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Sample records for hcv positive plasma

  1. Performance of ARCHITECT HCV core antigen test with specimens from US plasma donors and injecting drug users.

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    Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Dawson, George J; Teshale, Eyasu; Le, Thao; Cheng, Kevin; Drobeniuc, Jan; Ward, John; Kamili, Saleem

    2015-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen is a serological marker of current HCV infection. The aim of this study was mainly to evaluate the performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT HCV core antigen assay with specimens from US plasma donors and injecting drug users. A total of 551 serum and plasma samples with known anti-HCV and HCV RNA status were tested for HCV core antigen using the Abbott ARCHITECT HCV core antigen test. HCV core antigen was detectable in 100% of US plasma donor samples collected during the pre-seroconversion phase of infection (anti-HCV negative/HCV RNA positive). Overall sensitivity of the HCV core antigen assay was 88.9-94.3% in samples collected after seroconversion. The correlation between HCV core antigen and HCV RNA titers was 0.959. HCV core antigen testing may be reliably used to identify current HCV infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Molecular Signature in HCV-Positive Lymphomas

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    Valli De Re

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus, which has been associated to different subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL. Cumulative evidence suggests an HCV-related antigen driven process in the B-NHL development. The underlying molecular signature associated to HCV-related B-NHL has to date remained obscure. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in this field with a special mention to different sets of genes whose expression is associated with BCR coupled to Blys signaling which in turn was found to be linked to B-cell maturation stages and NF-κb transcription factor. Even if recent progress on HCV-B-NHL signature has been made, the precise relationship between HCV and lymphoma development and phenotype signature remain to be clarified.

  3. HCV knowledge among a sample of HCV positive Aboriginal Australians residing in New South Wales.

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    Wilson, Hannah; Brener, Loren; Jackson, L Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Treloar, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are overrepresented in both the prevalence and incidence of the hepatitis C (HCV). HCV knowledge has been associated with a range of positive health behaviours. HCV knowledge has previously been investigated as a single construct; however examining different knowledge domains (i.e. transmission, risk of complications, testing and treatment) separately may be beneficial. This study investigated whether having greater HCV knowledge in different domains is associated with self-reported positive health behaviours. 203 Aboriginal people living with HCV completed a survey assessing HCV knowledge, testing and care, lifestyle changes since diagnosis and treatment intent. Respondents' knowledge was relatively high. Greater knowledge of risk of health complications was associated with undertaking more positive lifestyle changes since diagnosis. Respondents testing and treatment knowledge was significantly associated with incarceration, lifestyle changes since diagnosis and future treatment intentions. This study illustrates the importance of ensuring that knowledge is high across different HCV domains to optimise a range of positive health behaviours of Aboriginal people living with HCV. Future health promotion campaigns targeted at Aboriginal people living with HCV could benefit from broadening their focus from prevention to other domains such as testing and treatment.

  4. Hepatitis C virus genotyping of organ donor samples to aid in transplantation of HCV-positive organs.

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    Gentile, Caren; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Goldberg, David S; Reese, Peter P; Hasz, Richard D; Abt, Peter; Blumberg, Emily; Farooqi, Midhat S

    2018-02-01

    Given the availability of new highly efficacious anti-HCV therapies, some clinicians have advocated for wider use of kidneys from hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+) donors, including transplanting them into HCV-negative recipients. As treatment regimens for HCV are commonly guided by genotype, pretransplant HCV genotyping of tissue donors would be beneficial. To our knowledge, donor HCV genotyping has never been reported. We retrieved archived frozen plasma samples for 17 previous organ donors through a local organ procurement organization. We performed HCV genotyping using the eSensor HCVg Direct Test (GenMark Diagnostics) and also by Sanger sequencing, for confirmation (Retrogen). In addition, viral loads were measured using the COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan system (Roche Diagnostics). We found that most of the samples (n = 14) were HCV Genotype 1a with the remainder being Genotype 2b (n = 1) or Genotype 3 (n = 2). All genotyping results were concordant with Sanger sequencing. The average HCV viral load in the sample group was ~ 1.6 million IU/mL (range: ~16 000 IU/mL to 7 million IU/mL). We demonstrate that viral RNA from organ donor plasma can be successfully genotyped for HCV. This ability suggests that transplantation of HCV+ kidneys into HCV-negative recipients, followed by genotype-guided antiviral therapy, could be feasible. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients

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    Matera Antonio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of intrafamilial HCV transmission are still being debated. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients in Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 175 HCV positive patients (index cases, recruited from Policlinico Gemelli in Rome as well as other hospitals in Central Italy between 1995 and 2000 (40% female, mean age 57 ± 15.2 years, and 259 familial contacts. Differences in proportions of qualitative variables were tested with non-parametric tests (χ2, Yates correction, Fisher exact test, and a p value Results Seropositivity for HCV was found in 8.9% of the contacts. From the univariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated to HCV positivity in the contacts were: intravenous drug addiction (p = 0.004 and intercourse with drug addicts (p = 0.005. The only variables associated significantly and independently to HCV seropositivity in patients' contacts were intercourse with drug addicts (OR = 19.28; 95% CI: 2.01 – 184.94, the retirement status from work (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.17 – 11.98, the time of the relationship (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.11 and tattoos (OR = 7.68; 95% CI: 1.00 – 60.20. Conclusion The present study confirms that having intercourse with a drug addict is the most significant risk factor for intrafamilial HCV transmission. The association with retirement status from work could be related to both a long-term relationship with an index case and past exposure to common risk factors.

  6. High awareness of hepatitis C virus (HCV) but limited knowledge of HCV complications among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

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    Lambers, Femke A. E.; Prins, Maria; Davidovich, Udi; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as a sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. Little is reported about HCV awareness among MSM, although this is essential for developing targeted prevention strategies. We, therefore, studied HCV

  7. Analytical and clinical performance of the Hologic Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay for the quantification of HCV RNA in plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Pedersen, Martin Schou; Johansen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    obtained from 13 patients undergoing treatment with DAAs. RESULTS: Deming regression of results from 187 plasma samples with HCV RNA >2 Log IU/mL indicated that the Aptima assay quantified higher than the CAPCTMv2 test for HCV RNA >4.9 Log IU/mL. The linearity of the Aptima assay was excellent across...

  8. The evaluation of Recombinant Immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA test results in patients with low titer Anti-HCV positivity

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    Berrin Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is based on the detection of anti-HCV antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (EIA or chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA techniques. However, a consensus related to the problem of low titer (Serum/Cut-off; S/C= 1.0 anti-HCV antibodies is still lacking. The study attempts to evaluate the clinical status of the patients with low titer anti-HCV antibodies detected by third generation anti-HCV tests during February 2013- May 2014 retrospectively. Methods: Serum samples were studied by Advia Centaur XP autoanalyser (Bayer-Siemens, Germany for anti-HCV, and line immunoassay (Inno-LIATM HCV Score, İnnogenetics, Belgium for anti-HCV confirmatory test, Cobas AmpliPre/Cobas AMPLICOR HCV Test (Roche diagnostics, Switzerland for HCV RNA. Results: A total of 55.631 serum samples were studied, and 55 of them were anti-HCV positive of which with low antibody levels (sample/cutoff [S/CO]. S/CO values ranged from 1.15 to 6.15. Seventeen (31% of patients who have low antibody levels were defined as positive and 2 (4% patients were intermittent and 36 (65% patients were negative with line immunoassay. HCV-RNA was not detected in any of the samples. Conclusions: It is thought that antibody positivity must be verified in cases of recurrent reactivity when considering the cost-effectiveness of molecular tests. In the study was concluded that the use of molecular tests would be appropriate diagnosis, and the effectiveness of treatment if necessary after evaluation of patients with biochemical analysis. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 553-556

  9. Quantitative proteome analysis of plasma microparticles for the characterization of HCV-induced hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Taleb, Raghda Saad Zaghloul; Moez, Pacint; Younan, Doreen; Eisenacher, Martin; Tenbusch, Matthias; Sitek, Barbara; Bracht, Thilo

    2017-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant liver tumor and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cirrhosis induced by hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection is the most critical risk factor for HCC. However, the mechanism of HCV-induced carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Plasma microparticles (PMP) contribute to numerous physiological and pathological processes and contain proteins whose composition correlates to the respective pathophysiological conditions. We analyzed PMP from 22 HCV-induced cirrhosis patients, 16 HCV-positive HCC patients with underlying cirrhosis and 18 healthy controls. PMP were isolated using ultracentrifugation and analyzed via label-free LC-MS/MS. We identified 840 protein groups and quantified 507 proteins. 159 proteins were found differentially abundant between the three experimental groups. PMP in both disease entities displayed remarkable differences in the proteome composition compared to healthy controls. Conversely, the proteome difference between both diseases was minimal. GO analysis revealed that PMP isolated from both diseases were significantly enriched in proteins involved in complement activation, while endopeptidase activity was downregulated exclusively in HCC patients. This study reports for the first time a quantitative proteome analysis for PMP from patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis and HCC. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005777. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Performance of the new Bayer VERSANT HCV RNA 3.0 assay for quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA in plasma and serum: Conversion to international units and comparison with the Roche COBAS amplicor HCV monitor, version 2.0, assay

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    Beld, Marcel; Sentjens, Roel; Rebers, Sjoerd; Weegink, Christine; Weel, Jan; Sol, Cees; Boom, René

    2002-01-01

    We have evaluated the VERSANT HCV RNA 3.0. Assay (HCV 3.0 bDNA assay) (Bayer Diagnostics, Berkeley, Calif.), which is an improved signal amplification procedure for the HCV 2.0 bDNA assay for the quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum or plasma of HCV-infected individuals. The HCV 3.0

  11. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. The frequency of hypothyroidism and its relationship with HCV positivity in patients with thalassemia major in southern Iran.

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    Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Jelodari, Shohreh; Karamifar, Hammdollah; Saki, Forough; Rahimi, Rahil; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Dehbozorgian, Javad; Karimi, Mehran

    2018-03-27

    Hypothyroidism is one the most complication due to iron overload in patients with β-thalassemia major (TM). On the other hand these patients are prone to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection that can cause  thyroid dysfunction by itself or as the side effect of treatment with interferon (INF) or IFN plus ribavirin. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of hypothyroidism with HCV positivity and serum ferritin levels in patients with TM. In this cross-sectional study, 201 randomly selected patients with TM who were registered at the Thalassemia Clinic of a tertiary hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran were investigated. Thyroid function tests and serologic screening assays for HCV seropositivity (HCV Ab and HCV-RNA) were conducted for all patients. Frequency of hypothyroidism was 22.9% including 19.9% subclinical hypothyroidism, 2% primary overt hypothyroidism and 1% central hypothyroidism. Eighty six patients (42.8%) were HCV Ab positive and 60 patients (29.9%) were HCV RNA positive. No significant relationship was found between hypothyroidism and HCV positivity or receiving IFN-α (P>0.05). Hypothyroidism showed a borderline significant association with high serum ferritin levels in TM patients (P=0.055). Our results showed no significant association between hypothyroidism and HCV infection in TM patients. It seems that the main mechanism of hypothyroidism in our patients is iron overload; however, for better evaluation a larger multicenter study is recommended.  Also due to the importance of consequences of HCV infection, more careful pre-transfusional screening of blood should be considered in TM patients.

  13. Interferon lambda 4 (IFNL4 gene polymorphism is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in HIV-1 positive patients

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    Camila Fernanda da Silveira Alves

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately one-third of the individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. Co-infected patients have an increased risk for developing end-stage liver diseases. Variants upstream of the IFNL3 gene have been associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of HCV infection. Recently, a novel polymorphism was discovered, denoted IFNL4 ΔG > TT (rs368234815, which seems to be a better predictor of spontaneous clearance than the IFNL4 rs12979860 polymorphism. We aimed to determine the prevalence of the IFNL4 ΔG > TT variants and to evaluate the association with spontaneous clearance of HCV infection in Brazilian HIV-1 patients. The IFNL4 ΔG > TT genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction digestion in 138 HIV-1 positive patients who had an anti-HCV positive result. Spontaneous clearance of HCV was observed in 34 individuals (24.6%. IFNL4 genotype distribution was significantly different between individuals who had spontaneous clearance and chronic HCV patients (p=0.002. The probability of spontaneous clearance of HCV infection for patients with the IFNL4 TT/TT genotype was 3.6 times higher than for patients carrying the IFNL4 ΔG allele (OR=3.63, 95% CI:1.51-8.89, p=0.001. The IFNL4 ΔG > TT polymorphism seems to be better than IFNL4 rs12979860 to predict spontaneous clearance of the HCV in Brazilian HIV-1 positive patients.

  14. Effect of antiviral treatment and host susceptibility on positive selection in hepatitis C virus (HCV).

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    Jiménez-Hernández, Nuria; Sentandreu, Vicente; Castro, José A; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Bracho, Alma; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ortega, Enrique; Del Olmo, Juan; Carnicer, Fernando; González-Candelas, Fernando; Moya, Andrés

    2008-02-01

    We have conducted a large sequence study of the E1-E2 and NS5A regions of the HCV, subtypes 1a and b, both in patients previously treated with interferon, and untreated patients, who later responded, or not, to a combination therapy based on interferon plus ribavirin. We have examined the role played by the number of positively selected sites on disease progression and its relationship with several variables such as patients' age, sex and their risk of acquiring the disease. We have detected three groups of patients that respond or not to combination therapy: responders of intermediate age, older non-responders and young non-responders, they possess an increasing average number of positively selected sites in the E1-E2 region, respectively. We conclude that the host's genetic factors play an important role in whether the disease is contained or becomes chronic.

  15. Liver Fibrosis in HCV Monoinfected and HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients: Dysregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs and Their Tissue Inhibitors TIMPs and Effect of HCV Protease Inhibitors

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    Tiziana Latronico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs may contribute to liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C (HCV infection. We measured the circulating levels of different MMPs and TIMPs in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients and evaluated the potential for anti-HCV therapy to modulate MMP and TIMP levels in HCV subjects. We analyzed 83 plasma samples from 16 HCV monoinfected patients undergoing dual or triple anti-HCV therapy, 15 HIV/HCV coinfected patients with undetectable HIV load, and 10 healthy donors (HD. Levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were measured by a SearchLight Multiplex Immunoassay Kit. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were the highest expressed MMPs among all the analyzed samples and their levels significantly increased in HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected subjects compared to HD. TIMP-1 levels were significantly higher in HCV and HIV/HCV subjects compared to HD and were correlated with liver stiffness. These findings raise the possibility of using circulating TIMP-1 as a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis in HCV infection. A longitudinal study demonstrated that MMP-9 levels significantly decreased (40% reduction from baseline in patients receiving dual as well as triple direct-acting antivirals (DAA anti-HCV therapy, which had no effect on MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. As the dysregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 may reflect inflammatory processes in the liver, the decrease of MMP-9 following HCV protease inhibitor treatment suggests a positive effect on the reduction of liver inflammation.

  16. Liver stiffness is not associated with short- and long-term plasma HIV RNA replication in immunocompetent patients with HIV infection and with HIV/HCV coinfection

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    Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Basso, Monica; Mengoli, Carlo; Scaggiante, Renzo; Andreis, Samantha; Franzetti, Marzia Maria; Cattelan, Anna Maria; Zago, Daniela; Cruciani, Mario; Andreoni, Massimo; Piovesan, Sara; Palù, Giorgio; Alberti, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be directly responsible for liver damage but there are contrasting data regarding the influence of detectable plasma viremia. We analyzed the influence of plasma HIV RNA (pHIV) detectability and of other clinical and viro-immunological variables on liver stiffness (LS) measurement in adult immunocompetent HIV-monoinfected patients and in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Methods Logistic regression analysis was performed using the value of LS>7.1 kPa as the dependent variable. A linear regression model was applied using LS measurement after log10 transformation (lkpa) as the dependent variable and we analyzed the predicted values versus the observed lkpa values; pHIV was classified as detectable or undetectable in the 12- and 36-month study periods before LS measurement. Results We studied 251 patients (178 with HIV monoinfection), most of whom were on antiviral treatment; 36-month study time was available for 154 subjects. The mean CD4+ cell count was 634 cells/mm3 in HIV-monoinfected patients and 606 cells/mm3 in coinfected patients. No difference in LS was found between patients with detectable or undetectable pHIV in either the 12- or the 36-month study period before transient elastography. The mean LS was higher in HIV/HCV coinfected patients (P<0.0001) than in the HIV-monoinfected subjects; lkpa was positively correlated with HCV coinfection (P<0.0001) and aspartate aminotransferase levels (P<0.0001). Detectable pHIV failed to reach significance. Eight HIV-monoinfected patients had a predicted LS measurement lower than the observed one, while eight patients had the opposite result. Conclusion LS was not correlated with ongoing HIV replication during the 12- and 36-month study periods in immunocompetent HIV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. PMID:28845109

  17. HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis rate of positive donations among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteer blood donors.

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    Diarra, A; Kouriba, B; Baby, M; Murphy, E; Lefrere, J-J

    2009-01-01

    Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (pdonations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.

  18. Hepatic HMOX1 expression positively correlates with Bach-1 and miR-122 in patients with HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection.

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    Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Wójcik, Kamila; Szymańska, Bożena; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Cwiklińska, Hanna; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the expression of HMOX1 and miR-122 in liver biopsy samples obtained from HCV mono-and HIV/HCV co-infected patients in relation to selected clinical parameters, histological examination and IL-28B polymorphism as well as to determine whether HMOX1 expression is dependent on Bach-1. The study group consisted of 90 patients with CHC: 69 with HCV mono and 21 with HIV/HCV co-infection. RT-PCR was used in the analysis of HMOX1, Bach-1 and miR-122 expression in liver biopsy samples and in the assessment of IL-28B single-nucleotide polymorphism C/T (rs12979860) in the blood. Moreover in liver biopsy samples an analysis of HO-1 and Bach-1 protein level by Western Blot was performed. HCV mono-infected patients, with lower grading score (G600000 IU/mL) demonstrated higher expression of HMOX1. In patients with HIV/HCV co-infection, the expression of HMOX1 was lower in patients with lower lymphocyte CD4 count and higher HIV viral load. IL28B polymorphism did not affect the expression of either HMOX1 or miR-122. Higher HMOX1 expression correlated with higher expression of Bach-1 (Spearman's ρ = 0.586, p = 0.000001) and miR-122 (Spearman's ρ = 0.270, p = 0.014059). HMOX1 and miR-122 play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHC in HCV mono-and HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Reduced expression of HMOX1 in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection may indicate a worse prognosis in this group. Our results do not support the importance of Bach-1 in repression of HMOX1 in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  19. Detection and quantification of serum or plasma HCV RNA: mini review of commercially available assays.

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    Le Guillou-Guillemette, Helene; Lunel-Fabiani, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    The treatment schedule (combination of compounds, doses, and duration) and the virological follow-up for management of antiviral treatment in patients chronically infected by HCV is now well standardized, but to ensure good monitoring of the treated patients, physicians need rapid, reproducible, and sensitive molecular virological tools with a wide range of detection and quantification of HCV RNA in blood samples. Several assays for detection and/or quantification of HCV RNA are currently commercially available. Here, all these assays are detailed, and a brief description of each step of the assay is provided. They are divided into two categories by method: those based on signal amplification and those based on target amplification. These two categories are then divided into qualitative, quantitative, and quantitative detection assays. The real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assays are the most promising strategy in the HCV virological area.

  20. HBV vaccination of HCV-infected patients with occult HBV infection and anti-HBc-positive blood donors

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    J.S.F. Pereira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-HBc positivity is a frequent cause of donation rejection at blood banks. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection may also occur in HBsAg-negative patients, a situation denoted occult infection. Similarly, very low levels of HBV-DNA have also been found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, even in the absence of serum HBsAg. Initially we searched for HBV-DNA in serum of 100 blood donors and 50 HCV-infected patients who were HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive by nested-PCR and by an HBV monitor commercial test for HBV-DNA. Anti-HBs seroconversion rates were measured in 100 blood donors and in 22 patients with chronic HCV infection after HBV vaccination to determine if the HBV vaccination could eliminate an occult HBV infection in these individuals. Occult HBV infection was detected in proportionally fewer blood donors (6/100 = 6% than chronic hepatitis C patients (12/50 = 24% (P 0.05. All subjects who were HBV-DNA(+ before the first dose of HBV vaccine (D1, became HBV-DNA(- after D1, D2, and D3. Among 22 HCV-positive patients, 10 HBV-DNA(+ and 12 HBV-DNA(-, seroconversion was observed in 9/10 (90% HBV-DNA(+ and in 9/12 (75% HBV-DNA(- subjects (P > 0.05. The disappearance of HBV-DNA in the majority of vaccinated patients suggests that residual HBV can be eliminated in patients with occult infection.

  1. Loss to follow-up in anti-HCV-positive patients in a Brazilian regional outpatient clinic

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    L.C. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss to follow-up (LF, which refers to patients who started care but voluntary stopped it, is a problem for patients with chronic disease. We aimed to estimate the rate of LF among patients seropositive for hepatitis C virus (HCV and identify possible demographic and lifestyle risk factors associated with LF. From January 2009 through December 2012, 1010 anti-HCV-positive patients were included in the study. Among participants, 223 (22.1% met the case definition for LF (more than 1-year elapsed since the last clinical appointment. Among 787 patients who remained in follow-up, 372 (47.2% were discharged after undetectable HCV RNA, 88 (11.1% were transferred (and remained on regular follow-up at the destination, and 25 (3.1% died. According to univariate analysis, male gender, absence of a life partner, black race, psychiatric illness, previous alcohol abuse, previous or current recreational drug use, and previous or current smoking were significantly associated with LF. In multivariate analysis, absence of a life partner (adjusted odds ratio (AOR=1.44; 95% confidence interval (95%CI=1.03–2.02, black race (AOR=1.81, 95%CI=1.12–2.89, psychiatric illness (AOR=1.77, 95%CI=1.14–2.73, and the presence of at least one lifestyle risk factor (pertaining to substance abuse (AOR=1.95, 95%CI=1.29–2.94 were independently associated with LF. Our study provides an estimate of the incidence of LF among anti-HCV-positive patients and identifies risk factors associated with this outcome. In addition, these results can help clinicians recognize patients at risk for LF, who require additional support for the continuity of care.

  2. The influence of HAART on the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-positive individuals

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    Vogel M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study was performed to investigate the impact of HAART versus no HAART and nucleoside free versus nucleoside containing HAART on the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. In addition a control group of HCV mono-infected patients undergoing anti-HCV therapy was evaluated. Methods Multicenter, partially randomized, controlled clinical trial. HIV-negative and -positive patients with chronic HCV infection were treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (800 - 1200 mg/day for 24 - 48 weeks in one of four treatment arms: HIV-negative (A, HIV-positive without HAART (B and HIV-positive on HAART (C. Patients within arm C were randomized to receive open label either a nucleoside containing (C1 or a nucleoside free HAART (C2. Results 168 patients were available for analysis. By intent-to-treat analysis similar sustained virological response rates (SVR, negative HCV-RNA 24 weeks after the end of therapy were observed comparing HIV-negative and -positive patients (54% vs. 54%, p = 1.000. Among HIV-positive patients SVR rates were similar between patients off and on HAART (57% vs. 52%, p = 0.708. Higher SVR rates were observed in patients on a nucleoside free HAART compared to patients on a nucleoside containing HAART, though confounding could not be ruled out and in the intent-to-treat analysis the difference was not statistically significant (64% vs. 46%, p = 0.209. Conclusions Similar response rates for HCV therapy can be achieved in HIV-positive and -negative patients. Patients on nucleoside free HAART reached at least equal rates of sustained virological response compared to patients on standard HAART.

  3. Plasma position and shape control for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portone, A.; Gribov, Y.; Huguet, M.

    1995-01-01

    Key features and main results about the control of the plasma shape in ITER are presented. A control algorithm is designed to control up to 6 gaps between the plasma separatrix and the plasma facing components during the reference burn phase. Nonlinear simulations show the performances of the controller in the presence of plasma vertical position offsets, beta drops and power supply voltage saturation

  4. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

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    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  5. Plasma position control on Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribyl, P.A.

    1981-05-01

    The Alcator C MHD equilibrium is investigated from the standpoint of determining the plasma position. A review of equilibrium theory is presented, indicating that the central flux surfaces of the plasma should be displaced about 1 to 2 cm from the outermost. Further, the plasma should have a slightly noncircular cross-section. A comparison is made between the observed and predicted profiles. Flux loops sensitive to plasma position generate the error signal for the feedback control circuit. This measurement agrees with other position-sensitive diagnostics, such as limiter heating, and centroids of density, soft x-ray, and electron cyclotron emission. A linear model is developed for the position control feedback system, including the vertical field SCR supply, plasma, and feedback electronics. Operation of the control system agrees well with that predicted by the model, with acceptable plasma position being maintained for the duration of the discharge. The feedback control system is in daily use for Alcator C runs

  6. Analytical characteristics and comparative evaluation of Aptima HCV quant Dx assay with the Abbott RealTime HCV assay and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV quantitative test v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlock, A; Blair, D; Hunsicker, M; Le-Nguyen, T; Motta, C; Nguyen, C; Papachristou, E; Pham, J; Williams, A; Vi, M; Vinluan, B; Hatzakis, A

    2017-04-04

    The Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima assay) is a fully automated quantitative assay on the Panther® system. This assay is intended for confirmation of diagnosis and monitoring of HCV RNA in plasma and serum specimens. The purpose of the testing described in this paper was to evaluate the performance of the Aptima assay. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, precision, and linearity of the Aptima assay were assessed. The performance of the Aptima assay was compared to two commercially available HCV assays; the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (Abbott assay, Abbott Labs Illinois, USA) and the Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman HCV Quantitative Test v2.0 (Roche Assay, Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton CA, USA). The 95% Lower Limit of Detection (LoD) of the assay was determined from dilutions of the 2nd HCV WHO International Standard (NIBSC 96/798 genotype 1) and HCV positive clinical specimens in HCV negative human plasma and serum. Probit analysis was performed to generate the 95% predicted detection limits. The Lower Limit of Quantitation (LLoQ) was established for each genotype by diluting clinical specimens and the 2nd HCV WHO International Standard (NIBSC 96/798 genotype 1) in HCV negative human plasma and serum. Specificity was determined using 200 fresh and 536 frozen HCV RNA negative clinical specimens including 370 plasma specimens and 366 serum specimens. Linearity for genotypes 1 to 6 was established by diluting armored RNA or HCV positive clinical specimens in HCV negative serum or plasma from 8.08 log IU/mL to below 1 log IU/mL. Precision was tested using a 10 member panel made by diluting HCV positive clinical specimens or spiking armored RNA into HCV negative plasma and serum. A method comparison was conducted against the Abbott assay using 1058 clinical specimens and against the Roche assay using 608 clinical specimens from HCV infected patients. In addition, agreement between the Roche assay and the Aptima assay using specimens with low

  7. HCV subtype characterization among injection drug users: implication for a crucial role of Zhenjiang in HCV transmission in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. However, the transmission route of HCV in Eastern China remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of Zhenjiang city of Jiangsu province, an important transportation hub linking Shanghai with other regions of China, in HCV transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 141 whole blood samples were collected from injection drug users (IDUs in Zhenjiang and then tested for HCV infection. Of them, 115 HCV positive plasmas were subjected to RNA extraction, RT-PCR amplification, and sequencing. The subtype characterization and the evolutionary origin of HCV strains circulating in Zhenjiang were determined using polygenetic or phylogeographic analyses. Seven HCV subtypes 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6e and 6n were detected among Zhenjiang IDUs, showing a complex HCV epidemic. The most predominant subtypes were 3a (38% and 1b (26.8%. Among these subtypes, subtypes 3b, 6n and 6e originated from Southwestern China (i.e., Yunnan and/or Guangxi, subtypes 2a and 6a from Southern China (i.e., Guangdong, subtype 1b from Central (i.e., Henan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China, and subtype 3a from Southwestern (i.e., Yunnan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China. From Zhenjiang, subtypes 1b and 2a were further spread to Eastern (i.e., Shanghai and Northern (i.e., Beijing China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The mixing of seven HCV subtypes in Zhenjiang from all quarters of China indicates that as an important middle station, Zhenjiang plays a crucial role in HCV transmission, just as it is important in population migration between other regions of China and Eastern China.

  8. HCV Specific IL-21 Producing T Cells but Not IL-17A Producing T Cells Are Associated with HCV Viral Control in HIV/HCV Coinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya A MacParland

    Full Text Available Decreased hepatitis C virus (HCV clearance, faster cirrhosis progression and higher HCV RNA levels are associated with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection. The CD4+ T helper cytokines interleukin (IL-21 and IL-17A are associated with virus control and inflammation, respectively, both important in HCV and HIV disease progression. Here, we examined how antigen-specific production of these cytokines during HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with HCV virus control.We measured HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A production by transwell cytokine secretion assay in PBMCs from monoinfected and coinfected individuals. Viral control was determined by plasma HCV RNA levels.In acutely infected individuals, those able to establish transient/complete HCV viral control tended to have stronger HCV-specific IL-21-production than non-controllers. HCV-specific IL-21 production also correlated with HCV viral decline in acute infection. Significantly stronger HCV-specific IL-21 production was detected in HAART-treated coinfected individuals. HCV-specific IL-17A production was not associated with lower plasma HCV RNA levels in acute or chronic HCV infection and responses were stronger in HIV coinfection. HCV-specific IL-21/ IL-17A responses did not correlate with microbial translocation or fibrosis. Exogenous IL-21 treatment of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells from monoinfected individuals enhanced their function although CD8+ T cells from coinfected individuals were somewhat refractory to the effects of IL-21.These data show that HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A-producing T cells are induced in HIV/HCV coinfection. In early HIV/HCV coinfection, IL-21 may contribute to viral control, and may represent a novel tool to enhance acute HCV clearance in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals.

  9. Validation of ISTTOK Plasma Position Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarcel, D. F.; Carvalho, I. S.; Carvalho, B. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P.; Duarte, A.; Carvalho, P. J.; Pereira, T.

    2008-01-01

    Active control of plasma position on the ISTTOK tokamak is of extreme importance due to the inherent instability caused by an unfavourable curvature of the external equilibrium magnetic field. The consequences of this instability can be suppressed by applying a dynamic equilibrium field. A digital real-time plasma position control system for ISTTOK has been developed to perform this task. This system uses magnetic measurements to determine the plasma position and feeds the control signal to power supplies that generate the equilibrium fields. After commissioning, the results obtained have shown some discrepancies between the magnetic plasma position reconstruction and several other diagnostics, such as tomography. This discrepancy at some extent is due to the effect of the external magnetic fields on the poloidal magnetic measurements. This work presents a study that addresses this issue. In a future work it will lead to the development of a corrected plasma position algorithm, aiming at obtaining improved performance of plasma discharges and controlled plasma column displacements

  10. Rheumatoid Case with HCV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Behnava; Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2005-01-01

    Case Presentation:A 46-year-old woman referred to our center due to abnormality in aminotransferase level during check up. She had a history of blood transfusion 12 years ago. Anti-HCV Ab by ELISA method and HCV RNA by RT-PCR were positive. HCV RNA by Amplicor HCV monitor test counted 800,000 IU/ml and the genotype was 3a by Specific Primer-Targeted Region Core method. Laboratory evaluation revealed: Hb 11.9 mg/dl, WBC 5000 /ml, platelet count 190,000/ ml, ALT 70 IU/ml, AST 65 IU/ml, Alk phos...

  11. Plasma position control in TCABR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.; Kuznetsov, Yu. K.; Nascimento, I.C.; Fonseca, A.M.M.; Silva, R.P. da; Ruchko, L.F.; Tuszel, A.G.; Reis, A.P. dos; Sanada, E.K.

    1998-01-01

    The plasma control position in the TCABR tokamak is described. The TCA tokamak was transferred from the Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Lausanne, to the Institute of Physics of University of Sao Paulo, renamed TCABR (α=0.18 m, R = 0.62 m, B = 1 T,I p = 100 kA). The control system was reconstructed using mainly components obtained from the TCA tokamak. A new method of plasma position determination is used in TCABR to improve its accuracy. A more detailed theoretical analysis of the feed forward and feedback control is performed as compared with. (author)

  12. Development of a novel diagnostic algorithm to predict NASH in HCV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotta, Andrea; Paneghetti, Laura; Mrázová, Viera; Bednárová, Adriana; Kružlicová, Dáša; Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav; Biasiolo, Alessandra; Martini, Andrea; Pontisso, Patrizia; Fassina, Giorgio

    2018-05-01

    Non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) is a severe disease characterised by liver inflammation and progressive hepatic fibrosis, which may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical evidence suggests that in hepatitis C virus patients steatosis and NASH are associated with faster fibrosis progression and hepatocellular carcinoma. A safe and reliable non-invasive diagnostic method to detect NASH at its early stages is still needed to prevent progression of the disease. We prospectively enrolled 91 hepatitis C virus-positive patients with histologically proven chronic liver disease: 77 patients were included in our study; of these, 10 had NASH. For each patient, various clinical and serological variables were collected. Different algorithms combining squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin-M (SCCA-IgM) levels with other common clinical data were created to provide the probability of having NASH. Our analysis revealed a statistically significant correlation between the histological presence of NASH and SCCA-IgM, insulin, homeostasis model assessment, haemoglobin, high-density lipoprotein and ferritin levels, and smoke. Compared to the use of a single marker, algorithms that combined four, six or seven variables identified NASH with higher accuracy. The best diagnostic performance was obtained with the logistic regression combination, which included all seven variables correlated with NASH. The combination of SCCA-IgM with common clinical data shows promising diagnostic performance for the detection of NASH in hepatitis C virus patients.

  13. [Prevalence of positive markers for hepatitis B (HBV Ags) and hepatitis C (Anti-HCV) in health personnel at the Social Security Institute of Mexico State and Municipalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Huezo, M S; Sánchez-Hernández, E; Camacho, M C; Mejia-López, M D; Rebollo-Vargas, J

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of serum markers of viral hepatitis in health-care workers seems to be similar to that described in the general population, even though this group would appear at increased risk because exposure to potentially infectious material. There is scarce information available in Mexico in this regard. To define the prevalence of serum markers for hepatitis C (anti-HCV antibodies) and hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg) in health-care workers at the Instituto de Seguridad Social del Estado de Mexico y Municipios (ISSEMYM) and to establish the presence of viremia in subjects with positive serum markers. Health-care workers from ISSEMyM with unknown hepatitis serologic status participated voluntarily in this trial. They completed a written questionnaire detailing potential risk factors for viral hepatitis and provided a blood sample. A total of 374 health-care workers were included. Seven subjects (1.8%) were positive, 5 for anti-HCV antibodies (1.3%) and 2 for HBsAg (0.5%). None of these subjects had detectable serum HCV RNA or HBV DNA on further testing. The frequency of positive serum markers for viral hepatitis in this group of healthcare workers is similar to the estimated prevalence among the general population in Mexico. No case of active infection defined by positive viremia was encountered in this group of subjects.

  14. Impaired cytokine production and suppressed lymphocyte proliferation activity in HCV-infected cocaine and heroin ("speedball") users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Vilá, Luis M; Reyes, Juan C; Rodríguez, José W; Colón, J Héctor M; Pagán, Nat O; Marrero, Amalia; Ríos-Orraca, Zilka M; Boukli, Nawal M; Shapshak, Paul; Robles, Rafaela R

    2006-12-01

    HCV-infected "speedball" users (n = 30) were selected from an original cohort of 400 intravenous drug users for cytokine analysis. Cytokine concentrations (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12) were determined in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cultures derived ex vivo from these patients. In addition, lymphocyte proliferation was measured in 49 HCV-positive "speedball" users. TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 cytokines and not IL-1beta were significantly increased in plasma from HCV-positive "speedball" users compared with healthy controls. Except for IL-10, all other cytokines measured were augmented in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated PBMC cultures from HCV-positive "speedball" users. Likewise, overproduction of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, was consistently detected when PBMC cultures from HCV-positive "speedball" users were stimulated with a biological response modifier. However, HCV-infected "speedball" users showed significant reduction in lymphoproliferative activity. Compared with healthy subjects, there was a consistent overproduction of both TH1 and TH2 type cytokines in the plasma and PBMC's of HCV-infected "speedball" users. Furthermore, there was a persistent reduction of lymphoproliferative activity in this group. These immunologic abnormalities, coupled with the range of response between the two TH-types in HCV-infected "speedball" users, suggest impairment in the regulatory mechanism of the TH1-TH2 system.

  15. Relationship between serum concetrations of type III procollagen, hyluronic acid and histopathological findings in the liver of HCV-positive blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho,Vera Regina Rodrigues; Silveira,Themis Reverbel da; Oliveira,Jarbas Rodrigues de; Barros,Sérgio Gabriel Silva de; Cerski,Carlos Thadeu Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serologic markers have been proposed for monitoring hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. Among fibrosis markers, type III procollagen (PIIIP) and hyaluronic acid have been studied in these patients. AIM: To evaluate the association between these serum markers with histological findings. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out with HCV-positive blood donors. The studied population included men and women whose age ranged from 18 to 60 years, with elevated ...

  16. The plasma position control of ITER EDA plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Ikuo; Nishio, Satoshi; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Nishino, Toru; Fujieda, Hirobumi.

    1994-09-01

    The study on the plasma position control of ITER EDA performed by Japan Home Team during the sensitivity study in 1994 is summarized. The controllabilities of plasmas in the Outline Design and elongated version are compared. The model used to describe the motion of the plasma is a rigid model. The PD feedback control is applied with respect to the displacements of the plasma from the equilibrium. Three types of fluctuations, which initiate the motion of the plasma, are examined, namely a finite horizontal fluctuation field, a small horizontal fluctuation field such that the motion of the plasma is governed by the passive structures and an abrupt change of the poloidal beta β p and internal inductance l i . In the simulations of finite horizontal fluctuation fields, controls depend on the strength of the fluctuations, for instance, 3-5V is needed for 5-10G of fluctuation fields in the Outline Design. When the fluctuation field is small and the plasma displacement grows in a characteristic time of the passive structures, a few volt of the control voltage is enough to obtain good controllability. It is shown that the control when (β p , l i ) changes simultaneously is demanding and a large control voltage is required to maintain satisfactory control. Comparing the elongated version with the Outline Design, the control voltage which is larger than the Outline Design by a factor of 2-3 is required to obtain the same controllability in the elongated version. (author)

  17. Plasma position control device for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, Jun-ya; Ioki, Kimihiro

    1995-10-03

    The present invention concerns plasma position control coils having a feeder line structure not requiring high strength for the support portion. Namely, the coils are formed by twisting feeder lines extended from plasma position control coils in a vacuum vessel. The twisted feeder lines are supported using an appropriate structural member. Electromagnetic load is generated to the feeder lines being extended from the position control coils and traversing toroidal fields at a current introduction lines and at current delivery lines respectively. However, since the feeder lines have substantially spiral shape consisting of two twisted lines, the electromagnetic load and the moment caused by the generated load which are inversed to each other are off set. Accordingly, only extremely small force is exerted on the fittings which support the feeder lines. Therefore, small strength may suffice for the fittings and the gaps of mounting the fittings may be made longer. (I.S.).

  18. Plasma position control device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Fujita, Jun-ya; Ioki, Kimihiro.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns plasma position control coils having a feeder line structure not requiring high strength for the support portion. Namely, the coils are formed by twisting feeder lines extended from plasma position control coils in a vacuum vessel. The twisted feeder lines are supported using an appropriate structural member. Electromagnetic load is generated to the feeder lines being extended from the position control coils and traversing toroidal fields at a current introduction lines and at current delivery lines respectively. However, since the feeder lines have substantially spiral shape consisting of two twisted lines, the electromagnetic load and the moment caused by the generated load which are inversed to each other are off set. Accordingly, only extremely small force is exerted on the fittings which support the feeder lines. Therefore, small strength may suffice for the fittings and the gaps of mounting the fittings may be made longer. (I.S.)

  19. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. Result...

  20. Identification of the transcripts associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV influences the outcome and natural disease progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. While the majority of HCV mono-infected and HCV/HIV co-infected subjects develop chronic HCV infection, 20–46% of mono- and co-infected subjects spontaneously clear HCV infection. The mechanism underlying viral clearance is not clearly understood. Analysis of differential cellular gene expression (mRNA between HIV-infected patients with persistent HCV infection or spontaneous clearance could provide a unique opportunity to decipher the mechanism of HCV clearance. Methods Plasma RNA from HIV/HCV co-infected subjects who cleared HCV and those who remained chronically infected with HCV was sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. The sequencing results were analyzed to identify transcripts that are associated with HCV clearance by measuring differential gene expression in HIV/HCV co-infected subjects who cleared HCV and those who remained chronically infected with HCV. Results We have identified plasma mRNA, the levels of which are significantly elevated (at least 5 fold, False Discovery Rate (FDR <0.05 before HCV infection in subjects who cleared HCV compared to those who remained chronically infected. Upon further analysis of these differentially expressed genes, before and after HCV infection, we found that before HCV infection 12 genes were uniquely upregulated in the clearance group compared to the chronically infected group. Importantly, a number of these 12 genes and their upstream regulators (such as CCL3, IL17D, LBP, SOCS3, NFKBIL1, IRF are associated with innate immune response functions. Conclusions These results suggest that subjects who spontaneously clear HCV may express these unique genes associated with innate immune functions.

  1. Formal hepatitis C education enhances HCV care coordination, expedites HCV treatment and improves antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega, Samali; Agbim, Uchenna; Surjadi, Miranda; Mahoney, Megan; Khalili, Mandana

    2013-08-01

    Formal Hepatitis C virus (HCV) education improves HCV knowledge but the impact on treatment uptake and outcome is not well described. We aimed to evaluate the impact of formal HCV patient education on primary provider-specialist HCV comanagement and treatment. Primary care providers within the San Francisco safety-net health care system were surveyed and the records of HCV-infected patients before and after institution of a formal HCV education class by liver specialty (2006-2011) were reviewed retrospectively. Characteristics of 118 patients who received anti-HCV therapy were: mean age 51, 73% males and ~50% White and uninsured. The time to initiation of HCV treatment was shorter among those who received formal education (median 136 vs 284 days, P non-1 genotype (OR 6.17, 95% CI 2.3-12.7, P = 0.0003) and receipt of HCV education (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-7.9, P = 0.03) were associated with sustained virologic treatment response. Among 94 provider respondents (response rate = 38%), mean age was 42, 62% were White, and 63% female. Most providers agreed that the HCV education class increased patients' HCV knowledge (70%), interest in HCV treatment (52%), and provider-patient communication (56%). A positive provider attitude (Coef 1.5, 95% CI 0.1-2.9 percent, P = 0.039) was independently associated with referral rate to education class. Formal HCV education expedites HCV therapy and improves virologic response rates. As primary care provider attitude plays a significant role in referral to HCV education class, improving provider knowledge will likely enhance access to HCV specialty services in the vulnerable population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Il controllo di qualità nell’impiego della PCR applicata alla determinazione qualitativa dell’HCV-RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Giuliani

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA in samples of plasma/serum has become an essential part of the diagnosis and management of HCV-infected patients. Qualitative HCV-RNA tests are used to identify acute HCV infections as well as chronic HCV carriers.In recent years,a variety of commercial and non commercial test systems have been developed for this purpose. Each of these methods is calibrate with proprietary standards and exhibits its own sensitivity (detection limit and specificity. Obviously, laboratories performing HCV-RNA test should report accurate and reliable results regardless of the type of assay used.Where commercial kit are used for part of or the complete analytical procedure, documented validation points already covered by the kit manufacturer can substitute for the validation by the user.Nevertheless, the performance of the kit with respect to its intended use has to be demonstrated by the user. One of the best ways to assess the performance of individual laboratories for validation of qualitative HCV-RNA test is determine: 1. Specificity. In order to validate the specificity of the analytical procedure, at least 100 HCV-RNA-negative plasma pools should be tested and shown to be non-reactive. 2. Positive cut-off point (detection limit/sensitivity.The positive cut-off point (as defined in the Ph Eur General Method 2. 6. 21 is the minimum number of the target sequences per volume sample which can be detected in 95% of test runs.A dilution series of a working reagent or reference material, which has been calibrated against the WHO HCV International Standard (96/790, should be tested on different days to examine variation between test runs.At least 3 independent dilution series should be tested with a sufficient number of replicates at each dilution to give a total number of 24 test results for each dilution to enable a statistical analysis of the results; 3. Robustness.To demonstrate robustness, at least 20 HCV-RNA negative plasma

  3. Persistence of Circulating Hepatitis C Virus Antigens-Specific Immune Complexes in Patients with Resolved HCV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ke-Qin; Cui, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Our recent study indicated the possible presence of detectable hepatitis C virus antigens (HCV-Ags) after denaturation of sera with resolved HCV (R-HCV) infection. The present study determined and characterized persistent HCV-Ags-specific immune complexes (ICs) in these patients. Sixty-eight sera with R-HCV and 34 with viremic HCV (V-HCV) infection were tested for free and IC-bound HCV-Ags using HCV-Ags enzyme immunoassay (EIA), the presence of HCV-Ags-specific ICs by immunoprecipitation and Western blot (IP-WB), HCV ICs containing HCV virions using IP and HCV RNA RT-PCR, and correlation of HCV ICs with clinical presentation in these patients. Using HCV-Ags EIA, we found 57.4% of sera with R-HCV infection were tested positive for bound, but not free HCV-Ags. Using pooled or individual anti-HCV E1/E2, cAg, NS3, NS4b, and/or NS5a to precipitate HCV-specific-Ags, we confirmed persistent HCV-Ags ICs specific to various HCV structural and non-structural proteins not only in V-HCV infection, but also in R-HCV infection. Using IP and HCV RNA PCR, we then confirmed the presence of HCV virions within circulating ICs in V-HCV, but not in R-HCV sera. Multivariable analysis indicated significant and independent associations of persistent circulating HCV-Ags-specific ICs with both age and the presence of cirrhosis in patients with R-HCV infection. Various HCV-Ag-specific ICs, but not virions, persist in 57.4% of patients who had spontaneous or treatment-induced HCV clearance for 6 months to 20 years. These findings enriched our knowledge on HCV pathogenesis and support further study on its long-term clinical relevance, such as extrahepatic manifestation, transfusion medicine, and hepatocarcinogenesis.

  4. A clinical, epidemological, laboratorial, histological and ultrasonographical evaluation of anti-HCV EIA-2 positive blood donors Avaliação clínica, epidemiológica, laboratorial, histológica e ultrassonográfica de doadores de sangue anti-HCV EIA-2 positivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. GONÇALES JR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1992 and 1997, 790 blood donors with anti-HCV EIA-2 strongly reagent (relationship between the sample optical density/cut-off > 3 detected at the blood bank serological screening, were evaluated in ambulatory environment. They were all negative for Chagas disease, syphilis, hepatitis B (HBsAg and AIDS. Blood samples were collected at the first ambulatorial evaluation, for hemogram, biochemical tests and new serological tests for HCV (anti-HCV EIA-2. In blood samples of 226 repeatedly reagent anti-HCV EIA-2 blood donors, supplementary "immunoblot" test for HCV (RIBA-2 was used. In 209 donors, the presence of HCV-RNA was investigated by the PCR test. The abdominal ultrasonography was realized in 366 donors. In 269 patients liver biopsy was performed for the histopathological study. The follow-up of blood donors showed that 95.6% were repeatedly EIA-2 reagent, 94% were symptomless and denied any hepatitis history, with only 2% mentioning previous jaundice. In 47% of this population at least one risk factor has been detected for the HCV transmission, the use of intravenous drugs being the main one (27.8%. Blood transfusion was the second factor for HCV transmission (27.2%. Hepatomegaly was detected in 54% of the cases. Splenomegaly and signs of portal hypertension have seldom been found in the physical examination, indicating a low degree of hepatic compromising in HCV. Abdominal ultrasound showed alterations in 65% of the subjects, being the steatosis the most frequent (50%. In 83.5% of the donors submitted to the liver biopsy, the histopathological exam showed the presence of chronic hepatitis, usually classified as active (89% with mild or moderate grade in most of the cases (99.5%. The histopathological exam of the liver was normal in 1.5% of blood donors. The RIBA-2 test and the HCV-RNA investigation by PCR were positive in respectively 91.6 and 75% of the anti-HCV EIA-2 reagent donors. The HCV-RNA research was positive in 82% of the

  5. Circulating Interferon-λ3, Responsiveness to HBV Vaccination, and HBV/HCV Infections in Haemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja E. Grzegorzewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The IFN-λ3 gene (IFNL3 plays a role in HCV clearance. We investigated circulating IFN-λ3 and IFNL3 SNPs in haemodialysis patients who differed in their response to HBV vaccination and their HBV/HCV infection status. In 201 patients, plasma IFN-λ3 was determined using ELISA. IFNL3 SNPs (rs12979860, rs8099917 were genotyped using HRM analysis. Differences in IFN-λ3 levels were shown between responders and nonresponders to HBV vaccination and between HBsAg-positive patients and those who developed anti-HBs after infection and became HBsAg negative. HBV vaccine responders without HCV resolution revealed lower IFN-λ3 than noninfected responders. HBsAg/HCV RNA-positive subjects showed lower IFN-λ3 than patients positive only for HCV RNA or subjects who resolved both infections. Circulating IFN-λ3 correlated positively with anti-HBs and negatively with positive HCV RNA testing in the adjusted regression analyses. HBV vaccine nonresponders, HBsAg-positive patients, and subjects with replicating HCV composed a group with unfavourable outcomes. Responders to HBV vaccination, subjects who became HBsAg negative, and those who cleared HCV were analysed as having favourable outcomes. The latter showed higher IFN-λ3 but did not differ in distribution of IFNL3 SNPs compared with subjects with unfavourable outcomes. Higher IFN-λ3 concentrations are associated with response to HBV vaccination, self-limited HBV infection, and HCV resolution.

