment and 9 had a sustained virological response (SVR).Eleven/nineteen (58%) patients had MG in plasma compartment. Ten or 12 patients infected by a difficult to treat genotype (DTG) 1 or 4 as dominant strain, had an MG, whereas only 1/7 individuals infected by easy to treat genotype (ETG) harbored a mixed genotype, P = 0.006. HCV-RNA was more frequently detected in PBMC of NR (10/10) than in those of SVR (5/9), P = 0.032. Mixed genotype infection was detected in 6/15 (40%) PBMC-positive cases and was not associated with P-R treatment response. By multivariate analysis, MG in plasma samples was the most important viral factor affecting the treatment response (P = 0.0237).Detection of MG in plasma of HIV/HCV coinfected patients seems to represent the major determinant of response to P-R treatment. This finding may have important clinical implication in light of the new therapeutic approach in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals suggesting that combination treatment with direct acting antivirals could be less effective in MG.

  9. HCV

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    2011-01-01

    An inspection of the sequence similarity between the hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein and human proteins revealed a high level of peptide sharing, with a limited number of motifs unique to the virus (i.e., with no counterpart in the human proteome). Using pentapeptide matching, only 214 motifs out of a total of 3,007 (7.11%) identified HCV as nonself compared to the Homo sapiens proteome. However, this virus-versus-human phenetic difference disappeared at the genetic level. Indeed, a BLAST analysis of pentadecameric oligodeoxynucleotide sequences corresponding to the 214 pentapeptides unique to HCV revealed that almost all of them are present in the human genome, located in the non-coding strand, introns, and/or pseudogenes, thus being, as such, untranslatable. The present data warn against using DNA-based vaccines to fight HCV infection and emphasize peptide uniqueness as the molecular basis for designing effective anti-HCV immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:22299062

  10. Lower Ribavirin Plasma Concentrations in HCV/HIV-Coinfected Patients Than in HCV-Monoinfected Patients Despite Similar Dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, M.J.; Kanter, C.T.M.M. de; Dofferhoff, A.S.; Grintjes-Huisman, K.J.T.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Fleuren, H.W.; Gisolf, E.H.; Koopmans, P.P.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Burger, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-coinfected patients respond worse to dual therapy with ribavirin (RBV)/peginterferon compared with HCV-monoinfected patients. Several trials found that lower RBV plasma concentrations are associated with impaired virological response rates. The aim of this stu

  11. HTLV infection in HCV-antibody positive patients in Spain.

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    Treviño, Ana; Aguilera, Antonio; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel A; Hernandez, Araceli; Benito, Rafael; Roc, Lourdes; Ramos, José Manuel; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Poveda, Eva; Rodríguez, Carmen; Del Romero, Jorge; Calderon, Enrique; García, Juan; Requena, Silvia; Soriano, Vincent; de Mendoza, Carmen

    2017-03-07

    Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) share transmission routes, dual infection could be frequent. In Spain, HTLV underdiagnosis is highlighted by the high proportion of patients presenting either with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) at first diagnosis. We examined whether the renewed efforts for expanding HCV testing may provide a sentinel population that might selectively be targeted to unveil asymptomatic HTLV carriers. The presence of anti-HTLV antibodies was examined in 3,838 consecutive individuals with reactive HCV serology attended during the last three years at 13 hospitals distributed across the Spanish geography. Overall 71% were male and the median age was 41-years old. Foreigners represented 9% of the study population. A total of 50 individuals (1.3%) were seroreactive for HTLV, being 30 confirmed as HTLV-2 and two as HTLV-1 (0.12%). The remaining 18 had indeterminate Western blot patterns. Most individuals with HTLV-2 and HTLV indeterminate serology were HIV-positive, former injection drug users and native Spaniards. In contrast, the two HTLV-1 infections were found in men coming from Brazil and the Dominican Republic, respectively. In summary, the overall prevalence of HTLV infection in individuals living in Spain seropositive for HCV is 1.3%, more than 10-fold greater than in general outclinics in Spain. However, immigrants from HTLV-1 endemic regions and former injection drug users with HTLV-2 infection are by far the major contributory groups in HCV patients. Therefore, testing for HTLV in newly diagnosed HCV individuals would not contribute much to improve late HTLV diagnosis in Spain.

  12. Conversion from Tacrolimus to Cyclosporine A Improves Glucose Tolerance in HCV-Positive Renal Transplant Recipients.

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    Ammon Handisurya

    Full Text Available Calcineurin-inhibitors and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection increase the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Chronic HCV infection promotes insulin resistance rather than beta-cell dysfunction. The objective was to elucidate whether a conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A affects fasting and/or dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or all in HCV-positive renal transplant recipients.In this prospective, single-center study 10 HCV-positive renal transplant recipients underwent 2h-75g-oral glucose tolerance tests before and three months after the conversion of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Established oral glucose tolerance test-based parameters of fasting and dynamic insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated. Data are expressed as median (IQR.After conversion, both fasting and challenged glucose levels decreased significantly. This was mainly attributable to a significant amelioration of post-prandial dynamic glucose sensitivity as measured by the oral glucose sensitivity-index OGIS [422.17 (370.82-441.92 vs. 468.80 (414.27-488.57 mL/min/m2, p = 0.005, which also resulted in significant improvements of the disposition index (p = 0.017 and adaptation index (p = 0.017 as markers of overall glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. Fasting insulin sensitivity (p = 0.721, insulinogenic index as marker of first-phase insulin secretion [0.064 (0.032-0.106 vs. 0.083 (0.054-0.144 nmol/mmol, p = 0.093 and hepatic insulin extraction (p = 0.646 remained unaltered. No changes of plasma HCV-RNA levels (p = 0.285 or liver stiffness (hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation, p = 0.463 were observed after the conversion of immunosuppression.HCV-positive renal transplant recipients show significantly improved glucose-stimulated insulin sensitivity and overall glucose tolerance after conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Considering the HCV-induced insulin resistance, HCV-positive renal transplant

  13. Conversion from Tacrolimus to Cyclosporine A Improves Glucose Tolerance in HCV-Positive Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handisurya, Ammon; Kerscher, Corinna; Tura, Andrea; Herkner, Harald; Payer, Berit Anna; Mandorfer, Mattias; Werzowa, Johannes; Winnicki, Wolfgang; Reiberger, Thomas; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Pacini, Giovanni; Säemann, Marcus; Schmidt, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin-inhibitors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increase the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Chronic HCV infection promotes insulin resistance rather than beta-cell dysfunction. The objective was to elucidate whether a conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A affects fasting and/or dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or all in HCV-positive renal transplant recipients. In this prospective, single-center study 10 HCV-positive renal transplant recipients underwent 2h-75g-oral glucose tolerance tests before and three months after the conversion of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Established oral glucose tolerance test-based parameters of fasting and dynamic insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated. Data are expressed as median (IQR). After conversion, both fasting and challenged glucose levels decreased significantly. This was mainly attributable to a significant amelioration of post-prandial dynamic glucose sensitivity as measured by the oral glucose sensitivity-index OGIS [422.17 (370.82-441.92) vs. 468.80 (414.27-488.57) mL/min/m2, p = 0.005), which also resulted in significant improvements of the disposition index (p = 0.017) and adaptation index (p = 0.017) as markers of overall glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. Fasting insulin sensitivity (p = 0.721), insulinogenic index as marker of first-phase insulin secretion [0.064 (0.032-0.106) vs. 0.083 (0.054-0.144) nmol/mmol, p = 0.093) and hepatic insulin extraction (p = 0.646) remained unaltered. No changes of plasma HCV-RNA levels (p = 0.285) or liver stiffness (hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation, p = 0.463) were observed after the conversion of immunosuppression. HCV-positive renal transplant recipients show significantly improved glucose-stimulated insulin sensitivity and overall glucose tolerance after conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Considering the HCV-induced insulin resistance, HCV-positive renal transplant

  14. HCV genotyping from NGS short reads and its application in genotype detection from HCV mixed infected plasma.

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    Qiu, Ping; Stevens, Richard; Wei, Bo; Lahser, Fred; Howe, Anita Y M; Klappenbach, Joel A; Marton, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Genotyping of hepatitis C virus (HCV) plays an important role in the treatment of HCV. As new genotype-specific treatment options become available, it has become increasingly important to have accurate HCV genotype and subtype information to ensure that the most appropriate treatment regimen is selected. Most current genotyping methods are unable to detect mixed genotypes from two or more HCV infections. Next generation sequencing (NGS) allows for rapid and low cost mass sequencing of viral genomes and provides an opportunity to probe the viral population from a single host. In this paper, the possibility of using short NGS reads for direct HCV genotyping without genome assembly was evaluated. We surveyed the publicly-available genetic content of three HCV drug target regions (NS3, NS5A, NS5B) in terms of whether these genes contained genotype-specific regions that could predict genotype. Six genotypes and 38 subtypes were included in this study. An automated phylogenetic analysis based HCV genotyping method was implemented and used to assess different HCV target gene regions. Candidate regions of 250-bp each were found for all three genes that have enough genetic information to predict HCV genotypes/subtypes. Validation using public datasets shows 100% genotyping accuracy. To test whether these 250-bp regions were sufficient to identify mixed genotypes, we developed a random primer-based method to sequence HCV plasma samples containing mixtures of two HCV genotypes in different ratios. We were able to determine the genotypes without ambiguity and to quantify the ratio of the abundances of the mixed genotypes in the samples. These data provide a proof-of-concept that this random primed, NGS-based short-read genotyping approach does not need prior information about the viral population and is capable of detecting mixed viral infection.

  15. HCV genotyping from NGS short reads and its application in genotype detection from HCV mixed infected plasma.

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    Ping Qiu

    Full Text Available Genotyping of hepatitis C virus (HCV plays an important role in the treatment of HCV. As new genotype-specific treatment options become available, it has become increasingly important to have accurate HCV genotype and subtype information to ensure that the most appropriate treatment regimen is selected. Most current genotyping methods are unable to detect mixed genotypes from two or more HCV infections. Next generation sequencing (NGS allows for rapid and low cost mass sequencing of viral genomes and provides an opportunity to probe the viral population from a single host. In this paper, the possibility of using short NGS reads for direct HCV genotyping without genome assembly was evaluated. We surveyed the publicly-available genetic content of three HCV drug target regions (NS3, NS5A, NS5B in terms of whether these genes contained genotype-specific regions that could predict genotype. Six genotypes and 38 subtypes were included in this study. An automated phylogenetic analysis based HCV genotyping method was implemented and used to assess different HCV target gene regions. Candidate regions of 250-bp each were found for all three genes that have enough genetic information to predict HCV genotypes/subtypes. Validation using public datasets shows 100% genotyping accuracy. To test whether these 250-bp regions were sufficient to identify mixed genotypes, we developed a random primer-based method to sequence HCV plasma samples containing mixtures of two HCV genotypes in different ratios. We were able to determine the genotypes without ambiguity and to quantify the ratio of the abundances of the mixed genotypes in the samples. These data provide a proof-of-concept that this random primed, NGS-based short-read genotyping approach does not need prior information about the viral population and is capable of detecting mixed viral infection.

  16. Study of Erythropoeitin on IGM serum levels in HCV positive patients on regular HD

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    Khaled Abo Seif , Mona Hosny And Ahmed Aboud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both uremia and HD process cause immunosuppression in HD patients. There was significant increase of total serum IgG and IgM levels found in patients with chronic HCV compared with healthy controls. There is evidence pointing to direct effect of rHuEPO upon B cells. High doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu EPO enhanced in vitro Ig production and proliferation of various plasma cell lines, as well as human plasma cells generated in vitro. Study was conducted at hemodialysis Unit of Shubra Municipal hospital between August 2010 to February 2011. 30 HCV positive patients on regular hemodialysis were included in study, using bicarbonate dialysate and polysulfone membrane dialyser, for 4 hours 3 times weekly. Patients were divided into 2 groups: first group: 15 patients on EPO therapy. 4000 IU/week and second group not taking EPO for all patients full clinical examination was done, CBC, BUN, serum creatinine, ALT, AST, serum albumin and serum IgM by ELISA (quantitative assay, were done. There was no significant difference between 2 groups as regards age, sex distribution, WBC count, ALT, AST, serum creatinine, BUN and IgM serum level. First group had borderline significant higher Hgb and Hct than second group (p = 0.056. Females didn't have higher serum IgM level than males (p = 0.403. All correlations of IgM serum level to other parameters of study were irrelevant. Uremia seems to protect ESRD patients on regular HD from complications of HCV and also EPO effect on Ig serum levels.

  17. Detection and genotyping of HCV RNA in anti-HCV positive serum%抗-HCV阳性血清HCV RNA检测与基因分型的研究

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    谢晨; 解莹; 冯继红; 金萍

    2009-01-01

    Objective To detect and do genotyping of HCV RNA in anti-HCV positive serum.Methods HCV RNA was detected by fluorescent quantitation PCR in anti-HCV positive serum of 85 cases in Dalian area,and genotype was detected by type specificity primer reverse transcription nest PCR in HCV RNA positive specimens.Results In 85 cases of anti-HCV positive specimens,there were 65 cases of HCV RNA positive(76.5%).In the HCV RNA positive serum,there were 32 cases of 1b genotype(49.2%),29 cases of 2a genotype(44.6%),4 cases of the others(6.2%).Conclusions Anti-HCV positive is not direct mark for hepatitis C diagnosis,quantity of lb genotype is nearly equal to 2a genotype of hepatitis C virus in Dalian area.%目的 检测抗-HCV阳件血清巾的HCV RNA并进行HCV基因分型.方法 采用荧光定量PCR法检测85例大连地区抗-HCV阳性患者血清中HCV RNA,应用型特异性引物逆转录套式PCR法对HCV RNA阳性样本进行基因分型.结果 85例的抗-HCV阳性患者中,HCV RNA阳性65例(76.5%),其中基因分型1b型32例(49.2%),2a型29例(44.6%),未分型4例(6.2%).结论 抗-HCV阳性并非HCV直接标志,大连地区HCV基冈1b型和2a型基本相等.

  18. Result analysis of serum anti-HCV positive combined with HCV-RNA quantitative detection of 258 cases%258例血清中抗-HCV阳性联合HCV-RNA定量检测结果分析

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    庞丽娜; 薛金方

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丙型肝炎病毒抗体(抗-HCV)和丙型肝炎病毒核糖核酸(HCV-RNA)定量联合检测结果对丙型肝炎确诊的临床意义。方法对258例ELISA法检测的血清抗-HCV阳性丙型肝炎(HC)患者,同时采用PCR-荧光探针法检测其HCV-RNA含量。结果258例抗-HCV阳性丙型肝炎患者中HCV-RNA阴性92例,占35.66%;17例HCV-RNA弱阳性,占6.59%;HCV-RNA阳性149例,即57.75%的HC患者存在病毒血症。结论ELISA法联合检测抗-HCV和HCV-RNA有助于丙型肝炎确诊病毒血症以及监控HCV的感染,并及时进行抗病毒治疗。%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) combined with hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA) quantitative detection in the diagnosis of hepatitis C (HC).Methods A total of 258 cases of HC with anti-HCV positive were detected by ELISA method and PCR-fluorescence probe for the HCV-RNA content.Results Among the 258 cases with anti-HCV positive, there were 92 cases of HCV-RNA negative as 35.66%, 17 cases of HCV-RNA weakly positive as 6.59%, and 149 cases of HCV-RNA positive. Thus, there were 57.75% of the HC patients with viremia.Conclusion ELISA method in combined detection of anti-HCV and HCV-RNA helps to diagnose viremia of HC, monitor HCV infection and conduct timely antiviral treatment.

  19. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection & risk factors for HCV positivity in injecting & non-injecting drug users attending a de-addiction centre in northern India

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    Debasish Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Injecting drug use is a major route of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in India, but there may be other risk factors also. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in injecting drug users (IDUs vs. non-IDUs (NIDUs, and to study the risk estimates for HCV seropositivity in the total sample of substance users with regard to various demographic, clinical, behavioural and personality factors. Methods: The IDUs (n = 201 and NIDUs (n = 219 were assessed for demographic, clinical and behavioural information, and were rated on instruments for severity of dependence, risk behaviour and personality profiles. Anti-HCV antibody was tested by ELISA and confirmed by recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA test. Results: Almost one-third of the IDUs (64 of 201; 31.8% were positive for anti-HCV antibody, as opposed to only seven (3.2% of the NIDUs. The four risk factors strongly associated with HCV positivity in multivariate analysis were sharing syringe [Exp(B 75.04; 95%CI 18.28-307.96; P<0.001], reuse of injection accessories (16.39; 3.51-76.92; P<0.001, blood transfusion (5.88; 1.63-21.23; P=0.007 and IDU status (3.60; 1.26-10.31; P=0.017. Other variables less strongly but significantly associated with HCV positivity were multiple sex partners, opioid dependence, risk behaviour scores, impulsivity, and lower age of onset of drug use. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed a high seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in IDUs. In the substance users, HCV positivity was significantly and independently associated with several clinical, behavioural, and personality risk factors.

  20. During Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and HCV-HIV Coinfection, an Elevated Plasma Level of Autotaxin Is Associated With Lysophosphatidic Acid and Markers of Immune Activation That Normalize During Interferon-Free HCV Therapy.

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    Kostadinova, Lenche; Shive, Carey L; Judge, Chelsey; Zebrowski, Elizabeth; Compan, Anita; Rife, Kelsey; Hirsch, Amy; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Schlatzer, Daniela M; Li, Xiaolin; Chance, Mark R; Rodriguez, Benigno; Popkin, Daniel L; Anthony, Donald D

    2016-11-01

     Immune activation predicts morbidity during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although mechanisms underlying immune activation are unclear. Plasma levels of autotaxin and its enzymatic product, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), are elevated during HCV infection, and LPA activates immunocytes, but whether this contributes to immune activation is unknown.  We evaluated plasma levels of autotaxin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble CD14 (sCD14), soluble CD163 (sCD163), and Mac2 binding protein (Mac2BP) during HCV infection, HIV infection, and HCV-HIV coinfection, as well as in uninfected controls, before and after HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and during interferon-free HCV therapy.  We observed greater plasma autotaxin levels in HCV-infected and HCV-HIV-coinfected participants, compared with uninfected participants, primarily those with a higher ratio of aspartate aminotransferase level to platelet count. Autotaxin levels correlated with IL-6, sCD14, sCD163, Mac2BP, and LPA levels in HCV-infected participants and with Mac2BP levels in HCV-HIV-coinfected participants, while in HIV-infected individuals, sCD14 levels correlated with Mac2BP levels. Autotaxin, LPA, and sCD14 levels normalized, while sCD163 and Mac2BP levels partially normalized within 6 months of starting interferon-free HCV therapy. sCD163 and IL-6 levels normalized within 6 months of starting ART for HIV infection. In vitro, LPA activated monocytes.  These data indicate that elevated levels of autotaxin and soluble markers of immune activation during HCV infection are partially reversible within 6 months of initiating interferon-free HCV treatment and that autotaxin may be causally linked to immune activation during HCV infection and HCV-HIV coinfection. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Níveis de vale de ciclosporina elevados em transplantados renais anti-HCV positivos Elevated cyclosporine A trough levels in HCV positive kidney transplant recipients

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    Luciano Wolffenbüttel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os níveis de vale de CsA de transplantados renais anti-HCV+ com um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Incluímos como casos todos os pacientes anti-HCV+ transplantados entre janeiro de 1992 e abril de 1996, e os anti-HCV- transplantados a seguir do caso como controles. Excluímos pacientes diabéticos, HbsAg+, os que recebiam fármacos com interação com a CsA e aqueles com transaminases elevadas. A sorologia para HCV foi testada pelo método ELISA de 3ª geração, e as dosagens de ciclosporina através de fluorimetria polarizada com anticorpo policlonal. RESULTADOS: As principais variáveis demográficas não diferiram entre os grupos. O nível de vale médio de CsA do primeiro mês pós-transplante foi maior nos 23 pacientes anti-HCV+ (551 ± 280 ng/ml do que nos 31 controles (418 ± 228 ng/ml, pOBJECTIVE: Compare the CsA trough levels of HCV+ kidney transplant recipients to a control group METHODS: All anti-HCV positive patients that received a renal allograft between January 1992 and April 1996 were initially included as cases. Patients with diabetes mellitus, HBsAg+, who were taking medication that could modify CsA pharmacokinetics and those with elevated aminotransferases were excluded. For each anti-HCV positive index case the following transplanted anti-HCV negative patient was included as a control. Third generation ELISA was used for determination of the anti-HCV status and CsA dosages were performed by polarized fluorometry with polyclonal antibodies. RESULTS: No differences in the demographic variables were found. The average CsA through levels in the first month were higher (551 ± 280 ng/ml in the 23 cases as compared to the 31 controls (418 ± 228 ng/ml; p< 0.05. The differences became apparent at the end of the first week (528 ± 275 versus 344 ± 283 ng/ml; p<0.01 and persisted at discharge (582 ± 284 versus 457 ± 229; p=0,08. CONCLUSION: We concluded that anti-HCV positive patients have higher blood levels of Cs

  2. Viral Outcome in Patients with Occult HBV Infection or HCV-Ab Positivity Treated for Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Maria; Picardi, Marco; Vitello, Anna; Pugliese, Novella; Rea, Matilde; Cossiga, Valentina; Pane, Fabrizio; Caporaso, Nicola; Morisco, Filomena

    2017-01-01

    HBV and HCV reactivation has been widely reported in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for oncohaematological diseases. We aimed to evaluate the HBV and HCV reactivation events in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) underwent cytotoxic chemotherapy containing or not rituximab. This is a retrospective observational study, including all patients with NHL and HL attending an Italian tertiary referral hospital, the University of Naples "Federico II". A total of 322 patients were enrolled. We evaluated serum HBV and HCV markers. A total of 47 (38%) patients with occult HBV infection were enrolled. Seven/47 were treated with therapeutic cytotoxic schedule containing rituximab. Of them, 6/7 received prophylaxis with lamivudine. HBV reactivation was observed in two patients treated with rituximab. A reactivation was observed in the only patient (HBcAb+/HBsAb+) not receiving lamivudine prophylaxis, and the other one was observed in 1 patient with isolated HBcAb positivity during lamivudine prophylaxis. Moreover, 8 patients with HCV-Ab positivity were enrolled. No viral reactivation was observed in these patients. In conclusion, patients with occult HBV infection receiving chemotherapy containing rituximab for lymphoma without antiviral prophylaxis are at risk of viral reactivation. On the contrary, there is no risk of reactivation in patients undergoing rituximab-free schedule. Our findings suggest that there is also very low risk of HCV reactivation. This preliminary report underlines the concept that HBV reactivationis strongly related to the type of immunosuppressive therapy administered and that antiviral prophylaxis needs to be tailored.

  3. Superior outcomes in HIV-positive kidney transplant patients compared with HCV-infected or HIV/HCV-coinfected recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawinski, Deirdre; Forde, Kimberly A; Eddinger, Kevin; Troxel, Andrea B; Blumberg, Emily; Tebas, Pablo; Abt, Peter L; Bloom, Roy D

    2015-08-01

    The prerequisite for an 'undetectable' HIV viral load has restricted access to transplantation for HIV-infected kidney recipients. However, HCV-infected recipients, owing to the historic limitations of HCV therapy in patients with renal disease, are commonly viremic at transplant and have universal access. To compare the effect of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV coinfection on kidney transplant patient and allograft outcomes, we performed a retrospective study of kidney recipients transplanted from January 1996 through December 2013. In multivariable analysis, patient (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.66-1.24) and allograft survival (0.60, 40-0.88) in 492 HIV patients did not differ significantly from the 117,791 patient-uninfected reference group. This was superior to outcomes in both the 5605 patient HCV group for death (1.44, 1.33-1.56) and graft loss (1.43, 1.31-1.56), as well as the 147 patient HIV/HCV coinfected group for death (2.26, 1.45-3.52) and graft loss (2.59, 1.60-4.19). HIV infection did not adversely affect recipient or allograft survival and was associated with superior outcomes compared with both HCV infection and HIV/HCV coinfection in this population. Thus, pretransplant viral eradication and/or immediate posttransplant eradication should be studied as potential strategies to improve posttransplant outcomes in HCV-infected kidney recipients.

  4. The Synchronous Detection on HCV-RNA and HGV-RNA in Plasma and in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Hepatitis C%丙型肝炎患者血浆和外周血单个核细胞同步检测HCV-RNA和HGV-RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑莉; 曾令兰; 罗端德; 刘薇; 郭劲松; 杨小铭

    2001-01-01

    To understand the incidence of hepatitis C and hepatitis G coinfection, and positive rate of HCV-RNA or HGV-RNA in plasma and PBMC, HCV-RNA and HGV-RNA in plasma and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) of the 40 patients were amplified with RT-PCR. There were 6 and 8 HGV-RNA positive cases in plasma and PBMC, respectively. And there were 5 HGV-RNA positive cases both in plasma and PBMC.At the same time, there were 5,6,3 both HCV-RNA and HGV-RNA positive cases in plasma, in PBMC and in both plasma and PBMC,respectively. It accounted for 13%,15% and 8%, respectively. The HCV-RNA and HGV-RNA positive incidence of PBMC was higher than that of plasma. The incidence of HCV-RNA and HGV-RNA coinfection was similar to European, American and Japanese. The synchronous detection has an important signficance in avoiding leaked diagnosis.

  5. Clinical performance of the new Roche COBAS (R) TaqMan HCV test and high pure system for extraction, detection and quantitation of HCV RNA in plasma and serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Gelderblom; S. Menting; M.G. Beld

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Roche COBAS (R) TaqMan HCV Test For Use With The High Pure System (TaqMan HPS; Roche Diagnostics), for the extraction, detection and quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum or plasma of HCV-infected individuals. The TaqMan HPS is a real-time PCR assay with a reported li

  6. Preliminarily Inquiring into Adsorption of HCV RNA in Plasma by Inner Surface of Machine-collected Plasma Bags and Their Tubes%机采血浆袋及管路内表面对血浆中 HCV RNA吸附的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 瞿丽玮; 郑岚; 郎洁先

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨以聚氯乙烯(PVC)为主要原料的机采血浆袋及管路内表面对血浆中HCV RNA吸附性。方法用不同材料机采血浆袋保存低滴度的HCV RNA阳性血浆,用RT-PCR方法检测不同材料和不同采样点中血浆和管路内壁。结果除浆袋内血浆皆为阳性和涂硅管路内表面为阴性外,余三种PVC材料都从管路内表面检测到HCV RNA。结论 PVC塑料输血器材对HCV RNA有吸附作用,可作为输血器材材料选择的一个技术指标。%Objective To inquire into the adsorptivity of HCV RNA by the inner surface of machine-collected plasma bags and their tubes which were produced,using PVC as main raw material.Methods The low titer HCV RNA positive plasma was stored in the machine-collected plasma bags made of different materials to detect the HCV RNA on the inner surface of plasma bags and their tubes made of different materials,at different sampling sites by RT-PCR method.Results with the exception of the plasma in different bags that appeared HCV RNA positive and the inner surface of silicon-smeared tubes that appeared HCV RNA negative,the HCV RNA was detected on the inner surface of tubes made of other three kinds of PVC material.Conclusion The transfusion appliance made of PVC plastics does play its role in adsorpting the HCV RNA,which can be used as an additional index of choosing the proper material needed for transfusion appliance production.

  7. Incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV in a multicenter cohort of HIV-positive patients in Spain 2004-2011: increasing rates of HCV diagnosis but not of HCV seroconversions.

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    Paz Sobrino-Vegas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aim to describe rates and risk factors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV diagnoses, follow-up HCV testing and HCV seroconversion from 2004-2011 in a cohort of HIV-positive persons in Spain. METHODS: CoRIS is a multicentre, open and prospective cohort recruiting adult HIV-positive patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy. We analysed patients with at least one negative and one follow-up HCV serology. Incidence Rates (IR were calculated and multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted Rates Ratios (aIRR. RESULTS: Of 2112 subjects, 53 HCV diagnoses were observed, IR = 0.93/100 py (95%CI: 0.7-1.2. IR increased from 0.88 in 2004-05 to 1.36 in 2010-11 (aIRR = 1.55; 95%CI: 0.37-6.55. In men who have sex with men (MSM from 0.76 to 1.10 (aIRR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.31-6.82; in heterosexual (HTX subjects from 1.19 to 1.28 (aIRR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.11-10.24. HCV seroconversion rates decreased from 1.77 to 0.65 (aIRR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.12-1.11; in MSM from 1.06 to 0.49 (aIRR = 0.46; 95%CI: 0.09-2.31; in HTX from 2.55 to 0.59 (aIRR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.06-0.98. HCV infection risk was higher for injecting drug users (IDU compared to HTX (aIRR = 9.63;95%CI: 2.9-32.2; among MSM, for subjects aged 40-50 compared to 30 or less (IRR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.7-6.2; and among HTX, for female sex (aIRR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.03-5.34 and <200 CD4-count (aIRR = 2.39; 95%CI: 0.83-6.89. CONCLUSION: We report increases in HCV diagnoses rates which seem secondary to intensification of HCV follow-up testing but not to rises in HCV infection rates. HCV IR is higher in IDU. In MSM, HCV IR increases with age. Among HTX, HCV IR is higher in women and in subjects with impaired immunological situation.

  8. Differences in immune response between HCV positive, HIV negative haemophilia A and B patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K; Smid, WM; Verspiek, SPJ; Smit, JW; van der Meer, J

    1998-01-01

    We measured numbers of lymphocytes and subsets in seven HIV negative, HCV positive severe haemophilia B patients, before and after substitution was changed from prothrombin complex concentrate to monoclonally purified concentrate. Data were compared with controls and our previous findings in haemoph

  9. Outcomes of Interferon/Ribavirin Therapy in Patients with HCV Defined by Expression of Plasma Soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen-G but Not IL-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shi-xiong; Ma, Jian-bo; Hu, Yao-ren; Hu, Ai-rong; Shen, Qiang; Gao, Guo-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to life-threatening complications worldwide. Immunomodulation signals the response to virus clearance. The immune-suppressive molecule human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) has been shown to function in inhibiting both innate and adaptive immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of HLA-G and IL-37 in sustained virological response (SVR) and non-SVR HCV-positive patients before and after complete treatment with a combination of pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV). Material/Methods Our study included 132 chronic hepatitis C patents who received combined therapy with IFN-α and RBV. Both SVR and non-SVR patients were included. The end-of-treatment response was defined as undetectable HCV RNA at week 48. Patients with end-of-treatment response were detected by HCV RNA at 24 weeks after therapy. The expression levels of HLA-G and IL-37 at the end and 24 weeks after treatment were detected by ELISA. Results Plasma HLA-G and IL-37 were significantly increased in HCV-infected patients compared with healthy individuals before treatment. Furthermore, HLA-G in SVR patients was noticeably decreased after treatment, while HLA-G in non-SVR patients had no changes after treatment. Additionally, both in SVR and non-SVR patients, the expression of IL-37 was remarkably reduced compared with baseline after treatment. Conclusions These findings suggest that elevation of HLA-G and IL-37 in HCV may play an important role in response to combined therapy with IFN-α and RBV. Monitoring the expression of HLA-G during therapy could contribute to adjusting the treatment program of HCV-infected patients. PMID:27112970

  10. Investigation for HCV-RNA Combined Liver Function Indexes in Diagnosis of Patients With HCV Antibody Positive%HCV-RNA联合肝功能主要指标对HCV抗体检测阳性者诊断意义的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会枝

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationships between HCV antibody levels,HCV-RNA loading and liver function parameters in HCV antibody positive patients.Methods The serum HCV antibody,HCV-RNA loading and liver function parameters of 384 patients were analyzed. ResultsWhen HCV antibody level was 1.00 to 20.00 or more than 100.00,the positive rate of HCV-RNA in HCV antibody positive patients was significantly lower than that in the patients with HCV antibody level of 20.00 to 100.00. The difference was statistically significant (P100.00时其HCV-RNA检测阳性率低于抗体检测值在区间20.00~100.00时的HCV-RNA检测阳性率,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).随HCV-RNA载量的升高,ALT、AST、GGT、TBIL、DBIL、IBIL检测值平均水平亦升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);ALP水平有所增高但程度低于其他指标;而TP、ALB、GLOB平均水平基本无变化.结论 综合HCV抗体值、HCV-RNA载量及肝功能主要指标检测结果可更好地指导HCV感染的临床诊断及治疗.

  11. Determination of telaprevir in plasma of HCV-infected patients by HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempestilli, Massimo; Milano, Elisa; D'Offizi, Gianpiero; Montalbano, Marzia; D'Avolio, Antonio; Gasperi, Tecla; Narciso, Pasquale; Ascenzi, Paolo; Pucillo, Leopoldo P

    2013-09-01

    Telaprevir is a direct acting antiviral agent, used with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the management of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection, in patients not responding to therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin only. Although 75% of patients achieve a sustained virological response after treatment with telaprevir, adverse drug-drug interactions and undesirable events often occur. Therefore, telaprevir monitoring is pivotal to improve the management of HCV infection. Here, the first High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method to quantify telaprevir in human plasma of HCV-genotype 1-infected patients is reported. The volume of the plasma sample was 700 μL. This method involved automated solid-phase extraction with Oasis HLB Cartridge 1 cc (divinylbenzene and N-vinylpyrrolidone). The extracted samples were reconstituted with 150 μL of 60/40 water/acetonitrile. Thirty microliters of these samples was injected into a HPLC-UV system, and the analytes were eluted on a X Terra(®) RP18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) with a particle size of 5 μm. The mobile phase (ammonium acetate buffer, 150 mM, pH 8.0, and methanol:acetonitrile 50:50) was delivered at 1.0 mL/min with linear gradient elution. The total run time for a single analysis was 16 min; telaprevir was detected by UV at 276 and 286 nm. The calibration curve was linear from 312.5 to 20,000 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.996). The absolute recovery of telaprevir ranged between 89 and 93% at concentrations of quality control samples of 800, 4,000, 8,000, and 16,000 ng/mL. Both precision and accuracy were always <15%. The HPLC-UV method reported here: (i) has been validated, (ii) is currently applied to monitor telaprevir in plasma of HCV-infected patients, and (iii) appears useful in a routine laboratory. ,

  12. Interferon lambda 4 (IFNL4) gene polymorphism is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in HIV-1 positive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Camila Fernanda da Silveira; Grott, Camila Schultz; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo; Béria, Jorge Umberto; Tietzmann, Daniela Cardoso; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Simon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Approximately one-third of the individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Co-infected patients have an increased risk for developing end-stage liver diseases. Variants upstream of the IFNL3 gene have been associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of HCV infection. Recently, a novel polymorphism was discovered, denoted IFNL4 ΔG > TT (rs368234815), which seems to be a better predictor of spontaneous clearance than the IFNL4 rs12979860 polymorphism. We aimed to determine the prevalence of the IFNL4 ΔG > TT variants and to evaluate the association with spontaneous clearance of HCV infection in Brazilian HIV-1 patients. The IFNL4 ΔG > TT genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction digestion in 138 HIV-1 positive patients who had an anti-HCV positive result. Spontaneous clearance of HCV was observed in 34 individuals (24.6%). IFNL4 genotype distribution was significantly different between individuals who had spontaneous clearance and chronic HCV patients (p=0.002). The probability of spontaneous clearance of HCV infection for patients with the IFNL4 TT/TT genotype was 3.6 times higher than for patients carrying the IFNL4 ΔG allele (OR=3.63, 95% CI:1.51-8.89, p=0.001). The IFNL4 ΔG > TT polymorphism seems to be better than IFNL4 rs12979860 to predict spontaneous clearance of the HCV in Brazilian HIV-1 positive patients. PMID:27560987

  13. The molecular mimicry and its possible role in origin of false-positive results in HCV-infection testing

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    Benkovskaya L. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main reason for the false positive results of the detection of antibodies to HCV is considered the unspecific binding of the blood serum immunoglobulins with the components of the test-systems’ immunosorbent, what is observed in various pathologies. When considering the issues of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of infectious diseases examined the impact of antigenic heterogeneity and molecular mimicry. With regarding to hepatitis C this phenomenon more illustrated in terms of pathogenesis, autoimmune, extrahepatic lesions. This does not exclude the influence of antigenic mimicry on the specificity of serological tests for anti-HCV detection. Aim. Estimation the frequency of false-positive reactions of anti-HCV testing in patients with chronic somatic diseases and assessment of the antigenic mimicry’s role in their occurrence. Methods. Total anti-HCV, antibodies to the single viruses’ protein, and false positive sera antibodies’ interaction with microbial origin combinations (mimicrins were determined by ELISA. Mimicrins were separated from the cultural medium after cultivation Staphylococcus aureus, Micobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. Results. Upon detection of anti-HCV in patients with chronic pathologies detected a significant number of false-positive results are more likely in patients with diabetes and among healthy individuals – in pregnant women.The majorities of false positive sera interacted with mimicrins. Conclusions. The antigenic crossings over between mimicrins and antibodies in the structure of false positive sera must be considered during the evaluation of the specific diagnostics’ results in the persons with different pathologic states.

  14. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Impact of HIV on HCV Immune Responses and Its Association with Liver Disease Progression in a Unique Plasma Donor Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa, Ushani S.; Lawrence, Tessa M.; Peng, Yan-Chun; Liu, Jinghua; Xu, Keyi; Hu, Ke; Qin, Ling; Liu, Ning; Sun, Huanqin; Yan, Hui-Ping; Repapi, Emmanouela; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Thimme, Robert; McKeating, Jane A.; Dong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-1 infected patients. Our understanding of the impact of HIV infection on HCV specific immune responses and liver disease outcome is limited by the heterogeneous study populations with genetically diverse infecting viruses, varying duration of infection and anti-viral treatment. Methods Viral-specific immune responses in a cohort of 151 HCV mono- and HIV co-infected former plasma donors infected with a narrow source of virus were studied. HCV and HIV specific T cell responses were correlated with clinical data. Results HIV-1 accelerated liver disease progression and decreased HCV specific T cell immunity. The magnitude of HCV specific T cell responses inversely correlated with lower HCV RNA load and reduced liver injury as assessed by non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis. HIV co-infection reduced the frequency of HCV specific CD4+ T cells with no detectable effect on CD8+ T cells or neutralizing antibody levels. Conclusion Our study highlights the impact of HIV co-infection on HCV specific CD4+ T cell responses in a unique cohort of patients for both HCV and HIV and suggests a crucial role for these cells in controlling chronic HCV replication and liver disease progression. PMID:27455208

  15. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva samples from patients with seric anti-HCV antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Patrícia L.; Cunha, Carla B.; Busek,Solange C. U.; Oliveira, Guilherme C.; Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues; Fausto EL Pereira

    2005-01-01

    We examined the frequency of HCV-RNA in saliva samples from anti-HCV positive patients. Both plasma and saliva samples from 39 HCV patients (13 with normal liver enzymes, 19 with abnormal liver enzymes and 13 with cirrhosis) were investigated. Stimulated saliva and fresh plasma were centrifuged (900 x g,10 min) and stored at ???70oC, after the addition of guanidine isothiocyanate RNA extraction buffer. HCV-RNA was detected by RT- nested-PCR (amplification of HCV-cDNA for two rounds, using HCV...

  16. Correlation Study on HCV-RNA Positive and Liver Autoantibodies for Patients With Hepatitis C%丙肝患者HCV-RNA阳性与自免肝抗体相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓慧

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨丙肝患者HCV-RNA 阳性感染与自免肝抗体产生的相关性。方法对330例丙肝抗体IgG(+)患者进行HCV-RNA检测及相关的自免肝抗体检测。结果330例肝炎患者中,有182例HCV-RNA阳性,阳性率为(55.1%),148例患者HCV-RNA阴性,阴性率为(44.8%)。将其分为两组,第一组:丙肝抗体IgG(+),HCV-RNA均为阳性,测得AMA-M2阳性13例(7.1%),SLA阳性23例(12.6%),LKM-1阳性40例(22%),LC-1阳性11例(6%);第二组:丙肝抗体IgG(+),HCV-RNA阴性,测得AMA-M2阳性4例(2.7%), SLA阳性6例(4.1%),LKM-1阳性19例(12.8%),LC-1阳性4例(2.7%)。两组自免肝抗体阳性率差异有统计学意义(χ2=93.4,P<0.05)。结论丙肝患者自免肝抗体检测阳性率与丙肝患者HCV-RNA阳性呈正相关。%Objective To investigate the relationship between hepatitis C infection in patients with HCV-RNA positive and liver autoantibodies.Methods 330 cases of hepatitis C antibody IgG(+)HCV-RNA detection and related liver autoantibodies were detected by spectrum. Results Among 330 cases of hepatitis,182 cases were HCV-RNA positive,the positive rate was (55.1%),148 cases were HCV-RNA negative,and the negative rate was (44.8%). Divided into two groups,the first group:HCV IgG(+),HCV-RNA were positive,AMA-M2 positive in 13 cases(7.1%),SLA positive in 23 patients(12.6%),LKM-1 positive in 40 cases(22%),LC-1 positive in 11 cases(6%). The second group: HCV IgG(+),HCV RNA negative measured AMA-M2 positive in 4 cases(2.7%),SLA positive in 6 cases(4.1%),LKM-1 positive in 19 cases(12.8%),LC-1 positive in 4 cases (2.7%). There was significant difference between the two groups in the positive rate of liver autoantibodies(χ2=93.4,P<0.05).Conclusion Liver autoantibodies positive rate was positively related to those of HCV-RNA positive rate in hepatitis C patients.

  17. Seven-years follow-up on trial of Interferon alpha in patients with HCV RNA positive chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Zhang Tang; Lin Zhuarg; Jing You; Hong Bing Zhang; Lu Zhang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the long-term efficiency of therapy with Interferon alpha (IFN-a) in patients with HCVRNA positive chronic hepatitis C.METHODS Ten patients were enrolled in the study, whose age 31 -62 years (mean 53 years), course 6- 72months (mean 24 months), of whom, 6 patients with mild CHC, 4 moderate CHC. All patients receivedIFN-a 3 MU three times weekly for six to twelve months, and then followed up for seven years after the endof treatment. The results of hepatic functions and HCV RNA at the end of treatment and follow-up period inall patients were observed.RESULTS ( At the end of treatment, clinical symptoms recovered obviously in all patients, virologicalresponse (defined as HCV RNA loss) occurred in 5 of 7 (71.4%) patients (60 years old). At the end of follow-up, the rates of HCV RNA loss were 42.9% (3/7)and 33.3% (1/3), respectively, in these group. Virological sustained response (defined as HCV RNA loss atthe end of treatment and follow-up) occurred in 3 of 6 (50%) patients (6 - 12 month-course) and in 1 of 4(25%) patients (> 12 month-course). A sustained HCV RNA response was observed in 2 of 7 (28.6%)patients with IFN-a therapy for 6m and in 2 of 3 (66.7%) patients with IFN-a therapy for more than 6 m. Ofall patients, 4 patients with sustained HCV RNA response were mild CHC, 4 patients with sustained HCVRNA positive were mild CHC (2 patients), moderate CHC (2 patients), respectively; other 2 patients withHCV RNA loss at the end of treatment but recurred at the end of follow-up, were moderate CHC. ②Biochemically sustained response (defined as ALT normalization at the end of treatment and follow-up) wasobserved in 5 out of 10 (50%) patients, and these 5 patients were mild CHC, of whom, 4 patients with HCVRNA sustained negative, 1 patient with HCV RNA loss and then recurred again. Two patients with ALTnormalization at the end of follow-up were one mild CHC, one moderate CHC, respectively. Other 3patients with no response were moderate CHC, of whom, 2

  18. Detection of hepatitis C virus core antigen for early diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection in plasma donor in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-Qiu Zhang; Shao-Bo Li; Guo-Hua Wang; Kun Chen; Xiao-Guo Song; Xiao-Yan Feng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of a new hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen assay developed in China.METHODS: After the determination of HCV infection, 49 serial samples were selected from 11 regular plasma donors in 5 different plasma stations. To compare the performance of HCV core antigen detection and HCV PCR, these samples were genotyped, and each specimen was analyzed by ELISA for the detection of HCV core antigen and by qualitative HCV PCR.RESULTS: Among all of the sequential samples, the original 13 specimens were HCV RNA-negative, and 36 samples were HCV RNA-positive. Twenty-seven samples (75%) were HCV core antigen-positive from these HCV RNA-positive specimens. Conversely, 27 samples (93.1%) were found HCV RNA-positive in HCV core antigen-positive samples. Intervals between HCV RNA and HCV core antigen-positive, as well as between HCV core antigen-positive and HCV antibody-positive were 36.0 and 32.8 d, respectively.CONCLUSION: This HCV core antigen assay, developed in China, is able to detect much of anti-HCV-negative, HCV RNA-positive preseroconversion window period (PWP) plasma donations.

  19. Survey of both hepatitis B virus (HBsAg and hepatitis C virus (HCV-Ab coinfection among HIV positive patients

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    Pournia Yadollah

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV, HBVand HCV is major public health concerns. Because of shared routes of transmission, HIV-HCV coinfection and HIV-HBV coinfection are common. HIV-positive individuals are at risk of coinfection with HBV and HCV infections. The prevalence rates of coinfection with HBV and HCV in HIV-patients have been variable worldwide depending on the geographic regions, and the type of exposure. Aim This study aimed to examine HBV and HCV coinfection serologically and determine the shared and significant factors in the coinfection of HIV-positive patients. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 HIV-positive patients including 358 males and 33 females in Lorestan province, west Iran, to survey coinfection with HBsAg and anti-HCV. The retrospective demographic data of the subjects was collected and the patients' serums were analyzed by ELISA kits including HBsAg and anti-HCV. The collected data was analyzed with SPSS software (15 and Chi-square. Fisher's exact test with 5% error intervals was used to measure the correlation of variables and infection rates. Results The results of the study indicated that the prevalence of coinfection in HIV-positive patients with hepatitis viruses was 94.4% (370 in 391, out of whom 57 (14.5% cases were HBsAg positive, 282 (72% cases were anti-HCV positive, and 31 (7.9% cases were both HBsAg and anti-HCV positive. Conclusion There was a significant correlation between coinfection with HCV and HBV and/or both among HIV-positive patients depending on different variables including sex, age, occupation, marital status, exposure to risk factors.(p

  20. Correlation Analysis of HCV-RNA,HCV-Ab and HCV-cAg%HCV-RNA与 HCV-Ab,HCV-cAg相关性分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅; 张赟; 皇海; 章迪; 苏明权; 郭旭昌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of HCV-RNA with detection indexes HCV-Ab and HCV-cAg in its clini-cal application effect among patients with hepatitis C.Methods HCV-cAg and HCV-Ab in 140 cases of HCV-RNA were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in cases of PCR,which were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.Results 127 cases in 140 cases of HCV-RNA positive serum were HCV-cAg positive,in line with the rate of 90.71%,and the cases of 110 HCV-Ab positive,in line with the rate of 78.57%.The positive detection rate of HCV-cAg with different HCV-RNA concentration was increased with the increase of HCV virus content,and the serum of different HCV-RNA concentration had no significant changes in HCV-Ab detection results.Conclusion The detection results of HCV-cAg had a high coincidence rate with HCV-RNA.Therefore detection of HCV-cAg can be as a complementary detec-tion of HCV-Ab,as the window period of HCV infection and infection in immunocompromised persons screening provides a simple,inexpensive method.At the same time it provides rapid screening for HCV infection provide diagnostic basis for those basic medical units who do not have the conditions for detection of HCV-RNA.%目的:探讨丙型肝炎患者中 HCV-RNA与 HCV-Ab,HCV-cAg三种检测指标的相关性和临床应用效果。方法采用酶联免疫法分别检测实时荧光定量 PCR法检测阳性的140例 HCV患者血清中的 HCV-Ab和 HCV-cAg,以了解检测结果及符合率。结果在140例 HCV-RNA阳性血清中,HCV-cAg 阳性127例,符合率90.71%;HCV-Ab 阳性110例,符合率78.57%;对不同 HCV-RNA浓度的血清进行 HCV-cAg检测结果其阳性检出率随着 HCV病毒含量的升高而增高;不同 HCV-RNA浓度的血清进行 HCV-Ab检测结果无明显变化。结论通过对 HCV-RNA阳性患者中 HCV-Ag和 HCV-Ab的检测观察分析,HCV-cAg检测与 HCV-RNA的检测结果具有较高的符合率。因此 HCV-cAg检测可作为HCV

  1. Impact of Immunochemotherapy-Related Hepatic Toxicity on the Outcome of HCV-Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients

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    Fouad Abu-Taleb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this prospective study which included 28 de novo CD20-positive DLBCL patients to assess the clinical outcome, treatment response, and hepatic toxicity in DLBCL patients who received rituximab-CHOP as a first line treatment in relation to HCV infection status. We included 7 patients with positive HCV infection (group A and 21 patients with negative HCV infection (group B. HCV infection was not a significant risk factor for prognosis (1-year event-free survival rates, 71.4% versus 81%, P=0.53; overall survival rates, 85.7% versus 90.5%, P=0.72, for groups A and B, resp.. CR rate was 71.4% (5/7 in group A and 76.2% (16/21 in group B (P=0.8. Of the 7 patients who were HCV positive, 2 (28.6% had enzyme flare (grade 2, compared with 1 of the 21 (4.8% patients who were HCV negative (P=0.15. Two (28.6% of the 7 positive HCV infection patients had viral reactivation (≥1 log10 IU/mL increase in the viral load. No patient required discontinuation of immunochemotherapy owing to hepatotoxicity in either group. In conclusion, HCV infection might not influence the clinical course in DLBCL patients who receive rituximab-CHOP. Close monitoring of hepatic function and viral load is recommended.

  2. HBV vaccination of HCV-infected patients with occult HBV infection and anti-HBc-positive blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J S F; Gonçales, N S L; Silva, C; Lazarini, M S K; Pavan, M H P; Fais, V C; Gonçales Júnior, F L

    2006-04-01

    Anti-HBc positivity is a frequent cause of donation rejection at blood banks. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may also occur in HBsAg-negative patients, a situation denoted occult infection. Similarly, very low levels of HBV-DNA have also been found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, even in the absence of serum HBsAg. Initially we searched for HBV-DNA in serum of 100 blood donors and 50 HCV-infected patients who were HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive by nested-PCR and by an HBV monitor commercial test for HBV-DNA. Anti-HBs seroconversion rates were measured in 100 blood donors and in 22 patients with chronic HCV infection after HBV vaccination to determine if the HBV vaccination could eliminate an occult HBV infection in these individuals. Occult HBV infection was detected in proportionally fewer blood donors (6/100 = 6%) than chronic hepatitis C patients (12/50 = 24%) (P 0.05). All subjects who were HBV-DNA(+) before the first dose of HBV vaccine (D1), became HBV-DNA(-) after D1, D2, and D3. Among 22 HCV-positive patients, 10 HBV-DNA(+) and 12 HBV-DNA(-), seroconversion was observed in 9/10 (90%) HBV-DNA(+) and in 9/12 (75%) HBV-DNA(-) subjects (P > 0.05). The disappearance of HBV-DNA in the majority of vaccinated patients suggests that residual HBV can be eliminated in patients with occult infection.

  3. HBV vaccination of HCV-infected patients with occult HBV infection and anti-HBc-positive blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.F. Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-HBc positivity is a frequent cause of donation rejection at blood banks. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection may also occur in HBsAg-negative patients, a situation denoted occult infection. Similarly, very low levels of HBV-DNA have also been found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, even in the absence of serum HBsAg. Initially we searched for HBV-DNA in serum of 100 blood donors and 50 HCV-infected patients who were HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive by nested-PCR and by an HBV monitor commercial test for HBV-DNA. Anti-HBs seroconversion rates were measured in 100 blood donors and in 22 patients with chronic HCV infection after HBV vaccination to determine if the HBV vaccination could eliminate an occult HBV infection in these individuals. Occult HBV infection was detected in proportionally fewer blood donors (6/100 = 6% than chronic hepatitis C patients (12/50 = 24% (P 0.05. All subjects who were HBV-DNA(+ before the first dose of HBV vaccine (D1, became HBV-DNA(- after D1, D2, and D3. Among 22 HCV-positive patients, 10 HBV-DNA(+ and 12 HBV-DNA(-, seroconversion was observed in 9/10 (90% HBV-DNA(+ and in 9/12 (75% HBV-DNA(- subjects (P > 0.05. The disappearance of HBV-DNA in the majority of vaccinated patients suggests that residual HBV can be eliminated in patients with occult infection.

  4. Superior outcomes in HIV-positive kidney transplant patients compared to HCV-infected or HIV/HCV co-infected recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawinski, Deirdre; Forde, Kimberly A.; Eddinger, Kevin; Troxel, Andrea B.; Blumberg, Emily; Tebas, Pablo; Abt, Peter L.; Bloom, Roy D.

    2015-01-01

    The prerequisite for an “undetectable” HIV viral load has restricted access to transplantation for HIV-infected kidney recipients. However, HCV-infected recipients, due the historic limitations of HCV therapy in patients with renal disease, are commonly viremic at transplant and have universal access. In order to compare the effect of HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection on kidney transplant patient and allograft outcomes, we performed a retrospective study of kidney recipients transplanted from January 1996 through December 2013. In multivariable analysis, patient (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.66–1.24) and allograft survival (0.60, 40–0.88) in 492 HIV patients did not differ significantly from the 117,791 patient uninfected reference group. This was superior to outcomes in both the 5605 patient HCV group for death (1.44, 1.33–1.56) and graft loss (1.43, 1.31–1.56) as well as the 147 patient HIV/HCV co-infected group for death (2.26, 1.45–3.52) and graft loss (2.59, 1.60–4.19). HIV infection did not adversely affect recipient or allograft survival and was associated with superior outcomes compared to both HCV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in this population. Thus, pre-transplant viral eradication and/ or immediate post-transplant eradication should be studied as potential strategies to improve post-transplant outcomes in HCV-infected kidney recipients. PMID:25807035

  5. Hepatic HMOX1 expression positively correlates with Bach-1 and miR-122 in patients with HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Wójcik, Kamila; Szymańska, Bożena; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Cwiklińska, Hanna; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the expression of HMOX1 and miR-122 in liver biopsy samples obtained from HCV mono-and HIV/HCV co-infected patients in relation to selected clinical parameters, histological examination and IL-28B polymorphism as well as to determine whether HMOX1 expression is dependent on Bach-1. The study group consisted of 90 patients with CHC: 69 with HCV mono and 21 with HIV/HCV co-infection. RT-PCR was used in the analysis of HMOX1, Bach-1 and miR-122 expression in liver biopsy samples and in the assessment of IL-28B single-nucleotide polymorphism C/T (rs12979860) in the blood. Moreover in liver biopsy samples an analysis of HO-1 and Bach-1 protein level by Western Blot was performed. HCV mono-infected patients, with lower grading score (G600000 IU/mL) demonstrated higher expression of HMOX1. In patients with HIV/HCV co-infection, the expression of HMOX1 was lower in patients with lower lymphocyte CD4 count and higher HIV viral load. IL28B polymorphism did not affect the expression of either HMOX1 or miR-122. Higher HMOX1 expression correlated with higher expression of Bach-1 (Spearman's ρ = 0.586, p = 0.000001) and miR-122 (Spearman's ρ = 0.270, p = 0.014059). HMOX1 and miR-122 play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHC in HCV mono-and HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Reduced expression of HMOX1 in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection may indicate a worse prognosis in this group. Our results do not support the importance of Bach-1 in repression of HMOX1 in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  6. Loss to follow-up in anti-HCV-positive patients in a Brazilian regional outpatient clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, L.C.; Ralla, S.M.; Vigani, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Loss to follow-up (LF), which refers to patients who started care but voluntary stopped it, is a problem for patients with chronic disease. We aimed to estimate the rate of LF among patients seropositive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and identify possible demographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with LF. From January 2009 through December 2012, 1010 anti-HCV-positive patients were included in the study. Among participants, 223 (22.1%) met the case definition for LF (more than 1-year elapsed since the last clinical appointment). Among 787 patients who remained in follow-up, 372 (47.2%) were discharged after undetectable HCV RNA, 88 (11.1%) were transferred (and remained on regular follow-up at the destination), and 25 (3.1%) died. According to univariate analysis, male gender, absence of a life partner, black race, psychiatric illness, previous alcohol abuse, previous or current recreational drug use, and previous or current smoking were significantly associated with LF. In multivariate analysis, absence of a life partner (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.44; 95% confidence interval (95%CI)=1.03–2.02), black race (AOR=1.81, 95%CI=1.12–2.89), psychiatric illness (AOR=1.77, 95%CI=1.14–2.73), and the presence of at least one lifestyle risk factor (pertaining to substance abuse) (AOR=1.95, 95%CI=1.29–2.94) were independently associated with LF. Our study provides an estimate of the incidence of LF among anti-HCV-positive patients and identifies risk factors associated with this outcome. In addition, these results can help clinicians recognize patients at risk for LF, who require additional support for the continuity of care. PMID:27580006

  7. Complementary Action of Combining Detection for HCV-cAg with HCV-Ab and the Relation Between HCV Positive Patients and ALT%HCV-cAg与HCV-Ab联合检测的互补作用及HCV阳性者与ALT的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小龙; 唐荣德; 华关民; 陈敏; 谭亮庆

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨丙肝病毒核心抗原(HCV-cAg)与丙肝病毒抗体(HCV-Ab)联合检测对诊断丙肝病毒(HCV)感染的互补作用及HCV感染阳性者与丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)的关系.方法 检测手术前检查组2061例患者和ALT>80 U/L组242例患者的HCV-cAg、HCV-Ab和ALT等指标,然后将检测结果作出统计分析.结果 手术前检查组联合检测有2.7%的阳性率,显著高于单独HCV-cAg和单独HCV-Ab的1.6%(P<0.05); ALT>80 U/L组联合检测有14.5%的阳性率,显著高于单独HCV-cAg的7.0%(P<0.01);手术前检查组ALT均值和ALT>80U/L例数是2项均阳性高于HCV-Ab阳性、HCV-Ab阳性高于HCV-cAg.结论 HCV-cAg和HCV-Ab 2项联合检测明显优于单项检测,这对HCV感染的诊断能起到很好的互补作用,加上ALT等肝功能指标的检测,有利于HCV感染的正确诊断.

  8. 151例血清抗-HCV阳性患者的HCV RNA检测分析%Detection of Serum HCV RNA in Patients with Positive Anti--HCV Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易冬英; 周福民; 余叔侃

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨丙型肝炎抗体(抗-HCV)和丙型肝炎病毒核糖核酸(HCV RNA)的关系.方法:研究对间接ELISA法检测抗-HCV阳性患者的血清进行HCV RNA检测(采用RT-PCR法).结果:151例血清抗-HCV阳性患者有85例HCV RNA阳性,阳性率为56.2%.另外,还观察了40例抗HCV阳性病人的双份血清,急性期第一份血清ALT升高、HCV RNA为阳性;经抗病毒治疗后的第二份血清,部分病人ALT复常,HCV RNA阴转,另外部分病人反复ALT异常,HCV RNA则始终为阳性.结论:HCV RNA能鉴别活动性HCV感染及非活动性感染,可为抗病毒药物疗效的评价和临床合理用药提供依据.

  9. 抗-HCV-IgG阳性血清检测HCV的临床意义%The clinical values for the definifive detection of HCV in sever clinical cases such as positive HCV-IgG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 钟怀印; 薛承岩

    2007-01-01

    了解抗-HCV-IgG阳性时、仅肝功能轻度异常、与HCV感染者有接触史时等临床情况下HCV在血液内存的几率,验证在这些临床情况时开展检测HCV确证试验的临床意义.采集血清为检测标本,用ELISA技术检测抗-HCV-IgG,RT-PCR技术检测HCV-RNA.血清HCV-RNA的检出率,抗-HCV-IgG阳性组为41.9%、仅肝功能轻度异常组为25.7%、无症状体检组为29.4%.临床对抗-HCV-IgG阳性者、仅肝功能轻度异常者、有接触史者等特殊人群应做检测HCV的确证试验,RT-PCR技术可以用做临床检测HCV的确证试验方法.

  10. Triple antiviral therapy in HCV positive patients who failed prior combination therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Fargion; Mauro Borzio; Alessandra Maraschi; Antonietta Cargnel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of triple therapy (peginterferon or high dose standard interferon, plus ribavirin and amantadine) in nonresponders to prior combination therapy.METHODS: A total of 196 patients were enrolled in a multicenter, open, randomized study. Patients were given 180 μg/wk of peginterferon-alpha-2a (40 kD) plus ribavirin (800-1000 mg/d) and amantadine (200 mg/d)for 48 wk (group A) or interferon-alpha-2a (6 MU/d for 4 wk, 3 MU/d for 20 wk, and 3 MU tiw for 24 wk) plus ribavirin (800-1000 mg/d) and amantadine (200 mg/d)for 48 wk (group B).RESULTS: Overall sustained virologic response (SVR)was 26.6% (32.1% and 19.5% in group A and B, P =0.057). Baseline ALT >120 UI/L (OR 2.4; 95% CI:1.11to 5.20; P = 0.026) and HCV RNA negativity after 12 wk (OR 8.7; 95% CI: 3.87 to 19.74; P < 0.0001)were independently associated with SVR. Therapy discontinuation occurred less frequently in patients treated with peginterferon than standard interferon (P =0.036).CONCLUSION: More than 25% of nonresponders to combination therapy can eradicate HCV infection when retreated with triple therapy, especially if they have a high baseline ALT and are treated with pegylated interferon.

  11. The influence of HAART on the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-positive individuals

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    Vogel M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study was performed to investigate the impact of HAART versus no HAART and nucleoside free versus nucleoside containing HAART on the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. In addition a control group of HCV mono-infected patients undergoing anti-HCV therapy was evaluated. Methods Multicenter, partially randomized, controlled clinical trial. HIV-negative and -positive patients with chronic HCV infection were treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (800 - 1200 mg/day for 24 - 48 weeks in one of four treatment arms: HIV-negative (A, HIV-positive without HAART (B and HIV-positive on HAART (C. Patients within arm C were randomized to receive open label either a nucleoside containing (C1 or a nucleoside free HAART (C2. Results 168 patients were available for analysis. By intent-to-treat analysis similar sustained virological response rates (SVR, negative HCV-RNA 24 weeks after the end of therapy were observed comparing HIV-negative and -positive patients (54% vs. 54%, p = 1.000. Among HIV-positive patients SVR rates were similar between patients off and on HAART (57% vs. 52%, p = 0.708. Higher SVR rates were observed in patients on a nucleoside free HAART compared to patients on a nucleoside containing HAART, though confounding could not be ruled out and in the intent-to-treat analysis the difference was not statistically significant (64% vs. 46%, p = 0.209. Conclusions Similar response rates for HCV therapy can be achieved in HIV-positive and -negative patients. Patients on nucleoside free HAART reached at least equal rates of sustained virological response compared to patients on standard HAART.