  6. Detection of HCV core antigen and its diagnostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the abilities of the hepatitis C virus (HCV core antigen (cAg test and the HCV RNA assay for confirming anti-HCV presence in order to determine the clinical utility of the HCV-cAg as an alternative or confirmatory diagnostic tool. MethodsSerum samples collected from 158 patients diagnosed with HCV infection were subjected to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based HCV-cAg test. The optical density (OD measured values were used to calculate the ratio of specimen absorbance to the cutoff value (S/CO. Simultaneously, the serum samples were subjected to PCR-based nucleic acid amplification quantitative fluorescence detection of HCV RNA. ResultsNone of the serum samples had a S/CO value <1 for the HCV-cAg test (100% negative, but all of the samples had a S/CO value >5 (100% positive. The HCV-cAg test sensitivity was 87.05%, specificity was 76.67%, positive predictive value was 9653%, and negative predictive value was 44.23%. As the S/CO value gradually increased, the significantly higher positive coincident rate of the HCV RNA test decreased. The HCV RNA negative coincident rate was significantly higher than that of the HCV-cAg test. HCV-cAg S/CO values between 1 and 2 corresponded to an HCV RNA values between 1.0×103 copies/ml and 1.0×104 copies/ml. The highest S/CO value obtained was 1.992. ConclusionThe HCV-cAg test is comparable to the HCV RNA assay for diagnosing HCV infection.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in Kadun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b was found in the entire HCV RNA positive sample. Conclusions: The findings of 6.2% prevalence of HCV infection based on HCV RNA test confirmed that there is Hepatitis C virus in ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  8. Measurements of plasma position in TJ-I Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Ascasibar, E.; Navarro, A.P.; Ochando, M.A.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, J.; Team, TJ-I.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the experimental measurements of plasma position in TJ-I tokamak by using small magnetic probes. The basis of method has been described in our previous work (1) in which the plasma current is considered as a filament current. The observed relations between the disruptive instabilities and plasma displacements are also show here. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Plasma position from ring current measurements in Extrap T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, P.; Jin Li.

    1989-11-01

    The inductive coupling between the plasma and the four octupole field coils in the Extrap T1 device is utilized as a means of estimating the plasma position. The current in each octupole ring as well as the plasma current is measured by a Rogowski coil and the ring - plasma mutual inductance is then computed assuming axisymmetric plasma displacements. The obtained position is in agreement with internal magnetic probe measurements. The time - evolution of the plasma position for different external vertical and toroidal field strengths is studied. For the present discharge parameter a vertical field of about .008 T is found to give an almost radially stationary plasma. The results are compared with a simple equilibrium model

  10. Control of plasma position in the CASTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valovic, M.

    1988-11-01

    A simple servo-system designed for plasma position control in the CASTOR tokamak is described. Both radial and vertical plasma displacements were minimized using two servo-loops consisting of detection coils, a conventional electric controller and an amplifier operated as an unipolar voltage-controlled current source. To ensure the optimum conditions in the start-up phase of the discharge, currents in the servo-systems were externally preprogrammed. The prescribed plasma position was maintained with the accuracy of 3 mm. The feedback control improves plasma parameters, e.g. it removes the positional disruption at the end of the tokamak discharge. (J.U.). 4 figs., 3 refs

  11. Feedback control of plasma position in the HL-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Baoshan; Jiao Boliang; Yang Kailing

    1991-01-01

    In the HL-1 tokamak with a thick copper shell, the control of plasma position is successfully performed by a feedback-feedforward system with dual mode regulator and the equilibrium field coils outside the shell. The plasma position can be controlled within ±2 mm in both vertical and horizontal directions under the condition that the iron core of transformer is not saturated

  12. New Tools in HCV Diagnosis, in Light of the Enhanced Awareness and the New Drugs for Treatment: SMARTube and Stimmunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Gorodin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With improved HCV therapy, challenges regarding HCV diagnosis, such as seronegative window period, false positive readings, and differentiation between recent, chronic, and resolved infections, are of increasing importance. To address these challenges an innovative device—SMARTube HIV & HCV—was used. Blood samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies before and after incubation in the SMARTube, which promotes the in vitro stimulation of in vivo HCV primed lymphocytes, thus enhancing levels of anti-HCV antibodies. Comparing antibody levels, in concordant samples before and after SMARTube, yielded the Stimulation Index (SI. Among 5888 fresh blood samples, from various populations and regions worldwide, 641 were seropositive using plasma, while SMARTube processing (yielding enriched plasma, termed SMARTplasma enabled diagnosis of 10 additional carriers in high-risk cohorts, that is, earlier detection. Using SMARTplasma eliminated all false positive results, using the current assays. In addition we show that SI calculation may serve as an important tool for differentiating between those who recently seroconverted, carriers of long-term infection, and those who have cleared the virus. SMARTube and the SI could lead to better, more informative diagnosis of HCV infections and play an important role in changing the way we treat both the infected individuals and the epidemic as a whole.

  13. Plasma position control in SST1 tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    also placed inside the vessel, however the controller would ignore fast but insignificant changes in radius arising ... poloidal cross-sectional view of the SST1 plasma along with the stabilizers are shown in figure 1 and ... [1] model which has shown excellent agreement with control experiments in TCV tokamak and also with ...

  14. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Registry Veterans in VHA Care in 2015, for the Nation, by VISN and by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report describes the number of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) registry Veterans in VHA care in 2015 based on serologic evidence of HCV infection status (HCV Positive)...

  15. Distribution of HCV genotypes among different exposure categories in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is widespread and responsible for more than 60% of chronic hepatitis cases. HCV presents a genetic variability which has led to viral classification into at least 6 genotypes and a series of subtypes. These variants present characteristic geographical distribution, but their association with different responses to treatment with interferon and severity of disease still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of distribution of HCV genotypes among different exposure categories in Brazil. Two hundred and fifty anti-HCV positive samples were submitted to HCV-RNA detection by RT-PCR and their genotype was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. In addition, the genotype/subtype of 60 samples was also determined by a reverse hybridization assay. HCV 1 was the most prevalent (72.0%, followed by type 3 (25.3%, HCV 2 (2.0% and HCV 4 (0.7%. The HCV genotype distribution varied among the different exposure categories, with HCV 1 being more frequent among blood donors, hemophiliacs and hemodialysis patients. A high frequency of HCV 3 was observed in cirrhotic patients, blood donors from the South of Brazil and injecting drug users (IDUs. The general distribution of the HCV genotype in Brazil is similar to that in other regions of the world.

  16. Plasma position stability studies for TEXT-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, E.R.; Neilson, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the vacuum vessel action on the plasma as a passive stabilizer is presented. The position feedback system is modelled in frequency domain to ascertain if the plasma in TEXT-Upgrade can be stabilized. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  18. Comparison of a newly developed automated and quantitative hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay for clinical usefulness in confirming anti-HCV results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesli, Recep; Polat, Hakki; Terzi, Yuksel; Kurtoglu, Muhammet Guzel; Uyar, Yavuz

    2011-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health care problem. Diagnosis of HCV infection is mainly based on the detection of anti-HCV antibodies as a screening test with serum samples. Recombinant immunoblot assays are used as supplemental tests and for the final detection and quantification of HCV RNA in confirmatory tests. In this study, we aimed to compare the HCV core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay for confirming anti-HCV results to determine whether the HCV core antigen test may be used as an alternative confirmatory test to the HCV RNA test and to assess the diagnostic values of the total HCV core antigen test by determining the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity rates compared with the HCV RNA test. Sera from a total of 212 treatment-naive patients were analyzed for anti-HCV and HCV core antigen both with the Abbott Architect test and with the molecular HCV RNA assay consisting of a reverse transcription-PCR method as a confirmatory test. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the HCV core antigen assay compared to the HCV RNA test were 96.3%, 100%, 100%, and 89.7%, respectively. The levels of HCV core antigen showed a good correlation with those from the HCV RNA quantification (r = 0.907). In conclusion, the Architect HCV antigen assay is highly specific, sensitive, reliable, easy to perform, reproducible, cost-effective, and applicable as a screening, supplemental, and preconfirmatory test for anti-HCV assays used in laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection.

  19. A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation code for design of position and shape control on tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko; Senda, Ikuo

    1999-01-01

    A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation (TSPS) code has been developed for investigating the position and shape control on tokamak plasmas. The analyses of three-dimensional eddy currents on the conducting components around the plasma and the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium are taken into account in this code. The code can analyze the plasma position and shape control during the minor disruption in which the deformation of plasma is not negligible. Using the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) parameters, some examples of calculations are shown in this paper. (author)

  20. Magnetic diagnostic plasma position in the TCA/BR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.; Kuznetsov, Yu.K.; Nascimento, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The cross-section of the plasma column is TCA/BR has a nearly circular plasma shape. This allows implementation of simplified methods of magnetic diagnostics. Although these methods were in may tokamaks and are well described, their accuracies are not clearly defined because the very simplified theoretical model of plasma equilibrium on which they are based differs from the real conditions in tokamaks like TCA/BR. In this paper we present the methods of plasma position diagnostics in TCA/BR from external magnetic measurements with an error analysis. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  1. HCV viremia in clinical and biomedical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.B.; Tariq, W.Z.; Karamat, K.A.; Ghani, E.; Mushtaq, S.

    2000-01-01

    Sera of 172 patients from military / civil hospitals and general practitioners of Rawalpindi/Islamabad region and vicinity areas of northern Pakistan with anti-HCV IgG positive aerostats were tested at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, between July and November, 1997 for detection of HCV viremia by reverse transcriptases polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Randomly selected 100 samples (40 viremia positive and 60 negative after PCR) were tested for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. For each patient, information based upon clinical and laboratory findings was recorded on a performa to correlate the clinical and biochemical findings with the results of qualitative reverse transcriptase polymerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) for HCV in Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients. Of the total 172 HCV infected (Anti HCV Positive), 61(35.61%) patients were found to be viremic. Active infection was more frequent in the age of 30 years onwards. The past history of jaundice, surgical operation and chronic renal failure was more frequent with the viremia positive cases. Although, statistically insignificant, there was evidence of some association of diabetes mellitus with viremia ALT levels and its mean were higher in viremics, 27(73%) of 37 cases with a minimum three months history of interferon treatment for hepatitis C were found negative for viremia. (author)

  2. Digital control of plasma position in Damavand tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami, M.; Babazadeh, A.R.; Roshan, M.V.; Memarzadeh, M.; Habibi, H. [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fusion Research Center. Plasma Physics Lab.

    2002-03-01

    Plasma position control is one of the important issues in the design and operation of tokamak fusion research device. Since a tokamak is basically an electrical system consisting of power supplies, coils, plasma and eddy currents, a model in which these components are treated as an electrical circuits is used in designing Damavand plasma position control system. This model is used for the simulation of the digital control system and its parameters have been verified experimentally. In this paper, the performance of a high-speed digital controller as well as a simulation study and its application to the Damavand tokamak is discussed. (author)

  3. Ion extraction from positively biased laser-ablation plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Fumika; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Jun; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ions were extracted through a grounded grid from a positively biased laser-ablation plasma and the behaviors were investigated. Since the plasma was positively biased against the grounded wall, we could extract the ions without insulated gap. We confirmed formation of a virtual anode when we increased the distance between the grid and the ion collector. Results also indicated that when the ion flux from the ablation plasma exceeded a critical value, the current was strongly suppressed to the space charge limited level due to the formation of virtual anode.

  4. Numerical simulation of plasma vertical position stabilization in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astapkovich, A.M.; Sadakov, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with numerical simulation of plasma vertical position stabilization in ITER. The calculations are performed using EDDY C-2 code by the method of direct numerical simulation of transient electromagnetic processes taking into account the evolution of plasma position, cross-section shape and full plasma current. When simulating free vertical plasma drift in ITER with twin passive stabilization loops, it was shown that account of the effects of cross-section deformation and plasma current alternations results in almost two fold degradation of passive stabilization parameters as compared to the calculations for 'rigid displacement' model. In terms of methodology, the account of the effects of cross section deformation and plasma current alternations requires clarification of the definitions for reverse increment of vertical instability and for stability margin coefficient. The simulation of plasma pinch return to equilibrium position after the closure of control coils allows to assess the required parameters of active control system and demonstrate the effect of screen current reverse in twin loops. The obtained results were used to develop the ITER conceptual design and affected the choice of the concept of twin passive loops and new positron of control coils as the basis approaches. 11 refs.; 12 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Automation of Aditya tokamak plasma position control DC power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arambhadiya, Bharat, E-mail: bharat@ipr.res.in; Raj, Harshita; Tanna, R.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Kalal, M.B.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Plasma position control is very essential for obtaining repeatable high temperature, high-density discharges of longer durations in tokomak. • The present capacitor bank has limitations of maximum current capacity and position control beyond 200 ms. • The installation of a separate set of coils and a DC power supply can control the plasma position beyond 200 ms. • A high power thyristor (T588N1200) triggers for DC current pulse of 300 A fires precisely at required positions to modify plasma position. • The commissioning is done for the automated in-house, quick and reliable solution. - Abstract: Plasma position control is essential for obtaining repeatable high temperature, high-density discharges of longer duration in tokamaks. Recently, a set of external coils is installed in the vertical field mode configuration to control the radial plasma position in ADITYA tokamak. The existing capacitor bank cannot provide the required current pulse beyond 200 ms for position control. This motivated to have a DC power supply of 500 A to provide current pulse beyond 200 ms for the position control. The automatization of the DC power supply mandated interfaces with the plasma control system, Aditya Pulse Power supply, and Data acquisition system for coordinated discharge operation. A high current thyristor circuit and a timer circuit have been developed for controlling the power supply automatically for charging vertical field coils of Aditya tokamak. Key protection interlocks implemented in the development ensure machine and occupational safety. Fiber-optic trans-receiver isolates the power supply with other subsystems, while analog channel is optically isolated. Commissioning and testing established proper synchronization of the power supply with tokamak operation. The paper discusses the automation of the DC power supply with main circuit components, timing control, and testing results.

  6. Performance comparison of new generation HCV core antigen test versus HCV RNA test in management of hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetiner, Salih; Çetin Duran, Alev; Kibar, Filiz; Yaman, Akgün

    2017-06-01

    The study has evaluated the performance of HCV core antigen (Cag) test by comparing HCV RNA PCR assay which is considered the gold standard for management of HCV infection. Totally, 132 samples sent for HCV RNA (real-time PCR) test were included in the study. Anti-HCV antibody test and HCV Cag test were performed by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CMEI). Anti-HCV test was positive in all samples. HCV RNA was detected in 112/132 (84.8%) samples, and HCV Cag in 105/132 (79.5%). The most common HCV genotype was genotype 1 (86%). Considering the HCV RNA test as gold standard; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of Cag test were found to be 93.75%, 100%, 100%, 74.07% and 94.69%, respectively, and paired test results were detected as highly concordant. A high level of correlation was seen between HCV RNA and Cag tests, however, the concordance between the two tests appeared to be disrupted at viral loads lower than 10 3 IU/mL. On the contrary, the correlation reached significance for the values higher than 10 3 IU/mL. Viral loads were in the 17-2500IU/mL range for the negative results for Cag test. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed a considerably high correlation. The concordance between HCV RNA and Cag tests was disrupted under a viral load lower than 10 3 IU/mL. Therefore, it would be appropriate to consider cost effectiveness, advantages and limitations of the HCV RNA and Cag tests during the decision on which method to use for patient management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients......-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10). RESULTS: Undetectable HCV RNA at the time of early latent syphilis infection was observed in 2 patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. After treatment of the syphilis infection, HCV RNA levels increased again in patient 1, whereas...... patient 2 initiated HCV therapy and remained HCV RNA-negative. Available plasma samples obtained before and after the episode with undetectable HCV RNA were phylogenetically identical, making the possibility of spontaneous clearance and HCV reinfection less likely. The IL-10, TNF-α, and IP-10 levels...

  8. Positional instability analysis of tokamak plasmas by ERATO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Michikazu; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Tokuda, Shinji; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1983-06-01

    The stability of axisymmetric modes of a tokamak plasma(positional instabilities) is analyzed for the Solov'ev equilibrium by using the linear ideal MHD code ERATO-J. The dependence of the stability on various parameters, i.e., the ellipticity and triangularity of the plasma cross-section, the aspect ratio, the safety factor at the magnetic axis, and the distance between the plasma and a conducting shell is investigated. Comparison of the results with those by the rigid model shows that the stability condition derived from the rigid model in terms of the decay index(n-index) of the external equilibrating field is a good approximation for the plasma with small triangular deformation. Also the results are compared with those of the rigid displacement model and applicability of the various models on the positional instability analyses is discussed. (author)

  9. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA profiles among chronic HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in ESPRIT; spontaneous HCV RNA clearance observed in nine individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, D; Tedaldi, E; Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Edlin, B; Gallien, S; Klinker, H; Boesecke, C; Kokordelis, P; Rockstroh, J K

    2017-07-01

    Studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels remain stable over time in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA during the persistent infection phase has been documented only rarely among those with the CC interleukin (IL)-28B genotype. This study describes HCV RNA profiles and factors associated with changes over time in HCV RNA levels in the ESPRIT study. HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals positive for HCV RNA were included in the study. Follow-up was counted from the first HCV RNA positive test and censored at the initiation of interferon-based treatment. HCV RNA and IL-28B measurements were performed in the same reference laboratory. Random effects mixed models were used to analyse changes over time in HCV RNA. A total of 312 ESPRIT patients were included in the study (151 in the arm receiving subcutaneous recombinant IL-2 and 161 in the control arm). Most of the patients were white (89%) and male (76%), and they had a median of 5 HCV RNA measurements per person [interquartile range (IQR) 3-6; range 1-9]. Median follow-up was 5 years (IQR: 2-6 years). At baseline, 96% of patients were taking cART and 93% had undetectable HIV RNA. Mean HCV RNA levels decreased by 13% per year over the study period [95% confidence interval (CI) 8-18%; P < 0.0001]. Baseline HCV RNA levels and the change over time in HCV RNA did not differ by randomization arm (P = 0.16 and P = 0.56, respectively). Nine individuals spontaneously cleared HCV RNA during follow-up [IL-28B genotypes: CC, five patients (56%); CT, four patients (44%)]. HCV RNA levels decreased over time in this population with well-controlled HIV infection. Spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA was documented in five individuals with IL-28B genotype CC and four with the CT genotype. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  10. Immune biomarker differences and changes comparing HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV spontaneously cleared patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Kushner

    Full Text Available Immune biomarkers are implicated in HCV treatment response, fibrosis, and accelerated pathogenesis of comorbidities, though only D-dimer and C-reactive protein have been consistently studied. Few studies have evaluated HIV/HCV co-infection, and little longitudinal data exists describing a broader antiviral cytokine response.Fifty immune biomarkers were analyzed at baseline (BL and HCV end of treatment follow-up(FU time point using the Luminex 50-plex assay in plasma samples from 15 HCV-cleared, 24 HCV mono- and 49 HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment, who either did or did not receive pegylated-interferon/ribavirin HCV treatment. Biomarker levels were compared among spontaneous clearance patients, mono- and co-infected, untreated and HCV-treated, and sustained virologic responders (SVR and non-responders (NR at BL and FU using nonparametric analyses. A Bonferroni correction, adjusting for tests of 50 biomarkers, was used to reduce Type I error.Compared to HCV patients at BL, HIV/HCV patients had 22 significantly higher and 4 significantly lower biomarker levels, following correction for multiple testing. There were no significantly different BL levels when comparing SVR and NR in mono- or co-infected patients; however, FU levels changed considerably in co-infected patients, with seven becoming significantly higher and eight becoming significantly lower in SVR patients. Longitudinally between BL and FU, 13 markers significantly changed in co-infected SVR patients, while none significantly changed in co-infected NR patients. There were also no significant changes in longitudinal analyses of mono-infected patients achieving SVR or mono-infected and co-infected groups deferring treatment.Clear differences exist in pattern and quantity of plasma immune biomarkers among HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV-cleared patients; and with SVR in co-infected patients treated for HCV. Though >90% of patients were male and

  11. HCV viraemia in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients: Do we need HCV RNA detection test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Griveas, Ioannis; Sveroni, Eirini; Argiana, Vasiliki; Kalliaropoulos, Antonios; Martinez-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Deutsch, Melanie

    2018-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still common among dialysis patients, but the natural history of HCV in this group is not completely understood. The KDIGO HCV guidelines of 2009 recommend that chronic haemodialysis patients be screened for HCV antibody upon admission to the dialysis clinic and every 6 months thereafter if susceptible to HCV infection. However, previous studies have shown the presence of HCV viraemia in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients as up to 22%. To evaluate the presence of HCV viraemia, using HCV RNA detection, among anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients from a tertiary dialysis unit in Athens. We enrolled 41 anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients diagnosed with third-generation enzyme immunoassay. HCV viraemia was evaluated using a sensitive (cut-off: 12 IU/mL) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan system) for HCV RNA. None of the 41 anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients were shown to be viraemic. Routine HCV RNA testing appears not to be necessary in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients.

  12. Strategies for the plasma position and shape control in IGNITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramogida, G.; Alladio, F.; Albanese, R.

    2006-01-01

    The control of the plasma position and shape is a crucial issue in IGNITOR as in every compact, high field, elongated tokamak. The capability of the Poloidal Field Coil system, as presently designed, to provide an effective vertical stabilization of the plasma has been investigated using the CREATE L response model [R. Albanese, F. Villone, '' The Linearized CREATE L Plasma Response Model for the Control of Current, Position and Shape in Tokamaks '', Nucl. Fus., vol. 38, p. 723 (1998)]. This linearized MHD model assumes an axisymmetric deformable plasma described by few global parameters. An optimization of the vertical position control strategy has been carried out and the most effective coil combination has been selected to stabilize the plasma while fulfilling engineering constraints on the coils and minimizing the required power and voltage. The two pairs of coils selected for the vertical control will be fed up with up-down anti-symmetric currents provided by a dedicated supply and overlapped to the scenario currents. The growth rate of the vertical instability and the power required by the active stabilization system have been estimated with this model, indicating that it is possible to design a control system able to guarantee a stability region that includes the most interesting operation conditions. An assessment of the requirements for the plasma cross section shape control has been carried out considering independent perturbations of the plasma global parameters as disturbances and showing that the undesired shape modification rejection is possible with the present PFC and power supply system. The PF coils have been ranked with respect to their capability to restore the shape modifications due to different plasma disturbances and the most effective coil combination, that minimizes recovery time and voltage required, has been selected. In order to have additional means to monitor and control the centre of the plasma column, under demanding conditions

  13. HCV Transmission between serodiscordant couples through sexual route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.S.A.; Khalid, S.R.; Naseer, M.; Mirza, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the rate of transmission of HCV between n spouses through sexual route. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. It was conducted over a period of 4 years from June 2009 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty eight consecutive patients confirmed to have HCV infection by PCR for HCV RNA were enrolled in the study. Their spouses were also included in the study, and it was established through PCR for HCV RNA that the spouses were not suffering from HCV infection. All couples were inducted in the study within the first two months of starting the study. Therefore, the maximum and minimum follow-up time was 48 months and 46 months, respectively. The spouses were questioned for HCV risk factors and were tested for HCV antibodies six monthly. Once spouses were found to be anti-HCV positive, their HCV status was confirmed with PCR for HCV RNA. Results: Out of 168 patients, 90 (53.57%) were males and 78 (46.43%) were females. PCR for HCV RNA was found to be positive in 4 of 168 (2.38%) spouses. All the se 4 couples in whom HCV transmission was found had genotype 3a. Out of the 4 spouses who tested positive for HCV RNA PCR, 3 (75%) were females and 1 (25%) was male. So HCV infection was transmitted in 3 out of 90 (3.33 %) and 1 out of 78 (1.28%) female and male spouses, respectively. In PCR for HCV RNA positive and negative spouses, the duration of marriage was 202 +- 53 and 199 +- 49 weeks; and the number of total sexual intercourses was 171 +- 93 and 169 +- 89, respectively. Conclusion: HCV transmission among serodiscordant couples in our setup did occur. The overall rate of transmission was 2.38%. The rate of transmission from male to female (3.33%) was higher than female to male (1.28%). However, a large scale study conducted over a longer duration of time is needed to recommend protected sex in serodiscordant couples if either partner is suffering

  14. Treatment response in HCV related chronic hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.B.; Hussain, T.; Hussain, S.; Masood, A.; Kazmi, Y.; Tariq, W.Z.; Karamat, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the virological response to treatment with interferon and ribavirin in-patients with hepatitis C related liver disease. Material and Methods: Two hundred seventy-nine patients were included in the study. These patients had taken interferon and ribavirin treatment for HCV related chronic hepatitis, and were referred to AFIP for HCV RNA testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between January 2002 and September 2002. Out of 279 cases, 229 had taken the treatment for 06 or 12 months and were tested for end-of-treatment response (ETR). Fifty patients had completed there treatment regimens of 6 or 12 months treatment, at least 24 weeks before their PCR test and were having follow-up testing for sustained viral response (SVR). The sera of these patients were tested for HCV RNA by PCR, using a commercial kit of Amplicor (Roche) for qualitative detection of HCV RNA. Results: Out of 229 cases tested for end-of-treatment response, 198 (86.5%) had no detectable HCV RNA (responders) and 31 (13.50%) were PCR positive (non-responders). Thirty-eight out of 50 cases, tested for a sustained viral response, had a negative result for HCV PCR thus showing sustained response rate of 76%. Conclusion: The viral remission/response to interferon and ribavirin combination therapy in our patients was better than that quoted in other regions. (author)

  15. Strategies for the plasma position and shape control in IGNITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villone, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A.; Rubinacci, G.; Ramogida, G.; Alladio, F.; Bombarda, F.; Coletti, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Maddaluno, G.; Pizzicaroli, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Roccella, M.; Santinelli, M.; Coppi, B.

    2007-01-01

    The capability of the poloidal field coil system, as presently designed, to provide an effective vertical stabilization of the plasma in the IGNITOR machine has been investigated using the CREATE L response model. An optimization of the vertical position control strategy has been carried out and the most effective coil combination has been selected to stabilize the plasma while fulfilling engineering constraints on the coils and minimizing the required power and voltage. The growth rate of the vertical instability and the power required by the active stabilization system has been estimated with this model. The possible failure of the relevant electromagnetic diagnostics has been taken into account, evaluating the robustness of the plasma position reconstruction strategy. A realistic description of the power supply system has permitted to carry out the optimization of the proportional-integrative-derivative (PID) controller, both with a voltage and a current loop control scheme. An assessment of the requirements for the plasma cross section shape control has been carried out considering perturbations of the plasma global parameters independent of each other and showing that the undesired shape modification rejection is possible with the present PFC and power supply system. The PF coils have been rated relative to their capability to restore shape modifications due to different plasma disturbances. The most effective coil combination, that minimizes recovery time and voltage required, has been identified

  16. Solitons in dusty plasmas with positive dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluku, T. K.; Hellberg, M. A.; Mace, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Although ''typical'' micrometer-sized dust grains in a space or laboratory plasma are often negatively charged because of collisions with the mobile electrons, there are environments in which grains may take on a positive charge. We consider a dusty plasma composed of electrons, positive ions and positive dust grains, and use the fluid dynamic paradigm to identify existence domains in parameter space for both dust-acoustic (DA) and dust-modified ion-acoustic (DIA) solitons. Only positive potential DA solitons are found. This represents an expected antisymmetry with the case of negative dust, where previously only negative solitons were reported. However, whereas for negative dust DIA solitons of either sign of potential may exist, we find that for the case of positive dust, DIA solitons are restricted to positive potentials only. The results for both positive and negative dust are consistent with an hypothesis that, in the absence of flows, the sign(s) of the soliton potential coincide(s) with the sign(s) of the species whose inertia is included in the calculation; i.e., the cold, supersonic species present in the plasma

  17. Hepatitis A virus infection suppresses hepatitis C virus replication and may lead to clearance of HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deterding, Katja; Tegtmeyer, Björn; Cornberg, Markus; Hadem, Johannes; Potthoff, Andrej; Böker, Klaus H W; Tillmann, Hans L; Manns, Michael P; Wedemeyer, Heiner

    2006-12-01

    The significance of hepatitis A virus (HAV) super-infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C had been a matter of debate. While some studies suggested an incidence of fulminant hepatitis A of up to 35%, this could not be confirmed by others. We identified 17 anti-HCV-positive patients with acute hepatitis A from a cohort of 3170 anti-HCV-positive patients recruited at a single center over a period of 12 years. Importantly, none of the anti-HCV-positive patients had a fulminant course of hepatitis A. HCV-RNA was detected by PCR in 84% of the anti-HCV-positive/anti-HAV-IgM-negative patients but only in 65% of anti-HCV-positive patients with acute hepatitis A (p=0.03), indicating suppression of HCV replication during hepatitis A. Previous HAV infection had no effect on HCV replication. After recovery from hepatitis A, an increased HCV replication could be demonstrated for 6 out of 9 patients with serial quantitative HCV-RNA values available while 2 patients remained HCV-RNA negative after clearance of HAV throughout follow-up of at least 2 years. HAV super-infection is associated with decreased HCV-RNA replication which may lead to recovery from HCV in some individuals. Fulminant hepatitis A is not frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C recruited at a tertiary referral center.

  18. Development of the 'JFT-2' tokamak plasma position control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Noboru; Matsuzaki, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Norio; Murai, Katsuji; Suzuki, Satoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Digital control technique was applied to control the plasma position in the JFT-2 tokamak experiment device. The detail of the JFT-2 is described elsewhere. The plasma position control system consists of a Hitachi control computer, HIDIC 80, and a Hitachi micro-computer, HIDIC 08E. The plasma position is detected by the position control computer, and compared with a preset value. Then, a reference signal is supplied to the micro-computer controlling power source, and the phase control of the thyristor controlling power source is performed. Since the behavior of plasma is very fast, the fast control is required. The control of the thyristor controlling power source is made by direct digital control (DDC). The main component of the hardware of the present system is the micro-computer HIDIC 08E. The software is the direct task system without the operating system (OS). The results of experiments showed that the feedback control of the system worked well. (Kato, T.)

  19. Indeterminate RIBA results were associated with the absence of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Felicidade Mota; Zarife, Maria Alice Sant'ana; Reis, Eliana Almeida Gomes; G. Reis, Mitermayer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Methods: A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Found...

  20. Prevalence of mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes among recently diagnosed dialysis patients with HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Al Balwi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is considered a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multiple (mixed HCV genotypes in Saudi patients recently diagnosed with HCV infection and their association with various clinical risk factors. We examined a total of 1,292 newly diagnosed HCV-positive cases between January 2006 and July 2009 at the Molecular Pathology Laboratory, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The clinical and laboratory data of the study patients were collected. The HCV-RNA viral load and its genotyping were carried out with RT-PCR technology to assist in the follow-up and management of HCV-infected patients undergoing antiviral therapy. Twenty-two patients (1.7% were found to have mixed HCV genotypes; of them, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-4 were seen in 19 patients (86%, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were found in 68.4%, with genotype-3 in 26.3% and with genotype-2 in 5.3%. Additionally, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were seen in three cases (13.6%; they were associated with genotype-2 in two (66.7% and with genotype-5 in one patient (33.3%. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of mixed HCV genotypes in the cohort of the newly infected Saudi patients was 1.7%, with genotype-4 being the most frequent genotype encountered.

  1. Continuous, saturation, and discontinuous tokamak plasma vertical position control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrishkin, Yuri V., E-mail: y_mitrishkin@hotmail.com [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Pavlova, Evgeniia A., E-mail: janerigoler@mail.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Evgenii A., E-mail: ea.kuznetsov@mail.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Gaydamaka, Kirill I., E-mail: k.gaydamaka@gmail.com [V. A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Robust new linear state feedback control system for tokamak plasma vertical position. • Plasma vertical position relay control system with voltage inverter in sliding mode. • Design of full models of multiphase rectifier and voltage inverter. • First-order unit approximation of full multiphase rectifier model with high accuracy. • Wider range of unstable plant parameters of stable control system with multiphase rectifier. - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design and comparison of unstable plasma vertical position control systems in the T-15 tokamak with the application of two types of actuators: a multiphase thyristor rectifier and a transistor voltage inverter. An unstable dynamic element obtained by the identification of plasma-physical DINA code was used as the plasma model. The simplest static feedback state space control law was synthesized as a linear combination of signals accessible to physical measurements, namely the plasma vertical displacement, the current, and the voltage in a horizontal field coil, to solve the pole placement problem for a closed-loop system. Only one system distinctive parameter was used to optimize the performance of the feedback system, viz., a multiple real pole. A first-order inertial unit was used as the rectifier model in the feedback. A system with a complete rectifier model was investigated as well. A system with the voltage inverter model and static linear controller was brought into a sliding mode. As this takes place, real time delays were taken into account in the discontinuous voltage inverter model. The comparison of the linear and sliding mode systems showed that the linear system enjoyed an essentially wider range of the plant model parameters where the feedback system was stable.

  2. Continuous, saturation, and discontinuous tokamak plasma vertical position control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrishkin, Yuri V.; Pavlova, Evgeniia A.; Kuznetsov, Evgenii A.; Gaydamaka, Kirill I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Robust new linear state feedback control system for tokamak plasma vertical position. • Plasma vertical position relay control system with voltage inverter in sliding mode. • Design of full models of multiphase rectifier and voltage inverter. • First-order unit approximation of full multiphase rectifier model with high accuracy. • Wider range of unstable plant parameters of stable control system with multiphase rectifier. - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design and comparison of unstable plasma vertical position control systems in the T-15 tokamak with the application of two types of actuators: a multiphase thyristor rectifier and a transistor voltage inverter. An unstable dynamic element obtained by the identification of plasma-physical DINA code was used as the plasma model. The simplest static feedback state space control law was synthesized as a linear combination of signals accessible to physical measurements, namely the plasma vertical displacement, the current, and the voltage in a horizontal field coil, to solve the pole placement problem for a closed-loop system. Only one system distinctive parameter was used to optimize the performance of the feedback system, viz., a multiple real pole. A first-order inertial unit was used as the rectifier model in the feedback. A system with a complete rectifier model was investigated as well. A system with the voltage inverter model and static linear controller was brought into a sliding mode. As this takes place, real time delays were taken into account in the discontinuous voltage inverter model. The comparison of the linear and sliding mode systems showed that the linear system enjoyed an essentially wider range of the plant model parameters where the feedback system was stable.

  3. Structure of the automatic system for plasma equilibrium position control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, V.F.; Krivonos, Yu.G.; Samojlenko, Yu.I.; Snegur, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the principles of construction of the automatic system for plasma filament equilibrium position control inside the discharge chamber for the installation of a tokamak type. The combined current control system in control winding is suggested. The most powerful subsystem creates current in the control winding according to the program calculated beforehand. This system provides plasma rough equilibrium along the ''big radius''. The subsystem performing the current change in small limits according to the principle of feed-back coupling is provided simultaneously. The stabilization of plasma position is achieved in the discharge chamber. The advantage of construction of such system is in decreasing of the automatic requlator power without lowering the requirements to the accuracy of equilibrium preservation. The subsystem of automatic control of plasma position over the vertical is put into the system. Such an approach to the construction of the automatic control system proves to be correct; it is based on the experience of application of similar devices for some existing thermonuclear plants

  4. Performance of a plasma opening switch in positive polarity on Gamble I using flashboard plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The successful development of the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) for inductive storage applications has been largely confined to negative polarity operation. Some models of POS behavior suggest that this is because in a positive polarity coaxial configuration, the weaker magnetic field at the cathode position retards the switch opening process. This article describes experiments in which both conductor radii in the POS region were significantly reduced. Anode- and cathode-side current monitors indicate that voltages greater than open-circuit are generated at the POS position, but there is a significant amount of electron flow out of the POS, depending upon load impedance. Flow impedance analysis indicates that a relatively small gap appears in the POS plasma after switch opening. Switch performance is also compared between flashboard and carbon gun plasma sources, with the latter operated both in positive and negative polarity

  5. Interaction of a vacuum arc plasma beam with an obstacle positioned normal to the plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarchin, O; Zhitomirsky, V N; Goldsmith, S; Boxman, R L

    2003-01-01

    The effect of an obstacle positioned normal to a plasma jet produced by a vacuum arc plasma source on the radial distribution of ion flux in the vicinity of the obstacle was studied. This study was motivated by interest in the mutual influence of tightly packed substrates on coatings in industrial vacuum arc deposition systems. The experimental system consisted of a vacuum arc plasma source, a straight plasma duct, and a multi-probe consisting of a removable disc obstacle and a set of ring probes for measuring the radial ion flux. A dc arc discharge was ignited in vacuum between a truncated cone-shaped Cu cathode and an annular anode. The plasma jet produced by cathode spots passed through the anode aperture into the straight plasma duct. An axial magnetic field guided the plasma jet in the duct. The multi-probe consisted of a removable disc obstacle and a set of five ring probes for measuring the radial plasma flux as a function of distance from the disc obstacle. The rings and the disc probes were coaxially arranged on the multi-probe assembly and positioned so that plasma from the source passed through the ring probes and then encountered the disc. The influence of the obstacle was determined by measuring the ring ion currents, both in the presence of the obstacle, and when the disc obstacle was removed. The difference between the measured ion currents with and without the obstacle was interpreted to be the contribution of reflected or sputtered particles from the obstacle to the radial ion flux. The ring probes were biased by -60 V with respect to the grounded anode, to collect the saturated ion current. The multi-probe was connected to a movable stem, and positioned at different distances from the plasma source. A plasma density of ∼6 x 10 17 m -3 was estimated in this study based on the ion current to the obstacle. The radial ion flux collected by the ring probes increased by 20-25% due to the presence of the obstacle. As the calculated mean free path for

  6. HCV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdel Fatah Fahmy Hanno

    2013-06-27

    Jun 27, 2013 ... tested positively for HCV RNA in PBMCs at the end of treatment had an overall significantly ... chronic hepatitis C, the history of previous use of antiviral medicine or .... Although hepatocytes are considered to be primary targets of. HCV, clinical .... 6. Yamagiwa S, Matsuda Y, Ichida T, Honda Y, Takamura M,.

  7. Hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 subtype identification in new HCV drug development and future clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chevaliez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the development of new specific inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV enzymes and functions that may yield different antiviral responses and resistance profiles according to the HCV subtype, correct HCV genotype 1 subtype identification is mandatory in clinical trials for stratification and interpretation purposes and will likely become necessary in future clinical practice. The goal of this study was to identify the appropriate molecular tool(s for accurate HCV genotype 1 subtype determination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large cohort of 500 treatment-naïve patients eligible for HCV drug trials and infected with either subtype 1a or 1b was studied. Methods based on the sole analysis of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR by sequence analysis or reverse hybridization failed to correctly identify HCV subtype 1a in 22.8%-29.5% of cases, and HCV subtype 1b in 9.5%-8.7% of cases. Natural polymorphisms at positions 107, 204 and/or 243 were responsible for mis-subtyping with these methods. A real-time PCR method using genotype- and subtype-specific primers and probes located in both the 5'NCR and the NS5B-coding region failed to correctly identify HCV genotype 1 subtype in approximately 10% of cases. The second-generation line probe assay, a reverse hybridization assay that uses probes targeting both the 5'NCR and core-coding region, correctly identified HCV subtypes 1a and 1b in more than 99% of cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the context of new HCV drug development, HCV genotyping methods based on the exclusive analysis of the 5'NCR should be avoided. The second-generation line probe assay is currently the best commercial assay for determination of HCV genotype 1 subtypes 1a and 1b in clinical trials and practice.

  8. HCV-RNA quantification in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, using the abbott RealTime HCV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, FrancescoPaolo; Cento, Valeria; Sorbo, Maria Chiara; Manuelli, Matteo Ciancio; Lenci, Ilaria; Sforza, Daniele; Di Carlo, Domenico; Milana, Martina; Manzia, Tommaso Maria; Angelico, Mario; Tisone, Giuseppe; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of a rapid method to quantify HCV-RNA in the hepatic and extrahepatic compartments, by using for the first time the Abbott RealTime HCV-assay. Non-tumoral (NT), tumoral (TT) liver samples, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid from patients undergoing orthotopic-liver-transplantation (N=18) or liver resection (N=4) were used for the HCV-RNA quantification; 5/22 patients were tested after or during direct acting antivirals (DAA) treatment. Total RNA and DNA quantification from tissue-biopsies allowed normalization of HCV-RNA concentrations in IU/μg of total RNA and IU/10 6 liver-cells, respectively. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver biopsies, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid samples. Among the 17 untreated patients, a positive and significant HCV-RNA correlation between serum and NT liver-samples was observed (Pearson: rho=0.544, p=0.024). Three DAA-treated patients were HCV-RNA "undetectable" in serum, but still "detectable" in all tested liver-tissues. Differently, only one DAA-treated patient, tested after sustained-virological-response, showed HCV-RNA "undetectability" in liver-tissue. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, even when HCV-RNA was "undetectable" in serum. Abbott RealTime HCV-assay is a good diagnostic tool for HCV quantification in intra- and extra-hepatic compartments, whenever a bioptic sample is available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma position control in a tokamak reactor around ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretta, U.; Minardi, E.; Bacelli, N.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma position control in a tokamak reactor in the phase approaching ignition is closely related to burn control. If ignited burn corresponds to a thermally unstable situation the plasma becomes sensitive to the thermal instability already in the phase when ignition is approached so that the trajectory in the position-pressure (R,p) space becomes effectively unpredictable. For example, schemes involving closed cycles around ignition can be unstable in the heating-cooling phases, and the deviations may be cumulative in time. Reliable plasma control in pressure-position (p, R) space is achieved by beforehand constraining the p, R trajectory rigidly with suitable feedback vertical field stabilization, which is to be established already below ignition. A scheme in which ignition is approached in a stable and automatic way by feedback stabilization on the vertical field is proposed and studied in detail. The values of the gain coefficient ensuring stabilization and the associated p and R excursions are discussed both analytically, with a 0-D approximation including non-linear effects, and numerically with a 1-D code in cylindrical geometry. Profile effects increase the excursions, in particular above ignition. (author)

  10. Molecular epidemiology of HCV monoinfection and HIV/HCV coinfection in injection drug users in Liuzhou, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV mono-infection and HCV/HIV (human immunodeficiency virus co-infection are growing problems in injection drug users (IDU. Their prevalence and genotypic patterns vary with geographic locations. Access to harm reduction measures is opening up opportunities for improving the HIV/HCV profiling of IDU in China, where IDUs account for a significant proportion of the two infections especially in the southern part of the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Through the Liuzhou Methadone Clinic, a total of 117 injection drug users (IDUs were recruited from Guangxi, Southern China. A majority of the IDUs (96% were HCV antibody positive, of which 21% were HIV infected. Unlike HCV monoinfection, there was spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of HIV/HCV coinfection, the latter also characterized by a higher prevalence of needle-sharing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotype 6a was predominant in the study population. There were shorter genetic distances among the 6a sequences compared to the other HCV subtypes-1a, 3a, and 3b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that HIV and HCV were introduced at around the same time to the IDU populations in Southern China, followed by their differential spread as determined by the biologic characteristics of the virus and the intensity of behavioural risk. This pattern is different from that in other South East Asian countries where HCV infections have probably predated HIV.

  11. Drug treatment program patients' hepatitis C virus (HCV education needs and their use of available HCV education services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the disproportionate prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection among drug users, many remain uninformed or misinformed about the virus. Drug treatment programs are important sites of opportunity for providing HCV education to their patients, and many programs do, in fact, offer this education in a variety of formats. Little is known, however, about the level of HCV knowledge among drug treatment program patients, and the extent to which they utilize their programs' HCV education services. Methods Using data collected from patients (N = 280 in 14 U.S. drug treatment programs, we compared patients who reported that they never injected drugs (NIDUs with past or current drug injectors (IDUs concerning their knowledge about HCV, whether they used HCV education opportunities at their programs, and the facilitators and barriers to doing so. All of the programs were participating in a research project that was developing, implementing, and evaluating a staff training to provide HCV support to patients. Results Although IDUs scored higher on an HCV knowledge assessment than NIDUs, there were many gaps in HCV knowledge among both groups of patients. To address these knowledge gaps, all of the programs offered at least one form of HCV education: all offered 1:1 sessions with staff, 12 of the programs offered HCV education in a group format, and 11 of the programs offered this education through pamphlets/books. Only 60% of all of the participating patients used any of their programs' HCV education services, but those who did avail themselves of these HCV education opportunities generally assessed them positively. In all, many patients were unaware that HCV education was offered at their programs through individual sessions with staff, group meetings, and books/pamphlets, (42%, 49%, and 46% of the patients, respectively, and 22% were unaware that any HCV education opportunities existed. Conclusion Efforts especially need

  12. Point -of -care testing (POCT) in molecular diagnostics: Performance evaluation of GeneXpert HCV RNA test in diagnosing and monitoring of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ekta; Agarwala, Pragya; Kumar, Guresh; Maiwall, Rakhi; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Molecular testing at the point-of-care may turn out to be game changer for HCV diagnosis and treatment monitoring, through increased sensitivity, reduced turnaround time, and ease of performance. One such assay GeneXpert ® has recently been released. Comparative analysis between performances of GeneXpert ® and Abbott HCV-RNA was done. 174 HCV infected patients were recruited and, one time plasma samples from 154 patients and repeated samples from 20 patients, obtained at specific treatment time-points (0, 4, 12 and 24) weeks were serially re-tested on Xpert ® . Genotype 3 was the commonest, seen in 80 (66%) of the cases, genotype 1 in 34 (28.3%), genotype 4 in 4 (3.3%) and genotypes 2 and 5 in 1 (0.8%) each. Median HCV RNA load was 4.69 log 10 (range: 0-6.98log 10 ) IU/ml. Overall a very good correlation was seen between the two assays (R 2 =0.985), concordance of the results between the assays was seen in 138 samples (89.6%). High and low positive standards were tested ten times on Xpert ® to evaluate the precision and the coefficient of variation was 0.01 for HPC and 0.07 for the LPC. Monitoring of patients on two different regimes of treatment, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and sofosbuvir plus ribavirin was done by both the systems at baseline, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Perfect correlation between the assays in the course of therapy at different treatment time- point in genotypes 3 and 1 was seen. The study demonstrates excellent performance of the Xpert ® HCV assay in viral load assessment and in treatment course monitoring consistency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal hepatitis C (HCV) infection and Anti-D immunoglobulin therapy: study testing antibodies, RNA and Genotype of HCV in Baghdad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kubaisy, Waqar; Daud, Suzanna; Al-Kubaisi, Mustafa Waseem; Al-Kubaisi, Omar Waseem; Abdullah, Nik Nairan

    2018-04-30

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem. It is a major contributor to end-stage liver disease. Worldwide, 1-8% of all pregnant women were infected. Women with viral hepatitis may be at an increased risk of pregnancy complications. There are several obstetrics intervention acts as risk factors, which are specific to women pertaining the HCV infection; anti-D immunoglobulin (Ig) therapy may be one of them. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), RNA, and genotype distribution among women with anti-D Ig therapy. A cross sectional study was conducted. A sample of 154 Rhesus negative (Rh - ve) pregnant women regardless of the anti-D Ig therapy was collected. Anti-HCV were tested using third generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA-3) and immunoblot assay (Lia Tek-111), subsequently. In addition, 89 serum samples were subjected to molecular analysis using RT-PCR and DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA) method for the detection of HCV-RNA and genotypes. Anti-HCV, and HCV-RNA seroprevalence were significantly higher (17.1, 35.5%) among women with anti-D Ig than their counter group (6.4, 13.16%), p = .038, .018, respectively. Significant direct positive dose response correlation (r = 0.78, p = .005) had been seen between number of anti-D Ig therapy and anti-HCV seropositive rate. Anti-D Ig therapy act as a risk factor (odds ratio (OR) = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.01-8.9) especially from the third dose onward. Women with anti-D Ig therapy were at higher risk (3.6 times more) of positive HCV-RNA (OR =3.6, 95%CI =1.19-10.837). Genotype HCV-1b showed higher prevalent (52.9%) among the recipients of anti-D Ig therapy while genotype HCV-3a (6.6%) was the lowest. Our study showed that Anti-D immunoglobulin therapy acts as a risk factor for acquiring HCV infection. Screening for HCV should be recommended for all recipients of anti-D Ig. Not only HCV antibodies but HCV-RNA detection being recommended for the diagnosis of HCV

  14. The association of syringe type and syringe cleaning with HCV infection among IDUs in Budapest, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Mitchell, Mary M.; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2008-01-01

    We assessed whether syringe type, syringe cleaning and distributive syringe sharing were associated with self-reported and laboratory confirmed HCV infection among Hungarian IDUs. Injecting drug users (N=215) were recruited from non-treatment settings in Budapest, Hungary between October 2005 and December 2006. Multivariate logistic regression models identified correlates of self-report of being HCV infected and testing positive for HCV. While 37% tested positive for HCV, 14% of the total (39% of those who tested positive) self-reported being HCV infected. Using any two piece syringes was significantly associated with self-reported HCV infection, while distributive syringe sharing was not associated with self-report of being HCV infected. Engaging in receptive sharing of only one-piece syringes but always cleaning before reuse was not associated with testing HCV positive, while any receptive sharing of only one-piece syringes and not always cleaning before reuse was significantly associated with testing HCV positive. Sharing cookers and squirting drugs from one syringe into another syringe were not associated with testing HCV positive. The high percent of those HCV infected who did not know they were infected highlights the need to provide better access to confidential testing and counseling services. Counseling should emphasize secondary prevention of HCV among HCV infected IDUs. Our findings also indicate that syringe type and syringe cleaning practices may play a role in HCV transmission. Ethnographic research should identify the reasons why IDUs may use two-piece syringes and suggest means to reduce their use. Thorough cleaning of one-piece syringes when sterile syringes are unavailable may be an efficient way to reduce the risk of HCV infection. PMID:19058925

  15. HCV RNA traffic and association with NS5A in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiches, Guillaume N.; Eyre, Nicholas S.; Aloia, Amanda L.; Van Der Hoek, Kylie; Betz-Stablein, Brigit; Luciani, Fabio; Chopra, Abha; Beard, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA localisation are poorly understood. To address this we engineered HCV genomes harbouring MS2 bacteriophage RNA stem-loops within the 3′-untranslated region to allow tracking of HCV RNA via specific interaction with a MS2-Coat-mCherry fusion protein. Despite the impact of these insertions on viral fitness, live imaging revealed that replication of tagged-HCV genomes induced specific redistribution of the mCherry-tagged-MS2-Coat protein to motile and static foci. Further analysis showed that HCV RNA was associated with NS5A in both static and motile structures while a subset of motile NS5A structures was devoid of HCV RNA. Further investigation of viral RNA traffic with respect to lipid droplets (LDs) revealed HCV RNA-positive structures in close association with LDs. These studies provide new insights into the dynamics of HCV RNA traffic with NS5A and LDs and provide a platform for future investigations of HCV replication and assembly. - Highlights: • HCV can tolerate can bacteriophage MS2 stem-loop insertions within the 3′ UTR. • MS2 stem-loop containing HCV genomes allow for real-time imaging of HCV RNA. • HCV RNA is both static and motile and associates with NS5A and lipid droplets.

  16. HCV RNA traffic and association with NS5A in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiches, Guillaume N.; Eyre, Nicholas S.; Aloia, Amanda L.; Van Der Hoek, Kylie [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Betz-Stablein, Brigit; Luciani, Fabio [Systems Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Chopra, Abha [Institute for Immunology and infectious diseases (IIID), Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia); Beard, Michael R., E-mail: michael.beard@adelaide.edu.au [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA localisation are poorly understood. To address this we engineered HCV genomes harbouring MS2 bacteriophage RNA stem-loops within the 3′-untranslated region to allow tracking of HCV RNA via specific interaction with a MS2-Coat-mCherry fusion protein. Despite the impact of these insertions on viral fitness, live imaging revealed that replication of tagged-HCV genomes induced specific redistribution of the mCherry-tagged-MS2-Coat protein to motile and static foci. Further analysis showed that HCV RNA was associated with NS5A in both static and motile structures while a subset of motile NS5A structures was devoid of HCV RNA. Further investigation of viral RNA traffic with respect to lipid droplets (LDs) revealed HCV RNA-positive structures in close association with LDs. These studies provide new insights into the dynamics of HCV RNA traffic with NS5A and LDs and provide a platform for future investigations of HCV replication and assembly. - Highlights: • HCV can tolerate can bacteriophage MS2 stem-loop insertions within the 3′ UTR. • MS2 stem-loop containing HCV genomes allow for real-time imaging of HCV RNA. • HCV RNA is both static and motile and associates with NS5A and lipid droplets.

  17. An evaluation of saliva as an alternative to plasma for the detection of hepatitis C virus antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Seroepidemiological studies on the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV in India have been hampered by reluctance of subjects to provide blood samples for testing. We evaluated the use of saliva as an alternate specimen to blood for the detection of antibodies to HCV. Methods: Chronic liver disease (CLD patients attending the liver clinic were recruited for this study. A saliva and plasma sample (sample pair was collected from each patient included in the study. Saliva samples were collected using a commercially available collection device - OmniSal. Sample pairs were tested with an in-use ELISA for the detection of antibodies to HCV (HCV-Ab, with a minor modification in the manufacturer′s protocol while testing saliva. The cut-off absorbance value for declaring a sample as positive was determined by receiver operating curve (ROC analysis. HCV-Ab positivity in saliva was compared with that in plasma as well as with viral load in plasma and infecting genotype of the virus. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and correlation coefficients were calculated using Medcalc statistical software. Results: The optimal accuracy indices were: sensitivity-81.6%; specificity-92.5%; PPV-85.1% and NPV-90.5%. No correlation was found between salivary positivity and HCV viral load in plasma or infecting genotype. Conclusions: The accuracy indices indicate that the assay must be optimized further before it can be recommended for routine use in epidemiological surveys for HCV-Ab.

  18. Plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/ metronidazole ratio in hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Marchioretto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the measurement of metronidazole clearance is a sensitive method for evaluating liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratios as indicators of dynamic liver function to detect changes resulting from the various forms of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. A total of 139 individuals were studied: 14 healthy volunteers, 22 healthy, asymptomatic, consecutive anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA negative subjects, 81 patients with chronic hepatitis C (49 with moderate/severe chronic hepatitis and 34 with mild hepatitis, and 20 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. HCV status was determined by the polymerase chain reaction. Plasma concentrations of metronidazole and its hydroxy-metabolite were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in a blood sample collected 10 min after the end of a metronidazole infusion. Anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA-negative individuals demonstrated a significantly reduced capacity to metabolize intravenously infused metronidazole compared to healthy individuals (0.0478 ± 0.0044 vs 0.0742 ± 0.0232. Liver cirrhosis patients also had a reduced plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratio when compared to the other groups of anti-HCV-positive individuals (0.0300 ± 0.0032 vs 0.0438 ± 0.0027 (moderate/severe chronic hepatitis vs 0.0455 ± 0.0026 (mild chronic hepatitis and vs 0.0478 ± 0.0044 (anti-HCV-positive, HCV-RNA-negative individuals. These results suggest an impairment of the metronidazole metabolizing system induced by HCV infection that lasts after viral clearance. In those patients with chronic hepatitis C, this impairment is paralleled by progression of the disease to liver cirrhosis.

  19. HCV Core Antigen Testing for Diagnosis of HCV Infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, J. Morgan; Tran, Trang M.; Schumacher, Samuel G; White, Laura F.; Ongarello, Stefano; Cohn, Jennifer; Easterbrook, Philippa J.; Linas, Benjamin P.; Denkinger, Claudia M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection requires both a positive HCV antibody screen and confirmatory nucleic acid test (NAT). HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) is a potential alternative to NAT. Purpose This systematic review evaluated the accuracy of diagnosis of active HCV infection among adults and children for five HCVcAg tests compared to NAT. Data Sources EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane from 1990 through March 31, 2016. Study Selection Cohort, cross-sectional, and randomized controlled trials were included without language restriction Data Extraction Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed quality using an adapted Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. Data Synthesis 44 studies evaluated 5 index tests. Studies for the ARCHITECT had the highest quality, while those for Ortho ELISA were the lowest. From bivariate analyses, the sensitivity and specificity with 95% CI were: ARCHITECT 93.4% (90.1, 96.4) and 98.8% (97.4, 99.5), Ortho ELISA 93.2% (81.6, 97.7) and 99.2% (87.9, 100), and Hunan Jynda 59.5% (46.0, 71.7) and 82.9% (58.6, 94.3). Insufficient data were available for a meta-analysis for Lumipulse and Lumispot. In three quantitative studies using ARCHITECT, HCVcAg correlated closely with HCV RNA above 3000 IU/mL. Limitations There was insufficient data on covariates such as HIV or HBV status for sub-group analyses. Few studies reported genotypes of isolates and there were scant data for genotypes 4, 5, and 6. Most studies were conducted in high resource settings within reference laboratories. Conclusions HCVcAg assays with signal amplification have high sensitivity, high specificity, and good correlation with HCV RNA above 3000 IU/mL. HCVcAg assays have the potential to replace NAT in high HCV prevalence settings. PMID:27322622

  20. The HCV and HIV coinfected patient: what have we learned about pathophysiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talal, Andrew H; Canchis, P Wilfredo; Jacobson, Ira

    2002-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important problem in individuals who are also infected with HIV. HCV infection is very common in HIV-infected individuals, occurring in approximately one quarter to one third of this group, presumably as a consequence of shared routes of transmission related to virologic and pathogenic aspects of the viral infections. Although both are single-stranded RNA viruses and share similar epidemiologic properties, there are many important differences. Although the quantity of HIV RNA in plasma is an important prognostic determinant of HIV infection, this has not been shown with HCV. A direct relationship is apparent between HIV-related destruction of CD4 cells and the clinical consequences of the disease resulting from immunodeficiency. The pathogenesis of HCV, which occurs as a consequence of hepatic fibrosis, is much more complex. The hepatic stellate cell, the major producer of the extracellular matrix protein, is the main contributor to hepatic fibrosis, but the mechanism by which HCV induces hepatic fibrosis remains unclear. Treatment of HCV is increasingly important in HIV-infected patients due to improved HIV-associated morbidity and mortality and due to the frequency with which HCV occurs in patients with HIV-HCV coinfection. Timing of treatment initiation, management of side effects, and possible effects of anti-HCV therapy on HIV are among the issues that need consideration. Also, because several issues concerning HCV are unique to coinfected patients, further research is needed to determine optimal management of HCV in this setting.

  1. Determination of the plasma position for its real-time control in the COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janky, F.; Havlicek, J.; Valcarcel, D.; Hron, M.; Horacek, J.; Kudlacek, O.; Panek, R.; Carvalho, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    An efficient horizontal and vertical stabilization of the plasma column position are essential for a reliable tokamak operation. Plasma position is generally determined by plasma current, plasma pressure and external vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. Such fields are generated by poloidal field coils and proper algorithm for the current control have to by applied, namely, in case of fast feedback loops. This paper presents a real-time plasma position reconstruction algorithms developed for the COMPASS tokamak. Further, its implementation in the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) is described and the first results from test of the algorithm for real-time control of horizontal plasma positions are presented.

  2. Determination of the plasma position for its real-time control in the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janky, F., E-mail: jankyf@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Valcarcel, D. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hron, M.; Horacek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Kudlacek, O. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic); Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Carvalho, B.B. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    An efficient horizontal and vertical stabilization of the plasma column position are essential for a reliable tokamak operation. Plasma position is generally determined by plasma current, plasma pressure and external vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. Such fields are generated by poloidal field coils and proper algorithm for the current control have to by applied, namely, in case of fast feedback loops. This paper presents a real-time plasma position reconstruction algorithms developed for the COMPASS tokamak. Further, its implementation in the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) is described and the first results from test of the algorithm for real-time control of horizontal plasma positions are presented.

  3. Plasma position and shape control device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Abe, Mitsushi; Kinoshita, Shigemi.

    1993-01-01

    A plasma position and shape control system is constituted with a measuring device, a quenching probability calculation section and a control calculation section. A quenching probability is calculated in the quenching probability calculation section by using a measuring data on temperature, electric current and magnetic field of superconductive coils, based on a margin upto a limit value. The control calculation section selects a control method which decreases applied voltage or current instruction value as the quenching probability of the coils is higher. Since the quenching probability of the superconductive coils can be forecast and a state of low quenching danger can be selected, the safety of the device is improved. When the quenching danger is allowed to a predetermined value, a wide operation region can be provided. (N.H.)

  4. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. HCV and HBV coexist in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia; possibility of coinfection in these patients must be considered in HBV-high endemic area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soon

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is highly associated with HBV infection in Korea. It has been suggested that HCV core protein may impair the polymerase activity of HBV in vitro, potentially lowering HBV titre in coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the coexistence of HBV viremia in HCV infected patients HCC who have apparent HBsAg seronegativity. The serological profiles of HBV and HCV in 616 patients with HCC were analysed and coinfection rate of HBV and HCV investigated. Sera were obtained from 16 patients who were both anti-HCV and HCV RNA positive but HbsAg negative, and tested for HBV BY PCR. As a control group, sera were obtained from 15 patients with HCC and 30 non-A abd non-B chronic hepatitis patients without HCC; both were anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HBsAg negative and tested for HBV PCR. Of 616 patients with HCC, 450 (73.1 %) had current HBV infection, 48 (7.8 %) had anti-HCV antibodies, and nine (1.5 %) had viral markers of both HCV abd HBV by serological profiles. Of 27 the patients with HCV viremia and HBsAg seronegativity, 14 (51.9 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. In contrast, of the 75 patients in the control group who were both HCV PCR negative and HBsAg negative, five (11.1 %) showed HBV viremia by PCR. The PCR for HBV revealed coexistent HBV viremia in HCV viremia patients, despite HBsAg negativity by EIA. In HBV-endemic areas, the possibility of coinfection of HBV in HBsAg-negative patients with HCV viremia should be considered and molecular analysis for HBV-DNA performed. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Clearance of low levels of HCV viremia in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manns Michael P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance of HCV-viremia in the absence of significant levels of detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses. We here report seven asymptomatic acute hepatitis C cases with peak HCV-RNA levels between 300 and 100.000 copies/ml who all cleared HCV-RNA spontaneously. Patients were identified by a systematic screening of 1176 consecutive new incoming offenders in a German young offender institution. Four of the seven patients never developed anti-HCV antibodies and had normal ALT levels throughout follow-up. Transient weak HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in five individuals which did not differ in strength and breadth from age- and sex-matched patients with chronic hepatitis C and long-term recovered patients. In contrast, HCV-specific MHC-class-I-tetramer-positive cells were found in 3 of 4 HLA-A2-positive patients. Thus, these cases highlight that clearance of low levels of HCV viremia is possible in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response which might explain the low seroconversion rate after occupational exposure to HCV.

  7. A method for measuring plasma position in TJ-I Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quin, J.; TJ-I Team.

    1993-01-01

    A method using pairs of Mirnov coils to measure the plasma position in TJ-I is presented. The simple toroidal filament model which neglects the effect of plasma current density profile has proven to be acceptable within the experimental accuracy. The effect of plasma current density profile remains to be small, if the plasma current density profile has a quadratic form. (Author)

  8. Central nervous system involvement in patients with HCV-related cryoglobulinemia: review and a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Canesi

    2011-09-01

    % cryoglobulins were present, HCV antibody and HCV-RNA (type 2a-2c were positive. Cryoglobulins were never typed, because they disappeared after plasma exchanges. Liver enzymes, renal function and findings on cerebrospinal fluid were normal. Cerebral CT and MRI were also normal. Antinuclear antibodies, anti nDNA antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, ANCA, Lyme disease serology, complete tests for thrombophilia were negative. Bone aspiration was normal. The patient, in coma, was treated with two plasma exchanges. During the first treatment she recovered consciousness. Prednisone (1 mg/Kg/day and cyclophosphamide (400 mg iv for three days were added. After a week two plasma exchanges were performed again. Liver enzymes and rheumatoid factor were analyzed monthly for six months and than every two months for another six month period up to the present. Liver enzymes were always normal, rheumatoid factor was always at a lower level than the first evaluation (now it’s 311 U/ml. At present she is taking Prednisone 5 mg once a day, neurologic syntoms are absent and neurologic examination is normal. Discussion: We can conclude that: central neurologic involvement may be the clinical presentation of HCV infection and mixed cryoglobulinemia. HCV serologic tests and cryoglobulins should be considered in patient with encephalopathy of non-obvious cause; plasma exchange is the treatment of choice in acute severe forms; in some patients HCV could involve directly CNS, even in the absence of cryoglobulin production.

  9. Exosome-associated hepatitis C virus in cell cultures and patient plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ziqing; Zhang, Xiugen; Yu, Qigui; He, Johnny J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HCV occurs in both exosome-free and exosome-associated forms. • Exosome-associated HCV is infectious and resistant to neutralizing antibodies. • More exosome-associated HCV than exosome-free HCV is present in patient plasma. - Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects its target cells in the form of cell-free viruses and through cell–cell contact. Here we report that HCV is associated with exosomes. Using highly purified exosomes and transmission electron microscopic imaging, we demonstrated that HCV occurred in both exosome-free and exosome-associated forms. Exosome-associated HCV was infectious and resistant to neutralization by an anti-HCV neutralizing antibody. There were more exosome-associated HCV than exosome-free HCV detected in the plasma of HCV-infected patients. These results suggest exosome-associated HCV as an alternative form for HCV infection and transmission

  10. Exosome-associated hepatitis C virus in cell cultures and patient plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ziqing [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Zhang, Xiugen [Department of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Yu, Qigui [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); He, Johnny J., E-mail: johnny.he@unthsc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • HCV occurs in both exosome-free and exosome-associated forms. • Exosome-associated HCV is infectious and resistant to neutralizing antibodies. • More exosome-associated HCV than exosome-free HCV is present in patient plasma. - Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects its target cells in the form of cell-free viruses and through cell–cell contact. Here we report that HCV is associated with exosomes. Using highly purified exosomes and transmission electron microscopic imaging, we demonstrated that HCV occurred in both exosome-free and exosome-associated forms. Exosome-associated HCV was infectious and resistant to neutralization by an anti-HCV neutralizing antibody. There were more exosome-associated HCV than exosome-free HCV detected in the plasma of HCV-infected patients. These results suggest exosome-associated HCV as an alternative form for HCV infection and transmission.

  11. Plasma polymerization at different positions in an asymmetric ethylene discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Hegemann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of plasma polymerization are investigated in an asymmetric, capacitively coupled plasma discharge. Here, the deposition in different plasma zones, i.e. on the driven electrode, within the plasma bulk and the plasma sheath as well as approximately at the plasma-sheath edge, is investigated. Principal expectations are perfectly met, though new interesting dependences of the obtained a-C : H coatings with respect to film properties and deposition rates are also found. That is, the deposition rates as measured on thin, small glass slides placed directly on the electrode are considerably higher than everywhere else in the plasma, yet only single-sided. In contrast, the deposition rates on the samples within the plasma are lowered depending on the exact placement, while a double-sided coating is obtained. Furthermore, film properties, such as the film density, are highly dependent on the sample placement in the plasma, which can even be higher under floating conditions. With simple physical arguments we are able to show the relations between the deposition rate and the energy input into the plasma as well as between the energy density during film growth and the film density itself.

  12. HBV-DNA in hemodialysis patients infected by HCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Yousefi, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    End-stage renal disease patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk for both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and they may coexist. To determine the prevalence and clinical impact of HBV and HCV infection, we studied poly chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR on the blood samples of 90 HD patients in Kerman, Iran. ELISA test was used to detect anti-HBc, anti-HBs and HBs Ag. We found that 30 out of 90 (33.3%) patients were PCR-RT-PCR positive for HCV-RNA. No HBV-DNA (0%) was detected through the PCR study in both positive and negative HCV-RNA patient groups. Though none of the samples was HBsAg positive, 10 (33.3%) HCV-RNA positive patients were anti-HBc positive, and 12 (40.7%) were anti-HBs positive. We conclude that prevalence of hepatitis C infection is high in HD patients in our region, but not associated with active HBV infection. (author)

  13. HCV and HCC molecular epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor H. Pujol

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    iHepatitis C virus (HCV is a member of the family Flaviviridae, responsible for the majority of the non-A non-B post-transfusion hepatitis before 1990. Around 170 millions persons in the world are thought to be infected with this virus. A high number of HCV-infected people develop cirrhosis and from these, a significant proportion progresses to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Six HCV genotypes and a large number of subtypes in each genotype have been described. Infections with HCV genotype 1 are associated with the lowest therapeutic success. HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 have a worldwide distribution. HCV subtypes 1a and 1b are the most common genotypes in the United States and are also are predominant in Europe, while in Japan, subtype 1b is predominant. Although HCV subtypes 2a and 2b are relatively common in America, Europe, and Japan, subtype 2c is found commonly in northern Italy. HCV genotype 3a is frequent in intravenous drug abusers in Europe and the United States. HCV genotype 4 appears to be prevalent in Africa and the Middle East, and genotypes 5 and 6 seem to be confined to South Africa and Asia, respectively. HCC accounts for approximately 6% of all human cancers. Around 500,000 to 1 million cases occur annually worldwide, with HCC being the fifth common malignancy in men and the ninth in women. HCC is frequently a consequence of infection by HBV and HCV. The first line of evidences comes from epidemiologic studies. While HBV is the most frequent cause of HCC in many countries of Asia and South America, both HBV and HCV are found at similar frequencies, and eventually HCV at a higher frequency than HBV, among HCC patients in Europe, North America, and Japan. The cumulative appearance rate of HCC might be higher for HCV

  14. Control of plasma column horizontal position in TBR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszel, A.G.; Rincoski, C.R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The TBR-1 is a small tokamak built at the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo. It was originally designed with a simple vertical field power supply made of one fast capacitor bank for vertical current build-up and one slow capacitor bank for flat-top phase, without any control but the adjustable initial voltages of the capacitors. With such an elementary system, the plasma cannot be held in the center of the vacuum vessel for the whole duration of the plasma. This led to a suboptimal performance with easy disruptions. A control system was designed to hold the plasma centered in the radial coordinate. (Author)

  15. Seroprevalence study of HCV among hospitalized intravenous drug users in Ahvaz, Iran (2001–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Alavi

    Full Text Available Summary: Background and aims: Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV in intravenous drug users (IDU varies in different areas according to socioeconomic and geographical circumstances. The present study was performed to determine seroprevalence of HCV in IDU individuals in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and methods: 142 IDU patients were included in this retrospective study in Ahvaz southwest Iran from 2001 to 2006. Patients were placed in two groups determined by HCV Ab positive or negative status. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 11.5; SPSS Inc., USA software. Results: Out of total 142 cases, 74 persons (52.11% had a positive HCV-Ab test according to the ELISA method. There was no difference in age, sex, level of education, residency and co-infection with HIV and hepatitis B virus between HCV-Ab positive (HAP and HCV-Ab negative (HAN groups (p > 0.05. HCV-Ab positivity was significantly related to imprisonment and duration spent in prison [OR: 3.22, 95% (CI 2.61–3.76, p < 0.0001]. Conclusion: Patients with IDU constitute a high-risk group for acquisition of HCV infection. Transmission of HCV via sharing syringe and needle as well as blood transfusion has been a significant source of hepatitis C infection for patients with intravenous drug addiction. Keywords: Intravenous drug user, Hepatitis C virus, Seroprevalence, Ahvaz

  16. Conceptual design of plasma position control of SST-1 tokamak using vertical field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Hitesh Kumar; Patel, Kiritkumar B.; Dhongde, Jasraj

    2015-01-01

    SST-1 (Steady State Superconducting Tokamak) is a plasma confinement device in Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) India. SST-1 has been commissioned successfully and has been carrying out plasma experiments since the beginning of 2014 achieved a maximum plasma current of 75 kA at a central field of 1.5 T and the plasma duration ∼ 500 ms. SST-1 looks forward to carrying out elongated plasma experiments and stretching plasma pulses beyond 1s. Based on the solution of Grad-Shafranov equation the shift of plasma column center from geometrical centre of vacuum chamber is measured using various magnetic probes and flux loops installed in the machine. The closed feedback loop uses plasma current (Ip), Delta R as feedback signal and manipulate the vertical field current (Ivf). The discharge starts with feed forward loop using initially provided reference then the active feedback starts after discharge by few msec once plasma column is completely formed. The feedback loop time is of the order of 10 msec. The primary objective is to acquire plasma position control related signals, compute plasma position and generate position correction signal for VF coil power supply, communicate correction to VF coil power supply and modify VF power supply output in a deterministic time span. In this we present the methodology used for plasma horizontal displacement control using vertical field and discuss the preliminary results. (author)

  17. Design and analysis of plasma position and shape control in superconducting tokamak JT-60SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukawa, M. E-mail: matsukaw@naka.jaeri.go.jp; Ishida, S.; Sakasai, A.; Urata, K.; Senda, I.; Kurita, G.; Tamai, H.; Sakurai, S.; Miura, Y.M.; Masaki, K.; Shimada, K.; Terakado, T

    2003-09-01

    The analyses of the plasma position and shape control in the superconducting tokamak JT-60SC in JAERI are presented. The vacuum vessel and stabilizing plates located closely to the plasma are modeled in 3 dimension, and we can take into account the large ports in the vacuum vessel. The linear numerical model used in the design for the plasma feedback control system is based on Grad-Shafranov equation, which allows the plasma surface deformation. For a slower control of the plasma shape, the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coils outside toroidal field coils are used, while for a fast control of the plasma position, in-vessel normal conducting coils (IV coil) are used. It is shown that the available loop voltages of the EF and IV coils are very limited, but there are sufficient accuracy and acceptable response time of plasma position and shape control.

  18. Design and analysis of plasma position and shape control in superconducting tokamak JT-60SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Ishida, S.; Sakasai, A.; Urata, K.; Senda, I.; Kurita, G.; Tamai, H.; Sakurai, S.; Miura, Y.M.; Masaki, K.; Shimada, K.; Terakado, T.

    2003-01-01

    The analyses of the plasma position and shape control in the superconducting tokamak JT-60SC in JAERI are presented. The vacuum vessel and stabilizing plates located closely to the plasma are modeled in 3 dimension, and we can take into account the large ports in the vacuum vessel. The linear numerical model used in the design for the plasma feedback control system is based on Grad-Shafranov equation, which allows the plasma surface deformation. For a slower control of the plasma shape, the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coils outside toroidal field coils are used, while for a fast control of the plasma position, in-vessel normal conducting coils (IV coil) are used. It is shown that the available loop voltages of the EF and IV coils are very limited, but there are sufficient accuracy and acceptable response time of plasma position and shape control

  19. A method for measuring plasma position in TJ-I Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quin, J.; TJ-I, Team

    1993-01-01

    A method using pairs of Mirnov coils to measure the plasma position in TJ-I is presented. The simple toroidal filament model which neglects the effect of plasma current density profile has proven to be acceptable within the experimental accuracy. The effect of plasma current density profile remains to be small, if the plasma current density profile has a quadratic form. (Author) 5 refs

  20. A method for measuring plasma position in TJ-I Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quin, J.; TJ-I, Team

    1993-07-01

    A method using pairs of Mirnov coils to measure the plasma position in TJ-I is presented. The simple toroidal filament model which neglects the effect of plasma current density profile has proven to be acceptable within the experimental accuracy. The effect of plasma current density profile remains to be small, if the plasma current density profile has a quadratic form. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. HIV, HBV, and HCV molecular epidemiology among trans (transvestites, transsexuals, and transgender) sex workers in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carobene, Mauricio; Bolcic, Federico; Farías, María Sol Dos Ramos; Quarleri, Jorge; Avila, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Commercial sex work is frequent among male-to-female transvestites, transsexuals and transgenders in Argentina, leading to high susceptibility to HIV, HBV, and HCV among other sexually transmitted infections. In a global context of scarce data on the trans sex workers population, this study was aimed to study the genomic characterization of these viruses. Plasma presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV genomic material was evaluated in samples from 273 trans sex workers. Genomic sequences of HIV-gag, pol, and vif-vpu genes, HBV-S gene, and HCV-5'UT and NS5B genes were obtained. Molecular characterization involved phylogenetic analysis and several in silico tools. Resistance-associated mutations in HIV and HBV pol genes were also analyzed. The HIV genomic characterization in 62 trans sex workers samples showed that 54.8% of the isolates corresponded to BF intersubtype recombinants, and 38.7% to subtype B. The remaining were classified as subtypes C (4.8%) and A (1.6%). HBV and HCV co-infection prevalence among HIV positive trans sex workers yielded rates of 3.2% and 6.5% respectively. Drug resistance-associated mutations were found in 12/62 (19%) HIV pol sequences, but none among HBV. Based on phylogenetic relationships, HIV isolates characterized as subtypes BF and B appeared intermingled with those from other high-risk groups. Despite trans sex workers declared not to have received antiviral treatment, complex drug resistance-associated mutation patterns were found in several HIV isolates. Planned prevention, screening, and treatment are needed to reduce further transmission and morbidity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Study of Globus-M Tokamak Poloidal System and Plasma Position Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuka, V. N.; Korenev, P. S.; Mitrishkin, Yu. V.; Pavlova, E. A.; Patrov, M. I.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    In order to provide efficient performance of tokamaks with vertically elongated plasma position, control systems for limited and diverted plasma configuration are required. The accuracy, stability, speed of response, and reliability of plasma position control as well as plasma shape and current control depend on the performance of the control system. Therefore, the problem of the development of such systems is an important and actual task in modern tokamaks. In this study, the measured signals from the magnetic loops and Rogowski coils are used to reconstruct the plasma equilibrium, for which linear models in small deviations are constructed. We apply methods of the H∞-optimization theory to the synthesize control system for vertical and horizontal position of plasma capable to working with structural uncertainty of the models of the plant. These systems are applied to the plasma-physical DINA code which is configured for the tokamak Globus-M plasma. The testing of the developed systems applied to the DINA code with Heaviside step functions have revealed the complex dynamics of plasma magnetic configurations. Being close to the bifurcation point in the parameter space of unstable plasma has made it possible to detect an abrupt change in the X-point position from the top to the bottom and vice versa. Development of the methods for reconstruction of plasma magnetic configurations and experience in designing plasma control systems with feedback for tokamaks provided an opportunity to synthesize new digital controllers for plasma vertical and horizontal position stabilization. It also allowed us to test the synthesized digital controllers in the closed loop of the control system with the DINA code as a nonlinear model of plasma.

  3. Frequency of anti-HCV antibodies in patients with lichen planus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob, A.; Haroon, T.S.; Iqbal, Z.; Butt, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of anti-HCV antibodies, identify risk factors associated with HCV infection and to screen asymptomatic carries in patients with lichen planus. Subjects and Methods: A total of 184 clinically diagnosed cased of lichen (LP) were selected for the study. Blood samples of all the patients were tested for anti hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV-Ab). Polymerase chain reaction for hepatitis C virus was done in patients with positive anti-HCV-Ab. Trancutaneous liver biopsy was performed in 7 patients with positive HCV-RNA. The histopathological results were evaluated using validated Metavir and Knodell scoring systems. Results: Out of 184 LP patients, 43 (23.4%) were anti-HCV antibodies positive. Females were predominantly affected and male to female ratio was 1:5.1. Maximum positively for anti-HCV was observed in age group 31-40 years (39.53%) followed by 41-50 years (25.58%). Eighty-one percent patients had history of dental treatment and 63% had received multiple injections for various ailments. Forty percent patients had family history of jaundice while 26% had jaundice in the past. Ten out of 16 anti-HCV antibody positive patients, checked for HCV-RNA, had high levels of virus in blood. Transcutaneous liver biopsy done in 7 patients revealed underlying liver disease at various stages. Four patients treated with alpha-interferon and ribazole therapy for liver disease, showed marked improvement in their skin disease. Conclusion: A high prevalence of HCV infection was detected in patients with lichen planus. Patients with lichen planus should be screened for HCV carrier state. (author)

  4. Dynamics and feedback control of plasma equilibrium position in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenko, O.

    1983-01-01

    A brief history of the beginnings of nuclear fusion research involving toroidal closed-system magnetic plasma containment is presented. A tokamak machine is defined mathematically for the purposes of plasma equilibrium position perturbation analysis. The perturbation equations of a tokamak plasma equilibrium position are developed. Solution of the approximated perturbation equations is carried out. A unique, simple, and useful plasma displacement dynamics transfer function of a tokamak is developed. The dominant time constants of the dynamics transfer function are determined in a symbolic form. This symbolic form of the dynamics transfer function makes it possible to study the stability of a tokamak's plasma equilibrium position. Knowledge of the dynamics transfer function permits systematic syntheses of the required plasma displacement feedback control systems

  5. Thermal analysis of the in-vessel components of the ITER plasma-position reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quental, P. B., E-mail: pquental@ipfn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt; Policarpo, H.; Luís, R.; Varela, P. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-11-15

    The ITER plasma position reflectometry system measures the edge electron density profile of the plasma, providing real-time supplementary contribution to the magnetic measurements of the plasma-wall distance. Some of the system components will be in direct sight of the plasma and therefore subject to plasma and stray radiation, which may cause excessive temperatures and stresses. In this work, thermal finite element analysis of the antenna and adjacent waveguides is conducted with ANSYS V17 (ANSYS® Academic Research, Release 17.0, 2016). Results allow the identification of critical temperature points, and solutions are proposed to improve the thermal behavior of the system.

  6. A method for measuring plasma position in the rectangular tokamak TJ-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Ascasibar, E.; Pastor, I.; Navarro, A.P.; Ochando, M.A.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, J.

    1993-01-01

    Determinations of plasma position in tokamaks are based on measuring the external magnetic field of the plasma current. Usually, the measurements are performed with magnetic coils along a closed contour around the plasma column, or with small magnetic probes in pairs positioned diametrically. However, such measurements are constrained in TJ-I because of a severe restriction on installing the magnetic probes. It is only possible to install some small magnetic probes inside the vacuum vessel near its top and bottom walls where the limiters stand. In this paper an alternative method of measuring plasma position in TJ-I is presented. The plasma position can be derived from the measurements of those magnetic probes located off the equatorial plane, with the aid of a filament model. The method is proved to be reliable, and would be applied to those small-size devices with similar restrictions. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. High false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian patients on regular hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Assem; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Aboelfotoh, Atef; Abdelkarim, Magdy; Saied Mohammad, Abdel-Gawad; Abdallah, Abdallah Mahmoud; Mostafa, Sadek; Elmestikawy, Amr; Elwassief, Ahmed; Salah, Mohamed; Abdelbaseer, Mohamed Ali; Abdelwahab, Kouka Saadeldin

    2012-07-01

    Routine serological testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among hemodialysis (HD) patients is currently recommended. A dilemma existed on the value of serology because some investigators reported a high rate of false-negative serologic testing. In this study, we aimed to detect the false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian HD patients. Seventy-eight HD patients, negative for anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and hepatitis B surface antigen, were tested for HCV RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the next step, the viral load was quantified by real-time PCR in RT-PCR-positive patients. Risk factors for HCV infection, as well as clinical and biochemical indicators of liver disease, were compared between false-negative and true-negative anti-HCV HD patients. The frequency of false-negative anti-HCV was 17.9%. Frequency of blood transfusion, duration of HD, dialysis at multiple centers, and diabetes mellitus were not identified as risk factors for HCV infection. The frequency of false-negative results had a linear relation to the prevalence of HCV infection in the HD units. Timely identification of HCV within dialysis units is needed in order to lower the risk of HCV spread within the HD units. The high false-negative rate of anti-HCV among HD patients in our study justifies testing of a large scale of patients for precious assessment of effectiveness of nucleic acid amplification technology testing in screening HD patient. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  8. Are RA patients from a non-endemic HCV population screened for HCV? A cross-sectional analysis of three different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner-Taylor, Cassandra Michelle; Erhard-Ramírez, Alejandro; Garza-Elizondo, Mario Alberto; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Marco Ulises; Vega-Morales, David; Arana-Guajardo, Ana

    In Mexico, other risk factors are associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV): prior heroin users, living alone, widower, and northern region residence. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are considered immunosuppressed and HCV testing is recommended before treatment. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of HCV testing in RA patients in three different medical care settings in a non-endemic area. A retrospective observational study was performed using medical records from 960 RA patients describing the indications for HCV testing. The test was performed in 28.6% and the HCV overall frequency was 0.36%. Population characteristics were not associated with an increased risk of HCV infection; therefore, anti-HCV positivity was low. The main reason for testing was before starting biological agents. Due to the low pre-test probability, testing for HCV infection should be personalized; i.e., according to disease prevalence in a particular geographical location and the individual risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. frequency and risk factors for chronic HCV infection: a community based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.; Mustafa, G.; Khan, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    It was a community based, cross-sectional study undertaken to assess the frequency of HCV infection and to find out the risk factors associated with its spread. Methods: Study was carried out from Oct 2004 to Mar 2005. One hundred and twenty five apparently healthy consecutive subjects not known to be infected with HBV or HCV, between the ages 13 and 60 years with equal sex distribution were selected from the population of the Village Mera Kalan near Rawalpindi. They were screened for Anti HCV antibodies using ELISA and interviewed in detail. Subjects found positive for Anti HCV Ab were tested for ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) levels and HCV RNA by PCR. Results: The frequency of HCV was found to be 53.6%. The most important risk factor associated with the transmission of HCV infection was unsafe injection therapy with contaminated equipment. Other risk factors include ear and nose piercing by unsterilized means in females and sharing of razors in males. Conclusion: The prevalence of HCV infection in our population is significantly higher than in the developed world. Public awareness programs should target the identified risk factors to prevent HCV transmission. (author)

  10. Studies on performances of the control system of plasma position and shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikawa, Hiroshi; Tsuzuki, Naohisa; Kimura, Toyoaki; Ogata, Atsushi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa

    1978-09-01

    Performance in the control system of plasma position and shape is determined by estimating the disturbing field, system functions and load variation of the controlled object. Various stray fields are considered as disturbing field. Plasma internal inductance and poloidal beta are taken into consideration as load variation of the controlled object. The required performance is obtained through considerations of plasma equilibrium, stability, impurity concentration and sensors accuracy. The results are described as requests to the poloidal power supply system. (author)

  11. Analysis of line integrated electron density using plasma position data on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Y. U.; Chung, J.

    2010-01-01

    A 280 GHz single-channel horizontal millimeter-wave interferometer system has been installed for plasma electron density measurements on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. This system has a triangular beam path that does not pass through the plasma axis due to geometrical constraints in the superconducting tokamak. The term line density on KSTAR has a different meaning from the line density of other tokamaks. To estimate the peak density and the mean density from the measured line density, information on the position of the plasma is needed. The information has been calculated from tangentially viewed visible images using the toroidal symmetry of the plasma. Interface definition language routines have been developed for this purpose. The calculated plasma position data correspond well to calculation results from magnetic analysis. With the position data and an estimated plasma profile, the peak density and the mean density have been obtained from the line density. From these results, changes of plasma density themselves can be separated from effects of the plasma movements, so they can give valuable information on the plasma status.

  12. Direct anti-HCV agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingquan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a curable disease. Current direct antiviral agent (DAA targets are focused on HCV NS3/4A protein (protease, NS5B protein (polymerase and NS5A protein. The first generation of DAAs includes boceprevir and telaprevir, which are protease inhibitors and were approved for clinical use in 2011. The cure rate for genotype 1 patients increased from 45% to 70% when boceprevir or telaprevir was added to standard PEG-IFN/ribavirin. More effective and less toxic second generation DAAs supplanted these drugs by 2013. The second generation of DAAs includes sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, simeprevir (Olysio, and fixed combination medicines Harvoni and Viekira Pak. These drugs increase cure rates to over 90% without the need for interferon and effectively treat all HCV genotypes. With these drugs the “cure HCV” goal has become a reality. Concerns remain about drug resistance mutations and the high cost of these drugs. The investigation of new HCV drugs is progressing rapidly; fixed dose combination medicines in phase III clinical trials include Viekirax, asunaprevir+daclatasvir+beclabuvir, grazoprevir+elbasvir and others.

  13. Positional stability experiment and analysis of elongated plasmas in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, Hideaki

    1984-04-01

    Control systems of the plasma position and shape on Doublet III are explained and experimental results of vertical stability of elongated plasmas are reviewed. Observed results of the vertical instability are qualitatively compared with the predictions from the simplified model and quantitatively compared with the numerical calculations based on a more realistic model. Experiments are in reasonable agreement with the theoretical analyses. (author)

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan.A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening.Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses.We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  15. Detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV among health care providers in an Egyptian university hospital: different diagnostic modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sokkary RH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rehab H El-Sokkary,1 Rehab M Elsaid Tash,1 Takwa E Meawed,1 Omnia S El Seifi,2 Eman M Mortada2 1Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, 2Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has received much attention and is placed at the core of the infection control agenda. It is considered as a major public health problem in Egypt, where the highest prevalence of HCV exists. The great risk of exposure to infection of health care providers (HCPs has highlighted the urgent need for implementing an infection control program. Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of HCV infection among HCPs in Zagazig University Hospitals and to assess the performance of different diagnostic modalities.Methodology: Blood, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and saliva tests were performed in enrolled HCPs.Results: This study compared HCV diagnosis Hepanostika HCV Ultra ELISA as a screening test and PCR as gold standard test, which resulted in 40.6% positive results by ELISA compared to 34.8% by PCR (p<0.0001, while OraQuick HCV rapid antibody compared to PCR shows that 37.7% of the participants were positive by OraQuick HCV rapid antibody test. Application of standard precautions while dealing with blood has negative significant correlation with HCV infection (rs=–0.265, p=0.03.Conclusion: HCPs at Zagazig University Hospitals are at high risk for HCV infection. Lack of compliance and awareness of prevention and control of the infection are associated cofactors. Serum HCV-Ab detection by Hepanostika HCV Ultra ELISA and OraQuick HCV rapid antibody test are sensitive and specific serologic assays for diagnosis with correspondent results to that obtained by quantitative real-time PCR. Keywords: HCV, ROC curve, OraQuick HCV, infection control

  16. Dual-Routine HCV/HIV Testing: Seroprevalence and Linkage to Care in Four Community Health Centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Catelyn; Kwakwa, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Despite common risk factors, screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV at the same time as part of routine medical care (dual-routine HCV/HIV testing) is not commonly implemented in the United States. This study examined improvements in feasibility of implementation, screening increase, and linkage to care when a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model was integrated into routine primary care. National Nursing Centers Consortium implemented a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model at four community health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 1, 2013. Routine HCV and opt-out HIV testing replaced the routine HCV and opt-in HIV testing model through medical assistant-led, laboratory-based testing and electronic medical record modification to prompt, track, report, and facilitate reimbursement for tests performed on uninsured individuals. This study examined testing, seropositivity, and linkage-to-care comparison data for the nine months before (December 1, 2012-August 31, 2013) and after (September 1, 2013-May 31, 2014) implementation of the dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model. A total of 1,526 HCV and 1,731 HIV tests were performed before, and 1,888 HCV and 3,890 HIV tests were performed after dual-routine testing implementation, resulting in a 23.7% increase in HCV tests and a 124.7% increase in HIV tests. A total of 70 currently HCV-infected and four new HIV-seropositive patients vs. 101 HCV-infected and 13 new HIV-seropositive patients were identified during these two periods, representing increases of 44.3% for HCV antibody-positive and RNA-positive tests and 225.0% for HIV-positive tests. Linkage to care increased from 27 currently infected HCV--positive and one HIV-positive patient pre-dual-routine testing to 39 HCV--positive and nine HIV-positive patients post-dual-routine testing. The dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model shows that integrating dual-routine testing in a primary care setting is possible and leads to increased HCV and HIV screening

  17. Enhanced electromagnetic emission from plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Shukla, Nitin; Stenflo, L.

    2007-01-01

    Large amplitude high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves can scatter off dust-acoustic waves in plasmas containing positive dust grains and electrons, and can thus be responsible for HF enhanced electromagnetic emissions (EEE). An expression for the ensemble average of the squared HF-EEE vector potential is therefore derived, following the standard parametric interaction formalism and adopting the Rostoker superposition principle. The results should be useful for deducing the dust plasma parameters (e.g. the dust number density and dust charge) in situ, and HF intense EM beams can thus be used for diagnosis of positive dust-electron plasmas in space and laboratories

  18. Molecular signatures associated with HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria De Giorgi

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors that differ in risk factors and genetic alterations. In Italy, particularly Southern Italy, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection represents the main cause of HCC. Using high-density oligoarrays, we identified consistent differences in gene-expression between HCC and normal liver tissue. Expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguishable from those associated with liver metastases. To characterize molecular events relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis and identify biomarkers for early HCC detection, gene expression profiling of 71 liver biopsies from HCV-related primary HCC and corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC hepatic tissue, as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases paired with the apparently normal peri-tumoral liver tissue, were compared to 6 liver biopsies from healthy individuals. Characteristic gene signatures were identified when normal tissue was compared with HCV-related primary HCC, corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases. Pathway analysis classified the cellular and biological functions of the genes differentially expressed as related to regulation of gene expression and post-translational modification in HCV-related primary HCC; cellular Growth and Proliferation, and Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction in HCV-related non HCC samples; Cellular Growth and Proliferation and Cell Cycle in metastasis. Also characteristic gene signatures were identified of HCV-HCC progression for early HCC diagnosis.A diagnostic molecular signature complementing conventional pathologic assessment was identified.

  19. HCV Infection and B-Cell Lymphomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Ito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. It has been suggested that HCV infects not only hepatocytes but also mononuclear lymphocytes including B cells that express the CD81 molecule, a putative HCV receptor. HCV infection of B cells is the likely cause of B-cell dysregulation disorders such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor production, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that may evolve into non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. Epidemiological data indicate an association between HCV chronic infection and the occurrence of B-cell NHL, suggesting that chronic HCV infection is associated at least in part with B-cell lymphomagenesis. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of recent literature, including our own, to elucidate a possible role of HCV chronic infection in B-cell lymphomagenesis.

  20. IP-10 predicts the first phase decline of HCV RNA and overall viral response to therapy in patients co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falconer, Karolin; Askarieh, Galia; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co-infected pa......The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co......-10 viral response to HCV therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients, and may thus be useful in encouraging such difficult-to-treat patients to initiate therapy....

  1. HBV And HCV Molecular Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor H. Pujol

    2007-02-01

    hepatitis C virus (HCV. Six genotypes and a large number of subtypes in each genotype have been described for this member of the Flaviviridae family. Infections with HCV genotype 1 are associated with the lowest therapeutic success. HCV genotype 1b has also been more frequently associated with a more severe liver disease. However, this association seems to be due to the fact that individuals infected with this genotype have a longer mean duration of infection. HCV genotypes 1, 2, and 3 have a worldwide distribution and display an apidemic pattern of distribution. HCV subtypes 1a and 1b are the most common genotypes in the United States and are also are predominant in Europe, while in Japan, subtype 1b is predominant. Although HCV subtypes 2a and 2b are relatively common in America, Europe, and Japan, subtype 2c is found commonly in northern Italy. HCV genotype 3a is frequent in intravenous drug abusers in Europe and the United States. HCV genotype 4 appears to be prevalent in Africa and theMiddle East, and genotypes 5 and 6 seem to be confined to South Africa and Asia, respectively. These last genotypes display an endemic pattern of distribution. In addition, a change in the frequency of the prevailing genotypes has been described in several countries: in general, HCV genotype 1b is being displaced by genotypes 3a and/or 2. Coalescent studies have allowed to describe the epidemic pattern of dissemination of some HCV subtypes in specific countries, generally around 100 years ago. The origin of this virus is still an open question, but several studies traces it diversification only around 1,000 years ago.

    The replication of HCV is dependent on a RNA-polymerase RNA dependent which lacks proofreading activity, which confers to this virus a high rate of variability. This virus circulates as a quasispecies. This population dynamic inside a single strain confers to this virus the ability to

  2. FPGA based Fuzzy Logic Controller for plasma position control in ADITYA Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratia, Pooja; Patel, Jigneshkumar; Rajpal, Rachana; Kotia, Sorum; Govindarajan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaluation and comparison of the working performance of FLC is done with that of PID Controller. ► FLC is designed using MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox, and validated on ADITYA RZIP model. ► FLC was implemented on a FPGA. The close-loop testing is done by interfacing FPGA to MATLAB/Simulink. ► Developed FLC controller is able to maintain the plasma column within required range of ±0.05 m and was found to give robust control against various disturbances and faster and smoother response compared to PID Controller. - Abstract: Tokamaks are the most promising devices for obtaining nuclear fusion energy from high-temperature, ionized gas termed as Plasma. The successful operation of tokamak depends on its ability to confine plasma at the geometric center of vacuum vessel with sufficient stability. The quality of plasma discharge in ADITYA Tokamak is strongly related to the radial position of the plasma column in the vacuum vessel. If the plasma column approaches too near to the wall of vacuum vessel, it leads to minor or complete disruption of plasma. Hence the control of plasma position throughout the entire plasma discharge duration is a fundamental requirement. This paper describes Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) which is designed for radial plasma position control. This controller is tested and evaluated on the ADITYA RZIP control model. The performance of this FLC was compared with that of Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) Controller and the response was found to be faster and smoother. FLC was implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip with the use of a Very High-Speed Integrated-Circuits Hardware Description-Language (VHDL).

  3. Magnetic sensorless control of plasma position and shape in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Luo, J.R.; Wang, H.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic sensorless sensing and control experiments of the plasma horizontal position have been carried out in the superconducting tokamak HT-7. The sensing is made focusing on the ripple frequency component of the power supply with thyristor and directly from them without time integration. There is no drift problem of integrator of magnetic sensors. Two kinds of control experiments were carried out, to keep the position constant and swing the position in a triangular waveform. And magnetic sensorless sensing of plasma shape is discussed. (author)

  4. Liver disease in adult transfusion-dependent beta-thalassaemic patients: investigating the role of iron overload and chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouras, Dimitrios; Tsagarakis, Nikolaos J; Fatourou, Evangelia; Dalagiorgos, Efthimios; Chrysanthos, Nikolaos; Berdoussi, Helen; Vgontza, Niki; Karagiorga, Markissia; Lagiandreou, Athanasios; Kaligeros, Konstantinos; Voskaridou, Ersi; Roussou, Paraskevi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Koskinas, John

    2013-03-01

    Iron overload and hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection, have been implicated in the evolution of liver disease, in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassaemia major (BTM). However, the impact of these factors in late stages of liver disease in adults with BTM, has not been extensively studied. To investigate serum indices of iron overload, HCV infection and liver disease, in a cohort of 211 adult Greek patients with BTM, in relation with the findings from liver biopsies. In this cross-sectional study, 211 patients with BTM were enrolled and studied, in relation with HCV infection, ferritin, transaminases, chelation treatment and antiviral treatment. Based on 109 patients biopsied, we correlated liver fibrosis, haemosiderosis and inflammation, with serum indices and HCV status Among all patients, 74.4% were anti-HCV positive (HCV+). Ferritin was positively correlated with transaminases and negatively correlated with age, while it was not significantly different among HCV+ and HCV- patients. Among the HCV+ patients, 55.4% reported antiviral treatment, while genotype 1 predominated. In a subfraction of 109 patients, in which liver biopsy was performed, 89% were HCV+ and 11% HCV-. Fibrosis was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.046), AST (P = 0.004), ALT (P = 0.044) and inflammation (P overload may be the critical determinant, since fibrosis is related to the minimal haemosiderosis, independently of HCV history. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Indeterminate RIBA results were associated with the absence of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicidade Mota Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Methods: A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany, the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Results: Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102 were positive, 57.8% (59/102 were negative and 3.9% (4/102 were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102 of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43, negative in 9.3% (4/43 and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43 of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23, 3 (17.4%, 4/23 and 2 (4.3%, 1/23. All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL. Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14 were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10 of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10 were negative. Conclusions: In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA.

  6. Indeterminate RIBA results were associated with the absence of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Felicidade Mota; Zarife, Maria Alice Sant'ana; Reis, Eliana Almeida Gomes; G Reis, Mitermayer

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is diagnosed by the presence of antibodies and is supplemented by confirmatory testing methods, such as recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) and HCV-RNA detection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of RIBA testing to diagnose HCV infection in blood donors positive for anti-HCV antibodies. A total of 102 subjects positive for anti-HCV determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation of Bahia (HEMOBA) were later assessed with new samples using the Abbott Architect anti-HCV test (Abbott Diagnostics, Wiesbaden, Germany), the RIBA III test (Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 SIA, Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA, USA), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; COBAS® AMPLICOR HCV Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, IN, USA) and line probe assay (LiPA - Siemens, Tarrytown, NY, USA) genotyping for HCV diagnosis. Of these new samples, 38.2% (39/102) were positive, 57.8% (59/102) were negative and 3.9% (4/102) were indeterminate for anti-HCV; HCV-RNA was detected in 22.5% (23/102) of the samples. RIBA results were positive in 58.1% (25/43), negative in 9.3% (4/43) and indeterminate in 32.6% (14/43) of the samples. The prevailing genotypes were 1 (78.3%, 18/23), 3 (17.4%, 4/23) and 2 (4.3%, 1/23). All 14 samples with indeterminate RIBA results had undetectable viral loads (detection limit ≤50 IU/mL). Of these samples, 71.4% (10/14) were reevaluated six months later. Eighty percent (8/10) of these samples remained indeterminate by RIBA, and 20% (2/10) were negative. In this study, individuals with indeterminate RIBA results had no detectable HCV-RNA.