  12. p62/Sqstm1 promotes malignancy of HCV-positive hepatocellular carcinoma through Nrf2-dependent metabolic reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tetsuya; Ichimura, Yoshinobu; Taguchi, Keiko; Suzuki, Takafumi; Mizushima, Tsunehiro; Takagi, Kenji; Hirose, Yuki; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Iso, Tetsuro; Fukutomi, Toshiaki; Ohishi, Maki; Endo, Keiko; Uemura, Takefumi; Nishito, Yasumasa; Okuda, Shujiro; Obata, Miki; Kouno, Tsuguka; Imamura, Riyo; Tada, Yukio; Obata, Rika; Yasuda, Daisuke; Takahashi, Kyoko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Pi, Jingbo; Lee, Myung-Shik; Ueno, Takashi; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Mashino, Tadahiko; Wakai, Toshifumi; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Motohashi, Hozumi; Waguri, Satoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tanaka, Keiji; Komatsu, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    p62/Sqstm1 is a multifunctional protein involved in cell survival, growth and death, that is degraded by autophagy. Amplification of the p62/Sqstm1 gene, and aberrant accumulation and phosphorylation of p62/Sqstm1, have been implicated in tumour development. Herein, we reveal the molecular mechanism of p62/Sqstm1-dependent malignant progression, and suggest that molecular targeting of p62/Sqstm1 represents a potential chemotherapeutic approach against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Phosphorylation of p62/Sqstm1 at Ser349 directs glucose to the glucuronate pathway, and glutamine towards glutathione synthesis through activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. These changes provide HCC cells with tolerance to anti-cancer drugs and proliferation potency. Phosphorylated p62/Sqstm1 accumulates in tumour regions positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV). An inhibitor of phosphorylated p62-dependent Nrf2 activation suppresses the proliferation and anticancer agent tolerance of HCC. Our data indicate that this Nrf2 inhibitor could be used to make cancer cells less resistant to anticancer drugs, especially in HCV-positive HCC patients. PMID:27345495

  13. Occult HCV infection: an unexpected finding in a population unselected for hepatic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occult Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a new pathological entity characterized by presence of liver disease and absence or very low levels of detectable HCV-RNA in serum. Abnormal values of liver enzymes and presence of replicative HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are also observed. Aim of the study was to evaluate occult HCV occurrence in a population unselected for hepatic disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We chose from previous epidemiological studies three series of subjects (n = 276, age range 40-65 years unselected for hepatic disease. These subjects were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA in plasma and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs by using commercial systems. All subjects tested negative for HCV antibodies and plasma HCV-RNA and showed normal levels of liver enzymes; 9/276 patients (3.3% were positive for HCV-RNA in PBMCs, identifying a subset of subjects with potential occult HCV infection. We could determine the HCV type for 8 of the 9 patients finding type 1a (3 patients, type 1b (2 patients, and type 2a (3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show evidence that occult HCV infection may occur in a population unselected for hepatic disease. A potential risk of HCV infection spread by subjects harbouring occult HCV infection should be considered. Design of prospective studies focusing on the frequency of infection in the general population and on the clinical evolution of occult HCV infection will be needed to verify this unexpected finding.

  14. Active co-infection with HBV and/or HCV in South African HIV positive patients due for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoki, Andrew M; Msibi, Thembeni L; Motswaledi, Mojakgomo H; Selabe, Selokela G; Monokoane, Tshweu S; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) share routes of transmission. There is limited data on the incidence of active co-infection with HBV and/or HCV in cancer patients infected with HIV in Africa. This was a prospective study based on 34 patients with varied cancer diagnosis, infected with HIV and awaiting cancer therapy in South Africa. HIV viral load, CD4+ cell counts, Alanine-aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were tested. Exposure to HBV and HCV was assessed serologically using commercial kits. Active HBV and/or HCV co-infection was detected using viral specific nested PCR assays. HCV 5'-UTR PCR products were sequenced to confirm active HCV infection. Active viral infection was detected in 64.7% of patients for HBV, 38.2% for HCV, and 29.4% for both HBV and HCV. Occult HBV infection was observed in 63.6% of the patients, while seronegative HCV infection was found in 30.8% of patients. In addition, CD4+ cell count HCV or both HBV and HCV co-infections. A total of 72.7%, 18.2% and 9.1% of the HCV sequences were assigned genotype 5, 1 and 4 respectively.The study revealed for the first time a high active HBV and/or HCV co-infection rate in cancer patients infected with HIV. The findings call for HBV and HCV testing in such patients, and where feasible, appropriate antiviral treatment be indicated, as chemotherapy or radiotherapy has been associated with reactivation of viral hepatitis and termination of cancer therapy.

  15. Effect of HLA on hepatitis C virus clearance and persistence in anti-HCV-positive end-stage renal disease patients

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    Serkan Ocal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The efficacy of immune response against hepatitis C virus (HCV is determined by human leukocyte antigen (HLA molecules of the host which present HCV antigens to CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the frequencies of certain HLA class I-II alleles and the natural history of HCV in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a university hospital. Patients and Methods: The present study comprised 189 ESRD patients (candidates for renal transplantation who had positive anti-HCV antibody test. The results concerning HCV and HLA status were gathered from patients′ files. The viral persistence was compared between the groups that were determined by HLA sub-typing. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, and Fisher′s exact test. Level of error was set at 0.05 for all statistical evaluations, and P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: We found possible association between the course of HCV infection and specific HLA alleles. HLA class I CwFNx016 and HLA class II DRBFNx0110 alleles were observed more frequently in the viral clearance group (P < 0.05. The HLA class I BFNx0138 allele group was more prone to develop chronic hepatitis C (P < 0.01. Conclusions: These findings suggest that HLA class I CwFNx016 and HLA class II DRBFNx0110 alleles may be associated with immunological elimination of HCV in Turkish patients on hemodialysis. HLA sub-typing could help predict the prognosis of HCV infection.

  16. Autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation markers in naïve HCV-RNA positive patients without clinical evidences of autoimmune/lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulli, Francesca; Basile, Umberto; Gragnani, Laura; Fognani, Elisa; Napodano, Cecilia; Colacicco, Luigi; Miele, Luca; De Matthaeis, Nicoletta; Cattani, Paola; Zignego, Anna Linda; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico

    2016-08-01

    HCV can lead to both chronic liver disease and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. A strong association exists between HCV and mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC). Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), rheumatoid factor Ig-G (RF-IgG), free light chain κ and λ (FLC-κ, FLC-λ) levels and κ/λ ratio were evaluated in 50/420 subjects unexpectedly resulted anti-HCV positive after routine screenings for non-hepathological procedures. Three/fifty patients had HCV-RNA undetectable in the serum and were excluded from the analysis. Thirty-nine/fifty patients had laboratory evidence of circulating cryoglobulins without liver disease and MC-related symptoms. Among them, 17 resulted ANA-positive. The mean cryocrit was higher in ANA-positive patients, while no other demographic/clinical differences were observed between the groups. Significantly higher levels of RF-IgG were observed in ANA-positive vs ANA-negative patients. κ and λ FLC were higher in ANA-positive patients. A ROC analysis, based on ANA-positivity vs ANA-negativity, confirmed a high sensitivity and specificity of RF-IgG test. Published data concerning MC come mostly from symptomatic vasculitis. We analyzed HCV-patients without MC symptoms, founding cryoglobulins in the majority of them. The increased levels of FR-IgG and FLC in CGs-ANA-positive patients, suggest these test could be used to identify a state of silent autoimmune and/or lymphoproliferative condition before the transition to a frank disease in naïve HCV-patients without symptoms of extrahepatic manifestations. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraction of HCV-RNA from Plasma Samples: Development towards Semiautomation

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Amin; Tania Jabbar; Fawad Niazi; Muhammad Saeed Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    A semiautomated extraction protocol of HCV-RNA using Favorgen RNA extraction kit has been developed. The kit provided protocol was modified by replacing manual spin steps with vacuum filtration. The assay performance was evaluated by real-time qPCR based on Taqman technology. Assay linearity was confirmed with the serial dilutions of RTA (Turkey) containing 1 × (106, 105, 104, and 103) IU mL−1. Comparison of test results obtained by two extraction methods showed a good correlation (r = 0.95, ...

  18. HCV-RNA水平对HIV/HCV合并感染者HIV疾病进展影响研究%Impact of HCV-RNA levels on HIV-1 disease progression in Chinese HIV/HCV co-infected individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 代娣; 丁海波; 尚红; 姜拥军; 张晻; 陈昕; 张子宁; 周立平; 范霞; 王亚男; 胡清海

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)和丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)混合感染者HCV-RNA水平对HIV感染疾病进展的影响.方法 采用横断面研究对391例不同途径HIV感染者进行抗HCV-IgG、HCV-RNA、HIV-RNA、T淋巴细胞计数及其他免疫活化指标检测,比较HCV-RNA水平高组和低组病毒学及免疫学相关指标差别,分析HCV-RNA与HIV-RNA、CD4+T淋巴细胞计数的相关性.结果 (1)有偿供血组(93%)和静脉吸毒组(97.5%)抗HCV-IgG阳性率显著高于性接触组(20.1%);在抗HCV-IgG阳性的HIV感染者中,静脉吸毒组HCV-RNA阳性率(89.9%)显著高于有偿供血组(48.3%)及性接触组(62.5%),P均<0.01.(2) HCV-RNA水平和HIV-RNA水平正相关(r=0.237,P<0.01),与CD4计数负相关(r=-0.201,P<0.05).(3) HCV-RNA高组免疫活化标志物HLA-DR表达高于HCV-RNA低组(P<0.01).结论 高水平的HCV-RNA可能是HIV感染疾病进展的危险因素之一.%Objective To investigate the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA levels on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 disease progression in Chinese HIV/HCV co-infected individuals. Methods Cross-sectional analysis was performed among 391 HIV-infected patients for assessment of HCV-IgG, HCV-RNA, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell counts and cell surface markers of immune activation, to compare the difference of viral and immune indexes between HCV-RNA high group and HCV-RNA low group, and to elucidate the association between HCV-RNA, HIV-RNA and CD4 cell counts in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Results (1) The percentage of anti HCV-IgG positive of former plasma donor group (93%) and drug-injection group (97.5%) were significantly higher than that of sexual transmission group (20.1%). The percentage of HCV-RNA positive of drug-injection group (89.9%) was significantly higher than that of former plasma donor group (48.3%) and sexual transmission group (62.5%), P<0.01, respectively. (2) HCV-RNA levels were positively correlated to HIV-RNA levels (r=0.237,P

  19. Overall and cause-specific excess mortality in HIV-positive persons compared with the general population: Role of HCV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejos, Belén; Hernando, Victoria; Iribarren, Jose; Gonzalez-García, Juan; Hernando, Asuncion; Santos, Jesus; Asensi, Victor; Gomez-Berrocal, Ana; Del Amo, Julia; Jarrin, Inma

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to estimate overall and cause-specific excess mortality of HIV-positive patients compared with the general population, and to assess the effect of risk factors.We included patients aged >19 years, recruited from January 1, 2004 to May 31, 2014 in Cohort of the Spanish Network on HIV/AIDS Research. We used generalized linear models with Poisson error structure to model excess mortality rates.In 10,340 patients, 368 deaths occurred. Excess mortality was 0.82 deaths per 100 person-years for all-cause mortality, 0.11 for liver, 0.08 for non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs), 0.08 for non-AIDS infections, and 0.02 for cardiovascular-related causes. Lower CD4 count and higher HIV viral load, lower education, being male, and over 50 years were predictors of overall excess mortality. Short-term (first year follow-up) overall excess hazard ratio (eHR) for subjects with AIDS at entry was 3.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 5.19) and 1.37 (95% CI 0.87, 2.15) for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected; medium/long-term eHR for AIDS at entry was 0.90 (95% CI 0.58, 1.39) and 3.83 (95% CI 2.37, 6.19) for HCV coinfection. Liver excess mortality was associated with low CD4 counts and HCV coinfection. Patients aged ≥50 years and HCV-coinfected showed higher NADM excess mortality, and HCV-coinfected patients showed increased non-AIDS infections excess mortality.Overall, liver, NADM, non-AIDS infections, and cardiovascular excesses of mortality associated with being HIV-positive were found, and HCV coinfection and immunodeficiency played significant roles. Differential short and medium/long-term effects of AIDS at entry and HCV coinfection were found for overall excess mortality.

  20. Tokamak Plasmas : Plasma position control in SST1 tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Bandyopadhyay; S P Deshpande

    2000-11-01

    For long duration steady state operation of SST1, it would be very crucial to maintain the plasma radial and vertical positions accurately. For designing the position controller in SST1 we have adopted the simple linear RZIP control model. While the vertical position instability is slowed down by a set of passive stabilizers placed closed to the plasma edge, a pair of in-vessel active feedback coils can adequately control vertical position perturbations of up to 1 cm. The shifts in radial position arising due to minor disruptions would be controlled by a separate pair of poloidal field (PF) coils also placed inside the vessel, however the controller would ignore fast but insignificant changes in radius arising due to edge localised modes. The parameters of both vertical and radial position control coils and their power supplies are determined based on the RZIP simulations.

  1. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  2. Assessment of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongfen; Yao, Yufeng; Shen, Yunsong; Cao, Danfeng; Li, Yalin; Zhang, Shuqiong; Cun, Wei; Sun, Mingbo; Yu, Jiankun; Shi, Li; Dong, Shaozhong

    2016-12-23

    Recently, we reported that the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes has rapidly changed among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan Province over the last 5 years; this is especially true for subtype 6a which has increased in frequency from 5 to 15%. Here, we assessed 120 HCV-positive plasma samples from the general population (GP). HCV NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR. We identified four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3 and 6) and seven HCV subtypes (1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and 6k) in this population. Genotype 3 was predominant, with a distribution frequency of 0.484, followed by genotype 1 (0.283), genotype 6 (0.133) and genotype 2 (0.100). HCV subtypes 3b (frequency 0.292) and 1b (frequency 0.283) were the most common subtypes. A comparison of the current data with previous results reported for IDUs showed that the distribution frequencies of genotypes 1, 2 and 6 were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDUs (P HCV subtypes, the distribution frequencies of 1b, 2a, 6a, and 6n were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDU groups (P HCV subtype 6a strains isolated from IDUs and the GP were intermixed and not separately clustered. HCV subtype 6a was predominant not only among IDUs but also among those in the GP in the Guangdong Province and Vietnam. However, HCV subtype 6a was predominant only among IDUs and not among those in the GP in the Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces. Our results indicate that the HCV subtype 6a could rapidly spread across China.

  3. Extraction of HCV-RNA from Plasma Samples: Development towards Semiautomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A semiautomated extraction protocol of HCV-RNA using Favorgen RNA extraction kit has been developed. The kit provided protocol was modified by replacing manual spin steps with vacuum filtration. The assay performance was evaluated by real-time qPCR based on Taqman technology. Assay linearity was confirmed with the serial dilutions of RTA (Turkey containing 1 × (106, 105, 104, and 103 IU mL−1. Comparison of test results obtained by two extraction methods showed a good correlation (r=0.95, n=30 with detection limit of 102 IU mL−1. The semiautomated vacuum filtration based protocol demonstrated high throughput: 35 minutes for the extraction of a batch of 30 samples (150 µL each with reduced labor, time, waste, and cost. Performance characteristics of semiautomated system make it suitable for use in diagnostic purpose and viral load determinations.

  4. Analysis of false positive detection of HCV antibody by ELISA%HCV抗体ELISA检测假阳性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 张文娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the false positive problem when the S/CO mean of HCV Ab test by ELISA is between 1 to 3.8. Methods 26 cases whose first S/CO mean(3 times by ELISA) was between 1 to 3.8 and 20 cases of normal healthy people were chosen. Do blood test again from 2 months to 6 months. Results 6 cases among 26 cases of reactive result of first ELISA tested negative in the second experiment.20 normal individuals tested negative twice by ELISA.There is significance difference between two test(P<0.01). Conclusion If detection of HCV Ab by ELISA is reactive,should be regularly reviewed,or do other tests.%目的:探讨HCV抗体ELISA检测1<S/CO均值<3.8时假阳性问题。方法筛选HCV抗体ELISA首次检测1<S/CO(3次均值)<3.8共26例,正常体检人群20例,2~6月之间再次抽血检测。结果26例首次检测ELISA有反应性其中6例再次检测为阴性,最终该6例患者确诊为阴性,20例正常体检人群2次均为阴性。两次检测比较结果有显著性差异(P<0.01)。结论 HCV抗体ELISA检测有反应性时应定期复查或做其它检测。

  5. Clinical and biologic importance of F-actin autoantibodies in HCV monoinfected and HCV-HIV coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudacko, Rachel M; Alvarez, Gustavo A; Talal, Andrew H; Jacobson, Ira; Wan, David W; Zhou, Xi K; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum filamentous (F)-actin antibody titers and severity of hepatitis present in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Liver biopsy samples from 18 HCV monoinfected and 20 HCV-HIV coinfected patients were graded with respect to the degree of hepatitis activity and intensity of plasma cell infiltration using MUM-1 and CD138 immunostains. Of the 38 HCV-infected patients, 6 (16%) had F-actin antibody titers in excess of 30 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units. We found a positive trend between serum F-actin antibody levels and the mean number of plasma cells present in the portal tracts of patients with HCV infection (r = 0.31; P = .06) and a significant association between these factors in HCV-HIV coinfected patients (r = 0.64; P = .002). Our data suggest that elevated serum F-actin antibody titers are commonly encountered in HCV-infected patients and may reflect more active inflammation in liver biopsy samples, similar to autoimmune hepatitis.

  6. Successful Management of Graft Reinfection of HCV Genotype 2 in Living Donor Liver Transplantation from a Hepatitis B Core Antibody-Positive Donor with Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Reina; Kanda, Tatsuo; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Nakamura, Masato; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Arai, Makoto; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively safe and highly effective for the eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in liver transplant recipients. In this case study, we present a female with a graft reinfected with HCV genotype 2 who was treated with a combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Because the graft was from a hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor, passive immunization with hyperimmune hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and entecavir were also provided to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation. It became clear that the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin promptly led to a sustained virologic response and that this combination was safe to treat graft reinfection with HCV genotype 2 after LDLT. Adverse events caused by DAAs were not observed, except for slight anemia. HBIG and entecavir were useful in the prevention of HBV reactivation. In conclusion, the present case indicated that DAA treatment for graft reinfection with HCV is safe and effective in LDLT from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors. PMID:27721720

  7. Successful Management of Graft Reinfection of HCV Genotype 2 in Living Donor Liver Transplantation from a Hepatitis B Core Antibody-Positive Donor with Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Sasaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs are relatively safe and highly effective for the eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV in liver transplant recipients. In this case study, we present a female with a graft reinfected with HCV genotype 2 who was treated with a combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. Because the graft was from a hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor, passive immunization with hyperimmune hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and entecavir were also provided to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV reactivation. It became clear that the combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin promptly led to a sustained virologic response and that this combination was safe to treat graft reinfection with HCV genotype 2 after LDLT. Adverse events caused by DAAs were not observed, except for slight anemia. HBIG and entecavir were useful in the prevention of HBV reactivation. In conclusion, the present case indicated that DAA treatment for graft reinfection with HCV is safe and effective in LDLT from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors.

  8. HCV subtype characterization among injection drug users: implication for a crucial role of Zhenjiang in HCV transmission in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. However, the transmission route of HCV in Eastern China remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of Zhenjiang city of Jiangsu province, an important transportation hub linking Shanghai with other regions of China, in HCV transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 141 whole blood samples were collected from injection drug users (IDUs in Zhenjiang and then tested for HCV infection. Of them, 115 HCV positive plasmas were subjected to RNA extraction, RT-PCR amplification, and sequencing. The subtype characterization and the evolutionary origin of HCV strains circulating in Zhenjiang were determined using polygenetic or phylogeographic analyses. Seven HCV subtypes 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6e and 6n were detected among Zhenjiang IDUs, showing a complex HCV epidemic. The most predominant subtypes were 3a (38% and 1b (26.8%. Among these subtypes, subtypes 3b, 6n and 6e originated from Southwestern China (i.e., Yunnan and/or Guangxi, subtypes 2a and 6a from Southern China (i.e., Guangdong, subtype 1b from Central (i.e., Henan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China, and subtype 3a from Southwestern (i.e., Yunnan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China. From Zhenjiang, subtypes 1b and 2a were further spread to Eastern (i.e., Shanghai and Northern (i.e., Beijing China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The mixing of seven HCV subtypes in Zhenjiang from all quarters of China indicates that as an important middle station, Zhenjiang plays a crucial role in HCV transmission, just as it is important in population migration between other regions of China and Eastern China.

  9. 丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原在丙肝检测中的应用分析%Clinical value of HCV core antigen detection on the diagnosis of HCV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高会广; 卞爱娜

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原在丙肝感染诊断中的临床应用价值.方法 采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)对162例疑似HCV感染者血清进行HCV RNA检测,同时用ELISA法对其进行HCV核心抗原和抗-HCV检测.结果 162例样本中,抗-HCV阳性率64.20%(104/162),HCV RNA阳性率51.85%(84/162),HCV核心抗原阳性率35.19%(57/162);HCV RNA和HCV核心抗原均阳性样本57例,二者符合率为67.86%;HCV核心抗原和HCV RNA阳性而抗-HCV阴性者1例.结论 HCV核心抗原是HIV早期感染的标志之一,检测HCV核心抗原有利于HCV感染的早期诊断.%Objective To explore the clinical value of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen detection on the diagnosis of HCV infection. Methods Plasma samples were collected from 162 HCV infection suspected patients. Plasma samples were tested for HCV RNA by the method of Fluorescence Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR). The core antigen of HCV (HCVcAg) and anti-HCV were also tested by ELISA. Results The positive rates of HCV antibody, HCV RNA and HCVcAg were 64.20% (104/162), 51.85% (84/162) and 35.19% (57/162) respectively. HCVcAg was detected in 67.86% (57/84) of HCV RNA positive specimens. All HCVcAg positive specimens were positive for HCV RNA. There was only one patient who was negative for HCV antibody, but positive for HCV RNA and HCVcAg. Conclusion HCVcAg is a marker of early infection of HCV and may help early diagnosis of HCV.

  10. HCV Specific IL-21 Producing T Cells but Not IL-17A Producing T Cells Are Associated with HCV Viral Control in HIV/HCV Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacParland, Sonya A.; Fadel, Saleh M.; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Fawaz, Ali; Kim, Connie; Rahman, A. K. M. Nur-ur; Liu, Jun; Kaul, Rupert; Kovacs, Colin; Grebely, Jason; Dore, Gregory J.; Wong, David K.; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance, faster cirrhosis progression and higher HCV RNA levels are associated with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The CD4+ T helper cytokines interleukin (IL)-21 and IL-17A are associated with virus control and inflammation, respectively, both important in HCV and HIV disease progression. Here, we examined how antigen-specific production of these cytokines during HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with HCV virus control. Methods We measured HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A production by transwell cytokine secretion assay in PBMCs from monoinfected and coinfected individuals. Viral control was determined by plasma HCV RNA levels. Results In acutely infected individuals, those able to establish transient/complete HCV viral control tended to have stronger HCV-specific IL-21-production than non-controllers. HCV-specific IL-21 production also correlated with HCV viral decline in acute infection. Significantly stronger HCV-specific IL-21 production was detected in HAART-treated coinfected individuals. HCV-specific IL-17A production was not associated with lower plasma HCV RNA levels in acute or chronic HCV infection and responses were stronger in HIV coinfection. HCV-specific IL-21/ IL-17A responses did not correlate with microbial translocation or fibrosis. Exogenous IL-21 treatment of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells from monoinfected individuals enhanced their function although CD8+ T cells from coinfected individuals were somewhat refractory to the effects of IL-21. Conclusions These data show that HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A-producing T cells are induced in HIV/HCV coinfection. In early HIV/HCV coinfection, IL-21 may contribute to viral control, and may represent a novel tool to enhance acute HCV clearance in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals. PMID:27124305

  11. [Prevalence of positive markers for hepatitis B (HBV Ags) and hepatitis C (Anti-HCV) in health personnel at the Social Security Institute of Mexico State and Municipalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Huezo, M S; Sánchez-Hernández, E; Camacho, M C; Mejia-López, M D; Rebollo-Vargas, J

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of serum markers of viral hepatitis in health-care workers seems to be similar to that described in the general population, even though this group would appear at increased risk because exposure to potentially infectious material. There is scarce information available in Mexico in this regard. To define the prevalence of serum markers for hepatitis C (anti-HCV antibodies) and hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg) in health-care workers at the Instituto de Seguridad Social del Estado de Mexico y Municipios (ISSEMYM) and to establish the presence of viremia in subjects with positive serum markers. Health-care workers from ISSEMyM with unknown hepatitis serologic status participated voluntarily in this trial. They completed a written questionnaire detailing potential risk factors for viral hepatitis and provided a blood sample. A total of 374 health-care workers were included. Seven subjects (1.8%) were positive, 5 for anti-HCV antibodies (1.3%) and 2 for HBsAg (0.5%). None of these subjects had detectable serum HCV RNA or HBV DNA on further testing. The frequency of positive serum markers for viral hepatitis in this group of healthcare workers is similar to the estimated prevalence among the general population in Mexico. No case of active infection defined by positive viremia was encountered in this group of subjects.

  12. Absence of occult HCV infection in patients experiencing an immunodepression condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Guastafierro, Salvatore; Filippini, Pietro; Tonziello, Gilda; Sica, Antonello; Di Martino, Filomena; Sagnelli, Caterina; Ferrara, Maria Giovanna; Martini, Salvatore; Cozzolino, Domenico; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of occult HCV infection in two settings of patients experiencing immunosuppression: patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and those with onco-haematological disease. Sixty consecutive HIV-positive/anti-HCV-negative/HCV RNA-negative patients (HIV group) and 32 consecutive anti-HCV/HCV RNA negative patients with an onco-haematological disease first undergoing chemotherapy (Onco-haematological group) were enrolled. HCV-RNA was sought by real time RT-PCR in plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC) samples obtained at enrolment and during follow-up, in the patients in the HIV group every three months and in those in the onco-haematological group at months 1 and 3 during chemotherapy and then every three months after treatment discontinuation. No plasma or PBMC sample collected at enrolment and during the follow-up in the HIV and onco-haematological groups was HCV RNA positive. The results of this study rule out the existence of occult HCV infection in patients with strong immunosuppression due to different conditions, HIV infection and onco-haematological diseases.

  13. High rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HIV-infected individuals with spontaneous HCV RNA clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Soriano, V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Following resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, recurrence has been shown to occur in some persons with repeated exposure to HCV. We aimed to investigate the rate and factors associated with HCV RNA recurrence among HIV-1-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA...... clearance in the EuroSIDA cohort. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with documented prior spontaneous HCV clearance, and at least one subsequently collected plasma sample, were examined. The last sample was tested for HCV RNA and those with HCV RNA ≥ 615 IU/mL were defined as having HCV recurrence...

  14. HCV and Oxidative Stress: Implications for HCV Life Cycle and HCV-Associated Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Medvedev; Daniela Ploen; Eberhard Hildt

    2016-01-01

    HCV (hepatitis C virus) is a member of the Flaviviridae family that contains a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 9600 bases. HCV is a major causative agent for chronic liver diseases such as steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma which are caused by multifactorial processes. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered as a major factor contributing to HCV-associated pathogenesis. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved ...

  15. Immune complexed (IC) hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronically and acutely HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, E; Maggi, F; Abbruzzese, F; Bellomi, F; Giannelli, G; Picardi, A; Scagnolari, C; Folgori, A; Spada, E; Piccolella, E; Dianzani, F; Antonelli, G

    2009-02-01

    In infected individuals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists in various forms of circulating particles which role in virus persistence and in HCV resistance to IFN therapy is still debated. Here, the proportion of HCV bound to immunoglobulin was determined in plasma of 107 chronically infected patients harbouring different HCV genotypes and, for comparison, of six patients with acute HCV infection. The results showed that, in spite of wide individual variability, chronically HCV-infected patients exhibited an extremely high proportion of immune complexed (IC) virus regardless of plasma HCV load and infecting genotype. Moreover, no significant association was found between baseline proportion of IC HCV and response to IFN treatment. Plasma samples collected within 2 weeks of treatment from 20 patients revealed a significant decline of mean IC HCV values relative to baseline that clearly paralleled the decay of total HCV load. In acutely infected patients, circulating HCV was not IC or IC at very low levels only in patients developing chronic HCV infection. Collectively, these findings strengthen the possibility that IC virus could play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  16. [Chronic hepatitis and occult HCV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowala-Piaskowska, Arleta; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona; Pham, Tram N Q; Michalak, Tomasz I

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989. HCV is a positive single-strand RNA. We all have thought, that HCV can replicate only in liver tissue, but now we know, that HCV can replicate in extrahepatic tissue as well. In about 48-86% of HCV infected patients, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has been noticed and eventually, after tens of years, liver insufficiency, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The current recommended treatment for CHC is a combination of pegylated-interferon alpha and Ribavirin. Presently it is known, that HCV infection can persist as an occult infection. RNA HCV can be detected in patients after successful treatment for CHC or spontaneous elimination. Persistent HCV replication in hepatocytes or lymphoid cells would likely lead to continuous antigenic stimulation of the immune system. This prolonged replication may contribute to the immune tolerance of HCV, impairment of immune response and even further virus persistence. This occult infection grows more important in transplantation.

  17. Interferon Response in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection: Lessons from Cell Culture Systems of HCV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects approximately 130-170 million people worldwide. In 2005, the first HCV infection system in cell culture was established using clone JFH-1, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with fulminant HCV infection. JFH-1 replicates efficiently in hepatoma cells and infectious virion particles are released into the culture supernatant. The development of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) systems has allowed us to understand how hosts respond to HCV infection and how HCV evades host responses. Although the mechanisms underlying the different outcomes of HCV infection are not fully understood, innate immune responses seem to have a critical impact on the outcome of HCV infection, as demonstrated by the prognostic value of IFN-λ gene polymorphisms among patients with chronic HCV infection. Herein, we review recent research on interferon response in HCV infection, particularly studies using HCVcc infection systems.

  18. Evidence of occult HCV genotypes in haemophilic individuals with unapparent HCV mixed infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, C; Culasso, A; Aloisi, N; García, G; Bastón, M; Corti, M; Bianco, R P; Campos, R; Ares, B R; Baré, P

    2008-07-01

    Individuals with haemophilia who received non heat-treated factor concentrates were likely to undergo multiple exposures to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, HCV mixed-genotype infections might be more frequent in these patients than in the general population. Their prevalence is extremely variable in similar groups of patients tested by different assays due to the fact that currently available genotyping techniques are not suitable to detect multiple HCV genotypes in a viral population. As an HCV viral reservoir, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) might harbor viral variants distinct from the genotypes detected in plasma. We investigated the presence of HCV genotypes in a group of chronically infected haemophilic patients in the PBMC compartment using a non-stimulated cell culture system that allows the detection of the HCV genome in culture supernatants. We compared them to the HCV genotypes found in plasma samples. Cell culture experiments performed with PBMC demonstrated the presence of additional HCV genotypes that were undetected in the corresponding plasma samples with the same genotyping technique. Although mixed infections at HCV genotype level became evident in 5.6% of the patients (16/288), the culture methodology increased the number of HCV infections with multiple genotypes to 62.5% (10/16) (P HCV viral reservoirs is emphasized. Considering minor strains could influence the outcome of treatment, detection of covert HCV mixed-genotype infections might be essential for choosing the adequate therapeutic regimen.

  19. Suppressive effect of oral administration of branched-chain amino acid granules on oxidative stress and inflammation in HCV-positive patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Tomoyoshi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Orito, Etsuro; Hasegawa, Izumi; Nukaya, Haruhiko; Kato, Atsunaga; Matunaga, Seijiro; Endo, Masayuki; Tanaka, Yoshito; Sakakibara, Kenji; Mizokami, Masashi

    2008-07-01

    In chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, it is thought that both chronic persistent inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it has been reported that long-term oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules could inhibit liver carcinogenesis. However, the extent of the involvement of these factors remains obscure. To clarify the involvement of inflammation and oxidative stress in the inhibition of liver carcinogenesis, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of BCAA granules on oxidative stress and inflammation in HCV-positive patients with liver cirrhosis. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in the study: 18 of the patients were treated with BCAA granules (administered group) and nine were observed without BCAA granules (non-administered group). In the non-administered group, the production of oxidative stress, as indicated by urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 15-F2t-Isoprostane (8-IsoPs), significantly increased with time, while in the administered group the levels of ferritin and 8-OHdG decreased significantly. Comparison of the two groups demonstrated that highly sensitive CRP, ferritin, 8-OHdG and 8-IsoPs were significantly reduced by taking BCAA granules. The time-course analysis showed that ferritin and highly sensitive CRP seemed to decrease first, followed by a decrease of 8-OHdG and 8-IsoPs. These findings indicated that the administration of BCAA granules influenced microinflammation and the metabolism of iron in HCV-positive patients with liver cirrhosis, and subsequently seemed to reduce the production of oxidative stress, possibly leading to a decrease in the occurrence of HCC.

  20. 男性HIV和HCV并发感染者HCV抗体的表达%Study on the HCV Antibody Response in Men HIV and HCV Concurrent Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺美荣; 焦东丽; 贾艳春; 严震

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)男性患者并发丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)感染后HCV抗体的表达情况,探讨影响HCV抗体表达的因素.方法 选取经筛选检测最终确诊的HIV/HCV并发感染男性患者23例,每隔3个月随访一次共随访6个月.检测HIV及HCV病毒载量、CD4+T细胞计数及HCV抗体.结果 首次HCV RNA检测阳性时78.3%的患者HCV抗体阴性;3个月后,34.8%的患者为HCV抗体阴性;6个月后,17.4%的患者HCV抗体为阴性.结论 HIV 并发HCV的男性感染者,HCV抗体阳性率表达较低,应早期联合核酸检测.%Objective To estimated the positive rates of antibodies and the influencing factors of antibodies expansion in Human immunoddficiency virus(HIV) men infected with hepatitis C virus(HCV). Methods 23 HIV-positive patients with early HCV infection were identified. Plasma samples obtained at 3 monthly intervals( total 6 month) for routine monitoring of HIV and HCV viral load,CD4 cell counts,HCV antibodies. Results On first amplification of HCV,78. 3% of patients were serologically negative. Antibody detection remain seronegative 34. 8% by 3 months to 17. 4% at 6 months. Conclusion The lower of HCV antibodies positive rates in HIV men with HCV should early combination of nucleic acid testing.

  1. Evaluation of a new, rapid test for detecting HCV infection, suitable for use with blood or oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R; Kardos, Keith W; Schiff, Eugene; Berne, Cheryl A; Mounzer, Karam; Banks, Alpha T; Tatum, Harvey A; Friel, Timothy J; Demicco, Michael P; Lee, William M; Eder, Scott E; Monto, Alexander; Yearwood, Graham D; Guillon, Geraldine B; Kurtz, Lisa A; Fischl, Mark; Unangst, Jay Lynn; Kriebel, Laura; Feiss, Gary; Roehler, Michele

    2011-03-01

    The availability of a highly accurate, rapid, point-of-care test for hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be useful in addressing the problem of under-diagnosis of HCV, by increasing opportunities for testing outside of traditional clinical settings. A new HCV rapid test device (OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test), approved recently in Europe for use with venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum, plasma, or oral fluid was evaluated in a multi-center study and performance compared to established laboratory-based tests for detection of HCV. The HCV rapid test was evaluated in prospective testing of subjects with signs and/or symptoms of hepatitis, or who were at risk for hepatitis C using all 5 specimen types. Performance was assessed relative to HCV serostatus established by laboratory methods (EIA, RIBA and PCR) approved in Europe for diagnosis of hepatitis C infection. Sensitivity to antibody in early infection was also compared to EIA in 27 seroconversion panels. In addition, the reliability of the oral fluid sample for accurate detection of anti-HCV was assessed by studying the impact of various potentially interfering conditions of oral health, use of oral care products and consumption of food and drink. In this large study of at-risk and symptomatic persons, the overall specificities of the OraQuick® HCV Rapid Antibody Test were equivalent (99.6-99.9%) for all 5 specimen types and the 95% CIs substantially overlapped. Overall sensitivities were virtually identical for venous blood, fingerstick blood, serum and plasma (99.7-99.9%). Observed sensitivity was slightly lower for oral fluid at 98.1% though the upper CI (99.0%) was equal to the lower CI for venous blood and fingerstick blood. Most of the HCV positive subjects which gave nonreactive results in oral fluid had serological and virological results consistent with resolved infection. Sensitivity for anti-HCV in early seroconversion was virtually identical between the HCV rapid test and EIA. Detection of anti-HCV in

  2. [Usefulness of Anti-HCV ELISA Test and HCV Reverse Transcriptase-PCR for the Diagnosis of Hepatits C Viral Infection.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Hee; Lee, Hee Joo; Park, Su Yon; Lee, Youn Sik; Suh, Jin Tae

    2006-12-01

    The diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is screened by anti-HCV enzymelinked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and confirmed by recombinant immunoblotting assay (RIBA) or HCV RT-PCR. We attempted to evaluate the results between anti-HCV ELISA and a qualitative HCV RT-PCR. Four hundred and twenty patients who were tested with anti-HCV ELISA and HCV RTPCR, simultaneously, from January 2002 to June 2005 were enrolled in this study. Anti-HCV ELISA was performed by AxSYM HCV version 3.0 (Abbott Laboratories, USA). HCV RT-PCR was performed using in-house RT-nested PCR methods from January 2002 to October 2004 and HCV Genotype Amplification Kit (LiPA) (Bayer Healthcare, USA) from November 2004 to June 2005. Of the 420 patients tested, 321 were positive for anti-HCV ELISA, and 204 were positive for RT-PCR. The positive predictability of anti-HCV ELISA was 63.6%. Among anti-HCV positive patients, RT-PCR was positive in 7.3% of the patients with sample/cut-off (S/CO)/=6. Among the 117 patients with positive anti-HCV, but with negative HCV RT-PCR, 64 had liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis B, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Twelve patients showed positive HCV RT-PCR, but negative anti-HCV results; of these 9 had hepatic dysfunction. In the patients who were positive for anti-HCV ELISA with a low S/CO, HCV RT-PCR positivity was shown in a low proportion. Therefore, in such cases, the results should be confirmed by RIBA or HCV RT-PCR. The liver function test showed increased levels of hepatic enzymes in patients with positive HCV RT-PCR, but negative anti-HCV. Such findings correlate to an early phase of chronic hepatitis C, suggesting the necessity of continuous follow up.

  3. Il controllo di qualità nell’impiego della PCR applicata alla determinazione qualitativa dell’HCV-RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Giuliani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA in samples of plasma/serum has become an essential part of the diagnosis and management of HCV-infected patients. Qualitative HCV-RNA tests are used to identify acute HCV infections as well as chronic HCV carriers.In recent years,a variety of commercial and non commercial test systems have been developed for this purpose. Each of these methods is calibrate with proprietary standards and exhibits its own sensitivity (detection limit and specificity. Obviously, laboratories performing HCV-RNA test should report accurate and reliable results regardless of the type of assay used.Where commercial kit are used for part of or the complete analytical procedure, documented validation points already covered by the kit manufacturer can substitute for the validation by the user.Nevertheless, the performance of the kit with respect to its intended use has to be demonstrated by the user. One of the best ways to assess the performance of individual laboratories for validation of qualitative HCV-RNA test is determine: 1. Specificity. In order to validate the specificity of the analytical procedure, at least 100 HCV-RNA-negative plasma pools should be tested and shown to be non-reactive. 2. Positive cut-off point (detection limit/sensitivity.The positive cut-off point (as defined in the Ph Eur General Method 2. 6. 21 is the minimum number of the target sequences per volume sample which can be detected in 95% of test runs.A dilution series of a working reagent or reference material, which has been calibrated against the WHO HCV International Standard (96/790, should be tested on different days to examine variation between test runs.At least 3 independent dilution series should be tested with a sufficient number of replicates at each dilution to give a total number of 24 test results for each dilution to enable a statistical analysis of the results; 3. Robustness.To demonstrate robustness, at least 20 HCV-RNA negative plasma

  4. Feedback Control for Plasma Position on HL-2A Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIBo; SONGXianming; LILi; LIULi; WANGMinghong; FANMingjie; CHENLiaoyuan; YAOLieying; YANGQingwei

    2003-01-01

    HL-2A is a tokamak with closed divertor. It had been built at the end of 2002 and began to discharge from then on. To further study plasma discharges in HL-2A, a feedback control system (FBCS) for plasma position bad been developed in 2003.

  5. A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation code for design of position and shape control on tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Haruhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Senda, Ikuo

    1999-04-01

    A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation (TSPS) code has been developed for investigating the position and shape control on tokamak plasmas. The analyses of three-dimensional eddy currents on the conducting components around the plasma and the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium are taken into account in this code. The code can analyze the plasma position and shape control during the minor disruption in which the deformation of plasma is not negligible. Using the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) parameters, some examples of calculations are shown in this paper. (author)

  6. Hepatitis C virus (HCV): ever in reliable partnerships?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... The analysis of three cases of HCV-infected recipients, who received ... study conducted in HCV-positive transplant recipients of liver from a ...... Cacciola I, Pollicino T, Squadrito G, Cerenzia G, Orlando ME,. Raimondo G ...

  7. 献血者抗-HCV不合格标本RIBA确认结果分析%The RIBA Confirmation of Anti-HCV ELISA Positive Samples from Blood Donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱立琼; 蹇志伟; 谭金旭

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the results of RIBA confirmation for anti-HCV ELISA positive samples from blood donors,and to study the combination of anti-HCV ELISA reagents and the setting of grey area.Methods A total of 113 anti-HCV positive sample identified by ELISA were tested by using the restructuring immune imprinting(RIBA).Resuits Forty-six samples(40.7%,46/113)were confirmed positive by RIBA,41 samples were uncertain,and 26 samples were negative.Among the 46 RIBA confirmed HCV positive samples,the test results of 2 kinds of anti-HCV ELISA reagents were both positive for 44 samples.The 2 samples were positive with only one of reagents,others were negative or uncertain.Among the specimens with anti-HCV results in the grey area,the RIBA confirmation showed either uncertain or negative.In the anti-HCV positive samples identified by 2 ELISA reagents,the rate of confirmed positivity was 83.0%.Conclusion For ensuring the safety of blood,it's very important to use combination of the domestic and overseas antiHCV ELISA reagents and to set a proper grey area.%目的 分析献血人群ELISA试剂抗-HCV不合格标本确认结果,探讨抗-HCV ELISA试剂组合及灰区限的设置.方法 收集113份ELISA试剂抗-HCV不合格标本,采用重组免疫印迹实验(RIBA)进行确认,并比较不同ELISA试剂的检测情况.结果 113份ELISA检测不合格标本中,RIBA确认阳性46份,不确定39份,阴性28份.确认阳性比例为40.7%.RIBA确认阳性的标本中,2种抗-HCV ELISA试剂检测结果均呈阳性反应的有44份;1种抗-HCV ELISA试剂呈阳性反应的标本中,RIBA确认阳性有2份,其余为阴性或不确定;灰区标本中,确认结果均为不确定或阴性.2种ELISA试剂检测均呈阳性反应的标本中,确认阳性率为78.57%.结论 选用国产和进口试剂相组合,并设定灰区限,对保证血液安全意义重大.

  8. HCV-cAg、HCV-RNA及HCV-Ab联合检测降低丙型肝炎的误诊率%Joint detection of HCV-cAg,HCV-RNA and HCV-Ab in decreasing misdiagnosis rate of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严海燕; 欧阳颖; 刘晓强; 任燕飞; 罗晓红

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨丙型肝炎病毒总核心抗原、丙型肝炎RNA及抗丙型肝炎病毒抗体联合检测在丙型肝炎诊断中的应用价值.方法:对62例丙型肝炎患者阳性和64例HCV-RNA阴性的健康对照组血液标本同时采用RT-PCR定量检测HCV-RNA,时间分辨免疫荧光分析法检测HCV-Ab,和ELISA法检测HCV-cAg.结果:HCV-cAg检测方法敏感性为32.25%,特异性为100%,HCV-Ab检测方法的敏感性是92.0%,特异性是68.8%,联合检测的敏感性是96.8%,特异性是68.8%.结论:联合运用HCV-Ab和HCV-cAg或HCV-Ab和HCV-RNA,能有效降低单独使用HCV-Ab检测的误诊率.%Objective :To explore the diagnostic value of HCV RNA, the core antigen of HCV, HCV antibody in serum of patients with hepatitis C. Methods: Serum from 62 HCV RNA positive and 64 HCV RNA negative outpatients and inpatients were collected to detect the HCV antibody, HCV - RNA and HCV - cAg by time - resolved im-muno - fluorometric assay, RT - PCR and ELISA respectively. Results-. The sensitivity and specificity of HCV -cAg detection were 32. 25% and 100% respectively, while those of HCV - Ab detection were 92. 0% and 68. 8% respectively, those of joint detection were 96. 8% and 68. 8% respectively. Conclusion: Combination of anti HCV with HCV -cAg, or anti HCV with HCV RNA could effectively reduce the miss diagnosis rate, as compared with detecting anti HCV alone. All these suggested that HCV - cAg detection can indicate HCV replication, and can be used as supplementary indicators in routine testing.

  9. A clinical, epidemological, laboratorial, histological and ultrasonographical evaluation of anti-HCV EIA-2 positive blood donors Avaliação clínica, epidemiológica, laboratorial, histológica e ultrassonográfica de doadores de sangue anti-HCV EIA-2 positivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. GONÇALES JR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1992 and 1997, 790 blood donors with anti-HCV EIA-2 strongly reagent (relationship between the sample optical density/cut-off > 3 detected at the blood bank serological screening, were evaluated in ambulatory environment. They were all negative for Chagas disease, syphilis, hepatitis B (HBsAg and AIDS. Blood samples were collected at the first ambulatorial evaluation, for hemogram, biochemical tests and new serological tests for HCV (anti-HCV EIA-2. In blood samples of 226 repeatedly reagent anti-HCV EIA-2 blood donors, supplementary "immunoblot" test for HCV (RIBA-2 was used. In 209 donors, the presence of HCV-RNA was investigated by the PCR test. The abdominal ultrasonography was realized in 366 donors. In 269 patients liver biopsy was performed for the histopathological study. The follow-up of blood donors showed that 95.6% were repeatedly EIA-2 reagent, 94% were symptomless and denied any hepatitis history, with only 2% mentioning previous jaundice. In 47% of this population at least one risk factor has been detected for the HCV transmission, the use of intravenous drugs being the main one (27.8%. Blood transfusion was the second factor for HCV transmission (27.2%. Hepatomegaly was detected in 54% of the cases. Splenomegaly and signs of portal hypertension have seldom been found in the physical examination, indicating a low degree of hepatic compromising in HCV. Abdominal ultrasound showed alterations in 65% of the subjects, being the steatosis the most frequent (50%. In 83.5% of the donors submitted to the liver biopsy, the histopathological exam showed the presence of chronic hepatitis, usually classified as active (89% with mild or moderate grade in most of the cases (99.5%. The histopathological exam of the liver was normal in 1.5% of blood donors. The RIBA-2 test and the HCV-RNA investigation by PCR were positive in respectively 91.6 and 75% of the anti-HCV EIA-2 reagent donors. The HCV-RNA research was positive in 82% of the

  10. Study of positive and negative plasma catalytic oxidation of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wesenbeeck, K; Hauchecorne, B; Lenaerts, S

    2017-06-01

    The effect of introducing a photocatalytically active coating inside a plasma unit is investigated. This technique combines the advantages of high product selectivity from catalysis and the fast start-up from plasma technology. In this study, a preselected TiO2 coating is applied on the collector electrode of a DC corona discharge unit as non-thermal plasma reactor, in order to study the oxidation of ethylene. For both positive and negative polarities an enhanced mineralization is observed while the formation of by-products drastically decreases. The plasma catalytic unit gave the best results when using negative polarity at a voltage of 15 kV. This shows the potential of plasma catalysis as indoor air purification technology.

  11. Coinfecciones por HBV y HCV en pacientes HIV positivos en la "era HAART": nuevos desafíos Hbv and hcv co-infections in hiv positive patients in the "HAART era": new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia L. Laufer

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Las coinfecciones con virus de la hepatitis C (HCV y/o virus de la hepatitis B (HBV en pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV son un hallazgo frecuente en virtud de las similares vías de transmisión que estos agentes presentan (sexual, parenteral y vertical. Desde el advenimiento del tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficiencia (TARV se evidenció una marcada disminución en la morbi-mortalidad de los pacientes; sin embargo, ante la prolongación de su sobrevida, las complicaciones crónicas debidas a las coinfecciones con estos virus hepatotropos han cobrado importancia, convirtiéndose la enfermedad hepática en una de las primeras causas de morbi-mortalidad de los pacientes HIV positivos en los países desarrollados. Se disponen en la actualidad de nuevas terapias y métodos de diagnóstico y seguimiento para HBV y HCV, lo cual permite un mejor control de ambas coinfecciones.Co-infections with HIV and HCV/HBV are frequently found due to the similar routes of transmission (sexual, parenteral and vertical. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART there has been a notably decrease in patients morbidity and mortality, nevertheless with the prolonged survival, many of these patients are at risk of developing chronic complication, secondary to the infection of hepatotropic viruses. End stage liver disease is one of the main causes of morbid-mortality among HIV patients in developed countries. Nowadays there are new available therapies, diagnostic and follow up techniques for HBV and HCV, what provides a better control of both co-infections.

  12. Detection of HCV core antigen and its diagnostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the abilities of the hepatitis C virus (HCV core antigen (cAg test and the HCV RNA assay for confirming anti-HCV presence in order to determine the clinical utility of the HCV-cAg as an alternative or confirmatory diagnostic tool. MethodsSerum samples collected from 158 patients diagnosed with HCV infection were subjected to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based HCV-cAg test. The optical density (OD measured values were used to calculate the ratio of specimen absorbance to the cutoff value (S/CO. Simultaneously, the serum samples were subjected to PCR-based nucleic acid amplification quantitative fluorescence detection of HCV RNA. ResultsNone of the serum samples had a S/CO value <1 for the HCV-cAg test (100% negative, but all of the samples had a S/CO value >5 (100% positive. The HCV-cAg test sensitivity was 87.05%, specificity was 76.67%, positive predictive value was 9653%, and negative predictive value was 44.23%. As the S/CO value gradually increased, the significantly higher positive coincident rate of the HCV RNA test decreased. The HCV RNA negative coincident rate was significantly higher than that of the HCV-cAg test. HCV-cAg S/CO values between 1 and 2 corresponded to an HCV RNA values between 1.0×103 copies/ml and 1.0×104 copies/ml. The highest S/CO value obtained was 1.992. ConclusionThe HCV-cAg test is comparable to the HCV RNA assay for diagnosing HCV infection.

  13. Rheumatoid Case with HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Behnava

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation:A 46-year-old woman referred to our center due to abnormality in aminotransferase level during check up. She had a history of blood transfusion 12 years ago. Anti-HCV Ab by ELISA method and HCV RNA by RT-PCR were positive. HCV RNA by Amplicor HCV monitor test counted 800,000 IU/ml and the genotype was 3a by Specific Primer-Targeted Region Core method. Laboratory evaluation revealed: Hb 11.9 mg/dl, WBC 5000 /ml, platelet count 190,000/ ml, ALT 70 IU/ml, AST 65 IU/ml, Alk phosphatase 210, PT 13 second, total protein 7.2 g/dl, albumin 4 g/dl, gama globulin 1.6 g/dl, HBsAg negative and RF positive. She had a history of symmetrical polyarthritis of small joints of upper extremities and morning stiffness for 3 years ago and had been managed as rheumatoid arthritis (RA since then. She was managed with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Are there any relations between RA disease and HCV infection?HCV-related ArthritisRheumatologic complications of HCV infection are common and include mixedcryoglobulinemia, vasculitis, Sjogren’s syndrome, arthritis and fibromyalgia(1, 2. There is a welldefined picture of arthritis associated with the presence of mixed cryoglobulinemia that consists of an intermittent mono or oligoarticular,nondestructive arthritis affecting large and mediumsize joints(1. 2% to 20% of HCV-infected patients experience arthritis and as 50% experience arthralgia(3Clinical ManifestationsHCV-related arthritis (HCVra commonly presents as rheumatoid-like, symmetrical inflammatory polyarthritis involving mainly small joints or less commonly as mono- or oligoarthritis of large joints. The joints involved in HCV-related arthritis are similar to RA(4. In about two thirds of the affected individuals, morning stiffness may be severe, resolving after more than an hour(5. Clinical picture of arthritis associated with the presence of mixed cryoglobulinemia in patients with HCV infection consists of an intermittent, mono or

  14. Study of hepatitis C virus specific immuine responses in anti- HCV positive patients without hepatitis Cviremia%抗一HCV阳性无病毒血症患者HCV特异性免疫反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the hepatitis C virus specific immune responses in anti - HCV positive patientswithout hepatitis C viremia. Methods 15 anti- HCV positive patients without hepatitis C viremia, 15 patientswith chronic HCV infection and 1 5 normal controls were selected for this study. The T cell responses, NK cell(natu-ral killer cells)activity Cytokine production and HCV specific antibodies were detected by MTT, LDH release andELISA. Results Our study showed that the T cell proliferative reaction of patients without hepatitis C viremia wassignificantly higher than that of patients with chronic HCV infection and normal controls and the T cell response forHCV core antigen were higher than NS3 and NS4, but there was no significant proliferative response to NS5 anti-gen. We also found that there were no differences in anti - HCV antibody production and NK cell activity betweenthe two groups and the level of IFN - γin patients without hepatitis C viremia was higher than that in patients withrersistent HCV infection. Conclusion There are a lot of advantageous changes of HCV specific humoral and cel-lular immume response in anti - HCV positive patients without hepatitis C viremia, these immune responses may playa role in clearance of HCV.%目的 研究抗HCV阳性无病毒血症患者特异的体液及细胞免疫状态。方法 对15例抗HCV阳性无病毒血症患者,15例慢性HCV持续感染者及15例正常对照者进行研究,通过MTT、LDH释放法、酶联免疫等方法 观察患者外周T细胞反应、自然杀伤(NK)细胞活性、细胞因子分泌及特异性体液免疫反应。结果 无病毒血症者T细胞增殖反应明显大于持续感染者及对照组,并且T细胞对核心区抗原增殖最大,NS3次之,对NS5则无明显增值。而NK细胞活性较持续感染者及对照组稍高,但无统计学差异。此外我们观察了患者抗HCV抗体产生,发现无病毒血症患者与持续感染者抗-HCV抗

  15. Hepatitis G Viral RNA Co-infection in Plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuli; ZENG Linglan; LUO Duande; LIU Wei; GUO Jingsong; YANG Xiaoming

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of the co-infection of hepatitis G virus (HGV) and hepatitis C virus(HCV) and its clinical implication was investigated and the difference in the positive rate of HGV RNA and HCV RNA between plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) observed. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, HCV-RNA and HGV-RNA in plasma and PBMCs of 72 patients with hepatitis C was detected. It was showed that HGV RNA was positive in plasma of 11 patients, in PBMCs of 15 patients, and simultaneously in both of plasma and PBMCs of 10 patients with the co-infection rate being 22.2 %. Nine patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in plasma, 11 patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in PBMC, and 6 patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in both plasma and PBMC with the positive rate being 12.4 %, 15.3 % and 8.3 % respectively. The positive rate of both HGV RNA and HCV RNA in PBMCs was higher than in plasma. It was concluded that the HGV co-infection rate in the patients with hepatitis C was 22. 2 %. Simultaneous examination of plasma and PBMC can improve clinically detectable rate.

  16. Extrahepatic manifestations of HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignoli, R; Goossens, N; Negro, F

    2015-03-01

    The hepatic consequences of an infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are well recognised, but extrahepatic manifestations of HCV may be just as severe. Here we have reviewed various extrahepatic manifestations of HCV such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoma, metabolic features and neurologic consequences and we discuss pathogenesis and management of these clinical problems. We concluded with important aspects of therapy with novel anti-HCV agents and its effects on extrahepatic manifestations.

  17. Electron Sheaths: The Outsized Influence of Positive Boundaries on Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Benjamin T; Baalrud, Scott D; Barnat, Edward V; Hopkins, Matthew M

    2015-01-01

    Electron sheaths form near the surface of objects biased more positive than the plasma potential, such as in the electron saturation region of a Langmuir probe trace. They are commonly thought to be local phenomena that collect the random thermal electron current, but do not otherwise perturb a plasma. Here, using experiments, particle-in-cell simulations and theory, it is shown that under low temperature plasma conditions ($T_e \\gg T_i$) electron sheaths are far from local. Instead, a long presheath region extends into the plasma where electrons are accelerated via a pressure gradient to a flow speed exceeding the electron thermal speed at the sheath edge. This fast flow is found to excite instabilities, causing strong fluctuations near the sheath edge.

  18. New Tools in HCV Diagnosis, in Light of the Enhanced Awareness and the New Drugs for Treatment: SMARTube and Stimmunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Gorodin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With improved HCV therapy, challenges regarding HCV diagnosis, such as seronegative window period, false positive readings, and differentiation between recent, chronic, and resolved infections, are of increasing importance. To address these challenges an innovative device—SMARTube HIV & HCV—was used. Blood samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies before and after incubation in the SMARTube, which promotes the in vitro stimulation of in vivo HCV primed lymphocytes, thus enhancing levels of anti-HCV antibodies. Comparing antibody levels, in concordant samples before and after SMARTube, yielded the Stimulation Index (SI. Among 5888 fresh blood samples, from various populations and regions worldwide, 641 were seropositive using plasma, while SMARTube processing (yielding enriched plasma, termed SMARTplasma enabled diagnosis of 10 additional carriers in high-risk cohorts, that is, earlier detection. Using SMARTplasma eliminated all false positive results, using the current assays. In addition we show that SI calculation may serve as an important tool for differentiating between those who recently seroconverted, carriers of long-term infection, and those who have cleared the virus. SMARTube and the SI could lead to better, more informative diagnosis of HCV infections and play an important role in changing the way we treat both the infected individuals and the epidemic as a whole.

  19. Plasma injection events at synchronous orbit related to positive Dst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Moore, T. E.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1982-01-01

    AST 6 spacecraft synchronous orbit measurements are compared with space and ground data in a study of plasma effects related to SI and SC magnetic perturbations. It is found that synchronous orbit plasma injections related to the sudden phenomena are similar to those associated with substorms, although the former occur at all local times. The synchronous orbit plasma injections are interpreted as the co-location of particle boundaries on an inward propagating front and the compression magnetic pulse associated with SI and SC events is seen as responsible for the co-location of the boundaries and their inward propagation. The positive Dst magnetic pulse plays a role similar to that of the magnetic tail reconfiguration pulse associated with substorms, and evidence is shown that positive Dst enhances magnetospheric convection independently of interplanetary magnetic field direction

  20. Extrahepatic manifestations and insulin resistance in an HCV hyperendemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yumiko; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Sata, Michio

    2005-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes extrahepatic manifestations as well as liver diseases, and contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of extrahepatic manifestations and insulin resistance in an HCV hyperendemic area. We investigated the incidence of extrahepatic manifestations among 139 inhabitants living in an HCV hyperendemic area in 2002 and compared it to 1999 data for the same inhabitants. Insulin resistance was tested for some non-HCV or HCV-infected inhabitants we had identified during mass screenings in 1999 and 2002. For some of the inhabitants in 2002, we examined records on the prevalence of insulin resistance seven years earlier. The prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations among individuals with positivity for anti-HCV antibodies was higher than among those without HCV in both 1999 and 2002. The prevalence of each extrahepatic manifestation which we identified in 2002 was higher than in 1999. Moreover, in some non-HCV or HCV-infected inhabitants, insulin resistance in 2002 was significantly higher than in 1999. Among inhabitants who had HCV infection with extrahepatic manifestations, fasting insulin levels or HOMA-IR findings seven years prior was significantly higher than for inhabitants who had neither HCV infection nor extrahepatic manifestations (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, respectively). Insulin resistance induces HCV infection, which causes an increase in the incidence of extrahepatic manifestations in HCV-infected individuals.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Registry Veterans in VHA Care in 2015, for the Nation, by VISN and by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report describes the number of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) registry Veterans in VHA care in 2015 based on serologic evidence of HCV infection status (HCV Positive)...

  2. Continuous, saturation, and discontinuous tokamak plasma vertical position control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrishkin, Yuri V., E-mail: y_mitrishkin@hotmail.com [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Pavlova, Evgeniia A., E-mail: janerigoler@mail.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Evgenii A., E-mail: ea.kuznetsov@mail.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Gaydamaka, Kirill I., E-mail: k.gaydamaka@gmail.com [V. A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Robust new linear state feedback control system for tokamak plasma vertical position. • Plasma vertical position relay control system with voltage inverter in sliding mode. • Design of full models of multiphase rectifier and voltage inverter. • First-order unit approximation of full multiphase rectifier model with high accuracy. • Wider range of unstable plant parameters of stable control system with multiphase rectifier. - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design and comparison of unstable plasma vertical position control systems in the T-15 tokamak with the application of two types of actuators: a multiphase thyristor rectifier and a transistor voltage inverter. An unstable dynamic element obtained by the identification of plasma-physical DINA code was used as the plasma model. The simplest static feedback state space control law was synthesized as a linear combination of signals accessible to physical measurements, namely the plasma vertical displacement, the current, and the voltage in a horizontal field coil, to solve the pole placement problem for a closed-loop system. Only one system distinctive parameter was used to optimize the performance of the feedback system, viz., a multiple real pole. A first-order inertial unit was used as the rectifier model in the feedback. A system with a complete rectifier model was investigated as well. A system with the voltage inverter model and static linear controller was brought into a sliding mode. As this takes place, real time delays were taken into account in the discontinuous voltage inverter model. The comparison of the linear and sliding mode systems showed that the linear system enjoyed an essentially wider range of the plant model parameters where the feedback system was stable.