  7. Vertical position control of the elongated INTOR plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kojyu; Nishio, Satoshi; Fujisawa, Noboru; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Saito, Seiji; Miyamoto, Kenro.

    1983-01-01

    A newly devised rectangular shell, which has the sufficient shell effect for the stabilization of the fast mode, is presented, along with the studies of various kinds of shell-structures described on this paper. It can be expected that the rectangular shells have negligibly small effect on the breeding ratio by locating them separately on both of the front and rear surfaces of blanket. Some properties with the modelled feedback control system are elucidated under a disturbance field, B sub(d) = B sub(infinity).[1-exp(-t/tau sub(d))] (B sub(infinity): field strength at t = infinity, tau sub(d): time constant). They are studied for two kinds of decay indices, that is, -1.0 for the pump limiter and -1.3 for the divertor. Conclusively, the control system is found to have good characteristics. The PID controller seems to provide the stable control of vertical position better than the PI controller. The maximum of vertical displacement, Z sub(p)sup(max) under the disturbance field, B sub(d), are in proportion to B sub(infinity). The power required for its stabilization, P, are also in proportion to B sub(infinity)sup(2), and then to (Z sub(P)sup(MAX))sup(2), too. Therefore, some common basis for B sub(infinity) or Z sub(P)sup(MAX) is required for its estimation. Moreover, the power is found to be independent of selection of the PI or PID controller, and to have approximately the same relation with Z sub(P)sup(MAX). The difference of P between -1.0 and -1.3 in the decay index is very large when Z sub(P)sup(MAX) is more than -1.0 cm. For example, in the vicinity of Z sub(P)sup(MAX) = 1.0 cm, the power in the case of n = -1.0 is about one half of that in the case of n = -1.3. But it decreases abruptly when Z sub(P)sup(MAX) is less than 0.5 cm. (J.P.N.)

  8. Self-tuning control studies of the plasma vertical position problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Guang Lin; Wellstead, P.E.; Browne, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma vertical position system in a tokamak device can be open-loop unstable with time-varying dynamics, such that the instability increases with system dynamical changes. Time-varying unstable dynamics makes the plasma vertical position a particularly difficult one to control with traditional fixed-coefficient controllers. A self-tuning technique offers a new solution of the plasma vertical position control problem by an adaptive control approach. Specifically, the self-tuning controller automatically tunes the controller parameters without an a priori knowledge of the system dynamics and continuously tracks dynamical changes within the system, thereby providing the system with auto-tuning and adaptive tuning capabilities. An overview of the self-tuning methods is given, and their applicability to a simulation of the Joint European Torus (JET) vertical plasma positions system is illustrated. Specifically, the applicability of pole-assignment and generalized predictive control self-tuning methods to the vertical plasma position system is demonstrated. 26 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  9. Increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Keiko; Kimura, Yurika; Matsuda, Yoko; Takahashi, Masatoki; Honjyou, Motomu; Arai, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    High levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed in tissue samples from ∼30% of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who satisfied the comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease. Detection of increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses might not be sufficient to make a diagnosis of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis, and a comprehensive evaluation is required. This study aimed to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of IgG4-positive plasma cells in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. This study examined nasal mucosal specimens from 35 patients and assigned them to high-IgG4 and low-IgG4 groups based on infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. It compared the pathological characteristics of the two groups, including the presence of fibrosis, phlebitis, hyperplasia of the nasal glands and infiltration of inflammatory cells. No cases of chronic rhinosinusitis showed storiform fibrosis or obliterative phlebitis. The mean number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in samples from all patients was 29.8 ± 40.3/high-power field. Eleven of the 35 cases (31.4%) were classified as high-IgG4. Hyperplasia of the nasal glands was observed significantly more frequently in the high-IgG4 group than in the low-IgG4 group (p = .03).

  10. Glomerular diseases associated with HBV and HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Kiperova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C viruses are human pathogens of major significance. Their extrahepatic manifestations are global health problem. HBV is a well-known cause of membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative GN and IgA nephropathy, frequently in Asian populations. Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare, but serious systemic complication of chronic HBV. Immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-related GN is not recommended. Interferon alpha treatment produces sustained remission of porteinuria, often associated with clearance of HBeAg and/or HBsAg, however, it has many side effects. Compared to interferon, nucleos(tide analogues offer some advantages. These antiviral agents suppress HBV replication through their inhibitory effect on viral DNA polymerase. They have convenient administration and high tolerability. Lamivudine is well tolerated and safe in long-term studies, but the resistance of HBV is an escalating problem. The resistance to newer polymerase inhibitors Entecavir and Tenofovir is significantly lower. Hepatitis C virus causes cryoglobulinemia-mediated glomerulonephritis and other immune complex forms of GN. The renal manifestations are usually associated with long-lasting HCV infection. HCV glomerular disease is more frequent in adult males, and often leads to chronic renal insufficiency. The first line treatment in patients with mild to moderate clinical and histological kidney damage is the antiviral therapy with pegylated INF alpha and ribavirin. In case of severe HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic GN - nephrotic syndrome, nephritic syndrome and/or progressive renal failure, high activity score of glomerulonephritis on light microscopy, the initial treatment might consist of sequential administration of antiviral and immunosuppressive agents (corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange, or rituximab. The treatment of HCV-related glomerular disease is still under debate and based on scant experimental evidence. Large randomized and controlled

  11. Linear quadratic Gaussian controller design for plasma current, position and shape control system in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, V.; Kavin, A.; Rumyantsev, E.; Kharitonov, V.; Misenov, B.; Ovsyannikov, A.; Ovsyannikov, D.; Veremei, E.; Zhabko, A.; Mitrishkin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is focused on the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller synthesis methodology for the ITER plasma current, position and shape control system as well as power derivative management system. It has been shown that some poloidal field (PF) coils have less influence on reference plasma-wall gaps control during plasma disturbances and hence they have been used to reduce total control power derivative by means of the additional non-linear feedback. The design has been done on the basis of linear models. Simulation was provided for non-linear model and results are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  12. ITER-FEAT magnetic configuration and plasma position/shape control in the nominal PF scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribov, Y.V.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.

    2001-01-01

    The capability of the ITER-FEAT poloidal field system to support the four 'design' scenarios and the high current 'assessed' scenario have been studied. To operate with highly elongated plasma, the system has segmentation of the central solenoid and a separate fast feedback loop for plasma vertical stabilisation. Within the limits imposed on the coil currents, voltages and power, the poloidal field system provides the required plasma scenario and control capabilities. The separatrix deviation from the required position, in scenarios with minor disruptions is within less than about 100 mm. (author)

  13. Low prevalence of HCV infection with predominance of genotype 4 among HIV patients living in Libreville, Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélique Ndjoyi-Mbiguino

    Full Text Available Gabon is an endemic area for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV and the risk of co-infection is high.Between November 2015 and April 2016, we conducted retrospective study on HCV infection among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA. A total of 491 PLHA were included in this study and tested for the presence of HCV infection. HIV viral loads were obtained using the Generic HIV viral Load® assay and the CD4+ T cells count was performed using BD FACSCount™ CD4 reagents. HCV screening was performed using the MP Diagnostics HCV ELISA 4.0 kit. HCV genotypes were determined by sequence analysis of NS5B and Core regions. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the groups. Chi-2 test and Fisher's Exact Test were used to compare prevalence.HCV seroprevalence was 2.9% (14/491, (95% confidence interval (CI:1.4-4.3%. The percentage of HCV viremic patients, defined by the detection of HCV RNA in plasma, was 57% (8/14, representing 1.6% of the total population. HCV seroprevalence and replicative infection were not statistically differ with gender. The percentage of co-infection increased with age. No correlation with CD4+ T cells count and HIV viral load level was registered in this study. Identified HCV strains were predominantly of genotype 4 (87.5% including 4k, 4e, 4g, 4p, 4f and 4c subtypes. Only one strain belonged to genotype 2 (subtype 2q. Analysis of the NS5B region did not reveal the presence of resistance-associated substitutions for sofosbuvir.A systematic screening of hepatitis C is therefore strongly recommended as well as genotyping of HCV strains in order to adapt treatments for the specific case of people living with HIV/AIDS in Central Africa.

  14. Strongly coupled Coulomb systems with positive dust grains: thermal and UV-induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A plasma containing macroscopic dust particles or grains (often referred to as a dusty or colloidal or complex plasma) has the feature that grains may be charged by electron or ion flux or by photo- or thermoelectron emission. Electron emission from a grain surface produces a positive charge; capture of electrons produces the reverse effect making the dust grains negatively charged. Most dusty plasma research is concerned with the ordered dust structures (so-called 'plasma crystal') in glow discharges. The dust grains in these experiments were found to carry a negative charge due to the higher mobility of electrons as compared to ions in the discharge plasma. In recent years, in parallel with the study of the properties of plasma crystals under discharge conditions, attempts to obtain a structure from positively charged dust grains have been made, and structure formation processes for various charging mechanisms, particularly thermoelectron emission and photoemission, have been investigated. In this paper we review the essential features of strongly coupled plasmas with positive dust grains. An ordered structure of CeO 2 grains has been experimentally observed in a combustion products jet. The grains were charged positively and suspended in the plasma flow. Their charge is about 10 3 a and the calculated value of a Coulomb coupling parameter Γ is >10, corresponding to a plasma liquid. The ordered structures of Al 2 O 3 dust grains in propellant combustion products plasma have been observed for the first time. These structures were found in the sheath boundary of condensation region. The obtained data let us estimate the value of parameter Γ =3-40, corresponding to the plasma liquid state. The possibility is studied of the formation of ordered dust grain structures in thermal plasma. The range of the required values of the coupling parameter Γ is calculated using the results of diagnostic measurements carried out in thermal plasma with grains of

  15. Dependence of high order harmonics intensity on laser focal spot position in preformed plasma plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, H.; Ganeev, R.; Naik, P. A.; Arora, V.; Chakravarty, U.; Gupta, P. D.

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of the high-order harmonic intensity on the laser focal spot position in laser produced plasma plumes is experimentally studied. High order harmonics up to the 59th order (λ∼13.5 nm) were generated by focusing 48 fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser system in silver plasma plume produced using 300 ps uncompressed laser radiation as the prepulse. The intensity of harmonics nearly vanished when the best focus was located in the plume center, whereas it peaked on either side with unequal intensity. The focal spot position corresponding to the peak harmonic intensity moved away from the plume center for higher order harmonics. The results are explained in terms of the variation of phase mismatch between the driving laser beam and harmonics radiation produced, relativistic drift of electrons, and defocusing effect due to radial ionization gradient in the plasma for different focal spot positions

  16. A study on the relationship of anti-HCV antibody and hepatitis C viremia in post-transfusion hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soon

    1993-01-01

    The specimens of blood transfusion recipients who recieved the Anti-HCV antibody positive bloods were analyzed at irregular intervals by enzyme immunoassay to measure the anti-HCV antibody and reverse transcription PCR of hepatitis C virus to evaluate the viremic states. At the same time, the specimens of anti-HCV antibody positive healthy blood donors are analyzed by the reverse transcription PCR method. We analyzed the 9 cases of anti-HCV positive blood donors by reverse transcription PCR and no cases of positive HCV reverse transcription PCR is found. The 5 patients who recieved the anti-HCV positive blood by blood transfusion was followed at irregular interval. Of 5 blood recipients, Hepatitis C virus was detected in 2 patients (40%) and Anti-HCV antibody was detected in 2 patients (40%). We suppose that in contrast to disease group (Non A non B hepatitis), the possibility of viremia in the anti-HCV positive blood donors is significantly low and the character of those antibody may be convalescent antibody after hepatitis C resolution. (Author)

  17. A study on the relationship of anti-HCV antibody and hepatitis C viremia in post-transfusion hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soon [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-01-01

    The specimens of blood transfusion recipients who recieved the Anti-HCV antibody positive bloods were analyzed at irregular intervals by enzyme immunoassay to measure the anti-HCV antibody and reverse transcription PCR of hepatitis C virus to evaluate the viremic states. At the same time, the specimens of anti-HCV antibody positive healthy blood donors are analyzed by the reverse transcription PCR method. We analyzed the 9 cases of anti-HCV positive blood donors by reverse transcription PCR and no cases of positive HCV reverse transcription PCR is found. The 5 patients who recieved the anti-HCV positive blood by blood transfusion was followed at irregular interval. Of 5 blood recipients, Hepatitis C virus was detected in 2 patients (40%) and Anti-HCV antibody was detected in 2 patients (40%). We suppose that in contrast to disease group (Non A non B hepatitis), the possibility of viremia in the anti-HCV positive blood donors is significantly low and the character of those antibody may be convalescent antibody after hepatitis C resolution. (Author).

  18. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (pmind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feedback control of horizontal position and plasma surface shape in a non-circular tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi

    1986-01-01

    The linear model for the coupled horizontal position and plasma surface shape control in the non-circular tokamak device was described. It enables us to estimate easily the displacement and the distortion due to the changes in plasma pressure and current density distribution. The PI-controller and the optimal regulator were designed with the linear model. Transient-response analysis of the control system in the TRIAM-1M tokamak showed that the optimal regulator is superior to the PI-controller with regard to the mutual-interference between the position control system and the elongation control system. (author)

  20. Influence of the focal point position on the properties of a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Miklaszewski, R.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Stenz, CH.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with investigations of the influence of the focusing lens focal point position on the properties of a plasma produced by a defocused laser beam. The experiment was carried out at the Prague Asterix Laser System iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikova, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, T. Mocek, M. Pfeifer, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)] by using the third harmonic of laser radiation (λ=0.438 μm), laser energy of 70 J, pulse duration of 250 ps (full width at half-maximum), and beam spot radii of 250 and 400 μm. Cu and Ta were chosen as target materials. The experimental data were obtained by means of a three-frame interferometric system, ion collectors, and crater replica techniques. The reported results allow formulating an important hypothesis that the laser-produced plasma modifies strongly the laser intensity distribution. It is shown how such a modification depends on the relative position and distance of the focal point to the target surface. Of particular importance is whether the focal point is located inside or in front of the target. The irradiation geometry is crucial for the possibility of generating plasma jets by laser radiation. Well-formed jet-like plasma structures can be created if an initially homogeneous laser intensity distribution is transformed in the plasma to an annular one

  1. Evaluation of automated RNA-extraction technology and a qualitative HCV assay for sensitivity and detection of HCV RNA in pool-screening systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, M.; Habibuw, M. R.; Rebers, S. P.; Boom, R.; Reesink, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was the evaluation of NAT technology for the detection of HCV RNA in plasma pools according to the recommendations of the Paul Ehrlich Institute (5000 IU/mL/donation) and the Committee for Proprietary Medical Products (100 IU/mL/manufacturing pool). STUDY

  2. Molecular beacon probes-base multiplex NASBA Real-time for detection of HIV-1 and HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Yeganeh, S; Paryan, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Kia, V; Rezvan, H

    2012-06-01

    Developed in 1991, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) has been introduced as a rapid molecular diagnostic technique, where it has been shown to give quicker results than PCR, and it can also be more sensitive. This paper describes the development of a molecular beacon-based multiplex NASBA assay for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HCV in plasma samples. A well-conserved region in the HIV-1 pol gene and 5'-NCR of HCV genome were used for primers and molecular beacon design. The performance features of HCV/HIV-1 multiplex NASBA assay including analytical sensitivity and specificity, clinical sensitivity and clinical specificity were evaluated. The analysis of scalar concentrations of the samples indicated that the limit of quantification of the assay was beacon probes detected all HCV genotypes and all major variants of HIV-1. This method may represent a relatively inexpensive isothermal method for detection of HIV-1/HCV co-infection in monitoring of patients.

  3. False-positive pregnancy test after transfusion of solvent/detergent-treated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Wreford-Bush, Tim; Mills, Francesca; Davidson, Fiona; Kursten, Friedrich W; Jilma, Bernd; Birchall, Janet

    2017-12-01

    The transmission of pathogens, antibodies, and proteins is a possible consequence of blood product transfusion. A female patient had an unexpected positive serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin result, indicative of pregnancy, after she had received a transfusion with 1 unit of platelet concentrate, 4 units of red blood cells, and 4 units of pooled solvent/detergent-treated plasma (Octaplas). To investigate the possibility of passive transfusion of β-human chorionic gonadotropin from the plasma transfusion, one additional unit from the same batch was thawed and analyzed. To validate the β-human chorionic gonadotropin assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and to investigate any interference in the assay, dilution experiments were performed using the implicated plasma batch diluted with male and non-pregnant female sera. Also, plasma from a known pregnant woman was diluted with Octaplas (tested negative for β-human chorionic gonadotropin) and with a male serum to validate the assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma. The implicated solvent/detergent-treated plasma had a mean β-human chorionic gonadotropin level of 91.5 mIU/mL. Results from the dilution experiments revealed an excellent correlation (r > 0.99) between β-human chorionic gonadotropin measurement in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and male serum and no over or under recovery of the expected results. Further measurements of β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in the female recipient revealed an estimated half-life of 6 hours. This case demonstrates the importance of considering the possibility of passive transmission of analytes to a patient from the transfusion of blood products. Furthermore, the measurement of β-human chorionic gonadotropin is valid in solvent/detergent-treated plasma using a Roche Cobas analyzer. © 2017 AABB.

  4. Identification and control of plasma vertical position using neural network in Damavand tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasouli, H.; Rasouli, C.; Koohi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a nonlinear model is introduced to determine the vertical position of the plasma column in Damavand tokamak. Using this model as a simulator, a nonlinear neural network controller has been designed. In the first stage, the electronic drive and sensory circuits of Damavand tokamak are modified. These circuits can control the vertical position of the plasma column inside the vacuum vessel. Since the vertical position of plasma is an unstable parameter, a direct closed loop system identification algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a nonlinear model is identified for plasma vertical position, based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) structure. Estimation of simulator parameters has been performed by back-propagation error algorithm using Levenberg–Marquardt gradient descent optimization technique. The model is verified through simulation of the whole closed loop system using both simulator and actual plant in similar conditions. As the final stage, a MLP neural network controller is designed for simulator model. In the last step, online training is performed to tune the controller parameters. Simulation results justify using of the NN controller for the actual plant.

  5. Identification and control of plasma vertical position using neural network in Damavand tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasouli, H. [School of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Process Automation and Control (APAC) Research Group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasouli, C.; Koohi, A. [School of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, a nonlinear model is introduced to determine the vertical position of the plasma column in Damavand tokamak. Using this model as a simulator, a nonlinear neural network controller has been designed. In the first stage, the electronic drive and sensory circuits of Damavand tokamak are modified. These circuits can control the vertical position of the plasma column inside the vacuum vessel. Since the vertical position of plasma is an unstable parameter, a direct closed loop system identification algorithm is performed. In the second stage, a nonlinear model is identified for plasma vertical position, based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) structure. Estimation of simulator parameters has been performed by back-propagation error algorithm using Levenberg-Marquardt gradient descent optimization technique. The model is verified through simulation of the whole closed loop system using both simulator and actual plant in similar conditions. As the final stage, a MLP neural network controller is designed for simulator model. In the last step, online training is performed to tune the controller parameters. Simulation results justify using of the NN controller for the actual plant.

  6. Robust control design for the plasma horizontal position control on J-TEXT Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.Z.; Chen, Z.P.; Zhuang, G.; Wang, Z.J.

    2013-01-01

    It is extremely important for tokamak to control the plasma position during routine discharge. However, the model of plasma in tokamak usually contains much of the uncertainty, such as structured uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Compared with the traditional PID control approach, robust control theory is more suitable to handle this problem. In the paper, we propose a H ∞ robust control scheme to control the horizontal position of plasma during the flat-top phase of discharge on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) tokamak. First, the model of our plant for plasma horizontal position control is obtained from the position equilibrium equations. Then the H ∞ robust control framework is used to synthesize the controller. Based on this, an H ∞ controller is designed to minimize the regulation/tracking error. Finally, a comparison study is conducted between the optimized H ∞ robust controller and the traditional PID controller in simulations. The simulation results of the H ∞ robust controller show a significant improvement of the performance with respect to those obtained with traditional PID controller, which is currently used on our machine

  7. Real-time digital control of plasma position and shape on the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, Mikhael

    2009-01-01

    Beside the objective of contributing to the controlled thermonuclear fusion research and ultimately the development of a fusion based power plant, the main objectives of the thesis are a substantial improvement of plasma vertical position control and plasma shape control as well as a better understanding of formerly unexplained effects, e.g. disturbance fields. As for the vertical position control, a deep analysis has to be undertaken to identify the problem sources. Accurate control of the plasma position is very difficult to achieve. This is mainly due to the complexity of the tokamak and the difficulty in measuring or modelling all relevant discharge variables. Any models would be highly nonlinear and time varying. Thus, for simulation and controller design, a simplified, but nevertheless accurate model has to be developed, based on physics and measured data of the process. Furthermore, the quality of the measured position has to be improved by using new inductive sensors, integrators, and hardware. The integration drift problem has to be analysed and resolved by developing a drift-free integration method. Concerning the shape control, a better understanding of the relation between the stray fields and the iron core saturation is required. Furthermore, the influence on the plasma elongation has to be determined. Upon this, a shape compensation algorithm has to be developed accordingly. The accuracy of the shape control has to be better than 1%. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence and Incidence of HCV Infection among Prisoners in Central Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira Puga

    Full Text Available The aim of this multicenter, cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors among incarcerated populations from twelve Brazilian prisons. The total of 3,368 individuals from twelve prisons was randomly recruited between March 2013 and March 2014. Participants were interviewed, and provided blood samples which were tested for antibodies to Hepatitis C (HCV ab. One year after the first investigation, a cohort study was conducted with 1,656 inmates who participated the cross sectional study. Positive samples were tested for the presence of HCV RNA. Out of 3,368 inmates, 520 (15.4% were females, and 2,848 (84.6% were males. The overall prevalence of HCV was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.9 to 2.9, with 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.8 in females, and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.1 to 3.3 in males (p<0.01. HCV RNA was detected in 51/80 (63.7% samples. Among men prisoners, multivariate analysis of associated factors showed independent associations between HCV exposure and increasing age, inject drug use, length of incarceration, smoking hashish, sharing needle and syringe and HIV positivity. During the cohort study, 7/1,656 new cases of HCV infection were detected, and the incidence rate was 0.4/100 person-year. Once high frequency rates of specific HCV risk behaviors and new HCV infections have been identified inside prisons, effective interventions strategies such as screening, clinical evaluation and treatment to reduce the spread of HCV infection are essential.

  9. Telaprevir for previously treated chronic HCV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHutchison, John G.; Manns, Michael P.; Muir, Andrew J.; Terrault, Norah A.; Jacobson, Ira M.; Afdhal, Nezam H.; Heathcote, E. Jenny; Zeuzem, Stefan; Reesink, Hendrik W.; Garg, Jyotsna; Bsharat, Mohammad; George, Shelley; Kauffman, Robert S.; Adda, Nathalie; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Heathcote, E. J.; Kaita, K.; Ma, M.; Myers, R.; Sherman, M.; Yoshida, E.; Berg, T.; Manns, M. P.; Zeuzem, S.; de Knegt, R.; van Hoek, B.; Afdhal, N. H.; Arora, S.; Bernstein, D.; Cochran, J.; Di Bisceglie, A. M.; Dickson, R.; Dieterich, D. T.; Etzkorn, K.; Everson, G. T.; Faruqui, S.; Ghalib, R.; Gitlin, N.; Godofsky, E.; Gordon, S.; Hassanein, T.; Jacobson, I. M.; Kilby, A.; Kugelmas, M.; Kwo, P. Y.; Lawitz, E. S.; Lindsay, K.; Maillard, M.; Nelson, D. R.; Nyberg, L.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) who do not have a sustained response to therapy with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin have a low likelihood of success with retreatment. We randomly assigned patients with HCV genotype 1 who had not had a sustained virologic response after

  10. The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989 permitted basic research to unravel critical components of a complex life cycle for this important human pathogen. HCV is a highly divergent group of viruses classified in 7 major genotypes and a great number of subtypes, and circulating in infected...

  11. Increase in HCV incidence among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam most likely caused by sexual transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, T.J.W.; van der Bij, A.K.; Prins, M.; Bruisten, S.M.; Brinkman, K.; Ruys, T.A.; van der Meer, J.T.M.; de Vries, H.J.C.; Mulder, J.W.; van Agtmael, M.; Jurriaans, S.; Wolthers, K.C.; Coutinho, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively screened 1836 men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (1984-2003) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. HCV incidence was 0.18/100 person-years (PY) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive MSM (8/4408 PY [95% confidence interval {CI},

  12. Nanostructured Photocatalytic TiO2 Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spraying with Different Injection Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuezhang; Wen, Kui; Deng, Chunming; Yang, Kun; Deng, Changguang; Liu, Min; Zhou, Kesong

    2018-02-01

    High plasma power is beneficial for the deposition efficiency and adhesive strength of suspension-sprayed photocatalytic TiO2 coatings, but it confronts two challenges: one is the reduced activity due to the critical phase transformation of anatase into rutile, and the other is fragmented droplets which cannot be easily injected into the plasma core. Here, TiO2 coatings were deposited at high plasma power and the position of suspension injection was varied with the guidance of numerical simulation. The simulation was based on a realistic three-dimensional time-dependent numerical model that included the inside and outside of torch regions. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the microstructure of the TiO2 coatings, whereas x-ray diffraction was adopted to analyze phase composition. Meanwhile, photocatalytic activities of the manufactured TiO2 coatings were evaluated by the degradation of an aqueous solution of methylene blue dye. Fragmented droplets were uniformly injected into the plasma jet, and the solidification pathway of melting particles was modified by varying the position of suspension injection. A nanostructured TiO2 coating with 93.9% anatase content was obtained at high plasma power (48.1 kW), and the adhesive coating bonding to stainless steel exhibited the desired photocatalytic activity.

  13. Control of plasma poloidal shape and position in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Historically, tokamak control design has been a combination of theory driving an initial control design and empirical tuning of controllers to achieve satisfactory performance. This approach was in line with the focus of past experiments on simply obtaining sufficient control to study many of the basic physics issues of plasma behavior. However, in recent years existing experimental devices have required increasingly accurate control. New tokamaks such as ITER or the eventual fusion power plant must achieve and confine burning fusion plasmas, placing unprecedented demands on regulation of plasma shape and position, heat flux, and burn characteristics. Control designs for such tokamaks must also function well during initial device operation with minimal empirical optimization required. All of these design requirements imply a heavy reliance on plasma modeling and simulation. Thus, plasma control design has begun to use increasingly modern and sophisticated control design methods. This paper describes some of the history of plasma control for the DIII-D tokamak as well as the recent effort to implement modern controllers. This effort improves the control so that one may obtain better physics experiments and simultaneously develop the technology for designing controllers for next-generation tokamaks

  14. HCV INFECTION THROUGH PERFORATING AND CUTTING MATERIAL AMONG CANDIDATES FOR BLOOD DONATION IN BELÉM, BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  15. Study of intelligent system for control of the tokamak-ETE plasma positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Luis Filipe de Faria Pereira Wiltgen

    2003-01-01

    The development of an intelligent neural control system of the neural type, capable to perform real time control of the plasma displacement in the experiment tokamak spheric - ETE (spherical tokamak experiment ) is presented. The ETE machine is in operation since Nov 2000, in the LAP - Plasma Associated Laboratory of the Brazilian Institute on Spatial Research (INPE) in Sao Jose dos Campos, S P, Brazil. The experiment is dedicated to study the magnetic confinement of a fusion plasma in a configuration favorable for the construction of future reactors. Nuclear fusion constitutes a renewable energy source with low environmental impact, which uses atomic energy in pacific applications for the sustainable development of humanity. One of the important questions for the attainment of fusion relates to the stability of the plasma and control of its position during the reactor operation. Therefore, the development of systems to control the plasma in tokamaks constitutes a necessary technological advance for the feasibility of nuclear fusion. In particular, the research carried out in this thesis concerns the proposal of a system to control the vertical displacement of the plasma in the ETE tokamak, aiming to obtain steady pulses in this machine. A Magnetic Levitation system (Mag Lev) was developed as part of this work, allowing to study the nonlinear behavior of a device that, from the aspect of position control, is similar (analogous) to the plasma in the ETE tokamak, This magnetic levitation system was designed, mathematically modeled and built in order to test both classical and intelligent type controllers. The results of this comparison are very promising for the use of intelligent controllers in the ETE tokamak as well as other control applications. (author)

  16. Natural Polymorphisms Conferring Resistance to HCV Protease and Polymerase Inhibitors in Treatment-Naïve HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kali Zhou

    Full Text Available The advent of direct-acting agents (DAAs has improved treatment of HCV in HIV co-infection, but may be limited by primary drug resistance. This study reports the prevalence of natural polymorphisms conferring resistance to NS3/4A protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors in treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected individuals in China.Population based NS3/4A sequencing was completed for 778 treatment-naïve HIV/HCV co-infected patients from twelve provinces. NS3 sequences were amplified by nested PCR using in-house primers for genotypes 1-6. NS5B sequencing was completed for genotyping in 350 sequences. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs were identified in positions associated with HCV resistance.Overall, 72.8% (566/778 of all HCV sequences had at least one RAV associated with HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor resistance. Variants were found in 3.6% (7/193 of genotype 1, 100% (23/23 of genotype 2, 100% (237/237 of genotype 3 and 92% (299/325 of genotype 6 sequences. The Q80K variant was present in 98.4% of genotype 6a sequences. High-level RAVs were rare, occurring in only 0.8% of patients. 93% (64/69 patients with genotype 1b also carried the C316N variant associated with NS5B low-level resistance.The low frequency of high-level RAVs associated with primary HCV DAA resistance among all genotypes in HIV/HCV co-infected patients is encouraging. Further phenotypic studies and clinical research are needed.

  17. Present and perspective roles of soft X-ray tomography in tokamak plasma position measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Duval, B.P.; Horacek, J.; Lister, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows the importance and feasibility of real-time tomography in fusion experiments for the example of soft X-ray (SXR) position measurements. The requirement of non-magnetic real-time diagnostics in low frequencies for ITER is discussed. This is illustrated by recent results of rapid tomographic inversion of SXR measurements on tokamak TCV. Comparison with the magnetic reconstruction data has not only shown the valuable resolution capabilities of both techniques, but also revealed a slight dependence of magnetic measurements on toroidal magnetic field and an unnoticed drift of plasma position observer. A feasibility study using current hardware capacities for programmable real-time tomographic system with plasma position feedback output was carried out. A compact solution is found to be tractable opening wide perspectives for development

  18. Multi-instrument observations of nightside plasma patches under conditions of IMF Bz positive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. C. Howells

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from two multi-instrument case studies showing patches of cold, long-lived plasma in the winter nightside ionosphere during times when the z-component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF Bz was positive. These enhancements were coincident with the antisunward convective plasma drift, flowing from polar to nightside auroral latitudes. In the first case, on 5 December 2005 with IMF By negative, two regions of enhanced electron density were observed extended in MLT in the magnetic midnight sector separated by lower densities near midnight. It is likely that the earlier enhancement originated on the dayside near magnetic noon and was transported to the nightside sector in the convective flow, whilst the later feature originated in the morning magnetic sector. The lower densities separating the two enhancements were a consequence of a pair of lobe cells essentially blocking the direct antisunward cross polar flow from the dayside. A second case study on 4 February 2006 with IMF By positive revealed a single nightside enhancement likely to have originated in the morning magnetic sector. These multi-instrument investigations, incorporating observations by the EISCAT radar facility, the SuperDARN network and radio tomography, reveal that plasma flowing from the dayside can play a significant role in the nightside ionosphere under conditions of IMF Bz positive. The observations are reinforced by simulations of flux-tube transport and plasma decay.

  19. Differences in HCV viral decline between low and standard-dose pegylated-interferon-alpha-2a with ribavirin in HIV/HCV genotype 3 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rivero-Juárez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to analyze the different impact of standard and low-dose Peg-IFN-α2a/RBV therapies on HCV viral decline in HIV/HCV genotype 3 co-infected patients during the first weeks of treatment. METHODS: Plasma HCV viral decline was analyzed between baseline and weeks 1, 2 and 4 in two groups of treatment-naïve HCV genotype 3 patients with HIV co-infection. The Standard Dose Group (SDG included patients who received Peg-IFN at 180 µg/per week with a weight-adjusted dose of ribavirin; Low-Dose Group (LDG patients received Peg-IFN at 135 µg/per week with 800 mg/day ribavirin. The effect of IL28B genotype on HCV viral decline was evaluated in both groups. HCV viral decline was analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients were included: 48 patients in the SDG and 58 in the LDG. HCV viral decline for patients in the LDG was less than for those in the SDG (week 1:1.72±0.74 log(10 IU/mL versus 1.78±0.67 log(10 IU/mL, p = 0.827; week 2:2.3±0.89 log(10 IU/mL versus 3.01±1.02 log(10 IU/mL, p = 0.013; week 4:3.52±1.2 log(10 IU/mL versus 4.09±1.1 log(10 IU/mL, p = 0.005. The linear regression model identified the Peg-IFN/RBV dose as an independent factor for HCV viral decline at week 4. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HCV viral decline was less for patients in the low-dose group compared to those receiving the standard dose. Until a randomized clinical trial is conducted, clinicians should be cautious about using lower doses of Peg-IFN/RBV in HIV/HCV genotype 3 co-infected patients.

  20. Detection of the position and cross-section of a tokamak plasma with magnetic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikawa, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1977-02-01

    The position and cross-sectional shape of a Tokamak plasma are obtained analytically from magnetic probe signals, taking into consideration the toroidal effect. Multipole moment analysis of the plasma current density, introducing the vertical asymmetry, shows the horizontal and vertical displacements and the elliptical deviation. The error in the measurement is estimated by means of the least square method. The observed error is proportional to the error of setting the probes, and inversely proportional to the square root of the number of probes. (auth.)

  1. Determination of the plasma position for its real-time control in the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janky, Filip; Havlíček, Josef; Valcárcel, D.; Hron, Martin; Horáček, Jan; Kudláček, O.; Pánek, Radomír; Carvalho, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1120-1124 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium of Fusion Technology (SOFT-26). Porto, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Real-time * Plasma position * Feedback Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611001554

  2. Nonlinear acoustic waves in nonthermal plasmas with negative and positive dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism where nonlinear structures are stationary in a co-moving frame, large dust-acoustic solitary waves and double layers have been studied in plasmas with negative and positive cold dust, in the presence of nonthermal electrons and ions. This has been done in a systematic way, to delimit the compositional parameter space in which such modes can be found. The existence domain of negative/positive solitary waves is limited by infinite compression of the negative/positive dust or by the occurrence of negative/positive double layers. These double layers require a sufficient nonthermality of the electrons/ions and the presence of enough positive/negative dust. There are parameter ranges where both negative and positive solitary structures coexist, sometimes both of the solitary wave type, sometimes one a solitary wave and the other a double layer. Typical Sagdeev pseudopotentials and solitary wave profiles have been presented.

  3. Comparison of seropositivity of HCV between oral lichen planus and healthy control group in Hamedan province (west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Mobaien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the skin, nail, hair and mucous membranes. Oral lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the oral mucous membranes with a variety of clinical presentations. Various etiologies include HCV suggested for LP, and the aim of this study was comparison of seropositivity of HCV in LP patients and control group. Methods: All oral LP patients that were referred to dermatology clinic of farshchian hospitalwere entered in the study. Five cc of clot blood was taken from each patient and tested for anti-HCVand when anti-HCV tested positive another 2cc clot bloodwas taken for HCV-Rt-PCR test. The results were analyzed with SPSS 16. Results: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 oral lichen planus patients [males 13(43.3% females 17(56.7%] with mean ages of 46±13.7years and 60 healthy individual [males 26(43.3% females 34(56.7%]. There was no oral lichen planus patients who had anti-HCV positive whiles 2 males(3.3% of healthy group had anti-HCV positive which was confirmed by HCV-Rt-PCR. Conclusions: This study showed that there is no correlation between seropositivity of HCV and oral lichen planus in our patients in the west of Iran.

  4. Apoptosis and clinical severity in patients with psoriasis and HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A Gabr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that hepatitis C virus (HCV antigens are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and may contribute to severity of the disease. Increased expression of the apoptosis-regulating proteins p53 and tTG and decreased levels of bcl-2 in the keratinocytes of the skin of psoriatic patients have been reported. Aim: This study aims to identify the serum levels of apoptosis-regulating proteins in patients with psoriasis and without HCV infection and to study the relation between clinical severity of psoriasis and the presence of HCV infection. Materials and Methods: Disease severity was assessed by psoriasis area severity index score (PASI of 90 patients with psoriasis grouped as mild (n = 30, moderate (n = 30 and severe (n = 30; 20 healthy individuals were used as controls. All groups were subjected for complete history taking, clinical examination, and tests for liver function and HCV infection. The serum levels of apoptosis related proteins: p53, tTG and bcl-2 were estimated by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA. Results: There was a statistically significant (P < 0.001 correlation between clinical severity of psoriasis and presence of HCV antibodies and HCV-mRNA. In addition, significantly (P < 0.001 raised serum p53 and tTG, and reduced bcl-2 were observed among HCV-positive patients as compared to HCV-negative patients and control patients. Conclusion: These results conclude that clinical severity of psoriasis is affected by the presence of HCV antibodies and overexpression of apoptotic related proteins. In addition, altered serum levels of apoptosis-regulating proteins could be useful prognostic markers and therapeutic targets of psoriatic disease.

  5. Seroprevalence of Anti-HCV Antibody in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease before Starting Dialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareha Jesmin Rabbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and chronic kidney disease are common and potentially serious medical problems throughout the world. In recent years, it has become clear that these two conditions are linked in several important ways. Indeed, some forms of renal diseases are precipitated by HCV infection and patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD are at increased risk for acquiring HCV infection. Patients with chronic kidney disease typically show an impaired immune response compared with healthy individuals and also other risk factors related with treatment and management. CKD patients ultimately undergo end stage renal therapy like dialysis for their treatment and survival. Risk factors for the infections are more in dialysis period than in predialytic stages. Like other developing countries CKD patients with HCV infection are very common in our country. For this reason the CKD patients should be properly diagnosed knowing the infection status before dialysis which would help both the patient and doctor to choose their proper treatment approach. Objective: This cross-sectional study was done to know the prevalence of HCV infection in the CKD patients before starting dialysis therapy. Materials and Methods: A total of 197 patients with chronic kidney disease stage five (CKD-V before starting dialysis therapy were included as subjects of this study. Among the CKD patients anti-HCV was detected to see prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection. The patients were also tested for HBsAg to assess co-infection. After collecting all the data of different test results analyses were done by SPSS version 15.0. Results: In this study 195 (99% patients were anti-HCV negative and only two patients (1% were found positive. Conclusion: HCV infection in CKD patients before dialysis should be taken into account so that HCV negative CKD patients would not get the infection during dialysis and standard screening procedures should be taken to

  6. On-line system for control of plasma filament position in the Tokamak-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britousov, N.N.; Valuev, S.F.; Sychev, G.I.; Shchedrov, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The plasma filament position on-line control system (OCS) in the T-10 tokamak is described. Results of adjustment and operation of the system are given. The OCS is a structure of a direct negative feedback (DNF) versus deflection and a local DNF circuit. The OCS experimental studying is carried out under the following conditions: 200 kA plasma current, 32 cm diaphragm radius, 2.2-2.5 stability margin, 440 V anode voltage. The response time for 2 cm deflection jumps is 15-20 ns. The OCS demonstrated a particular efficiency while operating in parallel with the plasma current stabilizer providing a high discharge repetition and considerably reducing the number of substandard pulses

  7. HCV-induced autophagosomes are generated via homotypic fusion of phagophores that mediate HCV RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linya Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV induces autophagy to promote its replication, including its RNA replication, which can take place on double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes. However, how HCV induces the biogenesis of autophagosomes and how HCV RNA replication complex may be assembled on autophagosomes were largely unknown. During autophagy, crescent membrane structures known as phagophores first appear in the cytoplasm, which then progress to become autophagosomes. By conducting electron microscopy and in vitro membrane fusion assay, we found that phagophores induced by HCV underwent homotypic fusion to generate autophagosomes in a process dependent on the SNARE protein syntaxin 7 (STX7. Further analyses by live-cell imaging and fluorescence microscopy indicated that HCV-induced phagophores originated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Interestingly, comparing with autophagy induced by nutrient starvation, the progression of phagophores to autophagosomes induced by HCV took significantly longer time, indicating fundamental differences in the biogenesis of autophagosomes induced by these two different stimuli. As the knockdown of STX7 to inhibit the formation of autophagosomes did not affect HCV RNA replication, and purified phagophores could mediate HCV RNA replication, the assembly of the HCV RNA replication complex on autophagosomes apparently took place during the formative stage of phagophores. These findings provided important information for understanding how HCV controlled and modified this important cellular pathway for its own replication.

  8. HIV/HCV Coinfection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are important global public health problems with shared transmission routes. Although HIV/HCV coinfection is not uncommon, the prevalence rates vary significantly across different studies and regions. In Taiwan, injection drug users have become the major contributors to the HIV/AIDS epidemic since 2005. Because the prevalence of HCV infection is high in injection drug users, this HIV epidemic is also associated with a significant increase of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan. To control Taiwan's HIV epidemic, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) launched a harm-reduction program in 2006. The HIV epidemic, the percentage attributed to injection drug users, and the prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection gradually declined thereafter. In this article, we aimed to thoroughly examine the current literatures of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan and hope to provide a better understanding of the needs for the management of this coinfection. We conducted a narrative review and searched for literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database untill August 2015. Studies relevant to the epidemiology and associated risk factors of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan were examined and discussed.

  9. Energetic ion emission in a positive polarity nanosecond plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfaty, M.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Weingarten, A.; Fruchtman, A.; Maron, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The emission was studied of energetic ions from the plasma in a coaxial Plasma Opening Switch (POS) powered by a 300 kV, 15 kA, 90 ns positive polarity pulse. Fluxes lasting 2 - 3 ns of ions flowing radially onto the cathode were observed at all axial locations of the switch plasma within 5 ns of the beginning of the upstream POS current. It is suggested that the termination of this ion flux is due to the formation of a cathode plasma, which is consistent with our spectroscopic measurements. Later in the pulse, longer duration (100 ns) ion fluxes were observed radially, first appearing in the generator side of the switch plasma. Fluxes 30 - 40 ns long of ions flowing axially towards the POS load at velocities (2±1) x 10 8 cm/s were also observed. The dependences of the start time of the axial ion flow, of the ion velocities, and of the ion flux on the POS operation parameters were studied. (author). 6 figs., 5 refs

  10. Energetic ion emission in a positive polarity nanosecond plasma opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarfaty, M [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Krasik, Ya E; Weingarten, A; Fruchtman, A; Maron, Y [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Department of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The emission was studied of energetic ions from the plasma in a coaxial Plasma Opening Switch (POS) powered by a 300 kV, 15 kA, 90 ns positive polarity pulse. Fluxes lasting 2 - 3 ns of ions flowing radially onto the cathode were observed at all axial locations of the switch plasma within 5 ns of the beginning of the upstream POS current. It is suggested that the termination of this ion flux is due to the formation of a cathode plasma, which is consistent with our spectroscopic measurements. Later in the pulse, longer duration (100 ns) ion fluxes were observed radially, first appearing in the generator side of the switch plasma. Fluxes 30 - 40 ns long of ions flowing axially towards the POS load at velocities (2{+-}1) x 10{sup 8} cm/s were also observed. The dependences of the start time of the axial ion flow, of the ion velocities, and of the ion flux on the POS operation parameters were studied. (author). 6 figs., 5 refs.

  11. Relationship between serum concetrations of type III procollagen, hyluronic acid and histopathological findings in the liver of HCV-positive blood donors Relação entre concentrações séricas de procolágeno tipo III, ácido hialurônico com achados histopatológicos do fígado em doadores de sangue anti-HCV positivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Regina Rodrigues Camacho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serologic markers have been proposed for monitoring hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. Among fibrosis markers, type III procollagen (PIIIP and hyaluronic acid have been studied in these patients. AIM: To evaluate the association between these serum markers with histological findings. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out with HCV-positive blood donors. The studied population included men and women whose age ranged from 18 to 60 years, with elevated liver function tests [ALT levels > 1.5 times the normal value and alterations of two or more of the following: any changes in the levels of ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, conjugated bilirrubin, gammaglobulin, gammaglutamyltranspeptidase, albumin, platelet count; alkaline phosphatase levels >1.5 times the normal value, or prothrombin time below 70% and above 60%]. Fourty-nine patients were submitted to liver biopsy, blood analysis of PIIIP, hyaluronic acid, besides liver function tests. RESULTS: Liver function tests were not associated with tissular fibrosis, as assessed by ALT (>1.5 times above normal, fibrosis risk=18.8%; RACIONAL: Marcadores sorológicos têm sido propostos para monitorar fibrose hepática em doença crônica do fígado. Dentre os marcadores de fibrose, ácido hialurônico e procolágeno tipo III têm sido estudados nestes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de marcadores séricos de fibrose com achados histológicos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal prospectivo em doadores de sangue anti-HCV positivos. A população estudada incluiu homens e mulheres com idade entre 18-60 anos com provas de função hepática alteradas (níveis de alanina aminotransferase >1.5 vezes do normal e alterações de dois ou mais dos seguintes: qualquer alteração nos níveis de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, bilirrubina conjugada, gamaglobulina, gamaglutamiltranspeptidase, albumina, plaquetas, níveis de fosfatase

  12. Electro-mechanical probe positioning system for large volume plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P. K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L. M.

    2018-05-01

    An automated electro-mechanical system for the positioning of plasma diagnostics has been designed and implemented in a Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). The system consists of 12 electro-mechanical assemblies, which are orchestrated using the Modbus communication protocol on 4-wire RS485 communications to meet the experimental requirements. Each assembly has a lead screw-based mechanical structure, Wilson feed-through-based vacuum interface, bipolar stepper motor, micro-controller-based stepper drive, and optical encoder for online positioning correction of probes. The novelty of the system lies in the orchestration of multiple drives on a single interface, fabrication and installation of the system for a large experimental device like the LVPD, in-house developed software, and adopted architectural practices. The paper discusses the design, description of hardware and software interfaces, and performance results in LVPD.

  13. Association of HCV Core Antigen Seropositivity with Long-Term Mortality in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Kato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV antibody seropositivity is independently associated with poor prognosis in hemodialysis (HD patients. However, anti-HCV antibody cannot distinguish between patients with active infection and those who have recovered from infection. We therefore aimed in this study to examine the association of HCV core antigen (HCVcAg seropositivity with mortality in HD patients. We first measured serum HCVcAg using an immunoradiometric assay and anti-HCV antibody in 405 patients on regular HD, and followed them for 104 months. There were 82 patients (20.2% who had been positive for anti-HCV antibodies; 57 (69.5% of these were positive for HCVcAg. During the follow-up, 29 patients were excluded, so we tested the association of HCVcAg seropositivity with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV and non-CV mortalities in 376 patients. A total of 209 patients (55.6% had expired during the observational period, 92 out of them due to CV causes. After adjusting for comorbid parameters, HCVcAg was independently associated with overall mortality (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.05–2.47, p < 0.05. HCV infection was significantly related to liver disease-related mortality. Past HCV infection also contributed to CV mortality (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.27–5.45, p < 0.01. In contrast, anti-HCV antibody and HCVcAg seropositivities did not associate with infectious disease-related and cancer-related (expect for hepatocellular carcinoma mortality. It follows from these findings that HCVcAg serology is associated with all-cause and CV mortality in HD patients.

  14. Independent, parallel pathways to CXCL10 induction in HCV-infected hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Jessica; Wagoner, Jessica; Lovelace, Erica S; Thirstrup, Derek; Mohar, Isaac; Smith, Wesley; Giugliano, Silvia; Li, Kui; Crispe, I Nicholas; Rosen, Hugo R; Polyak, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    The pro-inflammatory chemokine CXCL10 is induced by HCV infection in vitro and in vivo, and is associated with outcome of IFN (interferon)-based therapy. We studied how hepatocyte sensing of early HCV infection via TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I) led to expression of CXCL10. CXCL10, type I IFN, and type III IFN mRNAs and proteins were measured in PHH (primary human hepatocytes) and hepatocyte lines harboring functional or non-functional TLR3 and RIG-I pathways following HCV infection or exposure to receptor-specific stimuli. HuH7 human hepatoma cells expressing both TLR3 and RIG-I produced maximal CXCL10 during early HCV infection. Neutralization of type I and type III IFNs had no impact on virus-induced CXCL10 expression in TLR3+/RIG-I+ HuH7 cells, but reduced CXCL10 expression in PHH. PHH cultures were positive for monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell mRNAs. Immunodepletion of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) eliminated marker expression in PHH cultures, which then showed no IFN requirement for CXCL10 induction during HCV infection. Immunofluorescence studies also revealed a positive correlation between intracellular HCV Core and CXCL10 protein expression (r(2) = 0.88, p ≤ 0.001). While CXCL10 induction in hepatocytes during the initial phase of HCV infection is independent of hepatocyte-derived type I and type III IFNs, NPC-derived IFNs contribute to CXCL10 induction during HCV infection in PHH cultures. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  16. HBV or HCV coinfections and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals: the D:A:D Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Rainer; Sabin, Caroline; Reiss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Data on a link between HCV or HBV infection and the development of cardiovascular disease among HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals are conflicting. We sought to investigate the association between HBV or HCV infection and myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals.......Data on a link between HCV or HBV infection and the development of cardiovascular disease among HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals are conflicting. We sought to investigate the association between HBV or HCV infection and myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals....

  17. Plasma position and current control system enhancements for the JET ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Neto, A.C. [Ass. EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lomas, P.J.; McCullen, P.; Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • JET plasma position and current control system enhanced for the JET ITER like wall. • Vertical stabilization system enhanced to speed up its response and to withstand larger perturbations. • Improved termination management system. • Implementation of the current limit avoidance system. • Implementation of PFX-on-early-task. - Abstract: The upgrade of Joint European Torus (JET) to a new all-metal wall, the so-called ITER-like wall (ILW), has posed a set of new challenges regarding both machine operation and protection. The plasma position and current control (PPCC) system plays a crucial role in minimizing the possibility that the plasma could permanently damage the ILW. The installation of the ILW has driven a number of upgrades of the two PPCC components, namely the Vertical Stabilization (VS) system and the Shape Controller (SC). The VS system has been enhanced in order to speed up its response and to withstand larger perturbations. The SC upgrade includes three new features: an improved termination management system, the current limit avoidance system, and the PFX-on-early-task. This paper describes the PPCC upgrades listed above, focusing on the implementation issues and on the experimental results achieved during the 2011–12 JET experimental campaigns.

  18. Self-focusing of nonlinear waves in a relativistic plasma with positive and negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Joydeep; Chowdhury, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of self-focusing of nonlinear waves was analysed in a relativistic plasma consisting of both positive and negative ions, which are assumed to be hot. The effect of the inertia of the relativistic electron is also considered by treating it dynamically. A modified form of reductive perturbation is used to deduce a nonlinear Schroedinger equation describing the purely spatial variation of the nonlinear wave. Self-focusing of the wave can be ascertained by analysing the transversal stability of the solitary wave. It is shown that the zones of stability of the wave may become wider due to the mutual influence of various factors present in the plasma, thus favouring the process of self-focusing. 10 refs., 2 figs

  19. Plasma apelin levels in obstructive sleep apnea and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, David E; Buchanan, Fiona; Gibson, Rosemary; Douthwaite, Jennie A; Wood, Susan A; Woltersdorf, Wolfram W; Catterall, James R; Lightman, Stafford L

    2009-10-01

    Apelin is a peptide hormone with cardiovascular and glucose homeostasis properties, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is complicated by cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. Plasma apelin has not been previously assessed in OSA. We investigated the response of plasma apelin to a 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the effect of 3 months compliant continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in 15 obese males with newly diagnosed OSA. Plasma apelin and serum cortisol were recorded 10 minutely, while serum insulin and glucose were measured 30 minutely. Ten subjects had plasma apelin measured at intervals across a 24-h period to investigate for circadian variation in apelin levels, and this was repeated following 3 months compliant CPAP therapy. Fasting (0.342+/-0.038 vs 0.288+/-0.024 ng/ml, P=0.04), 30 min (0.399+/-0.035 vs 0.312+/-0.036 ng/ml, P=0.007) and 120 min (0.402+/-0.030 vs 0.259+/-0.024 ng/ml, P<0.001) apelin levels were reduced following CPAP. The area under curve for apelin OGTT response was lower post-CPAP (44.1+/-3.3 vs 35.8+/-2.3 ng/ml per min, P<0.001). Mean OGTT apelin levels showed a significant treatment effect (P=0.006) and a time effect (P<0.001), and the effect of time was different pre- versus post-CPAP (P=0.005). No significant variability in apelin levels existed across the 24-h period at diagnosis. Lower levels were evident overnight following treatment (P=0.004). Improvements in insulin and glucose parameters and reduced cortisol levels were found post-CPAP. In summary, untreated OSA was associated with elevated plasma apelin levels, altered apelin secretory dynamics in response to oral glucose and lack of an apparent circadian variability, which was restored following CPAP.

  20. Relationship between deprotection and film thickness loss during plasma etching of positive tone chemically amplified resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahorowala, A.P.; Medeiros, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Positive tone chemically amplified (CA) resists have demonstrated the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution necessary to print state-of-the-art subwavelength features using 248 nm and more recently 193 nm lithography. These materials are also being considered for printing sub-100 nm features with 157 nm and next-generation lithography technologies such as extreme ultraviolet and electron beam projection lithography. The basis for solubility differential and image formation in these resists is the acid catalyzed deprotection of labile protecting groups of an inherently base soluble polymer. The deprotection is effected by the photochemical generation of strong acid during the exposure process. Such acid-catalyzed deprotection reactions can also occur in unexposed resist areas when etched in a plasma. This can be due to UV exposure, high-energy ion bombardment, elevated substrate temperatures, or interaction of the resist surface with plasma species to form acidic moieties. Deprotection has been associated with resist mass loss and film shrinkage during plasma etching, leaving inadequate masking material for the entire etch step. In this article, we report the film thickness loss of several unexposed CA resists as a function of etch time in a variety of plasmas and correlate these data with film composition, monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on generally accepted deprotection mechanisms. Our findings indicate that the 'acidic' nature of certain plasmas such as Cl 2 /O 2 can result in deprotection in the resist film, even in the absence of a photoacid generator. Additionally, the data suggest that the nature of the resist polymer and, in turn, the identity of the deprotection products directly influence resist mass loss and etch rate linearity, both of which can be controlled by careful selection of resist materials

  1. Discrete focusing effect of positive ions by a plasma-sheath lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamate, E.; Sugai, H.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that the sheath created adjacent to the surface of a negatively biased electrode that interfaces an insulator acts as a lens that focuses the positive ions to distinct regions on the surface. Thus, the positive ion flux is discrete, leading to the formation of a passive surface, of no ion impact, near the edge and an active surface at the center. Trajectories of positive ions within the sheath are obtained by solving in three dimensions the Poisson equation for electrodes of different geometry. Simulations are confirmed by developing the ion flux profile on the electrode surface as the sputtering pattern produced by ion impact. Measurements are performed in a dc plasma produced in Ar gas

  2. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Misao; Ariumi, Yasuo; Hijikata, Makoto; Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi; Wakita, Takaji; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. ► PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. ► HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. ► INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  3. Psychiatric and substance use disorders in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients: does HCV clearance matter? [Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS) HEPAVIH CO13 cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Lions, C; Winnock, M; Lang, J-P; Loko, M-A; Rosenthal, E; Marchou, B; Valantin, M-A; Morlat, P; Roux, P; Sogni, P; Spire, B; Poizot-Martin, I; Lacombe, K; Lascoux-Combe, C; Duvivier, C; Neau, D; Dabis, F; Salmon-Ceron, D; Carrieri, M P

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this nested study was to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients according to their HCV status. The nested cross-sectional study, untitled HEPAVIH-Psy survey, was performed in a subset of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients enrolled in the French Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS) CO13 HEPAVIH cohort. Psychiatric disorders were screened for using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 5.0.0). Among the 286 patients enrolled in the study, 68 (24%) had never received HCV treatment, 87 (30%) were treatment nonresponders, 44 (15%) were currently being treated and 87 (30%) had a sustained virological response (SVR). Of the 286 patients enrolled, 121 patients (42%) screened positive for a psychiatric disorder other than suicidality and alcohol/drug abuse/dependence, 40 (14%) screened positive for alcohol abuse/dependence, 50 (18%) screened positive for drug abuse/dependence, 50 (17.5%) were receiving an antidepressant treatment and 69 (24%) were receiving an anxiolytic. Patients with an SVR did not significantly differ from the other groups in terms of psychiatric disorders. Patients receiving HCV treatment screened positive less often for an anxiety disorder. The highest rate of drug dependence/abuse was among HCV treatment-naïve patients. Psychiatric disorders were frequent in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients and their rates were comparable between groups, even for patients achieving an SVR. Our results emphasize the need for continuous assessment and care of coinfected patients, even after HCV clearance. Drug addiction remains an obstacle to access to HCV treatment. Despite the recent advent and continued development of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs), it is still crucial to offer screening and comprehensive care for psychiatric and addictive disorders. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  4. Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors for Acquiring HBV and/or HCV in HIV-Infected Population Groups in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Manjula; Baniya, Jagat Bahadur; Aryal, Nirmal; Shrestha, Bimal; Rauniyar, Ramanuj; Adhikari, Anurag; Koirala, Pratik; Oli, Pardip Kumar; Pandit, Ram Deo; Stein, David A; Gupta, Birendra Prasad

    2018-01-01

    HBV and HCV infections are widespread among the HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. The goals of this study were to investigate the epidemiological profile and risk factors for acquiring HBV and/or HCV coinfection in disadvantaged HIV-positive population groups in Nepal. We conducted a retrospective study on blood samples from HIV-positive patients from the National Public Health Laboratory at Kathmandu to assay for HBsAg, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies, HIV viral load, and CD4+ T cell count. Among 579 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV coinfections was 3.62%, 2.93%, and 0.34%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that spouses of HIV-positive migrant labourers were at significant risk for coinfection with HBV infection, and an age of >40 years in HIV-infected individuals was identified as a significant risk factor for HCV coinfection. Overall our study indicates that disadvantaged population groups such as intravenous drug users, migrant workers and their spouses, female sex workers, and men who have sex with HIV-infected men are at a high and persistent risk of acquiring viral hepatitis. We conclude that Nepalese HIV patients should receive HBV and HCV diagnostic screening on a regular basis.

  5. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role...... in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children...... with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBe...

  6. [Contribution of HCV core antigen testing in HCV diagnosis by test from the company Abbott Laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbusek, J

    2009-11-01

    Detection of HCV core antigen as direct marker of hepatitis C infection clearly improves diagnosis of this disease (especially reduction of window period) and brings broad clinical utilization. The company Abbott Laboratories offers fully automated laboratory test for measurement of HCV core antigen on ARCHITECT analyzers.

  7. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria differ in their sensitivity to cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Clauson, Maryse; Hong, Jungmi; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2016-12-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is a relatively new method being investigated for antimicrobial activity. However, the exact mode of action is still being explored. Here we report that CAP efficacy is directly correlated to bacterial cell wall thickness in several species. Biofilms of Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, possessing a 55.4 nm cell wall, showed the highest resistance to CAP, with less than one log10 reduction after 10 min treatment. In contrast, biofilms of Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, possessing only a 2.4 nm cell wall, were almost completely eradicated using the same treatment conditions. Planktonic cultures of Gram negative Pseudomonas libanensis also had a higher log10 reduction than Gram positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mixed species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis showed a similar trend of Gram positive bacteria being more resistant to CAP treatment. However, when grown in co-culture, Gram negative P. aeruginosa was more resistant to CAP overall than as a mono-species biofilm. Emission spectra indicated OH and O, capable of structural cell wall bond breakage, were present in the plasma. This study indicates that cell wall thickness correlates with CAP inactivation times of bacteria, but cell membranes and biofilm matrix are also likely to play a role.

  8. Receptor complementation and mutagenesis reveal SR-BI as an essential HCV entry factor and functionally imply its intra- and extra-cellular domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Dreux

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available HCV entry into cells is a multi-step and slow process. It is believed that the initial capture of HCV particles by glycosaminoglycans and/or lipoprotein receptors is followed by coordinated interactions with the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI, a major receptor of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the CD81 tetraspanin, and the tight junction protein Claudin-1, ultimately leading to uptake and cellular penetration of HCV via low-pH endosomes. Several reports have indicated that HDL promotes HCV entry through interaction with SR-BI. This pathway remains largely elusive, although it was shown that HDL neither associates with HCV particles nor modulates HCV binding to SR-BI. In contrast to CD81 and Claudin-1, the importance of SR-BI has only been addressed indirectly because of lack of cells in which functional complementation assays with mutant receptors could be performed. Here we identified for the first time two cell types that supported HCVpp and HCVcc entry upon ectopic SR-BI expression. Remarkably, the undetectable expression of SR-BI in rat hepatoma cells allowed unambiguous investigation of human SR-BI functions during HCV entry. By expressing different SR-BI mutants in either cell line, our results revealed features of SR-BI intracellular domains that influence HCV infectivity without affecting receptor binding and stimulation of HCV entry induced by HDL/SR-BI interaction. Conversely, we identified positions of SR-BI ectodomain that, by altering HCV binding, inhibit entry. Finally, we characterized alternative ectodomain determinants that, by reducing SR-BI cholesterol uptake and efflux functions, abolish HDL-mediated infection-enhancement. Altogether, we demonstrate that SR-BI is an essential HCV entry factor. Moreover, our results highlight specific SR-BI determinants required during HCV entry and physiological lipid transfer functions hijacked by HCV to favor infection.

  9. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA profiles among chronic HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in ESPRIT; spontaneous HCV RNA clearance observed in nine individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Tedaldi, Ellen; Peters, L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels remain stable over time in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA during the persistent infection phase has been documented only rarely among tho...

  10. Synthetic lipophilic antioxidant BO-653 suppresses HCV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Fumihiko; Sudoh, Masayuki; Arai, Masaaki; Kohara, Michinori

    2013-02-01

    The influence of the intracellular redox state on the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is poorly understood. This study demonstrated the anti-HCV activity of 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2,2-dipentyl-4,6-di-tert-butylbenzofuran (BO-653), a synthetic lipophilic antioxidant, and examined whether BO-653's antioxidant activity is integral to its anti-HCV activity. The anti-HCV activity of BO-653 was investigated in HuH-7 cells bearing an HCV subgenomic replicon (FLR3-1 cells) and in HuH-7 cells infected persistently with HCV (RMT-tri cells). BO-653 inhibition of HCV replication was also compared with that of several hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. BO-653 suppressed HCV replication in FLR3-1 and RMT-tri cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The lipophilic antioxidants had stronger anti-HCV activities than the hydrophilic antioxidants, and BO-653 displayed the strongest anti-HCV activity of all the antioxidants examined. Therefore, the anti-HCV activity of BO-653 was examined in chimeric mice harboring human hepatocytes infected with HCV. The combination treatment of BO-653 and polyethylene glycol-conjugated interferon-α (PEG-IFN) decreased serum HCV RNA titer more than that seen with PEG-IFN alone. These findings suggest that both the lipophilic property and the antioxidant activity of BO-653 play an important role in the inhibition of HCV replication. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Charging and heat collection by a positively charged dust grain in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-07-18

    Dust particulates immersed in a quasineutral plasma can emit electrons in several important applications. Once electron emission becomes strong enough, the dust enters the positively charged regime where the conventional orbital-motion-limited (OML) theory can break down due to potential-well effects on trapped electrons. A minimal modification of the trapped-passing boundary approximation in the so-called OML(+) approach is shown to accurately predict the dust charge and heat collection flux for a wide range of dust size and temperature.

  12. Osteoblasts with impaired spreading capacity benefit from the positive charges of plasma polymerised allylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kunz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, impinge on the performance of orthopaedic implants by impairing bone regeneration. For this reason, the development of effective surface modifications supporting the ingrowth of implants in morbid bone tissue is essential. Our study is designed to elucidate if cells with restricted cell-function limiting adhesion processes benefit from plasma polymer deposition on titanium. We used the actin filament disrupting agent cytochalasin D (CD as an experimental model for cells with impaired actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, the cell’s capacity to adhere and spread was drastically reduced due to shortened actin filaments and vinculin contacts that were smaller. The coating of titanium with a positively charged nanolayer of plasma polymerised allylamine (PPAAm abrogated these disadvantages in cell adhesion and the CD-treated osteoblasts were able to spread significantly. Interestingly, PPAAm increased spreading by causing enhanced vinculin number and contact length, but without significantly reorganising actin filaments. PPAAm with the monomer allylamine was deposited in a microwave-excited low-pressure plasma-processing reactor. Cell physiology was monitored by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the length and number of actin filaments was quantified by mathematical image processing. We showed that biomaterial surface modification with PPAAm could be beneficial even for osteoblasts with impaired cytoskeleton components. These insights into in vitro conditions may be used for the evaluation of future strategies to design implants for morbid bone tissue.

  13. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China's National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhe Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program.Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution.Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17-8.52, p<0.0001 and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96-2.06, p<0.0001. Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001. Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012.The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China.

  14. Seroprevalence of anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankhiwale S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is known to influence the natural history of infections with certain hepatitis viruses and interactions between HIV and hepatitis viruses may potentiate HIV replication. There is high degree of epidemiological similarity between hepatitis B virus and HIV as regard to high-risk group and route of transmission. Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV through blood transfusion and intravenous drug abuse is well documented. Present study deals with the study of concurrent infection of HBV and HCV with HIV infection. In the study of 110 HIV seropositive patients, 34(30.4% were positive for HBV and 8(7.27% for HCV. The difference of concomitant infection was highly significant compared to controls. (p value < 0.0001. Heterosexual high risk behaviour was observed in 89(80.91% of 110 HIV positive patients, out of which 23(25.8% and 5(5.62% were HBsAg and anti-HCV positive respectively. History of transmission was unclear in remaining patients. Concomitant infection of HIV and HBV was found to be significantly more in the symptomatic group (40.68% compared to asymptomatic group (19.6%. As HIV infection is known to affect the natural history of both HBV and HCV infection, screening of their concurrent association is necessary.

  15. Detection of HCV-RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Biotinylated and Radioiodinated Primers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Cheon, Jun Hong; Chung, Yoon Young; Park, Hung Dong; Chung, Young Hwa; Lee, Young Sang

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical applicability of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit of HCV-RNA using biotinylated and radioiodinated primers. Study subjects were 118 patients with positive anti-HCV. HCV-RNA in patients serum was extracted by guanidium thiocyanate method. After first amplification, the product was reamplified by primers labelled with biotin and I-125. The final amplification product was detected by counting the radioactivity after incubation in avidin coated tubes. In 51 samples, the test was repeated for evaluation of reproducibility. This new method was also compared with conventional RT-PCR methods in 34 samples from patients with chronic liver disease. The results were as follows, 1) HCV-RNA was positive in 85(97%)of 88 patients with chronic liver disease, and in 23 (73%) of 30 patients with normal liver function. 2) In comparison with conventional method, HCV-RNA was detected in 32(94%) of 34 patients with new method, whereas in 27(79% ) of the same group with conventional method 3) Repeated test with new method in 52 samples demonstrated 82% of concordant result. In conclusion, new method with biotinylated and radioiodinated primers was more sensitive than conventional method. However, great care must be taken for quality control because there were considerable interassay variation and possibility of false positivity and false negativity.

  16. Detection of HCV-RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Using Biotinylated and Radioiodinated Primers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Cheon, Jun Hong; Chung, Yoon Young; Park, Hung Dong; Chung, Young Hwa; Lee, Young Sang [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical applicability of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) kit of HCV-RNA using biotinylated and radioiodinated primers. Study subjects were 118 patients with positive anti-HCV. HCV-RNA in patients serum was extracted by guanidium thiocyanate method. After first amplification, the product was reamplified by primers labelled with biotin and I-125. The final amplification product was detected by counting the radioactivity after incubation in avidin coated tubes. In 51 samples, the test was repeated for evaluation of reproducibility. This new method was also compared with conventional RT-PCR methods in 34 samples from patients with chronic liver disease. The results were as follows, 1) HCV-RNA was positive in 85(97%)of 88 patients with chronic liver disease, and in 23 (73%) of 30 patients with normal liver function. 2) In comparison with conventional method, HCV-RNA was detected in 32(94%) of 34 patients with new method, whereas in 27(79% ) of the same group with conventional method 3) Repeated test with new method in 52 samples demonstrated 82% of concordant result. In conclusion, new method with biotinylated and radioiodinated primers was more sensitive than conventional method. However, great care must be taken for quality control because there were considerable interassay variation and possibility of false positivity and false negativity.

  17. Autophagy in HCV Infection: Keeping Fat and Inflammation at Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Vescovo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. Viral persistence and pathogenesis rely mainly on the ability of HCV to deregulate specific host processes, including lipid metabolism and innate immunity. Recently, autophagy has emerged as a cellular pathway, playing a role in several aspects of HCV infection. This review summarizes current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms that link the HCV life cycle with autophagy machinery. In particular, we discuss the role of HCV/autophagy interaction in dysregulating inflammation and lipid homeostasis and its potential for translational applications in the treatment of HCV-infected patients.

  18. [HCV and HBV seropositivity in university students of the State of Nuevo Leòn, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Castañeda, M S; García-Méndez, B L; Tijerina-Menchaca, R

    1996-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a contagious disease. Patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), may be either chronically symptomatic or asymptomatic, and suffer cirrhosis and high risk of hepatic carcinoma. Asymptomatic carriers of HBV surface antigen (HBs-Ag) or with anti-HCV antibodies are potentially infectious, and therefore a risk to public health. This work seeks to establish the frequency of seropositivity for HBs-Ag and anti-HCV antibodies in a population of 774 newly accepted students of the Medical School of the Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, whose average age was 18 years. Second generation ELISA test were used to screen for HBs-Ag and anti-HCV antibodies. HBs-Ag was confirmed by a neutralization test and anti-HCV antibodies were confirmed by a RIBA test. Three sera were positive for HBs-Ag by ELISA and only one serum (0.13% of analyzed samples) was confirmed by the neutralization technique. On the other hand 12 sera were positive for anti-HCV antibodies by ELISA, and eight of these were confirmed by RIBA (1.03% of the analyzed samples). Intensive reactivity bands were found in two sera, and weak reactivity bands were found in six sera. ELISA screening for anti-HCV antibodies showed 0.5% of false positives. This study shows that the frequency of anti-HCV antibodies is 7.95% times higher than that found for HBs-Ag. All seropositive patients were asymptomatic and potentially infective. This demonstrates the need to routinely screen for HBs-Ag and anti-HCV antibodies to establish the prevalence of these diseases in our area.

  19. Large acoustic solitons and double layers in plasmas with two positive ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.; Saini, Nareshpal Singh; Kourakis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Large nonlinear acoustic waves are discussed in a plasma made up of cold supersonic and adiabatic subsonic positive ions, in the presence of hot isothermal electrons, with the help of Sagdeev pseudopotential theory. In this model, no solitons are found at the acoustic speed, and no compositional parameter ranges exist where solutions of opposite polarities can coexist. All nonlinear modes are thus super-acoustic, but polarity changes are possible. The upper limits on admissible structure velocities come from different physical arguments, in a strict order when the fractional cool ion density is increased: infinite cold ion compression, warm ion sonic point, positive double layers, negative double layers, and finally, positive double layers again. However, not all ranges exist for all mass and temperature ratios. Whereas the cold and warm ion sonic point limitations are always present over a wide range of mass and temperature ratios, and thus positive polarity solutions can easily be obtained, double layers have a more restricted existence range, specially if polarity changes are sought.

  20. Microbial translocation is correlated with HIV evolution in HIV-HCV co-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Tudesq

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT is characterized by bacterial products passing into the blood through the gut barrier and is a key phenomenon in the pathophysiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection. MT is also associated with liver damage in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV patients. The aim of the study was to assess MT in plasma of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. 16S rDNA (16 S Ribosomal DNA subunit marker and other markers of MT such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-binding protein (LBP, soluble CD14 (sCD14, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP were used. Clinical, biological and immunological characteristics of the population were studied in order to correlate them with the intensity of the MT. We demonstrate that indirect markers of MT, LBP and CD14s, and a marker of intestinal permeability (I-FABP are significantly higher in HIV-HCV co-infected patients than in healthy controls (17.0 vs 2.6 μg/mL, p < 0.001; 1901.7 vs 1255.0 ng/mL, p = 0.018; 478.3 vs 248.1 pg/mL, p < 0.001, respectively, while a direct marker of MT (16S rDNA copies is not different between these two populations. However, plasma 16S rDNA was significantly higher in co-infected patients with long-standing HIV infections (RGM = 1.47 per 10 years, CI95% = [1.04:2.06], p = 0.03. Our findings show that in HIV-HCV co-infected patients, plasma 16S rDNA levels, directly reflecting MT, seem to be linked to the duration of HIV infection, while elevated levels of LBP and sCD14 reflect only a persistence of immune activation. The levels of these markers were not correlated with HCV evolution.

  1. Interleukin-27 is differentially associated with HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell counts in therapy-naive HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai He

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27, a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

  2. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences.

  3. Structure of the hepatitis C virus IRES bound to the human 80S ribosome: remodeling of the HCV IRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Daniel; Thermann, Rolf; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Lewis, Joe D; Stark, Holger

    2005-11-01

    Initiation of translation of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein is driven by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA that bypasses much of the eukaryotic translation initiation machinery. Here, single-particle electron cryomicroscopy has been used to study the mechanism of HCV IRES-mediated initiation. A HeLa in vitro translation system was used to assemble human IRES-80S ribosome complexes under near physiological conditions; these were stalled before elongation. Domain 2 of the HCV IRES is bound to the tRNA exit site, touching the L1 stalk of the 60S subunit, suggesting a mechanism for the removal of the HCV IRES in the progression to elongation. Domain 3 of the HCV IRES positions the initiation codon in the ribosomal mRNA binding cleft by binding helix 28 at the head of the 40S subunit. The comparison with the previously published binary 40S-HCV IRES complex reveals structural rearrangements in the two pseudoknot structures of the HCV IRES in translation initiation.

  4. Serum Islet Cell Autoantibodies During Interferon α Treatment in Patients With HCV-Genotype 4 Chronic Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Badra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide and HCV genotype 4 (HCV4 is predominant in African and Middle Eastern countries. It is well established that interferon-α (IFNa treatment for HCV may trigger serum autoantibodies against pancreatic islet cells (ICA in a subgroup of patients. Available data on the incidence of ICA during IFNa therapy for chronic HCV4 infection are not conclusive. We investigated the appearance of ICA in 40 naïve Egyptian patients (38 males, 32 ± 6 years with histologically defined chronic HCV4 infection undergoing IFNa treatment at a dose of 9-million U/week for 24 weeks. Serum samples were collected at baseline and following IFNa therapy and ICA were detected using indirect immunofluorescence. Baseline evaluation indicated that 2/40 (5% patients had detectable serum ICA. After the completion of the treatment scheme, 12/38 (32% previously ICA negative patients became ICA positive; however, no patient developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or diabetes during follow-up. In conclusion, we submit that IFNa treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC may induce serum ICA in one-third of Egyptian patients with HCV4. These autoantibodies, however, do not lead to alterations in glucose metabolism.

  5. HBV reactivation in patients with HCV/HBV cirrhosis on treatment with direct-acting antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, V; Ferraro, D; Licata, A; Bavetta, M G; Petta, S; Bronte, F; Colomba, G; Craxì, A; Di Marco, V

    2018-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) hepatitis and overt or occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection may reactivate HBV when HCV is suppressed or cleared by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). We assessed the prevalence of overt or previous HBV coinfection and the risk of HBV reactivation in patients with HCV cirrhosis treated with DAAs. This was a retrospective cohort of 104 consecutive patients with HCV cirrhosis treated with DAAs. Serum HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA were tested at weeks 4, 8 and 12 of DAAs therapy and at week 12 of follow-up. At the start of DAAs, eight patients (7.7%) were HBsAg positive/HBeAg negative with undetectable HBV-DNA and low levels of quantitative HBsAg (four on nucleos(t)ide analogues [NUCs] and four inactive carriers), 37 patients (35.6%) had markers of previous HBV infection (25 anti-HBc positive, 12 anti-HBc/anti-HBs positive) and 59 (56.7%) had no evidence of HBV infection. Sixty-seven patients (64.4%) were HCV-RNA negative at week 4 and 98 (94.2%) achieved sustained virological response. All four HBsAg-positive patients treated with NUCs remained HBV-DNA negative, but three of four untreated patients showed an increase in HBV-DNA of 2-3 log without a biochemical flare and achieved HBV-DNA suppression when given NUCs. During or after DAAs, by conventional assay, HBV-DNA remained not detectable in all 37 anti-HBc-positive patients but in three of them (8.1%) HBV-DNA became detectable with a highly sensitive PCR. HBV reactivation is likely to occur in untreated HBV/HCV-coinfected cirrhotic patients when they undergo HCV treatment with DAAs. Pre-emptive therapy with NUCs should be considered in this setting. Anti-HBc-positive patients rarely reactivate HBV without clinical or virological outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Packaging of HCV-RNA into lentiviral vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caval, Vincent; Piver, Eric; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Pagès, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Description of HCV-RNA Core-D1 interactions. ► In vivo evaluation of the packaging of HCV genome. ► Determination of the role of the three basic sub-domains of D1. ► Heterologous system involving HIV-1 vector particles to mobilise HCV genome. ► Full length mobilisation of HCV genome and HCV-receptor-independent entry. -- Abstract: The advent of infectious molecular clones of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has unlocked the understanding of HCV life cycle. However, packaging of the genomic RNA, which is crucial to generate infectious viral particles, remains poorly understood. Molecular interactions of the domain 1 (D1) of HCV Core protein and HCV RNA have been described in vitro. Since compaction of genetic information within HCV genome has hampered conventional mutational approach to study packaging in vivo, we developed a novel heterologous system to evaluate the interactions between HCV RNA and Core D1. For this, we took advantage of the recruitment of Vpr fusion-proteins into HIV-1 particles. By fusing HCV Core D1 to Vpr we were able to package and transfer a HCV subgenomic replicon into a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector. We next examined how deletion mutants of basic sub-domains of Core D1 influenced HCV RNA recruitment. The results emphasized the crucial role of the first and third basic regions of D1 in packaging. Interestingly, the system described here allowed us to mobilise full-length JFH1 genome in CD81 defective cells, which are normally refractory to HCV infection. This finding paves the way to an evaluation of the replication capability of HCV in various cell types.

  7. Packaging of HCV-RNA into lentiviral vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caval, Vincent [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Piver, Eric [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France); Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Darlix, Jean-Luc [LaboRetro, ENS-Lyon INSERM, U758, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon (France); Pages, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.pages@univ-tours.fr [INSERM U966, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte de Medecine, 10 Bd. Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Service de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CHRU de Tours (France)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of HCV-RNA Core-D1 interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo evaluation of the packaging of HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the role of the three basic sub-domains of D1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterologous system involving HIV-1 vector particles to mobilise HCV genome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full length mobilisation of HCV genome and HCV-receptor-independent entry. -- Abstract: The advent of infectious molecular clones of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has unlocked the understanding of HCV life cycle. However, packaging of the genomic RNA, which is crucial to generate infectious viral particles, remains poorly understood. Molecular interactions of the domain 1 (D1) of HCV Core protein and HCV RNA have been described in vitro. Since compaction of genetic information within HCV genome has hampered conventional mutational approach to study packaging in vivo, we developed a novel heterologous system to evaluate the interactions between HCV RNA and Core D1. For this, we took advantage of the recruitment of Vpr fusion-proteins into HIV-1 particles. By fusing HCV Core D1 to Vpr we were able to package and transfer a HCV subgenomic replicon into a HIV-1 based lentiviral vector. We next examined how deletion mutants of basic sub-domains of Core D1 influenced HCV RNA recruitment. The results emphasized the crucial role of the first and third basic regions of D1 in packaging. Interestingly, the system described here allowed us to mobilise full-length JFH1 genome in CD81 defective cells, which are normally refractory to HCV infection. This finding paves the way to an evaluation of the replication capability of HCV in various cell types.

  8. Control of horizontal plasma position by feedforward-feedback system with digital computer in the JIPP T-II tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Kazuo; Sakurai, Keiichi; Itoh, Satoshi; Matsuura, Kiyokata; Tanashi, Shugo

    1980-01-01

    In the resistive shell tokamak, JIPP T-II, the control of horizontal plasma position is successfully carried out by calculating the equilibrium equation of a large-aspect-ratio tokamak plasma surrounded by a thin resistive shell of a skin time of 5.2 ms, every 1.39 ms with a digital computer. The iron core effect is also taken into account by a simple form in the equation. The required strenght of vertical field is determined by the control demand composed of two groups; one is a ''feedback'' term expressed by the deviation of plasma position from the desired one and proportion-integration-differentiation correction (PID-controller), and the other is a ''feedforward'' term which is in proportion to the plasma current. The experimental results in a quasi-constant phase of plasma current are in good agreement with the stability analysis of the control system by using the so-called Bode-diagram which is calculated on the assumption that the plasma current is independent of time. By this control system, the horizontal plasma displacement has been suppressed within 1 cm of the initiation of discharge to the termination in the high-density and low-q(a) plasma of 15 cm radius which is obtained by both strong gas puffing and second current rise. (author)

  9. Measurement of excitation, ionization, and electron temperatures and positive ion concentrations in a 144 MHz inductively coupled radiofrequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, P.E.; Chester, T.L.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements of 144 MHz radiofrequency inductively coupled plasmas at pressures between 0.5 and 14 Torr have been made. Other variables studied included the gas type (Ar or Ne) and material in plasma (Ti or Tl). Parameters measured included excitation temperatures via the atomic Boltzmann plot and the two-line method, ionization electric probes. Excitation temperatures increased as the pressure of Ar or Ne plasmas decreased and reached a maximum of approx.9000 degreeK in the latter case and approx.6700 degreeK in the former case; Tl in the Ar plasma resulted in in a smaller rate of decrease of excitation temperature with increase of pressure of Ar. The ionization temperatures were lower than the excitation temperatures and were similar for both the Ar and Ne plasmas. Electron temperatures were about 10 times higher than the excitation temperatures indicating non-LTE behavior. Again, the electron temperatures indicating in Ne were considerably higher than in Ar. With the presence of metals, the electron temperatures with a metal in the Ar plasma were higher than in the absence. Positive ion concentrations were also measured for the various plasmas and were found to be similar (approx.10 18 m -3 ) in both the Ar and Ne plasmas. The presence of metals caused significant increase in the positive ion concentrations. From the results obtained, the optimum Ar pressure for Tl electrodeless discharge lamps operated at 144 MHz would be between 2 and 4 Torr

  10. Application of function parametrization for radial plasma position calibration in Aditya-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sameer; Daniel, Raju

    2017-01-01

    Calibration experiments to simulate the movement of plasma channel in tokamak ADITYA-U in the horizontal direction (i.e., in-board and out-board movement), are carried out by setting up current carrying conductor inside the vacuum vessel. This conductor is energized with a known current (through a capacitor bank system) and the response at various magnetic pickup coils is recorded. For various radial position of this conductor and for known current, the pickup coil response database is generated. Function parameterization method (FP) is utilized to generate an input-output relation (regression function), in which the input is magnetic pickup coil's signal and the output is the location of conductor. In the real situation, conductor is replaced by the plasma channel and hence, the radial movement of this channel would be directly known from the regression function obtained from FP. Detailed analysis of FP along with the error estimates would be presented in this paper. (author)

  11. M.V.A. amplifier for plasma position control by vertical magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, G.

    1978-01-01

    The radial plasma position in the WEGA torus is controlled by a power amplifier, acting on the vertical magnetic field. Up to now the feedback loop contains, as amplifying elements, two 90 kW DC-transistor amplifiers, acting in push-pull operation. As increased plasma stability and lifetime is desirable, we have to increase the power amplifier to about 1 Megawatt. Industry offered a thyristor rectifier, operating at 50 or 300 Hz, and alternatively a thyristor chopper amplifier at a few kHz frequency response. Theses offers did not correspond to our demand, as far as response time, price and primary power requirements are concerned. We have implemented a bipolar switching-type amplifier (also called H-bridge converter) with the characteristics: time response < 0,05 ms., pulsed power = 1 MW (400 V, 2500 A), primary power = 2,5 kW. As power switch, a network of parallel high voltage transistors, driven by three transistor stages, has been chosen, to control a vertical magnetic field or +/- 180 G, with a precision of about one per cent. Precautions for transistor switches concerning mainly critical voltage, current, instantaneous power and selfoscillating behaviour have been taken. This systems corresponds to our demands

  12. Temporal evolution of atmosphere pressure plasma jets driven by microsecond pulses with positive and negative polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tao; Yang, Wenjin; Zhang, Cheng; Fang, Zhi; Zhou, Yixiao; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2014-09-01

    Current-voltage characteristics, discharge images, and optical spectra of atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are studied using a microsecond pulse length generator producing repetitive output pulses with different polarities. The experimental results show that the APPJs excited by the pulses with positive polarity have longer plume, faster propagation speed, higher power, and more excited species, such as \\text{N}2 , O, He, \\text{N}2+ , than that with the negatively excited APPJs. The images taken using an intensified charge-coupled device show that the APPJs excited by pulses with positive polarity are characterized by a bullet-like structure, while the APPJs excited by pulses with negative polarity are continuous. The propagation speed of the APPJs driven by a microsecond pulse length generator is about tens of km/s, which is similar to the APPJs driven by a kHz frequency sinusoidal voltage source. The analysis shows that the space charge accumulation effect plays an important role during the discharge. The transient enhanced electric field induced by the accumulated ions between the needle-like electrode and the nozzle in the APPJs excited by pulses with negative polarity enhances electron field emission from the cathode, which is illustrated by the bright line on the time-integrated images. This makes the shape of the APPJ excited using pulses with negative polarity different from the bullet-like shape of the APPJs excited by pulses with positive polarity.

  13. Maintenance plasma exchange treatment for muscle specific kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chisa; Teener, James W; Davenport, Robertson D; Cooling, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Anti-muscle specific kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis (MuSK MG) is often characterized by a relatively severe and progressive course, refractoriness to standard myasthenia gravis (MG) medications, and an increased risk of myasthenic crisis. We report here successful management of three MuSK MG patients using maintenance therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) treatment for up to 4.5 years. The study was a 5-year retrospective review of all MG patients treated with TPE between 2008 and 2013 at University of Michigan. Inclusion criteria of MuSK MG were positive for anti-MuSK antibodies and a diagnosis of MuSK MG by staff neurologists. Patient data included age, gender, diagnostic testing results, medications, and the dates and response to TPE treatments. A total of 153 MG patients underwent at least one course of TPE between 2008 and 2013. A total of 12 patients (7.8%) were positive for anti-MuSK antibodies. Patients were predominantly female (83.3%) and a median age of onset was 46-years old. Three MuSK MG patients were successfully managed with maintenance TPE. Maintenance TPE may be an effective option for MuSK MG patients. The key of successful maintenance treatment at our institution has been to tailor the TPE frequency for each individual, and to modify the treatment interval in conjunction with medical management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prevalence of HCV Infections Among Hemodialysis Patients in Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1527 patients (11%) who were HCV free at the start of the study. By the end of the study, a total of 42.2% were found to be anti-HCV reactive. Conclusion: The study demonstrated high prevalence of anti-HCV in HD units in Al Gharbiyah Governorate. Similar studies must be conducted in all Egyptian governorates' HD units ...

  15. HCV Co-infection is Associated with Metabolic Abnormalities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 3 shows results of simple linear regression of glucose and the cholesterol fractions against HCV co- infection status. HIV/HCV co infection predicted a statistically significant reduction in all the cholesterol containing fractions. No such relationship existed between the HCV co infection and glucose or triglycerides. The.

  16. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The first discovered and sequenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and the first in vivo infectious HCV clones originated from the HCV prototype strains HCV-1 and H77, respectively, both widely used in research of this important human pathogen. In the present study, we developed...... efficiently after transfection and subsequent infection of naive Huh7.5 cells, reaching titers of 10(3.5) and 10(4.4) FFU/ml, respectively. IMPORTANCE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989 with the cloning of the prototype strain HCV-1 genome. In 1997, two molecular clones of H77, the other HCV...... prototype strain, were shown to be infectious in chimpanzees, but not in vitro. HCV research was hampered by a lack of infectious cell culture systems, which became available only in 2005 with the discovery of JFH1 (genotype 2a), a genome that could establish infection in Huh7.5 cells. Recently, we...

  17. One or two serological assay testing strategy for diagnosis of HBV and HCV infection? The use of predictive modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, John V; Easterbrook, Philippa; Sands, Anita R

    2017-11-01

    Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost. Our objective was to examine the diagnostic outcomes of a one- versus two-assay serological testing strategy. These data were used to inform recommendations in the 2017 WHO Guidelines on hepatitis B and C testing. Few published studies have compared diagnostic outcomes for one-assay versus two-assay serological testing strategies for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Therefore, the principles of Bayesian statistics were used to conduct a modelling exercise to examine the outcomes of a one-assay versus two-assay testing strategy when applied to a hypothetical population of 10,000 individuals. The resulting model examined the diagnostic outcomes (true and false positive diagnoses; true and false negative diagnoses; positive and negative predictive values as a function of prevalence; and total tests required) for both one-assay and two-assay testing strategies. The performance characteristics assumed for assays used within the testing strategies were informed by WHO prequalification assessment findings and systematic reviews for diagnostic accuracy studies. Each of the presumptive testing strategies (one-assay or two-assay) was modelled at varying prevalences of HBsAg (10%, 2% and 0.4%) and of anti-HCV (40%, 10%, 2% and 0.4%), aimed at representing the range of testing populations typically encountered in WHO Member States. When the two-assay testing strategy was considered, the model assumed the independence of the

  18. Design and construction of the movable limiters for holding the plasma in position in the nuclear fusion experiment TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butzek, D.A.; Derichs, K.

    1983-11-01

    The nuclear fusion experiment TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research) has been constructed for investigation of plasma-wall-interaction. The plasma is generated inside a torus-shaped vacuum vessel. In addition to the magnetic fields mechanical limiters are provided to hold the plasma in position. The limiter scheme of textor consists of main limiters and reference limiters (measuring limiters). Main and reference limiters are mounted in different cross sections of the torus. The main limiters are movable during the plasma discharge while the reference limiters are kept fixed. They are adjustable. Thus, by moving the main limiters, the reference limiters can be exposed to different thermal loads during the discharge. Exposing the reference limiters to the plasma, first results have been obtained concerning the scrape off layer: thickness, fluxes of hydrogen and chromium through this layer. The limiter scheme, the final design and construction of the limiters and the first phase of operation are described in this report. (orig.) [de

  19. IP-10 predicts the first phase decline of HCV RNA and overall viral response to therapy in patients co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falconer, Karolin; Askarieh, Galia; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of baseline plasma interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Baseline IP-10 was monitored during HCV combination therapy in 21 HIV-HCV co-infected...... patients (HCV genotype 1 (n = 16), 2 (n = 2), and 3 (n = 3)). Lower baseline IP-10 was significantly associated with a rapid decline in HCV RNA, in particular with the first phase reduction, and similar cut-off levels ( 600 pg/ml) as in HCV mono-infected patients apply. In conclusion, baseline IP......-10 infected patients, and may thus be useful in encouraging such difficult-to-treat patients to initiate therapy....

  20. Positive zeta potential of a negatively charged semi-permeable plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-08-01

    The negative charge of the plasma membrane (PM) severely affects the nature of moieties that may enter or leave the cells and controls a large number of ion-interaction-mediated intracellular and extracellular events. In this letter, we report our discovery of a most fascinating scenario, where one interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) of the negatively charged PM shows a positive surface (or ζ) potential, while the other interface (e.g., membrane-electrolyte interface) still shows a negative ζ potential. Therefore, we encounter a completely unexpected situation where an interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) that has a negative surface charge density demonstrates a positive ζ potential. We establish that the attainment of such a property by the membrane can be ascribed to an interplay of the nature of the membrane semi-permeability and the electrostatics of the electric double layer established on either side of the charged membrane. We anticipate that such a membrane property can lead to such capabilities of the cell (in terms of accepting or releasing certain kinds of moieties as well regulating cellular signaling) that was hitherto inconceivable.

  1. High rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HIV-infected individuals with spontaneous HCV RNA clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Soriano, V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Following resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, recurrence has been shown to occur in some persons with repeated exposure to HCV. We aimed to investigate the rate and factors associated with HCV RNA recurrence among HIV-1-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA cle......-up. Our findings underline the importance of maintaining focus on preventive measures to reduce IDU and sharing of contaminated needles. Clinicians should maintain a high degree of vigilance to identify patients with new HCV infection early....

  2. State of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the colon mucosa of chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.А. Gaidar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The diagnosis of IgG4-associated sclerosing disease, IgG4-associatied condition, is based on a comprehensive evaluation of characteristic clinical, radiographic, serologic, histological and immunohistochemical features. The histopathological is the main examination in the diagnosis of IgG4-associatied diseases. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the state of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the mucosa of the colon in patients with established morphological and endoscopic diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. Materials and methods. The study used biopsies material from 14 patients treated at the Institute of Gastroenterology, in the department intestine diseases, with established morphological and endoscope diagnosis of UC (8 and CD (6 in the acute stage. All patients had no evidence of autoimmune pancreatitis type I and II. Biopsy were fixed in 10.0% neutral formalin, dehydrated in alcohols of increasing concentration and embedded in paraffin for histological studies. Histological sections of 3–5 µm were colored with hematoxylin and eosin. There were used monoclonal IgG4 antibodies for immunohistochemical studies (Abcam, USA. Results. Our results show that with ulcerative colitis in 37.5 % of cases IgG4-positive plasma cells in the colon mucosa have not been identified. In 25 % of cases, sporadic IgG4-positive plasma cells were identified. In 37.5 % of cases, the groups of IgG4-positive plasma cells not exceeding 5 cells in one group were found. In Crohn’s disease, groups of IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed in all cases, in addition it should be noted that the group included 10 or more cells. Conclusions. It is shown that in UC, IgG4-positive plasma cells may be absent, solitary or gathered in small groups to 5 cells, and in CD, the groups consisting of 10 or more cells are observed.

  3. Structure-based drug design of novel peptidomimetic cellulose derivatives as HCV-NS3 protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Noha A; Elshemey, Wael M

    2017-10-15

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) represents a global health threat not only due to the large number of reported worldwide HCV infections, but also due to the absence of a reliable vaccine for its prevention. HCV NS3 protease is one of the most important targets for drug design aiming at the deactivation of HCV. In the present work, molecular docking simulations are carried out for suggested novel NS3 protease inhibitors applied to the Egyptian genotype 4. These inhibitors are modifications of dimer cellulose by adding a hexa-peptide to the cellulose at one of the positions 2, 3, 6, 2', 3' or 6'. Results show that the inhibitor compound with the hexa-peptide at position 6 shows significantly higher simulation docking score with HCV NS3 protease active site. This is supported by low total energy value of docking system, formation of two H-bonds with HCV NS3 protease active site residues, high binding affinity and increased stability in the interaction system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, Misao [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ariumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ariumi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto [Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Shimotohno, Kunitada [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-8516 (Japan); Kato, Nobuyuki [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  5. Insulin-resistance HCV infection-related affects vascular stiffness in normotensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perticone, Maria; Maio, Raffaele; Tassone, Eliezer Joseph; Tripepi, Giovanni; Di Cello, Serena; Miceli, Sofia; Caroleo, Benedetto; Sciacqua, Angela; Licata, Anna; Sesti, Giorgio; Perticone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS. Arterial stiffness evaluated as pulse wave velocity, is an early marker of vascular damage and an independent predictor for cardiovascular events. We investigated if the insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia chronic hepatitis C virus infection-related could influence arterial stiffness. METHODS. We enrolled 260 outpatients matched for age, body mass index, gender, ethnicity: 52 with never-treated uncomplicated chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV(+)), 104 never-treated hypertensives (HT) and 104 healthy subjects (NT). Pulse wave velocity was evaluated by a validated system employing high-fidelity applanation tonometry. We also measured: fasting plasma glucose and insulin, total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, e-GFR-EPI, HOMA, quantitative HCV-RNA. RESULTS. HCV(+) patients with respect to NT had an increased pulse wave velocity (7.9 ± 2.1 vs 6.4 ± 2.1 m/s; P direct correlation between HOMA and pulse wave velocity in HCV(+) patients, similar to that observed in hypertensives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma viraemia in HIV-positive pregnant women entering antenatal care in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Landon; Phillips, Tamsin K; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Gregory; Bekker, Linda-Gail; McIntyre, James A; Abrams, Elaine J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasma HIV viral load (VL) is the principle determinant of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), yet there are few data on VL in populations of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the distribution and determinants of VL in HIV-positive women seeking antenatal care (ANC) in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Consecutive HIV-positive pregnant women making their first antenatal clinic visit were recruited into a cross-sectional study of viraemia in pregnancy, including a brief questionnaire and specimens for VL testing and CD4 cell enumeration. Results & discussion Overall 5551 pregnant women sought ANC during the study period, of whom 1839 (33%) were HIV positive and 1521 (85%) were included. Approximately two-thirds of HIV-positive women in the sample (n=947) were not on antiretrovirals at the time of the first ANC visit, and the remainder (38%, n=574) had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to conception. For women not on ART, the median VL was 3.98 log10 copies/mL; in this group, the sensitivity of CD4 cell counts ≤350 cells/µL in detecting VL>10,000 copies/mL was 64% and this increased to 78% with a CD4 threshold of ≤500 cells/µL. Among women on ART, 78% had VL1000 copies/mL at the time of their ANC visit. Conclusions VL >10,000 copies/mL was commonly observed in women not on ART with CD4 cell counts >350 cells/µL, suggesting that CD4 cell counts may not be adequately sensitive in identifying women at greatest risk of MTCT. A large proportion of women entering ANC initiated ART before conception, and in this group more than 10% had VL>1000 copies/mL despite ART use. VL monitoring during pregnancy may help to identify pregnancies that require additional clinical attention to minimize MTCT risk and improve maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:26154734

  7. Positive-column plasma studied by fast-flow glow discharge mass spectrometry: Could it be a 'Rydberg gas?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Rod S.; Miller, Pat D.; Mortimer, Ifor; Mitchell, David J.; Dash, Neil A.