  3. 慢性丙型肝炎合并糖尿病患者血清 HCV - RNA 载量与 FPG、FA、HbA1C 的差异性分析%A difference analysis of Fasting plasma glucose,Fructosamine and Glycated hemoglobin in serum HCV - RNA loads of chronic hepatitis C - diabetes mellitus patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兰芝; 左维泽

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解慢性丙肝合并糖尿病(CHC - DM)患者不同血清丙型肝炎病毒核糖核酸(HCV - RNA)载量与空腹血糖(FPG)、果糖胺(FA)及糖化血红蛋白(HbA1C)的差异性。方法:选取 CHC - DM 患者120例,采用荧光定量 PCR 法检测其血清 HCV- RNA,依据病毒载量将其分为4组,病毒阴性组48例、低病毒载量组18例、中病毒载量组29例、高病毒载量组25例,采用全自动生化分析仪测定 FPG、FA、HbAlc。另外选30例正常体检者作为对照。结果:CHC - DM 组的 FPG、FA、HbA1C 的均值水平高于健康对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05),不同 HCV - RNA 载量组间三者差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),随着病毒载量的增加,FPG、FA、HbA1C 水平有增高趋势。结论:CHC - DM 患者 FPG、FA、HbA1C 水平随着病毒载量的增加有增高趋势,应密切检测其动态变化。%Objective To realize the difference of Fasting plasma glucose,Fructosamine and Glycated hemoglobin in Varying serum HCV - RNA loads of chronic hepatitis C - diabetes mellitus patients. Method One hundred and twenty cases of chronic hepatitis C - diabe-tes mellitus patients were divided into 4 groups,48 cases in virus negative group with virus load of HCV - RNA,18 cases in low virus load group with virus load of HCV - RNA,29 cases in medium virus load group with virus load of HCV - RNA,25 cases in high virus load group with virus load of HCV - RNA. Thirty normal health examination were allocated as control group. Results The average level of FPG,FA and HbA1C in CHC - DM group was significantly higher than that of healthy controls(P <0. 05),The average level of FPG,FA and HbA1C in Va-rying serum HCV - RNA loads groups was statistically significant(P <0. 05). Conclusion With the increase of virus load,the level of FPG, FA and HbA1C had the trend of increase,we should closely monitor the dynamic change of them.

  4. HBsAg、抗-HCV反应性无偿献血者归队检测模式探讨%Study on rejoin detection mode for unpaid blood donors with HBsAgor anti-HCV positive reactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾劲峰; 陈云龙; 郑欣; 刘衡; 邬林枫; 杜丹丹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the detection mode for those unpaid blood donors screening as positive HBsAg+ and/or positive anti-HCV could be permitted to recall again for re-detection under the regulation condition in order to determine whether or not regain their qualifications of donating blood and rejoin the blood donation again.Methods The unpaid blood donors preliminari-ly screening as positive HBsAg and/or positive anti-HCV in Shenzhen from Otcober 2007 to December 2013 and conforming to the rules for recalling to re-detection formulated by our center were analyzed and researched for conducting the feasibility discussion on the rejoin mode of unpaid blood donors.Results A total of 415 759 case-times of blood donation were conducted during 2007 ~2013.Among them,2 506 cases(0.60%)and 1 357 cases(0.33%)were screened as positive HBsAg or positive anti-HCV,respec-tively.The recall process of rejoin re-detection was initiated in 59 positive HBsAg donors and 16 positive anti-HCV donors with many times of blood donation.But only 31 positive HBsAg donors and 9 positive anti-HCV donors successfully completed the detec-tion items of re-detection process.Among them 29 positive HBsAg donor regained the qualifications of donating blood and 2 cases were shielded for the blood donation qualification due to unqualification in the following detection.All of the 9 recalled donators with positive anti-HCV regained the blood donation qualification.Conclusion Under present detection mode,the detection tech-nique of blood screening is hard to avoid the occurrence of false positive results caused by the reagents,instruments and personnel operating.In order to protect the donation qualifications of the unpaid blood donators,a set of scientific,reasonable and practical re-detection mode for rejoin of the blood donators should be established for protecting the limited blood donation resource.%目的:探讨深圳地区无偿献血人群因血液筛查检测 HBsAg 或抗-HCV 呈阳性反

  5. No requirement of HCV 5'NCR for HCV-like particles assembly in insect cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhao; Guo-Yang Liao; Yah-Jun Jiang; Shu-De Jiang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To express all three HCV structural proteins in the presence or absence of HCV 5'NCR to investigate the requirement of 5'NCR for the assembly of HCV-like particles in insect cells.METHODS: HCV structural protein encoding sequences CE1E2 and 5'NCR-CE1E2 were amplified with PCR.Recombinant baculovirus were constructed with recombinant DNA techniques. HCV structural proteins expressed in insect cells were analyzed by immunofluorescence and SDS-PAGE.Immunoprecipitation experiment of insect cell lysates with anti-E2 monodonal antibody (Mab) was carried out and the immunoprecipitated proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting with anti-C, anti-E2 Mabs and HCV positive serum. The virus-like particles in insect cells were visualized by electron microscopy (EM). The HCV-like particles were purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and identified by EM and immune aggregation EM.RESULTS: The recombinant baculovirus reBV/CE1E2containing HCV C, E1, E2 genes and reBV/CS containing the same structural protein genes plus 5'NCR were constructed. The insect cells infected with either reBV/CE1E2or reBV/CS expressed HCV C, E1 and E2 proteins with a molecular weight of 20 kD, 35 kD and 66 kD respectively.The results of immunoprecipitation and the immunoblotting revealed the coimmunoprecipitation of C, E1, and E2proteins, indicating the interaction of HCV structural proteins expressed in insect cells. Electron microscopy of insect cells infected with reBV/CE1E2 or reBV/CS demonstrated spherical particles (40 to 60 nm in diameter)similar to the HCV virions from sera or hepatic tissues of HCV infected humans. The HCV-like particles were partially purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and the purified VLPs showed immuno-reactivity with anti-HCV antibodies.CONCLUSION: HCV 5'NCR is not required for the assembly of HCV-like particles in insect cells, HCV core and envelope proteins are sufficient for viral particle formation.

  6. Disparate detection outcomes for anti-HCV IgG and HCV RNA in dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Strop, Alexandra; Drobeniuc, Jan; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Forbi, Joseph C; Le, Ngoc-Thao; Li, Lixia; Mei, Joanne; Terrault, Norah; Kamili, Saleem

    2015-02-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) expedite the collection, storage and shipping of blood samples, thereby facilitating large-scale serologic studies. We evaluated the sensitivity of anti-HCV IgG testing and HCV-RNA quantitation using freshly prepared and stored DBS derived from HCV-infected patients. Protocols for elution were optimized using DBS prepared from plasma of 52 HCV-infected persons and 51 uninfected persons (control DBS), then applied to DBS from 33 chronic hepatitis C patients that had been stored at -20°C for 5 years (stored DBS). Control and stored DBS, and their corresponding plasma, were processed for anti-HCV IgG testing using the VITROS chemiluminescence assay (CIA) and the HCV 3.0 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics), and for HCV RNA quantitation by quantitative (q) RT-PCR. HCV genotyping was conducted by nucleotide sequencing. The sensitivity of CIA and EIA in control DBS was 92% and 90%, respectively, compared to 100% and 97%, respectively, in stored DBS. The sensitivity of HCV RNA detection was 88% in control DBS, compared to 36% in stored DBS. Specificity was 100% for all the assays in both control and stored DBS. Genotypes 1, 2 and 3 were detected in 16 (62%), 6 (23.1%), and 4 (15.3%) samples, respectively. Sequences generated from DBS and their corresponding plasma samples were identical. Whereas the sensitivity of anti-HCV IgG detection in stored DBS was equivalent to that in recently prepared DBS, the sensitivity of HCV RNA detection was markedly lower in stored DBS compared to recently prepared DBS. Stored DBS may be reliably used for anti-HCV detection but for HCV-RNA-based testing freshly prepared DBS is preferable to stored DBS.

  7. Natural killer KIR3DS1 is closely associated with HCV viral clearance and sustained virological response in HIV/HCV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rivero-Juarez

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the influence of the presence of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR 3DS1 on HCV treatment response in HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients. METHODS: HIV/HCV co-infected patients were included. KIR3DS1, their specific HLA-B ligands and IL28B gene were genotyped. Reductions of plasma HCV RNA levels between baseline and week 1, week 2 and week 4 were analyzed for IL28B genotype and KIR3DS1 (HLA Bw4 or Bw6. Rapid and sustained virological response (RVR and SVR rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients were included. Patients with KIR3DS1 and Bw4 had higher rates of HCV viral decline than those who were not carriers of KIR3DS1 (week 1: p = 0.01; week 2: p = 0.038; week 4: p = 0.03. Patients carrying KIR3DS1/Bw4 had higher rates of RVR and SVR than those who did not carry KIR3DS1 (RVR: 46.15% versus 17.02%, p = 0.012; SVR: 63.6% versus 13 26.5%, p = 0.031. With respect to patients carrying the IL28B-CC genotype, those with KIR3DS1/Bw4 had greater rates of HCV viral clearance (week 1: p<0.001; week 2: p = 0.01; week 4: p = 0.02, RVR (p = 0.015 and SVR (p = 0.029 than those not carrying KIR3DS1. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the KIR3DS1 genotype has a positive effect on HCV viral clearance during the first weeks of Peg-IFN/RBV treatment in HCV/HCV co-infected patients bearing genotype 1, and higher RVR and SVR rates.

  8. 抗-HCV和HCV-RNA检测及其与ALT的相关性分析%Quantitative analysis of serum anti-HCV, HCV-RNA and ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾珉; 邵芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨化学免疫发光法(CLIA)定量检测抗-HCV和FQ-PCR法检测HCV-RNA含量与丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)水平的相关性.方法 用CLIA定量筛选抗-HCV阳性的100例病人标本,以荧光定量PCR法检测HCV-RNA含量和酶速率法检测ALT浓度水平,并对所得数据进行统计分析.结果 在100份抗-HCV阳性标本中,检出HCV-RNA阳性者76例,阳性率为76%.随着抗-HCV的S/CO值增高,HCV-RNA检出率增高较明显;ALT水平与HCV-RNA含量无显著相关性(P>0.05),但ALT异常率与HCV-RNA含量呈正相关.结论 在HCV诊断与疗效观察中,血清抗HCV、HCV-RNA和ALT指标各有利弊,3者有机结合能正确诊断和预测肝脏损伤及评价疗效.%Objective To analyze the correlation among the quantitative detection of serum anti-HCV by chemiluminescene immunoassay(CLIA), the content of HCV-RNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Methods The sera from 100 patients with CLIA positive results were used in this study. The level of serum HCV-RNA and ALT was detected by real-lime fluorescent quantitative assay (FQ-PCR) and enzyme-rate method, respectively. The data were analyzed by statistical method. Results 76 patients were found HCV-RNA positive, with a positive rate of 76%. The HCV-RNA positive rate was positively correlated with the anti-HCV S/CO result. There was no correlation between the level of ALT and the content of HCV-RNA (P>0.05), but the content of HCV-RNA was correlated with the ALT. Conclusion The level of anti-HCV antibody,HCV-RNA and ALT should all be used in the diagnosis of HCV. An appropriate combination of these indexes has important clinical significance in the diagnosis, prediction of liver injury and early treatment.

  9. Establishment of the method of nucleic acids amplification test for HCV/HZV-1 ofpooled source plasma%原料血浆混样HCV/HIV-1核酸检测的方法学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白坚石; 王威; 朱文斯

    2003-01-01

    目的建立原料血浆混浆核酸检测方法.方法以国产HCV和HIV核酸扩增(PCR)荧光定量检测试剂进行WHO标准品的灵敏度、重现性和精密度实验,并对19196份国内原料血浆进行HCV RNA和HIV-1 RNA核酸扩增分析.结果扩增系统能够确保高拷贝数(200 IU/ml)标准品核酸的检出率,对于<100 IU/ml的低拷贝数标准品核酸检出率逐渐降低;受检原料血浆样本没有检出HCV RNA和HIV-1 RNA阳性.结论核酸扩增方法适用于原料血浆病毒筛查.

  10. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  11. Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. HCV抗原检测与HCV-RNA和HCV抗体检测的比较研究%Comparative Study on the Detection of HCV-Antigen, HCV-RNA and HCV-Antibody Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妙羡; 王香玲; 吴晓康; 卢洁; 王小利; 尹佳峰; 孟昊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the value of measurement of HCV antigen, HCV antibody and HCV-RNA in the clinical diagnosis of Hepatitis. Methods HCV antigen would adopt double antibody sandwiched method; HCV-RNA would employ the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR technique, HCV antibody would use the technology of Enzyme-Linked Immunosor-bent Assay (ELISA) ,44 specimens of positive HCV antibody would be detected with HCV antigen and HCV-RNA measurement. Results Among the specimens of positive HCV antibody, the rate of positive HCV antigen was measured as 43. 2%;the rate of positive HCV-RNA was measured as 82. 5%. Among the specimens of positive HCV-RNA,the rate of positive HCV antigen was measured as 45. 5%. Conclusion In the three kinds of Hepatitis markers,it was the most reliable method to judge whether infected with Hepatitis by using the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR technique to measure HCV-RNA. If HCV antigen was used to diagnose Hepatitis, there was still 54. 5% rate of missed detection. Hence,there exists a long distance from the application in the clinical practice. In the hospitals where it was impossible to employ the realtime fluorescence quantitative PCR technique to measure HCV-RNA,when confirming the specimens of positive HCV antibody with HCV antigen and judging past exposure or present exposure to HCV,index of liver function and clinical manifestation should be combined to make a clear and definite diagnosis.%目的 评价丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原(HCV抗原)、丙型肝炎病毒抗体(HCV抗体)及丙型肝炎病毒RNA(HCV-RNA)三种检测方法在丙型肝炎实验室诊断中的作用.方法 HCV抗原采用双抗体夹心法;HCV-RNA采用实时荧光定量PCR技术(RT-PCR),HCV抗体采用酶联免疫技术(间接法),对44例HCV抗体阳性标本进行HCV抗原和HCV-RNA检测.结果 在HCV抗体阳性标本中,HCV抗原阳性检出率为43.2%,HCV-RNA阳性检出率为82.5%;在HCV-RNA阳性标本中,HCV抗原阳性检出率为45

  13. Is autoimmune chronic active hepatitis a HCV-related disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, S; Craxì, A; Fiorentino, G; Fabiano, C; Provenzano, G; Pinzello, G B; Palazzo, U; Almasio, P; Pagliaro, L

    1991-07-01

    We evaluated the specificity and clinical relevance of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody positivity in 22 HBsAg-negative patients with autoimmune (anti-nuclear, anti-actin or anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody positive) chronic active hepatitis. An ELISA anti-HCV test and a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA-HCV) were used. Thirteen patients (59%) were anti-HCV positive and five (23%) anti-HCV negative by both ELISA and RIBA-HCV tests. Four patients (18%) were borderline positive by ELISA (OD less than 1.0), and three of them (all with severe disease) were negative by RIBA. Histologic necroinflammation, AST/ALT and gamma-globulins levels were higher and response to prednisolone treatment was better in RIBA anti-HCV-negative than in anti-HCV-positive cases. We confirmed with both RIBA and ELISA tests the high prevalence of anti-HCV already reported by ELISA in anti-nuclear and anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody positive chronic active hepatitis. False positive for anti-HCV (i.e., a positive ELISA test not confirmed by RIBA) occurred only among patients with severe disease. Since RIBA-negative subjects showed the best response to corticosteroid, they might represent the only subset of cases of 'true' autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.

  14. Prediction of HCV vertical transmission: what factors should be optimized using data mining computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrazek, Abd; Amer, Mohamed; El-Hawary, Bahaa; Salah, Altaher; Bhagavathula, Akshaya S; Alboraie, M; Saab, Samy

    2017-04-01

    Neonates born to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive mothers are usually not screened for HCV. Unscreened children may act as active sources for social HCV transmission, and factors contributing for vertical HCV transmitting still remained controversial and needed optimization. We aimed to investigate the factors contributing for vertical HCV transmission in Egypt; the highest HCV prevalence worldwide. We prospectively followed the neonates born to HCV-positive mother in the child-bearing period, to identify mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) factors from January 2015 to March 2016. Data mining computational analysis was used to quantify the findings. Among 3000 randomized pregnant women, prevalence of HCV was 46/3000 (1.53%). HCV vertical transmission was identified in eight neonates (17.39%). Only high viral load identified at 975.000 IU was the predictor risk for MTCT. Hepatitis C virus in pregnancy has substantial risk for vertical HCV transmission: High viral load in HCV-positive women increases the risk of HCV transmission to neonates. Screening pregnant women during early stage of pregnancy and optimizing the HCV viral load in HCV-positive women might prevent vertical HCV transmission to neonates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. HCV-RNA检测在提高 HCV感染患者检出率的试验研究%Experimental study of HCV-RNA in improvement of detection rate for patients with HCV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 季忠庶

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical significance of combined detection of HCV-cAg and anti-HCV with joint HCV-RNA detection in diagnosis of HCV infection. Methods:The levels of HCV antibody and HCV antigen in 13,117 patients were detec-ted. The HCV-cAg and anti-HCV positive samples were confirmed with HCV-RNA test. Results: In the 13,117 cases, there were 188 positive cases of anti-HCV, 52 positive cases of HCV-cAg, 48 positive cases of anti-HCV and HCV-cAg, 4 cases of positive HCV-cAg and negative anti-HCV, and the total positive number was 192. Among the 188 cases of positive HCV antibody, the rate of positive HCV-RNA was measured as 64. 4% (122/188), and the rate of positive HCV antigen was measured as 25. 5% (48/188). Among the 48 cases of positive HCV antigen and positive HCV antibody, the rate of positive HCV-RNA was measured as 93. 75%(45/48). Among the 4 cases of positive HCV antigen and negative HCV antibody, the rate of positive HCVRNA was measured as 75% (3/4). Conclusions:The joint detection of HCV-cAg and anti-HCV combined with HCV-RNA detection provides a higher de-tection rate and a lower false-positive rate. The findings indicate that it is effective laboratory procedures for early Diagnosis and treat-ment of hepatitis C virus infection in the clinic.%目的::探讨组合检测丙肝抗体和丙肝核心抗原并联合丙肝RNA在丙肝临床诊断中的意义。方法:对13117例患者进行HCV抗体和HCV抗原组合检测,对两种方法中的阳性标本进行HCV-RNA确证检测。结果:13117例患者中,丙肝抗体阳性188例,丙肝核心抗原阳性52例,其中丙肝抗体和核心抗原均阳性者48例,单独核心抗原阳性4例,总阳性数192例。丙肝抗体阳性188例中HCV抗体阳性标本中有121例HCV-RNA阳性,检出率为64.4%;有48例HCV-cAg阳性,检出率为25.5%(48/188)。丙肝抗体和核心抗原均阳性者HCV-RNA阳性45例,检出率为93.75%;单独核心抗原阳性4例中有3例HCV

  16. Sustained virological response after ten days of triple anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with telaprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin in an HIV/HCV co-infected cirrhotic woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Hamid; Messina, Emanuela; Merli, Marco; Della Torre, Liviana; Morsica, Giulia; Bagaglio, Sabrina; Lazzarin, Adriano; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of first-generation protease inhibitors for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in subjects infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 has significantly improved the sustained virological response (SVR) rate. As liver cirrhosis reduces the probability of achieving SVR, current guidelines discourage response-guided therapy in cirrhotic patients. We report the first case of a cirrhotic woman with chronic HCV and HIV co-infection achieving virological response after an ultra-short course of therapy. A 40-year-old HIV/HCV co-infected woman with compensated liver cirrhosis was treated with anti-HCV triple therapy containing telaprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Baseline plasma HCV RNA was 3.6 log IU/ml and transaminases were within the normal range. She harboured IL28B rs12979860C/C alleles. Ten days after starting therapy, the patient stopped treatment because of mild anorexia and nausea. Virological response was detected at treatment discontinuation and was maintained up to 24 weeks. This case describes an unexpected SVR after a 10-day course of antiviral therapy in a cirrhotic HIV/HCV co-infected woman presenting positive predictive factors for a response (low viral load, IL28B genotype). Nonetheless, there is no evidence to suggest a shorter duration of treatment in this subset of patients.

  17. Sustained virological response after ten days of triple anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV therapy with telaprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin in an HIV/HCV co-infected cirrhotic woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hasson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of first-generation protease inhibitors for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in subjects infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 has significantly improved the sustained virological response (SVR rate. As liver cirrhosis reduces the probability of achieving SVR, current guidelines discourage response-guided therapy in cirrhotic patients. We report the first case of a cirrhotic woman with chronic HCV and HIV co-infection achieving virological response after an ultra-short course of therapy. A 40-year-old HIV/HCV co-infected woman with compensated liver cirrhosis was treated with anti-HCV triple therapy containing telaprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Baseline plasma HCV RNA was 3.6 log IU/ml and transaminases were within the normal range. She harboured IL28B rs12979860 C/C alleles. Ten days after starting therapy, the patient stopped treatment because of mild anorexia and nausea. Virological response was detected at treatment discontinuation and was maintained up to 24 weeks. This case describes an unexpected SVR after a 10-day course of antiviral therapy in a cirrhotic HIV/HCV co-infected woman presenting positive predictive factors for a response (low viral load, IL28B genotype. Nonetheless, there is no evidence to suggest a shorter duration of treatment in this subset of patients.

  18. Detection of Natural Resistance-Associated Substitutions by Ion Semiconductor Technology in HCV1b Positive, Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents-Naïve Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marascio, Nadia; Pavia, Grazia; Strazzulla, Alessio; Dierckx, Tim; Cuypers, Lize; Vrancken, Bram; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Mirante, Teresa; Malanga, Donatella; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Torti, Carlo; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) can negatively impact the response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we set out to characterize the RASs in the HCV1b genome from serum samples of DAA-naïve patients in the context of the SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology, 2014) project. We deep-sequenced the NS3/4A protease region of the viral population using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, and patient-specific majority rule consensus sequence summaries were constructed with a combination of freely available next generation sequencing data analysis software. We detected NS3/4A protease major and minor variants associated with resistance to boceprevir (V36L), telaprevir (V36L, I132V), simeprevir (V36L), and grazoprevir (V36L, V170I). Furthermore, we sequenced part of HCV NS5B polymerase using Sanger-sequencing and detected a natural RAS for dasabuvir (C316N). This mutation could be important for treatment strategies in cases of previous therapy failure. PMID:27618896

  19. Detection of Natural Resistance-Associated Substitutions by Ion Semiconductor Technology in HCV1b Positive, Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents-Naïve Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marascio, Nadia; Pavia, Grazia; Strazzulla, Alessio; Dierckx, Tim; Cuypers, Lize; Vrancken, Bram; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Mirante, Teresa; Malanga, Donatella; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Torti, Carlo; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo; The Sinergie-Umg Study Group

    2016-08-27

    Naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) can negatively impact the response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we set out to characterize the RASs in the HCV1b genome from serum samples of DAA-naïve patients in the context of the SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology, 2014) project. We deep-sequenced the NS3/4A protease region of the viral population using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, and patient-specific majority rule consensus sequence summaries were constructed with a combination of freely available next generation sequencing data analysis software. We detected NS3/4A protease major and minor variants associated with resistance to boceprevir (V36L), telaprevir (V36L, I132V), simeprevir (V36L), and grazoprevir (V36L, V170I). Furthermore, we sequenced part of HCV NS5B polymerase using Sanger-sequencing and detected a natural RAS for dasabuvir (C316N). This mutation could be important for treatment strategies in cases of previous therapy failure.

  20. Detection of Natural Resistance-Associated Substitutions by Ion Semiconductor Technology in HCV1b Positive, Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents-Naïve Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Marascio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring resistance-associated substitutions (RASs can negatively impact the response to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs agents-based therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Herein, we set out to characterize the RASs in the HCV1b genome from serum samples of DAA-naïve patients in the context of the SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology, 2014 project. We deep-sequenced the NS3/4A protease region of the viral population using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine, and patient-specific majority rule consensus sequence summaries were constructed with a combination of freely available next generation sequencing data analysis software. We detected NS3/4A protease major and minor variants associated with resistance to boceprevir (V36L, telaprevir (V36L, I132V, simeprevir (V36L, and grazoprevir (V36L, V170I. Furthermore, we sequenced part of HCV NS5B polymerase using Sanger-sequencing and detected a natural RAS for dasabuvir (C316N. This mutation could be important for treatment strategies in cases of previous therapy failure.

  1. Upregulation of SOCS-3 and PIAS-3 impairs IL-12-mediated interferon-gamma response in CD56 T cells in HCV-infected heroin users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD56(+ T cells are abundant in liver and play an important role in host innate immunity against viral infections, including hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, a common infection among heroin abusers. We thus investigated the in vivo impact of heroin use or heroin use plus HCV infection on the CD56(+ T cell frequency and function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 37 heroin users with (17 or without (20 HCV infection and 17 healthy subjects were included in the study. Although there was no significant difference in CD56(+ T cell frequency in PBMCs among three study groups, CD56(+ T cells isolated from the heroin users had significantly lower levels of constitutive interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma expression than those from the normal subjects. In addition, when stimulated by interleukin (IL-12, CD56(+ natural T cells from HCV-infected heroin users produced significantly lower levels of IFN-gamma than those from the normal subjects. This diminished ability to produce IFN-gamma by CD56(+ T cells was associated with the increased plasma HCV viral loads in the HCV-infected heroin users. Investigation of the mechanisms showed that although heroin use or heroin use plus HCV infection had little impact on the expression of the key positive regulators (IL-12 receptors, STAT-1, 3, 4, 5, JAK-2, and TYK-2 in IL-12 pathway, heroin use or heroin use plus HCV infection induced the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling protein-3 (SOCS-3 and protein inhibitors of activated STAT-3 (PIAS-3, two key inhibitors of IL-12 pathway. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide compelling in vivo evidence that heroin use or heroin use plus HCV infection impairs CD56(+ T cell-mediated innate immune function, which may account for HCV infection and persistence in liver.

  2. Design and development of an in-house multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HCV in plasma samples

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    M Paryan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: HIV-1 and HCV infections are life threatening problems in patients who receive blood products. Serological methods have proven useful in detecting these infections, but there are setbacks that make it challenging to detect these infectious agents. By the advent of Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT methods, especially in multiplex format, more precise detection is possible.Materials and Methods: We have developed a multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HCV. Primers were designed for highly conserved region of genome of each virus. Using these primers and standard plasmids, we determined the limit of detection, clinical and analytical specificity and sensitivity of the assay. Monoplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed.Results: Analytical sensitivity was considered to be 100 and 200 copies/ml for HIV-1 and HCV, respectively. High concentration of one virus had no significant effect on the detection of the other one with low concentration. By analysis of 40 samples, clinical sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 97.5%. Using different viral and human genome samples, the specificity of the assay was evaluated to be 100%.Conclusions: The aim of this study was to develop a reliable, rapid and cost effective method to detect HIV-1 and HCV simultaneously. Results showed that this simple and rapid method is perfectly capable of detecting two viruses in clinical samples.

  3. Immune biomarker differences and changes comparing HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV spontaneously cleared patients.

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    Lauren E Kushner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune biomarkers are implicated in HCV treatment response, fibrosis, and accelerated pathogenesis of comorbidities, though only D-dimer and C-reactive protein have been consistently studied. Few studies have evaluated HIV/HCV co-infection, and little longitudinal data exists describing a broader antiviral cytokine response. METHODS: Fifty immune biomarkers were analyzed at baseline (BL and HCV end of treatment follow-up(FU time point using the Luminex 50-plex assay in plasma samples from 15 HCV-cleared, 24 HCV mono- and 49 HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment, who either did or did not receive pegylated-interferon/ribavirin HCV treatment. Biomarker levels were compared among spontaneous clearance patients, mono- and co-infected, untreated and HCV-treated, and sustained virologic responders (SVR and non-responders (NR at BL and FU using nonparametric analyses. A Bonferroni correction, adjusting for tests of 50 biomarkers, was used to reduce Type I error. RESULTS: Compared to HCV patients at BL, HIV/HCV patients had 22 significantly higher and 4 significantly lower biomarker levels, following correction for multiple testing. There were no significantly different BL levels when comparing SVR and NR in mono- or co-infected patients; however, FU levels changed considerably in co-infected patients, with seven becoming significantly higher and eight becoming significantly lower in SVR patients. Longitudinally between BL and FU, 13 markers significantly changed in co-infected SVR patients, while none significantly changed in co-infected NR patients. There were also no significant changes in longitudinal analyses of mono-infected patients achieving SVR or mono-infected and co-infected groups deferring treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Clear differences exist in pattern and quantity of plasma immune biomarkers among HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV-cleared patients; and with SVR in co-infected patients treated

  4. 5-Benzothiazole substituted pyrimidine derivatives as HCV replication (replicase) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasappan, Ashok; Bennett, Frank; Girijavallabhan, Vinay; Huang, Yuhua; Huelgas, Regina; Alvarez, Carmen; Chen, Lei; Gavalas, Stephen; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kosinski, Aneta; Pinto, Patrick; Rizvi, Razia; Rossman, Randall; Shankar, Bandarpalle; Tong, Ling; Velazquez, Francisco; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Verma, Vishal A; Kozlowski, Joseph; Shih, Neng-Yang; Piwinski, John J; MacCoss, Malcolm; Kwong, Cecil D; Clark, Jeremy L; Fowler, Anita T; Geng, Feng; Kezar, Hollis S; Roychowdhury, Abhijit; Reynolds, Robert C; Maddry, Joseph A; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Secrist, John A; Li, Cheng; Chase, Robert; Curry, Stephanie; Huang, Hsueh-Cheng; Tong, Xiao; Njoroge, F George

    2012-05-01

    Based on a previously identified HCV replication (replicase) inhibitor 1, SAR efforts were conducted around the pyrimidine core to improve the potency and pharmacokinetic profile of the inhibitors. A benzothiazole moiety was found to be the optimal substituent at the pyrimidine 5-position. Due to potential reactivity concern, the 4-chloro residue was replaced by a methyl group with some loss in potency and enhanced rat in vivo profile. Extensive investigations at the C-2 position resulted in identification of compound 16 that demonstrated very good replicon potency, selectivity and rodent plasma/target organ concentration. Inhibitor 16 also demonstrated good plasma levels and oral bioavailability in dogs, while monkey exposure was rather low. Chemistry optimization towards a practical route to install the benzothiazole moiety resulted in an efficient direct C-H arylation protocol.

  5. 不同HCV相关疾病患者血清抗HCV和HCV RNA检测的比较研究%Comparative Study on Detection of Serum anti-HCV and HCV RNA in HCV Related Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟平; 殷明刚

    2013-01-01

    目的::探讨不同HCV感染疾病患者血清抗HCV和HCV RNA的阳性率,以指导临床诊治相应疾病。方法:收集我院HCV感染患者血清标本共165例,采用ELISA法检测血清抗HCV,利用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测HCV RNA。结果:165例HCV感染患者血清抗HCV总阳性率为97.6%,高于HCV RNA阳性率(72.7%)(P<0.05)。肝硬化组和肝癌组HCV RNA阳性率分别为80.9%和82.9%,高于慢性丙型肝炎组阳性率(63.9%)(P<0.05)。结论:联合检测抗HCV和HCV RNA,有助于HCV感染相关疾病的临床诊断、疗效观察及预后判断。%Objective:The significance of testing serum anti-HCV and HCV RNA in HCV infection patients was discussed for guiding diagnosis and treatment of diseases.Methods:165 cases were collected from HCV infection patients.ELISA was used for assaying anti-HCV and real-time quantitative PCR was employed for determination of HCV RNA.Results:The total positive rate of serum anti-HCV(n=165) was 97.6%,which was higher than that of HCV RNA(72.7%).The positive rate of HCV RNA in liver cirrhosis and liver cancer group were 80.9%and 82.9%,respectively,higher than the one in chronic hepatitis C group 63.9%(P<0.05).Conclusion:The combination testing of anti-HCV and HCV RNA is helpful to the clinical diagnosis,observation of curative effect and prognosis judgment of HCV related diseases.

  6. The seroprevalences of HBs Ag and anti-HCV in pregnant women in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbas, Sibel; Erdogan, Mine; Danişman, Nuri

    2010-02-01

    In the previous decade, the prevalence of HBs-Ag positivity and the anti-HCV positivity declined in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the prevalences of HBs Ag and anti-HCV positivity in pregnant women in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, while the vertical transmission should be important way of HBV and HCV transmission. HBs-Ag positivity was determined 2.8% (102) out of 4,700 pregnant women, and 0.1% (6) out of them were positive for anti-HCV. The prevalences of HBs Ag and anti-HCV were both similar to the rate of that seen in western region of Turkey.

  7. Detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core-specific antibody suggests occult HCV infection among blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Juan A; Avellón, Ana; Bartolomé, Javier; Andréu, María; Flores, Elena; González, María I; González, Rocío; Pérez, Sonia; Richart, Luis A; Castillo, Inmaculada; Alcover, Javier; Palacios, Ricardo; Carreño, Vicente; Echevarría, José M

    2016-07-01

    Blood transfusion safety is based on reliable donor screening for transmissible infections such as the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A novel HCV core-specific antibody was assayed on random single donations from 2007 first-time blood donors who tested negative for anti-HCV and HCV RNA on routine screening. Sample collection broke the code between donations and donors for ethical reasons. Forty-two donations (2.1%) displayed reactivity in the novel test. The specificity of the reactivity was evaluated by a peptide inhibition assay, and testing against additional nonoverlapping HCV core peptide epitopes and other HCV antigens was performed on these samples. Six donations (14.3%; 0.30% from the total) were considered to contain anti-HCV after such supplemental testing. HCV RNA detection was also performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) and serum or plasma samples from reactive donors after virus concentration by ultracentrifugation. HCV RNA tested negative in all PBMNCs samples, and a very low amount of viral genome was detected in serum or plasma concentrates from three anti-HCV core-reactive donors (7.1%) but not among concentrates from 100 randomly selected nonreactive donors. Sequencing of these polymerase chain reaction products revealed differences between the isolates that excluded partially sample contamination from a common source. These findings argue in favor of an ongoing occult HCV infection among these blood donors and account for some rather low, but perhaps not negligible, infection risk for such donations. Future studies involving larger samples of donations from traceable donors would enlighten the significance of these findings for the viral safety of the blood supply. © 2016 AABB.

  8. Relationship between anti-HCV,HCV RNA and ALT in Volunteer Blood Donors%无偿献血者HCV RNA与抗-HCV及ALT检测结果的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕; 叶世辉; 蔡斌; 景媛媛; 巩晗实; 杨莹; 黄蕾; 段勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between anti-HCV,HCV RNA and ALT in volunteer blood donors. Methods Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to detect viral loads and kinetic method was employed to assay ALT levels in 235 anti-HCV positive samples who were tested by ELISA. A six month follow up was performed to monitor the anti-HCV(+)/HCV RNA(–) samples. Results Among 235 anti-HCV positive samples,140(59.57%) were positive for HCV RNA. The HCV RNA positive rate in groups of S/CO ratio 1~5 and 5.01~9.99 were 34.29%and 26.47%, respectively. The HCV RNA positive rate in group of S/CO ratio≥10 was 81.68% and statistically significant differences were found between this and the other two groups(χ2 =45.15,P0.05)。抗-HCV(+)/HCV RNA(+)与抗-HCV(+)/HCV RNA(–)组献血者的年龄分别是38.05±11.35岁和33.81±11.50岁,两组的差异有统计学意义(t=2.79,P<0.05)。95份抗-HCV(+)/HCV RNA(–)标本成功回访23例,其中1份标本回访检测抗-HCV转阴。结论 HCV RNA阳性率与抗-HCV的S/CO值有一定相关性,抗-HCV阳性的无偿献血人群中,ALT异常率与HCV RNA无相关性,感染者年龄与HCV RNA有一定相关性。

  9. Lysosomotropic agents as HCV entry inhibitors

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    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HCV has two envelop proteins named as E1 and E2 which play an important role in cell entry through two main pathways: direct fusion at the plasma membrane and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Fusion of the HCV envelope proteins is triggered by low pH within the endosome. Lysosomotropic agents (LA such as Chloroquine and Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl are the weak bases and penetrate in lysosome as protonated form and increase the intracellular pH. To investigate the antiviral effect of LA (Chloroquine and NH4Cl on pH dependent endocytosis, HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp of 1a and 3a genotype were produced and used to infect liver cells. The toxicological effects of Chloroquine and NH4Cl were tested in liver cells through MTT cell proliferation assay. For antiviral screening of Chloroquine and NH4Cl, liver cells were infected with HCVpp of 3a and 1a genotype in the presence or absence of different concentrations of Chloroquine and NH4Cl and there luciferase activity was determined by using a luminometer. The results demonstrated that Chloroquine and NH4Cl showed more than 50% reduction of virus infectivity at 50 μM and 10 mM concentrations respectively. These results suggest that inhibition of HCV at fusion step by increasing the lysosomal pH will be better option to treat chronic HCV.

  10. Ways and intensity of vertical transfer of the HCV from infected mothers to children

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    Idelbay Shuratov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ways and intensity of vertical transfer HCV have been studied before sorts in 29 lying-in women, positive on HCV-RNA. Among newborns from these mothers in serum of blood of umbilical cord at the moment of birth, HCV-RNA is found in 6.8%. The infection of newborns from HCV-RNA positive mother occurs through a placenta and at the time of delivery.

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and HCV genotypes of hemodialysis patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

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    Silva L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has been identified as the major cause of chronic liver disease among patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD, despite the important reduction in risks obtained by testing candidate blood donors for anti-HCV antibodies and the use of recombinant erythropoietin to treat anemia. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotypes among HD patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Anti-HCV seroprevalence was determined by ELISA in 1243 HD patients from all ten different dialysis centers of the city. HCV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Anti-HCV seroprevalence among HD patients was 10.5% (95% CI: 8.8-12.3 (Murex anti-HCV, Abbott Murex, Chicago, IL, USA. Blood samples for qualitative HCV detection and genotyping were collected from 125/130 seropositive HD patients (96.2%. HCV-RNA was detected in 92/125 (73.6% of the anti-HCV-positive patients. HCV genotype 1 (77.9% was the most prevalent, followed by genotype 3 (10.5% and genotype 2 (4.6%. Mixed infections of genotypes 1 and 3 were found in 7.0% of the total number of patients. The present results indicate a significant decrease in anti-HCV prevalence from 23.8% detected in a study carried out in 1994 to 10.5% in the present study. The HCV genotype distribution was closely similar to that observed in other hemodialysis populations in Brazil, in local candidate blood donors and in other groups at risk of transfusion-transmitted infection.

  12. Prevalence of mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes among recently diagnosed dialysis patients with HCV infection

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    Mohammed A Al Balwi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is considered a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multiple (mixed HCV genotypes in Saudi patients recently diagnosed with HCV infection and their association with various clinical risk factors. We examined a total of 1,292 newly diagnosed HCV-positive cases between January 2006 and July 2009 at the Molecular Pathology Laboratory, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The clinical and laboratory data of the study patients were collected. The HCV-RNA viral load and its genotyping were carried out with RT-PCR technology to assist in the follow-up and management of HCV-infected patients undergoing antiviral therapy. Twenty-two patients (1.7% were found to have mixed HCV genotypes; of them, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-4 were seen in 19 patients (86%, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were found in 68.4%, with genotype-3 in 26.3% and with genotype-2 in 5.3%. Additionally, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were seen in three cases (13.6%; they were associated with genotype-2 in two (66.7% and with genotype-5 in one patient (33.3%. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of mixed HCV genotypes in the cohort of the newly infected Saudi patients was 1.7%, with genotype-4 being the most frequent genotype encountered.

  13. HCV replication in PBMC and its influence on interferon therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Zhong Gong; Li-Ying Lai; Yong-Fang Jiang; Yan He; Xian-Shi Su

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study hepatic virus C (HCV) RNA and HCV proteinexpression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)of patients with HCV infection, and explore the relationshipbetween the HCV RNA in the PBMCs and response tointerferon (IFN) therapy.METHODS: Type-specific primers were designed and RT-nested PCR was used to detect the plus- and minus- strandsof HCV RNA in PBMCs of 54 patients with HCV infection;Indirect immunofluorescence assay was applied to identifyHCVNS5 protein expression in PBMCs; 6 month-, 3 MU-IFNregiment was administrated to observe the responses toIFN in 35 chronic hepatitis C patients with different HCVRNA status in PBMCs.RESULTS: HCV plus strand RNA was found in 10 of 19(52.6 %) acute hepatitis C patients and 22 of 35 (62.9 %)chronic hepatitis C patients. HCV minus strand RNA wasdetected in 14 of 35 (40.0 %) chronic hepatitis C patients,but only one patient (5.3 %) with acute HCV infection wasfound to be minus HCV RNA positive. Though no HCV NS5protein expression was found in the examined 10 cases ofacute HCV infection, it was positive in 17 of 20 (85.0 %)chronic hepatitis C patients by indirect immunofluoresenceassay. There are significant differences of positive rate of theminus-strand and HCVNS5 protein between acute and chronichepatitis C groups(u=2.07, P<0.05and u=4.43, P<0.01respectively). The patients with minus-strand HCV RNAshowed a significantly lower 6-month sustained response (SR-6) to IFN compared to those without minus-strand HCVRNAin PBMCs (biologically 14.3 % vs 42.8 %, X2=4.12, P<0.05and virologically 7.1% vs23.9 %, X2=4.24, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: HCV is capable of infecting and replicatingin PBMCs, and HCVNS5 protein was expressed in PBMCs.The patients with minus strand HCV RNA in PBMCs showeda significantly lower 6-month sustained response to IFN,suggesting that minus-strand HCV RNA in PBMCs may beone of the factors influencing response to IFN therapy.

  14. Sieroprevalenza di infezione da HBV e HCV tra pazienti in dialisi

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    Rosa Anna Leone

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV among dialysis patients in the Lamezia Terme (CZ area during the period 1999-2002. Sera from 63 patients in haemodialysis (HD and 10 patients in peritoneal dialysis (PD were analyzed with a follow-up every three months for HBsAg, HBcAb, HBsAb, anti-HCV and anti-HIV (Elisa Test,AxSYM,Abbott;we analyzed reactive sera for anti-HCV by using supplemental test (RIBA Test, Ortho; we also looked for viremia (RT-PCR Amplicor, Roche Diagnostics and HCV genotypes (Inno-Lipa HCV II, Innogenetics.The results show that, among the HD patients, 3 were HBsAg positive (Chronic Infection and 7 HBcAb and HBsAb positive/HBsAg negative (Passed Infection; 14 individuals were anti-HCV positive. No patients in PD were positive for HBV and HCV markers.The prevalence of chronic HBV infection was 4.8% (instead of 3% in other Dialysis Units, that of anti-HCV positive was 22% (in others 24%- 33%; among anti-HCV positive patients, the HCV-RNA prevalence was 79% (instead of 80%; the most recurrent HCV genotype was 2a/2c (instead of 1b in general population.These findings lead us to hypothesize that the environmental transmission in the dialysis setting is tightly correlated to the risk of HBV and HCV infection.

  15. HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg和HCV-RNA联合检测的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾娟; 孙明忠

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价丙型肝炎病毒抗体(HCV-Ab)、丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原(HCV-cAg)以及HCV-RNA联合检测在HCV诊断中的应用价值。方法采用ELISA法对2023例输血和手术前住院患者的血液标本进行 HCV-Ab和 HCV-cAg的测定,并对阳性标本采用RT-PCR法进行HCV-RNA的测定。结果2023例筛查标本中 HCV-Ab(+)55例,其中 HCV-cAg (+)30例, HCV-RNA(+)40例;1968例HCV-Ab(-)的样本中检出 HCV-cAg(+)9例,其中 HCV-RNA (+)7例,HCV-cAg 与 HCV-RNA 符合率为83.0%(39/47)。结论 HCV-Ab检测结合HCV-cAg或者 HCV-RNA检测可以有效缩短 HCV的窗口期,降低漏检率。对于条件受限的基层医院 HCV-cAg 可以作为HCV-Ab常规检测的补充指标,提高检出率。

  16. Detection of HBV and HCV Coinfection by TEM with Au Nanoparticle Gene Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Dong; LUO Xiaoping; NINGQin

    2007-01-01

    Goid(Au) nanoparticle HBV DNA or HCV cDNA gene probes were prepared and were used to detect HBV DNA and HCV RNA extracted from positive serum of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection directly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCR identifying HBV and HCV in serum of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection was established. Alkanethiol-modified oligonueleotide was bound with self-made Au nanoparticles to form nanoparticle HBV DNA or HCV cDNA gene probes through covalent binding of Au-S. HBV DNA and HCV RNA extracted from positive serum of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection was added to the detection system com- posed of nanoparticle HBV DNA and(or) HCV cDNA gene probes. The results showed that HBV DNA and HCV RNA could be specifically amplified by PCR. The zones of DNA amplification ap- peared in 431 lap and 323 bp respectively. When HBV DNA and HCV RNA extracted from positive serum of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection were added to the detection system, TEM dis- played the nanoparticles self-assembled into large network aggregates. It was concluded that the de-tection of HBV and HCV coinfection by TEM was convenient and efficient with high specificity and sensitivity.

  17. An evaluation of saliva as an alternative to plasma for the detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Seroepidemiological studies on the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV in India have been hampered by reluctance of subjects to provide blood samples for testing. We evaluated the use of saliva as an alternate specimen to blood for the detection of antibodies to HCV. Methods: Chronic liver disease (CLD patients attending the liver clinic were recruited for this study. A saliva and plasma sample (sample pair was collected from each patient included in the study. Saliva samples were collected using a commercially available collection device - OmniSal. Sample pairs were tested with an in-use ELISA for the detection of antibodies to HCV (HCV-Ab, with a minor modification in the manufacturer′s protocol while testing saliva. The cut-off absorbance value for declaring a sample as positive was determined by receiver operating curve (ROC analysis. HCV-Ab positivity in saliva was compared with that in plasma as well as with viral load in plasma and infecting genotype of the virus. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and correlation coefficients were calculated using Medcalc statistical software. Results: The optimal accuracy indices were: sensitivity-81.6%; specificity-92.5%; PPV-85.1% and NPV-90.5%. No correlation was found between salivary positivity and HCV viral load in plasma or infecting genotype. Conclusions: The accuracy indices indicate that the assay must be optimized further before it can be recommended for routine use in epidemiological surveys for HCV-Ab.

  18. Lymphocytes as liver damage mirror of HCV related adipogenesis deregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Minutolo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection leads to a wide spectrum of liver diseases ranging from mild chronic hepatitis to end-stage cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. An intriguing aspect of the HCV infection is its close connection with lipid metabolism playing an important role in the HCV life cycle and in its pathogenesis. HCV is known to be a hepatotropic virus; however, it can also infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. The goal of the current investigation is to compare the adipogenesis profile of liver tissues to lymphocytes of HCV infected patients, in order to understand if PBMCs may reflect the alterations of intracellular pathways occurring during HCV-related liver steatosis. Using the Human Adipogenesis PCR Array, gene expression was analyzed in liver samples and PBMCs of chronic HCV+, HBV+ and Healthy Donors (HDs patients. We observed a similar modulation of lipid metabolism in HCV+ and HBV+liver tissues and lymphoid, cells suggesting that PBMCs reflect the liver adipogenesis deregulation related to infection, even if the two viruses have a different impact in the regulation of the adipogenesis mechanisms. In particular, some genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, as well as in cell transformation, were up-regulated, in a similar way, in both HCV models analyzed. Interestingly, these genes were positively correlated to virological and hepatic functional parameters of HCV+ patients. On the contrary, HBV+ patients displayed a completely different profile. PBMCs of HCV+ patients seem to be useful model to study how HCV-related lipid metabolism deregulation occurs in liver. The obtained data suggest some molecules as new possible biomarkers of HCV-related liver damage progression.

  19. HCV clearance patterns in saliva and serum of patients with chronic HCV infection under interferon plus ribavirin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz Dios, P; Castro, A; Rodríguez, I; Reforma, N G; Castro, M; Eirea, M; Hermida, M

    2005-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA is often present in saliva of HCV-infected patients, with plasma viral load being the only known predictable factor. Interferon plus ribavirin therapy yields a sustained reduction in HCV viremia. This study aimed to assess the presence of HCV in saliva and serum specimens from patients undergoing this combination therapy (CT). Paired serum and saliva specimens were collected from 44 chronic HCV-infected patients at basal time, 4 and 12 weeks after CT onset, at the end of treatment and 6 months latter. Serum HCV-RNA levels were determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Amplicor system. Presence of HCV-RNA in saliva was tested by a highly sensitive non-commercialized nested-PCR. The HCV-RNA was detected in 26 saliva specimens at basal time (59.1%). In 34.1% of cases, a concordance viral clearance pattern in serum and saliva was observed in both responders (pattern 1a) and non-responders (pattern 1b). In pattern 2 (13.6% of cases), HCV was detected longer during CT in serum than in saliva (pattern 2a) or in saliva than in serum (pattern 2b). In 11.3% of patients, viral clearance was corroborated either in their serum (pattern 3a) or in their saliva (pattern 3b), but not in both fluids. Of the eight primary responders with 1a clearance pattern, seven were sustained responders. None of the patients with 2a clearance pattern was a sustained responder. Of the two primary responders showing the 3b salivary pattern, one had already relapsed in the first 6 months of follow up. The present results suggest that the monitoring of salivary levels of HCV would be a helpful means of determining sustained antiviral effects of interferon and ribavirin in the treatment of HCV disease.

  20. Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 subtype identification in new HCV drug development and future clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chevaliez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the development of new specific inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV enzymes and functions that may yield different antiviral responses and resistance profiles according to the HCV subtype, correct HCV genotype 1 subtype identification is mandatory in clinical trials for stratification and interpretation purposes and will likely become necessary in future clinical practice. The goal of this study was to identify the appropriate molecular tool(s for accurate HCV genotype 1 subtype determination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large cohort of 500 treatment-naïve patients eligible for HCV drug trials and infected with either subtype 1a or 1b was studied. Methods based on the sole analysis of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR by sequence analysis or reverse hybridization failed to correctly identify HCV subtype 1a in 22.8%-29.5% of cases, and HCV subtype 1b in 9.5%-8.7% of cases. Natural polymorphisms at positions 107, 204 and/or 243 were responsible for mis-subtyping with these methods. A real-time PCR method using genotype- and subtype-specific primers and probes located in both the 5'NCR and the NS5B-coding region failed to correctly identify HCV genotype 1 subtype in approximately 10% of cases. The second-generation line probe assay, a reverse hybridization assay that uses probes targeting both the 5'NCR and core-coding region, correctly identified HCV subtypes 1a and 1b in more than 99% of cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the context of new HCV drug development, HCV genotyping methods based on the exclusive analysis of the 5'NCR should be avoided. The second-generation line probe assay is currently the best commercial assay for determination of HCV genotype 1 subtypes 1a and 1b in clinical trials and practice.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of HCV monoinfection and HIV/HCV coinfection in injection drug users in Liuzhou, Southern China.

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    Yi Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV mono-infection and HCV/HIV (human immunodeficiency virus co-infection are growing problems in injection drug users (IDU. Their prevalence and genotypic patterns vary with geographic locations. Access to harm reduction measures is opening up opportunities for improving the HIV/HCV profiling of IDU in China, where IDUs account for a significant proportion of the two infections especially in the southern part of the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Through the Liuzhou Methadone Clinic, a total of 117 injection drug users (IDUs were recruited from Guangxi, Southern China. A majority of the IDUs (96% were HCV antibody positive, of which 21% were HIV infected. Unlike HCV monoinfection, there was spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of HIV/HCV coinfection, the latter also characterized by a higher prevalence of needle-sharing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotype 6a was predominant in the study population. There were shorter genetic distances among the 6a sequences compared to the other HCV subtypes-1a, 3a, and 3b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that HIV and HCV were introduced at around the same time to the IDU populations in Southern China, followed by their differential spread as determined by the biologic characteristics of the virus and the intensity of behavioural risk. This pattern is different from that in other South East Asian countries where HCV infections have probably predated HIV.

  2. Optical boundary reconstruction of tokamak plasmas for feedback control of plasma position and shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommen, G.; de M. Baar,; Nuij, P.; McArdle, G.; Akers, R.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new diagnostic is developed to reconstruct the plasma boundary using visible wavelength images. Exploiting the plasma's edge localized and toroidally symmetric emission profile, a new coordinate transform is presented to reconstruct the plasma boundary from a poloidal view image. The plasma b

  3. HCV RNA traffic and association with NS5A in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiches, Guillaume N.; Eyre, Nicholas S.; Aloia, Amanda L.; Van Der Hoek, Kylie [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Betz-Stablein, Brigit; Luciani, Fabio [Systems Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Chopra, Abha [Institute for Immunology and infectious diseases (IIID), Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia); Beard, Michael R., E-mail: michael.beard@adelaide.edu.au [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA localisation are poorly understood. To address this we engineered HCV genomes harbouring MS2 bacteriophage RNA stem-loops within the 3′-untranslated region to allow tracking of HCV RNA via specific interaction with a MS2-Coat-mCherry fusion protein. Despite the impact of these insertions on viral fitness, live imaging revealed that replication of tagged-HCV genomes induced specific redistribution of the mCherry-tagged-MS2-Coat protein to motile and static foci. Further analysis showed that HCV RNA was associated with NS5A in both static and motile structures while a subset of motile NS5A structures was devoid of HCV RNA. Further investigation of viral RNA traffic with respect to lipid droplets (LDs) revealed HCV RNA-positive structures in close association with LDs. These studies provide new insights into the dynamics of HCV RNA traffic with NS5A and LDs and provide a platform for future investigations of HCV replication and assembly. - Highlights: • HCV can tolerate can bacteriophage MS2 stem-loop insertions within the 3′ UTR. • MS2 stem-loop containing HCV genomes allow for real-time imaging of HCV RNA. • HCV RNA is both static and motile and associates with NS5A and lipid droplets.

  4. 丙型肝炎病毒核酸定量和抗-HCV血清学分析的诊断价值%Retrospective analysis of Antibody of HCV and quantification of HCV RNA in diagnosis of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贤华; 白晓东; 刘元明; 段萃娟; 荣冉; 刘维维

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨PCR-荧光探针法与抗-HCV检测在丙型肝炎(丙肝)诊断中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析265例疑似丙肝病毒感染者行HCV-RNA、抗-HCV及ALT检测的资料,统计不同年龄、性别分布情况,进行HCV-RNA与抗-HCV、ALT的相关性分析.结果 (1)男性抗-HCV与HCV-RNA的阳性率均高于女性,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);年龄>40岁的患者抗-HCV与HCV-RNA的阳性率明显高于年龄≤40岁的患者,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).(3)HCV-RNA阳性多伴有抗-HCV阳性(r=0.320),二者有很好的相关性.结论 ELISA 法检测抗-HCV在丙型肝炎诊断中仍旧为首选检测方法.联合应用HCV-RNA和抗-HCV及ALT检测,是诊断丙型肝炎最为可靠的方法.%Objective To study the application value of hepatitis C virus RNA detection ( PCR -fluorescent probe) and hepatitis C virus antibody detection (ELISA, anti - HCV) in the diagnosis of hepatitis C. Methods The HCV - RNA and anti - HCV tests of 265 suspected HCV patients were reviewed, statistics of anti - HCV and HCV - RNA detection results and ALT level in different ages and gender was collected and analysized. Results ①Anti - HCV and HCV - RNA positive rates in men were higher than those in women, but there was no statistically significant difference (P >0. 05). ② Anti - HCV and HCV - RNA positive rates in >40 years old patients were obviously higher than those in ≤40 years old patients ,with statistically significant difference (P 40 and ≤40 years old patients (P 0. 05 ) . ④The abnormal rate of Anti - HCV was closely correlated with HCV - RNA ( r = 0. 320) ; Anti - HCV, HCV - RNA and ALT had no statistically significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusions ①Anti - HCV and HCV - RNA detection have no relation with gender, but they have certain relevance with age. ②ELISA for detecting anti - HCV is still first choice in HCV. Combined use of HCV - RNA,anti - HCV and ALT detection, will be the most reliable and valuable method

  5. Clinical significance of HCV RNA assay in patients with HCV infection or co-infection of HBV%HCV及其与HBV重叠感染患者血清HCV RNA检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏伟; 陈芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of HCV RNA assay in patients of HCV infection or co-infection with HBV. Methods 179 cases of patients includes chronic hepatitis C group (n = 101), liver cirrhosis group (n = 45) and hepatomas group (n = 33). Anti-HCV and HCV RNA in 179 serum samples from patients with HCV infection or co-infection with HBV were detected. HBV DNA was assayed for 31 co-infection patients. Results The positive rate of Anti- HCV was higher than HCV RNA in the 179 patients (97.8% vs 69.8%, P < 0.01). The positive rate in liver cirrhosis group and hepatomas group were 82.2% and 84.8%, inspectively, which were higher than that in chronic hepatitis C group (64.4%, P < 0.05). HCV RNA positive rate of HCV and HBV co-infection group was lower than that in simple HCV infection group (48.4% vs 71.6%, P < 0.05). HBV DNA positive rate of HCV and HBV co-infection group was also lower than that in simple HBV infection group (35.5% vs 76.7%, P < 0.01). ALT abnormal rate in HCV RNA positive group was higher than that in HCV RNA negative group (60.8% vs 35.2%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Combined detection of anti-HCV, HCV RNA and ALT is helpful to diagnosis, curative effect observation and prognosis for patients with HCV infection related diseases. And HBV DNA should be detected simultaneously for HCV and HBV co-infection patients.%目的 探讨HCV及其与HBV重叠感染患者血清HCV RNA检测的临床意义.方法 收集我院HCV感染及其与HBV重叠患者血清标本共179例,分为慢性丙型肝炎组(n = 101)、肝硬化组(n = 45)和肝癌组(n = 33).采用ELISA法检测血清抗HCV,用荧光定量PCR检测HCV RNA;对重叠感染HCV和HBV的31例患者同时检测HBV DNA.结果 179例患者抗HCV的总阳性率为97.8%,高于HCV RNA的阳性率(69.8%)(P < 0.01).肝硬化组和肝癌组HCV RNA的阳性率分别为82.2%和84.8%,高于慢性丙型肝炎组阳性率64.4%(P < 0.05).HCV与HBV重叠感染组的HCV RNA的阳性率为48.4%,低于单纯HCV感染组的HCV

  6. Evaluation of two, commercial, multi-dye, nucleic acid amplification technology tests, for HBV/HCV/HIV-1/HIV-2 and B19V/HAV, for screening blood and plasma for further manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M M; Fraile, M I G; Hourfar, M K; Peris, L B; Sireis, W; Rubin, M G; López, E M; Rodriguez, G T; Seifried, E; Saldanha, J; Schmidt, M

    2013-01-01

    The cobas TaqScreen MPX Test, version 2.0, a multiplex, multi-dye nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) test from Roche was evaluated by two European Blood Banks, the German Red Cross Blood Donor Service, Frankfurt, Germany and Centro de Hemoterapia y Hemodonación de Castilla y León, Valladolid, Spain. In addition, the cobas TaqScreen DPX Test was evaluated for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of parvovirus B19 and the detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV). The performances of the two tests were evaluated regarding the analytical sensitivity, the reproducibility of the tests using samples containing low concentrations of each virus and cross-contamination using samples containing high titres of virus. The analytical sensitivity of the MPX Test, version 2.0, obtained by the German Red Cross Blood Donor Service was 1·1, 3·9 and 43·3 IU/ml for HBV, HCV and HIV-1, respectively. The comparable analytical sensitivity at Centro de Hemoterapia y Hemodonación de Castilla y León was 3·5, 17·6 and 50·6 IU/ml for HBV, HCV and HIV-1, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of the DPX test determined by the German Red Cross Blood Donor Service was 0·6 and 3·8 IU/ml for HAV and B19. These multiplex and multi-dye blood screening assays represent a flexible NAT screening system for mini-pools between 6 and 96 samples per pool and fulfil all requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia for HCV and B19V testing of plasma for fractionation. The inclusion of a new multi-dye technology means discriminatory assays are no longer required for either test thus improving workflow, turn-around time and minimize the risk of obtaining a reactive result for which the virus cannot be identified. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Expression of core antigen of HCV genotype 3a and its evaluation as screening agent for HCV infection in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Irshad U

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan is facing a threat from hepatitis C infection which is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the country. More specific and sensitive screening assays are needed to timely and correctly diagnose this infection. Methods After RNA extraction from specimen (HCV-3a, cDNA was synthesized that was used to amplify full length core gene of HCV 3a. After verification through PCR, DNA sequencing and BLAST, a properly oriented positive recombinant plasmid for core gene was digested with proper restriction enzymes to release the target gene which was then inserted downstream of GST encoding DNA in the same open reading frame at proper restriction sites in multiple cloning site of pGEX4t2 expression vector. Recombinant expression vector for each gene was transformed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 and induced with IPTG for recombinant fusion protein production that was then purified through affinity chromatography. Western blot and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA were used to detect immuno-reactivity of the recombinant protein. Results The HCV core antigen produced in prokaryotic expression system was reactive and used to develop a screening assay. After validating the positivity (100% and negativity (100% of in-house anti-HCV screening assay through a standardized panel of 200 HCV positive and 200 HCV negative sera, a group of 120 serum specimens of suspected HCV infection were subjected to comparative analysis of our method with commercially available assay. The comparison confirmed that our method is more specific than the commercially available assays for HCV strains circulating in this specific geographical region of the world and could thus be used for HCV screening in Pakistan. Conclusion In this study, we devised a screening assay after successful PCR amplification, isolation, sequencing, expression and purification of core antigen of HCV genotype 3a. Our developed screening assay is more sensitive, specific and

  8. Serum Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to the GOR Autoepitope Are Present in Patients with Occult Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection despite Lack of HCV-Specific Antibodies▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Juan A.; Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; Carreño, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Antibody responses to the GOR autoepitope are frequently detected among anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive patients with chronic hepatitis. Sera from 110 anti-HCV-negative patients with occult HCV infection, as diagnosed by detection of HCV RNA in hepatic tissue, were investigated for GOR antibody reactivity. A positive test for anti-GOR immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found for 22 (20%) of them. The frequency and titers of anti-GOR IgG were significantly lower than those in chronic hepatitis C patients (70/110, 63.6%; P < 0.001). Anti-GOR IgG was not detected in any of the 120 patients with HCV-unrelated liver disease. The anti-GOR IgG assay showed specificity and sensitivity values of 100% and 20%, respectively, among the sera from patients with occult HCV infection; the positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 44.3%, respectively. None of the clinical, laboratory, or histological characteristics of the patients with occult HCV infection were different according to GOR antibody status, except that the percentage of HCV RNA-positive hepatocytes was significantly greater (P = 0.042) in patients with occult HCV infection who tested positive for anti-GOR IgG. In conclusion, serum anti-GOR IgG is present in patients with occult HCV infection, despite a lack of detectable HCV-specific antibodies as determined by commercial tests. Testing for anti-GOR IgG in patients in whom HCV RNA is not detected in their sera may help with the identification of a subset of patients with occult HCV infection without the need to perform a liver biopsy. PMID:17699833

  9. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies to the GOR autoepitope are present in patients with occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection despite lack of HCV-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Juan A; Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; Carreño, Vicente

    2007-10-01

    Antibody responses to the GOR autoepitope are frequently detected among anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive patients with chronic hepatitis. Sera from 110 anti-HCV-negative patients with occult HCV infection, as diagnosed by detection of HCV RNA in hepatic tissue, were investigated for GOR antibody reactivity. A positive test for anti-GOR immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found for 22 (20%) of them. The frequency and titers of anti-GOR IgG were significantly lower than those in chronic hepatitis C patients (70/110, 63.6%; P HCV-unrelated liver disease. The anti-GOR IgG assay showed specificity and sensitivity values of 100% and 20%, respectively, among the sera from patients with occult HCV infection; the positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 44.3%, respectively. None of the clinical, laboratory, or histological characteristics of the patients with occult HCV infection were different according to GOR antibody status, except that the percentage of HCV RNA-positive hepatocytes was significantly greater (P = 0.042) in patients with occult HCV infection who tested positive for anti-GOR IgG. In conclusion, serum anti-GOR IgG is present in patients with occult HCV infection, despite a lack of detectable HCV-specific antibodies as determined by commercial tests. Testing for anti-GOR IgG in patients in whom HCV RNA is not detected in their sera may help with the identification of a subset of patients with occult HCV infection without the need to perform a liver biopsy.