    2003-01-01

    Ions created from the fast-flowing positive column plasma of a glow discharge were monitored using a high voltage magnetic sector mass spectrometer. Since the field gradient and sheath potentials created by the plasma inside the source opposed cation transfer, it is inferred that the ions detected were the field-ionized Rydberg species. This is supported by the mass spectral changes which occurred when a negative bias was applied to the sampling aperture and by the contrasting behavior when attached to a quadrupole analyzer. Reaction with H 2 (titrated into the flowing plasma) quenched not only the ionization of discharge gas Rydberg atoms but also the passage of electric current through the plasma, without significant changes to the field and sheath potentials. Few 'free' ions were present and the lifetimes of the Rydberg atoms detected were much longer than seen in lower pressure experiments, indicating additional stabilization in the plasma environment. The observations support the model of the flowing plasma, given previously [R. S. Mason, P. D. Miller, and I. P. Mortimer, Phys. Rev. E 55, 7462 (1997)] as mainly a neutral Rydberg atom gas, rather than a conventional ion-electron plasma

  8. Dendritic cell co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory markers in chronic HCV: An Egyptian study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Hanan; Raziky, Maissa Saeed El; Aziz, Rasha Ahmed Abdel; Sabry, Dina; Aziz, Ghada Mahmoud Abdel; Ewais, Manal; Sayed, Ahmed Reda

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory markers of dendritic cells (DCs) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected subjects with and without uremia. METHODS: Three subject groups were included in the study: group 1 involved 50 control subjects, group 2 involved 50 patients with chronic HCV infection and group 3 involved 50 HCV uremic subjects undergoing hemodialysis. CD83, CD86 and CD40 as co-stimulatory markers and PD-L1 as a co-inhibitory marker were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels were also assessed. All findings were correlated with disease activity, viral load and fibrogenesis. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in co-stimulatory markers; CD83, CD86 and CD40 in groups 2 and 3 vs the control group. Co-stimulatory markers were significantly higher in group 3 vs group 2. There was a significant elevation in PD-L1 in both HCV groups vs the control group. PD-L1 was significantly lower in group 3 vs group 2. There was a significant elevation in IL-10 and HA levels in groups 2 and 3, where IL-10 was higher in group 3 and HA was lower in group 3 vs group 2. HA level was significantly correlated with disease activity and fibrosis grade in group 2. IL-10 was significantly correlated with fibrosis grade in group 2. There were significant negative correlations between co-stimulatory markers and viral load in groups 2 and 3, except CD83 in dialysis patients. There was a significant positive correlation between PD-L1 and viral load in both HCV groups. CONCLUSION: A significant decrease in DC co-stimulatory markers and a significant increase in a DC co-inhibitory marker were observed in HCV subjects and to a lesser extent in dialysis patients. PMID:24282359

  9. Plasma firocoxib concentrations after intra-articular injection of autologous conditioned serum prepared from firocoxib positive horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortved, K F; Goodale, M B; Ober, C; Maylin, G A; Fortier, L A

    2017-12-01

    Orthobiologics such as autologous conditioned serum (ACS) are often used to treat joint disease in horses. Because ACS is generated from the horse's own blood, any medication administered at the time of preparation would likely be present in stored ACS, which could lead to an inadvertent positive drug test following intra-articular (IA) injection. The main objective of this study was to determine if ACS prepared from firocoxib positive horses could result in detectable plasma concentrations of the drug following IA injection. Firocoxib was administered to six horses at 0.1mg/kg PO twice at a 24h interval. Blood was obtained at 4h following the second dose and transferred to a separate syringe (Arthrex IRAP II) for ACS preparation. Plasma and ACS concentrations of firocoxib were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). When horses were confirmed firocoxib negative, 7.5mL of ACS was injected into both tarsocrural joints. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48h, and firocoxib concentration was measured. Mean (±standard error of the mean, SEM) plasma concentration of firocoxib 4h following the second dose was 33.3±4.72ng/mL. Mean (±SEM) firocoxib concentration in ACS was 35.4±4.47ng/mL. Fourteen days following the second and last dose of firocoxib, mean plasma concentration was below the lower limit of detection (LOD=1ng/mL) in all horses. Following IA injection of ACS, plasma concentrations of firocoxib remained below LOD at all times in all horses. ACS generated from horses with therapeutic plasma concentrations of firocoxib did not contain sufficient firocoxib to lead to a positive plasma drug test following IA administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient ion heating of tokamak plasma by application of positive and negative current pulse in TRIAM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Kazuo; Mitarai, Osamu; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    1980-01-01

    The efficient heating of bulk ions of tokamak plasma is observed by application of the pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field with the positive and negative polarities for the ohmic heating field. No deleterious effect on the confinement properties of tokamak plasma appears by the heating. The decay time of ion temperature raised by the heating pulse agrees well with the prediction by the neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the current induced by the pulsed electric field with the positive polarity is limited by the violent current disruption. In the case of the negative polarity, this is limited by lack of the MHD equilibrium due to vanishing the total plasma current. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal one / attains around 0.5, which suggests that the efficient ion heating may be due to the current-driven turbulence. (author)

  11. Efficient ion heating of tokamak plasma by application of positive and negative current pulse in TRIAM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toi, K; Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Mitarai, O; Kawai, Y [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-02-01

    The efficient heating of bulk ions of tokamak plasma is observed by application of the pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field with the positive and negative polarities for the ohmic heating field. No deleterious effect on the confinement properties of tokamak plasma appears by the heating. The decay time of ion temperature raised by the heating pulse agrees well with the prediction by the neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the current induced by the pulsed electric field with the positive polarity is limited by the violent current disruption. In the case of the negative polarity, this is limited by lack of the MHD equilibrium due to vanishing the total plasma current. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal one / attains around 0.5, which suggests that the efficient ion heating may be due to the current-driven turbulence.

  12. Stability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels among interferon-naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Reekie, J

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals.......Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals....

  13. Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and microbial translocation in HIV/HCV co-infected patients in the SMART study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Duprez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous results from the SMART study showed that HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected persons with impaired liver function are at increased risk of death following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of fibrosis and ART interruption...... on levels of biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and microbial translocation in HIV/HCV co-infected persons in the SMART study. STUDY DESIGN: All HIV/HCV co-infected persons with stored plasma at study entry and at six months of follow-up were included (N=362). D-dimer, IL-6, sCD14 and hepatic...

  14. Feasibility studies on plasma vertical position control by ex-vessel coils in ITER-like tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoshi; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Shimomura, Yasuo

    1993-01-01

    Feasibility of the plasma vertical position control by control coils installed outside the vacuum vessel (ex-vessel) in a tokamak fusion reactor is examined for an ITER-like device. When a pair of ex-vessel control coils is made of normal conductor material and located near the outmost superconducting (SC) poloidal field (PF) coils, the applied voltage of several hundred volts on the control coils is the maximum allowable value which is limited by the maximum allowable induced voltage and eddy current heating on the SC PF coils, under the conditions that the SC PF coils are connected in series and a partitioning connection is employed for each of these PF coils. A proportional and derivative (PD) controller with and without voltage limitation has been employed to examine the feasibility. Indices of settling time and overshoot are introduced to measure the controllability of the control system. Based on these control schemes and indices, higher elongation (κ=2) and moderate elongation (κ=1.6) plasmas are examined for normal and deteriorated (low beta value and peaked current profile) plasma conditions within the restriction of applied voltage and current of control coils. The effect of the time constant of the passive stabilizer is also examined. The major results are: (1) A plasma with an elongation of 2.0 inevitably requires a passive stabilizer close to the plasma surface, (2) in case of a higher elongation than κ=2, even the ex-vessel control coil system is marginally controllable under normal plasma conditions, while it is difficult to control the deteriorated plasma conditions, (3) the time constant of the passive stabilizer is not an essential parameter for the controllability, (4) when the elongation is reduced down to 1.6, the ex-vessel control coil system can control the plasma even under deteriorated plasma conditions. (orig.)

  15. Investigation of an algorithm for anti HCV EIA reactivity in blood donor screening in Turkey in the absence of nucleic acid amplification screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Ayse Esra; Berkem, Rukiye; Irmak, Hasan; Demiroz, Ali Pekcan; Yenicesu, Idil; Ertugrul, Nigar; Arslan, Önder; Kemahli, Sabri; Yilmaz, Sevinc; Ozcebe, Osman; Kara, Abdurrahman; Ozet, Gulsum; Acikgoz, Ziya Cibali; Acikgoz, Tulin

    2017-10-01

    In this study we aimed to propose an algorithm for initial anti HCV EIA reactive blood donations in Turkey where nucleic acid amplification tests are not yet obligatory for donor screening. A total of 416 anti HCV screening test reactive donor samples collected from 13 blood centers from three cities in Turkey were tested in duplicate by Ortho HCV Ab Version 3.0 and Radim HCV Ab. All the repeat reactive samples were tested by INNO-LIA HCV Ab 3.0 or Chiron RIBA HCV 3.0 and Abbott Real Time HCV. Intra-assay correlations were calculated with Pearson r test. ROC analysis was used to study the relationship between EIA tests and the confirmatory tests. The number of repeat reactive results with Ortho EIA were 221 (53.1%) whereas that of microEIA, 62 (14.9%). Confirmed positivity rate was 14.6% (33/226) by RIBA and 10.6% (24/226) by NAT. Reactive PCR results were predicted with 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity with S/CO levels of 8.1 with Ortho EIA and 3.4 with microEIA. Repeat reactivity rates declined with a second HCV antibody assay. Samples repeat reactive with one HCV antibody test and negative with the other were all NAT negative. All the NAT reactive samples were RIBA positive. None of the RIBA indeterminate or negative samples were NAT reactive. Considering the threshold values for EIA kits determined by ROC analysis NAT was decided to be performed for the samples above the threshold value and a validated supplemental HCV antibody test for the samples below. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feedback control modeling of plasma position and current during intense heating in ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Swain, D.W.; Neilson, G.H.

    1979-08-01

    The ISX-B Tokamak at ORNL is designed to have 1.8 MW (and eventually 3 MW) of neutral beam power injected to heat the plasma. This power may raise the anti β of the plasma to over 5% in less than 50 msec if the plasma is MHD stable. The results of a numerical simulation of the feedback control system and poloidal coil power supplies necessary to control the resulting noncircular (D-shaped or elliptical) plasma are presented. The resulting feedback control system is shown to be straightforward, although nonlinear voltage-current dependence is assumed in the power supplies. The required power supplied to the poloidal coils in order to contain the plasma under the high heating rates is estimated

  17. Control of horizontal plasma position by feedforward-feedback system with digital computer in the JIPP T-II tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Itoh, S.; Sakurai, K.; Matsuura, K.; Tanahashi, S.

    1980-02-01

    In the resistive shell tokamak, JIPP T-II, the control of horizontal plasma position is successfully carried out by calculating the equilibrium equation of a large-aspect-ratio tokamak plasma surrounded by a thin resistive shell of a skin time of 5.2 msec, every 1.39 msec with a digital computer. The iron core effect is also taken into account by a simple form in the equation. The required strength of vertical field is determined by the control demand composed of two groups; one is a ''feedback'' term expressed by the deviation of plasma position from the desired one and proportion-integration-differentiation correction (PID-controller), and the other is a ''feedforward'' term which is in proportion to the plasma current. The experimental results have a good agreement with the stability analysis of the control system by using the so-called Bode-diagram. By this control system, the horizontal displacement has been suppressed within 1 cm from the initiation of discharge to the termination in the high-density and low-q(a) plasma of 15 cm-radius which is obtained by both strong gas puffing and second current rise. (author)

  18. Virological Mechanisms in the Coinfection between HIV and HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla Liberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to shared transmission routes, coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is common in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. The immune-pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients is a multifactorial process. Several studies demonstrated that HIV worsens the course of HCV infection, increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, HCV might increase immunological defects due to HIV and risk of comorbidities. A specific cross-talk among HIV and HCV proteins in coinfected patients modulates the natural history, the immune responses, and the life cycle of both viruses. These effects are mediated by immune mechanisms and by a cross-talk between the two viruses which could interfere with host defense mechanisms. In this review, we focus on some virological/immunological mechanisms of the pathogenetic interactions between HIV and HCV in the human host.

  19. Impact of old Schistosomiasis infection on the use of transient elastography (Fibroscan) for staging of fibrosis in chronic HCV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzy, Iman; Elsharkawy, Aisha; Fouad, Rabab; Hafez, Hanan Abdel; El Raziky, Maissa; El Akel, Wafaa; El-Sayed, Mohammad; Khattab, Hany; Shehata, Mohamed; Elsharkawy, Marwa; Radwan, Amr; Esmat, Gamal

    2017-12-01

    In tropical regions, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) - Schistosomiasis coinfection remains one of the health problems. With the new era of HCV treatment and the variety of methods of assessment of liver fibrosis so we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of FibroScan for staging hepatic fibrosis in HCV-Schistosomiasis coinfected patients. Three groups of patients were enrolled. Group 1: chronic HCV with out antischistosomal antibody (122 patients), Group 2: chronic HCV with positive antischistosomal antibodies and without periportal tract thickening (122 patients), Group 3: chronic HCV with positive antischistosomal antibodies and ultrasonographic picture of periportal tract thickening (108 patients). Routine laboratory workup, serum Antischistosomal antibody, and Schistosomal antigen in serum were performed. Ultrasound guided liver biopsy with histopathological examination; abdominal ultrasound and fibroscan examination were done for all patients. The agreement between results of liver biopsy and results of fibroscan in the staging of fibrosis was the best in group 1 (55.7%), Although the agreement was higher among those with no periportal tract thickening (70.7%) and the disagreement was higher among those with positive schistosomal serology (66.5%), yet this relation was not statistically significant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that disagreement is significantly associated with older age, higher BMI (≥30), and increase in anti Schistosomal antibody titer. Fibroscan is a reliable, non-invasive tool for staging hepatic fibrosis among HCV-schistosomiasis co-infected patients with no effect of the induced periportal tract thickening on the readings. Only higher antischistosomal antibody titres may cause disagreement between liver biopsy and fibroscan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive plasma cell infiltration is associated with the clinicopathologic traits and prognosis of pancreatic cancer after curative resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaofei; Niu, Zheyu; Li, Yuan; Wang, Mengyi; Pan, Boju; Lu, Zhaohui; Liao, Quan; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-08-01

    Interactions between pancreatic cancer cells and inflammatory cells play crucial roles in the biological behavior of pancreatic cancer. Abundant infiltration of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive plasma cells in the pancreas is the most significant feature of autoimmune pancreatitis; however, the clinical significance of IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in pancreatic cancer has not previously been reported. Herein, we analyzed intratumoral and peritumoral infiltrations of IgG4-positive plasma cells in 95 pancreatic cancer cases after curative resection. The correlations between IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration and the clinicopathologic traits and overall survival of pancreatic cancer were investigated. IgG4-positive plasma cells were found in 86 % of tumor tissue samples compared with 69 % of peritumoral tissue samples (P = 0.0063). The high-level infiltration of intratumoral IgG4-positive plasma cells was positively correlated with poor histological grade (P = 0.017). The high-level infiltration of intratumoral IgG4-positive plasma cells was significantly correlated with worse prognosis (P = 0.01) in multivariate analysis. We further found that intratumoral M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were positively, linearly correlated with IgG4-positive plasma cells. In conclusion, IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration is correlated with the clinicopathologic traits and overall survival of pancreatic cancer. High-level intratumoral infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells is an independent predictor for poor overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients after curative resection. Intratumoral M2-polarized TAMs probably induce IgG4-positive plasma cells.

  1. Frequency of anti-HCV, Hbsag and related risk factors in pregnant women at Nishtar Hospital, Multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taseer, I.H.; Ishaq, F.; Hussain, L.; Safdar, S.; Mirbahar, A.M.; Faiz, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Viral hepatitis is a global issue. Among the hepatitis viruses hepatitis B and C are important in South Asia including Pakistan. There are various modes of transmission of these viruses. Vertical transmission is also gaining importance. Antepartum screening for HBV and HCV would help the infected women for appropriate antiviral therapy at appropriate time as well as for taking proper care of the newborns. The present study was designed to see the frequency of HBsAg and anti-HCV in pregnant women at Nishtar Hospital, Multan. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out using non-probability purposive sampling technique. The period of the study was from June 2006 to August 2007. Five hundred (500) pregnant women attending outpatient department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics were included. Informed consent was taken. A specially designed proforma was filled in. Anti-HCV and HBsAg were tested by device method. Data were analyzed on SPSS-11. Results: Out of 500 pregnant women 35 (7.00%) were found to be anti-HCV positive and 23 (4.60%) were positive for HBsAg. Mean age was 26.7+-4.8 years. Majority of the patients 263 (52.60%) were in the age group 26-35 years. 138 (27.60%) women were nulliparous and 282 (56.40%) were para 1-4 and anti-HCV and HBsAg were common in this parity group. Only 80 (16.00%) women were para 5 or more. All anti-HCV and HBsAg positive women were house-wives. Most of them were belonging to rural areas having poor socio-economic status. Among 35 anti-HCV positive women, 20 (57.14%) had history of previous surgery, while 13 (37.14%) had history of multiple injections, 5 (14.28%) received blood transfusion, 4 (11.42%) had ear/nose piercing while tattooing was seen in only 2 (5.71%). Among 23 HBsAg positive women, 10 (43.47%) had history of previous surgery. History of multiple injections was present in 6 (26.08%) patients, 4 (17.39%) patients had history of blood transfusion, tattooing, ear/nose piercing, history of dental

  2. Animal models for HCV and HBV studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Chemin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The narrow host range of infection and lack of suitable tissue culture systems for the propagation of hepatitis B and C viruses are limitations that have prevented a more thorough understanding of persistent infection and the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease.

    Despite decades of intensive research and significant progresses in understanding of viral hepatitis, many basic questions and clinical problems still await to be resolved. For example, the HBV cellular receptor and related mechanisms of viral entry have not yet been identified. Little is also known about the function of certain non-structural viral products, such as the hepatitis B e antigen and the X protein, or about the role of excess hepadnavirus subviral particles circulating in the blood stream during infection. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and the role of the immune system in determining the fate of infection are not fully understood.

    The reason for these drawbacks is essentially due to the lack of reliable cell-based in vitro infection systems and, most importantly, convenient animal models.

    This lack of knowledge has been partially overcome for hepatitis B virus (HBV, by the discovery and characterization of HBV-like viruses in wild animals while for hepatitis C virus (HCV, related flaviviruses have been used as surrogate systems.

    Other laboratories have developed transgenic mice that express virus gene products and/or support virus replication. Some HBV transgenic mouse models

  3. Fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with positive-negative ions and nonthermal electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.; Shukla, P. K.; Moslem, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    Properties of fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with positive-negative ions and nonthermal electrons are investigated. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the positive-negative ions, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the energy integral equation with a new Sagdeev potential. The latter is analyzed to examine the existence regions of the solitary pulses. It is found that the solitary excitations strongly depend on the mass and density ratios of the positive and negative ions as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Numerical solution of the energy integral equation clears that both positive and negative potentials exist together. It is found that faster solitary pulses are taller and narrower. Furthermore, increasing the electron nonthermality parameter (negative-to-positive ions density ratio) decreases (increases) the localized excitation amplitude but increases (decreases) the pulse width. The present model is used to investigate the solitary excitations in the (H + ,O 2 - ) and (H + ,H - ) plasmas, where they are presented in the D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere. This investigation should be helpful in understanding the salient features of the fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in space and in laboratory plasmas where two distinct groups of ions and non-Boltzmann distributed electrons are present.

  4. Occult HCV Infection (OCI) Diagnosis in Cirrhotic and Non-cirrhotic Naïve Patients by Intra-PBMC Nested Viral RNA PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Alla, Mohamed Darwish Ahmed; Elibiary, Saleh Ahmed; Wu, George Y; El-Awady, Mostafa Kamel

    2017-12-28

    Background and Aims: Occult HCV infections (OCIs) include IgG antibody seronegative cryptogenic (COCIs), as well as seropositive secondary naïve (SNOCIs) and experienced (SEOCIs) cases. We used peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell (PBMC)-PCR to evaluate COCIs and SNOCIs prevalence, serum HCV spontaneous disappearance (SCSD) in naïve cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics, intra-PBMC HCV-RNA strands in relation to cirrhosis density in naïve non-viremia cases, and HCV-RNA seroconversion after 1 year of solitary naïve intra-PBMC infection. Methods: The anti-HCV IgG antibody-positive naïve-patients ( n = 785) were classified into viremic ( n = 673) and non-viremic [ n = 112, including non-cirrhotics ( n = 55) and cirrhotics ( n = 57)], and 62 controls without evidence of HCV-infection. Controls and post-HCV non-viremia cases ( n = 62+112 = 174) were submitted to hepatic Fibroscan-Elastography evaluation. All subjects ( n = 847) were screened for intra-PBMC HCV-RNA sense and antisense strands by nested-PCR. Results: Naïve-OCI cases (4.84%) that were diagnosed by PBMC-PCR significantly raised the total numbers of HCV-infection to 714 ( p = 0.01). The percent positivity of SNOCIs (34.82%) was significantly higher than for asymptomatic-COCIs (3.125%, p = 0.0001). Comparing PBMC-PCR with single-step-reverse-transcription (SRT)-PCR for identification of SCSD in naïve IgG antibody-positive non-viremia patients ( n = 112) revealed a decline in SCSD prevalence by PBMC-PCR (from 14.27% to 9.3%), regardless of presence of hepatic cirrhosis ( p = 0.03). SCSD was found to be higher by PBMC-PCR in non-cirrhotics compared to cirrhotics ( p = 0.0001), with an insignificant difference when using SRT-PCR ( p = 0.45). Intra-PBMC HCV-RNA infection was significantly more frequent in cirrhotics compared to both non-cirrhotics and controls ( p < 0.0005). An increased hepatic fibrosis density was recognized in intra-PBMC HCV-RNA infection with sense ( p = 0.0001) or antisense strand ( p = 0

  5. Transmission of HCV to a chimpanzee using virus particles produced in an RNA-transfected HepG2 cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S; Kalkeri, G; McClure, H M; Garry, R F; Clejan, S; Thung, S N; Murthy, K K

    2001-10-01

    It was demonstrated previously that HepG2 cells produce negative strand RNA and virus-like particles after transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA clone [Dash et al. (1997) American Journal of Pathology, 151:363-373]. To determine in vivo infectivity of these in vitro synthesized viral particles, a chimpanzee was inoculated intravenously with HCV derived from HepG2 cells. The infected chimpanzee was examined serially for elevation of liver enzymes, for the presence of HCV RNA in the serum by reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), anti-HCV antibodies in the serum, and inflammation in the liver. The chimpanzee developed elevated levels of liver enzymes after the second week, but the levels fluctuated over a 10-week period. HCV RNA was detected in the serum of the chimpanzee at the second, seventh and ninth weeks after inoculation, and remained positive up to 25 weeks. Liver biopsies at Weeks 18 and 19 revealed of mild inflammation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of HCV recovered from the infected chimpanzee at the second and ninth weeks showed 100% sequence homology with the clone used for transfection studies. Serum anti-HCV antibodies were not detected by EIA during the 25 weeks follow-up period. These results suggest that intravenous administration of the virus-like particles derived from RNA-transfected HepG2 cells are infectious, and therefore, the pMO9.6-T7 clone is an infectious clone. These results provide new information that in vitro synthesized HCV particles produced from full-length HCV clone can cause infection in a chimpanzee. This study will facilitate the use of innovative approaches to the study of assembly of HCV particles and mechanisms of virus infectivity in cell culture. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Control of horizontal plasma position by feedforward-feedback system with digital computer in JIPP T-II tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Sakurai, K.; Itoh, S.; Matsuura, K.; Tanahashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    In the resistive shell tokamak, JIPP T-II, the control of horizontal plasma position is successfully carried out by calculating the equilibrium equation in a thin resistive shell from a large-aspect-ratio approximation every 1.39 msec with a digital computer. The iron core effect also is taken account by a simple form in the equation. The required strength of vertical field is determined by the control-demand composed of a ''feedback'' term with Proportion-Integration-Differentiation correction (PID-controller) and ''feedforward'' one in proportion to plasma current. The experimental results have a satisfactory agreement with the analysis of control system. By this control system, the horizontal displacement has been suppressed within 1 cm throughout a discharge for the plasma of 15 cm-radius with high density and low q(a)-value obtained by the second current rise and strong gas puffing. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics Vitros ECi Anti-HCV test: comparison with three other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Jeannette M; Stallcup, Paulina; Escamilla, David; Chernay, Patrick; Reyes, Alfred; Trevino, Sylvia C

    2007-01-01

    After observing a high incidence of low positive hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody screens by the Ortho-Clinical Vitros ECi test (Orthoclinical Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ), we compared results against those obtained using another chemiluminescent analyzer, as well as two U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved confirmatory methodologies. To ascertain the true anti-HCV status of samples deemed low-positive by the Ortho-Clinical Vitros ECi test, we tested samples using the ADVIA Centaur HCV screen test (Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics), the Chiron recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) test (Chiron Corp., Emeryville, CA), and the Roche COBAS Amplicor HCV qualitative test (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) in a series of studies. Of 94 specimens positive by Vitros ECi, 19% were observed to be negative by Centaur. A separate study of 91 samples with signal-to-cutoff (s/co) values less than 8.0 showed that all but one was negative for HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA). In comparison with RIBA, 100% (77) samples positive by the Vitros ECi test with s/co values less than 12.0 were negative or indeterminate by RIBA. A final study comparing all four methods side-by-side showed 63% disagreement by Centaur for Vitros ECi low-positive samples, 75% disagreement by RIBA, and 97% disagreement by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In conclusion, the Ortho-Clinical Vitros ECi Anti-HCV test yields a high rate of false-positive results in the low s/co range in our patient population. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Health Beliefs and Co-morbidities Associated with Appointment-Keeping Behavior Among HCV and HIV/HCV Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundhir, Pooja; North, Carol S; Fatunde, Oluwatomilade; Jain, Mamta K

    2016-02-01

    Appointment-keeping behavior is an important requisite for HCV linkage and treatment initiation. In this study we examine what impact hepatitis C (HCV) knowledge and attitudes has on appointment-keeping behavior among a cohort of HCV and HCV/HIV patients. Knowledge scores and attitude scales, obtained from a cross-sectional survey, were correlated with proportion of appointments kept 1 year prior to taking the survey. Independent risk factors for missing appointments were examined by multiple regression analysis. 292 HCV patients completed the survey, and 149 (51%) were co-infected with HIV. HCV patients kept 67.5 ± 17.4% of their total appointments and a similar proportion (67 ± 38.2) of Liver Clinic appointments, but they attended a higher proportion (73 ± 24.4) of Primary Care Clinic appointments. However, certain health beliefs, psychiatric illness, and HIV co-infection were independently associated with lower levels of appointment-keeping behavior. HCV knowledge was not associated with appointment-keeping behavior. Health beliefs, psychiatric illness, and HIV co-infection are associated with missing appointments, but no link between knowledge and appointment keeping behavior is apparent. In order to increase engagement into HCV care, HCV care coordination programs need to focus on addressing health beliefs and providing resources to those at highest risk for missing appointments.

  9. HCV IRES-mediated core expression in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhao

    Full Text Available The lack of small animal models for hepatitis C virus has impeded the discovery and development of anti-HCV drugs. HCV-IRES plays an important role in HCV gene expression, and is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. In this study, we report a zebrafish model with a biscistron expression construct that can co-transcribe GFP and HCV-core genes by human hepatic lipase promoter and zebrafish liver fatty acid binding protein enhancer. HCV core translation was designed mediated by HCV-IRES sequence and gfp was by a canonical cap-dependent mechanism. Results of fluorescence image and in situ hybridization indicate that expression of HCV core and GFP is liver-specific; RT-PCR and Western blotting show that both core and gfp expression are elevated in a time-dependent manner for both transcription and translation. It means that the HCV-IRES exerted its role in this zebrafish model. Furthermore, the liver-pathological impact associated with HCV-infection was detected by examination of gene markers and some of them were elevated, such as adiponectin receptor, heparanase, TGF-β, PDGF-α, etc. The model was used to evaluate three clinical drugs, ribavirin, IFNα-2b and vitamin B12. The results show that vitamin B12 inhibited core expression in mRNA and protein levels in dose-dependent manner, but failed to impact gfp expression. Also VB12 down-regulated some gene transcriptions involved in fat liver, liver fibrosis and HCV-associated pathological process in the larvae. It reveals that HCV-IRES responds to vitamin B12 sensitively in the zebrafish model. Ribavirin did not disturb core expression, hinting that HCV-IRES is not a target site of ribavirin. IFNα-2b was not active, which maybe resulted from its degradation in vivo for the long time. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the zebrafish model for screening of anti-HCV drugs targeting to HCV-IRES. The zebrafish system provides a novel evidence of using zebrafish as a HCV model organism.

  10. Spontaneous viral clearance, viral load, and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-infected patients with anti-HCV antibodies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Vincent; Mocroft, Amanda; Rockstroh, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variables influencing serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels and genotype distribution in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well known, nor are factors determining spontaneous clearance after exposure to HCV in this population. METHODS: All HCV...... for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were more likely to have spontaneously cleared HCV than were those negative for HBsAg (43% vs. 21%; aOR, 2.91 [95% CI, 1.94-4.38]). Of patients with HCV viremia, 786 (53%) carried HCV genotype 1, and 53 (4%), 440 (29%), and 217 (15%) carried HCV genotype 2, 3, and 4...

  11. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtesse, Sarah; Friemel, Juliane; Fankhauser, René; Weber, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the clinicopathological course of a 20-year-old female patient with enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) of the appendix vermiformis and cecal pole with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The patient presented with acute abdomen, suspicious of acute appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed tumefaction of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis. Histologic examination revealed mural thickening and a dense lymphoplasmocytic, partly obliterative infiltrate of the veins with sparing of the arteries, diagnostic of ELP. In addition, we found an elevated number of IgG4-positive plasma cells blended in with the lymphocytes. The IgG4-to-IgG ratio accounted for >40 %. This case meets the histopathological criteria requested for IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and thus opens the possibility that ELP might be part of the IgG4-RD spectrum.

  12. HBV, HCV and HIV seroprevalence among blood donors in Istanbul, Turkey: how effective are the changes in the national blood transfusion policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Acar

    Full Text Available The national blood transfusion policies have been changed significantly in recent years in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in blood donors at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul and to evaluate the effect of changes in the national blood transfusion policies on the prevalence of these infections. The screening results of 72695 blood donations at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul between January and December 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were screened by microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA method. Samples found to be positive for anti-HIV 1/2 and anti-HCV were confirmed by Inno-Lia HCV Ab III and Inno-Lia HIV I/II Score, respectively. The seropositivity rates for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were determined as 1.76%, 0.07%, and 0.008%, respectively. Compared to the previously published data from Red Crescent Centers in Turkey, it was found that HBV and HCV seroprevalances decreased and HIV seroprevalance increased in recent years. In conclusion, we believe that the drop in HBV and HCV prevalence rates are likely multifactorial and may have resulted from more diligent donor questioning upon screening, a higher level of public awareness on viral hepatitis as well as the expansion of HBV vaccination coverage in Turkey. Another factor to contribute to the decreased prevalence of HCV stems from the use of more sensitive confirmation testing on all reactive results, thereby eliminating a fair amount of false positive cases. Despite similar transmission routes, the increase in HIV prevalence in contrast to HBV and HCV may be linked to the increase in AIDS cases in Turkey in recent years.

  13. Humanized-VHH Transbodies that Inhibit HCV Protease and Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasak Jittavisutthikul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for safe and broadly effective anti-HCV agents that can cope with genetic multiplicity and mutations of the virus. In this study, humanized-camel VHHs to genotype 3a HCV serine protease were produced and were linked molecularly to a cell penetrating peptide, penetratin (PEN. Human hepatic (Huh7 cells transfected with the JFH-1 RNA of HCV genotype 2a and treated with the cell penetrable nanobodies (transbodies had a marked reduction of the HCV RNA intracellularly and in their culture fluids, less HCV foci inside the cells and less amounts of HCV core antigen in culture supernatants compared with the infected cells cultured in the medium alone. The PEN-VHH-treated-transfected cells also had up-regulation of the genes coding for the host innate immune response (TRIF, TRAF3, IRF3, IL-28B and IFN-β, indicating that the cell penetrable nanobodies rescued the host innate immune response from the HCV mediated-suppression. Computerized intermolecular docking revealed that the VHHs bound to residues of the protease catalytic triad, oxyanion loop and/or the NS3 N-terminal portion important for non-covalent binding of the NS4A protease cofactor protein. The so-produced transbodies have high potential for testing further as a candidate for safe, broadly effective and virus mutation tolerable anti-HCV agents.

  14. HCV-related liver cancer in people with haemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Haagsma, E. B.

    . The topic of this monograph is liver cancer associated with chronic HCV infection. We start with some background information on chronic HCV infection and its long-term sequelae, one of which is liver cancer. The rest of the article is concerned with liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  15. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to ascertain the seroprevalence and risk factors of HCV antibodies among pregnant women in Anyigba, Kogi State North Central Nigeria. Materials and methods:Blood samples (5mls) were collected from one hundred ...

  16. Transfusion Related Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in relation to a background history of blood transfusion; through anti HCV antibody screening test, amongst adult sickle cell disease patients. Anti HCV antibody was tested for in the serum of 92 consecutively selected ...

  17. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....

  18. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in selected countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruggmann, P; Øvrehus, Anne Lindebo; Moreno, C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indicator for liver disease. New treatment options are becoming available, and there is a need to characterize the epidemiology and disease burden of HCV. Data for prevalence, viremia, genotype, diagnosis and treatment were obtained...

  19. Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants infected with recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus for development of a plant-derived vaccine against HCV. AK El Attar, AM Shamloul, AA Shalaby, BY Riad, A Saad, HM Mazyad, JM Keith ...

  20. The incidence of IgG4-positive plasma cells staining TIN in patients with biopsy-proven tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac, Kathy; Wu, Xiao Juan; Mai, Jun; Howlin, Kenneth; Suranyi, Michael; Yong, Jim; Makris, Angela

    2017-06-01

    IgG4 disease is rare. However, IgG4 tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is the most common renal manifestation. IgG4 disease is usually associated with elevated serum IgG4 levels and other organ involvement, low-density renal lesions on enhanced CT imaging and immune activation. The incidence of IgG4-TIN may be underestimated, as staining for IgG4 is not routine. This study sought to describe the prevalence of previously undiagnosed IgG4-TIN. Due to the complexity of the diagnosis, we only attempt to look at IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN as a potential indication for IgG4 renal disease. A retrospective review of native renal biopsies performed between 2002 and 2012 with a primary diagnosis of TIN was selected. Samples for which interstitial nephritis was secondary to a glomerular disease were excluded. The tissues were stained for IgG4 and scored by two blinded observers. Demographic and follow-up details were collected. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. 82 cases of interstitial nephritis from a total of 1238 renal biopsies (2002-2012) were available after staining for further assessment. 12 samples demonstrated staining consistent with the criteria for IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN, of which 3 had mildly positive staining, 7 moderately positive staining and 2 had markedly positive staining. There were no statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the positive and negative staining groups. A number of cases of IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN were observed histologically that had been previously diagnosed as non-specific chronic TIN. IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN made up 1% of all renal biopsies performed over 10 years and 13% of all biopsies demonstrating TIN not related to glomerular disease. IgG4 staining should be considered routinely in biopsies demonstrating primary TIN. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Seropositivity of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in preoperative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Karaayak Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV viruses pose a serious occupational risk for the healthcare workers especially those in emergency services, laboratories and surgery wards. Vaccination and establishment of the strict biosafety procedures are the main principles to prevent blood-borne infections in healthcare workers. Additionally, serological screening of the preoperative patients could decrease the risk for exposure. In this study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV 1/2 in preoperative patients. Methods: Hospital automation records were evaluated retrospectively for 4.367 patients who were scheduled for surgery and scanned for anti-HIV 1/2, HBsAg and anti-HCV as preoperative procedures in the preparation period of operation between January 2012 and December 2012. Results: HBsAg positivity rate was found in 7.7% (n=336, anti-HCV positivity rate was found in 2.3% (n=101. A two (0.05% of five patients were positive for anti-HIV 1/2 was found positive verification test and the other three samples were accepted as false positive test results. Conclusion: All healthcare workers must be trained about occupational diseases and vaccinated against Hepatitis B. Universal precautions must be strictly followed particularly in the operating room. In addition, all patients should be considered as potential carriers regarded as a carrier of the potential for infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 449-452

  2. Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) induced interferon resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qashqari, Hanadi; Al-Mars, Amany; Chaudhary, Adeel; Abuzenadah, Adel; Damanhouri, Ghazi; Alqahtani, Mohammed; Mahmoud, Maged; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the foremost causes of chronic liver disease affecting over 300 million globally. HCV contains a positive-stranded RNA of ~9600 nt and is surrounded by the 5' and 3'untranslated regions (UTR). The only successful treatment regimen includes interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. Like many other viruses, HCV has also evolved various mechanisms to circumvent the IFN response by blocking (1) downstream signaling actions via STAT1, STAT2, IRF9 and JAK-STAT pathways and (2) repertoire of IFN Stimulatory Genes (ISGs). Several studies have identified complex host demographic and genetic factors as well as viral genetic heterogeneity associated with outcomes of IFN therapy. The genetic predispositions of over 2000 ISGS may render the patients to become resistant, thus identification of such parameters within a subset of population are necessary for management corollary. The ability of various HCV genotypes to diminish IFN antiviral responses plays critical role in the establishment of chronic infection at the acute stage of infection, thus highlighting importance of the resistance in HCV treated groups. The recently defined role of viral protein such as C, E2, NS3/NS4 and NS5A proteins in inducing the IFN resistance are discussed in this article. How the viral and host genetic composition and epistatic connectivity among polymorphic genomic sites synchronizes the evolutionary IFN resistance trend remains under investigation. However, these signals may have the potential to be employed for accurate prediction of therapeutic outcomes. In this review article, we accentuate the significance of host and viral components in IFN resistance with the aim to determine the successful outcome in patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An overview of HCV molecular biology, replication and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Zafar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes acute and chronic hepatitis which can eventually lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to high degree of strain variation. The current treatment of care, Pegylated interferon α in combination with ribavirin is costly, has significant side effects and fails to cure about half of all infections. In this review, we summarize molecular virology, replication and immune responses against HCV and discussed how HCV escape from adaptive and humoral immune responses. This advance knowledge will be helpful for development of vaccine against HCV and discovery of new medicines both from synthetic chemistry and natural sources.

  4. HCV-Induced Oxidative Stress: Battlefield-Winning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Rebbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 150 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. The persistence of the infection is controlled by several mechanisms including the induction of oxidative stress. HCV relies on this strategy to redirect lipid metabolism machinery and escape immune response. The 3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase (DHCR24 is one of the newly discovered host markers of oxidative stress. This protein, as HCV-induced oxidative stress responsive protein, may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV chronic infection and associated liver diseases, when aberrantly expressed. The sustained expression of DHCR24 in response to HCV-induced oxidative stress results in suppression of nuclear p53 activity by blocking its acetylation and increasing its interaction with MDM2 in the cytoplasm leading to its degradation, which may induce hepatocarcinogenesis.

  5. The HCV Synthesis Project: Scope, methodology, and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheinmann Roberta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV is hyper-endemic in injecting drug users. There is also excess HCV among non-injection drug users who smoke, snort, or sniff heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine. Methods To summarize the research literature on HCV in drug users and identify gaps in knowledge, we conducted a synthesis of the relevant research carried out between 1989 and 2006. Using rigorous search methods, we identified and extracted data from published and unpublished reports of HCV among drug users. We designed a quality assurance system to ensure accuracy and consistency in all phases of the project. We also created a set of items to assess study design quality in each of the reports we included. Results We identified 629 reports containing HCV prevalence rates, incidence rates and/or genotype distribution among injecting or non-injecting drug user populations published between January 1989 and December 2006. The majority of reports were from Western Europe (41%, North America (26%, Asia (11% and Australia/New Zealand (10%. We also identified reports from Eastern Europe, South America, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. The number of publications reporting HCV rates in drug users increased dramatically between 1989 and 2006 to 27–52 reports per year after 1998. Conclusion The data collection and quality assurance phases of the HCV Synthesis Project have been completed. Recommendations for future research on HCV in drug users have come out of our data collection phase. Future research reports can enhance their contributions to our understanding of HCV etiology by clearly defining their drug user participants with respect to type of drug and route of administration. Further, the use of standard reporting methods for risk factors would enable data to be combined across a larger set of studies; this is especially important for HCV seroconversion studies which suffer from small sample sizes and low power to examine risk

  6. Novel Electron Spin Resonance-Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Occult Hepatitis B Infection in HCV Chronic Liver Disease

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    Hala Badawi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus infection in patients who lack detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg is called occult hepatitis B infection (OHB. The very low level of HBV genome may hamper its detection by molecular techniques. Recently, a highly sensitive EIA utilizing a novel modified electron spin resonance (ESR technique (modified ESR-EIA was developed to detect HBsAg by measuring stabilized nitroxide radicals. Aim: to detect occult HBV infection, using ESR-EIA among HCV-related chronic liver disease (CLD Egyptian patients who were seronegative for HBsAg by standard EIA. Methods: The study was conducted on two periods of time; in 1st period, 72 inpatients in Tropical Medicine Department of TBRI, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups; 44 seropositive anti-HCV patients (Group I, 28 seronegative anti-HCV patients (Group II. Sera were subjected to virological assays for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs, anti-HCV and HCV RNA. We also examined serum HBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique and real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR. In the 2nd period; modified ESR-EIA was applied on 32 TBRI inpatients, 23 in Tropical Medicine Department (Group I and 9 from hemodialysis unit (Group II with HCV-related CLD. Results: OHB was detected in 18.1% and 86.9% of our patients in 2002 and 2006 respectively. In phase 1, there was a higher detection rate among HCV patients in Group I (25% than Group II (7%, with higher prevalence (52.4% in patients with positive HCV RNA in Group I versus those with negative HCV viremia (8% in Group II. HBV DNA by either PCR or RTD-PCR was negative in all patients of both groups as the HBV viral load of the samples were below detectable level of the methods used; less than 100 copies/ml. None of 9 hemodialysis patients were positive for OHB. Conclusion: The newly developed quantitative ESR-EIA technique represents a great evolution for screening and

  7. Oscillations of the positive column plasma due to ionization wave propagation and two-dimensional structure of striations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskii, Yu B; Kozakov, R V; Wilke, C; Behnke, J; Nekutchaev, V O

    2004-01-01

    Time and space resolved measurements of the plasma potential in axial and radial directions in S- and P-striations in neon are performed. The measurements in different radial positions were carried out with high spatial resolution by means of simultaneous displacement of electrodes relative to the stationary probe. The plasma potential was found to be a superposition of the potentials of ionization wave and plasma oscillations relative to the electrodes. A method of decomposition of the measured spatio-temporal structure of the potential in components associated with the plasma oscillations and ionization wave propagation is proposed. A biorthogonal decomposition of the spatio-temporal structure of the potential is performed. A comparison of the decomposition results obtained by the two methods is made. The experiments revealed a two-dimensional structure of the potential field in an ionization wave. Qualitative discussions of the reasons for the occurrence of this two-dimensional structure are presented based on the analysis of the kinetic equation and the equation for the potential

  8. Analysis of a conserved RGE/RGD motif in HCV E2 in mediating entry

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    Rong Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV encodes two transmembrane glycoproteins E1 and E2 which form a heterodimer. E1 is believed to mediate fusion while E2 has been shown to bind cellular receptors. It is clear that HCV uses a multi-receptor complex to gain entry into susceptible cells, however key elements of this complex remain elusive. In this study, the role of a highly conserved RGE/RGD motif of HCV E2 glycoprotein in viral entry was examined. The effect of each substitution mutation in this motif was tested by challenging susceptible cell lines with mutant HCV E1E2 pseudotyped viruses generated using a lentiviral system (HCVpp. In addition to assaying infectivity, producer cell expression and HCVpp incorporation of HCV E2 proteins, CD81 binding profiles, and conformation of mutants were examined. Results Based on these characteristics, mutants either displayed wt characteristics (high infectivity [≥ 90% of wt HCVpp], CD81 binding, E1E2 expression, and incorporation into viral particles and proper conformation or very low infectivity (≤ 20% of wt HCVpp. Only amino acid substitutions of the 3rd position (D or E resulted in wt characteristics as long as the negative charge was maintained or a neutral alanine was introduced. A change in charge to a positive lysine, disrupted HCVpp infectivity at this position. Conclusion Although most amino acid substitutions within this conserved motif displayed greatly reduced HCVpp infectivity, they retained soluble CD81 binding, proper E2 conformation, and incorporation into HCVpp. Our results suggest that although RGE/D is a well-defined integrin binding motif, in this case the role of these three hyperconserved amino acids does not appear to be integrin binding. As the extent of conservation of this region extends well beyond these three amino acids, we speculate that this region may play an important role in the structure of HCV E2 or in mediating the interaction with other factor(s during

  9. Screening of HBsAg and anti HCV from tertiary care, private and public sector hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.A.W.; Ahmed, W.; Alam, S.E.; Arif, A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies in patients referred from a tertiary care public sector hospital, other public sector and private hospitals of Karachi. Settings and duration: Pakistan Medical Research Council's Specialized Research Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi from January to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted where patients were referred from different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (tertiary care public sector hospital), other public sector hospitals, private hospitals and clinics for the screening of hepatitis B and C virus infection. Three ml blood was collected from each patient, serum separated and tested for HBsAg and Anti HCV using Abbott Murex fourth Generation ELISA kits. Results: A total of 2965 cases were referred in a year. Overall sero prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV was 5.9% and 12.8% respectively. HBsAg positivity in patient referred from public sector hospitals was 5.8%, those from private hospitals/clinics were 7.2%, and self-referred patients was 5.6%. Anti HCV positivity rates amongst these cases were 12.5%, 16.7% and 8.5% respectively. Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus was seen in 0.9, 2.5 and 1.4% cases respectively. Breakdown of viral positivity within different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi showed HBsAg positivity of 7.1% in Medical department, 5.2% in Surgical department, 5.0% in Gynaecology department, 6.6% in other departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre while, only 1.7% were positive from Pakistan Railway, hospital Anti HCV positivity was maximally (20.3%) seen in medical department followed by 14% in other departments, 10.9% in surgical department, 7.9% in gynaecology and 5.1% in railway hospital. Co-infection of HBV and HCV was seen in 2% cases referred from medical department, while rest of the

  10. MVA amplifier used for plasma position control in the WEGA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, G.

    1982-02-01

    A new amplifier has been developed for the control of the plasma positron in the WEGA III tokomak acting on the vertical magnetic field. In the high power domain thyristor choppers are usually applied. Unfortunately their response time is quite long and does not yet correspond to the WEGA demand. Therefore transistors have been used to build a fast switching amplifier of the H-bridge type, delivering a power of 1 MVA, by switching 2500 A at 400 V. Because of the duty cycle of the plasma (0,12 s every 240 s) the necessary average power to the amplifier supply is only 500 VA. An intermediate energy storage in an electrolytic capacitor bank is therefore used. As the switching transistors must operate under extreme conditions of voltage and current, precautions must be taken to limit the overvoltage and the overcurrent, to prevent oscillations and to assure power and control equilibrium among the transistors

  11. Monocyte activation in HIV/HCV coinfection correlates with cognitive impairment.

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    Hans Rempel

    Full Text Available Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV challenges the immune system with two viruses that elicit distinct immune responses. Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of HIV infection and an accurate indicator of disease progression. Suppressing HIV viremia by antiretroviral therapy (ART effectively prolongs life and significantly improves immune function. HIV/HCV coinfected individuals have peripheral immune activation despite effective ART control of HIV viral load. Here we examined freshly isolated CD14 monocytes for gene expression using high-density cDNA microarrays and analyzed T cell subsets, CD4 and CD8, by flow cytometry to characterize immune activation in monoinfected HCV and HIV, and HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects. To determine the impact of coinfection on cognition, subjects were evaluated in 7 domains for neuropsychological performance, which were summarized as a global deficit score (GDS. Monocyte gene expression analysis in HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects identified 43 genes that were elevated greater than 2.5 fold. Correlative analysis of subjects' GDS and gene expression found eight genes with significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Correlative expression of six genes was confirmed by qPCR, five of which were categorized as type 1 IFN response genes. Global deficit scores were not related to plasma lipopolysaccharide levels. In the T cell compartment, coinfection significantly increased expression of activation markers CD38 and HLADR on both CD4 and CD8 T cells but did not correlate with GDS. These findings indicate that coinfection is associated with a type 1 IFN monocyte activation profile which was further found to correlate with cognitive impairment, even in subjects with controlled HIV infection. HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects with controlled HIV viral load experiencing immune activation could benefit significantly from successful anti-HCV therapy and may be

  12. Cross-calibrating Spatial Positions of Light-viewing Diagnostics using Plasma Edge Sweeps in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, W.M.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.; Kaplan, D.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented that permits diagnostics viewing light from the plasma edge to be spatially calibrated relative to one another. By sweeping the plasma edge, each chord of each diagnostic sweeps out a portion of the light emission profile. A nonlinear least-squares fit to such data provides superior cross-calibration of diagnostics located at different toroidal locations compared with simple surveying. Another advantage of the technique is that it can be used to monitor the position of viewing chords during an experimental campaign to ensure that alignment does not change over time. Moreover, should such a change occur, the data can still be cross-calibrated and its usefulness retained

  13. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte; Bukh, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The first discovered and sequenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and the first in vivo infectious HCV clones originated from the HCV prototype strains HCV-1 and H77, respectively, both widely used in research of this important human pathogen. In the present study, we developed efficient infectious cell culture systems for these genotype 1a strains by using the HCV-1/SF9_A and H77C in vivo infectious clones. We initially adapted a genome with the HCV-1 5'UTR-NS5A (where UTR stands for untranslated region) and the JFH1 NS5B-3'UTR (5-5A recombinant), including the genotype 2a-derived mutations F1464L/A1672S/D2979G (LSG), to grow efficiently in Huh7.5 cells, thus identifying the E2 mutation S399F. The combination of LSG/S399F and reported TNcc(1a)-adaptive mutations A1226G/Q1773H/N1927T/Y2981F/F2994S promoted adaptation of the full-length HCV-1 clone. An HCV-1 recombinant with 17 mutations (HCV1cc) replicated efficiently in Huh7.5 cells and produced supernatant infectivity titers of 10(4.0) focus-forming units (FFU)/ml. Eight of these mutations were identified from passaged HCV-1 viruses, and the A970T/I1312V/C2419R/A2919T mutations were essential for infectious particle production. Using CD81-deficient Huh7 cells, we further demonstrated the importance of A970T/I1312V/A2919T or A970T/C2419R/A2919T for virus assembly and that the I1312V/C2419R combination played a major role in virus release. Using a similar approach, we found that NS5B mutation F2994R, identified here from culture-adapted full-length TN viruses and a common NS3 helicase mutation (S1368P) derived from viable H77C and HCV-1 5-5A recombinants, initiated replication and culture adaptation of H77C containing LSG and TNcc(1a)-adaptive mutations. An H77C recombinant harboring 19 mutations (H77Ccc) replicated and spread efficiently after transfection and subsequent infection of naive Huh7.5 cells, reaching titers of 10(3.5) and 10(4.4) FFU/ml, respectively. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered in 1989 with

  14. Identification of Variants of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Entry Factors in Patients Highly Exposed to HCV but Remaining Uninfected: An ANRS Case-Control Study.