  10. Schistosomiasis as a possible risk factor for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV infection among Saudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Mohammed

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Background -Risk factors for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV infection have been elucidated in many developed countries but the picture is still not clear in many Middle Eastern Countries including Saudi Arabia. Aim -To investigate possible risk factors for acquiring HCV among Saudis. Methods -Various demographic and medical risk factors that might be associated with the spread of HCV among Saudis were investigated. The population studied included 20 anti-HCV-positive with chronic liver disease (CLD, 30 anti-HCV-positive patients without CLD and 272 anti-HCV-negative Saudi blood donors. All people investigated were of the same age group (>40 years of age. Results -None of the demographic parameters studied (type of job, type of housing, education was found to be significantly associated with acquiring HCV infection among our Saudi patients. On the other hand up to 40% of the anti-HCV-positive patients and irrespective of the condition of liver disease had a history of surgery, and 25% of them had a history of multiple injections. Furthermore, at least 20% of our anti-HCV-positive patients had a history of schistosomiasis which is significantly higher than schistosomiasis among the blood donors (P< 0.005. Conclusion -In addition to blood and blood products, schistosomiasis seems to be a possible risk factor for acquiring HCV among the Saudi population. The association between schistosomiasis and enhancement of HCV infection need to be further elucidated.

  11. HCV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdel Fatah Fahmy Hanno

    2013-06-27

    PBMCs) of patients with chronic HCV infection, and explore the ... Methods: Twenty-five patients with chronic viral hepatitis C were included. ... ment course, patients who were found to have positive PCR test for ..... consequences.

  12. Prevalence, genotypes and factors associated with HCV infection among prisoners in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Santos, Bruno Fernandes; de Santana, Nathalie Oliveira; Franca, Alex Vianey Callado

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and its genotypes, and to identify the factors associated with HCV infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted in two prisons (one male and one female) in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, comprised 422 subjects. All of the prisoners underwent a rapid test for the detection of HCV antibodies. Patients with a positive result were tested for anti-HCV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and for HCV RNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The virus genotype was defined in every serum sample that presented positive for PCR-HCV. In order to determine the factors independently associated with positive serology for HCV, multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 3.1%. Of the 13 subjects with positive anti-HCV, 11 had viremia confirmed by PCR. Of these, 90.9% had genotype 1. A total of 43 (10.2%) were injecting drug users, and HCV seroprevalence in this subgroup was 20.6%. The variable most strongly associated with positive serology for HCV was use of injecting drugs [odds ratio (OR), 23.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.0-90.8]. Age over 30 years (OR, 5.5; 95%CI, 1.1-29.2), history of syphilis (OR, 9.8; 95%CI, 1.7-55.2) and history of household contact with HCV positive individual (OR, 14.1; 95%CI, 2.3-85.4) were also independently associated with HCV infection. CONCLUSION: Most of the HCV transmissions result from parenteral exposure. However, there is evidence to suggest a role for sex and household contact with an infected subject in virus transmission. PMID:21799649

  13. Prevalence, genotypes and factors associated with HCV infection among prisoners in Northeastern Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno Fernandes de Oliveira Santos; Nathalie Oliveira de Santana; Alex Vianey Callado Franca

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and its genotypes, and to identify the factors associated with HCV infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted in two prisons (one male and one female) in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, comprised 422 subjects. All of the prisoners underwent a rapid test for the detection of HCV antibodies. Patients with a positive result were tested for anti- HCV by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and for HCV RNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The virus genotype was defined in every serum sample that presented positive for PCR-HCV. In order to determine the factors independently associated with positive serology for HCV, multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: HCV seroprevalence was 3.1%. Of the 13 subjects with positive anti-HCV, 11 had viremia confirmed by PCR. Of these, 90.9% had genotype 1. A total of 43 (10.2%) were injecting drug users, and HCV seroprevalence in this subgroup was 20.6%. The variable most strongly associated with positive serology for HCV was use of injecting drugs [odds ratio (OR), 23.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.0-90.8]. Age over 30 years (OR, 5.5; 95%CI, 1.1-29.2), history of syphilis (OR, 9.8; 95%CI, 1.7-55.2) and history of household contact with HCV positive individual (OR, 14.1; 95%CI, 2.3-85.4) were also independently associated with HCV infection. CONCLUSION: Most of the HCV transmissions result from parenteral exposure. However, there is evidence to suggest a role for sex and household contact with an infected subject in virus transmission.

  14. 丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原与HCV RNA、ALT相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 刘栋; 陈新科; 王文龙; 于立凌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to study the relationship between the HCV core antigen ,the presence of HCV RNA and the ALT level. Methods: HCV-cAg and the ALT level were detected from 74 positive HCV RNA patients. Results: The HCV-cAg was detected in 25 out of the 74 positive HCV RNA patients.In addition ,23 patients were in the gray zone. The ALT level of 49 patients were outside the normal range . The ALT level and HCV-cAg were significantly related(P<0.05). Conclusion: HCV-cAg united against-HCV, HCV RNA can be applied to clinical and blood stations.%目的探讨HCV核心抗原与HCV RNA、ALT的相关性。方法对本院74例HCV RNA阳性患者检测其HCV-cAg和ALT浓度。结果本研究74例HCV RNA阳性患者检出HCV-cAg阳性25例,处于灰区23例,ALT超出正常范围的患者为49例,ALT 水平与HCV-cAg呈正相关性。结论 HCV-cAg与HCV RNA复制密切相关, HCV-cAg可联合抗-HCV应用可提高临床和血站的HCV感染检出率,结合ALT可以评测HCV感染肝脏炎症状态)

  15. May some HCV genotype 1 patients still benefit from dual therapy? The role of very early HCV kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontodonati, Monica; Cento, Valeria; Polilli, Ennio; Colabattista, Cecilia; Cascella, Raffaella; Sciotti, Mariapina; Di Giammartino, Dante; Trave, Francesca; Di Maio, Velia Chiara; Monarca, Roberto; Di Candilo, Francesco; Prinapori, Roberta; Rastrelli, Elena; Vecchiet, Jacopo; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Manzoli, Lamberto; Giardina, Emiliano; Perno, Carlo Federico; Parruti, Giustino

    2015-10-01

    When treating HCV patients with conventional dual therapy in the current context of rapidly evolving HCV therapy, outcome prediction is crucial and HCV kinetics, as early as 48 hours after the start of treatment, may play a major role. We aimed at clarifying the role of HCV very early kinetics. We consecutively enrolled mono-infected HCV patients at 7 treatment sites in Central Italy and evaluated the predictive value of logarithmic decay of HCV RNA 48 hours after the start of dual therapy (Delta48). Among the 171 enrolled patients, 144 were evaluable for early and sustained virological response (EVR, SVR) prediction; 108 (75.0%) reached EVR and 84 (58.3%) reached SVR. Mean Delta 48 was 1.68 ± 1.22 log10 IU/ml, being higher in patients with SVR and EVR. Those genotype-1 patients experiencing a Delta 48 >2 logs showed a very high chance of success (100% positive predictive value), even in the absence of rapid virological response (RVR). Evaluation of very early HCV kinetics helped identify a small but significant proportion of genotype-1 patients (close to 10%) in addition to those identified with RVR, who could be treated with dual therapy in spite of not reaching RVR. In the current European context, whereby sustainability of HCV therapy is a crucial issue, conventional dual therapy may still play a reasonable role in patients with good tolerance and early prediction of success.

  16. Thermal analysis of the in-vessel components of the ITER plasma-position reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quental, P. B., E-mail: pquental@ipfn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt; Policarpo, H.; Luís, R.; Varela, P. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-11-15

    The ITER plasma position reflectometry system measures the edge electron density profile of the plasma, providing real-time supplementary contribution to the magnetic measurements of the plasma-wall distance. Some of the system components will be in direct sight of the plasma and therefore subject to plasma and stray radiation, which may cause excessive temperatures and stresses. In this work, thermal finite element analysis of the antenna and adjacent waveguides is conducted with ANSYS V17 (ANSYS® Academic Research, Release 17.0, 2016). Results allow the identification of critical temperature points, and solutions are proposed to improve the thermal behavior of the system.

  17. Thermal analysis of the in-vessel components of the ITER plasma-position reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quental, P. B.; Policarpo, H.; Luís, R.; Varela, P.

    2016-11-01

    The ITER plasma position reflectometry system measures the edge electron density profile of the plasma, providing real-time supplementary contribution to the magnetic measurements of the plasma-wall distance. Some of the system components will be in direct sight of the plasma and therefore subject to plasma and stray radiation, which may cause excessive temperatures and stresses. In this work, thermal finite element analysis of the antenna and adjacent waveguides is conducted with ANSYS V17 (ANSYS® Academic Research, Release 17.0, 2016). Results allow the identification of critical temperature points, and solutions are proposed to improve the thermal behavior of the system.

  18. Exosome-associated hepatitis C virus in cell cultures and patient plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ziqing [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Zhang, Xiugen [Department of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Yu, Qigui [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); He, Johnny J., E-mail: johnny.he@unthsc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • HCV occurs in both exosome-free and exosome-associated forms. • Exosome-associated HCV is infectious and resistant to neutralizing antibodies. • More exosome-associated HCV than exosome-free HCV is present in patient plasma. - Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects its target cells in the form of cell-free viruses and through cell–cell contact. Here we report that HCV is associated with exosomes. Using highly purified exosomes and transmission electron microscopic imaging, we demonstrated that HCV occurred in both exosome-free and exosome-associated forms. Exosome-associated HCV was infectious and resistant to neutralization by an anti-HCV neutralizing antibody. There were more exosome-associated HCV than exosome-free HCV detected in the plasma of HCV-infected patients. These results suggest exosome-associated HCV as an alternative form for HCV infection and transmission.

  19. Attraction of positively charged dust grains in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2006-10-01

    In two recent papers, Delzanno et al. [1-2] have pointed out that an electron emitting dust grain immersed in a plasma can sustain profiles of the shielding potential having an attractive potential well. The existence of attractive potential wells around dust grains in a plasma is of considerable interest as it provides an alternative mechanism for the attraction of the grains. Moreover, this mechanism can play an important role in astrophysical scenarios, for example in star forming regions where a substantial UV field is responsible for grain photoemission. We have therefore developed a three-dimensional PIC code with the aim of studying the collapse of a system of grains undergoing gravitational and electrostatic forces (the latter modeled via the potential well discovered in Refs. [1,2]). We will show how the attractive potential well can indeed lead to the collapse of the system, at rates which can be higher with respect to the pure gravitational analogue. Further on, a pure monotonic Debye-Huckel electrostatic potential can impede the collapse, depending on the charge to mass ratio of the grains. These results are in agreement with the predictions of the linear theory we have recently developed [3]. [1] G. L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, M. Rosenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (3), 035002 (2004). [2] G. L. Delzanno, A. Bruno, G. Sorasio, G. Lapenta, Phys. Plasmas 12, 062102 (2005). [3] G. L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 175005 (2005).

  20. Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection impairs HCV-specific cytotoxic T cell reactivity through Mcl-1/Bim imbalance due to CD127 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrubia, J R; Lokhande, M U; García-Garzón, S; Miquel, J; González-Praetorius, A; Parra-Cid, T; Sanz-de-Villalobos, E

    2013-02-01

    In persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HCV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) reactivity is impaired and this affects HCV control. Interleukin-7 receptor (CD127) expression on these cells could regulate CTL reactivity through Mcl-1/Bim balance modulation. Bim is a pro-apoptotic molecule blocked by the action of Mcl-1. Mcl-1/Bim expression and T cell reactivity on HCV-specific CTLs were compared according to CD127 phenotype. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from HLA-A2(+) HCV(+) patients were obtained. HCV-specific CTLs were visualized by staining PBL with anti-CD8 and HLA-A2/peptide pentameric complexes (pentamer). Mcl-1/Bim/CD127 phenotype of HCV-specific CTLs was tested by staining detectable CD8(+)/pentamer(+) cells with anti-Mcl-1/Bim/CD127 antibodies. HCV-specific CTL proliferation ability after specific in vitro challenge was tested in the presence and absence of pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. All stained cells were analysed by flow cytometry. CD127(low)-expressing HCV-specific CTLs associated with high HCV viraemia, while CD127(high) correlated with undetectable viral loads (P Bim was up-regulated after antigen encounter (P Bim expression on pentamer(+) cells correlated positively with CD127 expression level (P Bim up-regulation after antigen encounter are involved in CD127(low) HCV-specific CTL hyporeactivity during chronic infection, but it can be overcome by apoptosis blockade.

  1. HCV and Lymphoproliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda Zignego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a serious public health problem because of its worldwide diffusion and sequelae. It is not only a hepatotropic but also a lymphotropic agent and is responsible not only for liver injury—potentially evolving to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma—but also for a series of sometimes severely disabling extrahepatic diseases and, in particular, B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. These latter range from benign, but prelymphomatous conditions, like mixed cryoglobulinemia, to frank lymphomas. Analogously with Helicobacter pylori related lymphomagenesis, the study of the effects of viral eradication confirmed the etiopathogenetic role of HCV and showed it is an ideal model for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. Concerning these latter, several hypotheses have been proposed over the past two decades which are not mutually exclusive. These hypotheses have variously emphasized the important role played by sustained stimulation of the immune system by HCV, infection of the lymphatic cells, viral proteins, chromosomal aberrations, cytokines, or microRNA molecules. In this paper we describe the main hypotheses that have been proposed with the corresponding principal supporting data.

  2. HCV -RNA 与 HCV -Ab、ALT、TP 相关性研究%The Relativity Analysis of HCV-RNA, HCV-Ab, ALT and TP from Hepatitis C Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕; 管世鹤

    2015-01-01

    探讨丙型肝炎患者体内 HCV -RNA、HCV -Ab、ALT 和 TP 间的相互关系。采用ELISA检测708例HCV-Ab阳性的丙型肝炎疑似患者,以RT-PCR检测血清HCV-RNA载量,全自动生化仪定量检测ALT和TP。 HCV-Ab表达水平与HCV-RNA载量有关,HCV-RNA载量与ALT异常率呈正相关性,但HCV-RNA载量与ALT含量无相关性,与TP含量亦无相关性。708例HCV-Ab阳性患者中男性多于女性,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);40岁以上患者比例多于40岁以下患者比例,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。 HCV-RNA与HCV-Ab、ALT具有一定相关性,丙型肝炎以40岁以上男性患者多见,应引起临床重视。%In order to investigate the relativity among HCV -RNA, HCV-Ab, ALT and TP in hepatitis C pa-tients, 708 suspected hepatitis C patients with HCV -Ab positive were checked by using the ELISA method , with real-time detecting HCV-RNA in those bloods by Fluorescentrt -PCR, ALT and TP detected by automat-ic biochemical analyzer .The test results showed that HCV -Ab expression level is related with HCV -RNA con-tent.HCV-RNA content is positively correlated with abnormal rate of ALT .But HCV-RNA content is not cor-related with ALT content and TP content .Among the 708 patients, the HCV-Ab positive percentage of men is more than women , and there is no statistically significant difference ( P>0 .05 );the ratio of the ≥40 years old patients is greater than <40 years old patients, and the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05).HCV-RNA, HCV-Ab and ALT have certain relativity .Among hepatitis C patients men of over 40 years old are more , and should be paid more clinical attention .

  3. Exosome-associated hepatitis C virus in cell cultures and patient plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziqing; Zhang, Xiugen; Yu, Qigui; He, Johnny J

    2014-12-12

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects its target cells in the form of cell-free viruses and through cell-cell contact. Here we report that HCV is associated with exosomes. Using highly purified exosomes and transmission electron microscopic imaging, we demonstrated that HCV occurred in both exosome-free and exosome-associated forms. Exosome-associated HCV was infectious and resistant to neutralization by an anti-HCV neutralizing antibody. There were more exosome-associated HCV than exosome-free HCV detected in the plasma of HCV-infected patients. These results suggest exosome-associated HCV as an alternative form for HCV infection and transmission.

  4. Prevalence and follow-up of occult HCV infection in an Italian population free of clinically detectable infectious liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI is a recently described phenomenon characterized by undetectable levels of HCV-RNA in serum/plasma by current laboratory assays, with identifiable levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and/or liver tissue by molecular tests with enhanced sensitivity. Previous results from our group showed an OCI prevalence of 3.3% in a population unselected for hepatic disease. The present study aimed to evaluate OCI prevalence in a larger cohort of infectious liver disease-free (ILDF subjects. Clinical follow-up of OCI subjects was performed to investigate the natural history of the infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 439 subjects referred to a Turin Blood Bank for phlebotomy therapy were recruited. They included 314 ILDF subjects, 40 HCV-positive subjects and 85 HBV-positive subjects, of whom 7 were active HBV carriers. Six subjects (4/314 ILDF subjects [1.27%] and 2/7 active HBV carriers [28%] were positive for HCV-RNA in PBMCs, but negative for serological and virological markers of HCV, indicating OCI. HCV genotypes were determined in the PBMCs of 3/6 OCI subjects two had type 1b; the other had type 2a/2c. OCI subjects were followed up for at least 2 years. After 12 months only one OCI persisted, showing a low HCV viral load (3.73×10(1 UI/ml. By the end of follow-up all OCI subjects were negative for HCV. No seroconversion, alteration of liver enzyme levels, or reduction of liver synthesis occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the existence of OCI in ILDF subjects, and suggested a high OCI prevalence among active HBV carriers. Follow-up suggested that OCI could be transient, with a trend toward the decrease of HCV viral load to levels undetectable by conventional methods after 12-18 months. Confirmation studies with a longer follow-up period are needed for identification of the OCI clearance or recurrence rates, and to characterize the viruses involved.

  5. Investigation for the Relationship between HCV-RNA level and Hepatic Insufficiency%HCV RNA载量与肝脏组织损伤的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁柳; 周易; 宋兴勃; 叶远馨; 陆小军; 张磊; 应斌武

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)RNA复制水平与肝功能丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)之间的相互关系.方法 收集1182例疑似丙肝病人血清标本,采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)检测HCV RNA,利用酶动力法测定ALT、AST,采用ELISA测定抗HCV抗体.数据采用SPSS16.0统计软件处理.结果 病人血清样本中,HCV RNA阳性801例(64.8%),其中抗HCV阳性766例(95.6%);HCV RNA阴性381例(32.2%),其中抗HCV阳性100例(26.2%).HCV RNA阳性样本中同时抗-HCV阳性者ALT,AST异常率分别为59.0%和60.8%;抗-HCV阴性者为31.4% 和34.2%.HCV RNA阴性样本中同时抗-HCV阳性者ALT,AST异常率分别为24.0% 和15.0%,抗-HCV阴性者为13.9% 和12.1%.HCV RNA含量与ALT、AST水平明显成正相关,r=0.62,P<0.05.结论 HCV RNA含量与肝组织损伤程度成正相关.%Objective To investigate the relationship between HCV —RNA load and levels of ALT and AST .Methods 1182 samples form suspected HCV infected patients were collected for analysis .The level of HCV —RNA in the serum were detected by FQ—PCR ,and ALT ,AST levels were detected by enzymatic kinetic assay .Anti-HCV was detected by ELBA .The data were analyzed by SPSS .Results For all the patients ,801 of them were HCV —RNA positive ,731 of whom were anti-HCV positive .381 of the patients were HCV —RNA negative and 100 of whom were anti-HCV positive .The abnormal rate of ALS and AST of patients with both HCV —RNA and anti-HCV positive was 59 .0% and 60 .8% respectively ;and that of patients with HCV —RNA positive and anti-HCV negative was 31.4% and 34.2% respectively .On the other hand ,That of patients with HCV —RNA negative and anti-HCV postive was 24.0% and 15.0% respectively ;and that of patients with HCV —RNA negative and anti-HCV negative was 13 .9% and 12 .1% .ALT and AST level varied directly with HCV —RNA level, γ=0 .62 , ρ<0 .05 .Conclusion HCV —RNA level showed directly

  6. Real-time optical plasma boundary reconstruction for plasma position control at the TCV Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommen, G.; Baar, M. de; Duval, B.P.; Andrebe, Y.; Le, H.B.; Klop, M.A.; Doelman, N.J.; Witvoet, G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    A dual, high speed, real-time visible light camera setup was installed on the TCV tokamak to reconstruct optically and in real-time the plasma boundary shape. Localized light emission from the plasma boundary in tangential view, broadband visible images results in clearly resolved boundary edge-feat

  7. Prevalence of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vedat Goral; Hamza Ozkul; Selahattin Tekes; Dede Sit; Ali Kemal Kadiroglu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the prevalence and clinical effects of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV.METHODS: Fifty chronic hemodialysis patients with negative HbsAg, and positive anti-HCV were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups:HCV-RNA positive and HCV-RNA negative, based on the results of HCV-RNA PCR. HBV-DNA was studied using the PCR method in both groups.RESULTS: None of the 22 HCV-RNA positive patients and 28 HCV-RNA negative patients revealed HBV-DNA in serum by PCR method. The average age was 47.2 ± 17.0 in the HCV-RNA positive group and 39.6 ± 15.6 in the HCV-RNA negative group.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of occult HBV infection is not high in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV in our region. This result of our study has to be evaluated in consideration of the interaction between HBsAg positivity (8%-10%) and frequency of HBV mutants in our region.

  8. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. From HCV To HBV Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinazi, Raymond F; Asselah, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people are chronically infected with HCV and 350 million are chronically infected with HBV worldwide. It is estimated that more than one million patients die from complications related to chronic viral hepatitis, mainly HCC which is one of the most frequent cancers in many countries, especially Africa, the Middle East and Asia. HCV drug development has been impressive, and this revolution led to several direct-acting antiviral agents achieving an HCV cure after only 6-12 weeks. This progress could theorically lead to HCV global elimination making HCV and its consequences a rarity. HBV research and development programs can learn from the HCV experience, to achieve an HBV functional or sterilizing cure. This review will summarize key steps which have been realized for an HCV cure, and discuss the next steps to achieve for an HCV elimination. And also, how this HCV revolution has inspired scientists and clinicians to achieve the same for HBV.

  10. Serum Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to the GOR Autoepitope Are Present in Patients with Occult Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection despite Lack of HCV-Specific Antibodies▿

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Juan A.; Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier; CARREÑO, VICENTE

    2007-01-01

    Antibody responses to the GOR autoepitope are frequently detected among anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive patients with chronic hepatitis. Sera from 110 anti-HCV-negative patients with occult HCV infection, as diagnosed by detection of HCV RNA in hepatic tissue, were investigated for GOR antibody reactivity. A positive test for anti-GOR immunoglobulin G (IgG) was found for 22 (20%) of them. The frequency and titers of anti-GOR IgG were significantly lower than those in chronic hepati...

  11. Clearance of low levels of HCV viremia in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manns Michael P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance of HCV-viremia in the absence of significant levels of detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses. We here report seven asymptomatic acute hepatitis C cases with peak HCV-RNA levels between 300 and 100.000 copies/ml who all cleared HCV-RNA spontaneously. Patients were identified by a systematic screening of 1176 consecutive new incoming offenders in a German young offender institution. Four of the seven patients never developed anti-HCV antibodies and had normal ALT levels throughout follow-up. Transient weak HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in five individuals which did not differ in strength and breadth from age- and sex-matched patients with chronic hepatitis C and long-term recovered patients. In contrast, HCV-specific MHC-class-I-tetramer-positive cells were found in 3 of 4 HLA-A2-positive patients. Thus, these cases highlight that clearance of low levels of HCV viremia is possible in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response which might explain the low seroconversion rate after occupational exposure to HCV.

  12. Design and realization of JT-60SA Fast Plasma Position Control Coils power supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zito, P., E-mail: pietro.zito@enea.it [National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Via E. Fermi, N. 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Lampasi, A. [National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Via E. Fermi, N. 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Coletti, A.; Novello, L. [Fusion for Energy (F4E) Broader Fusion Development Department, Garching (Germany); Matsukawa, M.; Shimada, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka Fusion Institute, Mukouyama, Naka-si, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Cinarelli, D.; Portesine, M. [POSEICO, via Pillea 42-44, 16152 Genova (Italy); Dorronsoro, A.; Vian, D. [JEMA, Paseo del Circuito 10, 20160 Lasarte-Oria Gipuzkoa (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Fast Plasma Position Control Coils PSs control the vertical position of the plasma during a plasma shot. • The design phase was developed considering of providing full voltage at any current level. • The testing phase was successfully completed, according to the IEC60146 standards. • The measured rise time of the voltage response is 2.88 ms for a reference voltage step of 1 kV. - Abstract: Fast Plasma Position Control Coils (FPPCC) PSs control the vertical position of the plasma during a plasma shot, to prevent Vertical Displacement Event (VDE), using FPPC coils installed in vacuum vessel for JT-60SA. For this task, the FPPCC PSs have to be very fast for reacting to plasma movements. Further, an open loop feed forward voltage control is adopted in order to achieve a fast control of FPPCC PSs. The main characteristics are: 4-quadrant AC/DC converter 12-pulse with circulating current, DC load voltage ±1000 V and DC load current ±5 kA. The overvoltage induced by FPPC coil during a plasma disruption can reach 10 kV and it is protected by a nonlinear resistor in parallel to the crowbar up to its intervention. All these technical characteristics have strongly influenced the design of the FPPCC converter and transformers which have been validated by simulation model of FPPCC PS. The outcomes of the simulation allowed to finalize the performances and dynamic behavior of voltage response.

  13. Cellular Activation and Intracellular HCV Load in Peripheral Blood Monocytes Isolated from HCV Monoinfected and HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Dichamp; Wasim Abbas; Amit Kumar; Vincent Di Martino; Georges Herbein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During HCV infection, the activation status of peripheral blood monocytes and its impact on HCV replication are poorly understood. We hypothesized that a modified activation of peripheral blood monocytes in HIV-HCV coinfected compared to HCV monoinfected patients may contribute to different monocytes reservoirs of HCV replication. METHODS: We performed a case-control analysis involving HCV-infected patients with and without HIV coinfection. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P...

  14. Transfusionsoverført hepatitis C. Den danske "lookback"-undersøgelse. Den Danske HCV lookback gruppe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P B; Grønbaek, K E; Krarup, H B

    2000-01-01

    This study accumulated results of the HCV lookback in Denmark and described the morbidity of the infected recipients. Donor records were identified for at least ten years back, and recipients still alive were tested for hepatitis C. Those with positive results were referred for clinical evaluation....... A total of 150 Danish anti-HCV positive donors had donated blood to 1018 recipients of whom 288 (29%) were still alive. Because of age, malignancy or other severe diseases 118 (41%) of these were not contacted. Of 157 recipients screened for HCV, 128 (82%) were anti-HCV positive and 88 (56%) were HCV......-RNA positive. Among the HCV-RNA positive recipients symptoms were present in 38% (25/66 reported), elevated ALT was found in 53% (41/77 tested) and cirrhosis was found in 11% (6/54 biopsied). Treatment with interferon-alpha was initiated in 23 patients, corresponding to 26% of HCV-RNA positive recipients...

  15. Dynamics and Feedback Control of Plasma Equilibrium Position in a Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenko, Oleg

    A brief history of the beginnings of nuclear fusion research involving toroidal closed-system magnetic plasma containment is presented. A tokamak machine is defined mathematically for the purposes of plasma equilibrium position perturbation analysis. The perturbation equations of a tokamak plasma equilibrium position are developed. Solution of the approximated perturbation equations is carried out. A unique, simple, and useful plasma displacement dynamics transfer function of a tokamak is developed. The dominant time constants of the dynamics transfer function are determined in a symbolic form. This symbolic form of the dynamics transfer function makes it possible to study the stability of a tokamak's plasma equilibrium position. Knowledge of the dynamics transfer function permits systematic syntheses of the required plasma displacement feedback control systems. The major parameters governing the plasma equilibrium position stability of a tokamak are shown to be (1) external magnetic field decay index, (2) transformer iron core effect, (3) plasma current, (4) radial rate-of-change inductance parameter, (5) vertical rate-of-change inductance parameter, and (6) vacuum vessel eddy-current time constant. An important and unique result is derived, showing that for a vacuum vessel eddy-current time constant exceeding a certain value the vertical plasma equilibrium position is stable, in spite of an intentional vertical instability design represented by a negative decay index. It is shown that a tokamak design having a theoretical set of positive decay index, negative radical rate-of-change inductance parameter, and positive vertical rate-of-change inductance parameter is expected to have a better plasma equilibrium position stability tolerance than a tokamak design having the same set with the signs reversed. The results of an actual hardware ISX-A tokamak plasma displacement feed-back control system design are presented. It is shown that a theoretical design computer

  16. Effect of combined siRNA of HCV E2 gene and HCV receptors against HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Usman Alli A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aim Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major threat as almost 3% of the world's population (350 million individual and 10% of the Pakistani population is chronically infected with this virus. RNA interference (RNAi, a sequence-specific degradation process of RNA, has potential to be used as a powerful alternative molecular therapeutic approach in spite of the current therapy of interferon-α and ribavirin against HCV which has limited efficiency. HCV structural gene E2 is mainly involved in viral cell entry via attachment with the host cell surface receptors i.e., CD81 tetraspanin, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR, scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1, and Claudin1 (CLDN1. Considering the importance of HCV E2 gene and cellular receptors in virus infection and silencing effects of RNAi, the current study was designed to target the cellular and viral factors as new therapeutic options in limiting HCV infection. Results In this study the potential of siRNAs to inhibit HCV-3a replication in serum-infected Huh-7 cells was investigated by combined treatment of siRNAs against the HCV E2 gene and HCV cellular receptors (CD81 and LDLR, which resulted in a significant decrease in HCV viral copy number. Conclusion From the current study it is concluded that the combined RNAi-mediated silencing of HCV E2 and HCV receptors is important for the development of effective siRNA-based therapeutic option against HCV-3a.

  17. Particle position and velocity measurement in dusty plasmas using particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Goree, J.; Haralson, Zach; Wong, Chun-Shang; Kananovich, A.; Li, Wei

    2016-06-01

    > Methods of imaging and image analysis are presented for dusty plasma experiments. Micron-sized polymer spheres, electrically suspended in a partially ionized gas, are illuminated by a sheet of laser light and imaged by video cameras. Image analysis methods yield particle positions and velocities of individual particles in each video image. Methods to minimize errors in the particle positions and velocities, which are now commonly used in the dusty plasma community, are described.

  18. Silymarin for HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Stephen J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle; Dahari, Harel; Ferenci, Peter; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Silymarin, an extract of milk thistle seeds, and silymarin-derived compounds have been considered hepatoprotective since the plant was first described in ancient times. Hepatoprotection is defined as several non-mutually exclusive biological activities including antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions. Despite clear evidence for silymarin-induced hepatoprotection in cell culture and animal models, evidence for beneficial effects in humans has been equivocal. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge on silymarin in the context of HCV infection. The information was collated from a recent workshop on silibinin in Germany.

  19. Proteome analysis of liver cells expressing a full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon and biopsy specimens of posttransplantation liver from HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jon M; Diamond, Deborah L; Chan, Eric Y; Gritsenko, Marina A; Qian, Weijun; Stastna, Miroslava; Baas, Tracey; Camp, David G; Carithers, Robert L; Smith, Richard D; Katze, Michael G

    2005-06-01

    The development of a reproducible model system for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has the potential to significantly enhance the study of virus-host interactions and provide future direction for modeling the pathogenesis of HCV. While there are studies describing global gene expression changes associated with HCV infection, changes in the proteome have not been characterized. We report the first large-scale proteome analysis of the highly permissive Huh-7.5 cell line containing a full-length HCV replicon. We detected >4,200 proteins in this cell line, including HCV replicon proteins, using multidimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) separations coupled to mass spectrometry. Consistent with the literature, a comparison of HCV replicon-positive and -negative Huh-7.5 cells identified expression changes of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. We extended these analyses to liver biopsy material from HCV-infected patients where a total of >1,500 proteins were detected from only 2 mug of liver biopsy protein digest using the Huh-7.5 protein database and the accurate mass and time tag strategy. These findings demonstrate the utility of multidimensional proteome analysis of the HCV replicon model system for assisting in the determination of proteins/pathways affected by HCV infection. Our ability to extend these analyses to the highly complex proteome of small liver biopsies with limiting protein yields offers the unique opportunity to begin evaluating the clinical significance of protein expression changes associated with HCV infection.

  20. HCV Diversity among Chinese and Burmese IDUs in Dehong, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Duo, Lin; Li, Peilu; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Chiyu

    2016-01-01

    HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. Dehong, a prefecture of Yunnan, is the important trade transfer station linking Southeast Asia and China, as well as the drug-trafficking channel linking “Golden triangle” and other regions of China and surrounding countries. In this study, we investigated the HCV genotype diversity among IDUs in Dehong based on 259 HCV positive samples from 118 Chinese and 141 Burmese IDUs. HCV genotypes were determined based on the phylogenies of C/E2 and NS5B genomic sequences. Six HCV subtypes, including 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6n and 6u, were detected. Interestingly, 4 HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs did not cluster with any known HCV subtypes, but formed a well-supported independent clade in the phylogenetic trees of both C/E2 and NS5B, suggesting a potential new HCV subtype circulating in Dehong. Subtype 3b was the predominant subtype, followed by subtypes 6n and 6u. Comparison showed that Dehong had a unique pattern of HCV subtype distribution, obviously different from other regions of China. In particular, HCV subtypes 6u and the potential new HCV subtype had a relatively high prevalence in Dehong, but were rarely detected in other regions of China. There was no significant difference in HCV subtype distribution between Burmese and Chinese IDUs. Few HCV sequences from Burmese and Chinese IDUs clustered together to form transmission clusters. Furthermore, about half of HCV sequences from Burmese IDUs formed small transmission clusters, significantly higher than that from Chinese IDUs (p<0.01). These suggest that the Chinese and Burmese IDUs were relatively isolated from each other in injection drug use behavior and the Burmese IDUs might prefer to inject drugs themselves together. The unique genotype distribution and complex diversity of genotype 6 among IDUs may be associated with the special geographical position of Dehong. PMID:27657722

  1. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients...... with chronic HIV/HCV and syphilis co-infection were identified by their treating physicians from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2013. Stored plasma samples obtained before, during, and after syphilis infection were analysed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10). RESULTS: Undetectable HCV RNA at the time of early latent syphilis infection was observed in 2 patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. After treatment of the syphilis infection, HCV RNA levels increased again in patient 1, whereas...

  2. Genetic diversity of HCV among various high risk populations (IDAs, thalassemia, hemophilia, HD patients) in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafiei A; Darzyani Azizi M; Taheri S; Haghshenas MR; Hosseinian A; Makhlough A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the patterns of distribution of HCV genotypes among high risk population in north of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 135 HCV RNA-positive high risk individuals including thalassemia, hemophilia, patients under hemodialysis and intravenous drug addicts. HCV genotypes were determined based on amplification with type-specific primers methods. Results: Among the 187 anti-HCV positive samples, only 135 (72.2%) gave HCV-RNA positvity. Over all, the most identified HCV type was genotype 3a (51.1%) followed by 1a (27.4%), 1b (8.2%). Sixteen (11.9%) out of 135 HCV RNA-positive participants have infected with more than one genotype or subtypes as follow; 1a/1b in 11 (8.2%), 2/3a in 3 (2.2%), and 1a/1b/3a in 2 (1.5%). Stratification of participants revealed that HCV subtype 3a was more prominent in thalassemia, hemophilia and HD patients but 1a and 1b were frequent in intravenous drug addicts. Conclusions: This study is the first report on HCV genotypes among Iranian subjects with different exposure categories resided in Mazandaran, where genotype 3a was found to be the most frequent genotype in thalassemia, hemophilia, and hemodialysis patients but not in IDAs. Since the addiction age is decreasing in Iran and a lot of addicts are IDAs, it might change the subtype pattern of HCV in general population.

  3. Fast feedback control of plasma horizontal position by using DSP and IGBT inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Mitsuhiro; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Takamura, Shuichi [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Uesugi, Yoshihiko [Nagoya Univ., Center for Integrated Research in Science and Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    To achieve high confinement properties of a tokamak plasma, it is necessary to control the plasma position, current profile, shape of magnetic surface etc. In addition to these, it has been found that a resistive wall mode (RWM) may limit the achievable plasma beta in present tokamak devices. Therefore, it is expected that an active feedback control using external coils is necessary to stabilize the RWM. A power supply for plasma control coils requires an accurate controllability and a fast response against such plasma disturbances. Recent development of high power and fast switching semiconductors, such as Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and MOSFET, improves the temporal response of power supply with a great extent. A small tokamak device, HYBTOK-II, is equipped with IGBT inverter power supplies for Joule and vertical field coils. In this paper a real-time feedback control of the plasma horizontal position has been employed with Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The experimental results on plasma response with such a feedback control have been compared with analysis of plasma column motion using transfer functions. (author)

  4. FPGA based Fuzzy Logic Controller for plasma position control in ADITYA Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratia, Pooja, E-mail: poojasuratia@yahoo.com [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Patel, Jigneshkumar, E-mail: jjp@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Rajpal, Rachana, E-mail: rachana@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Kotia, Sorum, E-mail: smkotia-eed@msubaroda.ac.in [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat (India); Govindarajan, J., E-mail: govindarajan@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation and comparison of the working performance of FLC is done with that of PID Controller. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FLC is designed using MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox, and validated on ADITYA RZIP model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FLC was implemented on a FPGA. The close-loop testing is done by interfacing FPGA to MATLAB/Simulink. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed FLC controller is able to maintain the plasma column within required range of {+-}0.05 m and was found to give robust control against various disturbances and faster and smoother response compared to PID Controller. - Abstract: Tokamaks are the most promising devices for obtaining nuclear fusion energy from high-temperature, ionized gas termed as Plasma. The successful operation of tokamak depends on its ability to confine plasma at the geometric center of vacuum vessel with sufficient stability. The quality of plasma discharge in ADITYA Tokamak is strongly related to the radial position of the plasma column in the vacuum vessel. If the plasma column approaches too near to the wall of vacuum vessel, it leads to minor or complete disruption of plasma. Hence the control of plasma position throughout the entire plasma discharge duration is a fundamental requirement. This paper describes Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) which is designed for radial plasma position control. This controller is tested and evaluated on the ADITYA RZIP control model. The performance of this FLC was compared with that of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Controller and the response was found to be faster and smoother. FLC was implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip with the use of a Very High-Speed Integrated-Circuits Hardware Description-Language (VHDL).

  5. Plasma EBV-DNA monitoring in Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacek, Martin; Hubacek, Petr; Markova, Jana; Zajac, Miroslav; Vernerova, Zdenka; Kamaradova, Katerina; Stuchly, Jan; Kozak, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with approximately one-third of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cases. EBV-DNA is often present in the plasma and whole blood of EBV-associated HL patients. However, the significance of EBV-DNA monitoring is debated. In a cohort of 165 adult HL patients, EBV-DNA viral load was prospectively monitored both in the plasma and whole blood. Diagnostic tissue samples of all patients were histologically reviewed; in 72% nodular sclerosis was detected, 24% presented with mixed cellularity (MC), and 5% had other type of HL. Tissues from 150 patients were also analyzed for the presence of latent EBV infection using in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) and immunohistochemistry for latent membrane protein (LMP1). Using these methods, 29 (19%) patients were classified as EBV positive. Using real-time quantitative PCR, 22 (76%) of EBV-positive HL patients had detectable EBV-DNA in the plasma and 19 (66%) patients in whole blood prior to therapy. In the group of EBV-negative HL cases, three (2%) patients had detectable plasma EBV-DNA and 30 (25%) patients whole blood EBV-DNA before treatment. EBV-positive HL was significantly associated with EBV-DNA positivity both in the plasma and whole blood in pretreatment samples, increasing age and MC subtype. Serial analysis of plasma EBV-DNA showed that response to therapy was associated with decline in viral load. Moreover, significantly increased plasma EBV-DNA level recurred before disease relapse in one patient. Our results further suggest that the assessment of plasma EBV-DNA viral load might be of value for estimation of prognosis and follow-up of patients with EBV-positive HL.

  6. Plasma lipidomic profiling of treated HIV-positive individuals and the implications for cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gerard; Trevillyan, Janine M; Fatou, Benoit; Cinel, Michelle; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Hoy, Jennifer F; Meikle, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The increased risk of coronary artery disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients is collectively contributed to by the human immunodeficiency virus and antiretroviral-associated dyslipidaemia. In this study, we investigate the characterisation of the plasma lipid profiles of treated HIV patients and the relationship of 316 plasma lipid species across multiple lipid classes with the risk of future cardiovascular events in HIV-positive patients. In a retrospective case-control study, we analysed plasma lipid profiles of 113 subjects. Cases (n = 23) were HIV-positive individuals with a stored blood sample available 12 months prior to their diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). They were age and sex matched to HIV-positive individuals without a diagnosis of CAD (n = 45) and with healthy HIV-negative volunteers (n = 45). Association of plasma lipid species and classes with HIV infection and cardiovascular risk in HIV were determined. In multiple logistic regression, we identified 83 lipids species and 7 lipid classes significantly associated with HIV infection and a further identified 74 lipid species and 8 lipid classes significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in HIV-positive subjects. Risk prediction models incorporating lipid species attained an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.78 (0.775, 0.785)) and outperformed all other tested markers and risk scores in the identification of HIV-positive subjects with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Our results demonstrate that HIV-positive patients have significant differences in their plasma lipid profiles compared with healthy HIV-negative controls and that numerous lipid species were significantly associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. This suggests a potential novel application for plasma lipids in cardiovascular risk screening of HIV-positive patients.

  7. Study on correlation between serum HCV-RNA level and Anti-HCV with liver fibrosis indexes in patients with chronic hepatitis C%慢性丙型肝炎患者血清 HCV-RNA 水平与抗-HCV 抗体和肝纤指标水平相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小英; 杨邵华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between serum HCV-RNA level and anti-HCV with liver fibrosis indexes in the patients with chronic hepatitis C.Methods The serum samples were collected in 96 cases of chronic hepatitis C.The HCV-RNA level was determined by real time fluorescence quantification PCR and Anti-HCV was detected by ELISA.LN,PCⅢ and CⅣlevels were detected by the electrochemical iuminescence analyzer and HA was examined by radioimmunoassay(RIA).The correla-tion between the HCV-RNA and Anti-HCV levels with the liver fibrosis indexes was analyzed with the statistic software.Results Among these 96 cases of Anti-HCV positive chronic hepatitis C,52 cases (54.2%)were HCV-RNA positive.With increasing of the S/CO value of Anti-HCV,the detection rate of HCV-RNA was increased,which were 9.5%,37.1% and 92.5%.The differ-ences in HA,LN,PCⅢ and CⅣ levels between the high viral load group and the low viral load group had no statistical significance (P >0.05).Conclusion The positive detection rate of HCV-RNA is related with the S/CO value of Anti-HCV,the higher the S/CO value,the higher the positive detection rate of HCV-RNA.But the HCV-RNA level has no correlation with the liver fibrosis in-dexes.%目的:探讨丙型肝炎患者 RNA 水平与抗-HCV 抗体和肝纤指标水平的关系。方法收集96例慢性丙型肝炎患者的血清,实时荧光定量 PCR 测定 HCV-RNA 和 ELISA 法检测抗-HCV 抗体。化学发光法检测 LN、PCⅢ、CⅣ及放免法检测 HA。并对抗-HCV 抗体、HCV-RNA 水平与血清肝纤指标之间的关系进行分析。结果本研究的96例抗-HCV 抗体阳性的慢性丙型肝炎患者中,HCV-RNA 阳性52例,阳性率为54.2%。随着抗-HCV 抗体的 S/CO 值升高,HCV-RNA 检出率也在增高,分别为9.5%、37.1%和92.5%。高病毒载量组与低病毒载量组比较,血清 HA、LN、PCⅢ及 CⅣ水平的差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论慢性丙肝患者 HCV

  8. Scheme for proton-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration of positively charged particles in a hollow plasma channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longqing Yi (易龙卿

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme for accelerating positively charged particles in a plasma-wakefield accelerator is proposed. If the proton drive beam propagates in a hollow plasma channel, and the beam radius is of order of the channel width, the space charge force of the driver causes charge separation at the channel wall, which helps to focus the positively charged witness bunch propagating along the beam axis. In the channel, the acceleration buckets for positively charged particles are much larger than in the blowout regime of the uniform plasma, and stable acceleration over long distances is possible. In addition, phasing of the witness with respect to the wave can be tuned by changing the radius of the channel to ensure the acceleration is optimal. Two-dimensional simulations suggest that, for proton drivers likely available in future, positively charged particles can be stably accelerated over 1 km with the average acceleration gradient of 1.3  GeV/m.

  9. Real-time DSP-based shape determination and plasma position control in the ISTTOK tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, B. E-mail: bernardo@cfn.ist.utl.pt; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Borba, D.; Varandas, C.A.F

    2004-06-01

    We have developed a digital signal processor-based system for real-time control of the ISTTOK plasma position based on a low-cost digital signal processor (DSP) board. A novel plasma shape reproduction method was developed using a Cauchy-condition expansion applied to the vacuum region around the plasma. This method showed to be best suited than classic methods such as Legendre-Fourier expansion (LFE) or current filaments (CF), particularly in small tokamaks with passive stabilizer conductors where the presence of strong eddy currents can cause significant errors in magnetic field sensors. We compare the results of the boundary reconstruction method with the measurements from a microwave interferometer diagnostic. We present an implementation in the DSP system that allows the real time control of the plasma position with a required 1 ms period.

  10. H∞ Loop Shaping Control for Plasma Vertical Position Instability on QUEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Kazuo, Nakamura; Tatsuya, Yoshisue; Osamu, Mitarai; Makoto, Hasegawa; Kazutoshi, Tokunaga; Xue, Erbing; Hideki, Zushi; Kazuaki, Hanada; Akihide, Fujisawa; Hiroshi, Idei; Shoji, Kawasaki; Hisatoshi, Nakashima; Aki, Higashijima; Kuniaki, Araki

    2013-03-01

    QUEST has a divertor configuration with a high and a negative n-index, and the problem of plasma vertical position instability control in QUEST is still under extensive study for achieving high efficiency plasma. The instability we considered is that the toroidal plasma moves either up or down in the vacuum chamber until it meets the vessel wall and is extinguished. The actively controlled coils (HCU and HCL) outside the vacuum vessel are serially connected in feedback with a measurement of the plasma vertical position to provide stabilizing control. In this work, a robust controller is employed by using the loop synthesis method, and provides robust stability over a wide range of n-index. Moreover, the gain of the robust controller is lower than that of a typical proportional derivative (PD) controller in the operational frequency range; it indicates that the robust controller needs less power consumption than the PD controller does.

  11. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA in non-A, non-B chronic hepatitis in France. Nucleotide sequence of a French HCV isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremsdorf, D; Porchon, C; Brechot, C

    1991-01-01

    The sera of 36 French patients with post-transfusional and sporadic non-A, non-B (NANB) chronic hepatitis were investigated, with a combination of serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, for HBV and HCV infections. Eighty-nine percent of the patients were found positive with serological and/or molecular tests. Among the positive patients, 68% (22/32) were found positive for both anti-HCV and HCV-RNA, 16% (5/32) and 16% (5/32) were found positive only for anti-HCV or HCV-RNA, respectively. HBV-DNA sequences were detected in two patients associated to the HCV viraemia. This study confirms the extremely high prevalence of HCV infection in NANB chronic hepatitis in France. It also shows the possible co-infection by HCV and HBV in NANB hepatitis. We have also determined the nucleotide sequence of the 5' non-coding, E1, E2/NS1 and NS3/NS4 regions of a French isolate using the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison of these nucleotide sequences with those available from American and Japanese isolates showed a significant genetic variability. The genetic variability is higher in the E2/NS1 (13 to 33% and 12 to 30% at the nucleic acid and amino acid level, respectively) than in the E1 (10 to 28% and 7 to 21%) and NS3/NS4 (5 to 21% and 2 to 7%) regions. The sequence of the French isolate is more closely related to that of the American HCV prototype than to the Japanese HCV isolates. This study confirms the extent of HCV genetic variability.

  12. The detection of Anti-HCV,HCV-RNA and its genotype in 5 080 patients with hepatitis C%丙型肝炎患者5080例Anti-HCV、HCV-RNA及基因分型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利红; 徐军

    2015-01-01

    目的::对5080例丙型肝炎患者Anti-HCV、HCV-RNA及基因分型三项检验结果进行分析。方法:采用增强发光免疫法检测Anti-HCV;实时荧光定量PCR法检验HCV-RNA;HCV-RNA含量≥103的标本同时进行基因分型检测。结果:5080例丙型肝炎患者中Anti-HCV检测阳性率为99.8%,HCV-RNA阳性率为49.1%。 HCV-RNA阳性患者年龄和抗体含量均明显高于HCV-RNA阴性患者(P<0.01)。在进行基因分型的1723例HCV-RNA阳性标本中,1b、2a分别占59.49%和36.20%,两型总占比达到95.69%;另外3b和4不常见型以及1b/2a、1b/4混合感染也检测到。结论:Anti-HCV含量与患者的病毒载量之间缺乏相关性,不能作为丙型肝炎治疗过程中的动态观察指标;HCV-RNA定量适于丙型肝炎疗效评价和预后判断指标;临床丙型肝炎患者中主要基因型是1b、2a型,对HCV-RNA阳性患者进行基因分型,可为丙型肝炎的个性化治疗提供决策依据。%Objective:To analyze the hepatitis C antibody( Anti-HCV) ,HCV-RNA and genotype in 5 080 patients with hepatitis C. Methods:The levels of Anti-HCV and HCV-RNA in all patients were determined by automatic enhanced luminescence immunity analyzer and quantitative fluorescent PCR,respectively. The genotypes in the patients with more than or equal to 103 of HCV-RNA were detected. Results:The positive rates of Anti-HCV and HCV-RNA were 99. 8% and 49. 1%,respectively. The ages and antibody content in positive HCV-RNA patients were significantly higher than those in the negative HCV-RNA patients(P<0. 01). Among the 1 723 positive HCV-RNA specimens,the 1b and 2a genotypes accounted for 59. 49% and 36. 20%,respectively,the total ratio of 1b and 2a genotypes was 95. 69%. The unusual types of 3b and 4,and mixed infection types of 1b/2a and 1b/4 also were detected. Conclusions:The Anti-HCV content and viral load are lack of correlation, which can not be used as the observation indexes in estimating the

  13. Analytical and Biological Variables Influencing Quantitative Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Measurement in HIV-HCV Coinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis Cooper; Paul MacPherson; William Cameron

    2006-01-01

    The present review considers issues pertaining to the precision and variability of quantitative hepatitis C virus (HCV) measurement in general, outlines the characteristics of HCV RNA in HIV-HCV coinfection and evaluates those factors which may affect this measure. The clinical relevance of accurate HCV measurement in HIV-HCV coinfection is discussed.

  14. Safety and efficacy of ombitasvir – 450/r and dasabuvir and ribavirin in HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients receiving atazanavir or raltegravir ART regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Joseph J; Lalezari, Jay; Slim, Jihad; Gathe, Joseph; Ruane, Peter J; Wang, Chia; Elion, Richard; Blick, Gary; Khatri, Amit; Hu, Yiran B; Gibbons, Krystal; Fredrick, Linda; Co, Melannie; D'Amico, Ronald; Da Silva-Tillmann, Barbara; Trinh, Roger; Sulkowski, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Whether concomitant HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) affects the safety and efficacy of interferon-free HCV therapies or whether HCV treatment may negatively affect HIV control is unclear. We assessed the 3 direct-acting antiviral (3D) regimen of ombitasvir, ABT-450 (identified by AbbVie and Enanta; co-dosed with ritonavir) and dasabuvir with ribavirin (RBV) in HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients with and without cirrhosis, including HCV treatment-experienced, receiving atazanavir (ATV)- or raltegravir (RAL)-based ART therapy. Methods HCV genotype 1-positive treatment-naïve or pegIFN/RBV-experienced patients, with or without Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, CD4+ count ≥200 cells/mm3 or CD4 + % ≥14%, and plasma HIV-1 RNA suppressed on stable ART received open-label 3D + RBV for 12 or 24 weeks. Rates of HCV-sustained virologic response at post-treatment weeks 4 and 12 (SVR4 and SVR12, respectively) and bilirubin-related adverse events (AEs) are reported from post-hoc analyses for subgroups defined by treatment duration and ART regimen. Results The SVR12 rate for patients receiving 12 weeks of 3D + RBV was 93.5% with comparable rates in patients receiving either ATV (93.8%) or RAL therapy (93.3%) (Table 1). The SVR4 rate for the 24-week arm was 96.9% with a single virologic breakthrough at treatment week 16 in a patient receiving RAL therapy. Patients receiving concomitant ATV had more AEs related to indirect hyperbilirubinemia including ocular icterus, jaundice and grade 3 or 4 elevations in total bilirubin (predominantly indirect). No patient discontinued the study due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported during or after treatment. No patient had a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA value ≥200 copies/mL during the treatment period. Conclusions In this first study to evaluate an IFN-free regimen in HCV genotype 1-positive treatment-naïve and experienced patients with HIV-1 co-infection, including those with cirrhosis, high rates of SVR were comparable to those with

  15. Safety and efficacy of ombitasvir – 450/r and dasabuvir and ribavirin in HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients receiving atazanavir or raltegravir ART regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Eron

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Whether concomitant HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART affects the safety and efficacy of interferon-free HCV therapies or whether HCV treatment may negatively affect HIV control is unclear. We assessed the 3 direct-acting antiviral (3D regimen of ombitasvir, ABT-450 (identified by AbbVie and Enanta; co-dosed with ritonavir and dasabuvir with ribavirin (RBV in HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients with and without cirrhosis, including HCV treatment-experienced, receiving atazanavir (ATV- or raltegravir (RAL-based ART therapy. Methods: HCV genotype 1-positive treatment-naïve or pegIFN/RBV-experienced patients, with or without Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, CD4+ count ≥200 cells/mm3 or CD4 + % ≥14%, and plasma HIV-1 RNA suppressed on stable ART received open-label 3D + RBV for 12 or 24 weeks. Rates of HCV-sustained virologic response at post-treatment weeks 4 and 12 (SVR4 and SVR12, respectively and bilirubin-related adverse events (AEs are reported from post-hoc analyses for subgroups defined by treatment duration and ART regimen. Results: The SVR12 rate for patients receiving 12 weeks of 3D + RBV was 93.5% with comparable rates in patients receiving either ATV (93.8% or RAL therapy (93.3% (Table 1. The SVR4 rate for the 24-week arm was 96.9% with a single virologic breakthrough at treatment week 16 in a patient receiving RAL therapy. Patients receiving concomitant ATV had more AEs related to indirect hyperbilirubinemia including ocular icterus, jaundice and grade 3 or 4 elevations in total bilirubin (predominantly indirect. No patient discontinued the study due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported during or after treatment. No patient had a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA value ≥200 copies/mL during the treatment period. Conclusions: In this first study to evaluate an IFN-free regimen in HCV genotype 1-positive treatment-naïve and experienced patients with HIV-1 co-infection, including those with cirrhosis, high rates of SVR were comparable to

  16. 丙肝患者HCV-Ab、HCV-RNA、HCV-Ag试剂盒联合检测体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沈莉

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨HCV-Ab、HCV-RNA、HCV-Ag联合检测的意义.方法 用丙型肝炎抗体(HCV-Ab)、丙型肝炎病毒核酸(HCV-RNA)扩增(RNA)荧光定量及丙型肝核心抗原(HCV-Ag) 三种试剂盒分别检测血清中的HCV-Ab、HCV-RNA、HCV-Ag三种标志物.结果 根据丙型肝炎病毒在体内存在的时间,通过90例疑似丙型肝炎患者血清检测,HCV-Ab 87人阳性,HCV-RNA 67人阳性,HCV-Ag 55人阳性.结论 HCV-Ab、HCV-RNA、HCV-Ag联合检测有助于临床诊断、用药及疗效观察.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Hess

    Full Text Available New rapid point-of-care (POC tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California.Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA, rapid plasma reagin (RPR, HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and HIV-1/2 EIA.A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8.The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  18. Occurrence of occult HCV infection among Hiv infected patients in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatserelia, L; Sharvadze, L; Karchava, M; Dolmazashvili, E; Tsertsvadze, T

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis C (OCI) infection has been known as detectable HCV-RNA in the liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable serum or plasma HCV-RNA. OCI has been detected among different patients groups worldwide, it has been found not only in chronic hepatitis patients of unknown origin, but also among several groups at risk for HCV infection (hemodialysis patients or family members of patients with occult HCV). This occult infection has been reported also in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease. Prevalence of occult Hepatitis C virus has not been investigated in Georgian population, where a rate of HCV infection is highest (6.7%) among Eastern European Countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of occult HCV infection among HIV infected individuals in Georgia. As a pilot study, we have selected three groups of HIV infected patients for analyses: Group 1- HIV infected patients without evidence of liver disease (n=98), group 2- HIV infected patients with cryptogenic liver disease (n=34) and group 3- HIV/HBV co infected patients (n=29). HCV RNA was tested in PBMCs samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction. HCV genotyping was performed by Line-probe assay based on reverse-hybridization technology. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by transient elastography (FibroScan®). HCV-RNA was detected in PBMCs specimens among 2 (2%) subjects from group 1, 4 (12%) subjects from group 2, and 9 (31%) subjects from group 3. HCV genotypes were determined for 14 of 15 OCI subjects resulting following genotype distribution: 6 (46%) - 1b, 3 (23%) - 2a/2c and 5 (38%) - 3a. One samples failed to be genotyped due to extremely low HCV viral load. Our data revealed the occurrence of occult HCV infection in HIV infected patients. No single HCV genotype was predominant in the present study. Liver fibrosis was found more frequently and the fibrosis score was significantly higher in OCI patients versus negative ones

  19. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

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    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening. RESULTS: Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  20. HCV and HCC molecular epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor H. Pujol

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    iHepatitis C virus (HCV is a member of the family Flaviviridae, responsible for the majority of the non-A non-B post-transfusion hepatitis before 1990. Around 170 millions persons in the world are thought to be infected with this virus. A high number of HCV-infected people develop cirrhosis and from these, a significant proportion progresses to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Six HCV genotypes and a large number of subtypes in each genotype have been described. Infections with HCV genotype 1 are associated with the lowest therapeutic success. HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 have a worldwide distribution. HCV subtypes 1a and 1b are the most common genotypes in the United States and are also are predominant in Europe, while in Japan, subtype 1b is predominant. Although HCV subtypes 2a and 2b are relatively common in America, Europe, and Japan, subtype 2c is found commonly in northern Italy. HCV genotype 3a is frequent in intravenous drug abusers in Europe and the United States. HCV genotype 4 appears to be prevalent in Africa and the Middle East, and genotypes 5 and 6 seem to be confined to South Africa and Asia, respectively. HCC accounts for approximately 6% of all human cancers. Around 500,000 to 1 million cases occur annually worldwide, with HCC being the fifth common malignancy in men and the ninth in women. HCC is frequently a consequence of infection by HBV and HCV. The first line of evidences comes from epidemiologic studies. While HBV is the most frequent cause of HCC in many countries of Asia and South America, both HBV and HCV are found at similar frequencies, and eventually HCV at a higher frequency than HBV, among HCC patients in Europe, North America, and Japan. The cumulative appearance rate of HCC might be higher for HCV

  1. Twenty-four mini-pool HCV RNA screening in a routine clinical virology laboratory setting: a six-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seme, Katja; Mocilnik, Tina; Poljak, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening strategy was re-evaluated after a six-year continuous routine use in a clinical virology laboratory, at which more than half of newly diagnosed hepatitis C patients are intravenous drug users. Pools of 24 samples were prepared from 20,448 anti-HCV negative serum samples and tested using an automated commercial PCR assay with a lower limit of detection of 50 IU/ml. After detection of anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patients, responsible physicians provided follow-up samples. Thirty-eight (0.19%) anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive samples from 30 patients (28 intravenous drug users) were detected. Follow-up samples were available for 27/30 patients. Twenty, six and one patient seroconverted in the second, third and fourth available samples, respectively. The interval between the first HCV RNA positive and the first available anti-HCV positive sample was 17-517 days. The costs of detecting a single anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive patient were 1227 Euros. Combined anti-HCV and 24 mini-pool HCV RNA screening is a useful and cost effective strategy, not only in blood-transfusion settings but also in a routine clinical virology laboratory, at which a significant proportion of the tested population belongs to a high-risk population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Drifting plasma collection by a positive biased tether wire in LEO-like plasma conditions: current measurement and plasma diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Siguier, Jean-Michel; Sarrailh, Pierre; Roussel, Jean-François; Inguimbert, Virgine; Murat, Gaël; Sanmartín Losada, Juan Ramón

    2013-01-01

    BETs is a three-year project financed by the Space Program of the European Commission, aimed at developing an efficient deorbit system that could be carried on board any future satellite launched into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The operational system involves a conductive tape-tether left bare to establish anodic contact with the ambient plasma as a giant Langmuir probe. As a part of this project, we are carrying out both numerical and experimental approaches to estimate the collected current by ...