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    Baptiste Fouquet

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes persistent infection in 75% of cases and is a major public health problem worldwide. More than 92% of intravenous drug users (IDU infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 are seropositive for HCV, and it is conceivable that some HIV-1-infected IDU who remain uninfected by HCV may be genetically resistant.Here we conducted a case-control study to identify mutations in HCV entry coreceptors in HIV-infected IDU who remained uninfected by HCV. We recruited 138 patients, comprising 22 HIV+ HCV- case IDU and 116 HIV+ HCV+ control IDU. We focused on coreceptors in which point mutations are known to abolish HCV infectivity in vitro. Our previous study of the Claudin-1 gene revealed no specific variants in the same case population. Here we performed direct genomic sequencing of the Claudin-6, Claudin-9, Occludin and Scavenger receptor-B1 (SCARB1 gene coding regions. Most HIV+ HCV- IDU had no mutations in HCV coreceptors. However, two HIV+ HCV- patients harbored a total of four specific mutations/variants of HCV entry factors that were not found in the HIV+ HCV+ controls. One case patient harbored heterozygous variants of both Claudin-6 and Occludin, and the other case patient harbored two heterozygous variants of SCARB1. This suggests that HCV resistance might involve complex genetic events and factors other than coreceptors, a situation similar to that reported for HIV-1 resistance.

  15. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  16. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  17. Performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT anti-HCV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Gesa; Pelzer, Claudia; Beckert, Christian; Hausmann, Michael; Kapprell, Hans-Peter

    2005-10-01

    The ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay is a fully automated high throughput chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for the detection of antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). To further enhance the performance of this test, the assay was modified to improve the specificity for blood donor specimens. The specificity of the enhanced ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay was evaluated by screening blood donor samples randomly collected from various German blood banks, as well as hospitalized patient samples derived from Germany and the US. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels and on a commercially available worldwide anti-HCV genotype performance panel. Apparent specificity of the modified ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay in a blood donor population consisting of 3811 specimens was 99.92%, compared to 99.76% for the current on-market assay. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels. Seroconversion sensitivity equivalent to or better than the current on-market product was observed by testing 33 seroconversion panels. This study demonstrates that the modified version of the ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay shows improved specificity for blood donor specimens compared to the current assay on market without compromising sensitivity. With the availability of the improved ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay and the recent launch of the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, the ARCHITECT system now offers a full hepatitis/retrovirus menu with excellent performance on a high throughput, random access, automated analyzer, ideally suited for blood screening and diagnostic applications.

  18. Ribavirin Concentrations Do Not Predict Sustained Virological Response in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients Treated with Ribavirin and Pegylated Interferon in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

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    Helen Kovari

    Full Text Available Ribavirin (RBV is an essential component of most current hepatitis C (HCV treatment regimens and still standard of care in the combination with pegylated interferon (pegIFN to treat chronic HCV in resource limited settings. Study results in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients are contradicting as to whether RBV concentration correlates with sustained virological response (SVR.We included 262 HCV treatment naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS participants treated with RBV and pegIFN between 01.01.2001-01.01.2010, 134 with HCV genotype (GT 1/4, and 128 with GT 2/3 infections. RBV levels were measured retrospectively in stored plasma samples obtained between HCV treatment week 4 and end of therapy. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between RBV concentration and SVR in GT 1/4 and GT 2/3 infections. The analyses were repeated stratified by treatment phase (week 4-12, 13-24, >24 and IL28B genotype (CC versus CT/TT.SVR rates were 35.1% in GT 1/4 and 70.3% in GT 2/3 infections. Overall, median RBV concentration was 2.0 mg/L in GT 1/4, and 1.9 mg/L in GT 2/3, and did not change significantly across treatment phases. Patients with SVR had similar RBV concentrations compared to patients without SVR in both HCV genotype groups. SVR was not associated with RBV levels ≥2.0 mg/L (GT 1/4, OR 1.19 [0.5-2.86]; GT 2/3, 1.94 [0.78-4.80] and ≥2.5 mg/L (GT 1/4, 1.56 [0.64-3.84]; GT 2/3 2.72 [0.85-8.73], regardless of treatment phase, and IL28B genotype.In HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with pegIFN/RBV, therapeutic drug monitoring of RBV concentrations does not enhance the chance of HCV cure, regardless of HCV genotype, treatment phase and IL28B genotype.

  19. Addressing HCV infection in Europe: reported, estimated and undiagnosed cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkinaite, Simona; Lazarus, Jeff; Gore, Charles

    2008-01-01

    . At present, it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation in a number of countries, with an estimated 250,000 people dying annually from HCV-related causes. Despite the magnitude of the problem, the virus does not receive adequate attention from either the general public...... or from health policy-makers. This study assesses HCV prevalence from both estimated totals and undiagnosed cases in selected European countries. Secondary sources were assessed and experts in 17 European countries were interviewed about HCV prevalence, reporting strategies and transmission. Available...

  20. People with Multiple Tattoos and/or Piercings Are Not at Increased Risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Anouk T.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Boonstra, Albert; van Houdt, Robin; de Bruijn, Lotte J.; Heijman, Titia; Coutinho, Roel A.; Prins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Although published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings in the Netherlands who acquired their tattoos and piercings in the Netherlands and/or abroad. Methods Tattoo artists, piercers, and people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings were recruited at tattoo conventions, shops (N = 182), and a biannual survey at our STI-outpatient clinic (N = 252) in Amsterdam. Participants were interviewed and tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Determinants of HBV and HCV infections were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Results The median number of tattoos and piercings was 5 (IQR 2–10) and 2 (IQR 2–4), respectively. Almost 40% acquired their tattoo of piercing abroad. In total, 18/434 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.64%–6.46%) participants were anti-HBc positive and 1 was anti-HCV positive (0.2%, 95%CI: 0.01%–1.29%). Being anti-HBc positive was independently associated with older age (OR 1.68, 95%CI: 1.03–2.75 per 10 years older) and being born in an HBV-endemic country (OR 7.39, 95%CI: 2.77–19.7). Tattoo- and/or piercing-related variables, like having a tattoo or piercing in an HBV endemic country, surface percentage tattooed, number of tattoos and piercings etc., were not associated with either HBV or HCV. Conclusions We found no evidence for an increased HBV/HCV seroprevalence among persons with multiple tattoos and/or piercings, which might be due to the introduction of hygiene guidelines for tattoo and piercing shops in combination with the low observed prevalence of HBV/HCV in the general population. Tattoos and/or piercings, therefore, should not be considered risk factors for HBV/HCV in the Dutch population. These findings imply the importance of implementation of hygiene guidelines in other countries. PMID

  1. People with multiple tattoos and/or piercings are not at increased risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Anouk T; van den Hoek, Anneke; Boonstra, Albert; van Houdt, Robin; de Bruijn, Lotte J; Heijman, Titia; Coutinho, Roel A; Prins, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Although published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings in The Netherlands who acquired their tattoos and piercings in The Netherlands and/or abroad. Tattoo artists, piercers, and people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings were recruited at tattoo conventions, shops (N = 182), and a biannual survey at our STI-outpatient clinic (N = 252) in Amsterdam. Participants were interviewed and tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Determinants of HBV and HCV infections were analysed using logistic regression analysis. The median number of tattoos and piercings was 5 (IQR 2-10) and 2 (IQR 2-4), respectively. Almost 40% acquired their tattoo of piercing abroad. In total, 18/434 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.64%-6.46%) participants were anti-HBc positive and 1 was anti-HCV positive (0.2%, 95%CI: 0.01%-1.29%). Being anti-HBc positive was independently associated with older age (OR 1.68, 95%CI: 1.03-2.75 per 10 years older) and being born in an HBV-endemic country (OR 7.39, 95%CI: 2.77-19.7). Tattoo- and/or piercing-related variables, like having a tattoo or piercing in an HBV endemic country, surface percentage tattooed, number of tattoos and piercings etc., were not associated with either HBV or HCV. We found no evidence for an increased HBV/HCV seroprevalence among persons with multiple tattoos and/or piercings, which might be due to the introduction of hygiene guidelines for tattoo and piercing shops in combination with the low observed prevalence of HBV/HCV in the general population. Tattoos and/or piercings, therefore, should not be considered risk factors for HBV/HCV in the Dutch population. These findings imply the importance of implementation of hygiene guidelines in other countries.

  2. People with multiple tattoos and/or piercings are not at increased risk for HBV or HCV in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk T Urbanus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although published results are inconsistent, it has been suggested that tattooing and piercing are risk factors for HBV and HCV infections. To examine whether tattooing and piercing do indeed increase the risk of infection, we conducted a study among people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings in The Netherlands who acquired their tattoos and piercings in The Netherlands and/or abroad. METHODS: Tattoo artists, piercers, and people with multiple tattoos and/or piercings were recruited at tattoo conventions, shops (N = 182, and a biannual survey at our STI-outpatient clinic (N = 252 in Amsterdam. Participants were interviewed and tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Determinants of HBV and HCV infections were analysed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The median number of tattoos and piercings was 5 (IQR 2-10 and 2 (IQR 2-4, respectively. Almost 40% acquired their tattoo of piercing abroad. In total, 18/434 (4.2%, 95%CI: 2.64%-6.46% participants were anti-HBc positive and 1 was anti-HCV positive (0.2%, 95%CI: 0.01%-1.29%. Being anti-HBc positive was independently associated with older age (OR 1.68, 95%CI: 1.03-2.75 per 10 years older and being born in an HBV-endemic country (OR 7.39, 95%CI: 2.77-19.7. Tattoo- and/or piercing-related variables, like having a tattoo or piercing in an HBV endemic country, surface percentage tattooed, number of tattoos and piercings etc., were not associated with either HBV or HCV. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for an increased HBV/HCV seroprevalence among persons with multiple tattoos and/or piercings, which might be due to the introduction of hygiene guidelines for tattoo and piercing shops in combination with the low observed prevalence of HBV/HCV in the general population. Tattoos and/or piercings, therefore, should not be considered risk factors for HBV/HCV in the Dutch population. These findings imply the importance of implementation of hygiene guidelines in other countries.

  3. Sub-optimal Testing and Awareness of HCV and HBV Among High Risk Individuals at an Underserved Safety-Net Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Robert J; Campbell, Brendan; Liu, Benny; Baden, Rachel; Bhuket, Taft

    2018-02-01

    Sub-optimal screening for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) among high risk groups delays diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to evaluate overall rates of HCV and HBV screening and patient knowledge of their testing result. Adults age ≥18 years undergoing elective outpatient endoscopy at a large, urban safety-net hospital from July 2015 to July 2016 were prospectively evaluated to determine rates of HCV and HBV testing, the results of those completed tests, and patient knowledge of test results among high risk individuals (as determined by U.S. Preventative Services Task Force). Among 1125 patients (52.3% male, 70.4% foreign-born), 66.5% were high risk for chronic HCV; only 30.9% received prior testing. 14.7% had positive chronic HCV infection. Patients born in the 1945-1965 cohort were more likely to have received prior HCV testing compared to those born outside of this cohort (32.7 vs. 16.9%, p = 0.01). Among patients who received HCV screening, 29.3% were aware of test results. Overall, 61.6% were high risk for chronic HBV; only 25.1% received prior testing. 4.1% were positive for chronic HBV. Compared to Caucasians, Asians (19.0 vs. 44.4%, p HBV testing. Among patients who received prior HBV screening, 18.4% were aware of test results. Less than one-third of high risk patients received HCV and HBV screening among an ethnically diverse safety-net population. Equally low rates of patient knowledge of testing results were observed.

  4. The effect of HCV serological status on Doxorubicin based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karim Yousri Welaya

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... Pretreatment evaluation included serological testing for HCV. FAC Adjuvant ... National Cancer Institute; IRB, Institutional Research Board; LVEF, ..... Mild Skin changes, including skin discoloration and nail changes, not ...

  5. The design of drugs for HIV and HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2007-12-01

    Since the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1983, dramatic progress has been made in the development of novel antiviral drugs. The HIV epidemic fuelled the development of new antiviral drug classes, which are now combined to provide highly active antiretroviral therapies. The need for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), which was discovered in 1989, has also provided considerable impetus for the development of new classes of antiviral drugs, and future treatment strategies for chronic HCV might involve combination regimens that are analogous to those currently used for HIV. By considering the drug targets in the different stages of the life cycle of these two viruses, this article presents aspects of the history, medicinal chemistry and mechanisms of action of approved and investigational drugs for HIV and HCV, and highlights general lessons learned from anti-HIV-drug design that could be applied to HCV.

  6. Hepatitis C virus (HCV): ever in reliable partnerships?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... hemophiliacs, multiple changes in HCV genotypes were observed in 58 % of the subjects, .... similar sources of transmission (Crockett and Keeffe,. 2005). .... tests 1 year apart. Longitudinal evaluation is also very important for ...

  7. Plasma soluble factor following two decades prolonged suppressive antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-positive males: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperk, Maike; Zhang, Wang; Nowak, Piotr; Neogi, Ujjwal

    2018-02-01

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a marked induction of several pathways that are linked to inflammation and CD4 T-cell depletion. Many of these processes do not fully resolve on short-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (15 years) successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the linkage between levels of biomarkers remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the host plasma proteome in a well-defined clinical material from HIV-1-positive male patients on successful long-term ART (>15 years) and compared them with age-matched healthy controls and treatment-naïve male patients with viremia in a cross-sectional manner.Plasma samples were obtained from 3 categories of age-matched HIV-1-positive male patients on long-term successfully (ART, n = 10) with a median (Interquartile range, IQR) of 19 (17-20) years, treatment-naïve patients with viremia (VP, n = 14), and HIV-1-negative persons (HC, n = 11). Plasma proteome was analyzed using the proximity extension assay targeting 92 factors. Statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad Prism v7, R-packages, and Qlucore Omics Explorer v3.2. Functional enrichment analysis was performed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and interactions of specific molecules were identified using Path Designer integrated into Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA).Group wise comparison identified 53 soluble factors, which differed between the groups (P studied groups (adjusted P HIV-negative individuals despite successful long-term ART. Additional analysis of NK cells along with T-cell subsets can provide insights into the long-term effects of ART on the immune system.

  8. School adolescents’ knowledge concerning hepatitis C virus (HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Sierpińska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is a serious clinical, epidemiological and social problem inPoland.    Objective. The objective of the study was recognition of knowledge concerning HCV infection among adolescents attending post-secondary schools. Material and method. The study was conducted in 2016, among 106 school adolescents attending two post-secondary schools inRadom, by means of a questionnaire designed by the author and a standardized questionnaire according to the Polish Group of HCV Experts. Statistical analysis was performed using the software Statistica 10.0. Results. The majority of adolescents (84.5% knew that HCV causes hepatitis C.  Boys more frequently than girls knew that the disease spreads by contact with infected blood (72.0% and 50.6%, respectively. Girls significantly more often than boys knew that approximately 700,000 people inPoland are infected with HCV (54.3% and 24.0%, respectively. According to 84.1% of respondents everyone is exposed to this infection.  Boys more often than girls (72.0% and 55.6% correctly provided examples of situations in which the infection may occur. The majority of adolescents (88.5% knew that the hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV blood test indicates whether the person has an infection. A half of the examined adolescents (50.9% knew that there is currently no vaccine available to protect against hepatitis C, and that it is possible to cure the person infected with HCV. Conclusions. The level of adolescents’ knowledge concerning HCV infection varied according to the demographic and social factors. School adolescents should be provided incentives for prophylaxis of infection and participation in prophylactic programmes, in order to limit the risk of contracting hepatitis C.

  9. Small molecule inhibitors of HCV replication from Pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Uma; Mullick, Ranajoy; Kumar, Anuj; Sudha, Govindarajan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Das, Saumitra

    2014-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of end-stage liver disease. Recent advances in the last decade in anti HCV treatment strategies have dramatically increased the viral clearance rate. However, several limitations are still associated, which warrant a great need of novel, safe and selective drugs against HCV infection. Towards this objective, we explored highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors, the ellagitannins, from the crude extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit peel. The pure compounds, punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid isolated from the extract specifically blocked the HCV NS3/4A protease activity in vitro. Structural analysis using computational approach also showed that ligand molecules interact with the catalytic and substrate binding residues of NS3/4A protease, leading to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Further, punicalagin and punicalin significantly reduced the HCV replication in cell culture system. More importantly, these compounds are well tolerated ex vivo and`no observed adverse effect level' (NOAEL) was established upto an acute dose of 5000 mg/kg in BALB/c mice. Additionally, pharmacokinetics study showed that the compounds are bioavailable. Taken together, our study provides a proof-of-concept approach for the potential use of antiviral and non-toxic principle ellagitannins from pomegranate in prevention and control of HCV induced complications.

  10. Resting venous plasma adrenalin in 70-year-old men correlated positively to survival in a population study: the significance of the physical working capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1994-01-01

    in a comprehensive medical examination. INTERVENTIONS. Plasma NA and A were measured in blood samples collected after the subjects had rested in the supine position for 15 min. The subjects have now been followed for 7 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Seven years later, 115 men and 63 women had died. RESULTS. Cox...... of physical working capacity was included in the Cox regression analysis, both plasma NA and plasma A became insignificant, whereas a strong positive correlation appeared between physical working capacity and survival (P

  11. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections and associated risk factors among drug users in southwestern China: a township-level ecological study incorporating spatial regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Biao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are major public health problems. Many studies have been performed to investigate the association between demographic and behavioral factors and HIV or HCV infection. However, some of the results of these studies have been in conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data of all entrants in the 11 national methadone clinics in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected from the national database. Several spatial regression models were used to analyze specific community characteristics associated with the prevalence of HIV and HCV infection at the township level. The study enrolled 6,417 adult patients. The prevalence of HIV infection, HCV infection and co-infection was 25.4%, 30.9%, and 11.0%, respectively. Prevalence exhibited stark geographical variations in the area studied. The four regression models showed Yi ethnicity to be associated with both the prevalence of HIV and of HIV/HCV co-infection. The male drug users in some northwestern counties had greater odds of being infected with HIV than female drug users, but the opposite was observed in some eastern counties. The 'being in drug rehabilitation variable was found to be positively associated with prevalence of HCV infection in some southern townships, however, it was found to be negatively associated with it in some northern townships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The spatial modeling creates better representations of data such that public health interventions must focus on areas with high frequency of HIV/HCV to prevent further transmission of both HIV and HCV.

  12. Doubly excited 3Pe resonance states of two-electron positive ions in Debye plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yang; Kar, Sabyasachi; Jiang, Zishi; Jiang, Pinghui

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the doubly excited 3 P e resonance states of two-electron positive ions Li + , Be 2+ , B 3+ , and C 4+ by employing correlated exponential wave functions. In the framework of the stabilization method, we calculate two series (3pnp and 3dnd) of 3 P e resonances below the N = 3 threshold. The 3 P e resonance parameters (resonance energies and widths) are reported for the first time as a function of the screening parameter. For free-atomic cases, comparisons are made with the reported results and few resonance states are reported for the first time

  13. Distortion of plasma due to installation of an orifice in helium discharge positive column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi- Fard, M.; Bidadi, H.; Khorram, S.; Sobhanian, S.; Muradov, A.H.; Jallali, H.; Shirin Pour, M.

    2003-01-01

    Complicated potential structure formed at a constriction of positive column of a DC discharge with heated cathode in He at low discharge currents is investigated. According to the potential structure, electrons and ions are accelerated by the electric field and their energy distribution functions acquire multi humped shapes. Additional maximums on distribution function quickly disappear due to collisions and radial losses. The nature of current passing through the potential structure is cleared up on the base of measured distributions. Attempt was made to calculate potential drop in DL tacking into account electron energy distribution variations

  14. Mapping the Barriers and Facilitators of HCV Treatment Initiation in Methadone Maintenance Therapy Patients: Implications for Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Jessop, Amy; Maurer, Laurie; Gashat, Muhamed; Al Hajji, Mohammed; Gutierrez, Mercedes

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 70-90% of current methadone users have Hepatitis C (HCV). Current treatments have few side effects and can cure infection in 8-12 weeks, but less than 10% of methadone patients initiate treatment. Engaging this group in treatment is an important strategy to lower both morbidity and mortality from liver disease and eliminate a significant reservoir of HCV in communities. To understand how to address this treatment gap we used commercial marketing techniques called perceptual mapping and vector message modeling to analyze survey data from 100 HCV+ methadone patients from four centers in Philadelphia. Results were used to understand barriers and facilitators to treatment initiation and to devise targeted message strategies to adapt to a mobile health communication intervention. Results indicate that focusing on how treatment can make one feel "in charge", positive interactions with healthcare providers, the positive attributes of the new vs. old HCV treatments, and providing strategies to address tangible barriers to getting treatment, would be important to address in a communication intervention. These marketing methods allow for focusing on specific variables to "move" the group toward a treatment decision, making them an innovative technique to use in developing highly targeted health communication messages.

  15. Prevalence of HCV, HBV, and HIV Seropositivity among Cadavers Referred to Autopsy Hall of Legal Medicine Bureau of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Gharehdaghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of dead bodies are referred to forensic autopsy halls for medicolegal examination. They can be a source of transmission of infectious diseases through direct contact or autopsy tools. The main aim of this study was to estimate the virus infection rates in the dead bodies. One thousand consecutive dead bodies that had been referred to autopsy hall of Legal Medicine Bureau of Tehran, Iran, during 2016, were included. The blood samples were analyzed in the laboratory for detection of HBs Ag, HBs Ab, HIV Ab, and HCV Ab, after providing informed consent from legal next of kin of the dead bodies. The general characteristics of the dead bodies were also collected by a checklist. Forty-seven cases of HIV seropositivity, 80 cases of HBs Ag seropositivity, and 97 cases for HCV Ab seropositivity were found. Among them, 27 cases of HIV, 40 cases of anti-HBC positive, and 94 cases of RIBA testing positive for HCV were proved through confirmatory tests. In other words, 2.6% of the dead bodies were infected with HIV, 3.8% with HBV, and 9% with HCV. The total infection rate was 15.5%. This is a worrying risk for pathologist and autopsy technicians.

  16. Prevalence of HCV, HBV, and HIV Seropositivity among Cadavers Referred to Autopsy Hall of Legal Medicine Bureau of Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehdaghi, Jaber; Abedi Khorasgani, Mohammad Hassan; Ghadiani, Mohammad Hassan; Kazemifar, Amir Mohammad; Solhi, Hassan; Solhi, Sadra

    2017-01-01

    A large number of dead bodies are referred to forensic autopsy halls for medicolegal examination. They can be a source of transmission of infectious diseases through direct contact or autopsy tools. The main aim of this study was to estimate the virus infection rates in the dead bodies. One thousand consecutive dead bodies that had been referred to autopsy hall of Legal Medicine Bureau of Tehran, Iran, during 2016, were included. The blood samples were analyzed in the laboratory for detection of HBs Ag, HBs Ab, HIV Ab, and HCV Ab, after providing informed consent from legal next of kin of the dead bodies. The general characteristics of the dead bodies were also collected by a checklist. Forty-seven cases of HIV seropositivity, 80 cases of HBs Ag seropositivity, and 97 cases for HCV Ab seropositivity were found. Among them, 27 cases of HIV, 40 cases of anti-HBC positive, and 94 cases of RIBA testing positive for HCV were proved through confirmatory tests. In other words, 2.6% of the dead bodies were infected with HIV, 3.8% with HBV, and 9% with HCV. The total infection rate was 15.5%. This is a worrying risk for pathologist and autopsy technicians.

  17. Promiscuous prediction and conservancy analysis of CTL binding epitopes of HCV 3a viral proteome from Punjab Pakistan: an In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HCV is a positive sense RNA virus affecting approximately 180 million people world wide and about 10 million Pakistani populations. HCV genotype 3a is the major cause of infection in Pakistani population. One of the major problems of HCV infection especially in the developing countries that limits the limits the antiviral therapy is the long term treatment, high dosage and side effects. Studies of antigenic epitopes of viral sequences of a specific origin can provide an effective way to overcome the mutation rate and to determine the promiscuous binders to be used for epitope based subunit vaccine design. An in silico approach was applied for the analysis of entire HCV proteome of Pakistani origin, aimed to identify the viral epitopes and their conservancy in HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 of diverse origin. Results Immunoinformatic tools were applied for the predictive analysis of HCV 3a antigenic epitopes of Pakistani origin. All the predicted epitopes were then subjected for their conservancy analysis in HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3 of diverse origin (worldwide. Using freely available web servers, 150 MHC II epitopes were predicted as promiscuous binders against 51 subjected alleles. E2 protein represented the 20% of all the predicted MHC II epitopes. 75.33% of the predicted MHC II epitopes were (77-100% conserve in genotype 3; 47.33% and 40.66% in genotype 1 and 2 respectively. 69 MHC I epitopes were predicted as promiscuous binders against 47 subjected alleles. NS4b represented 26% of all the MHC I predicted epitopes. Significantly higher epitope conservancy was represented by genotype 3 i.e. 78.26% and 21.05% for genotype 1 and 2. Conclusions The study revealed comprehensive catalogue of potential HCV derived CTL epitopes from viral proteome of Pakistan origin. A considerable number of predicted epitopes were found to be conserved in different HCV genotype. However, the number of conserved epitopes in HCV genotype 3 was

  18. Model projections on the impact of HCV treatment in the prevention of HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Hannah; Martin, Natasha K; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is critical to eliminating HCV in Europe. We estimate impact of current and scaled-up HCV treatment with and without scaling-up opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programmes (...

  19. Effect of abacavir on sustained virologic response to HCV treatment in HIV/HCV co-infected patients, Cohere in Eurocoord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Colette; Arends, Joop; Peters, Lars

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contradicting results on the effect of abacavir (ABC) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment responses in HIV/HCV co-infected patients have been reported. We evaluated the influence of ABC on the response to pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV)-containing HCV treatment in H...

  20. Epidemiological profile and risk factors of HIV and HBV/HCV co-infection in Fujian Province, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shouli; Yan, Pingping; Yang, Tianfei; Wang, Zhenghua; Yan, Yansheng

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of HIV-infected subjects co-infected with HBV/HCV in Fujian Province, southeastern China, and identify the risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 2,028 HIV antibody-positive subjects in Fujian Province. Serum HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody were detected, and CD4 + T cell count was measured. Of the 2,028 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections was 16.22%, 3.7%, and 0.79%, respectively. Man (OR = 1.912, 95% CI: 1.371-2.667), key population (OR = 0.756, 95% CI: 0.57-0.976) and detainee (OR = 0.486, 95% CI: 0.259-0.909) were risk factors of HIV-HBV co-infection, and man (OR = 2.227, 95% CI: 1.096-4.525), minority (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.696-14.98), junior high school or lower education (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.071-5.025), intravenous drug use (OR = 38.46, 95% CI: 11.46-129.11) and detainee (OR = 5.687, 95% CI: 2.44-13.25) were risk factors of HIV-HCV co-infection. In addition, a lower mean CD4 + T cell count was measured in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects among the untreated individuals, while in the treated populations, a higher mean CD4 + T cell count was detected in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects. HIV co-infection with HBV or HCV, notably HIV-HBV co-infection, is widespread in southeastern China. Hepatitis virus screening should be included in monitoring of HIV infection, and HIV and hepatitis virus co-infection should be considered during the development of HIV antiretroviral therapy scheme. J. Med. Virol. 89:443-449, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hepatitis C virus positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas have distinct molecular features and lack BCL2 translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visco, Carlo; Wang, Jinfen; Tisi, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    apoptotic pathways, have higher proliferative index, and lack BCL2 translocations. CONCLUSIONS: HCV-positive DLBCL have distinct molecular and pathological features compared to the HCV-negative counterparts.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 26 September 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.345 www.bjcancer.com....... in lymphomagenesis, as witnessed by the curative potential of antiviral therapy in HCV-related low-grade B-cell lymphomas. METHODS: We performed a case-control study including 44 HCV-positive cases of de novo DLBCL, comparing them with 132 HCV-negative patients as controls (ratio 3 to 1). Cases and controls were...... for MYC, BCL2 and BCL6, TP53 mutations, and diagnostic specimens reviewed to exclude transformation from low-grade lymphoma. RESULTS: Compared to the HCV-negative controls, patients with HCV-positive de novo DLBCL had differential expression of genes that regulate innate immune response and modulate...

  2. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, L; Parola, M; Ripalti, A; Robino, G; Muratori, P; Bellomo, G; Carini, R; Lenzi, M; Landini, M P; Albano, E; Bianchi, F B

    2000-04-01

    Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack. The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy of isolated rat hepatocytes probed with 10 LKM1 positive sera (five from patients with AIH and five from patients with chronic HCV infection) and a rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP2D6 serum. Serum from both types of patient stained the plasma membrane of non-permeabilised cells, where the fluorescent signal could be visualised as discrete clumps. Conversely, permeabilised hepatocytes showed diffuse submembranous/cytoplasmic staining. Adsorption with recombinant CYP2D6 substantially reduced plasma membrane staining and LKM1 immunoblot reactivity. Plasma membrane staining of LKM1 colocalised with that of anti-CYP2D6. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a single 50 kDa protein recognised by anti-CYP2D6 can be isolated from the plasma membrane of intact hepatocytes. AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes. This observation supports the notion that anti-CYP2D6 autoreactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage.

  3. Determination of ramipril in human plasma and its fragmentation by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with positive electrospray ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpot Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization, to determine ramipril in human plasma. First, the proteins in human plasma were precipitated using acetonitrile, then the supernatant was extracted by ethyl acetate at pH 3 and finally, the extract was analyzed using a UPLC-QTOF- MS system. The method was validated and the coefficient of determination (R2 was > 0.999, the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ was 0.5 ng mL-1. Precision, recovery and stability were determined for three different concentrations of ramipril. RSD for this method ranged from 3.3 to 8.6 %. The intra-day mean recovery was from 65.3 to 97.3 %. In addition, the fragmentation of ramipril was studied. Due to high resolution of the spectrometer, it was possible to measure fragment masses accurately and determine their molecular and chemical formulas with high accuracy.

  4. Onset of turbulence induced by electron nonthermality in a complex plasma in presence of positively charged dust grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Sarkar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper onset of turbulence has been detected from the study of non linear dust acoustic wave propagation in a complex plasma considering electrons nonthermal and equilibrium dust charge positive. Dust grains are charged by secondary electron emission process. Our analysis shows that increase in electron nonthermality makes the grain charging process faster by reducing the magnitude of the nonadiabaticity induced pseudo viscosity. Consequently nature of dust charge variation changes from nonadiabatic to adiabatic one. For further increase of electron nonthermality, this pseudo viscosity becomes negative and hence generates a turbulent grain charging behaviour. This turbulent grain charging phenomenon is exclusively the outcome of this nonlinear study which was not found in linear analysis.

  5. Endogenous plasma estradiol in healthy men is positively correlated with cerebral cortical serotonin 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Erritzoe, David; Juul, Anders

    2010-01-01

    the effect of plasma sex hormone levels on neocortical 5-HT2A receptor binding as imaged with [18F]altanserin PET. The effect of endogenous sex-hormone levels was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Mean neocortical 5-HT2A receptor binding was positively correlated with estradiol (p......Background: Sex-hormones influence brain function and are likely to play a role in the gender predisposition to mood and anxiety disorders. Acute fluctuations of sex-hormone levels including hormonal replacement therapy appear to affect serotonergic neurotransmission, but it is unknown if baseline...... levels affect serotonergic neurotransmission. This study was undertaken to examine if baseline levels of endogenous sex hormones are associated with cerebral serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor binding in men. Methods: In a group of 72 healthy men (mean age 37.5 years ±17.4 SD, range 19.6–81.7) we studied...

  6. Advances in the treatment of HIV/HCV coinfection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlabe, Stefan; Rockstroh, Jürgen K

    2018-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have revolutionized the modern treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV). These highly efficacious, well-tolerated, all-oral HCV regimens allow cure of HCV in over 95% of HCV-monoinfected as well as HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with short treatment durations of 8-12 weeks. Areas covered: This review will address recent developments of DAA-therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in clinical trials and real life cohorts and evaluate remaining challenges, particularly resistance, drug-drug interactions, acute HCV infection and liver transplantation focusing on HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Expert opinion: Indeed, all available data have shown that HIV/HCV-coinfection has no impact on HCV-treatment outcome. Management, indication of therapy and follow-up of HCV-infection are now the same for both patient populations. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients however, require careful evaluation of potential drug-drug-interactions between HCV drugs and HIV antiretroviral therapy, medication for substance abuse and other comedications. The few remaining gaps in DAA-therapy in particular treatment of cirrhotic treatment-experienced genotype 3 infections, decompensated cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease and patients with prior DAA treatment failure have mostly been overcome by the development of new HCV agents recently licensed. Clearly, the biggest challenge globally remains the access to treatment and the inclusion of all patient populations affected in particular people who inject drugs (PWID).

  7. Intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells from HCV-infected patients show an exhausted phenotype but can inhibit HCV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, E; Bordoni, V; Sacchi, A; Visco-Comandini, U; Montalbano, M; Taibi, C; Casetti, R; Lalle, E; D'Offizi, G; Capobianchi, M R; Agrati, C

    2018-01-02

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence results from inefficiencies of both innate and adaptive immune responses to eradicate the infection. A functional impairment of circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was described but few data are available on Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in the liver that, however, represents the battlefield in the HCV/host interaction. Aim of this work was to compare circulating and intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells in chronic HCV-infected patients (HCV pos ) and in HCV-negative (HCV neg ) subjects. Phenotypic and functional analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Anti-HCV activity was analyzed by using an in vitro autologous liver culture system. Independently from HCV infection, the liver was enriched of Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells expressing an effector/activated phenotype. In contrast, an enrichment of PD-1 expressing Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was observed both in the peripheral blood and in the liver of HCV pos patients, probably due to a persistent antigenic stimulation. Moreover, a lower frequency of IFN-γ producing Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells was observed in the liver of HCV pos patients, suggesting a functional impairment in the cytokine production in HCV pos liver. Despite this hypo-responsiveness, intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells are able to exert an anti-HCV activity after specific stimulation. Altogether, our data show that HCV infection induced a dysregulation of intrahepatic Vγ9Vδ2 T cells that maintain their anti-HCV activity after specific stimulation. A study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of the antiviral activity may be useful to identify new pathways able to improve Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells intrahepatic function during HCV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a New Structural Class of Broadly Acting HCV Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors Leading to the Discovery of MK-8876

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, Casey C.; Palani, Anandan; Chang, Wei; Holloway, M. Katharine; Lesburg, Charles A.; Li, Peng; Liverton, Nigel; Meinke, Peter T.; Olsen, David B.; Peng, Xuanjia; Soll, Richard M.; Ummat, Ajay; Wu, Jie; Wu, Jin; Zorn, Nicolas; Ludmerer, Steven W. (Merck); (WuXi App Tec)

    2017-07-25

    Studies directed at developing a broadly acting non-nucleoside inhibitor of HCV NS5B led to the discovery of a novel structural class of 5-aryl benzofurans that simultaneously interact with both the palm I and palm II binding regions. An initial candidate was potent in vitro against HCV GT1a and GT1b replicons, and induced multi-log reductions in HCV viral load when orally dosed to chronic GT1 infected chimpanzees. However, in vitro potency losses against clinically relevant GT1a variants prompted a further effort to develop compounds with sustained potency across a broader array of HCV genotypes and mutants. Ultimately, a biology and medicinal chemistry collaboration led to the discovery of the development candidate MK-8876. MK-8876 demonstrated a pan-genotypic potency profile and maintained potency against clinically relevant mutants. It demonstrated moderate bioavailability in rats and dogs, but showed low plasma clearance characteristics consistent with once-daily dosing. Herein we describe the efforts which led to the discovery of MK-8876, which advanced into Phase 1 monotherapy studies for evaluation and characterization as a component of an all-oral direct-acting drug regimen for the treatment of chronic HCV infection.

  9. Particle and power balances of hot-filament discharge plasmas in a multi-dipole device in the presence of a positively biased electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.H.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma potential is typically assumed to float above an anode potential by a few times of an electron temperature (T /e). The difference between the plasma potential and the anode potential can be estimated by considering the particle production and loss. However, it has been reported experimentally that the plasma potential of a steady state plasma can be more negative than the anode potential with a potential dip (-- T /e) in front of the anode. This paper describes particle and power balances to estimate the bulk plasma potential of a hot-filament discharge plasma produced in a multi-dipole plasma device. The bulk plasma potential dependence on positive DC bias applied to an anode is analyzed, and the predicted characteristics of the plasma potential dependence are compared to the experiment. A steady state potential dip in front of an anode is experimentally observed using emissive probes with the zero emission inflection point method, and the conditions for the potential dip formation are derived

  10. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Coinfection

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    Claudio M. Mastroianni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Several studies have shown that HIV infection promotes accelerated HCV hepatic fibrosis progression, even with HIV replication under full antiretroviral control. The pathogenesis of accelerated hepatic fibrosis among HIV/HCV coinfected individuals is complex and multifactorial. The most relevant mechanisms involved include direct viral effects, immune/cytokine dysregulation, altered levels of matrix metalloproteinases and fibrosis biomarkers, increased oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, HIV-associated gut depletion of CD4 cells, and microbial translocation. In addition, metabolic alterations, heavy alcohol use, as well drug use, may have a potential role in liver disease progression. Understanding the pathophysiology and regulation of liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infection may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for the management of all patients with ongoing liver disease. In this review, we therefore discuss the evidence and potential molecular mechanisms involved in the accelerated liver fibrosis seen in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV.

  12. Observation of bulk-ion heating in a tokamak plasma by application of positive and negative current pulses in TRIAM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toi, K; Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Mitarai, O; Kawai, Y; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-09-01

    A positive of negative current pulse induced by a pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field increases the bulk-ion temperature of the plasma centre two to three times, without macroscopic plasma destruction. The decay time of the raised ion temperature agrees well with the prediction from neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the positive current pulse is limited by violent current disruption, and that of the negative current by a lack of MHD equilibrium which is due to a marked reduction of the total plasma current. The relevant current-driven instabilities in the turbulent heating of a tokamak plasma, skin heating and inward transfer of the energy deposition in the skin layer are briefly discussed.

  13. Hiv/hbv, hiv/hcv and hiv/htlv-1 co infection among injecting drug user patients hospitalized at the infectious disease ward of a training hospital in iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.M.; Etemadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for HBV, HCV and HTLV-I co-infection in the Iranian HIV positive Injecting Drug Users (IDU) patients admitted in hospital. Analyses were based on 154 male IDU patients admitted in Infectious disease ward of Razi Hospital, Ahwaz, Iran, from April 2001 to March 2003. All of them had been tested for HIV infection (Elisa-antibody and Western blot), HBV surface antigen, HCV antibody and HTLV-1 antibody. One hundred and four patients (67.53%) were identified as HIV infected. Among HIV infected, HB surface antigen, HCV antibody and HTLV-I antibody were positive in 44.23% and 74.04% and 16.33% patients respectively. HCV/HBV/HIV and HCV/HBV/HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection were 20.20% and 8.65% respectively. Co-infection with HBV or HCV or HTLV-1 is common among hospitalized HIV-infected IDU patients in the region of study. HIV disease outcomes appear to be adversely affected by HBV/HCV/HTLV-I co-infection, so identification of these viral infections is recommended as routine tests for this population. (author)

  14. The epidiemiologic profile of HCV infected Hispanic patients from the southern area of Puerto Rico since 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ruiz, David; Rosado Carrión, Bárbara; Bredy, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies in adults done in San Juan and Puerto Rico have showed 6.3% and 2.2% of the population respectively, are positive for antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV). It is been suggested that Hispanics have a lower sustained virological response to current therapy. The epidemiologic profile, the response to treatment and the risk factors to the poor response to treatment of HCV patients have not been studied in the southern area of Puerto Rico. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 46 medical records from January 2005 to March 2011. We search for sociodemographic variables, comorbidities, the HCV genotype, the human immunodeficiency virus profile, history of alcoholism and the patients who were treated with peginterferon alpha 2b and ribavirin, and their response to treatment. Our HCV infected population is male predominant (63%), and the most common route of transmission were intravenous drug abuse (37%) and blood transfusions (33%). Only 37% reported alcoholism. The most common comorbidities found in our population were hypertension (35%), diabetes mellitus (20%), hypothyroidism (7%) and dyslipidemia (7%). Most common genotype found in our population was type 1 (61%). From the 46 patients, 10 patients were treated, being genotype 1 the most common. Overall, our population showed an epidemiological profile similar to other Hispanic groups in the literature, which should motivate us to continue exploring these associations, in an effort to improve the management of these patients.

  15. Infiltration of peritumoural but tumour-free parenchyma with IgG4-positive plasma cells in hilar cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resheq, Yazid J; Quaas, Alexander; von Renteln, Daniel; Schramm, Christoph; Lohse, Ansgar W; Lüth, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Recently, new guidelines for diagnosing IgG4-associated cholangitis have been published devaluing the diagnostic significance of IgG4-positive plasma cells and steroid trials. We sought to evaluate the utility of IgG4-positive plasma cells in discriminating IgG4-associated cholangitis from hilar cholangiocarcinoma and autoimmune pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma under conditions when malignancy is likely to be missed. Resection specimens obtained from patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma or hepatocellular carcinoma were re-evaluated for IgG4-positivity. Histological analysis focussed on peritumoural but tumour-free sections. Perioperative biochemical and clinical data were reviewed. Nineteen patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and 29 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were eligible for histological re-evaluation. Six of 19 (32%) patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and 5 of 29 (17%) patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were IgG4-positive (≥20 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high power field). Patients with IgG4-positive hilar cholangiocarcinoma showed significantly higher levels of serum total bilirubin (3.6mg/dl vs. 1.8mg/dl; Philar cholangiocarcinoma. IgG4-positive plasma cells are of limited utility especially in distinguishing hilar cholangiocarcinoma from IgG4-associated cholangitis even when combined with clinical parameters and may be misleading under conditions when malignancy is missed. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of soft x-ray diagnostic on the COMPASS tokamak for investigations of sawteeth crash neighborhood and of plasma position using fast inversion methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Imríšek, Martin; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Mlynář, Jan; Odstrčil, T.; Odstrčil, M.; Ficker, O.; Pinzon, J.R.; Ehrlacher, C.; Pánek, Radomír; Hron, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 11 (2014), 11E433-11E433 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/20./. Atlanta, 01.06.2014-05.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Inversion methods * Plasma positions * Sawteeth * Soft X-ray Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.614, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4894528

  17. The relationships between IFNL4 genotype, intrahepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression and interferon treatment response differs in HCV-1 compared with HCV-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J A; Congiu, M; Bonanzinga, S; Sandhu, M K; Kia, Y H; Bell, S J; Nguyen, T; Iser, D M; Visvanathan, K; Sievert, W; Bowden, D S; Desmond, P V; Thompson, A J

    2015-08-01

    The biological mechanism underlying the association between IFNL4/IFNL3 polymorphism and peginterferon/ribavirin (PR) response in HCV-1 is thought to involve differential intrahepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression. HCV-3 is more sensitive to PR, but there are no studies of the association between IFNL4 polymorphism, PR treatment response and liver interferon-stimulated gene expression in HCV-3. We evaluated the association between IFNL4/IFNL3 genotypes, PR treatment outcomes and intrahepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression, according to HCV genotype. HCV-1 and HCV-3 patients who received PR therapy were identified. IFNL3 (rs12979860) and IFNL4 genotype (rs368234815) were determined. A second cohort with stored liver specimens was identified. Expression of ISGs was measured by rt-PCR. Two hundred and fifty-nine patients were identified: 55% HCV-1, 45% HCV-3. IFNL4 genotype frequency was TT/TT 44%, TT/ΔG 42% andΔG/ΔG 14%. Linkage disequilibrium with IFNL3 genotype was high (r(2) = 0.98). The association between IFNL4 genotype and PR response was attenuated in HCV-3 vs. HCV-1 (HCV-3: SVR 89% vs. 76% vs. 72% for TT/TT vs. TT/ΔG vs. ΔG/ΔG, P = 0.09; HCV-1: SVR: 82% vs. 29% vs. 24%, P < 0.001). Intrahepatic ISG expression was evaluated in 92 patients; 61% HCV-1. The association between IFNL4 genotype and liver ISG expression was significantly different for HCV-3 vs. HCV-1 (P-value for interaction = 0.046), with levels of interferon-stimulated gene expression being highest in HCV-1 patients who carried a poor-response IFNL4 genotype. The relationship between IFNL4 genotype and PR treatment response as well as intrahepatic interferon-stimulated gene expression differs between HCV-1 and HCV-3. These data suggest fundamental differences in host-virus interactions according to HCV genotype. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Chronic HCV hepatopathy and cryoglobulinemia. The associated clinical spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, R; Leone, N; Maiocco, I A; Modena, V; Arena, V; Marietti, G; Puiatti, P; Palmas, F; Rizzetto, M; Ponzetto, A

    1999-01-01

    The hepatitis C infection (HCV) has numerous extrahepatic manifestations owing to the systemic nature of the infection itself. HCV infects the cells that carry a CD 81 receptor and show a marked tropism for hepatocytes, bone marrow staminal cells and circulating lymphomonocytes. One consequence of this tropism is the activation of B lymphocyte clones with the consequent production of autoantibodies and cryoglobulins. The secondary event is the formation of circulating immune complexes which, having precipitated at an intravascular level, may cause part of the extrahepatic manifestations associated with these infections. This retrospective study evaluated the manifestations correlated and/or associated with HCV hepatitis and mixed cryoglobulinaemia. This analysis showed that 75% of consecutively studied patients reveal clinically important extrahepatic manifestations. This underlines the "broad spectrum" action played by the hepatitis C virus in the host organism.

  19. Consequences of extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C viral infection (HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pawełczyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV is a primarily hepatotropic virus. However, numerous extrahepatic symptoms are observed in patients chronically infected with HCV, e.g. cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, kidney diseases, disturbances of the central and peripheral nervous system, thyroid gland, pancreas, lymph nodes and pituitary gland, that develop at various times after the infection. Complex mechanisms underlie these processes, both molecular, related to direct effects of the virus on cells or tissues and indirect mechanisms, resulting from the response of the immune system to infection (via cytokines or oxidative stress, and from the antiviral treatment used. Understanding these mechanisms may contribute to the definition of new prognostic factors, important for the early diagnosis of the infection, which in turn may improve treatment efficacy.This paper is a review of the incidence of selected extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection and their underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors.

  20. Detection of HIV and HCV RNA in semen from Brazilian coinfected men using multiplex PCR before and after semen washing Detecção do RNA do HIV e HCV em sêmen de homens brasileiros, usando PCR multiplex antes e depois do "semen washing"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Liliane Motta do Canto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prolonged survival of patients under HAART has resulted in new demands for assisted reproductive technologies. HIV serodiscordant couples wish to make use of assisted reproduction techniques in order to avoid viral transmission to the partner or to the newborn. It is therefore essential to test the effectiveness of techniques aimed at reducing HIV and HCV loads in infected semen using molecular biology tests. METHODS: After seminal analysis, semen samples from 20 coinfected patients were submitted to cell fractioning and isolation of motile spermatozoa by density gradient centrifugation and swim-up. HIV and HCV RNA detection tests were performed with RNA obtained from sperm, seminal plasma and total semen. RESULTS: In pre-washing semen, HIV RNA was detected in 100% of total semen samples, whereas HCV RNA was concomitantly amplified in only one specimen. Neither HIV nor HCV were detected either in the swim-up or in the post-washing semen fractions. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of HIV and/or HCV shedding in semen by density gradient centrifugation followed by swim-up is an efficient method. These findings lead us to believe that, although semen is rarely found to contain HCV, semen processing is highly beneficial for HIV/HCV coinfected individuals.O aumento da sobrevida dos pacientes que utilizam terapêutica antiretroviral altamente eficaz (HAART- Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy trouxe uma nova demanda de casais sorodiscordantes que desejam filhos. Como esses casais não podem abandonar o uso de preservativos, torna-se indispensável tratar o sêmen infectado com técnicas laboratoriais eficazes que além de isolar os melhores espermatozóides, reduzam a carga viral do HIV e HCV a níveis indetectáveis. Para isso, são utilizadas técnicas de semen washing, associadas a testes ultra sensíveis de biologia molecular. Após análise seminal, sêmen de 20 pacientes co-infectados HIV-HCV foram submetidos a fracionamento celular e

  1. Characteristics of co-infections by HCV and HBV among Brazilian patients infected by HIV-1 and/or HTLV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Moreira

    infection are distinct for each agent. Retroviral co-infection increases the risk of a positive AgHBs, but HTLV-1 infection seems to increase the likelihood of HCV spontaneous clearance.

  2. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.