  3. Adsorption and separation of HCV particles by novel affinity aptamer-functionalized adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Kangping; Wang, Yefu

    2016-04-01

    A novel type of aptamer-functionalized immunoadsorbent was prepared and characterized to remove HCV particles, a promising option of extracorporeal immunoadsorption (ECI) therapy against HCV. Herein, we fabricated a HCV-specific immunoadsorbent where single-stranded DNA aptamers reported and studied previously, modified with amino group at the 5' terminus, was immobilized covalently onto surfaces of carboxylated-derivative sepharose 4FF beads through N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) linkage. Then the adsorbents was evaluated and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Subsequently, we also confirmed that proposed immunoadsorbents exhibited a favorable biocompatibility as well as specificity. In addition, time-dependent effects of the eradication capacity of aptamer functionalized sepharose beads against HCV was investigated. With the optimized time point, the decontamination performance of HCV particles was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) followed by nucleic acid-based hybridization (NAH), which shows sorbents with an aptamer density of 2nmolligand/ml resin could remove approximately 80% (i.e. 8.9×10(6) HCV particles/ml resin) of the HCV genotype 2a cultivated in vitro and 75% (vary with the intial concentration of HCV from about 7.5×10(4)-4.4×10(5) HCV particles/ml resin) of the HCV samples from human plasma samples. All these results indicated that the novel aptamer-based adsorbents could effectively remove HCV particles and likely serve as a novel therapy option or at least supplementary for the treatment regimen of HCV.

  4. Hepatitis-C virus (HCV)

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarso, Suwarso

    2015-01-01

    A new problem on hepatitis for Indonesian is hepatitis-C virus (HCV). This infection is endemic, majority sub-clinic and progressive in chronic. Viral transmission is primarily via a parenteral route, while other routes are still in debate.Diagnostic approach should be focused on how this virus developed.KeyWords: hepatitis-C virus molecular biology Westem-blot-HCV blood transfusion epidemiology

  5. Influence of the focal point position on the properties of a laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Miklaszewski, R.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Stenz, CH.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-10-01

    This paper deals with investigations of the influence of the focusing lens focal point position on the properties of a plasma produced by a defocused laser beam. The experiment was carried out at the Prague Asterix Laser System iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikova, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, T. Mocek, M. Pfeifer, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)] by using the third harmonic of laser radiation (λ=0.438μm), laser energy of 70J, pulse duration of 250ps (full width at half-maximum), and beam spot radii of 250 and 400μm. Cu and Ta were chosen as target materials. The experimental data were obtained by means of a three-frame interferometric system, ion collectors, and crater replica techniques. The reported results allow formulating an important hypothesis that the laser-produced plasma modifies strongly the laser intensity distribution. It is shown how such a modification depends on the relative position and distance of the focal point to the target surface. Of particular importance is whether the focal point is located inside or in front of the target. The irradiation geometry is crucial for the possibility of generating plasma jets by laser radiation. Well-formed jet-like plasma structures can be created if an initially homogeneous laser intensity distribution is transformed in the plasma to an annular one.

  6. Increased hepatic expression of miRNA-122 in patients infected with HCV genotype 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ketti G; Malta, Fernanda M; Nastri, Ana C S S; Widman, Azzo; Faria, Paola L; Santana, Rúbia A F; Alves, Venâncio A F; Carrilho, Flair J; Pinho, João R R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 3 % of the world population. HCV targets hepatic tissue, and most infected patients develop a chronic infection. Currently, studies have demonstrated an association between HCV-RNA replication and miR-122, the most abundant microRNA in the liver. Our aim was to evaluate liver and serum expression of miR-122 in patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 3, and to identify possible associations between miR-122 expression and lipid profiles, HCV viral load, apolipoproteins and liver enzymes. MicroRNAs were isolated from blood and liver tissue, and miR-122 expression was quantified by real-time PCR. HCV viral load was quantified by real-time PCR and HCV genotype, and serum biomarkers were obtained from medical report. The levels of miR-122 were higher in liver than those in blood from individuals infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 3 (p HCV genotype 3 (6.22-fold, p HCV genotype 1 (r = 0.302, p = 0.026); in these patients, an inverse correlation was observed between serum apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) levels and the blood (r = -0.330; p = 0.014) and hepatic (r = -0.311; p = 0.020) levels of miR-122. In patients infected with HCV genotype 3, there was a positive correlation between the hepatic miR-122 and the high-density lipoprotein-HDL (r = 0.412, p = 0.036) and insulin (r = 0.478, p = 0.044). Lipid metabolism proteins and miR-122 expression levels have different relations in HCV-3- and HCV-1-infected patients.

  7. On the signature of positively charged dust particles on plasma irregularities in the mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    Recent rocket payloads have studied the properties of aerosol particles within the ambient plasma environment in the polar mesopause region and measured the signature of the positively charged particles with number densities of (2000 cm-3) for particles of 0.5-1 nm in radius. The measurement of significant numbers of positively charged aerosol particles is unexpected from the standard theory of aerosol charging in plasma. Nucleation on the cluster ions is one of the most probable hypotheses for the positive charge on the smallest particles. This work attempts to study the correlation and anti-correlation of fluctuations in the electron and ion densities in the background plasma by adopting the proposed hypothesis of positive dust particle formation. The utility being that it may provide a test for determining the presence of positive dust particles. The results of the model described show good agreement with observed rocket data. As an application, the model is also applied to investigate the electron irregularity behavior during radiowave heating assuming the presence of positive dust particles. It is shown that the positive dust produces important changes in the behavior during Polar Mesospheric Summer Echo PMSE heating experiments that can be described by the fluctuation correlation and anti-correlation properties.

  8. Formation of positive ions in hydrocarbon containing dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Ilarion; Pohoata, Valentin; Jijie, Roxana; Nastuta, Andrei Vasile; Rusu, Ioana Alexandra; Topala, Ionut

    2016-12-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices are suitable experimental solutions to generate transitory molecular environments with various applications. In this study we present experimental results regarding the plasma chemistry of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) in helium - hydrogen (0.1%) - hydrocarbons (1.2%) mixtures. Four types of hydrocarbon gases were studied: methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), and butane (C4H10). Discharge diagnosis and monitoring was assured by electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. Molecular beam mass spectrometry is engaged to sample positive ions populations from two different plasma sources. Dissociation and generation of higher-chain and cyclic (aromatic) hydrocarbons were discussed as a function of feed gas and discharge geometry. We found a strong influence of these parameters on both molecular mass distribution and recombination processes in the plasma volume.

  9. Gaining greater insight into HCV emergence in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: the HEPAIG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Larsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The HEPAIG study was conducted to better understand Hepatitis C virus (HCV transmission among human immuno-deficiency (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM and assess incidence of HCV infection among this population in France. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acute HCV infection defined by anti-HCV or HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA positivity within one year of documented anti-HCV negativity was notified among HIV-infected MSM followed up in HIV/AIDS clinics from a nationwide sampling frame. HIV and HCV infection characteristics, HCV potential exposures and sexual behaviour were collected by the physicians and via self-administered questionnaires. Phylogenetic analysis of the HCV-NS5B region was conducted. HCV incidence was 48/10 000 [95% Confidence Interval (CI:43-54] and 36/10 000 [95% CI: 30-42] in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Among the 80 men enrolled (median age: 40 years, 55% were HIV-diagnosed before 2000, 56% had at least one sexually transmitted infection in the year before HCV diagnosis; 55% were HCV-infected with genotype 4 (15 men in one 4d-cluster, 32.5% with genotype 1 (three 1a-clusters; five men were HCV re-infected; in the six-month preceding HCV diagnosis, 92% reported having casual sexual partners sought online (75.5% and at sex venues (79%, unprotected anal sex (90% and fisting (65%; using recreational drugs (62% and bleeding during sex (55%. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the role of multiple unprotected sexual practices and recreational drugs use during sex in the HCV emergence in HIV-infected MSM. It becomes essential to adapt prevention strategies and inform HIV-infected MSM with recent acute HCV infection on risk of re-infection and on risk-reduction strategies.

  10. Comparison of Serum Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA and Core Antigen Levels in Patients Coinfected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and HCV and Treated with Interferon plus Ribavirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivert, A.; Payan, C.; Morand, P.; Fafi-Kremer, S.; Deshayes, J.; Carrat, F.; Pol, S.; Cacoub, P.; Perronne, C.; Lunel, F.

    2006-01-01

    Trak-C (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method capable of quantifying hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (CA) in serum and could be an alternative to molecular detection and quantification of HCV RNA. We have evaluated the Trak-C assay in comparison with an HCV RNA quantitative assay (Versant HCV v3.0; Bayer Diagnostics) in the follow-up of 348 treated, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients included in the ANRS HC02 RIBAVIC trial. ANRS HC02 RIBAVIC is a therapeutic, multicenter, randomized protocol comparing the efficacy of alpha interferon 2b (IFN-α2b) (3 million units three times a week)-ribavirin (800 mg/day) to that of pegylated IFN-α2b (1.5 μg/kg of body weight/week)-ribavirin (800 mg/day) during 48 weeks of treatment of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients naïve to HCV treatment. Patients were assessed for virological analysis at day 0 and weeks 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72. Correlation of HCV RNA and HCV CA at the initiation of treatment was excellent (r = 0.92). HCV RNA and CA kinetics were similar during follow-up of HCV treatment from day 0 to week 72 whatever the group of response and genotype. The positive and negative predictive values of response to the treatment at week 4 were 59 and 94%, respectively, for HCV RNA load reduction of >2 log and 54 and 94%, respectively, for HCV CA below the threshold value (4.18 log10 pg/ml · 104). Trak-C, a new assay able to quantify CA in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, correlates well with quantitative HCV RNA assays and is cheaper and easier to perform than molecular technology. HCV CA could be a valuable alternative test for therapeutic follow-up of coinfected patients treated with IFN plus ribavirin in developing countries. PMID:16455894

  11. Simultaneous detection of HBV and HCV by multiplex PCR normalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wang; Xue-Qin Gao; Jin-Xiang Han

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To design and establish a method of multiplex PCR normalization for simultaneously detecting HBV and HCV.METHODS: Two pairs of primers with a 20 bp joint sequence were used to amplify the target genes of HBV and HCV by two rounds of amplification. After the two rounds of amplification all the products had the joint sequence. Then the joint sequence was used as primers to finish the last amplification. Finally multiplex PCR was normalized to a single PCR system to eliminate multiplex factor interference. Four kinds of nucleic acid extraction methods were compared and screened. A multiplex PCR normalization method was established and optimized by orthogonal design of 6 key factors. Then twenty serum samples were detected to evaluate the validity and authenticity of this method.RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic index and efficiency were 83.3%, 70%, 153.3% and 72.2%,respectively for both HBsAg and anti-HCV positive patients,and were 78.6%, 80%, 258.6% and 79.2%, respectively for HBsAg positive patients, and were 75%, 90%, 165%and 83.3%, respectively for anti-HCV positive patients.CONCLUSION: The multiplex PCR normalization method shows a broad prospect in simultaneous amplification of multiple genes of different sources. It is practical, correct and authentic, and can be used to prevent and control HBV and HCV.

  12. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary glycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Gerritsen, J.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of the position of fatty acids within dietary triglycerides on the composition of plasma lipids. Sixty volunteers consumed two diets of equal fatty acid compositions for 3 weeks each. In the palm oil diet 82% of palmitic acid was attached to the sn-1 and sn-3, and

  13. Identification and control of plasma vertical position using neural network in Damavand tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, H; Rasouli, C; Koohi, A

    2013-02-01

    In this work, a nonlinear model is introduced to determine the vertical position of the plasma column in Damavand tokamak. Using this model as a simulator, a nonlinear neural network controller has been designed. In the first stage, the electronic drive and sensory circuits of Damavand tokamak are modified. These circuits can control the vertical position of the plasma column inside the vacuum vessel. Since the vertical position of plasma is an unstable parameter, a direct closed loop system identification algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a nonlinear model is identified for plasma vertical position, based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) structure. Estimation of simulator parameters has been performed by back-propagation error algorithm using Levenberg-Marquardt gradient descent optimization technique. The model is verified through simulation of the whole closed loop system using both simulator and actual plant in similar conditions. As the final stage, a MLP neural network controller is designed for simulator model. In the last step, online training is performed to tune the controller parameters. Simulation results justify using of the NN controller for the actual plant.

  14. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary glycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Gerritsen, J.; Katan, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of the position of fatty acids within dietary triglycerides on the composition of plasma lipids. Sixty volunteers consumed two diets of equal fatty acid compositions for 3 weeks each. In the palm oil diet 82% of palmitic acid was attached to the sn-1 and sn-3, and

  15. Multi-instrument observations of nightside plasma patches under conditions of IMF Bz positive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. C. Howells

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from two multi-instrument case studies showing patches of cold, long-lived plasma in the winter nightside ionosphere during times when the z-component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF Bz was positive. These enhancements were coincident with the antisunward convective plasma drift, flowing from polar to nightside auroral latitudes. In the first case, on 5 December 2005 with IMF By negative, two regions of enhanced electron density were observed extended in MLT in the magnetic midnight sector separated by lower densities near midnight. It is likely that the earlier enhancement originated on the dayside near magnetic noon and was transported to the nightside sector in the convective flow, whilst the later feature originated in the morning magnetic sector. The lower densities separating the two enhancements were a consequence of a pair of lobe cells essentially blocking the direct antisunward cross polar flow from the dayside. A second case study on 4 February 2006 with IMF By positive revealed a single nightside enhancement likely to have originated in the morning magnetic sector. These multi-instrument investigations, incorporating observations by the EISCAT radar facility, the SuperDARN network and radio tomography, reveal that plasma flowing from the dayside can play a significant role in the nightside ionosphere under conditions of IMF Bz positive. The observations are reinforced by simulations of flux-tube transport and plasma decay.

  16. Plasma norepinephrine, blood pressure and heart rate response to graded change in body position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorica, V; Kem, D C

    1985-12-01

    In this study, 44 human subjects underwent either an orthostatic postural change (supine to stand, n = 17) or a graded change in body position (head-up) on a tilt-table (n = 27). No significant changes in systolic blood pressure or mean blood pressure were observed during either maneuver; significant increases, under both conditions, were observed in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations after orthostatic position change increased significantly (supine 181 +/- 14 (S.E.M.) pg X ml-1; stand, 472 +/- 35 pg X ml-1, p less than 0.01). Plasma norepinephrine concentrations during graded postural change increased proportionately with increasing degrees of tilt (r = 0.76, p less than 0.01). A significant correlation between plasma norepinephrine and heart rate was observed during both positional change maneuvers (graded tilt-table, r = 0.80, p less than 0.01; orthostatic, r = 0.50, p less than 0.01). These results suggest that the degree of sympathetic nervous system activity for blood pressure regulation during graded postural change is appropriately reflected by plasma norepinephrine concentrations.

  17. Plasma volume and electrolyte shifts with heavy exercise in sitting and supine positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Van Beaumont, W.; Brock, P. J.; Morse, J. T.; Mangseth, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to compare fluid and electrolyte shifts after heavy exercise performed by four voluntary male subjects (26-45 yr) in sitting and supine positions. Plasma volume and electrolyte shifts were measured during the 6-min control period and for 60 min after a continuous peak oxygen uptake test. The results indicate that the most likely driving force for the restitution of plasma volume after peak exercise is provided by a change in hydrostatic and/or systemic blood pressures when exercise ceases.

  18. Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed.

  19. Transport and Non-Invasive Position Detection of Electron Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterhoff, Jens; Sokollik, Thomas; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Michael; Weingartner, R; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; DeSantis, Stefano; Byrd, John; Gruner, F; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-20

    The controlled imaging and transport of ultra-relativistic electrons from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam transport with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the electron source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.

  20. Outcome of HCV/HIV-coinfected liver transplant recipients: a prospective and multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, J M; Montejo, M; Castells, L; Rafecas, A; Moreno, S; Agüero, F; Abradelo, M; Miralles, P; Torre-Cisneros, J; Pedreira, J D; Cordero, E; de la Rosa, G; Moyano, B; Moreno, A; Perez, I; Rimola, A

    2012-07-01

    Eighty-four HCV/HIV-coinfected and 252-matched HCV-monoinfected liver transplant recipients were included in a prospective multicenter study. Thirty-six (43%) HCV/HIV-coinfected and 75 (30%) HCV-monoinfected patients died, with a survival rate at 5 years of 54% (95% CI, 42-64) and 71% (95% CI, 66 to 77; p = 0.008), respectively. When both groups were considered together, HIV infection was an independent predictor of mortality (HR, 2.202; 95% CI, 1.420-3.413 [p < 0.001]). Multivariate analysis of only the HCV/HIV-coinfected recipients, revealed HCV genotype 1 (HR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.32-6.76), donor risk index (HR, 9.48; 95% CI, 2.75-32.73) and negative plasma HCV RNA (HR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03-0.62) to be associated with mortality. When this analysis was restricted to pretransplant variables, we identified three independent factors (HCV genotype 1, pretransplant MELD score and centers with <1 liver transplantation/year in HIV-infected patients) that allowed us to identify a subset of 60 (71%) patients with a similar 5-year prognosis (69%[95% CI, 54-80]) to that of HCV-monoinfected recipients. In conclusion, 5-year survival in HCV/HIV-coinfected liver recipients was lower than in HCV-monoinfected recipients, although an important subset with a favorable prognosis was identified in the former. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Consensus siRNA for inhibition of HCV genotype-4 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Din Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV is circulating as a heterogeneous group of quasispecies. It has been addressed that siRNA can inhibit HCV replication in-vitro using HCV clone and/or replicon which have only one genotype. The current study was conducted to assess whether siRNA can inhibit different HCV genotypes with many quasispecies and to assess whether consensus siRNA have the same effect as regular siRNA. Methods We generated two chemically synthesized consensus siRNAs (Z3 and Z5 which cover most known HCV genotype sequences and quasispecies using Ambium system. Highly positive HCV patient's serum with nine quasispecies was transfected in-vitro to Huh-7 cell line which supports HCV genotype-4 replication. siRNA (Z3&Z5 were transfected according to Qiagen Porta-lipid technique and subsequently cultured for eight days. HCV replication was monitored by RT-PCR for detection of plus and minus strands. Real-time PCR was used for quantification of HCV, whereas detection of the viral core protein was performed by western blot. Results HCV RNA levels decreased 18-fold (P = 0.001 and 25-fold (P = 0.0005 in cells transfected with Z3 and Z5, respectively, on Day 2 post transfection and continued for Day 3 by Z3 and Day 7 by Z5. Reduction of core protein expression was reported at Day 2 post Z3 siRNA transfection and at Day 1 post Z5 siRNA, which was persistent for Day 4 for the former and for Day 6 for the latter. Conclusion Consensus siRNA could be used as a new molecular target therapy to effectively inhibit HCV replication in the presence of more than one HCV quasispecies.

  2. Activation of unfolded protein response and autophagy during HCV infection modulates innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrabaud, Emilie; De Muynck, Simon; Asselah, Tarik

    2011-11-01

    Autophagy, a process for catabolizing cytoplasmic components, has been implicated in the modulation of interactions between RNA viruses and their host. However, the mechanism underlying the functional role of autophagy in the viral life cycle still remains unclear. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense, membrane-enveloped RNA virus that can cause chronic liver disease. Here we report that HCV induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), which in turn activates the autophagic pathway to promote HCV RNA replication in human hepatoma cells. Further analysis revealed that the entire autophagic process through to complete autolysosome maturation was required to promote HCV RNA replication and that it did so by suppressing innate antiviral immunity. Gene silencing or activation of the UPR-autophagy pathway activated or repressed, respectively, IFN-β activation mediated by an HCV-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). Similar results were achieved with a PAMP derived from Dengue virus (DEV), indicating that HCV and DEV may both exploit the UPR-autophagy pathway to escape the innate immune response. Taken together, these results not only define the physiological significance of HCV-induced autophagy, but also shed light on the knowledge of host cellular responses upon HCV infection as well as on exploration of therapeutic targets for controlling HCV infection.

  3. Are RA patients from a non-endemic HCV population screened for HCV? A cross-sectional analysis of three different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner-Taylor, Cassandra Michelle; Erhard-Ramírez, Alejandro; Garza-Elizondo, Mario Alberto; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Marco Ulises; Vega-Morales, David; Arana-Guajardo, Ana

    In Mexico, other risk factors are associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV): prior heroin users, living alone, widower, and northern region residence. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are considered immunosuppressed and HCV testing is recommended before treatment. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of HCV testing in RA patients in three different medical care settings in a non-endemic area. A retrospective observational study was performed using medical records from 960 RA patients describing the indications for HCV testing. The test was performed in 28.6% and the HCV overall frequency was 0.36%. Population characteristics were not associated with an increased risk of HCV infection; therefore, anti-HCV positivity was low. The main reason for testing was before starting biological agents. Due to the low pre-test probability, testing for HCV infection should be personalized; i.e., according to disease prevalence in a particular geographical location and the individual risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative study on the clinical and virological characteristics among patients with single occult hepatitis B virus (HBV), single occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV and HCV dual infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel; Bartolomé, Javier; Pardo, Margarita; Carreño, Vicente

    2007-03-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) and occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are two recently described different forms of HBV and HCV infections. This work compares the clinical, virologic, and histologic characteristics of patients with occult dual infection to those of patients with single occult HBV or HCV infection. Seventy-six patients with abnormal liver function tests of unknown etiology (serum HBsAg, anti-HCV, HBV-DNA, and HCV-RNA negative) were included in the study. Viral genomes were tested in liver by real-time PCR and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Of the 76 patients, 17 had occult HBV infection (intrahepatic HBV-DNA positive, HCV-RNA negative), 35 had occult HCV infection (intrahepatic HCV-RNA positive, HBV-DNA negative) and 24 occult dual infection (intrahepatic HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA). No differences among the three groups were found regarding clinical and epidemiologic data. The median load of intrahepatic genomic and antigenomic HCV-RNA strands was similar between single occult HCV infection and occult HBV and HCV dual infection. The percentage of HCV-infected hepatocytes did not differ between these groups. In occult single HBV infection, intrahepatic levels of HBV-DNA and percentage of HBV-infected hepatocytes were similar to the group of patients with occult dual infection. Finally, no differences were found in histological liver damage among the three groups. In conclusion, liver disease in patients with occult dual infection was not more severe than in patients with single occult HBV or occult HCV infection. Moreover, in occult dual infection there is no a reciprocal inhibition of the viral genomes.

  5. Analysis of HCV genotypes from blood donors shows three new HCV type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji T

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes in Myanmar in comparison with the rest of Southeast Asia is not well known. Serum samples were obtained from 201 HCV antibody-positive volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Of these, the antibody titers of 101 samples were checked by serial dilution using HCV antibody PA test II and Terasaki microplate as a low-cost method. To compare antibody titers by this method and RNA identification, we also checked HCV-RNA using the Amplicor 2.0 test. Most high-titer groups were positive for HCV-RNA. Of the 201 samples, 110 were successfully polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplified. Among them, 35 (31.8% were of genotype 1, 52 (47.3% were of genotype 3, and 23 (20.9% were of type 6 variants, and phylogenetic analysis of these type 6 variants revealed that 3 new type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar. We named the subgroups M6-1, M6-2, and M6-3. M6-1 and M6-2 were relatively close to types 8 and 9, respectively. M6-3, though only found in one sample, was a brand-new subgroup. These subtypes were not seen in Vietnam, where type 6 group variants are widely spread. These findings may be useful for analyzing how and when these subgroups were formed.

  6. Ion-acoustic double layers in magnetized positive-negative ion plasmas with nonthermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Elghmaz, E. A.

    2012-07-01

    The nonlinear ion-acoustic double layers (IADLs) in a warm magnetoplasma with positive-negative ions and nonthermal electrons are investigated. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the positive-negative ions, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive a modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov (MZK) equation, in the small amplitude regime. It is found that compressive and rarefactive IADLs strongly depend on the mass and density ratios of the negative-to-positive ions as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Also, it is shown that there are one critical value for the density ratio of the negative-to-positive ions ( ν), the ratio between unperturbed electron-to-positive ion density ( μ), and the nonthermal electron parameter ( β), which decide the existence of positive and negative IADLs. The present study is applied to examine the small amplitude nonlinear IADL excitations for the (H+, O2-) and (H+,H-) plasmas, where they are found in the D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere. This investigation should be helpful in understanding the salient features of the nonlinear IADLs in either space or laboratory plasmas where two distinct groups of ions and non-Boltzmann distributed electrons are present.

  7. Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejza, Hajrullah; Telaku, Skender

    2009-02-13

    Hepatitis is disease of the liver caused by the infectious and non-infectious agents. The aim of study was to analyze the prevalence of HBV and HCV among voluntary blood donors in Kosovo, during 2000-2003. The data from National Center for Blood Transfusion of Kosovo were collected and analyzed through descriptive and comparative epidemiological method of retrospective study. All samples were tested by ELISA test. Out of 70348 samples of the blood donors, 3145 were positive. From overall positive samples, 2939 were HBV positive, 192 HCV positive while 14 samples were positive for both viruses. The HBV prevalence among the blood donors of Kosovo is 4.2%, which range Kosovo to the second zone according to the CDC classification of the geographical spread of the HBV infection. The HCV prevalence among the blood donors in Kosovo is 0.3%. Compared to the other European countries this level of prevalence is relatively low. Age group 30-39 years old was presented with 34.8% of cases. The higher number was among the workers, 842 or 26.8%. Based on the results we can conclude that Kosovo have the similar prevalence for HBV and HCV infections as other South East European countries.

  8. Higher dN/dS ratios in the HCV core gene, but not in the E1/HVR1 gene, are associated with human immunodeficiency virus-associated immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Hui; Shen, Tao; Zheng, Jia-Jia; Tu, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Lu, Feng-Min

    2012-11-01

    Coinfection with HCV and HIV is prevalent among former commercial blood donors in some rural areas in China. Genetic variability of the HCV core and E1/HVR1 was investigated in 23 patients chronically infected with HCV-1b, with or without concomitant HIV infection. Genetic variability in the core sequence was higher under HIV-associated immunocompromised conditions. Both the Shannon entropy values at each nucleotide position and the dN/dS values at each codon were statistically higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with lower CD4+ T cell counts (p-values were dN/dS value occurred in a specific subregion of the core gene that is enriched in CTL/Th epitopes (p = 0.0083). The dN/dS values of full-length core antigen were found to be negatively correlated with the S/CO ratio of plasma anti-HCV antibodies. By contrast, no significant difference in genetic diversity/complexity and dN/dS values in the E1/HVR1 region was found between those two groups. These results suggest that the dN/dS ratio in the core gene, but not in the E1/HVR1 gene, is influenced more by host CD4+ T cell-mediated cellular immunity.

  9. Cytoskeletal Requirements for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA Synthesis in the HCV Replicon Cell Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Bost, Anne G.; Venable, Daryl; Liu, Lifei; Heinz, Beverly A.

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces microtubule aggregates in infected hepatocytes. To determine if cytoskeletal elements are important for HCV RNA synthesis, we examined the effect of cytoskeleton inhibitors on HCV replicon transcription in Huh7 cells. The data demonstrate that HCV replication complex-mediated RNA synthesis requires microtubule and actin polymerization.

  10. Cytoskeletal requirements for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA synthesis in the HCV replicon cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Anne G; Venable, Daryl; Liu, Lifei; Heinz, Beverly A

    2003-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces microtubule aggregates in infected hepatocytes. To determine if cytoskeletal elements are important for HCV RNA synthesis, we examined the effect of cytoskeleton inhibitors on HCV replicon transcription in Huh7 cells. The data demonstrate that HCV replication complex-mediated RNA synthesis requires microtubule and actin polymerization.

  11. Autoimmune pancreatitis metachronously associated with retroperitoneal fibrosis with IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terumi Kamisawa; Pong Yui Chen; Yuyang Tu; Hitoshi Nakajima; Naoto Egawa

    2006-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the formation of a dense plaque of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum, and its etiology remains unknown. Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare type of chronic pancreatitis characterized by fibrosis with abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes and obliterative phlebitis in the pancreas. We present a case of autoimmune pancreatitis that developed 10 mo after the occurrence of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Histological findings of the resected retroperitoneal mass were marked periureteral fibrosis with abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes and obliterative phlebitis.These findings suggest a common pathophysiological mechanism for retroperitoneal fibrosis and autoimmune pancreatitis in this case. Some cases of retroperitoneal fibrosis might be a retroperitoneal lesion of IgG4-related sclerosing disease.

  12. A discrete adaptive near-time optimum control for the plasma vertical position in a Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Scibile, L

    2001-01-01

    A nonlinear controller for the plasma vertical position in a Tokamak, based on a discrete-time adaptive near time optimum control algorithm (DANTOC) is designed to stabilize the system and to maximize the state-space region over which stability can be guaranteed. The controller is also robust to the edge localized modes (ELMs) and the 600 Hz noise from the thyristor power supplies that are the primary source of disturbances and measurement noise. The controller is tested in simulation for the JET Tokamak and the results confirm its efficacy in controlling the vertical position for different plasma configurations. The controller is also tested experimentally on a real Tokamak, COMPASS-D, and the results demonstrate the improvement with respect to a simple linear PD controller in the presence of disturbances and measurement noise. The emphasis of the is on the development of the design methodology. (38 refs).

  13. Feedback Control of Plasma Current and Horizontal Position in HT-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There is a strong magnetic coupling between poloidal field coils of superconducting tokamak HT-7, especially between ohinic heating and vertical field coils. These coils are connected to individual power supply. The control system for the plasma current and horizontal position control has been designed and showed satisfactory results with the feedback control of multivariable feedforward-decoupling and var-parameter PID controller to simultaneously modulate power supplies. The design and analysis of the control system is presented.

  14. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with HPV16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Takako; Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Nishida, Noriyuki; Yamasaki, Kentaro; Miura, Kiyonori; Katamine, Shigeru; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The squamous cell carcinoma antigen is considered the most accurate serologic tumor marker for uterine cervical carcinoma. However, serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels were found to correlate significantly with clinical severity of atopic dermatitis and chronic renal failure. The present study was conducted in patients with human papillomavirus 16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer to determine the plasma level of human papillomavirus 16 DNA and the diagnostic values of...

  15. Refractory gastric ulcer with abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayoshi; Fujita; Takafumi; Ando; Masatoshi; Sakakibara; Waki; Hosoda; Hidemi; Goto

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 77-year-old man with refractory gastric ulcer that worsened after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.Pathology showed marked infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the gastric lesions,which led us to suspect IgG4-related sclerosing disease.To the best of our knowledge,this is the first report of IgG4-related gastric ulcer without the main manifestation of autoimmune pancreatitis.

  16. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary glycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Zock, P.L.; Gerritsen, J.; Katan, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of the position of fatty acids within dietary triglycerides on the composition of plasma lipids. Sixty volunteers consumed two diets of equal fatty acid compositions for 3 weeks each. In the palm oil diet 82% of palmitic acid was attached to the sn-1 and sn-3, and 18% to the sn-2 position of glycerol. In the diet rich in a palm oil analogue, Betapol, these figures were 35% and 65% respectively. Oleic and linoleic acid in palm oil were mainly in the sn-2 pos...

  17. The rapid plasma reagin (circle) card test in biological false positive and leprosy sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M. F.; Backhouse, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) circle card and the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) slide test results were compared on a group of sera known to show biological false positive (BFP) reactions to reagin detection tests for syphilis. The RPR test was more specific than the VDRL test on the sera selected, ie, it gave fewer false positive results than the VDRL test. However, in a group of presumed normal sera, the RPR test gave BFP reactions while the VDRL test gave none. The RPR test gave fewer BFP reactions than the VDRL test in 269 sera from patients with lepromatous leprosy. PMID:5086221

  18. IP-10 predicts the first phase decline of HCV RNA and overall viral response to therapy in patients co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falconer, Karolin; Askarieh, Galia; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co-infected pa......The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co......-10 viral response to HCV therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients, and may thus be useful in encouraging such difficult-to-treat patients to initiate therapy....

  19. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, P L; Gerritsen, J; Katan, M B

    1996-02-01

    The authors investigated the effect of the position of fatty acids within dietary triglycerides on the composition of plasma lipids. Sixty volunteers consumed two diets of equal fatty acid compositions for 3 weeks each. In the palm oil diet 82% of palmitic acid was attached to the sn-1 and sn-3, and 18% to the sn-2 position of glycerol. In the diet rich in a palm oil analogue, Betapol, these figures were 35% and 65% respectively. Oleic and linoleic acid in palm oil were mainly in the sn-2 position, and in Betapol mainly in the sn-1 and sn-3 position. The proportion of palmitic acid in the 2 position of fasting plasma triglycerides was 10·2 g 100 g-1 on palm oil and 12·3 on Betapol; that of oleic acid was 46·dot 9 vs. 43·6 (P oil (P = 0·002). Betapol increased palmitic and palmitoleic acid in cholesteryl esters by 1 g 100 g-1 (P fat absorption and chylomicron clearance.

  20. HCV感染者血清及外周血单个核细胞HCV RNA检测及其意义%SIGNIFICANCE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELL HC V RNA IN PATIENTS WITH HCV INFECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文恩; 谭德明; 范学工; 张铮; 甘晓明; 欧阳颗; 谢玉桃

    2001-01-01

    探讨同时检测HCV感染者血清及外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)中H CV RNA的意义。方法:应用RT-PCR方法对31例HCV感染者进行血清及PBMC HCV RNA检测。结 果PBMC HCV RNA阳性率(74.19%,23/31)显著高于血清HCV RNA阳性率(23.03%,9/31)。 结论 :同时检测HCV感染者血清及外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)中HCV RNA可减少漏诊,PBMC中的HCV 可能是HCV感染慢性化的重要原因之一。通过对HCV感染者同时进行血清及PBMC中HCV RNA检 测,可为丙型肝炎的诊断、治疗及预后的判断提供较为可靠的指标,对丙型肝炎慢性化机制 的研究具有重要意义。%To investigate the significance of HCV RNA detection in PBMC in patients with HCV infection.Methods:Al l of 31 sera and PBMC taken from HCV infection were used for HCV RNA detection by RT-PCR.Results:PBMC HCV RNA positive rate (74.19%,23/31)was sig ni ficant higher than those of sera HCV RNA (23.03%,9/31)(χ2=11.770,P>0.005).Conclusions:PBMC HCV may be one of important reasons for mechani sm of chronicity pathogenesis HCV infection

  1. A comparative study of ideal kink stability in two reactor-relevant tokamak plasma configurations with negative and positive triangularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Liu, Yueqiang; Liu, Yue; Medvedev, S. Yu; Wang, Zhirui; Xia, Guoliang

    2016-11-01

    The effects of an ideal/resistive conducting wall, the drift kinetic resonances, as well as the toroidal plasma flow, on the stability of the ideal external kink mode are numerically investigated for a reactor-relevant tokamak plasma with strongly negative triangularity (NTR) shaping. Comparison is made for a similar plasma equilibrium, but with positive triangularity (PTR). It is found that the ideal wall stabilization is less efficient for the kink stabilization in the NTR plasma due to a less ‘external’ eigenmode structure compared to the PTR plasma. The associated plasma displacement in the NTR plasma does not ‘balloon’ near the outboard mid-plane, as is normally the case for the pressure-driven kink-ballooning instability in PTR plasmas, but being more pronounced near the X-points. The toroidal flow plays a similar role for the kink stability for both NTR and PTR plasmas. The drift kinetic damping is less efficient for the ideal external kink mode in the NTR plasma, despite a somewhat larger fraction of the particle trapping near the plasma edge compared to the PTR equilibrium. However, the drift kinetic damping of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in the NTR plasma is generally as efficient as that of the PTR plasma, although the RWM window, in terms of the normalized pressure, is narrower for the NTR plasma.

  2. Increased Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Detection in Women of Childbearing Age and Potential Risk for Vertical Transmission - United States and Kentucky, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Alaya; Nelson, Noele; Hariri, Susan; Canary, Lauren; Sanders, Kathy J; Maxwell, Justine F; Huang, Xiaohua; Leake, John A D; Ward, John W; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-07-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality (1). Transmission of HCV is primarily via parenteral blood exposure, and HCV can be transmitted vertically from mother to child. Vertical transmission occurs in 5.8% (95% confidence interval = 4.2%-7.8%) of infants born to women who are infected only with HCV and in up to twice as many infants born to women who are also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (2) or who have high HCV viral loads (3,4); there is currently no recommended intervention to prevent transmission of infection from mother to child (3). Increased reported incidence of HCV infection among persons aged ≤30 years (5,6) with similar increases among women and men in this age group (6), raises concern about increases in the number of pregnant women with HCV infection, and in the number of infants who could be exposed to HCV at birth. Data from one large commercial laboratory and birth certificate data were used to investigate trends in HCV detection among women of childbearing age,* HCV testing among children aged ≤2 years, and the proportions of infants born to HCV-infected women nationally and in Kentucky, the state with the highest incidence of acute HCV infection during 2011-2014 (6). During 2011-2014, commercial laboratory data indicated that national rates of HCV detection (antibody or RNA positivity(†)) among women of childbearing age increased 22%, and HCV testing (antibody or RNA) among children aged ≤2 years increased 14%; birth certificate data indicated that the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected mothers increased 68%, from 0.19% to 0.32%. During the same time in Kentucky, the HCV detection rate among women of childbearing age increased >200%, HCV testing among children aged ≤2 years increased 151%, and the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected women increased 124%, from 0.71% to 1.59%. Increases in the rate of HCV detection among women of childbearing age

  3. Molecular signatures associated with HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria De Giorgi

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors that differ in risk factors and genetic alterations. In Italy, particularly Southern Italy, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection represents the main cause of HCC. Using high-density oligoarrays, we identified consistent differences in gene-expression between HCC and normal liver tissue. Expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguishable from those associated with liver metastases. To characterize molecular events relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis and identify biomarkers for early HCC detection, gene expression profiling of 71 liver biopsies from HCV-related primary HCC and corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC hepatic tissue, as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases paired with the apparently normal peri-tumoral liver tissue, were compared to 6 liver biopsies from healthy individuals. Characteristic gene signatures were identified when normal tissue was compared with HCV-related primary HCC, corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases. Pathway analysis classified the cellular and biological functions of the genes differentially expressed as related to regulation of gene expression and post-translational modification in HCV-related primary HCC; cellular Growth and Proliferation, and Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction in HCV-related non HCC samples; Cellular Growth and Proliferation and Cell Cycle in metastasis. Also characteristic gene signatures were identified of HCV-HCC progression for early HCC diagnosis.A diagnostic molecular signature complementing conventional pathologic assessment was identified.

  4. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  5. Isolation of Exosomes from the Plasma of HIV-1 Positive Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadu, Kateena Addae; Huang, Ming Bo; Roth, William; Armstrong, Wendy; Powell, Michael; Villinger, Francois; Bond, Vincent

    2016-01-05

    Exosomes are small vesicles ranging in size from 30 nm to 100 nm that are released both constitutively and upon stimulation from a variety of cell types. They are found in a number of biological fluids and are known to carry a variety of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acid molecules. Originally thought to be little more than reservoirs for cellular debris, the roles of exosomes regulating biological processes and in diseases are increasingly appreciated. Several methods have been described for isolating exosomes from cellular culture media and biological fluids. Due to their small size and low density, differential ultracentrifugation and/or ultrafiltration are the most commonly used techniques for exosome isolation. However, plasma of HIV-1 infected individuals contains both exosomes and HIV viral particles, which are similar in size and density. Thus, efficient separation of exosomes from HIV viral particles in human plasma has been a challenge. To address this limitation, we developed a procedure modified from Cantin et. al., 2008 for purification of exosomes from HIV particles in human plasma. Iodixanol velocity gradients were used to separate exosomes from HIV-1 particles in the plasma of HIV-1 positive individuals. Virus particles were identified by p24 ELISA. Exosomes were identified on the basis of exosome markers acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and the CD9, CD63, and CD45 antigens. Our gradient procedure yielded exosome preparations free of virus particles. The efficient purification of exosomes from human plasma enabled us to examine the content of plasma-derived exosomes and to investigate their immune modulatory potential and other biological functions.

  6. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  7. Incidence of recent HCV infection among persons seeking voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ching Su

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of recent hepatitis C virus infection (HCV infection has been noted to be increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM, especially those with HIV infection, in several resource-rich settings. In Taiwan, the incidence of recent HCV infection increased from 0 in 1994–2000, 2.29 in 2001–2005 to 10.13 per 1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU in 2006–2010. In this study, we aimed to estimate the incidence rate of recent HCV infection among those individuals who sought voluntary counselling and testing (VCT service at a University Hospital. Methods: Between May 2006 and December 2013, 18,246 tests for HIV antibody were performed among 12,143 individuals at the VCT services. A total of 2157 clients without HIV or HCV infection at baseline were included for estimation of incidence rate of recent HCV infection. Antibodies to HCV were determined with a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. A nested case-control study with four matched controls without HCV seroconversion for one HCV seroconverter was conducted to investigate the factors associated with recent HCV infection. Phylogenetic analysis was performed among the HCV strains obtained from VCT clients and patients coinfected with HIV and HCV between 2006 and 2013. Results: During the study period, 2157 clients received a total of 8260 tests. The HCV seroprevalence at baseline was 0.3%. Of the 2150 HCV-negative clients who contributed 5074.99 PYFU, 17 developed HCV seroconversion (incidence rate, 3.35 per 1000 PYFU; 95% CI, 1.76–4.94; the rate increased from 2.28 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 0.05–4.51 in 2006–2009, to 3.33 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 0.86–5.80 in 2010–2011, to 4.94 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 0.99–8.99 in 2012–2013. In case-control study, HCV seroconverters were more likely to have HIV-infected partners, recent syphilis and a Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR titre of 4 or greater. In multivariate analysis, having HIV-infected partners remained as the only

  8. Inactivation of Gram-positive biofilms by low-temperature plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, F.; Robert, H.; Merbahi, N.; Fontagné-Faucher, C.; Yousfi, M.; Romain, C. E.; Eichwald, O.; Rondel, C.; Gabriel, B.

    2012-08-01

    This work is devoted to the evaluation of the efficiency of a new low-temperature plasma jet driven in ambient air by a dc-corona discharge to inactivate adherent cells and biofilms of Gram-positive bacteria. The selected microorganisms were lactic acid bacteria, a Weissella confusa strain which has the particularity to excrete a polysaccharide polymer (dextran) when sucrose is present. Both adherent cells and biofilms were treated with the low-temperature plasma jet for different exposure times. The antimicrobial efficiency of the plasma was tested against adherent cells and 48 h-old biofilms grown with or without sucrose. Bacterial survival was estimated using both colony-forming unit counts and fluorescence-based assays for bacterial cell viability. The experiments show the ability of the low-temperature plasma jet at atmospheric pressure to inactivate the bacteria. An increased resistance of bacteria embedded within biofilms is clearly observed. The resistance is also significantly higher with biofilm in the presence of sucrose, which indicates that dextran could play a protective role.

  9. Relationship between HCV antibody IgM, IgG and HCV RNA and its clinical significance%抗-HCV IgM、抗-HCV IgG与HCV RNA的相关性及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀玉芬; 闫惠平; 贾咏梅; 李伟华; 佟瑄

    2006-01-01

    [目的]研究丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)抗-HCV IgM、抗-HCV IgG与HCV RNA的相关性.[方法]收集236例HCV患者标本,用酶联免疫吸附法检测抗-HCV IgM、抗-HCV IgG、同时用逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测HCV RNA.[结果]168例HCV RNA(+)标本中,抗-HCV IgM阳性率为72.0%(121/168);抗-HCV IgG阳性率为85.1%(143/168),抗-HCVIgM、抗-HCV IgG与HCV RNA的关联系数均为r=1.抗-HCV IgM、抗-HCV IgG与HCV RNA的检出符合率分别为69.1%(163/236)、75.4%(178/236).随着抗-HCV IgG抗体光密度值(OD值)的增大,HCV RNA的检出率亦增加(x2=27.5 P<0.001).提示两者间存在相互关联性(r=0.93).[结论]HCV感染者血清抗-HCV抗体与HCV RNA的阳性检出率呈正相关,血清中抗-HCV的含量越高,HCV RNA的含量越多,其传染性越强.抗-HCV IgM与HCV病毒复制亦密切相关,可以做为HCV复制的补充指标.

  10. HCV management in resource-constrained countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Gee

    2017-02-21

    With the arrival of all-oral directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy with high cure rates, the promise of hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication is within closer reach. The availability of generic DAAs has improved access to countries with constrained resources. However, therapy is only one component of the HCV care continuum, which is the framework for HCV management from identifying patients to cure. The large number of undiagnosed HCV cases is the biggest concern, and strategies to address this are needed, as risk factor screening is suboptimal, detecting HCV confirmation through either reflex HCV RNA screening or ideally a sensitive point of care test are needed. HCV notification (e.g., Australia) may improve diagnosis (proportion of HCV diagnosed is 75%) and may lead to benefits by increasing linkage to care, therapy and cure. Evaluations for cirrhosis using non-invasive markers are best done with a biological panel, but they are only moderately accurate. In resource-constrained settings, only generic HCV medications are available, and a combination of sofosbuvir, ribavirin, ledipasvir or daclatasvir provides sufficient efficacy for all genotypes, but this is likely to be replaced with pangenetypic regimens such as sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and glecaprevir/pibrentaasvir. In conclusion, HCV management in resource-constrained settings is challenging on multiple fronts because of the lack of infrastructure, facilities, trained manpower and equipment. However, it is still possible to make a significant impact towards HCV eradication through a concerted effort by individuals and national organisations with domain expertise in this area.

  11. False-positive serology following intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange through transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Hisashi; Honda, Haruki; Egami, Shohei; Yokoyama, Tomoaki; Fujimoto, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Makiko; Sugiura, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and plasma exchange through transfusion of fresh frozen plasma are therapeutic options for patients with refractory pemphigus vulgaris. Passive acquisition of various clinically important antibodies through these therapies can occur, leading to false serology and negatively affecting patients' clinical care. It is recommended that dermatologists recognize the possibility of these phenomena and interpret them appropriately. Here, we report false-positive serology following intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and plasma exchange through transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in a patient with refractory pemphigus vulgaris. We also discuss the measure for misinterpretation and unnecessary clinical intervention.

  12. HCV Infection and B-Cell Lymphomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. It has been suggested that HCV infects not only hepatocytes but also mononuclear lymphocytes including B cells that express the CD81 molecule, a putative HCV receptor. HCV infection of B cells is the likely cause of B-cell dysregulation disorders such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor production, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that may evolve into non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. Epidemiological data indicate an association between HCV chronic infection and the occurrence of B-cell NHL, suggesting that chronic HCV infection is associated at least in part with B-cell lymphomagenesis. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of recent literature, including our own, to elucidate a possible role of HCV chronic infection in B-cell lymphomagenesis.

  13. Cure of HCV related liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Mitchell L; Benhamou, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic liver injury and can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCV can also interact with the immune system to cause several HCV related disorders including essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, vasculitis, dermatitis, glomerulonephritis and lymphoma. A strong association between HCV and diabetes mellitus also exists. These extrahepatic features may lead to increased fatigue and a reduced quality of life. It is now possible to cure most patients with chronic HCV using oral antiviral therapy. Many of these HCV-related disorders and symptoms can be cured when HCV is eradicated. However, some patients may have irreversible injury to extrahepatic sites, cirrhosis that cannot resolve, an increased risk for HCC, persistent fatigue and a reduced quality of life, despite achieving sustained virological response.

  14. 丙型肝炎病毒抗体联合核酸定量检测对HCV早期诊断的价值%Value of HCV antibody combined with nucleic acid quantitative detection in early diagnosis of HCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昊; 田展飞; 樊和斌; 吴娟娟; 严福明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the value of hepatitis C virus( HCV )antibody combined with nucleic acid( HCV RNA ) quantitative detection in early diagnosis of HCV. Methods Blood samples of the 106 patients with HCV receiving treatment in our hospital were taken to detect the HCV antibody,HCV RNA and alanine aminotransferase( ALT). Results In the detection of 106 blood samples,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of HCV antibody showed that 87 ones were positive( 82. 1%),the gold standard method for detection of HCV showed that 69 ones were positive(65. 1%),HCV RNA detection showed that 80 ones were positive(75. 5%),and ALT detection showed that 62 ones were positive(58. 5%). The positive rate of HCV antibody detection was significantly higher than that of HCV gold standard method(χ2 =7. 863,P<0. 01)and ALT detection(χ2 =14. 115,P<0. 01). The total positive rate of HCV antibody combined with HCV RNA detection was 100. 0%,obviously higher than that of HCV antibody combined with the gold standard method(83. 0%)and HCV antibody combined with ALT detection(90. 6%)(χ2 =19. 670,P<0. 01;χ2 =10. 495,P<0. 01). Conclusion HCV antibody combined with HCV RNA detection can significantly raise the early diagnostic rate of HCV,reduce misdiagnosis,and is conducive to the early diagnosis of HCV.%目的探讨丙型肝炎病毒( HCV)抗体联合病毒核酸( HCV RNA)定量检测在丙型肝炎患者早期诊断中的价值。方法对我院收治的106例丙型肝炎病毒感染者血样分别测定HCV抗体、HCV RNA及丙氨酸氨基转移酶( ALT)。结果106份血样检测中,酶联免疫吸附试验HCV抗体检测阳性87例(82.1%),HCV金标法检测阳性69例(65.1%),HCV RNA检测阳性80例(75.5%),ALT阳性62例(58.5%)。HCV抗体检测阳性率明显高于HCV金标检测法(χ2=7.863,P<0.01)和ALT检测法(χ2=14.115,P<0.01);HCV抗体联合HCV RNA检测总阳性率为100.0%,明显高于HCV抗体联合金标法检测(83

  15. HCV-RNA与HCV-cAg检测的相关性分析%Study on correlation analysis on serum HCV-RNA and HCV-cAg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏明权; 杨柳; 王娟; 常亮; 肖凤静; 马越云; 郝晓柯

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原(HCV-cAg)与HCV-RNA检测的相关性及其在丙型肝炎病毒感染诊断中的价值.方法 采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫分析法(ELISA)检测HCV-cAg;采用实时荧光定量PCR法检测HCV-RNA,以了解两者检测方法的相关性.结果 在160例HCV-RNA阳性血清中,HCV-cAg阳性148例,阳性符合率92.5%;在60例HCV-cAg阳性血清中,HCV-RNA阳性59例,阳性符合率98.3%.结论 通过对HCV-RNA与HCV-cAg检测,说明HCV核心抗原与HCV-RNA检测可作为反映HCV复制的间接指标,预防窗口期感染.由于HCV-cAg在方法学上与HCV-RNA相比,具有方法简便、快速、价廉,所需设备简单,易于普及应用等优点,特别是在不具备HCV-RNA检测条件的基层医疗单位作为HCV感染检测的直接证据具有重要的意义.

  16. 抗-HCV(OD/CO)值与HCV-RNA阳性率及载量深析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娜

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析不同的抗-HCV( OD/CO)值与HCV-RNA阳性率及载量之间的相关性.方法 采用ELISA法和RT-PCR法对137例丙型肝炎患者的血清进行抗-HCV与HCV-RNA检测.结果 137例丙肝患者中抗-HCV( OD/CO)值≥1,HCV-RNA(+)有95例,阳性率为69.3%,HCV-RNA阳性率及载量随抗-HCV( OD/CO)值的增大而增高.结论 抗-HCV(OD/CO)值与HCV-RNA阳性率及载量呈正相关性,二者联合检测,可提高检出率.

  17. Anti-retroviral drugs do not facilitate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Lisa; Wilson, Matthew; Back, David; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Manns, Michael P; Steinmann, Eike; Pietschmann, Thomas; von Hahn, Thomas; Ciesek, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    An estimated 4 to 5 million people are co-infected with HIV/HCV worldwide. Recently observed outbreaks of acute HCV infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) have been linked to behavioral factors such as high risk sexual practices and recreational drug use. However, at the molecular level, many drugs such as glucocorticoids or cyclosporine A have been found to modulate viral replication. Thus, it is conceivable that drugs used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may heighten susceptibility to HCV infection and contribute to the recent outbreaks. We therefore performed a comprehensive screen of antiretroviral drugs covering all available drug classes both individually and in typical combinations used during HAART to probe for direct effects on HCV cell entry, replication, new particle assembly and release. Importantly, no significant enhancement or inhibition of HCV cell entry, replication or new particle production was detected. While raltegravir and ritonavir boosted atazanavir reduce HCV replication, a tenfold reduction of HCVcc entry by the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc was observed. In conclusion, commonly used HAART agents do not specifically enhance HCV replication. Thus recent epidemic outbreaks of acute HCV in HIV-infected MSM are unlikely to be related to enhancing effects of HAART drugs.

  18. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role...... with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBe...... in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children...

  19. Gene profiling, biomarkers and pathways characterizing HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonaguro Luigi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis are not yet fully elucidated. Besides indirect effects as tissue inflammation and regeneration, a more direct oncogenic activity of HCV can be postulated leading to an altered expression of cellular genes by early HCV viral proteins. In the present study, a comparison of gene expression patterns has been performed by microarray analysis on liver biopsies from HCV-positive HCC patients and HCV-negative controls. Methods Gene expression profiling of liver tissues has been performed using a high-density microarray containing 36'000 oligos, representing 90% of the human genes. Samples were obtained from 14 patients affected by HCV-related HCC and 7 HCV-negative non-liver-cancer patients, enrolled at INT in Naples. Transcriptional profiles identified in liver biopsies from HCC nodules and paired non-adjacent non-HCC liver tissue of the same HCV-positive patients were compared to those from HCV-negative controls by the Cluster program. The pathway analysis was performed using the BRB-Array- Tools based on the "Ingenuity System Database". Significance threshold of t-test was set at 0.001. Results Significant differences were found between the expression patterns of several genes falling into different metabolic and inflammation/immunity pathways in HCV-related HCC tissues as well as the non-HCC counterpart compared to normal liver tissues. Only few genes were found differentially expressed between HCV-related HCC tissues and paired non-HCC counterpart. Conclusion In this study, informative data on the global gene expression pattern of HCV-related HCC and non-HCC counterpart, as well as on their difference with the one observed in normal liver tissues have been obtained. These results may lead to the identification of specific biomarkers relevant to develop tools for detection

  20. Increases in acute hepatitis C (HCV incidence across Europe: which regions and patient groups are affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute HCV have been described in men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV in Australia, Europe, and North America. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of acute HCV within the large EuroSIDA cohort and to explore possible regional differences throughout Europe and in different HIV transmission risk groups. Methods Baseline was defined as 1st Jan of 2002 or entry into EuroSIDA, whichever comes later. All patients from EuroSIDA who were HCV antibody-negative at baseline and had at least 2 HCV antibody test results available were included into the study. HCV seroconversion was defined as change from negative to positive HCV-antibody test within the observation period from 2002 onwards. Follow-up was counted from baseline to HCV antibody positivity for seroconverters and to the last HCV antibody-negative test result for those that did not seroconvert for HCV. Poisson regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for HCV seroconversion. Results A total of 150 HCV seroconversions (95 [63.3%] in MSM occurred in 4295 patients during 18,928 person years of follow-up (PYFU, overall incidence of 0.79 acute infections per 100 PYFU (95% CI: 0.67–0.92 (see figure. The incidence of HCV seroconversions increased from 0.47 (CI: 0.19–0.74 in 2002 to 2.34 (CI: 1.24–3.44 in 2010. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (p=0.89, test for interaction. In multivariate analysis, IDU was associated with a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR than MSM: 4.59 (2.40–8.80; p<0.0001, South and East Europe both had higher IRR compared to Western Europe, respectively (1.98 [1.12–3.49]; p=0.018 and 2.41 [1.41–4.12]; p=0.0014. Calendar year per 2 years was also associated with a higher IRR (1.29 [1.19–1.39]; p<0.0001. Conclusion The incidence of acute HCV within EuroSIDA increased over time. Although, the incidence of seroconversion was

  1. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria differ in their sensitivity to cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Clauson, Maryse; Hong, Jungmi; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2016-12-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is a relatively new method being investigated for antimicrobial activity. However, the exact mode of action is still being explored. Here we report that CAP efficacy is directly correlated to bacterial cell wall thickness in several species. Biofilms of Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, possessing a 55.4 nm cell wall, showed the highest resistance to CAP, with less than one log10 reduction after 10 min treatment. In contrast, biofilms of Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, possessing only a 2.4 nm cell wall, were almost completely eradicated using the same treatment conditions. Planktonic cultures of Gram negative Pseudomonas libanensis also had a higher log10 reduction than Gram positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mixed species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis showed a similar trend of Gram positive bacteria being more resistant to CAP treatment. However, when grown in co-culture, Gram negative P. aeruginosa was more resistant to CAP overall than as a mono-species biofilm. Emission spectra indicated OH and O, capable of structural cell wall bond breakage, were present in the plasma. This study indicates that cell wall thickness correlates with CAP inactivation times of bacteria, but cell membranes and biofilm matrix are also likely to play a role.

  2. Anti-HCV immunoassays based on a multiepitope antigen and fluorescent lanthanide chelate reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Teppo; Juntunen, Etvi; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim; Talha, Sheikh M

    2016-02-01

    There is a need for simple to produce immunoassays for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody capable of detecting all genotypes worldwide. Current commonly used third generation immunoassays use three to six separate recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides. We have developed and expressed in Escherichia coli a single recombinant antigen incorporating epitopes from different HCV proteins. This multiepitope protein (MEP) was used to develop two types of HCV antibody immunoassays: a traditional antibody immunoassay using a labeled secondary antibody (indirect assay) and a double-antigen assay with the same MEP used as capture binder and labeled binder. The secondary antibody assay was evaluated with 171 serum/plasma samples and double-antigen assay with 148 samples. These samples included an in-house patient sample panel, two panels of samples with different HCV genotypes and a seroconversion panel. The secondary antibody immunoassay showed 95.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity while the double-antigen assay showed 91.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Both assays detected samples from all six HCV genotypes. The results showed that combining a low-cost recombinant MEP binder antigen with a high sensitivity fluorescent lanthanide reporter can provide a sensitive and specific immunoassay for HCV serology. The results also showed that the sensitivity of HCV double-antigen assays may suffer from the low avidity immune response of acute infections.

  3. The physics of positively biased conductors surrounded by dielectrics in contact with a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Chang, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The physics of a positively biased conductor surrounded by dielectrics in contact with plasma is investigated. It is shown that because of the presence of secondary emission from the surrounding dielectrics, the voltage of the surfaces near the conductor has three solutions. The high- and low-voltage solutions are stable, while the intermediate-voltage solution is unstable. This theory is applied to explain the snapover effect observed on high-voltage solar arrays that involve the use of highly biased surfaces in contact with the space environment.

  4. Characteristics of the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma generated with high positive or negative applied potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Gerdin, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    The toroidal ring of plasma contained in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus superconducting magnet facility may be biased to positive or negative potentials approaching 50 kilovolts by applying direct-current voltages of the respective polarity to 12 or fewer of the midplane electrode rings. The electric fields which are responsible for heating the ions by E/B drift then point radially outward or inward. The low-frequency fluctuations below the ion cyclotron frequency appeared to be dominated by rotating spokes.

  5. Performance assessment of the antenna setup for the ITER plasma position reflectometry in-vessel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, P.; Belo, J. H.; Quental, P. B.

    2016-11-01

    The design of the in-vessel antennas for the ITER plasma position reflectometry diagnostic is very challenging due to the need to cope both with the space restrictions inside the vacuum vessel and with the high mechanical and thermal loads during ITER operation. Here, we present the work carried out to assess and optimise the design of the antenna. We show that the blanket modules surrounding the antenna strongly modify its characteristics and need to be considered from the early phases of the design. We also show that it is possible to optimise the antenna performance, within the design restrictions.

  6. Performance assessment of the antenna setup for the ITER plasma position reflectometry in-vessel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, P; Belo, J H; Quental, P B

    2016-11-01

    The design of the in-vessel antennas for the ITER plasma position reflectometry diagnostic is very challenging due to the need to cope both with the space restrictions inside the vacuum vessel and with the high mechanical and thermal loads during ITER operation. Here, we present the work carried out to assess and optimise the design of the antenna. We show that the blanket modules surrounding the antenna strongly modify its characteristics and need to be considered from the early phases of the design. We also show that it is possible to optimise the antenna performance, within the design restrictions.

  7. TLRs, Alcohol, HCV, and Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keigo Machida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver damage caused by viral infection, alcohol, or obesity can result in increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Ample epidemiological evidence suggests that there is a strong synergism between hepatitis C virus (HCV and alcoholic liver diseases (ALD. The Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathway is upregulated in chronic liver diseases. Alcoholism is associated with endotoxemia that stimulates expression of proinflammatory cytokine expression and inflammation in the liver and fat tissues. Recent studies of HCC have centered on cancer-initiating stem cell (CSC, including detection of CSC in cancer, identification of CSC markers, and isolation of CSC from human HCC cell lines. Synergism between alcohol and HCV may lead to liver tumorigenesis through TLR signaling.

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Balochistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Sarwat; Naeem, Muhammad; Hussain, Abid; Kakar, Naseebullah; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Ahmad, Jamil

    2009-07-01

    A molecular study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus genotypes in HCV infected population of Balochistan. Forty HCV seropositive samples belonging to seven different locations of Balochistan were collected from different health care centres. Qualitative analysis of these samples using PCR resulted in 28 positive samples. The PCR positive samples were subjected to genotyping using the method described by Ohno et al (J Clin Microbiol 35:201-202, 1997) with minor modifications. Genotyping of 28 samples revealed three different genotypes including 3a, 3b and 1a. The most prevalent genotype was 3a with rate of 50% followed by genotype 3b and 1a, respectively. Nine samples remained untyped, suggesting the need of further investigation of genotypes in this region. It has been proposed that sequencing of these samples may be helpful to unreveal these genotypes and further epidemiology of HCV genotypes. Further more, extensive and large scale studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of HCV genotypes, as no such study has been carried in this province.

  9. Operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasma in front of a positively biased electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Dang, Jeong-Jeung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Stability of an anode spot plasma, which is an additional high density plasma generated in front of a positively biased electrode immersed in ambient plasma, is a critical issue for its utilization to various types of ion sources. In this study, operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasmas are experimentally investigated. Diagnostics of the bias current flowing into the positively biased electrode and the properties of ambient plasma reveal that unstable nature of the anode spot is deeply associated with the reduction of double layer potential between the anode spot plasma and the ambient plasma. It is found that stability of the anode spot plasma can be improved with increasing the ionization rate in ambient plasma so as to compensate the loss of electrons across the double layer or with enlarging the area of the biased electrode to prevent electron accumulation inside the anode spot. The results obtained from the present study give the guideline for operating conditions of anode spot plasmas as an ion source with high brightness.

  10. Osteoblasts with impaired spreading capacity benefit from the positive charges of plasma polymerised allylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kunz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, impinge on the performance of orthopaedic implants by impairing bone regeneration. For this reason, the development of effective surface modifications supporting the ingrowth of implants in morbid bone tissue is essential. Our study is designed to elucidate if cells with restricted cell-function limiting adhesion processes benefit from plasma polymer deposition on titanium. We used the actin filament disrupting agent cytochalasin D (CD as an experimental model for cells with impaired actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, the cell’s capacity to adhere and spread was drastically reduced due to shortened actin filaments and vinculin contacts that were smaller. The coating of titanium with a positively charged nanolayer of plasma polymerised allylamine (PPAAm abrogated these disadvantages in cell adhesion and the CD-treated osteoblasts were able to spread significantly. Interestingly, PPAAm increased spreading by causing enhanced vinculin number and contact length, but without significantly reorganising actin filaments. PPAAm with the monomer allylamine was deposited in a microwave-excited low-pressure plasma-processing reactor. Cell physiology was monitored by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the length and number of actin filaments was quantified by mathematical image processing. We showed that biomaterial surface modification with PPAAm could be beneficial even for osteoblasts with impaired cytoskeleton components. These insights into in vitro conditions may be used for the evaluation of future strategies to design implants for morbid bone tissue.

  11. Distribution of HCV genotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of IL-28B gene in HIV/HCV-coinfected Thai populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Avihingsanon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection remains a major silent killer, worldwide, particularly in resource poor settings where treatment of hepatitis C is mainly impossible. Pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN plus ribavirin (RBV are the recommended treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 2/3. Recent study revealed that treatment responses against HCV infection by PEG-IFN and RBV are significantly associated with the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of interleukin-28B (IL-28B gene. There is limited data about the HCV genotype and SNPs of IL-28B in HIV-infected Thai population. Therefore, we aimed to investigate HCV genotype and the SNP patterns of the IL-28B gene in our HIV/HCV coinfection. Methods: Quantification of HCV RNA was done by a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (Abbott with lower limit of detection of <12 copies/ml. HCV RNA-positive samples based on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 5'UTR were amplified with primer specific for the core and NS5B regions. Nucleotide sequences of both regions were analyzed for the genotype by phylogenetic analysis. DNA sample was extracted from PBMCs or sera. Then SNPs within IL-28B gene were detected by TaqMan real-time PCR (rs8099917 and rs12979860. The data were analyzed by allelic discrimination (AD software on the ABI-7900HT. Results: Totally 60 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were studied. Median HCV RNA were 5.8 log10 copies/mL, 70% of them had HCV RNA >100,000 copies/mL. After sequencing, the phylogenetic analyses in this study showed that genotype 3 was the most prevalent in this population (56%; following by genotype 1 (30% and 6 (13%. Approximately 4% of them had infected for both genotypes 1 and 3. For IL-28B at rs8099917 and rs12979860 position, 95% of them were major allele (T/T or C/C and 5% were heterozygous (T/G or C/T. Conclusions: HCV genotype 3 is the most prevalent in our HIV/HCV coinfection. 95% of our patients have

  12. IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depla, Marion; Pelletier, Sandy; Bédard, Nathalie; Brunaud, Camille; Bruneau, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Polymorphisms in the type III interferon IFN‐λ3 and the killer cell immunoglobulin‐like receptor (KIR) genes controlling the activity of natural killer (NK) cells can predict spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism may modulate NK cell function during acute HCV. Methods We monitored the plasma levels of type III IFNs in relation to the phenotype and the function of NK cells in a cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) during acute HCV infection with different outcomes. Results Early acute HCV was associated with high variability in type III IFNs plasma levels and the favorable IFN‐λ3 CC genotype was associated with higher viral loads. Reduced expression of Natural Killer Group Protein 2A (NKG2A) was associated with lower IFN‐λ3 plasma levels and the CC genotype. IFN‐γ production by NK cells was higher in individuals with the CC genotype during acute infection but this did not prevent viral persistence. IFN‐λ3 plasma levels did not correlate with function of NK cells and IFN‐λ3 prestimulation did not affect NK cell activation and function. Conclusions These results suggest that IFN‐λ3 polymorphism indirectly influences NK cell phenotype and function during acute HCV but other factors may act in concert to determine the outcome of the infection. PMID:27621819

  13. Clinical Evaluation of-HCV-IgG in the Diagnosis of Hepatitis C by Chemiluminescence Detection of HCV-RNA and Fluorescent Quantitative PCR%化学发光法检测抗-HCV-IgG与荧光定量PCR检测HCV-RNA在丙型肝炎诊断中的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江南; 张小莲; 杨光; 张起

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨化学发光法(CLIA)检测抗-HCV-IgG与荧光定量PCR检测HCV-RNA在丙型肝炎(HCV)诊断中的临床价值。方法对106例HCV待查者血清标本,同时采用CLIA法检测抗-HCV-IgG抗体和荧光定量PCR检测HCV-RNA载量。结果106份标本中HCV-RNA阳性率为27.4%(29/106),抗-HCV-IgG阳性率为25.5%(27/106),符合率为82.8%(24/29),经χ2检验,两种方法的阳性率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),抗-HCV-IgG阳性检出率随着HCV-RNA病毒载量的增高而升高。结论 CLIA法检测抗-HCV-IgG抗体与荧光定量PCR检测HCV-RNA在丙型肝炎诊断中无显著差异,但两者均存在一定的局限性,联合运用能有效降低单独使用的漏检风险,提高检出率,为临床诊断HCV感染提供可靠性依据。%Objective To investigate the value of hepatitis C diagnosis using Chemoluminescence immunoassay (CLIA)in the detection of anti-HCV-IgG and Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR)in the detection of HCV-RNA.Methods In 106 suspicious clinical serum samples,the anti-HCV-IgG index was detected by CLIA and the HCV-RNA was detected by FQ-PCR.Results The positive rates of HCV-RNA and anti-HCV-IgG were 27.4%(29/106)and 25.5%(27/106)respectively.There were no significant statistical difference between the two methods (P>0.05)and the coincidental rate was 82.8%(24/29).The positive detection rates of anti-HCV-IgG increased with the elevation of HCV-RNA load.Conclusion CLIA was used to detect anti-HCV-IgG and FQ-PCR in the diagnosis of hepatitis C is not significantly different,but both has some limitations,combined with the can effectively reduce the risk of failure detection used alone,to improve the detection rate,to provide reliable basis for clinical diagnosis of HCV infection.

  14. Sheath structure in plasma with two species of positive ions and secondary electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Yun, Zhao; Nong, Xiang; Jing, Ou; De-Hui, Li; Bin-Bin, Lin

    2016-02-01

    The properties of a collisionless plasma sheath are investigated by using a fluid model in which two species of positive ions and secondary electrons are taken into account. It is shown that the positive ion speeds at the sheath edge increase with secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient, and the sheath structure is affected by the interplay between the two species of positive ions and secondary electrons. The critical SEE coefficients and the sheath widths depend strongly on the positive ion charge number, mass and concentration in the cases with and without SEE. In addition, ion kinetic energy flux to the wall and the impact of positive ion species on secondary electron density at the sheath edge are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475220 and 11405208), the Program of Fusion Reactor Physics and Digital Tokamak with the CAS “One-Three-Five” Strategic Planning, the National ITER Program of China (Grant No. 2015GB101003), and the Higher Education Natural Science Research Project of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. 2015KJ009).

  15. Oral lichen sclerosus expressing extracellular matrix proteins and IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Aquino Xavier, Flavia Calo; Prates, Alisio Alves; Gurgel, Clarissa Araujo; De Souza, Tulio Geraldo; Andrade, Rodrigo Guimaraes; Goncalves Ramos, Eduardo Antonio; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana Maria; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-09-16

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a mucocutaneous disease with uncommon oral involvement. The etiology is not yet well understood, but LS has been associated with autoimmune, genetic, and immunological factors. We report a 47-year-old man with LS that exhibited an asymptomatic white plaque with red patches on the maxillary alveolar mucosa extending to the labial mucosa. He had no other skin disease. Positive immunostaining for tenascin and scarcity of fibronectin suggested extracellular matrix reorganization. Elastin immunostaining indicated a reduction of elastic fibers. Immunoexpression of collagen IV in blood vessels and its absence in the epithelial basement membrane, together with diffuse MMP-9 immunoexpression, suggested altered proteolytic activity. Mast cell staining bordering areas of sclerosis indicated a possible role in the synthesis of collagen. IgG4 positivity in plasma cells suggested a role in the fibrogenesis. This is an unusual presentation of oral LS and we discuss immunohistochemical findings regarding cellular and extracellular matrix components.

  16. Immunohistological analysis in diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma based on cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-positive plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shoko; Yokote, Taiji; Hirata, Yuji; Iwaki, Kazuki; Akioka, Toshikazu; Miyoshi, Takuji; Nishiwaki, Uta; Masuda, Yuki; Hiraoka, Nobuya; Takayama, Ayami; Nishimura, Yasuichiro; Tsuji, Motomu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2012-11-01

    The accurate determination of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (cIg) light chain (LC) expression is important to differentiate reactive plasmacytosis from a clonal plasma cell neoplasm such as plasma cell myeloma (PCM). Through retrospective analysis, we studied the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-positive plasma cells in the bone marrow from 19 PCM patients and 19 controls. To demonstrate cIg LC expression, the bone marrow was immunostained for IgA, IgG, IgM, kappa, and lambda. The kappa/lambda ratio was defined as the ratio of the kappa-positive cell to the lambda-positive cell in plasma cells. PCM cells were distinguished from normal plasma cells by cut-off levels between 0.59 and 4.0, a sensitivity of 94.7%, and a specificity of 94.7%. The detection of the cytoplasmic kappa/lambda ratio of CD38-positive plasma cells may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of PCM and the correct diagnosis of PCM may be achieved more simply.

  17. Mitochondrial DNAs decreased and correlated with clinical features in HCV patients from Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A-Mei; Ma, Ke; Song, Yuzhu; Feng, Yue; Duan, Haiping; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Binghui; Xu, Gang; Li, Zheng; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C was the most popular chronic infectious liver disease worldwide. It was identified that Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, though the mechanism was not fully understood. To investigate whether mtDNA copy number could be affected by HCV infection and be associated with clinical features of HCV patients, mtDNA copy numbers were analyzed in 242 patients with HCV infection and 226 matched control samples. The results suggested that mtDNA copy numbers significantly decreased in HCV patients (68.80 ± 3.33) than in control samples (81.54 ± 4.50) (p = 0.022). When males/females were separated from total patients to compare mtDNA copy numbers with gender matched controls, mtDNA copy numbers still significantly decreased in male HCV patients (p = 0.002). Further analysis indicated that level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was negatively correlated with mtDNA copy numbers in total HCV patients (r = -0.128, p = 0.047), and this correlation was more significant in male HCV patients (r = -0.266, p = 0.030). Intriguingly, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) showed positive correlation with mtDNA copy numbers (r = 0.260, p = 0.034) in male HCV patients. Our results indicated that mtDNA copy numbers depleted and correlated with clinical features in male HCV patients.

  18. HBV And HCV Molecular Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor H. Pujol

    2007-02-01

    hepatitis C virus (HCV. Six genotypes and a large number of subtypes in each genotype have been described for this member of the Flaviviridae family. Infections with HCV genotype 1 are associated with the lowest therapeutic success. HCV genotype 1b has also been more frequently associated with a more severe liver disease. However, this association seems to be due to the fact that individuals infected with this genotype have a longer mean duration of infection. HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 have a worldwide distribution and display an apidemic pattern of distribution. HCV subtypes 1a and 1b are the most common genotypes in the United States and are also are predominant in Europe, while in Japan, subtype 1b is predominant. Although HCV subtypes 2a and 2b are relatively common in America, Europe, and Japan, subtype 2c is found commonly in northern Italy. HCV genotype 3a is frequent in intravenous drug abusers in Europe and the United States. HCV genotype 4 appears to be prevalent in Africa and theMiddle East, and genotypes 5 and 6 seem to be confined to South Africa and Asia, respectively. These last genotypes display an endemic pattern of distribution. In addition, a change in the frequency of the prevailing genotypes has been described in several countries: in general, HCV genotype 1b is being displaced by genotypes 3a and/or 2. Coalescent studies have allowed to describe the epidemic pattern of dissemination of some HCV subtypes in specific countries, generally around 100 years ago. The origin of this virus is still an open question, but several studies traces it diversification only around 1,000 years ago.

    The replication of HCV is dependent on a RNA-polymerase RNA dependent which lacks proofreading activity, which confers to this virus a high rate of variability. This virus circulates as a quasispecies. This population dynamic inside a single strain confers to this virus the ability to

  19. High prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV among HIV-1 infected people from various high-risk groups in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV-1 and HCV is a significant global public health problem and a major consideration for anti-HIV-1 treatment. HCV infection among HIV-1 positive people who are eligible for the newly launched nationwide anti-HIV-1 treatment program in China has not been well characterized. METHODOLOGY: A nationwide survey of HIV-1 positive injection drug uses (IDU, former paid blood donors (FBD, and sexually transmitted cases from multiple provinces including the four most affected provinces in China was conducted. HCV prevalence and genetic diversity were determined. We found that IDU and FBD have extremely high rates of HCV infection (97% and 93%, respectively. Surprisingly, people who acquired HIV-1 through sexual contact also had a higher rate of HCV infection (20% than the general population. HIV-1 subtype and HCV genotypes were amazingly similar among FBD from multiple provinces stretching from Central to Northeast China. However, although patterns of overland trafficking of heroin and distinct HIV-1 subtypes could be detected among IDU, HCV genotypes of IDU were more diverse and exhibited significant regional differences. CONCLUSION: Emerging HIV-1 and HCV co-infection and possible sexual transmission of HCV in China require urgent prevention measures and should be taken into consideration in the nationwide antiretroviral treatment program.

  20. Early quantification of HCV core antigen may help to determine the duration of therapy for chronic genotype 2 or 3 HCV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsiö, A; Jannesson, A; Langeland, N;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (coreAg) assessment for the identification of candidates for short-term therapy. Plasma samples from HCV genotype 2 or 3-infected patients participating in the NORDynamIC trial (n = 382) comparing 12...... and 24 weeks of combination treatment with pegylated interferon-α2a and a fixed dose of 800 mg ribavirin daily were analyzed for coreAg. Among the 126 patients (33% of the intention-to-treat population) achieving HCV coreAg levels in plasma below 0.2 pg/mL when assayed on treatment day 3, sustained viral...... were 89% and 95%, respectively. Twelve weeks of combination treatment may be sufficient for genotype 2 or 3-infected patients achieving HCV coreAg levels below 0.2 pg/mL by day 3, signaling a rapid clearance of HCV viremia....

  1. [Control of HCV, HBV and HIV Infections in Hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Martin, Paul; Messa, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Infections with blood-borne pathogens are still common among patients on maintenance dialysis all over the world. The control of infection due to blood-borne viruses (particularly HBV) within dialysis units has been a major goal in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease in the industrialized world. Standard precautions and specific procedures have been recommended to prevent infections with HBV, HCV and HIV within dialysis units. Isolation of HBsAg positive patients by dialysis rooms, staff and machines continues to be an important step to control HBV infection within dialysis units, according to the CDC and other regulatory agencies. Some prospective observational studies have reported the complete prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients in the absence of any isolation policy, and the use of dedicated dialysis machines for HCV-infected patients is not recommended by clinical guidelines. Isolation of HCV-infected patients should be considered in special circumstances only. Vaccination is an important tool against transmission of HBV among patients on long-term dialysis even if the immune response towards the hepatitis B vaccine remains unsatisfactory. Hemodialysis is considered a low risk setting for the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, providing that standard and specific procedures are carefully observed. HIV-infected patients do not have to be isolated from other patients or dialyzed separately on dedicated machines.

  2. A hepatitis C avidity test for determining recent and past infections in both plasma and dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Samantha J; Kean, Joy; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Cameron, Sheila O; Goldberg, David J; Carman, William F; Gunson, Rory N; Aitken, Celia

    2013-05-01

    DBS testing has been used successfully to detect HCV antibody positive individuals. Determining how long someone has been infected is important for surveillance initiatives. Antibody avidity is a method that can be used to calculate recency of infection. A HCV avidity assay was evaluated for both plasma and DBS. To measure antibody avidity a commercial HCV ELISA was modified using 7 M urea. The plasma samples were split into: group 1 (recently infected N = 19), group 2 (chronic carrier N = 300) and group 3 (resolved infection N = 82). Mock DBS made from group 1 (N = 12), group 2 (N = 50), group 3 (N = 25) and two seroconverter panels were evaluated. 133 DBS taken from patients known to have a resolved infection or be a chronic carrier were also tested. The avidity assay cut-off was set at AI≤30 for a recent infection. Using sequential samples the assay could detect a recent infection in the first 4-5 months from the point of infection. Most of the false positive results (AI plasma and DBS; as a result, a testing algorithm has been designed incorporating both PCR and two dilution factors. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay on plasma was 100% and 99.3%, respectively, while DBS had 100% sensitivity and 98.3% specificity. The HCV avidity assay can be used to distinguish between chronic and recent infection using either plasma or DBS as the sample type. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular beacon probes-base multiplex NASBA Real-time for detection of HIV-1 and HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Yeganeh, S; Paryan, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Kia, V; Rezvan, H

    2012-06-01

    Developed in 1991, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) has been introduced as a rapid molecular diagnostic technique, where it has been shown to give quicker results than PCR, and it can also be more sensitive. This paper describes the development of a molecular beacon-based multiplex NASBA assay for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HCV in plasma samples. A well-conserved region in the HIV-1 pol gene and 5'-NCR of HCV genome were used for primers and molecular beacon design. The performance features of HCV/HIV-1 multiplex NASBA assay including analytical sensitivity and specificity, clinical sensitivity and clinical specificity were evaluated. The analysis of scalar concentrations of the samples indicated that the limit of quantification of the assay was beacon probes detected all HCV genotypes and all major variants of HIV-1. This method may represent a relatively inexpensive isothermal method for detection of HIV-1/HCV co-infection in monitoring of patients.

  4. Complementary role of HCV and HIV in T-cell activation and exhaustion in HIV/HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, T.; Arends, J.E.; Fransen, J.H.; Nanlohy, N.M.; Erpecum, K.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Hoepelman, A.I.; Baarle, D. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether T-cell activation and exhaustion is linked to HCV- and HIV disease parameters in HIV/HCV infected individuals, we studied T-cell characteristics in HIV/HCV coinfected patients and controls. METHODS: 14 HIV/HCV coinfected, 19 HCV monoinfected, 10 HIV monoinfected pa

  5. Inhibition of HCV 3a genotype entry through Host CD81 and HCV E2 antibodies

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    Ashfaq Usman A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage hepatocellular carcinoma and death. HCV glycoproteins play an important role in HCV entry by binding with CD81 receptors. Hence inhibition of virus at entry step is an important target to identify antiviral drugs against HCV. Methods and result The present study elaborated the role of CD81 and HCV glycoprotein E2 in HCV entry using retroviral pseudo-particles of 3a local genotype. Our results demonstrated that HCV specific antibody E2 and host antibody CD81 showed dose- dependent inhibition of HCV entry. HCV E2 antibody showed 50% reduction at a concentration of 1.5 ± 1 μg while CD81 exhibited 50% reduction at a concentration of 0.8 ± 1 μg. In addition, data obtained with HCVpp were also confirmed with the infection of whole virus of HCV genotype 3a in liver cells. Conclusion Our data suggest that HCV specific E2 and host CD81 antibodies reduce HCVpp entry and full length viral particle and combination of host and HCV specific antibodies showed synergistic effect in reducing the viral titer.

  6. Study on the diagnosis value of combination of HCV-cAg and anti-HCV in HCV infection%HCV-cAg和HCV-Ab联合检测对HCV感染诊断价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊填; 余晋林; 伍伟健; 陈展泽; 龚道元

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of combination of HCV-cAg and anti-HCV detection in HCV infection. Methods The serum samples from outpatients and inpatients were detected for HCV-cAg,anti-HCV and HCV-RNA. The quanti-tative real-time PCR was applied to detect HCV-RNA,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were utilized to test anti-HCV and HCV-cAg). Result The sensitivity and specificity of anti-HCV detection were 90.91% and 99.17% respectively, and that of HCV-cAg were 70.25%and 100%respectively. Notably,the sensitivity(99.17%) and specificity(99.17%) increased sig-nificantly in case of combinational detection method. In addition,no consistency between the results of anti-HCV and HCV-cAg was detected. Conclusion Combination detection of anti-HCV and HCV-cAg was recommended because of its remarkable advan-tage in screening and diagnosis of HIV infection.%目的:探讨HCV-cAg和HCV-Ab两个指标联合检测对HCV感染的临床价值。方法对门诊和住院患者血液标本进行HCV-cAg、HCV-Ab 及HCV-RNA联合检测,采用实时荧光定量 PCR 法检测 HCV-RNA,采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测试剂盒检测HCV-Ab和HCV-cAg。结果 HCV-Ab检测的灵敏度和特异度分别为90.91%和99.17%;HCV-cAg检测的灵敏度和特异度分别为70.25%和100%,两者的特异度相近,但是HCV-Ab检测的灵敏度比HCV-cAg的要高。两者联合检测时灵敏度和特异度分别为99.17%和99.17%,灵敏度明显增加。此外,HCV-Ab和HCV-cAg两者之间的检测结果无一致性。结论 HCV-Ab和HCV-cAg检测相互间无法替代,将抗-HCV和HCV-cAg两种指标结合起来检测,对临床上提高HCV感染的筛查和诊断具有重要的价值。

  7. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  8. False-positive rapid plasma reagin testing in patients with acute Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maves, Ryan C; Dean, Katherine; Gadea, Nilda; Halsey, Eric S; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2014-01-01

    Non-treponemal tests such as the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assay are mainstays of syphilis diagnosis, but false-positive tests are common. We identified false-positive RPR titers in 8.2% of patients with malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in northern Peru. Similar rates were not detected in patients with other acute febrile illnesses.

  9. Self-Reported HIV and HCV Screening Rates and Serostatus Among Substance Abuse Treatment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Diana; Feaster, Daniel J; Gooden, Lauren; Douaihy, Antoine; Mandler, Raul; Erickson, Sarah J; Kyle, Tiffany; Haynes, Louise; Schwartz, Robert; Das, Moupali; Metsch, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Substance users are at increased risk for HIV and HCV infection. Still, many substance use treatment programs (SUTP) fail to offer HIV/HCV testing. The present secondary analysis of screening data from a multi-site randomized trial of rapid HIV testing examines self-reported HIV/HCV testing patterns and serostatus of 2473 SUTP patients in 12 community-based sites that had not previously offered on-site testing. Results indicate that most respondents screened for the randomized trial tested more than a year prior to intake for HIV (52 %) and HCV (38 %). Prevalence rates were 3.6 and 30 % for HIV and HCV, respectively. The majority of participants that were HIV (52.2 %) and HCV-positive (40.5 %) reported having been diagnosed within the last 1-5 years. Multivariable logistic regression showed that members of high-risk groups were more likely to have tested. Bundled HIV/HCV testing and linkage to care issues are recommended for expanding testing in community-based SUTP settings.

  10. Low levels of microbial translocation marker LBP are associated with sustained viral response after anti-HCV treatment in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients.

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    Jessica Nyström

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT contributes to immune activation during HIV and HCV infections. We investigated the kinetics of MT markers during anti-HCV and anti-HIV treatments, and if baseline plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP and soluble CD14 (sCD14 could predict anti-HCV treatment outcome.Plasma from 78 HIV-infected patients was evaluated for LPS, LBP and sCD14. The patients starting anti-HCV treatment (with ongoing antiretroviral (ART treatment were categorized into sustained viral responders (SVR; n = 21 or non-responders (NR; n = 15 based on treatment outcome. ART starting subjects--were categorized into chronically HCV-infected (CH; n = 24 and mono-infected (HIV; n = 18, based on the HCV infection status. Samples were collected before start (at baseline of pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV or antiretroviral-therapy and two years after treatment start (at follow up. χ2-test, non-parametric statistics and logistic regression were applied to determine the associations with treatment response and changes of the soluble markers.Plasma levels of LPS and sCD14 were elevated in all subjects before antiviral-treatment but remained unchanged at follow-up. Elevated levels of LBP were present in patients with HIV and HIV/HCV co-infection and were reduced by ART. Additionally, higher levels of LBP were present at baseline in NR vs. SVR. Higher levels of LBP at baseline were associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV treatment in both bivariate (OR: 0.19 95% CI: 0.06-0.31, p = 0.004 and multivariate analysis (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.1-1.86, p = 0.07.In HIV/HCV co-infected patients high baseline LBP levels are associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV therapy. Plasma LBP (decreased by ART may be a more relevant MT marker than LPS and sCD14.

  11. Human monoclonal antibody HCV1 effectively prevents and treats HCV infection in chimpanzees.

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    Trevor J Morin

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a leading cause of liver transplantation and there is an urgent need to develop therapies to reduce rates of HCV infection of transplanted livers. Approved therapeutics for HCV are poorly tolerated and are of limited efficacy in this patient population. Human monoclonal antibody HCV1 recognizes a highly-conserved linear epitope of the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (amino acids 412-423 and neutralizes a broad range of HCV genotypes. In a chimpanzee model, a single dose of 250 mg/kg HCV1 delivered 30 minutes prior to infusion with genotype 1a H77 HCV provided complete protection from HCV infection, whereas a dose of 50 mg/kg HCV1 did not protect. In addition, an acutely-infected chimpanzee given 250 mg/kg HCV1 42 days following exposure to virus had a rapid reduction in viral load to below the limit of detection before rebounding 14 days later. The emergent virus displayed an E2 mutation (N415K/D conferring resistance to HCV1 neutralization. Finally, three chronically HCV-infected chimpanzees were treated with a single dose of 40 mg/kg HCV1 and viral load was reduced to below the limit of detection for 21 days in one chimpanzee with rebounding virus displaying a resistance mutation (N417S. The other two chimpanzees had 0.5-1.0 log(10 reductions in viral load without evidence of viral resistance to HCV1. In vitro testing using HCV pseudovirus (HCVpp demonstrated that the sera from the poorly-responding chimpanzees inhibited the ability of HCV1 to neutralize HCVpp. Measurement of antibody responses in the chronically-infected chimpanzees implicated endogenous antibody to E2 and interference with HCV1 neutralization although other factors may also be responsible. These data suggest that human monoclonal antibody HCV1 may be an effective therapeutic for the prevention of graft infection in HCV-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation.

  12. Comparison of seropositivity of HCV between oral lichen planus and healthy control group in Hamedan province (west of Iran

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    Ahmad Reza Mobaien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the skin, nail, hair and mucous membranes. Oral lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the oral mucous membranes with a variety of clinical presentations. Various etiologies include HCV suggested for LP, and the aim of this study was comparison of seropositivity of HCV in LP patients and control group. Methods: All oral LP patients that were referred to dermatology clinic of farshchian hospitalwere entered in the study. Five cc of clot blood was taken from each patient and tested for anti-HCVand when anti-HCV tested positive another 2cc clot bloodwas taken for HCV-Rt-PCR test. The results were analyzed with SPSS 16. Results: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 oral lichen planus patients [males 13(43.3% females 17(56.7%] with mean ages of 46±13.7years and 60 healthy individual [males 26(43.3% females 34(56.7%]. There was no oral lichen planus patients who had anti-HCV positive whiles 2 males(3.3% of healthy group had anti-HCV positive which was confirmed by HCV-Rt-PCR. Conclusions: This study showed that there is no correlation between seropositivity of HCV and oral lichen planus in our patients in the west of Iran.

  13. Natural Polymorphisms Conferring Resistance to HCV Protease and Polymerase Inhibitors in Treatment-Naive HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients in China.

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    Kali Zhou

    Full Text Available The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China.Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1-6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance.Overall, 72.8% (566/778 of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193 of genotype 1, 100% (23/23 of genotype 2, 100% (237/237 of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325 of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69 patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance.The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed.

  14. Natural Polymorphisms Conferring Resistance to HCV Protease and Polymerase Inhibitors in Treatment-Naïve HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charles; Hu, Fengyu; Ning, Chuanyi; Lan, Yun; Tang, Xiaoping; Tucker, Joseph D.; Cai, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Background The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs) has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China. Methods Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1–6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance. Results Overall, 72.8% (566/778) of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193) of genotype 1, 100% (23/23) of genotype 2, 100% (237/237) of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325) of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69) patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance. Conclusions The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed. PMID:27341031

  15. The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989 permitted basic research to unravel critical components of a complex life cycle for this important human pathogen. HCV is a highly divergent group of viruses classified in 7 major genotypes and a great number of subtypes, and circulating in infected...

  16. HIV合并HCV感染者抗HCV疗效分析%HIV co-infectde with HCV efficacy of anti-HCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙艳; 胡海燕; 霍松; 陈梅; 周玲; 李佳; 韩本发

    2014-01-01

    By HIV co-infected with HCV to regulate anti-HCV therapy, understand the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the basis of the efficacy of anti-HCV therapy. The national anti-HIV laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection confirmed HCV-RNA positive patients, while 30 were randomly divided into A, B groups, A group during the HAART treatment while giving recombinant human interferon α-2b and ribavirin injection ribavirin capsules for anti-HCV treatment, B group were given HAART treatment, analysis of relevant indicators before and after treatment. A , B group of stable HAART therapy, A group of anti-HCV in patients with early viral response (EVR) rate of 60% sustained virologic response (SVR) rate was 37.5%. In the HAART treatment on the basis of anti-HCV treatment does not affect the efficacy of HAART; HIV combined HCV infection for anti-HCV treatment efficacy can be; without the SVR patients, anti-HCV treatment can improve the patient's clinical symptoms.%目的:通过对HIV合并HCV感染者进行规范抗HCV治疗,了解在高效抗逆转录病毒治疗(HAART)基础上进行抗HCV治疗的疗效。方法经国家抗HIV确认实验室确诊为HIV感染同时HCV-RNA阳性患者30名,随机分为A、B两组,A组在进行HAART治疗的同时给予重组人干扰素α-2b注射液及利巴韦林胶囊进行抗HCV治疗,B组单纯给予HAART治疗,对治疗前后相关指标进行分析。结果 A、B组HAART治疗疗效稳定,A组患者抗HCV早期病毒应答(EVR)率为60%,持续病毒学应答(SVR)率为33%。结论在HAART治疗基础上进行抗HCV治疗并不影响HAART疗效;HIV合并HCV感染者进行抗HCV治疗的疗效可;在未获得SVR的患者中,抗HCV治疗能使患者的临床症状改善。

  17. Relationship between serum concetrations of type III procollagen, hyluronic acid and histopathological findings in the liver of HCV-positive blood donors Relação entre concentrações séricas de procolágeno tipo III, ácido hialurônico com achados histopatológicos do fígado em doadores de sangue anti-HCV positivos

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    Vera Regina Rodrigues Camacho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serologic markers have been proposed for monitoring hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. Among fibrosis markers, type III procollagen (PIIIP and hyaluronic acid have been studied in these patients. AIM: To evaluate the association between these serum markers with histological findings. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out with HCV-positive blood donors. The studied population included men and women whose age ranged from 18 to 60 years, with elevated liver function tests [ALT levels > 1.5 times the normal value and alterations of two or more of the following: any changes in the levels of ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, conjugated bilirrubin, gammaglobulin, gammaglutamyltranspeptidase, albumin, platelet count; alkaline phosphatase levels >1.5 times the normal value, or prothrombin time below 70% and above 60%]. Fourty-nine patients were submitted to liver biopsy, blood analysis of PIIIP, hyaluronic acid, besides liver function tests. RESULTS: Liver function tests were not associated with tissular fibrosis, as assessed by ALT (>1.5 times above normal, fibrosis risk=18.8%; RACIONAL: Marcadores sorológicos têm sido propostos para monitorar fibrose hepática em doença crônica do fígado. Dentre os marcadores de fibrose, ácido hialurônico e procolágeno tipo III têm sido estudados nestes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de marcadores séricos de fibrose com achados histológicos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal prospectivo em doadores de sangue anti-HCV positivos. A população estudada incluiu homens e mulheres com idade entre 18-60 anos com provas de função hepática alteradas (níveis de alanina aminotransferase >1.5 vezes do normal e alterações de dois ou mais dos seguintes: qualquer alteração nos níveis de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, bilirrubina conjugada, gamaglobulina, gamaglutamiltranspeptidase, albumina, plaquetas, níveis de fosfatase

  18. HbsAg and antiHCV seroprevalence in an Eastern province of Turkey

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    Özlem Demirpençe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalance of the Hepatitis B (HBV and Hepatitis C (HCV viruses among patients living in Tunceli province who had been admitted to the Tunceli State Hospital. Method: The seropositivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg, n:3640, antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs, n:3941 and HCV antibodies (anti-HCV, n:3489 were retrospectively studied at the Tunceli StateHospital for the period between July 2013 and January 2015. Data was collected from the database of Tunceli State Hospital and analyzed using SPSS 15.00. Results: A total of 3640 patients tested for HBsAg were included in this study. 154 patients (4.23 % were found HBsAg positive. 33 (0.94 % of 3489 patients were found anti-HCV positive and 1829 (46.41% of 3941 patients were found anti-HBs positive. Conclusions:While an earlier study had produced similar results to the current study in Tunceli province, the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV are still high. Therefore, community awareness should be raised through health education about transmission and prevention of HBVand HCV infections.

  19. Apoptosis and clinical severity in patients with psoriasis and HCV infection

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    Sami A Gabr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that hepatitis C virus (HCV antigens are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may contribute to severity of the disease. Increased expression of the apoptosis-regulating proteins p53 and tTG and decreased levels of bcl-2 in the keratinocytes of the skin of psoriatic patients have been reported. Aim: This study aims to identify the serum levels of apoptosis-regulating proteins in patients with psoriasis and without HCV infection and to study the relation between clinical severity of psoriasis and the presence of HCV infection. Materials and Methods: Disease severity was assessed by psoriasis area severity index score (PASI of 90 patients with psoriasis grouped as mild (n = 30, moderate (n = 30 and severe (n = 30; 20 healthy individuals were used as controls. All groups were subjected for complete history taking, clinical examination, and tests for liver function and HCV infection. The serum levels of apoptosis related proteins: p53, tTG and bcl-2 were estimated by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA. Results: There was a statistically significant (P < 0.001 correlation between clinical severity of psoriasis and presence of HCV antibodies and HCV-mRNA. In addition, significantly (P < 0.001 raised serum p53 and tTG, and reduced bcl-2 were observed among HCV-positive patients as compared to HCV-negative patients and control patients. Conclusion: These results conclude that clinical severity of psoriasis is affected by the presence of HCV antibodies and overexpression of apoptotic related proteins. In addition, altered serum levels of apoptosis-regulating proteins could be useful prognostic markers and therapeutic targets of psoriatic disease.

  20. Barriers to treatment of hepatitis C in HIV/HCV coinfected adults in Brazil

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    Maria Cássia Mendes-Corrêa

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of barriers to interferon treatment in a population of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two AIDS Outpatient Clinics in Brazil. The study included all HIV infected patients followed at these institutions from January 2005 to November 2007. Medical records of 2,024 HIV-infected patients were evaluated. The prevalence of anti-HCV positive patients among them was 16.7%. Medical records of HCV/HIV coinfected patients were analyzed. 189 patients with the following characteristics were included in our study: mean age 43 years; male gender 65%; former IDUs (52%; HCV genotype 1 (66.4%; HCV genotype 3 (30.5%; median CD4+ T cell count was 340 cells/mm³. Among 189 patients included in the analyses, only 75 (39.6% were considered eligible for HCV treatment. The most frequent reasons for non-treatment were: non-compliance during clinical follow-up (31.4%, advanced HIV disease (21.9%, excessive alcohol consumption or active drug use (18.7%, and psychiatric disorders (10.1%. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, as in elsewhere, more than half of HIV/HCV coinfected patients (60.4% have been considered not candidates to received anti-HCV treatment. The main reasons may be deemed questionable: non-adherence, drug abuse, and psychiatric disease. Our results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary teams to optimize the access of coinfected patients to HCV treatment.

  1. Increasing risk of cataract in HCV patients receiving anti-HCV therapy: A nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Ju, Shu-Woei; Wang, I-Kuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Hsu, Wu-Huei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased systemic oxidative stress, which leads to cardiovascular events, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Similarly, cataract is also associated with increased oxidative stress. The association between HCV infection and increased risk of cataract remains unclear. Methods A total of 11,652 HCV-infected patients and 46,608 age- and sex-matched non-HCV infected patients were identified during 2003–2011. All patient data were tracked until a diagnosis of cataract, death, or the end of 2011. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Results The mean follow-up durations were 5.29 and 5.86 years for the HCV and non-HCV cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence density rate for cataract was 1.36 times higher in the HCV cohort than in the non-HCV cohort (1.86 and 1.37 per 100 person-y, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and anxiety, patients with HCV infection had an increased risk of cataract compared with those without HCV infection [adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.32]. HCV-infected patients receiving interferon–ribavirin therapy had a 1.83 times higher (95% CI = 1.40–2.38) risk of cataract than non-HCV infected patients did. Conclusion HCV infection, even without the complication of cirrhosis, is associated with an increased risk of cataract, and this risk is higher in HCV-infected patients undergoing interferon–ribavirin therapy. PMID:28264004

  2. Multicentric performance analysis of HCV quantification assays and its potential relevance for HCV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, F; Naeth, G; Berger, A; Hirsch, H H; Regenass, S; Ross, R S; Sarrazin, C; Wedemeyer, H; Knechten, H; Braun, P

    2016-06-01

    An accurate quantification of low viremic HCV RNA plasma samples has gained importance since the approval of direct acting antivirals and since only one single measurement predicts the necessity of a prolonged or shortened therapy. As reported previously, HCV quantification assays such as Abbott RealTime HCV and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV version 2 (CTM v2) may vary in sensitivity and precision particularly in low-level viremia. Importantly, substantial variations were previously demonstrated between some of these assays compared to the Roche High Pure System/COBAS TaqMan assay (HPS) reference assay, which was used to establish the clinical decision points in clinical studies. In this study, the reproducibility of assay performances across several laboratories was assessed by analysing quantification results generated by six independent laboratories (3× RealTime, 3× CTM v2) in comparison with one HPS reference laboratory. The 4th WHO Standard was diluted to 100, 25 and 10 IU/ml, and aliquots were tested in triplicates in 5 independent runs by each assay in the different laboratories to assess assay precision and detection rates. In a second approach, 2 clinical samples (GT 1a & GT 1b) were diluted to 100 and 25 IU/ml and tested as described above. While the result range for WHO 100 IU/ml replicates across all laboratories was similar in this analysis, the CVs of each laboratory ranged from 19.3 to 25.6 % for RealTime laboratories and were lower than CVs of CTM v2 laboratories with a range of 26.1-47.3 %, respectively, and also in comparison with the CV of the HPS reference laboratory (34.9 %). At WHO standard dilution of 25 IU/ml, 24 replicates were quantified by RealTime compared to 8 replicates with CTM v2. Results of clinical samples again revealed a higher variation of CTM v2 results as compared to RealTime values. (CVs at 100 IU/ml: RealTime: 13.1-21.0 % and CTM v2: 15.0-32.3 %; CVs at 25 IU/ml: RealTime 17.6-34.9 % and CTM v2 28

  3. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

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    Thilde Nordmann Winther

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBeAg-positive, 26 HBeAg-negative, and 60 healthy control children. Results. Thirteen microRNAs showed aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and targeted liver-specific genes. In particular, three microRNAs were upregulated and one was downregulated in HBeAg-positive children compared to HBeAg-negative and healthy control children, which showed equal levels. Conclusion. The identified microRNAs might impact the progression of CHB in children. Functional studies are warranted, however, to elucidate the microRNAs’ role in the immunopathogenesis of childhood CHB.

  4. Prevailing HCV genotypes and subtypes among hiv infected patients in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchava, M; Sharvadze, L; Gatserelia, L; Badridze, N; Tsertsvadze, T

    2009-12-01

    Recent analysis of antiretroviral treatment (ART) program data in Georgia showed that end-stage liver disease was a leading cause of death among HIV/HCV co infected patients in 2005. The objective of this retrospective study was to study prevailing genotypes and subtypes of HCV virus in a cohort of HIV infected patients. The investigation revealed that of 1490 patients, 879 (59%) were hepatitis C antibody positive. Detectable HCV RNA was found among 91% of patients. Median liver HCV RNA level was higher than among mono-infected patients. The most prevalent genotypes were genotype 1 (41.6%), followed by genotype 3 (34.7%) and genotype 2 (17.6%), inter (mix) genotype recombinants were found among 5.8 % of patients. The genotype distribution in our study is slightly different from what was seen in Georgia in 2000. The differences of prevailing HCV genotypes among general population and HIV co infected group was probably attributed to the different methods for sample selection used within our study or possible influence of diverse transmission networks among HIV infected group. Another explanation can be the possible shift from predominance of genotype 1 to non 1 genotypes. The higher number intergenotype recombinant forms might be the result of continues parenteral exposure to different HCV genotypes during drug injection paraphernalia. Our study demonstrated high prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients and revealed 1b as predominant genotype. IDUs were less likely to spontaneously clear the virus than homosexual man and heterosexually infected woman. A greater HCV RNA levels were associated with a greater chance to be infected with HCV genotypes 1. Possible shift from predominance of genotype 1 to non 1 genotypes can be of option. This shift may have a major and beneficial impact on treatment schedules and costs. The higher number intergenotype recombinant forms might be the results of continues parenteral exposure to different HCV genotypes during

  5. HBV or HCV coinfections and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals: the D:A:D Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Rainer; Sabin, Caroline; Reiss, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Data on a link between HCV or HBV infection and the development of cardiovascular disease among HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals are conflicting. We sought to investigate the association between HBV or HCV infection and myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals.......Data on a link between HCV or HBV infection and the development of cardiovascular disease among HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals are conflicting. We sought to investigate the association between HBV or HCV infection and myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals....

  6. Prevalence and Incidence of HCV Infection among Prisoners in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Larissa Melo; de Rezende, Grazielli Rocha; Dorisbor, Luiz Fernando Paiva; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Cesar, Gabriela Alves; Novais, Alisson Richard Teixeira; Nepomuceno, Bruna; Castro, Lisie Souza; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this multicenter, cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors among incarcerated populations from twelve Brazilian prisons. The total of 3,368 individuals from twelve prisons was randomly recruited between March 2013 and March 2014. Participants were interviewed, and provided blood samples which were tested for antibodies to Hepatitis C (HCV ab). One year after the first investigation, a cohort study was conducted with 1,656 inmates who participated the cross sectional study. Positive samples were tested for the presence of HCV RNA. Out of 3,368 inmates, 520 (15.4%) were females, and 2,848 (84.6%) were males. The overall prevalence of HCV was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.9 to 2.9), with 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.8) in females, and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.1 to 3.3) in males (pprisoners, multivariate analysis of associated factors showed independent associations between HCV exposure and increasing age, inject drug use, length of incarceration, smoking hashish, sharing needle and syringe and HIV positivity. During the cohort study, 7/1,656 new cases of HCV infection were detected, and the incidence rate was 0.4/100 person-year. Once high frequency rates of specific HCV risk behaviors and new HCV infections have been identified inside prisons, effective interventions strategies such as screening, clinical evaluation and treatment to reduce the spread of HCV infection are essential. PMID:28060860

  7. Association of HCV Core Antigen Seropositivity with Long-Term Mortality in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Kato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV antibody seropositivity is independently associated with poor prognosis in hemodialysis (HD patients. However, anti-HCV antibody cannot distinguish between patients with active infection and those who have recovered from infection. We therefore aimed in this study to examine the association of HCV core antigen (HCVcAg seropositivity with mortality in HD patients. We first measured serum HCVcAg using an immunoradiometric assay and anti-HCV antibody in 405 patients on regular HD, and followed them for 104 months. There were 82 patients (20.2% who had been positive for anti-HCV antibodies; 57 (69.5% of these were positive for HCVcAg. During the follow-up, 29 patients were excluded, so we tested the association of HCVcAg seropositivity with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV and non-CV mortalities in 376 patients. A total of 209 patients (55.6% had expired during the observational period, 92 out of them due to CV causes. After adjusting for comorbid parameters, HCVcAg was independently associated with overall mortality (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.05–2.47, p < 0.05. HCV infection was significantly related to liver disease-related mortality. Past HCV infection also contributed to CV mortality (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.27–5.45, p < 0.01. In contrast, anti-HCV antibody and HCVcAg seropositivities did not associate with infectious disease-related and cancer-related (expect for hepatocellular carcinoma mortality. It follows from these findings that HCVcAg serology is associated with all-cause and CV mortality in HD patients.

  8. A meta-analysis of the existing knowledge of immunoreactivity against hepatitis C virus (HCV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Kim

    Full Text Available Approximately 3% of the world population is infected by HCV, which represents a major global health challenge. Almost 400 different scientific reports present immunological data related to T cell and antibody epitopes derived from HCV literature. Analysis of all HCV-related epitope hosted in the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB, a repository of freely accessible immune epitope data, revealed more than 1500 and 1900 distinct T cell and antibody epitopes, respectively. The inventory of all data revealed specific trends in terms of the host and the HCV genotypes from which sequences were derived. Upon further analysis we found that this large number of epitopes reflects overlapping structures, and homologous sequences derived from different HCV isolates. To access and visualize this information we developed a novel strategy that assembles large sets of epitope data, maps them onto reference genomes and displays the frequency of positive responses. Compilation of the HCV immune reactivity from hundreds of different studies, revealed a complex and thorough picture of HCV immune epitope data to date. The results pinpoint areas of more intense reactivity or research activities at the level of antibody, CD4 and CD8 responses for each of the individual HCV proteins. In general, the areas targeted by the different effector immune functions were distinct and antibody reactivity was positively correlated with hydrophilicity, while T cell reactivity correlated with hydrophobicity. At the sequence level, epitopes frequently recognized by both T cell and B cell correlated with low variability, and our analysis thus highlighted areas of potential interest for practical applications. The human reactivity was further analyzed to pinpoint differential patterns of reactivity associated with acute versus chronic infection, to reveal the apparent impact of glycosylation on T cell, but not antibody responses, and to highlight a paucity of studies involved antibody

  9. Plasma viraemia in HIV-positive pregnant women entering antenatal care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon Myer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plasma HIV viral load (VL is the principle determinant of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT, yet there are few data on VL in populations of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the distribution and determinants of VL in HIV-positive women seeking antenatal care (ANC in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Consecutive HIV-positive pregnant women making their first antenatal clinic visit were recruited into a cross-sectional study of viraemia in pregnancy, including a brief questionnaire and specimens for VL testing and CD4 cell enumeration. Results & discussion: Overall 5551 pregnant women sought ANC during the study period, of whom 1839 (33% were HIV positive and 1521 (85% were included. Approximately two-thirds of HIV-positive women in the sample (n=947 were not on antiretrovirals at the time of the first ANC visit, and the remainder (38%, n=574 had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART prior to conception. For women not on ART, the median VL was 3.98 log10 copies/mL; in this group, the sensitivity of CD4 cell counts ≤350 cells/µL in detecting VL>10,000 copies/mL was 64% and this increased to 78% with a CD4 threshold of ≤500 cells/µL. Among women on ART, 78% had VL1000 copies/mL at the time of their ANC visit. Conclusions: VL >10,000 copies/mL was commonly observed in women not on ART with CD4 cell counts >350 cells/µL, suggesting that CD4 cell counts may not be adequately sensitive in identifying women at greatest risk of MTCT. A large proportion of women entering ANC initiated ART before conception, and in this group more than 10% had VL>1000 copies/mL despite ART use. VL monitoring during pregnancy may help to identify pregnancies that require additional clinical attention to minimize MTCT risk and improve maternal and child health outcomes.

  10. The magnetized dusty plasma discharge negative and positive space charge modes

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, N F; Cramer, Neil F.; Vladimirov, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    The structure of a discharge across a magnetic field in a dusty plasma is analysed. The dust macroparticles are negatively charged, but are unmagnetized because of their high mass. The electrons are highly magnetized, and the ions have intermediate magnetization. This results in different transport rates of the different species across the magnetic field. Depending on the size of the magnetic field, and the relative charge on the different species, the dust grains can be the dominant current carrier. The space charge clouds near the electrodes will then be determined by the relative mobility of the different species. The discharge can operate in one of two modes, a positive space charge (PSC) mode, characterized by a strong cathode fall, and a negative space charge (NSC) mode, characterized by a broad anode fall. Features unique to the dust particles can also play a role in the structure of the discharge, such as the variable equilibrium charge on the grains, dependent on the local potential and species tempe...

  11. HCV genotypes are differently prone to the development of resistance to linear and macrocyclic protease inhibitors.

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    Valeria Cento

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because of the extreme genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV, we analyzed whether specific HCV-genotypes are differently prone to develop resistance to linear and macrocyclic protease-inhibitors (PIs. METHODS: The study includes 1568 NS3-protease sequences, isolated from PI-naive patients infected with HCV-genotypes 1a (N = 621, 1b (N = 474, 2 (N = 72, 3 (N = 268, 4 (N = 54 5 (N = 6, and 6 (N = 73. Genetic-barrier was calculated as the sum of nucleotide-transitions (score = 1 and/or nucleotide-transversions (score = 2.5 required for drug-resistance-mutations emergence. Forty-three mutations associated with PIs-resistance were analyzed (36A/M/L/G-41R-43S/V-54A/S/V-55A-Q80K/R/L/H/G-109K-138T-155K/Q/T/I/M/S/G/L-156T/V/G/S-158I-168A/H/T/V/E/I/G/N/Y-170A/T-175L. Structural analyses on NS3-protease and on putative RNA-models have been also performed. RESULTS: Overall, NS3-protease was moderately conserved, with 85/181 (47.0% amino-acids showing 94% HCV-2-4; 175L present in 100% HCV-1a-3-5 and >97% HCV-2-4. Furthermore, HCV-3 specifically showed non-conservative polymorphisms (R123T-D168Q at two drug-interacting positions. Regardless of HCV-genotype, 13 PIs resistance-mutations were associated with low genetic-barrier, requiring only 1 nucleotide-substitution (41R-43S/V-54A-55A-80R-156V/T: score = 1; 54S-138T-156S/G-168E/H: score = 2.5. By contrast, by using HCV-1b as reference genotype, nucleotide-heterogeneity led to a lower genetic-barrier for the development of some drug-resistance-mutations in HCV-1a (36M-155G/I/K/M/S/T-170T, HCV-2 (36M-80K-155G/I/K/S/T-170T, HCV-3 (155G/I/K/M/S/T-170T, HCV-4-6 (155I/S/L, and HCV-5 (80G-155G/I/K/M/S/T. CONCLUSIONS: The high degree of HCV genetic variability makes HCV-genotypes, and even subtypes, differently prone to the development of PIs resistance-mutations. Overall, this can account for different responsiveness of HCV-genotypes to PIs, with

  12. Increased expression and dysregulated association of restriction factors and type I interferon in HIV, HCV mono- and co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Wu; Liu, Feng-Liang; Mu, Dan; Deng, De-Yao; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-06-01

    Host restriction factors and type I interferon are important in limiting HIV and HCV infections, yet the role of HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection in regulating these antiviral genes expression is not clear. In this study, we measured the levels of TRIM5α, TRIM22, APOBEC3G, and IFN-α, -β mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 43 HIV mono-infected, 70 HCV mono-infected and 64 HIV/HCV co-infected patients along with 98 healthy controls. We also quantified HIV and HCV viral loads in mono- and co-infected patients. The results showed that HCV, HIV mono- and co-infection differentially increased TRIM22, APOBEC3G, and IFN-α, -β mRNA expression while the mRNA expression of TRIMα was upregulated only by HCV-mono infection. HIV/HCV co-infection was associated with higher viral load, compared to either HIV or HCV mono-infection. Additionally, we showed TRIMα and TRIM22 positively correlated with IFN-α, -β, which could be dysregulated by HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection. Furthermore, we found TRIM22 negatively correlated with HCV viral load in mono-infected patients and APOBEC3G positively correlated with HCV viral load in co-infected patients. Collectively, our findings suggest the potential role of restriction factors in restricting HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection in vivo, which appears to be a therapeutic target for potential drug discovery.

  13. Potential for Drug-Drug Interactions between Antiretrovirals and HCV Direct Acting Antivirals in a Large Cohort of HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Poizot-Martin

    Full Text Available Development of direct acting antivirals (DAA offers new benefits for patients with chronic hepatitis C. The combination of these drugs with antiretroviral treatment (cART is a real challenge in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to describe potential drug-drug interactions between DAAs and antiretroviral drugs in a cohort of HIV/HCV coinfected patients.Cross-sectional study of all HIV/HCV coinfected patients attending at least one visit in 2012 in the multicenter French Dat'AIDS cohort. A simulation of drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral treatment and DAAs available in 2015 was performed.Of 16,634 HIV-infected patients, 2,511 had detectable anti-HCV antibodies, of whom 1,196 had a detectable HCV-RNA and were not receiving HCV treatment at the time of analysis. 97.1% of these patients were receiving cART and 81.2% had a plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL. cART included combinations of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors with a boosted protease inhibitor in 43.6%, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in 17.3%, an integrase inhibitor in 15.4% and various combinations or antiretroviral drugs in 23.7% of patients. A previous treatment against HCV had been administered in 64.4% of patients. Contraindicated associations/potential interactions were expected between cART and respectively sofosbuvir (0.2%/0%, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (0.2%/67.6%, daclatasvir (0%/49.4%, ombitasvir/boosted paritaprevir (with or without dasabuvir (34.4%/52.2% and simeprevir (78.8%/0%.Significant potential drug-drug interactions are expected between cART and the currently available DAAs in the majority of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin appeared the most suitable combinations in our population. A close collaboration between hepatologists and HIV/AIDS specialists appears necessary for the management of HCV treatment concomitantly to cART.

  14. The Molecular Epidemiological Study of HCV Subtypes among Intravenous Drug Users and Non-Injection Drug Users in China.

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    Jun Tao

    Full Text Available More than half of intravenous drug users (IDUs in China suffer from the Hepatitis C virus (HCV. The virus is also more prevalent in non-injection drug users (NIDUs than in the general population. However, not much is known about HCV subtype distribution in these populations.Our research team conducted a cross-sectional study in four provinces in China. We sampled 825 IDUs and 244 NIDUs (1162 total, genotyped each DU's virus, and performed a phylogenetic analysis to differentiate HCV subtypes.Nucleic acid testing (NAT determined that 82% percent (952/1162 of samples were HCV positive; we subtyped 90% (859/952 of these. We found multiple HCV subtypes: 3b (249, 29.0%, 3a (225, 26.2%, 6a (156, 18.2%, 1b (137, 15.9%, 6n (50, 5.9%, 1a (27, 3.1%, and 2a (15, 1.7%. An analysis of subtype distributions adjusted for province found statistically significant differences between HCV subtypes in IDUs and NIDUs.HCV subtypes 3b, 3a, 6a, and 1b were the most common in our study, together accounting for 89% of infections. The subtype distribution differences we found between IDUs and NIDUs suggested that sharing syringes was not the most likely pathway for HCV transmission in NIDUs. However, further studies are needed to elucidate how NIDUs were infected.

  15. High prevalence of antibodies to core+1/ARF protein in HCV-infected patients with advanced cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassela, Katerina; Karakasiliotis, Ioannis; Charpantidis, Stefanos; Koskinas, John; Mylopoulou, Theodora; Mimidis, Konstantinos; Sarrazin, Christoph; Grammatikos, Georgios; Mavromara, Penelope

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) possesses a second open reading frame (ORF) within the core gene encoding an additional protein, known as the alternative reading frame protein (ARFP), F or core+1. The biological significance of the core+1/ARF protein remains elusive. However, several independent studies have shown the presence of core+1/ARFP antibodies in chronically HCV-infected patients. Furthermore, a higher prevalence of core+1/ARFP antibodies was detected in patients with HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the incidence of core+1/ARFPantibodies in chronically HCV-infected patients at different stages of cirrhosis in comparison to chronically HCV-infected patients at earlier stages of disease. Using ELISA, we assessed the prevalence of anti-core+1 antibodies in 30 patients with advanced cirrhosis [model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) ≥15] in comparison with 50 patients with mild cirrhosis (MELD core+1 antibodies, in contrast with 16.5 % of non-cirrhotic HCV patients. Moreover, there was significantly higher positivity for anti-core+1 antibodies in HCV patients with advanced cirrhosis (36.7 %) compared to those with early cirrhosis (24 %) (Pcore+1 antibodies in HCV patients with HCC, suggest that core+1 protein may have a role in virus-associated pathogenesis, and provide evidence to suggest that the levels of anti-core+1 antibodies may serve as a marker for disease progression.

  16. Distribution and effects of polymorphic RANTES gene alleles in HIV/HCV coinfection - A prospective cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Golo Ahlenstiel; Tilman Sauerbruch; Ulrich Spengler; Rainer P Woitas; Agathe Iwan; Jacob Nattermann; Karin Bueren; Jürgen K Rockstroh; Hans H Brackmann; Bernd Kupfer; Oifert Landt; Amnon Peled

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Chemokines and their receptors are crucial for immune responses in HCV and HIV infection. RANTES gene polymorphisms lead to altered gene expression and influence the natural course of HIV infection. Therefore,these mutations may also affect the course of HIV/HCV coinfection.METHODS: We determined allele frequencies of RANTES-403 (G→A), RANTES-28 (C→G) and RANTESIN1.1 (T→C) polymorphisms using real-time PCR and hybridization probes in patients with HIV (n = 85), HCV (n= 112), HIV/HCV coinfection (n = 121), and 109 healthy controls. Furthermore, HIV and HCV loads as well as CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were compared between different RANTES genotypes.RESULTS: Frequencies of RANTES-403 A, RANTES-28 G and RANTES-IN1.1 C alleles were higher in HIV infected patients than in healthy controls (-403: 28.2% vs 15.1%,P = 0.002; -28: 5.4% vs 2.8%, not significant; IN1.1:19.0% vs 11.0%, P = 0.038). In HIV/HCV coinfected patients, these RANTES alleles were less frequent than in patients with HIV infection alone (15.4% P = 0.002;1.7%; P = 0.048; 12.0%; not significant). Frequencies of these alleles were not significantly different between HIV/HCV positive patients, HCV positive patients and healthy controls.CONCLUSION: All three RANTES polymorphisms showed increased frequencies of the variant allele exclusively in patients with HIV monoinfection. The finding that the frequencies of these alleles remained unaltered in HIV/HCV coinfected patients suggests that HCV coinfection interferes with selection processes associated with these alleles in HIV infection.

  17. Molecular beacon probes–base multiplex NASBA Real-time for detection of HIV-1 and HCV

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    Samira Mohammadi Yeganeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Developed in 1991, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA has been introduced as a rapid molecular diagnostic technique, where it has been shown to give quicker results than PCR, and it can also be more sensitive. This paper describes the development of a molecular beacon-based multiplex NASBA assay for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HCV in plasma samples.Materials and Methods: A well-conserved region in the HIV-1 pol gene and 5’-NCR of HCV genome were used for primers and molecular beacon design. The performance features of HCV/HIV-1 multiplex NASBA assay including analytical sensitivity and specificity, clinical sensitivity and clinical specificity were evaluated.Results: The analysis of scalar concentrations of the samples indicated that the limit of quantification of the assay was < 1000 copies/ml for HIV-1 and < 500copies/ml for HCV with 95% confidence interval. Multiplex NASBA assay showed a 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The analytical specificity study with BLAST software demonstrated that the primers do not attach to any other sequences except for that of HIV-1 or HCV. The primers and molecular beacon probes detected all HCV genotypes and all major variants of HIV-1.Conclusion: This method may represent a relatively inexpensive isothermal method for detection of HIV-1/HCV co-infection in monitoring of patients.

  18. Psychiatric and substance use disorders in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients: does HCV clearance matter? [Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS) HEPAVIH CO13 cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Lions, C; Winnock, M; Lang, J-P; Loko, M-A; Rosenthal, E; Marchou, B; Valantin, M-A; Morlat, P; Roux, P; Sogni, P; Spire, B; Poizot-Martin, I; Lacombe, K; Lascoux-Combe, C; Duvivier, C; Neau, D; Dabis, F; Salmon-Ceron, D; Carrieri, M P

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this nested study was to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients according to their HCV status. The nested cross-sectional study, untitled HEPAVIH-Psy survey, was performed in a subset of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients enrolled in the French Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS) CO13 HEPAVIH cohort. Psychiatric disorders were screened for using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 5.0.0). Among the 286 patients enrolled in the study, 68 (24%) had never received HCV treatment, 87 (30%) were treatment nonresponders, 44 (15%) were currently being treated and 87 (30%) had a sustained virological response (SVR). Of the 286 patients enrolled, 121 patients (42%) screened positive for a psychiatric disorder other than suicidality and alcohol/drug abuse/dependence, 40 (14%) screened positive for alcohol abuse/dependence, 50 (18%) screened positive for drug abuse/dependence, 50 (17.5%) were receiving an antidepressant treatment and 69 (24%) were receiving an anxiolytic. Patients with an SVR did not significantly differ from the other groups in terms of psychiatric disorders. Patients receiving HCV treatment screened positive less often for an anxiety disorder. The highest rate of drug dependence/abuse was among HCV treatment-naïve patients. Psychiatric disorders were frequent in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients and their rates were comparable between groups, even for patients achieving an SVR. Our results emphasize the need for continuous assessment and care of coinfected patients, even after HCV clearance. Drug addiction remains an obstacle to access to HCV treatment. Despite the recent advent and continued development of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs), it is still crucial to offer screening and comprehensive care for psychiatric and addictive disorders. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  19. [Tailor-made strategy in HCV treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem and a leading cause of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment of HCV infection with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin can eradicate chronic HCV infection in approximately 50% of patients infected with high viremia of HCV genotype 1, and spontaneous viral clearance was observed in approximately 30% of individuals with acute infection. These findings were strongly expected to reflect variations of the host genome. Significant breakthrough by the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach led to the discovery of genetic polymorphisms playing a major role in the evolution of infection, as well as on treatment response and adverse effects. Herein, we present current evidence with regard to the relationship between host variations and clinical outcome of hepatitis C, and focus on the potential clinical implications with respect to tailor-made therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

  20. A New Twist to a Chronic HCV Infection: Occult Hepatitis C

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    Bashar M. Attar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of occult hepatitis C infection (OCI in the population of HCV-RNA negative but anti-HCV positive individuals is presently unknown. OCI may be responsible for clinically overt recurrent disease following an apparent sustained viral response (SVR weeks to years later. Purpose. To review the available current literature regarding OCI, prevalence, pathogenic mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and future directions. Data Sources. Searching MEDLINE, article references, and national and international meeting abstracts for the diagnosis of OCI (1990–2014. Data Synthesis. The long-term followup of individuals with an OCI suggests that the infection can be transient with the loss of detectable HCV-RNA in PPBMCs after 12–18 months or alternatively exist intermittently and potentially long term. The ultimate outcome of HCV infection is decided by interplay between host immune responses, antiviral therapies, and the various well-identified viral evasion mechanisms as well as the presence of HCV infection within extrahepatic tissues. Conclusion. The currently widely held assumption of a HCV-cure in individuals having had “SVR” after 8–12 weeks of a course of DAA therapy as recently defined may not be entirely valid. Careful longitudinal followup utilizing highly sensitive assays and unique approaches to viral isolation are needed.

  1. A New Twist to a Chronic HCV Infection: Occult Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Bashar M; Van Thiel, David

    2015-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of occult hepatitis C infection (OCI) in the population of HCV-RNA negative but anti-HCV positive individuals is presently unknown. OCI may be responsible for clinically overt recurrent disease following an apparent sustained viral response (SVR) weeks to years later. Purpose. To review the available current literature regarding OCI, prevalence, pathogenic mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and future directions. Data Sources. Searching MEDLINE, article references, and national and international meeting abstracts for the diagnosis of OCI (1990-2014). Data Synthesis. The long-term followup of individuals with an OCI suggests that the infection can be transient with the loss of detectable HCV-RNA in PPBMCs after 12-18 months or alternatively exist intermittently and potentially long term. The ultimate outcome of HCV infection is decided by interplay between host immune responses, antiviral therapies, and the various well-identified viral evasion mechanisms as well as the presence of HCV infection within extrahepatic tissues. Conclusion. The currently widely held assumption of a HCV-cure in individuals having had "SVR" after 8-12 weeks of a course of DAA therapy as recently defined may not be entirely valid. Careful longitudinal followup utilizing highly sensitive assays and unique approaches to viral isolation are needed.

  2. Upregulated hepatic expression of mitochondrial PEPCK triggers initial gluconeogenic reactions in the HCV-3 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taimoor Islam Sheikh; Tashfeen Adam; Ishtiaq Qadri

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To identify the differential expression of candidate gluconeogenic genes which may initiate hepatitis C virus (HCV) related metabolic disorder during early stages of disease. Methods:Patients of diverse age and sex, with positive HCV genotype 3 (HCV-3) RNA in serum and with no history of other related infections, co-infections, alcoholism, diabetes or chemotherapeutic treatments were considered for this study. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis and quantitative fold change analysis of the fresh liver biopsies of eight chronically infected HCV-3 patients and six healthy individuals were evaluated for three potential biomarkers involved in glucose homeostasis induction, namely mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2 (PCK2), glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) and associated forkhead box protein 01 (FOXO1).Results:Symptomatic evaluation, clinical history and blood test were conducted according to general disease prognosis procedures and reported here. Significantly upregulated expression ofPCK2 independent of age, sex and viral infectivity levels in all HCV patients was observed, whereas no significant changes in the expression ofG6PC andFOXO1were found.Conclusions:PCK2 triggers initial gluconeogenic reactions which ultimately result in the accumulation of glycogen in the liver hepatocytes. We therefore suggest that the overproduction of PCK2 has important physiological role in the onset of metabolic disorder in the HCV-3 patients.

  3. Venue-Based Networks May Underpin HCV Transmissions amongst HIV-Infected Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Daniel; Raghwani, Jayna; Jacka, Brendan; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Lamoury, Francois; Down, Ian; Prestage, Garrett; Applegate, Tanya L.; Hellard, Margaret; Sasadeusz, Joe; Dore, Gregory J.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Matthews, Gail V.; Danta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the potential influence of venue-based networks on HCV transmission in HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (GBM). Methods This was a prospectively recruited cohort of HIV-infected GBM with recently-acquired HCV infection resident in Melbourne and Sydney. Clinical and demographic data were collected together with blood samples for HCV sequencing. Phylogenies were inferred and clusters of individuals infected with HCV with genetic sequence homology were identified. Venues used for sourcing sexual partners were identified; sourcing partners from the same venue was considered a potential social link. Using the Jaccard similarity coefficient, associations were identified between the network of sites where men sourced sex partners and transmission relationships as defined by phylogenetic clustering. Results Forty individuals were recruited, of whom 62.5% were considered to have sexually- and 37.5% IDU-acquired HCV. Venue use was consistent with men being members of a more sexually adventurous gay community subculture. Six phylogenetically-determined pairs or clusters were identified, comprising fifteen (15/28, 53.6%) individuals. Participants belonging to phylogenetic clusters were observed within the same networks. There was a significant correlation between the network and phylogenetic clustering when both cities were considered simultaneously (p = 0.005), raising the possibility that social connections may be important for HCV transmissions. Conclusions Venue-based network elicitation is a promising approach for elucidating HCV transmissions amongst HIV-infected GBM. Public health approaches targeting individuals and venues prominent within networks may reduce onward HCV transmission. PMID:27584149

  4. Randomized, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study of BMS-791325, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor, in HCV genotype 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Karen D; Lemm, Julie; Eley, Timothy; Liu, Menping; Berglind, Anna; Sherman, Diane; Lawitz, Eric; Vutikullird, Apinya B; Tebas, Pablo; Gao, Min; Pasquinelli, Claudio; Grasela, Dennis M

    2014-06-01

    BMS-791325 is a nonnucleoside inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase with low-nanomolar potency against genotypes 1a (50% effective concentration [EC50], 3 nM) and 1b (EC50, 7 nM) in vitro. BMS-791325 safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity were evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study in 24 patients (interferon naive and experienced) with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection, randomized (5:1) to receive a single dose of BMS-791325 (100, 300, 600, or 900 mg) or placebo. The prevalence and phenotype of HCV variants at baseline and specific posttreatment time points were assessed. Antiviral activity was observed in all cohorts, with a mean HCV RNA decline of ≈2.5 log10 copies/ml observed 24 h after a single 300-mg dose. Mean plasma half-life among cohorts was 7 to 9 h; individual 24-hour levels exceeded the protein-adjusted EC90 for genotype 1 at all doses. BMS-791325 was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events or discontinuations. Enrichment for resistance variants was not observed at 100 to 600 mg. At 900 mg, variants (P495L/S) associated with BMS-791325 resistance in vitro were transiently observed in one patient, concurrent with an observed HCV RNA decline of 3.4 log10 IU/ml, but were replaced with wild type by 48 h. Single doses of BMS-791325 were well tolerated; demonstrated rapid, substantial, and exposure-related antiviral activity; displayed dose-related increases in exposure; and showed viral kinetic and pharmacokinetic profiles supportive of once- or twice-daily dosing. These results support its further development in combination with other direct-acting antivirals for HCV genotype 1 infection. (This trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00664625.).

  5. Receptor complementation and mutagenesis reveal SR-BI as an essential HCV entry factor and functionally imply its intra- and extra-cellular domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Dreux

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available HCV entry into cells is a multi-step and slow process. It is believed that the initial capture of HCV particles by glycosaminoglycans and/or lipoprotein receptors is followed by coordinated interactions with the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI, a major receptor of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the CD81 tetraspanin, and the tight junction protein Claudin-1, ultimately leading to uptake and cellular penetration of HCV via low-pH endosomes. Several reports have indicated that HDL promotes HCV entry through interaction with SR-BI. This pathway remains largely elusive, although it was shown that HDL neither associates with HCV particles nor modulates HCV binding to SR-BI. In contrast to CD81 and Claudin-1, the importance of SR-BI has only been addressed indirectly because of lack of cells in which functional complementation assays with mutant receptors could be performed. Here we identified for the first time two cell types that supported HCVpp and HCVcc entry upon ectopic SR-BI expression. Remarkably, the undetectable expression of SR-BI in rat hepatoma cells allowed unambiguous investigation of human SR-BI functions during HCV entry. By expressing different SR-BI mutants in either cell line, our results revealed features of SR-BI intracellular domains that influence HCV infectivity without affecting receptor binding and stimulation of HCV entry induced by HDL/SR-BI interaction. Conversely, we identified positions of SR-BI ectodomain that, by altering HCV binding, inhibit entry. Finally, we characterized alternative ectodomain determinants that, by reducing SR-BI cholesterol uptake and efflux functions, abolish HDL-mediated infection-enhancement. Altogether, we demonstrate that SR-BI is an essential HCV entry factor. Moreover, our results highlight specific SR-BI determinants required during HCV entry and physiological lipid transfer functions hijacked by HCV to favor infection.

  6. Receptor complementation and mutagenesis reveal SR-BI as an essential HCV entry factor and functionally imply its intra- and extra-cellular domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Dreux

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available HCV entry into cells is a multi-step and slow process. It is believed that the initial capture of HCV particles by glycosaminoglycans and/or lipoprotein receptors is followed by coordinated interactions with the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI, a major receptor of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the CD81 tetraspanin, and the tight junction protein Claudin-1, ultimately leading to uptake and cellular penetration of HCV via low-pH endosomes. Several reports have indicated that HDL promotes HCV entry through interaction with SR-BI. This pathway remains largely elusive, although it was shown that HDL neither associates with HCV particles nor modulates HCV binding to SR-BI. In contrast to CD81 and Claudin-1, the importance of SR-BI has only been addressed indirectly because of lack of cells in which functional complementation assays with mutant receptors could be performed. Here we identified for the first time two cell types that supported HCVpp and HCVcc entry upon ectopic SR-BI expression. Remarkably, the undetectable expression of SR-BI in rat hepatoma cells allowed unambiguous investigation of human SR-BI functions during HCV entry. By expressing different SR-BI mutants in either cell line, our results revealed features of SR-BI intracellular domains that influence HCV infectivity without affecting receptor binding and stimulation of HCV entry induced by HDL/SR-BI interaction. Conversely, we identified positions of SR-BI ectodomain that, by altering HCV binding, inhibit entry. Finally, we characterized alternative ectodomain determinants that, by reducing SR-BI cholesterol uptake and efflux functions, abolish HDL-mediated infection-enhancement. Altogether, we demonstrate that SR-BI is an essential HCV entry factor. Moreover, our results highlight specific SR-BI determinants required during HCV entry and physiological lipid transfer functions hijacked by HCV to favor infection.

  7. Value of diagnosis on hepatitis C by ELISA-HCV core antigen detection%核心抗原酶联免疫检测在丙型肝炎病毒感染诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟岳; 俞勇; 杜蓬

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨丙型肝炎病毒核心抗原( HCV-cAg)酶联免疫检测( ELISA)在丙型肝炎早期诊断中的应用价值。方法83例抗-HCV阳性、500例ALT异常但抗-HCV阴性血清同时进行HCV-cAg ELISA和HCV RT-PCR。结果83例抗-HCV阳性血清中HCV-cAg和HCV RNA阳性分别为33例和36例,其中32例共阳性;500例ALT异常但抗-HCV阴性的血清中有3例HCV-cAg和HCV RNA同为阳性。抗-HCV阳性和阴性血清HCV-cAg和HCV RNA检测结果符合率分别为94.0%和100%。结论 HCV-cAg ELISA敏感性与HCV RT-PCR类似,能够有效缩短窗口期,操作简便,费用低廉,在丙型肝炎早期诊断中具有很好的前景。%Objective To evaluate the clinically applied valve of HCV core antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( HCV-cAg ELISA) for early diagnosis of hepatitis C.Methods Both HCV RNA and HCV-cAg ELISA were used to detect 83 cases of anti-HCV positive serum samples and 500 cases of anti-HCV negative but ALT abnormal serum samples.Results In the 83 cases of anti-HCV positive serum samples, 33 cases were detectable for HCV-cAg while 36 cases were detectable for HCV RNA, in which 32 cases were double positive for both HCV-cAg and HCV-RNA.In the 500 cases of anti-HCV negative but ALT abnormal serum sample, only 3 cases were detectable for both HCV-cAg and HCV RNA. The coincidence rates of the two methods for detecting the anti-HCV positive serum samples and anti-HCV negative but ALT abnormal serum samples were 94.0% and 100%, respectively.Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of HCV-cAg ELISA is similar to that of HCV RT-PCR.The HCV-cAg ELISA has many advantages such as window-phase,decurtation, convenience and lower cost, which enable the assay a good clinically applied prospects for early diagnosis of hepatitis B.

  8. 丙型肝炎病毒母婴传播血清学检测诊断分析%Diagnosis and Analysis of Serological results of HCV Mother-to-Child Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆红; 孙莉; 杨富强

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨婴幼儿丙型肝炎血清标志物特点及 HCV 核心抗原检测对丙型肝炎母婴传播诊断的应用价值.方法 采用ELISA法对72例抗HCV (IgG)阳性的孕妇所生新生儿脐血进行HCV抗体(IgG)、HCV核心抗原检测,荧光定量PCR法检测HCV RNA.结果 72例新生儿脐血抗HCV IgG均为阳性.72例HCV IgG阳性婴幼儿血清HCV cAg阳性10例,阳性率为13.9%; HCV RNA阳性11例,阳性率为15.3%,两者相比较,差异无统计学意义(x2=0.5,P>0.05);6个月后婴幼儿抗HCV IgG与HCV RNA检测比较,阳性率差异无统计学意义.结论 新生儿脐血抗HCV (lgG)阳性不能作为 HCV 宫内感染的依据,HCV cAg检测与HCV RNA的检测方法一致性较好,对新生儿HCV感染有一定的诊断价值,对于出生后6个月婴幼儿抗HCV (lgG)检测可作为HCV感染的诊断.%OBJECTIVE To discuss characteristics of serological markers of HCV in infants and diagnostic value of HCV core antigen in the hepatitis C in mother-to-child transmission. METHODS Cord blood anti-HCV and HCcAg of 72 newborns whose mothers with positive anti-HCV were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELJSA) in and HCV RNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS All the 72 cases of cord blood anti-HCV IgG were positive. Of those, there were 10 cases with serum HCVcAg positive, and the positive rate was 13.9%; HCV RNA positive in 11 cases, the positive rate was 15.3%. Compared the anti-HCV IgG with HCV RNA, the difference was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.5, P> 0.05). Six months later, the positive rate of the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION We cannot take the positive anti-HCV (IgG) of newboms' cord blood as the basis of HCV intrauterine infection. There is good uniformity between HCcAg and HCV RNA detecting methods, which has certain diagnosis value to the newborn HCV infection, thus they can help with the diagnosis of the HCV infection for 6-month-infants.

  9. Two modes of interfacial pattern formation by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet-ITO interactions under positive and negative polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Dingxin; Xu, Dehui; Cai, Haifeng; Xia, Wenjie; Wang, Bingchuan; Li, Qiaosong; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we report the observation of an interfacial pattern formation on the ITO surface by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet-ITO interactions. By changing the voltage polarity of positive and negative pulses, the interfacial phenomenon displays two different pattern modes, i.e. a double ring pattern with a combination of homogeneous and filamentous modes as well as a single ring pattern with a homogeneous mode. The reasons may mainly be attributed to the spread of a radially outward traveling surface ionization wave that would cause electric field distributions and charge accumulations on the ITO surface. The spatial-temporal distribution of \\text{N}2+≤ft({{B}2}{\\sum}\\text{u}+\\right) , He(3s3S), and O(3p5P) emissions are diagnosed to better understand the formation mechanism and the differences of plasma jet patterns under positive and negative polarities. Results show that the distribution of \\text{N}2+≤ft({{B}2}{\\sum}\\text{u}+\\right) emission is the main contributor for generating the filament structure in a double ring pattern for positive polarity, the homogeneous mode pattern mainly depends on the distribution of O(3p5P) emission for positive and negative polarity. Additionally, in order to further systematically understand the behaviors of plasma jet patterns, some parametric results, such as behaviors versus pulse peak voltage, dielectric material, pulse repetition rate, and flow rate are investigated. Some interesting phenomena and additional insights for the plasma jet pattern are found with different parametric conditions. This study might help to better understand effects of plasma jets in interaction with surfaces, or its application in the medical sector.

  10. Detection of HCV-RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Biotinylated and Radioiodinated Primers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Cheon, Jun Hong; Chung, Yoon Young; Park, Hung Dong; Chung, Young Hwa; Lee, Young Sang [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical applicability of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit of HCV-RNA using biotinylated and radioiodinated primers. Study subjects were 118 patients with positive anti-HCV. HCV-RNA in patients serum was extracted by guanidium thiocyanate method. After first amplification, the product was reamplified by primers labelled with biotin and I-125. The final amplification product was detected by counting the radioactivity after incubation in avidin coated tubes. In 51 samples, the test was repeated for evaluation of reproducibility. This new method was also compared with conventional RT-PCR methods in 34 samples from patients with chronic liver disease. The results were as follows, 1) HCV-RNA was positive in 85(97%)of 88 patients with chronic liver disease, and in 23 (73%) of 30 patients with normal liver function. 2) In comparison with conventional method, HCV-RNA was detected in 32(94%) of 34 patients with new method, whereas in 27(79% ) of the same group with conventional method 3) Repeated test with new method in 52 samples demonstrated 82% of concordant result. In conclusion, new method with biotinylated and radioiodinated primers was more sensitive than conventional method. However, great care must be taken for quality control because there were considerable interassay variation and possibility of false positivity and false negativity.

  11. Seroprevalence of anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankhiwale S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is known to influence the natural history of infections with certain hepatitis viruses and interactions between HIV and hepatitis viruses may potentiate HIV replication. There is high degree of epidemiological similarity between hepatitis B virus and HIV as regard to high-risk group and route of transmission. Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV through blood transfusion and intravenous drug abuse is well documented. Present study deals with the study of concurrent infection of HBV and HCV with HIV infection. In the study of 110 HIV seropositive patients, 34(30.4% were positive for HBV and 8(7.27% for HCV. The difference of concomitant infection was highly significant compared to controls. (p value < 0.0001. Heterosexual high risk behaviour was observed in 89(80.91% of 110 HIV positive patients, out of which 23(25.8% and 5(5.62% were HBsAg and anti-HCV positive respectively. History of transmission was unclear in remaining patients. Concomitant infection of HIV and HBV was found to be significantly more in the symptomatic group (40.68% compared to asymptomatic group (19.6%. As HIV infection is known to affect the natural history of both HBV and HCV infection, screening of their concurrent association is necessary.

  12. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China's National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhe Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program.Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution.Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17-8.52, p<0.0001 and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96-2.06, p<0.0001. Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001. Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012.The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China.

  13. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China’s National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rou, Keming; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Xiaobin; Luo, Wei; Liu, Enwu; Wu, Zunyou

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program. Methods Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution. Results Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17–8.52, p<0.0001) and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96–2.06, p<0.0001). Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001). Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012. Conclusions The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China. PMID:26906025

  14. Appearance of NS3 Q80K mutation in HCV genotype 1a mono- or HIV/HCV co-infected patients in a Berlin laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ehret

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simeprevir, a new oral NS3/4A protease inhibitor, was recently approved by the FDA and the EMA for the treatment of patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 4, 5 and 6 infection l. It has been recommended in the 2014 UK Consensus Guidelines as a possible treatment of previously untreated genotype 1a-infected patients. The antiviral efficacy of simeprevir is adversely affected by the mutation at the Q80K loci. There is controversial discussion that the incidence of Q80K in the European HCV 1a-infected community is very low and therefore testing of Q80K before starting a therapy including simeprevir is not necessary. We analyzed the appearance of Q80K in all sequenced HCV NS3A samples in 2014 in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: All in 2014 received orders for HCV resistance tests were analyzed with an in-house bulk sequencing method analyzing NS3A amino acids 1–181. Analysis was performed using geno2pheno HCV. The genotype 1a samples were selected, Q80K status and data of HIV co-infection were collected. Results: Forty-two HCV 1a samples were sent to us for resistance analyses from nine different medical centres in Berlin and Hannover, Germany. Nineteen (or 45% of the sequences showed a Q80K mutation. Six extra clade I viruses had no Q80K mutation. Comparison between mono- and HIV-1 co-infected patients showed no difference in frequency of Q80K (mono-infected: 8 out of 19 patients; co-infected: 9 out of 23. For two 80K-positive patients, the HIV-status was not available. Conclusions: The incidence for Q80K mutation in HCV genotype 1a with overall 45% is substantially high in our cohort and does not differ between mono- and HIV-1 co-infected patients. Response to simeprevir is affected by the presence of viral Q80K. When treating HCV-infected patients with a simeprevir containing regimen, it is therefore important that HCV does not contain the Q80K mutation.

  15. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA profiles among chronic HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in ESPRIT; spontaneous HCV RNA clearance observed in nine individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Tedaldi, Ellen; Peters, L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels remain stable over time in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA during the persistent infection phase has been documented only rarely among tho...

  16. Cost-effectiveness of HCV screening: a systematic review of the literature from 2007 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Camera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: currently, 123-170 million people in the world are infected with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV and 75% of them remain undiagnosed. HCV-positive individuals will develop Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC within 25 years in 20-30% of cases. Early detection of HCV has been demonstrated to increase quality-adjusted life years (QALY and to improve the behaviour of the infected population. Current national policies usually recommend regular screenings only for at-risk populations. A systematic review of the recent evidence on long-term cost-effectiveness of HCV screening in different populations was performed.Methods: resources were searched on publicly available databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, NHS EED, Cochrane Library and Google®. Studies were considered eligible if published between 2007 and 2012 and if providing measures of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER or incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR of HCV screening in terms of cost/life years gained (LYG and cost/QALY. All the costs were converted into Euro (€ for 2011. A weighted version of the Drummond checklist was used to further assess the quality of the included studies.Results: six articles were selected and analysed. Three U.S. and one Japanese studies suggested a positive cost-effectiveness profile of broad birth-cohort and population screening. Other studies conducted in Italy and the UK demonstrated high variability in the cost-effectiveness in different study populations. All the studies were judged of medium-high quality.Conclusions: cost-effectiveness of HCV screening significantly varies among countries and study populations. Prevalence in the population should be one of the criteria for policy-makers for future decisions and recommendations. New Direct-Acting Antiviral agents might increase the costeffectiveness of early HCV screening. Future studies should also focus on migrants and men who have sex with men (MSM populations.

  17. Genetic Variability of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV 5' Untranslated Region in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients Treated with Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Bukowska-Ośko

    Full Text Available Association between hepatitis C virus (HCV quasispecies and treatment outcome among patients with chronic hepatitis C has been the subject of many studies. However, these studies focused mainly on viral variable regions (E1 and E2 and usually did not include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients. The aim of the present study was to analyze heterogeneity of the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR in HCV/HIV coinfected patients treated with interferon and ribavirin. The HCV 5'UTR was amplified from serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC samples in 37 HCV/HIV coinfected patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Samples were collected right before treatment, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 20, 24, 36, 44, 48, 60, and 72 weeks. Heterogeneity of the 5'UTR was analyzed by single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP, cloning and sequencing. Sustained virological response (SVR was achieved in 46% of analyzed HCV/HIV co-infected patients. Stable SSCP band pattern was observed in 22 patients (62.9% and SVR rate among these patients was 23%. Decline in the number of bands and/or shift in band positions were found in 6 patients (17.1%, 5 (83% of whom achieved SVR (p=0.009. A novel viral genotype was identified in all but one of these patients. In 5 of these 6 patients a new genotype was dominant. 5'UTR heterogeneity may correlate with interferon and ribavirin treatment outcome. In the analyzed group of HCV/HIV coinfected patients, viral quasispecies stability during treatment favored viral persistence, whereas decrease in the number of variants and/or emergence of new variants was associated with SVR. Among injection drug users (IDU patients, a new genotype may become dominant during treatment, probably due to the presence of mixed infections with various strains, which have different susceptibility to treatment.

  18. Serial follow-up of repeat voluntary blood donors reactive for anti-HCV ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Voluntary non-remunerated repeat blood donors are perceived to be safer than the first time blood donors. This study was planned for follow-up of previous hepatitis C virus (HCV test results of anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA reactive repeat blood donors. The aim was to suggest a protocol for re-entry of the blood donors who are confirmed HCV negative by nucleic acid test (NAT and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA. A group of repeat voluntary donors were followed retrospectively who became reactive on a cross sectional study and showed HCV reactivity while donating blood regularly. Material and Methods: A total of 51,023 voluntary non remunerated blood donors were screened for anti-HCV ELISA routinely. If anybody showed positivity, they were tested by two ELISA kits (screening and confirmatory and then confirmed infection status by NAT and or RIBA. The previous HCV test results of repeat donors reactive by anti-HCV ELISA were looked back from the records. Data of donors who were repeat reactive with single ELISA kit (in the present study were analyzed separately from those reactive with two ELISA kits (in the present study. Results: In this study, 140 (0.27% donors who were reactive by anti HCV ELISA were included. Out of them, 35 were repeat voluntary donors and 16 (11.43% were reactive with single ELISA kit. All 16 donors were reactive by single ELISA kit occasionally in previous donations. Their present ELISA positive donations were negative for HCV NAT and RIBA. A total of 19 (13.57% donors were reactive with two ELISA kits. In their previous donations, the donors who were reactive even once with two ELISA kits were consistently reactive by the same two ELISA kits in their next donations also. Conclusion: Donor sample reactive by only single ELISA kit may not be considered as infectious for disposal as they were negative by NAT and or RIBA. One time ELISA positivity was found probably due to ELISA kit

  19. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical position control of plasma in a tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nizami Gasilov

    2007-04-01

    In designing tokamaks, the maintenance of vertical stability of plasma is one of the most important problems. Systems of the passive and active feedbacks are applied for this purpose. Role of the passive system consisting of a vacuum vessel and passive coils is to suppress fast MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) instabilities. The active feedback system is applied to control slow motions of plasma. The objective of the paper is to investigate two successive problems, solution of which allows to determine the possibility of controlling plasma motions. One of these is the problem of vertical stability under the assumption of ideal conductivity of plasma and passive stabilizing elements. The problem is solved analytically and on the basis of the obtained solution a criterion of MHD-stability is formulated. The other problem is connected with the control of plasma vertical position with active feedback system. Calculation of feedback control parameters is formulated as an optimization problem and an approximate method to solve the problem is suggested. Numerical simulations are performed with parameters of the T-15M tokamak in order to justify the suggested method.

  20. A novel design of feedback control system for plasma horizontal position in IR-T1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghidokht, A.; Khodabakhsh, R. [Department of physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salar Elahi, A., E-mail: Salari_phy@yahoo.com [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghoranneviss, M. [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Determination of accurate plasma horizontal position during plasma discharge is essential to transport it to a control system based on feedback. By using the plasma-circuits linearized model, Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) based controllers and a first order transfer function representing the power supply (PS) dynamics of vertical coil system for IR-T1 tokamak, we analyzed step feedback response of the overall system of IR-T1 tokamak and corresponding Bode diagrams for two cases with and without the plasma resistance and the eddy currents distribution. Also we did experiments for determination of plasma horizontal displacement in this tokamak. This work is done by four magnetic probes that are installed on the circular contour of the tokamak. This data used as input to the feedback controller to validate the performance of it. Results of feedback response analysis show that the controller has good performance. Due to approximations in the controller design, construction, installation and implementation of the controller is necessary and this is the purpose of our future works.

  1. Stress and coping in HIV-positive former plasma/blood donors in China: a test of cognitive appraisal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Wang, Jianping; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Hao; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-04-01

    Throughout the 1990s, many villagers in rural China were infected with HIV through commercial plasma/blood donation. These former plasma/blood donors (FPDs) experienced many HIV-related stressors. This study tested a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping in a sample of HIV-positive adult FPDs. Participants (N = 207) from multiple villages completed a battery of questionnaires assessing HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, cognitive appraisal, coping behaviors, and psychological distress. Participants reported high levels of HIV-related stress, depression, and anxiety. In a structural equation model, greater HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, and threat appraisal were directly associated with psychological distress. HIV-related stress was also indirectly associated with psychological distress through threat appraisal. In a second model, coping was found to mediate the relationship between challenge appraisal and psychological distress. Results support the utility of cognitive appraisal theory. Stress management interventions targeting HIV-positive FPDs in China are indicated.

  2. Interleukin-27 is differentially associated with HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell counts in therapy-naive HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai He

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27, a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

  3. Analytical calculations of anode plasma position in high-voltage discharge range in case of auxiliary discharge firing

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk, Igor V.; Tugay, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the mathematical model of triode high-voltage glow discharge range in case of auxiliary discharge firing. On a basis of analysis of elementary processes of charged particles interaction in a discharge range we obtain analytical relation, which allows to obtain the anode plasma position with regard to the cathode. Obtained results can be used for analysis of analysis of energy balance in a discharge range and self-maintained electron-ion optics of high voltage glow discharge electr...

  4. Correlates of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections in a prison inmate population: results from a multicentre study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babudieri, S; Longo, B; Sarmati, L; Starnini, G; Dori, L; Suligoi, B; Carbonara, S; Monarca, R; Quercia, G; Florenzano, G; Novati, S; Sardu, A; Iovinella, V; Casti, A; Romano, A; Uccella, I; Maida, I; Brunetti, B; Mura, M S; Andreoni, M; Rezza, G

    2005-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken on the correlates of infection for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses B and C (HBV and HCV) in a sample of inmates from eight Italian prisons. A total of 973 inmates were enrolled [87.0% males, median age of 36 years, 30.4% intravenous drug users (IDUs), 0.6% men who have sex with men (MSWM)]. In this sample, high seroprevalence rates were found (HIV: 7.5%; HCV: 38.0%; anti-HBc: 52.7%; HBsAg: 6.7%). HIV and HCV seropositivity were associated strongly with intravenous drug use (OR: 5.9 for HIV; 10.5 for HCV); after excluding IDUs and male homosexuals, the HIV prevalence remained nonetheless relatively high (2.6%). HIV prevalence was higher for persons from Northern Italy and Sardinia. The age effect was U-shaped for HIV and HCV infections; HBV prevalence increased with age. Tattoos were associated with HCV positivity (OR: 2.9). The number of imprisonments was associated with HIV infection, whereas the duration of imprisonment was only associated with anti-HBc. The probability of being HIV-seropositive was higher for HCV-seropositive individuals, especially if IDUs. In conclusion, a high prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HBV infections among inmates was observed: these high rates are in part attributable to the high proportion of IDUs. Frequency of imprisonment and tattoos were associated, respectively, with HIV and HCV positivity. Although it is possible that the study population is not representative of Italy's prison inmate population, the results stress the need to improve infection control measures users was prisons. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The influence of grounded electrode positions on the evolution and characteristics of an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Feng; Fang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in Ar with various grounded electrode arrangements is employed to investigate the effects of electrode arrangement on the characteristics of the APPJ. Electrical and optical methods are used to characterize the plasma properties. The discharge modes of the APPJ with respect to applied voltage are studied for grounded electrode positions of 10 mm, 40 mm and 80 mm, respectively, and the main discharge and plasma parameters are investigated. It is shown that an increase in the distance between the grounded electrode and high-voltage electrode results in a change in the discharge modes and discharge parameters. The discharges transit from having two discharge modes, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and jet, to having three, corona, DBD and jet, with increase in the distance from the grounded to the high-voltage electrodes. The maximum length of the APPJ reaches 3.8 cm at an applied voltage of 8 kV. The discharge power and transferred charges and spectral line intensities for species in the APPJ are influenced by the positions of the grounded electrode, while there is no obvious difference in the values of the electron excited temperature (EET) for the three grounded electrode positions.

  6. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediates the induction of pro-oncogenic and fibrogenic phenotypes in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisi, Anna; Arciello, Mario; Petrini, Stefania; Conti, Beatrice; Missale, Gabriele; Balsano, Clara

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common etiological factors involved in fibrosis development and its progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pivotal role of hepatic stellate cells (HCSs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) in fibrogenesis is now certainly accepted, while the network of molecular interactions connecting HCV is emerging as a master regulator of several biological processes including proliferation, inflammation, cytoskeleton and ECM remodeling. In this study, the effects of HCV proteins expression on liver cancer cells, both pro-invasive and pro-fibrogenic phenotypes were explored. As a model of HCV infection, we used permissive Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells infected with JFH1-derived ccHCV. Conditioned medium from these cells was used to stimulate LX-2 cells, a line of HSCs. We found that the HCV infection of Huh7.5.1 cells decreased adhesion, increased migration and caused the delocalization of alpha-actinin from plasma membrane to cytoplasm and increased expression levels of paxillin. The treatment of LX-2 cells, with conditioned medium from HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cells, caused an increase in cell proliferation, expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, hyaluronic acid release and apoptosis rate measured as cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). These effects were accompanied in Huh7.5.1 cells by an HCV-dependent increasing of FAK activation that physically interacts with phosphorylated paxillin and alpha-actinin, and a rising of tumor necrosis factor alpha production/release. Silencing of FAK by siRNA reverted all effects of HCV infection, both those directed on Huh7.5.1 cells, and those indirect effects on the LX-2 cells. Moreover and interestingly, FAK inhibition enhances apoptosis in HCV-conditioned LX-2 cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HCV, through FAK activation, may promote cytoskeletal reorganization and a pro-oncogenic phenotype in hepatocyte-like cells, and a fibrogenic phenotype in HSCs.

  7. High seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV-infected adults in Kigali, Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rusine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Rwanda are scarce. METHODS: HBV status was assessed at baseline and Month 12, and anti-HCV antibodies at baseline, in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients in Kigali, Rwanda: 104 men and 114 women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART at baseline, and 200 women not yet eligible for ART. RESULTS: Baseline prevalence of active HBV infection (HBsAg positive, past or occult HBV infection (anti-HBc positive and HBsAg negative and anti-HCV was 5.2%, 42.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. The active HBV incidence rate was 4.2/1,000 person years (PY. In a multivariable logistic regression model using baseline data, participants with WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV disease were 4.19 times (95% CI 1.21-14.47 more likely to have active HBV infection, and older patients were more likely to have evidence of past exposure to HBV (aRR 1.03 per year; 95%CI 1.01-1.06. Older age was also positively associated with having anti-HCV antibodies (aOR 1.09; 95%CI 1.04-1.14 while having a higher baseline HIV viral load was negatively associated with HCV (aOR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.98. The median CD4 increase during the first 12 months of ART was lower for those with active HBV infection or anti-HCV at baseline. Almost all participants (88% with active HBV infection who were on ART were receiving lamivudine monotherapy for HBV. CONCLUSION: HBV and HCV are common in HIV-infected patients in Rwanda. Regular HBsAg screening is needed to ensure that HIV-HBV co-infected patients receive an HBV-active ART regimen, and the prevalence of occult HBV infection should be determined. Improved access to HBV vaccination is recommended. Active HCV prevalence and incidence should be investigated further to determine whether HCV RNA PCR testing should be introduced in Rwanda.

  8. 抗-HCV与HCV-RNA检测结果不一致原因分析%Analysis of Reason That is Anti-HCV Accord with HCV-RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文汉成; 安社刚; 张红芳

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨抗-HCV和HCV-RNA结果不一致的原因.方法:应用ELISA法和FQ-PCR法同步检测380例患者血清中抗-HCV和HCV-RNA.结果:在280例抗-HCV阳性中有106例HCV-RNA为阴性,有3例抗-HCV阴性患者HCV-RNA却为阳性.结论:同步检测抗-HCV和HCV-RNA可提高肝病患者HCV感染的检出率,为其诊断和治疗提供指导.

  9. Multiparametric analyses of human PBMCs loaded ex vivo with a candidate idiotype vaccine for HCV-related lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annacarmen Petrizzo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been identified as one of the major risk factors for type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC, during the clinical evolution of chronic hepatitis, which may lead to development of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. We have previously shown that the candidate idiotype vaccine, based on the IGKV3-20 light chain protein, is able to induce activation and maturation of circulating antigen presenting cells (APCs in both HCV-positive and HCV-negative healthy control subjects, with production of Th2-type cytokines. Here, the effect of the recombinant IGKV3-20 protein on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from HCV-positive subjects, with known blood levels of cryoglobulins, is shown via gene expression profiling analysis combined to multiparameter flow cytometry and multiplex analyses of cytokines.

  10. Urban-Rural Comparison of HBV and HCV Infection Prevalence in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The present study was initiated to make an urban-rural comparison of the prevalence of cases positive to hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively) infection markers in densely populated eastern half of China. For this purpose, 10 survey sites were selected, i.e., six sites in urban areas (the city group; Beijing, Shanghai and four provincial capitals) and four sites in rural areas (the village group ; one village each in Jilin and Shandong Provinces, and two villages in Shaanxi Province). About 50 adult women per site volunteered to participate, from whom 494 valid blood samples were collected. Positivities to HBsAg (HBsAg+), anti-HBs (anti-HBs+) and anti-HBc (anti-HBc+) were examined by RIA methods, and that to anti-HCV (anti-HCV+) by either EIA or RIA. Those positive to any one of the three HBV infection markers were taken as HBV infection-positive (HBV+). The prevalence of HBsAg+, HBV+ and anti-HBc+ was 8%, 70% and 2.7% in the city group, and 8%, 65% and 2.0% in the village group, and no significant difference was found between the two groups. The overall prevalence was 8% for HBsAg+, 68% for HBV+, and 2.4% for anti-HCV+. The results were discussed in reference to some 20 papers each on HBV+ and anti-HCV+ prevalence in China published since 1991. The reviewing of these papers confirmed that the prevalence of HBV was high (i.e., in excess of 50%), whereas the prevalence of anti-HCV was low (well below 5%), and that no substantial difference was found between the rural and urban populations.

  11. New Insights in Recurrent HCV Infection after Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsien Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a small-enveloped RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Since first identified in 1989, HCV has been estimated to infect 170 million people worldwide. Mostly chronic hepatitis C virus has a uniform natural history, from liver cirrhosis to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The current therapy for HCV infection consists of a combination of Pegylated interferon and ribavirin. On the other hand, HCV-related liver disease is also the leading indication for liver transplantation. However, posttransplant HCV re-infection of the graft has been reported to be universal. Furthermore, the graft after HCV re-infection often results in accelerated progression to liver failure. In addition, treatment of recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation is often compromised by enhanced adverse effects and limited efficacy of interferon-based therapies. Taken together, poor outcome after HCV re-infection, regardless of grafts or recipients, poses a major issue for the hepatologists and transplant surgeons. The aim of this paper is to review several specific aspects regarding HCV re-infection after transplant: risk factors, current therapeutics for HCV in different stages of liver transplantation, cellular function of HCV proteins, and molecular mechanisms of HCV entry. Hopefully, this paper will inspire new strategies and novel inhibitors against recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation and greatly improve its overall outcome.

  12. Silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) assay for detection of bacteria: False positives secondary to inflammation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Michelle; Rice, Tyler A; Percopo, Caroline M; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2017-01-01

    The silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) assay has been developed as a means to detect bacterial peptidoglycan as a surrogate for live bacteria. Here, we present results that indicate that generation of melanin by this assay is not fully reliable as a surrogate marker for bacterial count.

  13. Plasma selenium is positively related to performance in neurological tasks assessing coordination and motor speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Avner; Patel, Kushang V; Semba, Richard D; Bandinelli, Stefania; Shahar, Danit R; Ferrucci, Louigi; Guralnik, Jack M

    2010-09-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative process affecting the striato nigral system (SN). Its etiology, although obscure, may involve oxidative damage. Selenium, an antioxidant, was shown to protect the SN in animal models. In the current study, we investigate the association between plasma selenium concentrations and the presence of "soft" neurological signs related to the SN. Plasma selenium concentration was assessed in participants of age ≥65 years in the InCHIANTI study, a population-based cohort study in Tuscany, Italy. PD was defined based on standard criteria. "Soft" neurological signs were ascertained by physical examination. A total of 1,012 participants were included. No association was found between the presence of PD and plasma selenium. There was, however, a strong association between plasma selenium and timed performance-based assessments. Lower levels of selenium were significantly associated withdecreased performance in neurological tests of coordination among older adults. Prospective studies are needed to further investigate the effects of selenium on SN dysfunction.

  14. Serum Islet Cell Autoantibodies During Interferon α Treatment in Patients With HCV-Genotype 4 Chronic Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Badra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide and HCV genotype 4 (HCV4 is predominant in African and Middle Eastern countries. It is well established that interferon-α (IFNa treatment for HCV may trigger serum autoantibodies against pancreatic islet cells (ICA in a subgroup of patients. Available data on the incidence of ICA during IFNa therapy for chronic HCV4 infection are not conclusive. We investigated the appearance of ICA in 40 naïve Egyptian patients (38 males, 32 ± 6 years with histologically defined chronic HCV4 infection undergoing IFNa treatment at a dose of 9-million U/week for 24 weeks. Serum samples were collected at baseline and following IFNa therapy and ICA were detected using indirect immunofluorescence. Baseline evaluation indicated that 2/40 (5% patients had detectable serum ICA. After the completion of the treatment scheme, 12/38 (32% previously ICA negative patients became ICA positive; however, no patient developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or diabetes during follow-up. In conclusion, we submit that IFNa treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC may induce serum ICA in one-third of Egyptian patients with HCV4. These autoantibodies, however, do not lead to alterations in glucose metabolism.

  15. Gluten Intake Is Positively Associated with Plasma α2-Macroglobulin in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnik, Joseph; García-Bailo, Bibiana; Borchers, Christoph H; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Gluten-free foods have increased in popularity over the past decade and are now being consumed by individuals without celiac disease. However, the physiologic effects of gluten intake in individuals without celiac disease remain unknown. High-abundance plasma proteins involved in inflammation, endothelial function, and other physiologic pathways may represent potential biomarkers of biological effects of gluten intake. The objective was to examine the association between gluten intake and plasma proteomic biomarkers in a population of adults without clinically diagnosed celiac disease. Subjects (n = 1095) were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study, a cross-sectional examination of young adults aged 20-29 y. Dietary gluten intake was estimated by using a 1-mo, 196-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The concentrations of 54 plasma proteins were measured simultaneously by liquid chromatography/multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. The association between gluten intake and each proteomic biomarker was examined by using general linear models. Analyses were then conducted in individuals who do not have the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or DQ8 risk variants required for the development of celiac disease to determine whether any associations observed could have been due to undiagnosed cases of celiac disease. Increased gluten intake was associated with increased concentrations of plasma α2-macroglobulin (P = 0.01), a marker of inflammation and cytokine release. The association remained after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, physical activity, energy intake, fiber intake, and hormonal contraceptive use among women. This relation was not modified by HLA risk variants. Gluten consumption is associated with increased plasma α2-macroglobulin in young adults, which appears to be independent of celiac disease, suggesting possible effects of gluten on inflammation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. cDNA Cloning of c33-c Antigen Gene Derived From NS3 Region of Chinese HCV Genome, Expression in Escherichia coli and Development of HCV EIA Second-Generation Diagnostic Kit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永平; 刘崇柏; 金冬雁; 詹美云; 汤权; 夏宁邵; 曹经媛; 李景源< Author> YANG Yong-Ping LIU Chong-Bai JIN Dong-YanZHAN Mei-Yun TANG Quan; XIA Ning-ShaoCAO Jing-Yuan and LI Jing-Yuan(Institute of Virology; Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine; Beijing 100052; PRC)

    1994-01-01

    A cDNA fragment of about 860 bp corresponding to the c33-c gene in the non-structural region 3 (NS3) of HCV genome was obtained from one plasma derived from a Chinese HCV carrier who came from Tai’an of Shandong Province, China by the application of reverse transcription (RT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. After the sequence of the cDNA fragment was determined and compared with the equivalent region of. the HCV-I (HCV-US) and HCV-II (HCV-BK) genomes, the nucleotide/ amino acid sequence homologies were found to be 79. 2%/91. 3% and 91. 3%/93. 9%, respectively. The prokaryotic expression vector pBV220 was employed for the overproduction of c33-c native recombinant protein in E. coli cells. The expression products were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting with antisera of chronic hepatitis C patients, and a molecular weight 31 kD of c33-c viral protein was shown to account for 14% of the total cellular soluble proteins. This product was extracted from

  17. Sex hormones and HCV: an unresolved mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Radwa Y; Abdelaziz, Ahmed I

    2013-01-01

    The biological differences between males and females advocate the ultimate need for gender-specific medicine. The variation in response to viral infection as well as therapy among different genders makes it very intriguing to reveal the responsible factors for causing this discrepancy. HCV is one of the most noxious infectious diseases, however the impact of gender on the response to HCV has received negligible attention in the literature. The controversial studies concerning the effect of gender on the outcome of interferon-based therapy urge a need to judge the gender discrepancy in host factors responsible for both interferon release and action. The main aim of this review is to disentangle the interplay between sex hormones and several viral and host factors responsible for viral clearance in an attempt to clarify the role of gender in modulating the response to HCV as well as interferon-based therapy.

  18. Immunological HCV-Associated Thrombocytopenia: Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Dimitroulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV is affecting about 3% of the world's population, leading to liver damage, end-stage liver disease, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, being thus the first indication for liver transplantation in the USA. Apart from the cirrhotic-liver-derived clinical signs and symptoms several conditions with immunological origin can also arise, such as, glomerulonephritis, pulmonary fibrosis, and thrombocytopenia. HCV-related autoimmune thrombocytopenia shows specific pathogenetic characteristics as well as symptoms and signs that differ in severity and frequency from symptoms in patients that are not HCV infected. Aim of this short paper is to estimate the epidemiological characteristics of the disease, to investigate the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation, and to propose treatment strategies according to the pertinent literature.

  19. HCV/HIV共感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施光峰

    2004-01-01

    由于共同的传播途径 ,HCV感染在HIV感染者中比较常见。这些人在开始有效抗逆转录病毒治疗(HARRT)后可能经历与HCV相关的逐渐升高的发病率和病死率。HIV感染对丙型肝炎的发展有不利影响 ,引起感染后增强的病毒抵抗和高水平的病毒血症 ,加速HCV相关肝病的发展。同样 ,丙型肝炎也可以影响HIV感染的病程和处理。美国有 15万到 30万人同时感染了HIV和HCV ,占所有HIV感染者的 15 %~ 30 %和所有HCV感染者的 5 %~ 10 %。过去认为 ,HCV感染是HIV感染者中的一个相对次要的医学问题 ,HAART的应用使大多数机会性疾病的发生率大大降低 ,丙型肝炎随之日益成为这些患者致病和死亡的一个重要原因。一、流行病学全球HCV的感染率约为 3% ,即 1.7亿人左右 ,我国HCV的感染率约为 2 .2 % ,美国的HCV感染率估计在 1.8%左右 ,即相当于 390万人。在这些人中 ,大约 2 70万为慢性HCV感染 ,其中有 30万人同时感染HIV ,这一数字占所有HIV感染者的近 30 %和所有HCV感染者的 10 %。HIV和HCV有共同的传播途径 ,即静脉传播、性接触传播和垂直传播。这...

  20. Occult hepatitis B in HIV-HCV coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroth, Lionel; Lafon, Marie-Edith; Binquet, Christine; Bertillon, Pascale; Gervais, Anne; Lootvoet, Enguerrand; Lang, Jean-Marie; De Jaureguiberry, Jean Pierre; Chene, Geneviève; Leport, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in HIV infected patients is controversial, varying from less than 1% to 62% in different studies. Blood samples of 111 HIV-infected patients, HCV-positive, HBs antigen negative, followed in the APROCO-ANRS EP11 cohort, were used to detect HBV DNA by using 2 different validated assays (Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor Test and INSERM U271 qualitative ultra-sensitive PCR), completed when positive by HBV real-time PCR. HBV DNA was found in 6 (5.4%, 95% CI 1.2%-9.6%) patients by at least 1 of these assays, but none tested positive in all 3 assays. All 6 patients had anti-HBc without anti-HBs antibodies; 5 were not on lamivudine. Their median CD4 and CD8 counts were significantly lower and their HIV viral load higher than in the other 105 patients. In conclusion, the prevalence of occult hepatitis B may vary significantly according to the molecular assay used, even though these assays are validated with high specificity and quite high sensitivity. Occult hepatitis B may be encountered in HIV-HCV coinfected patients without anti-HBV treatment, with anti-HBc but without anti-HBs antibodies, and relatively low immunity, suggesting a potential risk of further reactivation, as already sporadically reported.

  1. HCV-Related Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Monaco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is associated with a wide spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations, affecting different organ systems. Neurological complications occur in a large number of patients and range from peripheral neuropathy to cognitive impairment. Pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for nervous system dysfunction are mainly related to the upregulation of the host immune response with production of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and cryoglobulins. Alternative mechanisms include possible extrahepatic replication of HCV in neural tissues and the effects of circulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

  2. IP-10 predicts the first phase decline of HCV RNA and overall viral response to therapy in patients co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falconer, Karolin; Askarieh, Galia; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co-infected pa......The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co......-infected patients (HCV genotype 1 (n = 16), 2 (n = 2), and 3 (n = 3)). Lower baseline IP-10 was significantly associated with a rapid decline in HCV RNA, in particular with the first phase reduction, and similar cut-off levels ( 600 pg/ml) as in HCV mono-infected patients apply. In conclusion, baseline IP...

  3. Mass spectrometry of positive ions and neutral species in the effluent of an atmospheric pressure plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, J.; Ellerweg, D.; Schneider, S.; Rügner, K.; R, Reuter; Kersten, H.; Benter, T.

    2013-11-01

    The effluent of a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet in He with admixture of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and O2 has been investigated by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry. Positive ions and neutral plasma chemistry products have been detected and their possible role in the deposition of good-quality SiO2 films is discussed. Positive ion spectra reveal the presence of protonated water clusters and H+ : HMDSO and H3O+ : HMDSO ions. These ions are most probably produced by photoionization. This is corroborated by optical emission spectroscopy data obtained in the wavelength range of 50-300 nm, where helium excimer continuum emission centred around 84 nm has been observed. No ion driven polymerization products of HMDSO have been detected. Measurements of neutral species have allowed the quantification of the HMDSO depletion and absolute densities of trimethylsilanol and pentamethyldisiloxane. Two neutral polymerization products have been observed as well. The results indicate that the Si-O bond of HMDSO is preferentially broken. Additionally, the mass balance of plasma chemistry products is discussed.

  4. Coordinated modulation of circulating miR-21 in HIV, HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension, and HIV/HCV co-infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Victoria N.; Park, Joseph; Nikolic, Ivana; Channick, Richard; Yu, Paul B.; De Marco, Teresa; Hsue, Priscilla; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To assess expression of miR-21 in these overlapping comorbidities, we measured plasma miR-21 in HIV with and without PAH and then stratified by concomitant HCV infection. miR-21 was increased in HIV and HIV-PAH versus uninfected subjects, but did not differ between these groups. HIV/HCV co-infection correlated with even higher miR-21 levels within the HIV-infected population. These data reveal specific regulation of plasma miR-21 in HIV, HIV/HCV co-infection, and PAH and suggest that miR-21 may integrate complex disease-specific signaling in the setting of HIV infection. PMID:26473639

  5. Role of apoptotic hepatocytes in HCV dissemination: regulation by acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Murali; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Zhang, Jinjin; Mott, Justin L; Poluektova, Larisa I; McVicker, Benita L; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Tuma, Dean J; Osna, Natalia A

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol consumption exacerbates hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis and promotes disease progression, although the mechanisms are not quite clear. We have previously observed that acetaldehyde (Ach) continuously produced by the acetaldehyde-generating system (AGS), temporarily enhanced HCV RNA levels, followed by a decrease to normal or lower levels, which corresponded to apoptosis induction. Here, we studied whether Ach-induced apoptosis caused depletion of HCV-infected cells and what role apoptotic bodies (AB) play in HCV-alcohol crosstalk. In liver cells exposed to AGS, we observed the induction of miR-122 and miR-34a. As miR-34a has been associated with apoptotic signaling and miR-122 with HCV replication, these findings may suggest that cells with intensive viral replication undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, when AGS-induced apoptosis was blocked by a pan-caspase inhibitor, the expression of HCV RNA was not changed. AB from HCV-infected cells contained HCV core protein and the assembled HCV particle that infect intact hepatocytes, thereby promoting the spread of infection. In addition, AB are captured by macrophages to switch their cytokine profile to the proinflammatory one. Macrophages exposed to HCV(+) AB expressed more IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs compared with those exposed to HCV(-) AB. The generation of AB from AGS-treated HCV-infected cells even enhanced the induction of aforementioned cytokines. We conclude that HCV and alcohol metabolites trigger the formation of AB containing HCV particles. The consequent spread of HCV to neighboring hepatocytes via infected AB, as well as the induction of liver inflammation by AB-mediated macrophage activation potentially exacerbate the HCV infection course by alcohol and worsen disease progression.

  6. Packaging of HCV-RNA into lentiviral vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caval, Vincent [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Piver, Eric [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France); Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Darlix, Jean-Luc [LaboRetro, ENS-Lyon INSERM, U758, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon (France); Pages, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.pages@univ-tours.fr [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of HCV-RNA Core-D1 interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo evaluation of the packaging of HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the role of the three basic sub-domains of D1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterologous system involving HIV-1 vector particles to mobilise HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full length mobilisation of HCV genome and HCV-receptor-independent entry. -- Abstract: The advent of infectious molecular clones of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has unlocked the understanding of HCV life cycle. However, packaging of the genomic RNA, which is crucial to generate infectious viral particles, remains poorly understood. Molecular interactions of the domain 1 (D1) of HCV Core protein and HCV RNA have been described in vitro. Since compaction of genetic information within HCV genome has hampered conventional mutational approach to study packaging in vivo, we developed a novel heterologous system to evaluate the interactions between HCV RNA and Core D1. For this, we took advantage of the recruitment of Vpr fusion-proteins into HIV-1 particles. By fusing HCV Core D1 to Vpr we were able to package and transfer a HCV subgenomic replicon into a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector. We next examined how deletion mutants of basic sub-domains of Core D1 influenced HCV RNA recruitment. The results emphasized the crucial role of the first and third basic regions of D1 in packaging. Interestingly, the system described here allowed us to mobilise full-length JFH1 genome in CD81 defective cells, which are normally refractory to HCV infection. This finding paves the way to an evaluation of the replication capability of HCV in various cell types.

  7. HCV-related liver and lymphoproliferative diseases: association with polymorphisms of IL28B and TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Re, Valli; De Zorzi, Mariangela; Caggiari, Laura; Lauletta, Gianfranco; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Fognani, Elisa; Miorin, Marta; Racanelli, Vito; Quartuccio, Luca; Gragnani, Laura; Russi, Sabino; Pavone, Fabio; Ghersetti, Michela; Costa, Elena Garlatti; Casarin, Pietro; Bomben, Riccardo; Mazzaro, Cesare; Basaglia, Giancarlo; Berretta, Massimiliano; Vaccher, Emanuela; Izzo, Francesco; Buonaguro, Franco Maria; De Vita, Salvatore; Zignego, Anna Linda; De Paoli, Paolo; Dolcetti, Riccardo

    2016-06-21

    To explore the relationship between innate immunity and hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in determining the risk of cirrhosis (CIR), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome (MCS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we investigated the impact of the toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) and interleukin-28B (IL28B) genetic variants. TLR2 -174 del variant was associated with TLR2 expression and with specific downstream molecules that drive the expression of different interleukins; rs12979860 Il28B was important in response to interferon-treatment and in spontaneous clearance of HCV. The risk for liver and lymphoproliferative diseases in HCV progression was clarified by stratifying 862 HCV-positive patients into groups based on liver (CIR, HCC) and lymphoproliferative HCV-related diseases (MCS, NHL) and compared with chronic HCV (CHC) infection. Analysis of TLR2-IL28B haplotypes showed an association of wild type haplotype with the lymphoproliferative diseases (OR 1.77, p = 0.029) and a slight increase in HCV viral load (HR 1.38, p = 0.054). Wild type haplotype (TLR2 ins/ins- IL28B C/C) was also found associated with older age in patients with an hepatic diseases (in CIR and in HCC p = 0.038 and p = 0.020, respectively) supporting an effect of innate immunity in the liver disease progression. TLR2 and IL28B polymorphisms in combination showed a role in the control of HCV viral load and different HCV disease progression.

  8. Visualizing ATP-dependent RNA translocation by the NS3 helicase from HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Todd C; Anderson, Robert; Fedorova, Olga; Pyle, Anna M; Wang, Ruth; Liu, Xiaohong; Brendza, Katherine M; Somoza, John R

    2011-02-04

    The structural mechanism by which nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) translocates along RNA is currently unknown. HCV NS3 is an ATP-dependent motor protein essential for viral replication and a member of the superfamily 2 helicases. Crystallographic analysis using a labeled RNA oligonucleotide allowed us to unambiguously track the positional changes of RNA bound to full-length HCV NS3 during two discrete steps of the ATP hydrolytic cycle. The crystal structures of HCV NS3, NS3 bound to bromine-labeled RNA, and a tertiary complex of NS3 bound to labeled RNA and a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog provide a direct view of how large domain movements resulting from ATP binding and hydrolysis allow the enzyme to translocate along the phosphodiester backbone. While directional translocation of HCV NS3 by a single base pair per ATP hydrolyzed is observed, the 3' end of the RNA does not shift register with respect to a conserved tryptophan residue, supporting a "spring-loading" mechanism that leads to larger steps by the enzyme as it moves along a nucleic acid substrate.

  9. Experimental investigation of SDBD plasma actuator driven by AC high voltage with a superimposed positive pulse bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Hua; Yan, Hui-Jie; Yang, Liang; Hua, Yue; Ren, Chun-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a driven voltage consisting of AC high voltage with a superimposed positive pulse bias voltage ("AC+ Positive pulse bias" voltage) is adopted to study the performance of a surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator under atmospheric conditions. To compare the performance of the actuator driven by single-AC voltage and "AC+ Positive pulse bias" voltage, the actuator-induced thrust force and power consumption are measured as a function of the applied AC voltage, and the measured results indicate that the thrust force can be promoted significantly after superimposing the positive pulse bias voltage. The physical mechanism behind the thrust force changes is analyzed by measuring the optical properties, electrical characteristics, and surface potential distribution. Experimental results indicate that the glow-like discharge in the AC voltage half-cycle, next to the cycle where a bias voltage pulse has been applied, is enhanced after applying the positive pulse bias voltage, and this perhaps is the main reason for the thrust force increase. Moreover, surface potential measurement results reveal that the spatial electric field formed by the surface charge accumulation after positive pulse discharge can significantly affect the applied external electric field, and this perhaps can be responsible for the experimental phenomenon that the decrease of thrust force is delayed by pulse bias voltage action after the filament discharge occurs in the glow-like discharge region. The schlieren images further verify that the actuator-induced airflow velocity increases with the positive pulse voltage.

  10. The Value of Core Antigen and RNA HCV in the Diagnosis of Chronic Hepatitis C%核心抗原与HCV RNA检查在慢性丙型肝炎诊断中的价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪峻岭; 李照丹; 徐兴伟; 徐萌; 李惠

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨核心抗原与HCV RNA检查在慢性丙型肝炎的诊断价值。方法回顾性分析2013年3月~2015年10月我院收治的慢性丙型肝炎患者65例抗HCV抗体、核心抗原及HCV RNA病毒载量结果。结果以抗HCV抗体为金标准,HCV RNA的敏感度为57.38%,特异度为100%;HCV核心抗原的敏感度为45.90%,特异度为100%。不同HCV RNA载量的核心抗原的阳性率分布经秩和检验Z=5.2935,P<0.0001。结论核心抗原与HCV RNA不适合丙型肝炎感染的筛查,二者可用于病毒复制的检测。%ObjectiveTo investigate the value of core antigen and RNA HCV in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C(CHC).Methods 65 cases of CHC in our hospital from March 2013 to October 2015 were included. The results of HCV antibody,core antigen and RNA HCV viral load were analyzed. ResultsThe sensitivity of RNA HCV was 57.38%,the specificity was 100%,the sensitivity of HCV core antigen was 45.90%,the specificity was 100%.The positive rate distribution of the core antigen of different RNA HCV load was tested by rank sum test Z=5.293 5,P<0.000 1.Conclusion Core antigen and RNA HCV are not suitable for CHC infection screening,the two can be used for the detection of viral replication.

  11. Potent inhibitors of HCV-NS3 protease derived from boronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatraman, Srikanth; Wu, Wanli; Prongay, Andrew; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George; (SPRI)

    2009-07-23

    Chronic hepatitis C infection is the leading causes for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to liver failure and liver transplantation. The etiological agent, HCV virus produces a single positive strand of RNA that is processed with the help of serine protease NS3 to produce mature virus. Inhibition of NS3 protease can be potentially used to develop effective drugs for HCV infections. Numerous efforts are now underway to develop potent inhibitors of HCV protease that contain ketoamides as serine traps. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of potent inhibitors that contain a boronic acid as a serine trap. The activity of these compounds were optimized to 200 pM. X-ray structure of compound 17 bound to NS3 protease is also discussed.

  12. 联合检测血清HCV RNA载量、HCV cAg和HCV Ab在HCV感染诊断中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛小红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨HCV RNA载量、HCV cAg和HCV Ab的联合检测在HCV感染早期诊断中的临床意义。方法采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)技术检测HCV-RNA含量,并用ELISA对标本进行HCV cAg和HCV Ab的检测。比较108例丙型肝炎患者 HCV RNA 载量、HCV cAg和 HCV Ab 的检出率。结果HCV-RNA的阳性检出率为91.75%,显著高于HCV cAg的71.42%(χ2=25.042,P<0.01)和 HCV Ab 的69.78%(χ2=28.299,P<0.01)。3例HCVcAg阳性而HCV RNA和HCV Ab均阴性;6例HCV Ab 阴性而HCV-RNA和HCV cAg检测结果均阳性;8例HCV-RNA阳性而HCV Ab和HCV cAg检测结果均阴性;不同HCV RNA载量间HCVcAg和HCV Ab检测阳性率差异均无统计学意义(χ2=0.016、0.046,均 P>0.05)。结论联合检测HCV RNA、HCV cAg和HCV Ab对HCV感染的早期准确诊断具有重要意义和价值。

  13. HCV and HIV binding lectin, DC-SIGNR, is expressed at all stages of HCV induced liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G; Coleman, N; Soilleux, E

    2004-01-01

    The process by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters cells and the reason for its hepatotropism remain obscure. Recently, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) binding lectins, DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR, were shown to bind HCV. This article reports the expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR in HCV related liver disease and discusses whether these lectins, in particular DC-SIGNR, are responsible for HCV hepatotropism.

  14. DC-SIGN:Binding receptor for HCV?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hua Feng; Quan-Chu Wang; Qing-He Nie; Zhan-Sheng Jia; Yong-Xin Zhou

    2004-01-01

    DC-SIGN, a dendritic Cell-specific adhesion receptor and a type Ⅱ transmembrane mannose-binding C-type lectin, is very important in the function of DC, both in mediating naive T cell interactions through ICAM-3 and as a rolling receptor that mediates the DC-specific ICAM-2-dependent migration processes. It can be used by viral and bacterial pathogens including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), HCV, Ebola Virus, CMV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to facilitate infection. Both DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR can act either in cis,by concentrating virus on target cells, or in trans, by transmission of bound virus to a target cell expressing appropropriate entry receptors. Recent work showed that DC-SIGN are highaffinity binding receptors for HCV. Besides playing a role in entry into DC, HCV E2 interaction with DC-SIGN might also be detrimental for the interaction of DC with T cells during antigen presentation. The clinical strategies that target DCSIGN may be successful in restricting HCV dissemination and pathogenesis as well as directing the migration of DCs to manipulate appropriate immune responses in autoimmunity and tumorigenic situations.

  15. HCV/HTLV coinfection: Does HTLV-1 interfere in the natural history of HCV-related diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcelo Costa; Silva, Carolina Alves Costa; Machado, Gustavo Uzêda; Atta, Ajax; M Freire, Songeli; Carvalho, Edgar; Schinoni, Maria Isabel; Paraná, Raymundo

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) coinfection occurs in many regions. However, few studies have focused on the natural history of HCV-induced liver disease in coinfected patients. To describe the clinical, epidemiological, and histopathological aspects of HTLV-1/HCV coinfection in Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 23 patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV. The control groups consisted of 21 patients monoinfected with HCV and 20 patients monoinfected with HTLV-1. The cytokine profiles (Th1 and Th2 cell responses), clinical, laboratory features, and histopathological aspects were examined. The control group for cytokine analysis validation consisted of patients monoinfected with HTLV, and a fourth group consisted of healthy blood donors. No anthropometric differences present between the three infected groups. We observed higher serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients coinfected with HCV/HTLV-1 than those in HCV monoinfected patients. The HCV/HTLV-1 coinfected group also exhibited a higher degree of liver steatosis than the HCV monoinfected patients. Results suggest that HCV/HTLV-1 coinfection may result in a different pattern of HCV infection due to the immunologic disorders likely associated with HTLV-1, but there is no clear evidence of the HTLV role in the natural history of HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1967-1972, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. HCV NS5A and NS5B Enhance Expression of Human Ceramide Glucosyltransferase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Guo; Ran Yan; Guo-dong Xu; Cong-yi Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Host genes involved in lipid metabolism are differentially affected during the early stages of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.Here we demonstrate that artificial up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis has a positive effect on the replication of the HCV full-length replicon when cells were treated with nystatin.Conversely,the HCV RNA replication was decreased when fatty acid biosynthesis was inhibited with 25-hydroxycholesterol and PDMP(D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3- morpholino-1-propanol).In agreement with these results,the expression level of GlcT-1(ceramide glucosyltransferase),a host glucosyltransferase in the first step of GSL (glycosphingolipid) biosynthesis,was found to be closely associated with the expression and replication of HCV RNA.On the other hand,the viral RNA can also activate GlcT-1 in the early stage of viral RNA transfection in vitro.To identify viral factors that are responsible for GlcT-1 activation,we constructed ten stable Vero cell lines that express individual HCV proteins.Based on the analyses of these cell lines and transient transfection assay of the GlcT-1 promoter regions,we conclude that HCV proteins,especially NS5A and NS5B,have positive effects on the expression of GlcT-1.It is possible that NS5A and NS5B stimulate transcription factor(s) to activate the expression of GlcT-1 by increasing its transcription level.

  17. HCV genotype-specific correlation with serum markers: Higher predictability for genotype 4a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Sultan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several factors have been proposed to assess the clinical outcome of HCV infection. The correlation of HCV genotypes to possible serum markers in clinical prediction is still controversial. The main objective of this study was to determine the existence of any correlation between HCV genotypes to viral load and different clinical serum markers. Methods We performed a prospective cross-sectional and observational study. About 3160 serum HCV RNA positive patients were chosen from 4020 randomly selected anti-HCV positive patients. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 16 software package. ROC (receiver operating characteristics curves were used to compare diagnostic values of serum markers to predict genotypes. Results The most prevalent genotype was 3a (73.9% followed by 1a (10.7%, 4a (6.4% and 3b (6.1% in Pakistani population. No correlation was found between viral load and serum markers for genotype 3a in a large no. of sample (n = 2336. While significant correlation was observed between viral load and AST in genotype 3b, ALP with viral load and ALT for genotype 1a. Patients with genotype 4a showed a significant inverse correlation with viral load and Hb level and AST with ALP. For genotype 4a, AUC (area under the curve of ALT, ALP, AST, bilirubin, Hb level and viral load was 0.790, 0.763, 0.454, 0.664, 0.458 and 0.872 respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, there was a significant variable response of HCV genotypes with serum markers. Severity of disease is independent of serum marker level in genotype 3a, while the liver damage in genotype 4a may associate with viral cytopathic effect as well as the immune-mediated process. An index using six serum markers may correctly predict genotype 4a in patients with ≥75% accuracy.

  18. Plasma Membrane Protein Ubiquitylation and Degradation as Determinants of Positional Growth in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Korbei; Christian Luschnig

    2013-01-01

    Being sessile organisms, plants evolved an unparalleled plasticity in their post-embryonic development, allowing them to adapt and fine-tune their vital parameters to an ever-changing environment. Cross-talk between plants and their environment requires tight regulation of information exchange at the plasma membrane (PM). Plasma membrane proteins mediate such communication, by sensing variations in nutrient availability, external cues as well as by controlled solute transport across the membrane border. Localiza-tion and steady-state levels are essential for PM protein function and ongoing research identified cis- and trans-acting determinants, involved in control of plant PM protein localization and turnover. In this overview, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of plant PM protein sorting and degradation via ubiquitylation, a post-translational and reversible modification of proteins. We highlight characterized components of the machinery involved in sorting of ubiquitylated PM proteins and discuss consequences of protein ubiquitylation on fate of selected PM proteins. Specifically, we focus on the role of ubiquitylation and PM protein degradation in the regulation of polar auxin transport (PAT). We combine this regulatory circuit with further aspects of PM protein sorting control, to address the interplay of events that might control PAT and polarized growth in higher plants.

  19. HCV RNA检测与HCV/HBV共感染相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢放; 黄艳翔; 靳海英; 郭向华

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)RNA检测在HCV单独感染和 HCV、乙型肝炎病毒( HBV) 合并感染中的临床意义.方法 对96例HCV感染者分别分为CH和LC组,HCV和HCV+HBV组,检测抗- HCV、 HCV RNA .结果 96例HCV感染患者中肝硬化组HCV RNA阳性率较慢性肝炎组差异无统计学意义.乙肝和丙肝二重感染者HCV RNA阳性率显著高于单纯HCV感染(χ2 = 5.65,P= 0.017 ).单纯HCV感染者和乙肝及丙肝二重感染者血清丙肝病毒含量差异有统计学意义 (χ2=5.134,P= 0.023) .结论 在 HCV RNA检测的同时结合HBV DNA的检测,对 HCV感染的临床诊治有重要的指导意义.

  20. 抗-HCV ELISA法检测结果在临界值附近的风险探讨%Disscuion on Infection Risk of Patients with Results of Critical Value by Against-HCV ELISA Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仁南; 王连友; 孙阳; 陈玲; 陈娜云; 朱月华

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用化学发光免疫分析(CLIA)法,检测抗-HCV ELISA法结果在临界值附近(0.4≤S/CO<1)的血清标本,探讨HCV感染的风险性.方法 笔者对19份抗-HCV ELISA法检测结果在临界值附近,胶体金法均阴性的血液标本,分别经抗-HCV ELISA法试剂①、试剂②、胶体金法和CLIA法试剂进行了检测.结果 HCV-CLIA法阳性16份、ELISA法试剂①和试剂②分别阳性5份9份,胶体金法阳性0份.CLIA法与ELISA法和胶体金法比较检出率灵敏度显著高于ELISA法(P<0.05或P<0.01)和胶体金法(P<0.01).结论 抗-HCV ELISA法检测结果在临界值附近的血液标本存在HCV感染的可能,尤其是献血者标本存在感染受血者的风险.对可疑标本应更进一步的应用丙型病毒性肝炎核心抗原检测法、CLIA法、核酸扩增和微流芯片法或RNA RT-PCR荧光定量法进行检测,以保证结果的准确性.%Objective To investigate the risk of HCV infection in patients with the results of critical value(0.4≤S/CO < 1 ) in serum samples by anti-HCV ELISA method.Methods Nineteen blood specimens with the critical value results by anti-HCV ELISA method and negative results by colloid gold method were again detected by anti-HCV ELISA reagent ①,anti-HCV ELISA reagent ②, and colloid gold method and HCV- Chemiluminescence immunoassay(CLIA) assay simultaneously.Results There were 16 specimens were with positive results by HCV-CLIA method,5 with positive results by reagent ①,9 with positive results by reagent ② and 0 with positive results by colloid gold method.Compared with ELISA and colloid gold reagent, the positive rate of CLIA was more sensitive than ELISA ( P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ) and colloid gold reagent ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion Blood samples have the possibility infected by HCV at the critical value of anti-HCV ELISA assay results.In order to avoid the infection from the blood donors, all the suspicious samples should be further detected by HCV

  1. Molecular Virology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV: 2006 Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fascinating progress in the understanding of the molecular biology of hepatitis C virus (HCV was achieved recently. The replicon system revolutionized the investigation of HCV RNA replication and facilitated drug discovery. Novel systems for functional analyses of the HCV glycoproteins allowed the validation of HCV receptor candidates and the investigation of cell entry mechanisms. Most recently, recombinant infectious HCV could be produced in cell culture, rendering all steps of the viral life cycle, including entry and release of viral particles, amenable to systematic analysis. In this review, we summarize recent advances and discuss future research directions.

  2. Phylogenetics of HCV: Recent advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... antiviral therapies have been successful at keeping virus suppressed for .... structure-imposed constraints on third-codon position variability in the ..... new generation of protease and RNA polymerase inhibitors. (Lamarre et al.

  3. Characteristics of plasma in culture medium generated by positive pulse voltage and effects of organic compounds on its characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Sato, T.; Yoshino, D.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a positive pulse voltage method for generating plasma in culture medium with a composition similar to biological fluids. We also describe the plasma’s characteristics, liquid quality, and the effect of organic compounds in the culture medium on the plasma characteristics through comparisons to a solution containing inorganic salts at the same concentrations as in the culture medium. Light emission with Na and OH spectra was observed within a vapor bubble produced by Joule heating at the tip of the electrode. A downward thermal flow and shock wave were caused by the behavior of the vapor bubble. The culture medium pH gradually increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the discharge time of 300 s. H2O2 was generated 1.1 mg l-1 in the culture medium after discharge for 300 s, and this value was 0.5 mg l-1 lower than the inorganic salts solution which does not contain organic compounds. This study provides important data that will help facilitate more widespread application of plasma medicine.

  4. Safety of interferon treatment for chronic HCV hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D Festi; L Sandri; G Mazzella; E Roda; T Sacco; T Staniscia; S Capodicasa; A Vestito; A Colecchia

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide, In fact, chronic hepatitis C is considered as one of the primary causes of chronic liver disease, cirhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is the most common reason for liver transplantation. The primary objectives for the treatment of HCV-related chronic hepatitis is to eradicate infection and prevent progression of the disease. The treatment has evolved from the use of α-interferon (TFNα)alone to the combination of IFNα plus ribavirin, with a significant improvement in the overall efficacy, and to the newer PEG-IFNs which have further increased the virological response, used either alone or in combination with ribavirin.Despite these positive results, in terms of efficacy, concerns are related to the safety and adverse events. Many patients must reduce the dose of PEG-IFN or ribavirin, others must stop the treatment and a variable percentage of subjects are not suitable owing to intolerance toward drugs. IFNβ represents a potential therapeutic alternative for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and in some countries it plays an important role in therapeutic protocols. Aim of the present paper was to review available data on the safety of IFNβ treatment in HCV-related chronic hepatitis.The rates of treatment discontinuation and/or dose modification due to the appearance of severe side effects during IFNβ are generally low and in several clinical studies no requirements for treatment discontinuation and/or dose modifications have been reported. The most frequent side effects experienced during IFNβ treatment are flu-like syndromes, fever, fatigue and injection-site reactions. No differences in terms of side-effect frequency and severity between responders and non-responders have been reported.A more recent study, performed to compare IFNβ alone or in combination with ribavirin, confirmed the good safety profile of both treatments. Similar trends of adverse event

  5. Anti-HCV antibody among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli, a suburban area of Delta State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ogbodo Ekene; Oghene, Otue Akpevwe; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike

    2015-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common routes of infection and as such, co-infection is expected. Co-infection of the two viruses is of great medical importance as it determines the effect of drugs used for treatment at various stages. This interplay between HIV and HCV sets the tone for the objective of this study which is to ascertain the seroprevalence of HCV among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli, a suburban area of Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 200 newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients were recruited for this study. Each of the sera was tested for anti-HCV antibody using SWE-life HCV ultra rapid test strip. Appropriate questionnaires were used to ascertain other important information which include social behaviour such as whether the patients were MSM (males), IDU, tattoo and/or have received blood transfusion in the past. The prevalence of HCV among the study population was determined to be 15.0%. A higher seroprevalence was observed among females (16.5%) than in males (13.0%). A higher seroprevalence was also observed among age groups >26 years (16.0%) than in age-groups 14-25 years (13.0%) and 2-13 years (0.0%). Of the 7 patients with tattoos, 1(14.3%) tested positive for HCV compared to 29(15.0%) with no tattoos. We found no significant correlation with transfusion, intravenous drug use (IDU), men that have sex with men (MSM), tattooing and the seroprevalence of HCV. However, significant correlation existed with age, sex and HCV prevalence. This study reports a 15.0% seroprevalence of HCV among newly diagnosed HIV patients and that is alarmingly well above several other studies done in the past in Nigeria and other countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Planned preven tion, screening, and treatment are needed to reduce further transmission and morbidity. Future studies involving HCV-RNA assays are needed.

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Hepatitis C Among HIV Positive Men Having Sex with Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Hullegie (Sebastiaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe general aim of this thesis is to study different aspects of an acute HCV infection in HIV positive MSM. The primary aim is to study the effectivity and safety of boceprevir in addition to pegIFN and RBV for the treatment of acute HCV infections within the Dutch Acute HCV in HIV study

  7. 抗-HCV与HCV-RNA和ALT之间的关系探讨%Discussion on the Relationship of Anti-HCV, HCV-RNA and ALT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甸子芩; 沈云松

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨丙型肝炎病毒感染者丙型肝炎病毒抗体(抗-HCV)与丙型肝炎病毒核酸(HCV-RNA)和丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)之间的关系.方法 对抗-HCV阳性样本441例,采用荧光定量聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测HCV-RNA含量和其ALT水平.结果 441例抗-HCV阳性的血清中HCV-RNA阳性的有295例,阳性率67%,HCV-RNA阳性率随抗-HCV的S/CO值升高而升高.ALT异常的有269例,阳性率61%,ALT的含量及阳性率随HCV-RNA的含量升高而升高.结论 HCV-RNA的阳性率与抗-HCV的S/CO值存在正相关,ALT的阳性率及含量与HCV-RNA呈正相关,因此,可根据抗-HCV检测的S/CO值及ALT的含量辅助临床了解丙型肝炎病毒在体内的复制情况,以指导治疗.%  Objective To investigate the relationship of hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) in hepatitis C virus infection. Methods Using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detecting HCV-RNA content and testing ALT levels in 441 cases of anti-HCV positive samples. Results In 441 cases of anti-HCV positive serum, HCV-RNA positive 295 cases, the positive rate of HCV-RNA was 67%, and the positive rate increased with the anti-HCV S/CO ratio increased. Abnormal ALT 269 cases, the positive rate of ALT was 61%, the content and the positive rate of ALT increased with HCV-RNA levels increased. Conclusion The positive rate of HCV-RNA has positive correlation with anti-HCV S/CO ratio, the positive rate and content of ALT has positive correlation with HCV-RNA, therefore, according to the anti-HCV S/CO ratio and the content of ALT assisted clinical understand the replication of hepatitis C virus in the body, to guide treatment.

  8. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, Misao [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ariumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ariumi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto [Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Shimotohno, Kunitada [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-8516 (Japan); Kato, Nobuyuki [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  9. Factors predictive of macrosomia in pregnancies with a positive oral glucose challenge test: importance of fasting plasma glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legardeur, H; Girard, G; Journy, N; Ressencourt, V; Durand-Zaleski, I; Mandelbrot, L

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the factors associated with fetal macrosomia following a positive oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). In this retrospective single-centre study of 1268 pregnancies with positive 50-g OGCTs (plasma glucose≥130mg/dL, or 7.2mmol/L), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG)≥95mg/dL (5.3mmol/L) and/or postprandial glucose (PPG)≥120mg/dL (6.7mmol/L). In GDM pregnancies, the odds ratios adjusted for confounders (age, BMI, ethnicity, parity and weight gain) were 2.02 for macrosomia (Z score≥1.28) and 2.62 for severe macrosomia (Z score≥1.88). For each 10-mg/dL increase in FPG, the mean birth-weight increase was 60g. Macrosomia risk did not differ between GDM patients with normal FPG (macrosomia risk were strongly correlated with FPG, suggesting that it is a simple and efficient marker for the risk of macrosomia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and microbial translocation in HIV/HCV co-infected patients in the SMART study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Duprez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous results from the SMART study showed that HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected persons with impaired liver function are at increased risk of death following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of fibrosis and ART interruption...... on levels of biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and microbial translocation in HIV/HCV co-infected persons in the SMART study. STUDY DESIGN: All HIV/HCV co-infected persons with stored plasma at study entry and at six months of follow-up were included (N=362). D-dimer, IL-6, sCD14 and hepatic...

  11. CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV-infected patients express multiple negative immune checkpoints following stimulation with HCV peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathan, Muttiah; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chang, Li Yen; Vignesh, Ramachandran; Krishnan, Jayalakshmi; Sigamani, Panneer; Saeidi, Alireza; Ram, M Ravishankar; Velu, Vijayakumar; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV (CHC) patients showed significant increase of CTLA-4. Furthermore, HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ T cells of CHC patients also displayed relatively higher levels of PD-1 and TRAIL, whereas TIM-3 was up-regulated on HCV peptide-stimulated CD8+ T cells. Whereas the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-6 were markedly decreased in the T cell cultures of CHC patients. Chronic HCV infection results in functional exhaustion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells likely contributing to viral persistence.

  12. The expanding spectrum of HCV-related cryoglobulinemic vasculitis: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammacco, Franco; Racanelli, Vito; Russi, Sabino; Sansonno, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) is a small-to-medium-vessel vasculitis that appears in 10-15 % of patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The classic symptom triad of CV, purpura/asthenia/arthralgia, is accompanied by clinical features that include glomerulonephritis, neuropathy, interstitial pneumonitis, and cardiomyopathy, ranging in their severity from mild to life threatening. The risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma is also higher. The cumulative 10-year survival rate of CV patients is significantly lower than in the age- and sex-matched general population, with death typically caused by nephropathy, malignancies, liver involvement, and severe infections. Unfailing serological stigmata include both a cryoglobulin IgM fraction with rheumatoid factor activity and decreased complement C4 levels. On peripheral B cells, the expression of the CD81 B cell receptor is reduced while that of the CD19 receptor is increased. A monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis develops in almost one-third of patients. HCV-related proteins (but not HCV-RNA genomic sequences) can be detected on biopsy samples by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry and involve the vessel lumen, vessel walls, and the perivascular spaces of the skin, kidney, and peripheral nerves, supporting the pathogenetic role of HCV in the onset of a widespread microvasculitis. Based on the demonstration of HCV infection in the large majority of CV patients, a therapeutic regimen consisting of once-weekly pegylated interferon-α and the daily administration of ribavirin results in a sustained virologic response in ~50 % of patients. In those with refractory and relapsing disease, addition of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has significantly increased the overall response rates. The extension to CV of latest-generation direct-acting antivirals, strikingly successful in non-CV HCV-positive patients, has yielded high complete response rates according to the few studies published

  13. Urban-Rural Comparison of HBV and HCV Infection Prevalence in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The present study was initiated to make and urban-rural comparison of the prevalence of cases positive to hepatitis B and C virus(HBV and HCV,respectively)infection markers in densely populated eastern half of China.For this purpose.10 survey sites were selected,i.e.,six sites in urban areas(the city group;Beijing,shangahi and four provincial capitals)and four sites in rural areas(the village group;one village each in Jilin and Shandong provinces,and two villages in Shaanxi Province),About 50 adult women per site volunteered to participate,from whom 494 valid bllod samples were collected.Positivities to HBsAg(HBsAg+),anti-HBs(anti-HBs+)and antiHBc(anti-HBc+)were examined by RIA methods.and that to anti-HCV(anti-HCV+)by either EIA or RIA.Those positive to any one of the three HBV infection markers were taken as HBV infection-positive(HBV+).The prevalence of HBsAg+,HBV+ and anti-HBc+ was 8%,70%and 2.7% in the city group,and 8%,65% and 2.0%in the village group,and no significant difference was found between the two groups.The overall prevalence was 8% for HBsAg+,68% for HBV+,and 2.4% for anti-HVC+,The results were discussed in reference to some 20 papers each on HBV+ and anti-HCV+ prevalence in China published since(1991),The reviewing of these papers of anti-HCV was low(well below 5%),and that no substantial difference was found between the rural and urban populations.

  14. Presence of HCV-RNA after ultracentrifugation of serum samples during the follow-up of chronic hepatitis C patients with a sustained virological response may predict reactivation of hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, I; Bartolomé, J; Quiroga, J A; Barril, G; Carreño, V

    2009-09-01

    Concentration of viral particles by ultracentrifugation of serum prior to PCR allows detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in patients with undetectable viral RNA by conventional PCR assays. To analyse if HCV-RNA is detected after serum ultracentrifugation in chronic hepatitis C patients with a sustained virological response to antiviral therapy (defined as serum HCV-RNA negativity by conventional assays 6 months after the end of therapy). HCV-RNA was tested using real-time PCR in ultracentrifuged sera collected during the post-treatment follow-up (mean: 42 +/- 27 months) in 57 sustained virological responders (SVR). After serum ultracentrifugation, HCV-RNA was detected on at least one occasion during the follow-up in 29/57 (51%) SVR. Thirteen (23%) of these 57 SVR suffered a reactivation 18 +/- 8 months after the end of therapy (reappearance of serum HCV-RNA detectable by conventional assays). Among reactivated patients, 11/13 (85%) had HCV-RNA in ultracentrifuged serum samples (detectable 10 +/- 5 months before reactivation), while HCV-RNA was positive after ultracentrifugation in 18/44 (41%) long-term SVR (P = 0.01). Persistence of detectable HCV-RNA after serum ultracentrifugation was associated with reactivation (P = 0.001). Serum ultracentrifugation prior to PCR allows detection of HCV-RNA in SVR and its persistence may predict late reactivation.

  15. The influence of HCV coinfection on clinical, immunological and virological responses to HAART in HIV-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Carmo

    Full Text Available The potential impact of the hepatitis C virus (HCV on clinical, immunological and virological responses to initial highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is important to evaluate due to the high prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection. A historical cohort study was conducted among 824 HIV-infected patients starting HAART at a public referral service in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, to assess the impact of HCV seropositivity on appearance of a new AIDS-defining opportunistic illness, AIDS-related death, suppression of viral load, and an increase in CD4-cell count. A total of 76 patients (9.2% had a positive HCV test, 26 of whom (34.2% had a history of intravenous drug use. In multivariate analysis, HCV seropositivity was associated with a smaller CD4-cell recovery (RH=0.68; 95% CI [0.49-0.92], but not with progression to a new AIDS-defining opportunistic illness or to AIDS-related death (RH=1.08; 95% CI [0.66-1.77], nor to suppression of HIV-1 viral load (RH=0.81; 95% CI [0.56-1.17] after starting HAART. These results indicate that although associated with a blunted CD4-cell recovery, HCV coinfection did not affect the morbidity or mortality related to AIDS or the virological response to initial HAART.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for HBV, HCV and HDV infections among injecting drug users from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.A. Oliveira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis constitutes a major health issue, with high prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs. The present study assessed the prevalence and risk determinants for hepatitis B, C and D viruses (HBV, HCV and HDV infections among 102 IDUs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Serological markers and HCV-RNA were detected by enzyme immunoassay and nested PCR, respectively. HCV genotyping was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP. HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs were found in 7.8, 55.8 and 24.7% of IDUs, respectively. In the final logistic regression, HBV infection was independently associated with male homosexual intercourse within the last 5 years (odds ratio (OR 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-8.8. No subject presented anti-delta (anti-HD. Anti-HCV was detected in 69.6% of subjects, and was found to be independently associated with needle sharing in the last 6 months (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-9.2 and with longer duration of iv drug use (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.1-8.7. These data demonstrate that this population is at high risk for both HBV and HCV infection. Among IDUs from Rio de Janeiro, unprotected sexual intercourse seems to be more closely associated with HBV infection, whereas HCV is positively correlated with high risk injecting behavior. Comprehensive public health interventions targeting this population and their sexual partners must be encouraged.

  17. Seropositivity rates of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL in blood donors in Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, İmdat; Demir, Cengiz; Bay, Ali; Akdeniz, Hayrettin; Öner, Ahmet Faik

    2007-03-05

    Infections caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) remain the leading most important health problems worldwide. Screening tests such as HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL are mandatory tests to look at before transfusion of blood or blood components. In this study, donors who applied to our Blood Center in a nine-year period were retrospectively evaluated with respect to HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis seroprevalence. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV were examined by microparticle ELISA system, and syphilis antibodies were screened by a syphilis test device. Of the total 39,002 individuals, 16,601 (42%) were females and 22,401 (58%) were males. HBsAg positivity was found in 2.55%, anti-HCV in 0.17%, anti-HIV in 0.036%, and VDRL in 0.057% of overall donors. As a result, HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL seropositivity rates in donors living in our region were found lower than those in many regions of Turkey. Nevertheless, because there is no screening method to reduce the risk resulting from transfusion to zero, it appears that it is essential to adopt strict criteria in the selection of donors and to avoid unnecessary transfusion.

  18. The influence of HCV coinfection on clinical, immunological and virological responses to HAART in HIV-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Carmo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of the hepatitis C virus (HCV on clinical, immunological and virological responses to initial highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is important to evaluate due to the high prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection. A historical cohort study was conducted among 824 HIV-infected patients starting HAART at a public referral service in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, to assess the impact of HCV seropositivity on appearance of a new AIDS-defining opportunistic illness, AIDS-related death, suppression of viral load, and an increase in CD4-cell count. A total of 76 patients (9.2% had a positive HCV test, 26 of whom (34.2% had a history of intravenous drug use. In multivariate analysis, HCV seropositivity was associated with a smaller CD4-cell recovery (RH=0.68; 95% CI [0.49-0.92], but not with progression to a new AIDS-defining opportunistic illness or to AIDS-related death (RH=1.08; 95% CI [0.66-1.77], nor to suppression of HIV-1 viral load (RH=0.81; 95% CI [0.56-1.17] after starting HAART. These results indicate that although associated with a blunted CD4-cell recovery, HCV coinfection did not affect the morbidity or mortality related to AIDS or the virological response to initial HAART.

  19. Cytokines and HCV-Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poupak Fallahi

    2012-01-01

    However, HCV interferes with cytokines at various levels and escapes immune response by inducing a T-helper (Th2/T cytotoxic 2 cytokine profile. Inability to control infection leads to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates into the liver parenchyma by interferon (IFN-gamma-inducible CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL-9, -10, and -11 chemokines, which results in sustained liver damage and eventually in liver cirrhosis. The most important systemic HCV-related extrahepatic diseases—mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid autoimmune disorders, and type 2 diabetes—are associated with a complex dysregulation of the cytokine/chemokine network, involving proinflammatory and Th1 chemokines. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as IFN-alpha may result in viral clearance during persistent infection and reverts this process.

  20. 丙肝患者血清HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg、HCV-RNA检测的比较及肝功能的相关性研究%Comparison of hepatitis C patients in serum HCV-Ab, HCV-cAg,HCV-RNA detection and relationship to liver function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中东; 黄麦华

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg、HCV-RNA及ALT、AST、γ-GT的相关性及临床应用价值.方法 ELISA方法检测HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg,PCR-荧光探针法检测HCV-RNA,全自动生化分析仪检测ALT、AST、γ-GT.结果 检测HCV感染者186例,其中HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg的阳性率分别为95.7%、25.3%、82.7%.ALT、AST、γ-GT水平与HCV病毒载量呈正相关(P<0.01).结论 同时检测HCV-Ab、HCV-cAg、HCV-RNA可充分掌握丙肝患者病毒感染情况,以及检测ALT、AST、γ-GT对抗病毒治疗的疗效评价及治疗时间有重要意义.

  1. Stability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels among interferon-naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Peters, Lars; Reekie, J;

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals.......Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals....

  2. 丙型肝炎核心抗原检测在丙型肝炎诊断中的意义%Detection of HCV core antigen and its diagnostic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰; 崔敬; 刘春; 魏枫华; 窦晓光

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解丙型肝炎核心抗原(HCV-cAg)检测方法的敏感性及特异性,确定具有临床意义的S/CO值,探讨其在丙型肝炎诊断中的意义.方法 使用ELASA方法检测丙型肝炎核心抗原,RT-PCR检测HCV RNA定量,观察不同S/CO值所对应的HCV RNA定量之间的关系,以HCV RNA为诊断金标准,列四格表做诊断实验.结果 HCV-cAg抗原检测的敏感性为87.05%,特异性为76.67%,阳性预测值为96.53%,阴性预测值为44.23%.结论 (1)随着HCV-cAg的S/CO值逐渐增大,其与HCV RNA阳性符合率明显增高,随着HCV-cAg的S/CO值减小,其与HCV RNA阴性符合率明显增高;(2)S/CO值=2可以作为临床判断HCV感染病毒血症存在的一个标准;(3)本实验的敏感性和特异性较好,检测方法简单,可以作为丙型肝炎临床诊断的补充试验及筛查.%Objective To compare the abilities of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (cAg) test and the HCV RNA assay for confirming anti - HCV presence in order to determine the clinical utility of the HCV - cAg as an alternative or confirmatory diagnostic tool. Methods Serum samples collected from 158 patients diagnosed with HCV infection were subjected to the enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay - based HCV — cAg test. The optical density ( OD) measured values were used to calculate the ratio of specimen absorbance to the cutoff value (S/ CO). Simultaneously, the serum samples were subjected to PCR - based nucleic acid amplification quantitative fluorescence detection of HCV RNA. Results None of the serum samples had a S/CO value 5 ( 100% positive). The HCV - cAg test sensitivity was 87. 05% , specificity was 76. 67% , positive predictive value was 96. 53% , and negative predictive value was 44. 23% . As the S/CO value gradually increased, the significantly higher positive coincident rate of the HCV RNA test decreased. The HCV RNA negative coincident rate was significantly higher than that of the HCV - cAg test. HCV - cAg S/CO values

  3. Influence of HIV and HCV on T cell antigen presentation and challenges in the development of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eJohn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the central challenges for developing effective vaccines against HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are similar. Both infections are caused by small, highly mutable, rapidly replicating RNA viruses with the ability to establish long-term chronic pathogenic infection in human hosts. HIV has caused 60 million infections globally and HCV 180 million and both viruses may co-existent among certain populations by virtue of common blood-borne, sexual or vertical transmission. Persistence of both pathogens is achieved by evasion of intrinsic, innate and adaptive immune defenses but with some distinct mechanisms reflecting their differences in evolutionary history, replication characteristics, cell tropism and visibility to mucosal versus systemic and hepatic immune responses. A potent and durable antibody and T cell response is a likely requirement of future HIV and HCV vaccines. Perhaps the single biggest difference between the two vaccine design challenges is that in HCV, a natural model of protective immunity can be found in those who resolve acute infection spontaneously. Such spontaneous resolvers exhibit durable and functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. However frequent re-infection suggests partial or lack of protective immunity against heterologous HCV strains, possibly indicative of the degree of genetic diversity of circulating HCV genotypes and subtypes. There is no natural model of protective immunity in HIV, however studies of elite controllers, or individuals who have durably suppressed levels of plasma HIV RNA without antiretroviral therapy has provided the strongest evidence for CD8+ T cell responses in controlling viremia and limiting reservoir burden in established infection. Here we compare and contrast the specific mechanisms of immune evasion used by HIV and HCV, which subvert adaptive human leucocyte antigen (HLA-restricted T cell immunity in natural infection, and the challenges these pose for designing effective

  4. 第4代Murex HCV Ag/Ab联合检测试剂在血液筛查中的应用价值%Study on the possibility of the application of Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination (version 4.0) assay in blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷婵; 邱艳; 修冰水; 龚晓燕; 郑静; 查祎; 王全立

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of the Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination (version 4.0) assay for blood screening. Methods 987 HCV-Ab reactive and gray zone samples were collected from routine blood screening and detected by both the Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination assay and Murex HCV Ab reagent. And verification test were carried out by RIBA and HCV NAT test. Results The positive rate of Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination assay and the Murex HCV Ab assay was 73.3% and 75.4% respectively, the negative rate was 95.8% and 90.8% and the final total positive rate was 85.8% and 84.0% respectively. The positive compliance rate between Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination and Murex HCV Ab assay was 76.7%, the negative compliance rate was is 94.5% and the total compliance rate was 87.6%. Among 123 inconsistent samples, 5 were RIBA negative /RNA positive,Murex HCV Ag/Ab positive for 4 samples (including confirmed window period sample); Murex HCV Ab was positive in only one sample; for 15 RIBA positive and RNA negative samples, 5 samples were positive by Murex HCV Ag/Ab and 10 samples were positive by Murex HCV Ab. Conclusions The RIBA negative and RNA positive samples could be efficiently detected out by Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination assay. Because the low compliance rate between Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination and Murex HCV Ab assay and the low detection rate of both system, we recommend the conjunction application of Murex HCV Ag/Ab combination and the Murex HCV Ab assay for blood screening. The double -check for HCV EIA blood screening strategy can help to reduce the possibility of transfusion transmitted infectious diseases.%目的 探讨第4代Murex HCV Ag/Ab联合检测试剂在血液筛查中的应用价值.方法 应用Murex HCV Ag/Ab联合检测试剂与Murex HCV Ab检测试剂,对987份血液筛查中HCV抗体初筛阳性和灰区标本及1份确认窗口期标本进行比较检测,应用RIBA、病毒核酸检测试剂进行补充验证实验,并对结

  5. Aktuelles Management der HIV/HCV-Koinfektion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payer BA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Die HIV/HCV-Koinfektion findet sich sehr häufig bei HIV-Patienten mit intravenösem Drogenabusus. In dieser Patientengruppe stellt die HCV-assoziierte chronische Lebererkrankung heute auch die wichtigste Todesursache dar, da die HIV-Infektion meist sehr gut kontrolliert werden kann, die Hepatitis C aber oft nicht behandelt wird. Dabei sind die Therapieprinzipien sowohl für die HIV- als auch für die HCV-Infektion in der Zwischenzeit gut etabliert und auch allgemein akzeptiert: Eine retrovirale Therapie (cART sollte bei Koinfektion immer und unabhängig vom Immunstatus durchgeführt werden, da dies die Progression der Lebererkrankung positiv beeinflusst. Und die Hepatitis C sollte durch Standardtherapie mit Peginterferon plus Ribavirin therapiert werden, wobei in absehbarer Zeit auch bei Koinfektion die Dreifachtherapie mit den Proteaseinhibitoren Boceprevir und Telaprevir zum Einsatz kommen wird. Die Beachtung von Medikamenteninteraktionen wird dabei allerdings eine große Rolle spielen.

  6. Activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway in HCV monoinfected and HIV-HCV coinfected patients, irrespective of liver disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuth, Thijs; Van Baarle, Debbie; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Van Erpecum, Karel J; Siersema, Peter D; Arends, Joop E

    2014-07-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased levels of peripheral T cell apoptosis. We aimed to study whether T cell apoptosis markers indicate pathways that may contribute to clinical progression in HCV monoinfected and HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathways was measured by levels of death receptor Fas, initiator caspase 8 and effector caspases 3 and 7 activity and Annexin V binding on peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cells of HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients, as well as healthy controls and HIV-infected, hepatitis B virus-infected and primary biliary cirrhosis disease controls. Association with liver fibrosis was assessed by biopsy or by transient elastography. HCV monoinfected and HIV-HCV coinfected patients displayed enhanced peripheral CD4 and CD8 T cell apoptosis. Caspase 8 activity was highest in HIV-HCV coinfection, without enhanced downstream activity of caspases 3 and 7. Level of peripheral T cell apoptosis was independent of liver fibrosis or other disease parameters in all disease groups. The extrinsic apoptosis pathway is upregulated in HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection, but this is independent of liver disease severity.

  7. Plasma sE-selectin level is positively correlated with neutrophil count and diastolic blood pressure in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Inoue, Seiya; Miyauchi, Rie; Misaki, Yasumi; Shimada, Masaya; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of circulating soluble type of E-selectin (sE-selectin), neutrophil counts and blood pressure are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of men who participated in health check-ups, and selected those who were not diagnosed with or being treated for metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and lipid abnormality according to the health check-ups. We measured their basic clinical parameters including blood pressure and neutrophil count, plasma sE-selectin concentration and lifestyle factors, and assessed their interrelations by multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis. A total of 351 subjects aged 47.5±8.41 (range, 30-64) y were recruited. Significantly correlated with sE-selectin concentration were neutrophil count, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.194, 0.220 and 0.175, respectively). MLR analysis showed that sE-selectin concentration was independently positively related with DBP and neutrophil count, whereas neutrophil count was positively associated with sE-selectin concentration but not DBP. DBP, but not SBP, was independently positively correlated with sE-selectin concentration but not neutrophil count. These results indicate that circulating sE-selectin concentration may be a biomarker for indicating subsequent development of metabolic diseases, in particular CVD, from a healthy state.

  8. IL28B SNP rs8099917 is strongly associated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin therapy treatment failure in HCV/HIV-1 coinfected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Aparicio

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies report that the SNP rs8099917, located 8.9 kb upstream of the start codon of IL28B, is associated with both disease chronicity and therapeutic response to pegIFN-α and RBV in patients infected with genotype 1 HCV. To determine the effect of rs8099917 variation on the response of HCV to therapy, we genotyped this variant in a cohort of 160 HCV/HIV-1 coinfected patients in our clinic unit who received combined peg-IFN-α/RBV therapy. The rs8099917 T/G or G/G genotypes were observed in 56 patients (35%. Treatment failure occurred in 80% of G-allele carriers versus 48% of non-carriers (P<0.0001. This result reveals that the G allele was strongly associated with treatment failure in this patient cohort. Importantly, a highly significant association was found between the G-allele and response to therapy in HCV genotype 1-infected patients (P<0.0001 but not in HCV genotype 3-infected patients. Multivariate analysis (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P value indicated that the rs8099917 TT genotype was a strong predictor of treatment success (5.83; 1.26-26.92; P = 0.021, independent of baseline plasma HCV-RNA load less than 500 000 IU/ml (4.85; 1.18-19.95; P = 0.025 and absence of advanced liver fibrosis (5.24; 1.20-22.91; P = 0.025. These results reveal the high prevalence of the rs8099917 G allele in HCV/HIV-1 coinfected patients as well as its strong association with treatment failure in HCV genotype 1-infected patients. rs8099917 SNP genotyping may be a valid pre-treatment predictor of which patients are likely to respond to treatment in this group of difficult-to-treat HCV/HIV-infected patients.

  9. Involvement of Differential Relationship between HCV Replication and Hepatic PRR Signaling Gene Expression in Responsiveness to IFN-Based Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Nobukazu; Matsumoto, Shinji; Kato, Michio; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To gain an insight into the effect of HCV replication-associated interference with the IFN system on hepatic mRNA expression involved in IFN production. Methods. Relative mRNA expression of TLR3/RIG-I signaling genes involved in IFN- β production was correlated with positive- and negative-strand HCV RNAs in pretreatment liver tissues responsive and nonresponsive to peginterferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1. Treatment response was analyzed for per protocol population at weeks 12 (n = 45) and 24 (n = 40) and at 24 weeks aftertreatment (n = 38). Results. HCV replication had no relation to the expression of TLR3, RIG-I, TRIF, IPS-1, IRF3, and IFN- β mRNAs in responders. In striking contrast, positive- and/or negative-strand HCV showed positive correlations with TLR3, RIG-I, TRIF, IPS-1, and IRF3 mRNAs in week-12 nonresponders; with RIG-I, TRIF, IPS-1, and IRF3 mRNAs in week-24 nonresponders; and with TLR3, RIG-I, and IRF3 mRNAs in posttreatment nonresponders. Thus mRNA expression of TLR3/RIG-I signaling genes was increased in relation to viral replication in nonresponders. Conclusions. The findings in IFN nonresponders may imply a host feedback response to severe impairment of the IFN system associated with HCV replication.

  10. Endogenous plasma estradiol in healthy men is positively correlated with cerebral cortical serotonin 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Erritzoe, David; Juul, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sex-hormones influence brain function and are likely to play a role in the gender predisposition to mood and anxiety disorders. Acute fluctuations of sex-hormone levels including hormonal replacement therapy appear to affect serotonergic neurotransmission, but it is unknown if baseline...... = 0.0001), whereas no independent effects of testosterone could be demonstrated. Correction for other factors of importance for 5-HT2A receptor binding did not change the result. A voxel-based analysis suggested that there were no regional differences in the estradiol effect on cortical 5-HT2A...... receptor binding. Conclusions: Our data show a positive correlation between endogenous plasma estradiol levels and cortical 5-HT2A receptor binding in healthy men, whereas, no independent effect of testosterone was demonstrated. We speculate that this association could be mediated through effects on gene...

  11. Lopinavir/Ritonavir Pharmacokinetics in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients With or Without Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Valeria; Regazzi, Mario; Dickinson, Laura; Meraviglia, Paola; Villani, Paola; Khoo, Saye H.; Viganò, Paolo; Cordier, Laura; Cusato, Maria; Duca, Piergiorgio; Orlando, Giovanna; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Back, David J.; Cargnel, Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease may alter the pharmacokinetics of antiretrovirals and produce changes in plasma protein binding. The aim was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of total and unbound lopinavir (LPV) in HIV-infected patients with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Fifty-six HIV+ patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) (group I = 24 controls; II = 23 HIV/HCV–coinfected; III = 9 cirrhotic HIV/HCV-coinfected) were included. Total (n = 56) and unbound (n = 36) LPV pharmacokinetic parameters were determined at steady-state using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters (plasma concentration just before drug administration, peak concentrations in plasma, times to maximum plasma concentration, areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours, and CL/F/kg) of both total and unbound LPV were calculated by standard noncompartmental methods and differences among groups evaluated (Kruskal-Wallis test). LPV apparent oral clearance normalized to body weight (median, interquartile range) was 55 (40–68), 59 (44–69), and 71 (53–78) mL/h/kg for groups I, II, and III, respectively (II vs. I, P = 0.52; III vs. I, P = 0.16). The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours were 110.4 (80.9–135.2), 103.4 (85.5–131.3), and 92.8 (87.4–116.3) μg*h/mL for groups I, II, and III, respectively (II vs. I, P = 0.68; III vs. I, P = 0.71). Chronic liver impairment produced a slight, although not significant, decrease in plasma protein binding. The free-fraction of LPV increased (~21%) from 0.97% (0.80–1.06) in HIV+/HCV− patients to 1.18% (0.89–1.65) in HIV/HCV+ cirrhotic patients. The apparent oral clearance of unbound LPV (CLu/F/kg) in cirrhotic patients did not change significantly, supporting the concept that the clearance of unbound LPV in liver disease is not affected

  12. Ddetection of HCV RNA in ELISA anti-HCV negative donors%ELISA抗-HCV阴性献血者HCV RNA的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪勇平; 雷永良; 吴丽雅; 任振唤

    2002-01-01

    @@ 自酶联免疫法(ELISA)检测丙型肝炎病毒抗体(抗-HCV)试剂应用于血液HCV 的初筛以来,血液HCV的传播风险大为降低,但是仍有少数患者输血后感染HCV,原因是由于ELISA本身的局限性而使部分"窗口期"的HCV感染者未能被检出.为了解本市ELISA筛查合格献血者血液HCV RNA 的流行率,笔者对部分经ELISA双份试剂检测阴性的标本进行HCV RNA 检测,现报告如下.

  13. ALT与HCV核心抗原及HCV-RNA相关性研究%Study on correlation of ALT, HCV core antigen and HCV-RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 曹培义

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究ALT与HCV核心抗原、HCV-RNA间关系.方法 对81例HCV-RNA阳性标本检测HCV核心抗原和ALT水平.结果 81例HCV-RNA阳性标本检出HCV核心抗原阳性32例,灰区26例,ALT水平超过临床参考值56例,ALT检测水平与HCV核心抗原阳性程度呈正相关性.结论 HCV-cAg仅与HCV-RNA复制密切相关,与复制水平无关.HCV核心抗原可联合HCV抗体检测提高血液标本HCV感染检出率,结合ALT可以评测感染状态.

  14. Virological Mechanisms in the Coinfection between HIV and HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla Liberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to shared transmission routes, coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is common in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. The immune-pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients is a multifactorial process. Several studies demonstrated that HIV worsens the course of HCV infection, increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, HCV might increase immunological defects due to HIV and risk of comorbidities. A specific cross-talk among HIV and HCV proteins in coinfected patients modulates the natural history, the immune responses, and the life cycle of both viruses. These effects are mediated by immune mechanisms and by a cross-talk between the two viruses which could interfere with host defense mechanisms. In this review, we focus on some virological/immunological mechanisms of the pathogenetic interactions between HIV and HCV in the human host.

  15. Experimental studies of a microsecond plasma opening switch in the positive polarity regime with inductive load/extraction ion diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritskii, V. M.; Lisitsyn, I. V.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    1992-06-01

    Systematic studies of the microsecond plasma opening switch (MPOS) operation in the positive polarity of its inner electrode with an inductive load/B-applied ion diode of the extraction type at a level of 0.3 TW of dissipated power were performed at the DOUBLE generator (300 kA, 480 kV, 1 μs). The detailed measurements of ion flow parameters in the conductive phase of the MPOS showed the considerable enhancement of the ion current amplitude over the thermal flow limit (3-10 times) which is coupled with a significant decrease of electron conductivity in the MPOS across its self-magnetic field. The positive polarity MPOS operation proved to be more critical to the stored current amplitudes and geometry of the electrodes in comparison with the negative polarity case. This fact resulted in limitations of satisfactory performance of the MPOS involving short high-voltage pulse duration, low stored current amplitudes, and a narrow region of acceptable electrode diameters. The variation of the diode anode-cathode (AC) gap provided a sensitive control of the MPOS + magnetically insulated diode (MID) system, which displayed very strong coupling, resulting in clamping of the output voltage in a wide region of diode impedances. The early long-duration (<300 ns) high-voltage (50-200 kV) prepulse improves plasma production at the anode of the MID prior to the application of the main pulse. The optimal performance of the MPOS+MID system was realized at the level of ZMPOS/ZMID = 2.5. The energy of the extracted high-power ion beam made up 3.5 kJ, its power being 120 GW with 40% efficiency of energy transfer from MPOS to the MID.

  16. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  17. Performances of HCV Ag or HCV RNA kits for screening of HCV-infected samples%HCV Ag或HCV RNA试剂用于筛查丙型肝炎病毒感染样本的性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷金莲; 于洋; 梁争论

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较丙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis C virus,HCV)抗原(HCV Ag)与HCV RNA试剂检测HCV感染的性能.方法 应用ABBOTT ARCHITECT HCV Ag和Abbott RealTime HCV RNA试剂分别检测经Ortho和DiaSorin公司抗HCV EIA试剂以及CHIRON公司RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA和MP Biomedicals Asia Pacific Pte公司确证试剂检测的304份血浆样本(抗-HCV阳性139份,抗-HCV阴性165份).结果 139份抗-HCV阳性样本中,HCV RNA和HCV Ag试剂的阳性检出率分别为54.0%(75/139)和27.3%(38/139),HCV RNA试剂敏感性明显高于HCV Ag试剂(P<0.01);检测165份抗-H CV阴性样本中,HCV RNA和HCV Ag试剂检测均为阳性的样本有5份,分别检出7份和2份单独阳性样本,特异性分别为7.3%(12/165)和4.2%(7/165),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);应用HCV Ab+HCVRNA或HCV Ab+ HCV Ag筛查HCV感染,阳性检出率分别为49.7%(151/304)和48.0%(146/304),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).在94份HCV Ag和HCV RNA阳性样本检测中,HCV Ag试剂阳性率随样本HCV RNA载量的升高而增加,HCV RNA载量与检测HCV Ag阳性率呈正相关.结论 HCV Ag或HCV RNA作为HCV筛查的补充试验方法,可有效降低HCV Ab窗口期的漏检率.

  18. Detection and analysis of HCV-RNA in banked blood%库血HCV-RNA的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚萍; 伍继新; 胡兆平; 陶良军; 叶冬青; 黄芬

    2001-01-01

    目的为探索提高库血丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)的检出率.方法采用逆转录套式聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)技术,检测4 530份抗-HCV阴性的库血HCV-RNA.结果 4 530份库血中HCV-RNA阳性55份,阳性率1.21%,其中个体献血者血液2 110份,HCV-RNA阳性40份,阳性率1.90%;无偿献血者血液2 420份,HCV-RNA阳性15份,阳性率0.62%.结论 RT-PCR可用于检测库血HCV-RNA,以减少因输血造成HCV感染.

  19. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The narrow host range of infection and lack of suitable tissue culture systems for the propagation of hepatitis B and C viruses are limitations that have prevented a more thorough understanding of persistent infection and the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease.

    Despite decades of intensive research and significant progresses in understanding of viral hepatitis, many basic questions and clinical problems still await to be resolved. For example, the HBV cellular receptor and related mechanisms of viral entry have not yet been identified. Little is also known about the function of certain non-structural viral products, such as the hepatitis B e antigen and the X protein, or about the role of excess hepadnavirus subviral particles circulating in the blood stream during infection. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the role of the immune system in determining the fate of infection are not fully understood.

    The reason for these drawbacks is essentially due to the lack of reliable cell-based in vitro infection systems and, most importantly, convenient animal models.

    This lack of knowledge has been partially overcome for hepatitis B virus (HBV, by the discovery and characterization of HBV-like viruses in wild animals while for hepatitis C virus (HCV, related flaviviruses have been used as surrogate systems.

    Other laboratories have developed transgenic mice that express virus gene products and/or support virus replication. Some HBV transgenic mouse models

  20. [Sequential monitoring of plasma EBV-DNA level in a patient with EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Emi; Honma, Riko; Igarashi, Aiko; Kurata, Morito; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Omoto, Eijiro; Miura, Osamu; Arai, Ayako

    2012-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever, systemic lymphadenopathy with abnormal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titers, and a high EBV-DNA load in the serum. She had been diagnosed as possibly having chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) during a previous hospitalization. The EBV-DNA load of the plasma (pEBV-DNA), examined at our hospital, was elevated to 1.8×10(4) copies/ml, whereas that of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was 3.4×10(1) copies/μg DNA, which was not clearly elevated, unlike in cases with CAEBV. Biopsy of the cervical lymph node was performed and the diagnosis of mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin lymphoma, Stage4B was made. Hodgkin cells were positive for EBV. COPP therapy was started and pEBV-DNA decreased drastically. The treatment was followed by ABVD therapy and pEBV-DNA turned negative after one course of ABVD therapy. She achieved complete response after 4 courses of the treatment. Reports from abroad indicate that pEBV-DNA parallels the disease state of EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma. Our results were consistent with these reports, and demonstrated that, in a Japanese patient, EBV-DNA load and its localization in the peripheral blood fractions could be useful tools for diagnosis as well as evaluating the disease status.

  1. 慢性丙型肝炎患者血清HCV RNA水平与AST/ALT比例的关系%Relationship between hepatitis C virus RNA and the ratio of AST/ALT in the patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭柏松; 伍金华

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析抗-HCV阳性患者血清水平HCV RNA与AST/ALT活性的关系;评价AST/ALT比值,HCV RNA水平在判断丙肝患者预后方而的价值.方法 采用ELISA法检测抗-HCV,阳性标本分别用荧光PCR试剂盒测定HCV RNA;全自动生化分析仪检测AST/ALT.结果 78份抗-HCV阳性标本经PCR检测后有31份标本含有HCV RNA,HCV RNA拷贝量与AST/ALT比例呈正相关.结论 动态监测AST/ALT比例和HCV RNA的水平,可用于丙型肝炎的预后估计.%To investigate the relationship between serum hepatitis C virus RNA and the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT ratio) in anti-HCV positive samples of patients, and assess the prognostic validity of the ratio of AST/ALT, HCV-RNA in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods Hepatitis C virus fluorescence PCR diagnostic kit was carried out on the anti-HCV positive samples; the ratio of serum AST/ALT was measured by biochemical instrument. Results Of 78 cases, 31 were positive for HCV RNA,the copies of HCV-RNA has correlation with the ratio of AST/ALT. Conclusion The ratio of AST/ALT and the copies of HCV-RNA can be dynamic measured to estimate the prognosis of HCV.

  2. HBV, HCV and HIV seroprevalence among blood donors in Istanbul, Turkey: how effective are the changes in the national blood transfusion policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Acar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The national blood transfusion policies have been changed significantly in recent years in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in blood donors at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul and to evaluate the effect of changes in the national blood transfusion policies on the prevalence of these infections. The screening results of 72695 blood donations at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul between January and December 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were screened by microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA method. Samples found to be positive for anti-HIV 1/2 and anti-HCV were confirmed by Inno-Lia HCV Ab III and Inno-Lia HIV I/II Score, respectively. The seropositivity rates for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were determined as 1.76%, 0.07%, and 0.008%, respectively. Compared to the previously published data from Red Crescent Centers in Turkey, it was found that HBV and HCV seroprevalances decreased and HIV seroprevalance increased in recent years. In conclusion, we believe that the drop in HBV and HCV prevalence rates are likely multifactorial and may have resulted from more diligent donor questioning upon screening, a higher level of public awareness on viral hepatitis as well as the expansion of HBV vaccination coverage in Turkey. Another factor to contribute to the decreased prevalence of HCV stems from the use of more sensitive confirmation testing on all reactive results, thereby eliminating a fair amount of false positive cases. Despite similar transmission routes, the increase in HIV prevalence in contrast to HBV and HCV may be linked to the increase in AIDS cases in Turkey in recent years.

  3. HBV, HCV and HIV seroprevalence among blood donors in Istanbul, Turkey: how effective are the changes in the national blood transfusion policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Acar

    Full Text Available The national blood transfusion policies have been changed significantly in recent years in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in blood donors at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul and to evaluate the effect of changes in the national blood transfusion policies on the prevalence of these infections. The screening results of 72695 blood donations at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul between January and December 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were screened by microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA method. Samples found to be positive for anti-HIV 1/2 and anti-HCV were confirmed by Inno-Lia HCV Ab III and Inno-Lia HIV I/II Score, respectively. The seropositivity rates for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were determined as 1.76%, 0.07%, and 0.008%, respectively. Compared to the previously published data from Red Crescent Centers in Turkey, it was found that HBV and HCV seroprevalances decreased and HIV seroprevalance increased in recent years. In conclusion, we believe that the drop in HBV and HCV prevalence rates are likely multifactorial and may have resulted from more diligent donor questioning upon screening, a higher level of public awareness on viral hepatitis as well as the expansion of HBV vaccination coverage in Turkey. Another factor to contribute to the decreased prevalence of HCV stems from the use of more sensitive confirmation testing on all reactive results, thereby eliminating a fair amount of false positive cases. Despite similar transmission routes, the increase in HIV prevalence in contrast to HBV and HCV may be linked to the increase in AIDS cases in Turkey in recent years.

  4. Soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma Haematobium induces HCV replication in PBMC from patients with chronic HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine, in vitro , the effect of soluble egg antigen (SEA) of S. haematobium on intracellular HCV RNA load in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as on cell proliferation in patients with chronic HCV infection. Methods PBMC from 26 patients with chronic HCV infection were cultured for 72 hours in presence and absence of 50 μg SEA/ml medium. Intracellular HCV RNA quantification of plus and minus strands was assessed before and after stim...

  5. Modeling HCV Disease in Animals: Virology, Immunology and Pathogenesis of HCV and GBV-B Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelia eManickam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has become a global public health burden costing billions of dollars in health care annually. Even with rapidly advancing scientific technologies, this disease still looms large due to a lack of vaccines and affordable treatment options. The immune correlates of protection and predisposing factors towards chronicity remain major obstacles to development of HCV vaccines and immunotherapeutics due, at least in part, to lack of a tangible infection animal model. This review discusses the currently available animal models for HCV disease, with a primary focus on GB virus B (GBV-B infection of New World primates that recapitulates the dual hepacivirus phenotypes of acute viral clearance and chronic pathologic disease. HCV and GBV-B are also closely phylogenetically related, and advances in characterization of the immune systems of New World primates have already led to the use of this model for drug testing and vaccine trials. Herein, we discuss the benefits and caveats of the GBV-B infection model and discuss potential avenues for future development of novel vaccines and immunotherapies.

  6. HCV infection and morphologic study in B lymphocytes of patient with hepatitis C%丙型肝炎病毒对人B淋巴细胞系的感染及其形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹏; 陈良标; 胡学玲; 陈佩兰; 胡大荣

    2001-01-01

    目的 研究HCV对人B淋巴细胞的感染,建立HCV感染的丙型肝炎患者B淋巴细胞模型(CBCL),并进行HCV的形态学研究。方法用EB病毒转化B细胞建立B细胞系,以逆转录多聚酶链反应(RT-PCR)、免疫组织化学、原位杂交方法检测B细胞系上清液及细胞内的HCV抗原及HCV RNA,并通过电镜对HCV进行形态学研究。结果细胞系上清液中HCV RNA呈阳性,细胞内HCV抗原及HCV RNA均呈阳性,电镜观察结果发现细胞内存在65nm和110nm圆球型病毒颗粒,并可见病毒芽生形成现象。结论 HCV可感染人B细胞并在其中复制。病毒在感染细胞胞质空泡部位合成和组装,以芽生方式进入胞质空泡内形成病毒颗粒。%Objective To study HCV infection in B lymphocytes of patients with hepatitis C and to establish a B cell line with HCV infection and observe the hepatitis C virus like particles. Methods A B lymphoblastoid cell line was established by Epstein-Barr virus induced transformation directly from peripheral blood mononuclecyte cells of a patient with hepatitis C. The HCV antigen and HCV RNA were detected by immunohistochemical technique. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization and HCV particle were detected by electron microscopy. Results Positive HCV RNA was found in supernatants of B cell line. HCV Ag and HCV RNA were also showed positive. Electron microscopy observed HCV spherical virus like particles with a diameter of approximately 65 nm and 110nm and the "bud mutation"of HCV in the cytoplasmic vesicles of B lymphocytes. Conclusion HCV could infect B lymphocytes and replicate in the cell line. HCV particles are formed by "bud mutation" of HCV in the cytoplasmic vesicles of B-lymphocytes.

  7. Effect of rosiglitazone on visfatin and retinol-binding protein-4 plasma concentrations in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, D G; Schindler, K; Mittermayer, F; Müller, M; Nowotny, P; Rieger, A; Luger, A; Ludvik, B; Wolzt, M

    2007-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZD) may improve insulin resistance in patients with diabetes and HIV. The novel adipocytokines visfatin and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) have been proposed to influence the development of impaired glucose tolerance. The impact of TZD on these cytokines is yet unknown. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, 37 lean HIV-positive subjects aged 19-50 years were treated with 8 mg/day rosiglitazone (n=20) or placebo (n=17) for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity was estimated from the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Fasting visfatin, RBP-4, leptin, and adiponectin plasma concentrations were analyzed by immunoassays. Rosiglitazone had no effect on impaired insulin sensitivity, but increased median plasma visfatin from 6.2 ng/ml (95% CI: 5.9; 6.5) to 13.7 ng/ml (12.6; 19.1) (P<0.001) and adiponectin from 3.2 ng/ml (2.2; 4.0) to 4.0 ng/ml (3.3; 8.5; P<0.001). RBP-4 was lowered from 21.0 ng/ml (19.6; 23.1) to 16.3 ng/ml (15.2; 17.0; P<0.001), and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Adipocytokine concentrations were stable in subjects receiving placebo, where a deterioration in insulin sensitivity was detectable (P<0.05). Changes in visfatin and RBP-4 were correlated in subjects receiving rosiglitazone (r=-0.64, P<0.01) but not placebo (r=0.12, P=0.15). TZD treatment affects circulating adipocytokine concentrations in subjects with HIV. Reductions in RBP-4 and increases in visfatin may contribute to the pharmacodynamic action of TZD on glucose homeostasis. Quantification of adipocytokines might be useful to assess TZD treatment effectiveness in insulin-resistant subjects with HIV.

  8. Significant Positive Correlation of Plasma BPDE-Albumin Adducts to Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in Coke Oven Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG WANG; TANG-CHUN WU; XIAO-BO YANG; AI-LIN LIU; HONG-YAN ZHEN; LIANG GUO; HUA-SHAN LIANG; YONG-YI BI; YUN BAI; YONG-WEN CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of BPDE-albumin adducts as monitoring biomarkers for coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)and to explore possible relationship between BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)levels in them.Methods Thirty-seven coke oven workers from a coke plant and 47 controls without the occupational exposure to PAHs were recruited in this study.The levels of plasma BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography.Results The median levels of BPDE-albumin adducts(42.10 fmol/mg albumin)and urinary 1-OHP(5.46 μmol/mol creatinine)were significantly higher in coke oven workers than in controls(14.16 fmol/mg albumin,2.96 μmol/mol creatinine,respectively;P<0.01).Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that coke oven workers were at higher risk of having BPDE-albumin adduct levels above 25.30 prnol/mg albumin(OR=1.79,P<0.01)and urinary 1-OHP levels above 4.13 μmol/mol creatinine(OR=2.45,P<0.05).There was a positive correlation between the levels of BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP in all subjects(rs=0.349,P<0.01).Conclusion BPDE-albumin adduct is a useful biomarker for monitoring long-term exposure to PAHs,and plasma BPDE-albumin adducts level is significantly correlated to urinary 1-OHP levels in coke oven workers.

  9. Seropositivity of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in preoperative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Karaayak Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV viruses pose a serious occupational risk for the healthcare workers especially those in emergency services, laboratories and surgery wards. Vaccination and establishment of the strict biosafety procedures are the main principles to prevent blood-borne infections in healthcare workers. Additionally, serological screening of the preoperative patients could decrease the risk for exposure. In this study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV 1/2 in preoperative patients. Methods: Hospital automation records were evaluated retrospectively for 4.367 patients who were scheduled for surgery and scanned for ant