  3. Characterization of vaniprevir, a hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitor, in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection: safety, antiviral activity, resistance, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawitz, Eric; Sulkowski, Mark; Jacobson, Ira; Kraft, Walter K; Maliakkal, Benedict; Al-Ibrahim, Mohamed; Gordon, Stuart C; Kwo, Paul; Rockstroh, Juergen Kurt; Panorchan, Paul; Miller, Michelle; Caro, Luzelena; Barnard, Richard; Hwang, Peggy May; Gress, Jacqueline; Quirk, Erin; Mobashery, Niloufar

    2013-09-01

    Vaniprevir is a competitive inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease that has potent anti-HCV activity in preclinical models. This placebo-controlled dose-ranging study assessed the safety, tolerability, and antiviral efficacy of vaniprevir monotherapy in patients with genotype 1 chronic HCV infection. Treatment-naive and treatment-experienced non-cirrhotic adult patients with baseline HCV RNA >10(6)IU/ml were randomized to receive placebo or vaniprevir at doses of 125 mg qd, 600 mg qd, 25mg bid, 75 mg bid, 250 mg bid, 500 mg bid, and 700 mg bid for 8 days. Forty patients (82.5% male, 75% genotype 1a) received at least one dose of placebo or vaniprevir. After 1 week of vaniprevir, the decrease in HCV RNA from baseline ranged from 1.8 to 4.6 log₁₀IU/ml across all treatment groups, and there was a greater than dose-proportional increase in vaniprevir exposure at doses above 75 mg bid. The most commonly reported drug-related adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea (n=5) and nausea (n=5). No pattern of laboratory or ECG abnormalities was observed, all AEs resolved during the study, and there were no discontinuations due to AEs. No serious AEs were reported. Resistance-associated amino acid variants were identified at positions R155 and D168 in patients infected with genotype 1a virus. Vaniprevir monotherapy demonstrated potent antiviral activity in patients with chronic genotype 1 HCV infection, and was generally well tolerated with no serious AEs or discontinuations due to AEs. Further development of vaniprevir, including studies in combination with other anti-HCV agents, is ongoing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. IL-10 and IL-28B gene variants as predictors of sustained response to peginterferon and ribavirin therapy in chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Ikram; Mouelhi, Leila; Rabia, Noor A; Ghazoueni, Ezzedine; Almawi, Wassim Y; Loueslati, Besma Yacoubi

    2017-04-05

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays an important role in the immunity to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Insofar as IL-10 variants are associated with altered levels of IL-10, previous studies that examined the association of IL-10 polymorphisms with the susceptibility to and progression of chronic HCV, and response to anti-viral treatment were inconsistent. We investigated the association between common IL-10 variants in the intron and the promotor region with HCV and associated features. Study subjects comprised 120 patients infected with HCV-1b, and treated with Peg-IFN/RBV. Genotyping of six IL-10 promoter variants in the intron region (rs1878672, rs1554286, rs1518111) and promotor region (rs1800872, rs1800871, rs1800896) were done by real-time PCR. Compared to G/G, carriage of IL-10 rs1800896 (-1082A/G) A/A genotype was more frequent in patients with sustained virological response (SVR). The decline in viral load over the first 12weeks of treatment was more pronounced in rs1800896 A/A genotype carriers, compared to G/G genotype carriers, and was irrespective of the treatment dosage. Carriage of rs1800896 A/A genotype was positively associated with improvement in viral load decline, which was simultaneous, with and without carriage of the common favourable IL-28B variant. Carriage of both IL-10 rs1800896 G/G and IL-28B non-favourable genotype was associated with twice the risk of getting slow decline of viral load during treatment. Haploview analysis identified ACGCTA and CCGCTG haplotypes to be linked with excellent PegIFN/RBV cure rate, and complete HCV eradication. On the other hand, ACGCTG and CCGCTA haplotypes were associated with resistance to PegIFN/RBV treatment. IL-10 rs1800896 variant markedly influences the clinical outcome of HCV infection, and is a determinant of the response to HCV treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism at position 45 in adiponectin gene with plasma adiponectin level and insulin resistance in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoyu; Li Xisheng; Lin Xiahong; Gao Hongzhi; Li Qiulan; Zha Jinshun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphism at position 45 (SNP45) in adiponectin gene with plasma adiponectin level and insulin resistance in obesity in Quanzhou area of Fujian province. Methods: Two hundred and forty-eight patients with obesity and 225 normal control subjects were enrolled in this study.Fasting insulin (FINS) were measured by radioimmunoassay and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured by BECKMAN DXC800 biochemistry analyzer. Body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio,homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Plasma adiponectin levels were examined by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbentassy. The adiponectin gene SNP45 was identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: (1) Frequencies of GG+GT genotype in obesity group and normal control group were 61% and 44% respectively (χ 2 =14.182, P<0.01), and G allele frequencies were 35% and 25% (χ 2 =10.708, P<0.01). (2) In obesity group,the subjects with SNP45 GG+GT genotype had higher TG and LDL-C levels than those with TT genotype (t=2.604, P<0.01; t=5.507, P<0.01), and had lower adiponectin level than those with TT genotype (t=2.275, P<0.05), and had significantly lower HDL-L level than those with TT genotype (t=10.100, P< 0.01). (3) In normal control group,the subjects with SNP45 GG +GT genotype had significantly lower adiponectin,TG,TC levels than those with TT genotype (t=2.510, P<0.05; t=2.922, P<0.01; t=3.272, P< 0.01). (4) Logistic analysis proved that the SNP45 GG+GT genotype in obesity group was associated with decreased risk of plasma adiponectin level (OR=0.810, 95% CI : 0.673-0.975, P<0.05), and with increased risk of HOMA-IR (OR=1.746, 95% CI : 1.060-2.875, P<0.05). The SNP45 GG+GT genotype in normal control group was associated with increased risk of HOMA-IR (OR=3

  6. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, L; Parola, M; Ripalti, A; Robino, G; Muratori, P; Bellomo, G; Carini, R; Lenzi, M; Landini, M; Albano, E; Bianchi, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack.
METHODS—The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy of isolated rat hepatocytes probed with 10 LKM1 positive sera (five from patients with AIH and five from patients with chronic HCV infection) and a rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP2D6 serum.
RESULTS—Serum from both types of patient stained the plasma membrane of non-permeabilised cells, where the fluorescent signal could be visualised as discrete clumps. Conversely, permeabilised hepatocytes showed diffuse submembranous/cytoplasmic staining. Adsorption with recombinant CYP2D6 substantially reduced plasma membrane staining and LKM1 immunoblot reactivity. Plasma membrane staining of LKM1 colocalised with that of anti-CYP2D6. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a single 50 kDa protein recognised by anti-CYP2D6 can be isolated from the plasma membrane of intact hepatocytes.
CONCLUSIONS—AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes. This observation supports the notion that anti-CYP2D6 autoreactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage.


Keywords: liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1; autoimmunity; autoimmune hepatitis; hepatitis C virus infection; confocal microscopy PMID:10716687

  7. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required.

  8. Associations between five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and plasma levels of monoamine metabolite in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenya; Miura, Itaru; Kanno-Nozaki, Keiko; Horikoshi, Sho; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Yabe, Hirooki

    2015-12-15

    The five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia symptoms is the most common multiple-factor model used in analyses; its use may improve evaluation of symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Plasma monoamine metabolite levels are possible indicators of clinical symptoms or response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. We investigated the association between five-factor model components and plasma monoamine metabolites levels to explore the model's biological basis. Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (HVA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography in 65 Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Significant negative correlation between plasma 5-HIAA levels and the depression/anxiety component was found. Furthermore, significant positive correlation was found between plasma MHPG levels and the excitement component. Plasma HVA levels were not correlated with any five-factor model component. These results suggest that the five-factor model of the PANSS may have a biological basis, and may be useful for elucidating the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Assessment using the five-factor model may enable understanding of monoaminergic dysfunction, possibly allowing more appropriate medication selection. Further studies of a larger number of first-episode schizophrenia patients are needed to confirm and extend these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. IP-10 can be measured in dried plasma spots in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2012-01-01

    The chemokine IP-10 (CXCL10) is a candidate marker for hepatitis C virus (HCV) fibrosis monitoring. The aim of this proof-of-concept study is to assess if IP-10 measurements from dried plasma spots (DPS) are accurate in HCV-infected patients with either minimal or significant fibrosis. We measured...... IP-10 levels in plasma and DPS of 21 HCV-infected patients with cirrhosis and 19 patients with no/little fibrosis (determined with FibroScan). Cirrhotic patients had significantly higher levels of IP-10 compared to patients with minimal fibrosis. DPS and plasma measurements of IP-10 are comparable...

  10. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, M.; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, V.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stages of transient luminous events (TLEs) occurring in the upper atmosphere of the Earth are, in a certain pressure range, controlled by the streamer mechanism. This paper presents the results of the first laboratory experiments to study the TLE streamer phenomena under conditions close to those of the upper atmosphere. Spectrally and highly spatiotemporally resolved emissions originating from radiative states {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) (second positive system) and \\text{N}2+≤ft({{\\text{B}}2}Σu+\\right) (first negative system) have been recorded from the positive streamer discharge. Periodic ionizing events were generated in a barrier discharge arrangement at a pressure of 4 torr of synthetic air, i.e. simulating the pressure conditions at altitudes of ≃37 km. Employing Abel inversion on the radially scanned streamer emission and a 2D fitting procedure, access was obtained to the local spectral signatures within the over 106  m s-1 fast propagating streamers. The reduced electric field strength distribution within the streamer head was determined from the ratio of the \\text{N}2+/{{\\text{N}}2} band intensities with peak values up to 500 Td and overall duration of about 10 ns. The 2D profiles of the streamer head electric fields were used as an experimentally obtained input for kinetic simulations of the streamer-induced air plasma chemistry. The radial and temporal computed distribution of the ground vibrational levels of the radiative states involved in the radiative transitions analyzed (337.1 nm and 391.5 nm), atomic oxygen, nitrogen, nitric oxide and ozone concentrations are vizualized and discussed in comparison with available models of the streamer phase of Blue Jet discharges in the stratosphere.

  11. lon-beam analysis of plasma of HIV-Aids positive individual patients and comparison to CD4 counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, J.A.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C.; Maqutu, M.L.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C; Mohammed, A.; Tarr, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: HIV-Aids related diseases have claimed the lives of many individuals, especially those that are economically active. This economic burden has crippled many economies since many of the lives claimed are those of individuals with special skills. However, the pathogenesis of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection is until present not fully understood. Elements such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se are incorporated into the structure of many enzymes and are therefore essential to the enzyme function. The focus of this study is the correlation of trace element concentrations, determined by IBA, and the CD4 count. Blood obtained from 100 HIV sero-positive males and females attending clinics at the National Health Training College in Maseru metropolis, Lesotho. The CD4 cells of the samples were determined by flow cytometry (Cytoflow SL - S using CD4/CD45 monoclonal antibody and SSC/F12 getting strategy). Afterwards the plasma specimens were freeze dried and then pulverized into palettes. The palettes were coated with carbon and then irradiated with a proton beam of 3 MeV energy. X-ray emission and backscattering data were obtained and then quantified with various computational software. (author)

  12. An overview of the software architecture of the plasma position, current and density realtime controller of the FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncagni, Luca; Vitelli, Riccardo; Carnevale, Daniele; Galperti, Cristian; Artaserse, Giovanni; Pucci, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We implement the FTU PPCDC system using the MARTe Framework. • We describe how it is logically divided and how it works. • We show experimental examples to describe how it works. - Abstract: Experimental fusion devices requires flexible control systems with a modern architecture, which allows the controller to be distributed and modular. The aforementioned requirements are all fulfilled by MARTe, a multi-platform framework for the development of low-latency hard-real-time control system already used with success in many European machine, it was decided to adopt it as the basis of the new FTU Plasma Position Current Density Control (PPCDC) system and the other coupled realtime systems. The main rationale to revamp the FTU control system was to use new technologies and to easily test different control solutions. MARTe has been proved effective from both the points of view, being platform independent, and having a modular architecture which completely separate the control algorithms from the rest of the infrastructure. We report on the new controller deployed at FTU. In particular, after a brief introduction on the machine, we illustrate the structure of the feedback system, together with a detailed analysis and appropriate experimental examples, of the various GAMs (modules) which make up the controller

  13. lon-beam analysis of plasma of HIV-Aids positive individual patients and comparison to CD4 counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906. Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Maqutu, M.L.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C; Mohammed, A. [HIV-Aids Unit, Cape Peninsula Universily of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535, (South Africa); Tarr, S. [National Health Training College, Private Bag A18, Maseru, Lesotho (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: HIV-Aids related diseases have claimed the lives of many individuals, especially those that are economically active. This economic burden has crippled many economies since many of the lives claimed are those of individuals with special skills. However, the pathogenesis of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection is until present not fully understood. Elements such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se are incorporated into the structure of many enzymes and are therefore essential to the enzyme function. The focus of this study is the correlation of trace element concentrations, determined by IBA, and the CD4 count. Blood obtained from 100 HIV sero-positive males and females attending clinics at the National Health Training College in Maseru metropolis, Lesotho. The CD4 cells of the samples were determined by flow cytometry (Cytoflow SL - S using CD4/CD45 monoclonal antibody and SSC/F12 getting strategy). Afterwards the plasma specimens were freeze dried and then pulverized into palettes. The palettes were coated with carbon and then irradiated with a proton beam of 3 MeV energy. X-ray emission and backscattering data were obtained and then quantified with various computational software. (author)

  14. An overview of the software architecture of the plasma position, current and density realtime controller of the FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, Luca, E-mail: luca.boncagni@enea.it [EURATOM - ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Centre, Division of Fusion Physics, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vitelli, Riccardo; Carnevale, Daniele [Department of Computer Science, Systems and Production, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Galperti, Cristian, E-mail: galperti@ifp.cnr.it [EURATOM - ENEA - CNR Fusion Association, CNR-IFP via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milan (Italy); Artaserse, Giovanni [EURATOM - ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Centre, Division of Fusion Physics, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pucci, Daniele [Dipartimento Antonio Ruberti, Universit degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • We implement the FTU PPCDC system using the MARTe Framework. • We describe how it is logically divided and how it works. • We show experimental examples to describe how it works. - Abstract: Experimental fusion devices requires flexible control systems with a modern architecture, which allows the controller to be distributed and modular. The aforementioned requirements are all fulfilled by MARTe, a multi-platform framework for the development of low-latency hard-real-time control system already used with success in many European machine, it was decided to adopt it as the basis of the new FTU Plasma Position Current Density Control (PPCDC) system and the other coupled realtime systems. The main rationale to revamp the FTU control system was to use new technologies and to easily test different control solutions. MARTe has been proved effective from both the points of view, being platform independent, and having a modular architecture which completely separate the control algorithms from the rest of the infrastructure. We report on the new controller deployed at FTU. In particular, after a brief introduction on the machine, we illustrate the structure of the feedback system, together with a detailed analysis and appropriate experimental examples, of the various GAMs (modules) which make up the controller.

  15. Investigation of positive roles of hydrogen plasma treatment for interface passivation based on silicon heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Liu, Wenzhu; Liu, Jinning; Shi, Jianhua; Meng, Fanying; Liu, Zhengxin; Guo, Wanwu; Bao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The positive roles of H 2 -plasma treatment (HPT) have been investigated by using different treatment procedures in view of the distinctly improved passivation performance of amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions (SHJs). It has been found that a hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film and crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface with a high stretching mode (HSM) is detrimental to passivation. A moderate pre-HPT introduces atomic H, which plays an effective tuning role in decreasing the interfacial HSM; unfortunately, an epitaxial layer is formed. Further improvement in passivation can be achieved in terms of increasing the HSM of a-Si:H film treated by appropriate post-HPT based on the a-Si:H thickness. The minority carrier lifetime of crystalline wafers can be improved by treated films containing a certain quantity of crystallites. The microstructure factor R and the maximum intensity of the dielectric function ε 2max have been found to be critical microstructure parameters that describe high-quality a-Si:H passivation layers, which are associated with the amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition phase induced by multi-step HPT. Finally, the open circuit voltage and conversion efficiency of the SHJ solar cell can be improved by implementing an effective HPT process. (paper)

  16. Factors associated with the effectiveness of plasma exchange for the treatment of NMO-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Min; Pyun, So Young; Kang, Bong-Hui; Kim, Jimin; Kim, Kwang-Kuk

    2013-08-01

    To identify factors associated with plasma exchange response in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 31 NMO-IgG-positive patients receiving plasma exchange for steroid-resistant exacerbations were analyzed. Functional improvement was observed in 65% of the patients. A lower baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale score was associated with favorable response (p = 0.040). Patients without cord atrophy had a higher success rate than patients with atrophy (p = 0.016). Levels of NMO-IgG did not differ between responders and non-responders before and after plasma exchange. In conclusion, a minimal pre-existing disability is the primary determinant of the effectiveness of plasma exchange.

  17. Modulational instability of ultra-low-frequency shear dust Alfvén waves in a plasma medium of positive and negatively charged dust fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of finite amplitude ultra-low-frequency shear dust Alfvén (SDA) waves, and their modulational instability in a magnetized plasma medium of positive and negatively charged dust fluids have been theoretically investigated by using the reductive perturbation method. The derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived to examine the stability analysis of such SDA waves. It is found that the SDA waves propagating in such an opposite polarity dust plasma medium are modulationally unstable, and that the instability criterion and the growth rate of these unstable SDA waves in such a novel opposite polarity dust plasma medium are found to be significantly different from those in electron–ion or electron–positron plasma media. The implications of the present investigation in different space environments and laboratory devices are briefly discussed.

  18. HBV and HCV test uptake and correlates among men who have sex with men in China: a nationwide cross-sectional online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Thomas; Pan, Stephen W; Tang, Weiming; Guo, Wilson; Tucker, Joseph D

    2018-05-19

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries, including China. WHO guidelines recommend men who have sex with men (MSM) receive HBV and HCV screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of MSM in China who have HBV and HCV tested and identify correlates of test uptake. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey of young MSM in China. Respondents were asked to report previous HBV and HCV testing, sociodemographic information, sexual risk factors for hepatitis infection, other STI testing and primary care physician (PCP) status. Associations were analysed by logistic regression. 503 eligible MSM completed the survey. 41.0% (206/503) of MSM had HCV tested, and 38.2% (60/157) of MSM with no or uncertain HBV vaccination had HBV tested. In multivariate analysis, HCV testing was correlated with HBV testing (adjusted OR (aOR) 22.98, 95% CI 12.11 to 43.60), HIV testing (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 1.92 to 6.91), HIV-positive status (aOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.98) and having a PCP (aOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.98). Among MSM with no or uncertain HBV vaccination, HBV testing was correlated with HCV testing (aOR 80.85, 95% CI 20.80 to 314.33), HIV testing (aOR 5.26, 95% CI 1.81 to 15.28), HIV-positive status (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 1.22 to 7.37) and having a PCP (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.00 to 7.26). Our data suggest many young MSM in China have not received hepatitis testing. HCV testing rates were lower than those recently reported among MSM in Australia and the USA. The strong correlation between HBV and HCV testing suggests bundled testing interventions may be useful for MSM in China. Men with a PCP were more likely to have received hepatitis testing, consistent with literature demonstrating the importance of primary care in expanding access to testing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No

  19. HCV infection among Saudi population: high prevalence of genotype 4 and increased viral clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim

    Full Text Available HCV is a major etiological agent of liver disease with a high rate of chronic evolution. The virus possesses 6 genotypes with many subtypes. The rate of spontaneous clearance among HCV infected individuals denotes a genetic determinant factor. The current study was designed in order to estimate the rate of HCV infection and ratio of virus clearance among a group of infected patients in Saudi Arabia from 2008 to 2011. It was additionally designed to determine the genotypes of the HCV in persistently infected patients. HCV seroprevalence was conducted on a total of 15,323 individuals. Seropositive individuals were tested by Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assay to determine the ratio of persistently infected patients to those who showed spontaneous viral clearance. HCV genotyping on random samples from persistently infected patients were conducted based on the differences in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 7.3% of the totally examined sera. A high percentage of the HCV infected individuals experienced virus clearance (48.4%. HCV genotyping revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 4, the latter represented 97.6% of the tested strains. Evidences of the widespread of the HCV genotype 4 and a high rate of HCV virus clearance were found in Saudi Arabia.

  20. 21 CFR 610.47 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... Disease Agents § 610.47 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an establishment... after a donor tests reactive for evidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection when tested under § 610...

  1. Clinical management of drug-drug interactions in HCV therapy: Challenges and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, D.M.; Back, D.; Buggisch, P.; Buti, M.; Craxi, A.; Foster, G.; Klinker, H.; Larrey, D.; Nikitin, I.; Pol, S. van der; Puoti, M.; Romero-Gomez, M.; Wedemeyer, H.; Zeuzem, S.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients often take multiple co-medications to treat adverse events related to HCV therapy, or to manage other co-morbidities. Drug-drug interactions associated with this polypharmacy are relatively new to the field of HCV pharmacotherapy. With the advent of the

  2. Anti-HCV antibody among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common routes of infection and ... drug users (IDU)7. HCV occurrence among people living with HIV has long been reported. This is of great medical impor- tance as 80% HCV infection are ..... before transfusion or organ transplantation.

  3. The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Spousal HCV Infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15–59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.8–19.6. HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7% than the wives (12.1%; P<0.001. Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6–2.9 and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6–3.1 for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection can mimic type 1 (antinuclear antibody positive) autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlotsky, J M; Deforges, L; Bretagne, S; André, C; Métreau, J M; Thiers, V; Zafrani, E S; Goossens, M; Duval, J; Mavier, J P

    1993-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to induce anti-liver-kidney microsomal-1 (LKM1) antibody positive chronic active hepatitis, simulating type 2 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. The cases of five patients presenting with features of type 1 (antinuclear antibody positive) autoimmune chronic active hepatitis and extrahepatic autoimmune manifestations, in whom immunosuppressive treatment had no effect on liver disease are presented. In these patients, HCV infection could be shown by the presence in serum of anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA detected by polymerase chain reaction. These cases suggest the following: (a) chronic HCV infection can mimic type 1, as well as type 2, autoimmune chronic active hepatitis; (b) HCV infection might be systematically sought in patients presenting with features of type 1 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, with special care in patients who are unresponsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Images Figure PMID:7686122

  5. International epidemiological studies on HIV, HCV and STI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis comprises international epidemiological studies on HIV, Hepatitis C (HCV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and the evaluation of STI diagnostic tests with the ultimate goal to decrease spread and disease burden of these infections. The main conclusions are: 1. Without the use of

  6. The effect of HCV serological status on Doxorubicin based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer and HCV are two frequent diseases in Egypt. There is a considerable probability of concurrent affection. This concurrence creates a subpopulation, which needs special evaluation and care. Objective: To evaluate a subset of Egyptian breast cancer patients receiving Doxorubicin based adjuvant ...

  7. Correlation between alanine aminotransferase level, HCV-RNA titer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast, an insignificant correlation was found between ALT level and grade of necroinflammation. In conclusion neither ALT level nor HCV viremia can reflect the histological liver change accurately. As a result, liver biopsy or other noninvasive procedures that measure liver stiffness (i.e., Fibroscan) remain essential for ...

  8. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedemeyer, H; Duberg, A S; Buti, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is projected to decline while those with advanced liver disease will increase. A modeling approach was used to forecast two treatment scenarios: (i) the impact of increased treatment efficacy while keeping the number of treated patients constant...

  9. Frequencies of HBV, HCV, HIV, and Syphilis Markers Among Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the frequency rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis among blood donors. Methods: Physically fit persons aged 18 – 48 years who came for blood donation at the blood bank unit of the military hospital in Hodeidah, ...

  10. HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent Pathogenetic Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sautto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  11. HCV proteins and immunoglobulin variable gene (IgV) subfamilies in HCV-induced type II mixed cryoglobulinemia: a concurrent pathogenetic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautto, Giuseppe; Mancini, Nicasio; Solforosi, Laura; Diotti, Roberta A; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  12. Inhibition of HCV replication by oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4 through interaction with HCV NS5B and alteration of lipid droplet formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Woo Park

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA replication involves complex interactions among the 3'x RNA element within the HCV 3' untranslated region, viral and host proteins. However, many of the host proteins remain unknown. In this study, we devised an RNA affinity chromatography /2D/MASS proteomics strategy and identified nine putative 3' X-associated host proteins; among them is oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 4 (ORP4, a cytoplasmic receptor for oxysterols. We determined the relationship between ORP4 expression and HCV replication. A very low level of constitutive ORP4 expression was detected in hepatocytes. Ectopically expressed ORP4 was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibited luciferase reporter gene expression in HCV subgenomic replicon cells and HCV core expression in JFH-1-infected cells. Expression of ORP4S, an ORP4 variant that lacked the N-terminal pleckstrin-homology domain but contained the C-terminal oxysterol-binding domain also inhibited HCV replication, pointing to an important role of the oxysterol-binding domain in ORP4-mediated inhibition of HCV replication. ORP4 was found to associate with HCV NS5B and its expression led to inhibition of the NS5B activity. ORP4 expression had little effect on intracellular lipid synthesis and secretion, but it induced lipid droplet formation in the context of HCV replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ORP4 is a negative regulator of HCV replication, likely via interaction with HCV NS5B in the replication complex and regulation of intracellular lipid homeostasis. This work supports the important role of lipids and their metabolism in HCV replication and pathogenesis.

  13. Knowledge of HBV and HCV and individuals' attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues: a national cross-sectional study among a working population in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available Prejudice and discrimination in the workplace regarding the risk of transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV are increased by excess concerns due to a lack of relevant knowledge. Education to increase knowledge about HBV and HCV and their prevention could be the first step to reduce prejudice and discrimination. This study aimed to determine the association between the level of knowledge and negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues among the Japanese working population. An online anonymous nationwide survey involving about 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge of HBV and HCV, and attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues in the workplace. Knowledge was divided into three categories: "ensuring daily activities not to be infected"; "risk of infection"; and "characteristics of HBV/HCV hepatitis", based on the result of factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey: 36.0% reported they worried about the possibility of transmission of HBV and HCV from infected colleagues; 32.1% avoided contact with infected colleagues; and 23.7% had prejudiced opinions about HBV and HCV infection. The participants were classified into tertiles. A higher level of knowledge of HBV and HCV was significantly associated with these three negative attitudes (P for trend < 0.005. This study suggests that increasing knowledge may decrease individuals' negative attitudes towards HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues. Thus, we should promote increased knowledge of HBV and HCV in stages to reduce negative attitudes toward HBV- and HCV-infected colleagues.

  14. Magnetic spires for the detection of the position of the plasma column in a Tokamak (linear approximation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colunga S, S.

    1990-07-01

    In this report the simplified analysis of a method to detect the movement of the plasma column of a tokamak in the vertical direction and of the biggest radius is given. The peculiar case of the Tokamak Novillo of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of the ININ is studied. (Author)

  15. [Significance of non-organ-specific autoantibodies in HCV-related chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Marcello; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2005-12-01

    The preliminary question regarding the clinical issue of the antiviral therapy in the HCV related chronic hepatitis patients is: is it mandatory the research for the autoantibodies in the eligible patients for the antiviral treatment? This issue is of particular interest at the light of the the reported cases of HCV positive patients with positivity for liver kidney microsome type 1 antibody who developed a hepatitic flare during the antiviral treatment. The data from literature about the efficacy and safety on the antiviral treatment in patients with autoantibodies are few and controversial, particularly if the ones regarding antiviral drugs and more recent treatment regimens are taking into account (peg-interferon, combined therapy of interferon and ribavirin). Large and prospective studies are needed for a thorough evaluation about the potential impact of autoantibodies reactivity on the therapeutic outcome. To date, it must be confirmed that a strict monitoring of hepatic parameters is to recommend during the whole treatment phase. This in the light of a potential appearance of significant flares of aminotransferases, particularly in subjects with anti LKM-1 autoantibodies, during interferon therapy.

  16. According to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Stage, Interleukin-7 Plus 4-1BB Triggering Alone or Combined with PD-1 Blockade Increases TRAF1low HCV-Specific CD8+ Cell Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Cubero, Elia; Subirá, Dolores; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo; Parra-Cid, Trinidad; Madejón, Antonio; Miquel, Joaquín; Olveira, Antonio; González-Praetorius, Alejandro; García-Samaniego, Javier; Larrubia, Juan-Ramón

    2018-01-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8 + T cells suffer a progressive exhaustion during persistent infection (PI) with HCV. This process could involve the positive immune checkpoint 4-1BB/4-1BBL through the loss of its signal transducer, TRAF1. To address this issue, peripheral HCV-specific CD8 + T cells (pentamer-positive [pentamer + ]/CD8 + T cells) from patients with PI and resolved infection (RI) after treatment were studied. The duration of HCV infection and the liver fibrosis progression rate inversely correlated with the likelihood of detection of peripheral pentamer + /CD8 + cells. In PI, pentamer + /CD8 + cells had impaired antigen-specific reactivity that worsened when these cells were not detectable ex vivo Short/midduration PI was characterized by detectable peripheral PD-1 + CD127 low TRAF1 low cells. After triggering of T cell receptors (TCR), the TRAF1 level positively correlated with the levels of CD127, Mcl-1, and CD107a expression and proliferation intensity but negatively with PD-1 expression, linking TRAF1 low to exhaustion. In vitro treatment with interleukin-7 (IL-7) upregulated TRAF1 expression, while treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) did the opposite, suggesting that the IL-7/TGF-β1 balance, besides TCR stimulation, could be involved in TRAF1 regulation. In fact, the serum TGF-β1 concentration was higher in patients with PI than in patients with RI, and it negatively correlated with TRAF1 expression. In line with IL-7 increasing the level of TRAF1 expression, IL-7 plus 4-1BBL treatment in vitro enhanced T cell reactivity in patients with short/midduration infection. However, in patients with long-lasting PI, anti-PD-L1, in addition to the combination of IL-7 and 4-1BBL, was necessary to reestablish T cell proliferation in individuals with slowly progressing liver fibrosis (slow fibrosers) but had no effect in rapid fibrosers. In conclusion, a peripheral hyporeactive TRAF1 low HCV-specific CD8 + T cell response

  17. Resistance Analyses of HCV NS3/4A Protease and NS5B Polymerase from Clinical Studies of Deleobuvir and Faldaprevir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Berger

    Full Text Available The resistance profile of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV agents used in combination is important to guide optimal treatment regimens. We evaluated baseline and treatment-emergent NS3/4A and NS5B amino-acid variants among HCV genotype (GT-1a and -1b-infected patients treated with faldaprevir (HCV protease inhibitor, deleobuvir (HCV polymerase non-nucleoside inhibitor, and ribavirin in multiple clinical studies.HCV NS3/4A and NS5B population sequencing (Sanger method was performed on all baseline plasma samples (n = 1425 NS3; n = 1556 NS5B and on post-baseline plasma samples from patients with virologic failure (n = 113 GT-1a; n = 221 GT-1b. Persistence and time to loss of resistance-associated variants (RAVs was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis.Faldaprevir RAVs (NS3 R155 and D168 and deleobuvir RAVs (NS5B 495 and 496 were rare (90%. Virologic relapse was associated with RAVs in both NS3 and NS5B (53% GT-1b; 52% GT-1b; some virologic relapses had NS3 RAVs only (47% GT-1a; 17% GT-1b. Median time to loss of GT-1b NS5B P495 RAVs post-treatment (5 months was less than that of GT-1b NS3 D168 (8.5 months and GT-1a R155 RAVs (11.5 months.Faldaprevir and deleobuvir RAVs are more prevalent among virologic failures than at baseline. Treatment response was not compromised by common NS3 polymorphisms; however, alanine at NS5B amino acid 499 at baseline (wild-type in GT-1a, polymorphism in GT-1b may reduce response to this deleobuvir-based regimen.

  18. Rates of sustained virological response 12 weeks after the scheduled end of direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy from the National German HCV registry: does HIV coinfection impair the response to DAA combination therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J; Mauss, S; Cordes, C; Lutz, T; Scholten, S; Moll, A; Jäger, H; Cornberg, M; Manns, M P; Baumgarten, A; Rockstroh, J K

    2018-04-01

    The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) treatment recommendations for hepatitis C no longer discriminate between HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected and HCV-monoinfected patients. However, recent data from Spain are questioning these recommendations on the basis of the findings of higher relapse rates and lower cure rates in HIV/HCV-infected subjects. The aim of our study was to compare HCV cure rates in monoinfected and coinfected patients from Germany. Data acquired from the Deutsches Hepatitis C-Registry were analysed. A total of 5657 HCV-monoinfected subjects and 488 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were included in the study. Rates of sustained virological response 12 weeks after the scheduled end of therapy (SVR12) were collected in both subgroups and in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were more frequently male (84.6% vs. 56.4%, respectively; P  350 cells/μL in 63.1% of HIV-positive subjects and 88.7% were on antiretroviral therapy. SVR12 rates were 90.3% (5111 of 5657) in our HCV-monoinfected cohort and 91.2% (445 of 488) in our coinfected patients. Liver cirrhosis was confirmed in 1667 of 5657 (29.5%) monoinfected patients and 84 of 488 (17.2%; P < 0.001) coinfected patients. SVR12 rates did not differ between HCV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with liver cirrhosis (87.8% vs. 89.3%, respectively; P = 0.864). A treatment duration of 8 weeks did not reduce the percentage of patients with SVR12 in either subgroup (93.7% in both groups). We found high SVR12 rates in monoinfected as well as coinfected individuals. No differences were detected between the two subgroups regardless of whether there was accompanying liver cirrhosis or a shortened treatment duration. © 2018 British HIV Association.

  19. Characteristics of primary Sjögren's syndrome patients with IgG4 positive plasma cells infiltration in the labial salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Zhang, Huayong; Yao, Genhong; Hu, Yunxia; Qi, Jingjing; Wang, Yan; Chen, Weiwei; Tang, Xiaojun; Li, Wenchao; Lu, Liwei; Gu, Luo; Sun, Lingyun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients with IgG4 positive (IgG4 + ) plasma cell infiltration in labial salivary glands (LSGs). Paraffin sections of LSGs from 336 pSS patients were stained with IgG4 and IgG monoclonal antibodies. According to the infiltration of IgG4 + plasma cells, patients were divided and clinical and serological characteristics were analyzed and compared. Based on the infiltration of IgG4 + plasma cells in the LSGs, patients were divided into three subgroups, low IgG4, moderate IgG4, and high IgG4 groups. A negative association between the number of infiltrated IgG4 + plasma cells and the disease characteristics was observed. We found that the higher the IgG4 + expression in plasma cells, the lower the positive rates of serum anti-SSA antibodies, anti-SSB antibodies, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and rheumatoid factor (RF). Besides, patients from the high IgG4 group had the highest frequency of interstitial lung disease (ILD, 30.6%) and tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN, 13.9%), but the lowest frequency of leucopenia (13.9%), thrombocytopenia (11.1%), and abnormal thyroidal function (0%). PSS patients with different IgG4 + plasma cells infiltration in the LSGs had distinctive clinical and laboratory characteristics. It may help us to further understand the role of IgG4 + plasma cells in pSS.

  20. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces formation of stress granules whose proteins regulate HCV RNA replication and virus assembly and egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigorta, Urtzi; Heim, Markus H; Boyd, Bryan; Wieland, Stefan; Chisari, Francis V

    2012-10-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic structures that are induced in response to environmental stress, including viral infections. Here we report that hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers the appearance of SGs in a PKR- and interferon (IFN)-dependent manner. Moreover, we show an inverse correlation between the presence of stress granules and the induction of IFN-stimulated proteins, i.e., MxA and USP18, in HCV-infected cells despite high-level expression of the corresponding MxA and USP18 mRNAs, suggesting that interferon-stimulated gene translation is inhibited in stress granule-containing HCV-infected cells. Finally, in short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown experiments, we found that the stress granule proteins T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1), TIA1-related protein (TIAR), and RasGAP-SH3 domain binding protein 1 (G3BP1) are required for efficient HCV RNA and protein accumulation at early time points in the infection and that G3BP1 and TIA-1 are required for intracellular and extracellular infectious virus production late in the infection, suggesting that they are required for virus assembly. In contrast, TIAR downregulation decreases extracellular infectious virus titers with little effect on intracellular RNA content or infectivity late in the infection, suggesting that it is required for infectious particle release. Collectively, these results illustrate that HCV exploits the stress granule machinery at least two ways: by inducing the formation of SGs by triggering PKR phosphorylation, thereby downregulating the translation of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes, and by co-opting SG proteins for its replication, assembly, and egress.

  1. Spillover effects of HIV testing policies: changes in HIV testing guidelines and HCV testing practices in drug treatment programs in the United States

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    Jemima A. Frimpong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent to which state adoption of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2006 revisions to adult and adolescent HIV testing guidelines is associated with availability of other important prevention and medical services. We hypothesized that in states where the pretest counseling requirement for HIV testing was dropped from state legislation, substance use disorder treatment programs would have higher availability of HCV testing services than in states that had maintained this requirement. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 383 opioid treatment programs from the 2005 and 2011 National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS. Data were collected from program directors and clinical supervisors through telephone surveys. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to measure associations between state adoption of CDC recommended guidelines for HIV pretest counseling and availability of HCV testing services. Results The effects of HIV testing legislative changes on HCV testing practices varied by type of opioid treatment program. In states that had removed the requirement for HIV pretest counseling, buprenorphine-only programs were more likely to offer HCV testing to their patients. The positive spillover effect of HIV pretest counseling policies, however, did not extend to methadone programs and did not translate into increased availability of on-site HCV testing in either program type. Conclusions Our findings highlight potential positive spillover effects of HIV testing policies on HCV testing practices. They also suggest that maximizing the benefits of HIV policies may require other initiatives, including resources and programmatic efforts that support systematic integration with other services and effective implementation.

  2. Proteasome- and Ethanol-Dependent Regulation of HCV-Infection Pathogenesis

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    Natalia A. Osna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of the catabolism of HCV and signaling proteins in HCV protection and the involvement of ethanol in HCV-proteasome interactions. HCV specifically infects hepatocytes, and intracellularly expressed HCV proteins generate oxidative stress, which is further exacerbated by heavy drinking. The proteasome is the principal proteolytic system in cells, and its activity is sensitive to the level of cellular oxidative stress. Not only host proteins, but some HCV proteins are degraded by the proteasome, which, in turn, controls HCV propagation and is crucial for the elimination of the virus. Ubiquitylation of HCV proteins usually leads to the prevention of HCV propagation, while accumulation of undegraded viral proteins in the nuclear compartment exacerbates infection pathogenesis. Proteasome activity also regulates both innate and adaptive immunity in HCV-infected cells. In addition, the proteasome/immunoproteasome is activated by interferons, which also induce “early” and “late” interferon-sensitive genes (ISGs with anti-viral properties. Cleaving viral proteins to peptides in professional immune antigen presenting cells and infected (“target” hepatocytes that express the MHC class I-antigenic peptide complex, the proteasome regulates the clearance of infected hepatocytes by the immune system. Alcohol exposure prevents peptide cleavage by generating metabolites that impair proteasome activity, thereby providing escape mechanisms that interfere with efficient viral clearance to promote the persistence of HCV-infection.

  3. HCV core protein induces hepatic lipid accumulation by activating SREBP1 and PPARγ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kook Hwan; Hong, Sung Pyo; Kim, KyeongJin; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Kwang Jin; Cheong, JaeHun

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a common feature in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV core protein plays an important role in the development of hepatic steatosis in HCV infection. Because SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ) are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism of hepatocyte, we sought to determine whether HCV core protein may impair the expression and activity of SREBP1 and PPARγ. In this study, it was demonstrated that HCV core protein increases the gene expression of SREBP1 not only in Chang liver, Huh7, and HepG2 cells transiently transfected with HCV core protein expression plasmid, but also in Chang liver-core stable cells. Furthermore, HCV core protein enhanced the transcriptional activity of SREBP1. In addition, HCV core protein elevated PPARγ transcriptional activity. However, HCV core protein had no effect on PPARγ gene expression. Finally, we showed that HCV core protein stimulates the genes expression of lipogenic enzyme and fatty acid uptake associated protein. Therefore, our finding provides a new insight into the mechanism of hepatic steatosis by HCV infection

  4. Liver transplantation for HCV cirrhosis at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjertsen, H; Weiland, O; Oksanen, A; Söderdahl, G; Broomé, U; Ericzon, B-G

    2006-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced cirrhosis is the major indication for liver transplantation globally, and an increasing indication for liver transplantation in Sweden. We have retrospectively examined the 120 patients transplanted for HCV cirrhosis from 1987 through 2005, including 11 who received more than one graft. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year postoperative survivals for all patients transplanted for HCV with or without hepatocellular cancer (HCC) were 77%, 66%, and 53%, respectively. HCV patients without HCC had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year survivals of 78%, 73%, and 61%, compared with 84%, 79% and 74%, respectively, for patients transplanted with chronic liver diseases without cancer or HCV. The number of patients with HCV cirrhosis transplanted in our center is increasing. Compared with patients transplanted for other chronic liver diseases, we experienced inferior results among patients with HCV cirrhosis.

  5. 3D cultured immortalized human hepatocytes useful to develop drugs for blood-borne HCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Hussein Hassan; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Hijikata, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Due to the high polymorphism of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants, existing recombinant HCV replication models have failed to be effective in developing effective anti-HCV agents. In the current study, we describe an in vitro system that supports the infection and replication of natural HCV from patient blood using an immortalized primary human hepatocyte cell line cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Comparison of the gene expression profile of cells cultured in the 3D system to those cultured in the existing 2D system demonstrated an up-regulation of several genes activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling. Furthermore, using PPARα agonists and antagonists, we also analyzed the effect of PPARα signaling on the modulation of HCV replication using this system. The 3D in vitro system described in this study provides significant insight into the search for novel anti-HCV strategies that are specific to various strains of HCV.

  6. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

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    Philip ePrinz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2, underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI 50 kg/m2, n=14-15/group and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6±0.3 kg/m2, n=43. Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5±0.9 kg/m2, n=85, psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.26, p=0.03 in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m2, n=74. No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p>0.05. Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r=-0.30, p=0.008, while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p>0.05 in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point towards a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  7. Use of soft x-ray diagnostic on the COMPASS tokamak for investigations of sawteeth crash neighborhood and of plasma position using fast inversion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imrisek, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Weinzettl, V.; Mlynar, J.; Panek, R.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Odstrcil, M. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Optical Research Center, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Ficker, O. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Pinzon, J. R. [Institue Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Ehrlacher, C. [ENS Cachan, Paris (France)

    2014-11-15

    The soft x-ray diagnostic is suitable for monitoring plasma activity in the tokamak core, e.g., sawtooth instability. Moreover, spatially resolved measurements can provide information about plasma position and shape, which can supplement magnetic measurements. In this contribution, fast algorithms with the potential for a real-time use are tested on the data from the COMPASS tokamak. In addition, the soft x-ray data are compared with data from other diagnostics in order to discuss possible connection between sawtooth instability on one side and the transition to higher confinement mode, edge localized modes and productions of runaway electrons on the other side.

  8. GB Virus C (GBV-C Infection in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Seropositive Women with or at Risk for HIV Infection.

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    Jason T Blackard

    Full Text Available GB virus C (GBV-C may have a beneficial impact on HIV disease progression; however, the epidemiologic characteristics of this virus are not well characterized. Behavioral factors and gender may lead to differential rates of GBV-C infection; yet, studies have rarely addressed GBV-C infections in women or racial/ethnic minorities. Therefore, we evaluated GBV-C RNA prevalence and genotype distribution in a large prospective study of high-risk women in the US.438 hepatitis C virus (HCV seropositive women, including 306 HIV-infected and 132 HIV-uninfected women, from the HIV Epidemiologic Research Study were evaluated for GBV-C RNA. 347 (79.2% women were GBV-C RNA negative, while 91 (20.8% were GBV-C RNA positive. GBV-C positive women were younger than GBV-C negative women. Among 306 HIV-infected women, 70 (22.9% women were HIV/GBV-C co-infected. Among HIV-infected women, the only significant difference between GBV-negative and GBV-positive women was age (mean 38.4 vs. 35.1 years; p<0.001. Median baseline CD4 cell counts and plasma HIV RNA levels were similar. The GBV-C genotypes were 1 (n = 31; 44.3%, 2 (n = 36; 51.4%, and 3 (n = 3; 4.3%. The distribution of GBV-C genotypes in co-infected women differed significantly by race/ethnicity. However, median CD4 cell counts and log10 HIV RNA levels did not differ by GBV-C genotype. GBV-C incidence was 2.7% over a median follow-up of 2.9 (IQR: 1.5, 4.9 years, while GBV-C clearance was 35.7% over a median follow-up of 2.44 (1.4, 3.5 years. 4 women switched genotypes.Age, injection drug use, a history of sex for money or drugs, and number of recent male sex partners were associated with GBV-C infection among all women in this analysis. However, CD4 cell count and HIV viral load of HIV/HCV/GBV-C co-infected women were not different although race was associated with GBV-C genotype.

  9. Retention in buprenorphine treatment is associated with improved HCV care outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, B L; Beitin, A; Glenn, M; DeLuca, J; Litwin, A H; Cunningham, C O

    2017-04-01

    Persons who inject drugs, most of whom are opioid dependent, comprise the majority of the HCV infected in the United States. As the national opioid epidemic unfolds, increasing numbers of people are entering the medical system to access treatment for opioid use disorder, specifically with buprenorphine. Yet little is known about HCV care in patients accessing buprenorphine-based opioid treatment. We sought to determine the HCV prevalence, cascade of care, and the association between patient characteristics and completion of HCV cascade of care milestones for patients initiating buprenorphine treatment. We reviewed electronic health records of all patients who initiated buprenorphine treatment at a primary-care clinic in the Bronx, NY between January 2009 and January 2014. Of the 390 patients who initiated buprenorphine treatment, 123 were confirmed to have chronic HCV infection. The only patient characteristic associated with achieving HCV care milestones was retention in opioid treatment. Patients retained (vs. not retained) in buprenorphine treatment were more likely to be referred for HCV specialty care (63.1% vs. 34.0%, p<0.01), achieve an HCV-specific evaluation (40.8% vs. 21.3%, p<0.05), be offered HCV treatment (22.4% vs. 8.5%, p<0.05), and initiate HCV treatment (9.2% vs. 6.4%, p=0.6). Given the current opioid epidemic in the US and the growing number of people receiving buprenorphine treatment, there is an unprecedented opportunity to access and treat persons with HCV, reducing HCV transmission, morbidity and mortality. Retention in opioid treatment may improve linkage and retention in HCV care; innovative models of care that integrate opioid drug treatment with HCV treatment are essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic variations of the NPC1L1 gene associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and biochemical characteristics of HCV patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A-Mei; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Song, Yuzhu; Zhao, Ping; Feng, Yue; Wang, Binghui; Li, Zheng; Liu, Li; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-12-01

    About 2% of the world population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a leading cause of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 cholesterol absorption receptor (NPC1L1) was recently identified to be an important factor for HCV entry into host cells. Whether genetic variations of the NPC1L1 gene are associated with HCV infection is unknown. In this study, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NPC1L1 gene were analyzed in 261 HCV-infected individuals and 265 general controls from Yunnan Province, China. No significant differences were identified in genotypes or alleles of the SNPs between the two groups. After constructing haplotypes based on the five SNPs, a significant difference between HCV-infected individuals and general controls was shown for two haplotypes. Haplotype GCCTT appeared to be a protective factor and haplotype GCCCT was a risk factor for HCV-infected individuals. Genotypes of four SNPs correlated with biochemical characteristics of HCV-infected persons. Genotypes of SNPs rs799444 and rs2070607 were correlated with total bilirubin. Genotype TT of rs917098 was a risk factor for the gamma-glutamyltransferase level. Furthermore, HCV-infected individuals carrying genotype GG of rs41279633 showed statistically higher gamma-glutamyltransferase levels than HCV-infected persons with GT and TT. The results of this study identified the association between genetic susceptibility of the NPC1L1 gene and HCV infection, as well as biochemical characteristics of HCV-infected persons in Yunnan, China. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug Abuse, HIV, and HCV in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.

  12. Munc13-4 Is a Rab11-binding Protein That Regulates Rab11-positive Vesicle Trafficking and Docking at the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer L; He, Jing; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Pestonjamasp, Kersi; Kiosses, William B; Zhang, Jinzhong; Catz, Sergio D

    2016-02-12

    The small GTPase Rab11 and its effectors control trafficking of recycling endosomes, receptor replenishment and the up-regulation of adhesion and adaptor molecules at the plasma membrane. Despite recent advances in the understanding of Rab11-regulated mechanisms, the final steps mediating docking and fusion of Rab11-positive vesicles at the plasma membrane are not fully understood. Munc13-4 is a docking factor proposed to regulate fusion through interactions with SNAREs. In hematopoietic cells, including neutrophils, Munc13-4 regulates exocytosis in a Rab27a-dependent manner, but its possible regulation of other GTPases has not been explored in detail. Here, we show that Munc13-4 binds to Rab11 and regulates the trafficking of Rab11-containing vesicles. Using a novel Time-resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (TR-FRET) assay, we demonstrate that Munc13-4 binds to Rab11a but not to dominant negative Rab11a. Immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the specificity of the interaction between Munc13-4 and Rab11, and super-resolution microscopy studies support the interaction of endogenous Munc13-4 with Rab11 at the single molecule level in neutrophils. Vesicular dynamic analysis shows the common spatio-temporal distribution of Munc13-4 and Rab11, while expression of a calcium binding-deficient mutant of Munc13-4 significantly affected Rab11 trafficking. Munc13-4-deficient neutrophils showed normal endocytosis, but the trafficking, up-regulation, and retention of Rab11-positive vesicles at the plasma membrane was significantly impaired. This correlated with deficient NADPH oxidase activation at the plasma membrane in response to Rab11 interference. Our data demonstrate that Munc13-4 is a Rab11-binding partner that regulates the final steps of Rab11-positive vesicle docking at the plasma membrane. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. The impact of HCV therapy in a high HIV-HCV prevalence population: A modeling study on people who inject drugs in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

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    Ruthie B Birger

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV coinfection is a major global health problem especially among people who inject drugs (PWID, with significant clinical implications. Mathematical models have been used to great effect to shape HIV care, but few have been proposed for HIV/HCV.We constructed a deterministic compartmental ODE model that incorporated layers for HIV disease progression, HCV disease progression and PWID demography. Antiretroviral therapy (ART and Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT scale-ups were modeled as from 2016 and projected forward 10 years. HCV treatment roll-out was modeled beginning in 2026, after a variety of MMT scale-up scenarios, and projected forward 10 years.Our results indicate that scale-up of ART has a major impact on HIV though not on HCV burden. MMT scale-up has an impact on incidence of both infections. HCV treatment roll-out has a measurable impact on reductions of deaths, increasing multifold the mortality reductions afforded by just ART/MMT scale-ups.HCV treatment roll-out can have major and long-lasting effects on averting PWID deaths on top of those averted by ART/MMT scale-up. Efficient intervention scale-up of HCV alongside HIV interventions is critical in Vietnam.

  14. The management of HCV-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Guillermo; Chacaltana, Alfonso; Sjogren, Maria H

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C is, at present, a worldwide health problem and is the most common cause of liver transplantation. Its prevalence in pregnant women is similar to that of the general population. In the absence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, most HCV-infected pregnant women do not have obstetric complications. Screening of pregnant women that are asymptomatic and do not have risk factors is not cost effective. A high hepatitis C viral load reportedly increases vertical transmission and is higher in women who are coinfected with HIV or who are intravenous drug users. Prolonged rupture of the membrane for more than 6 h, amniocentesis, and perineal lacerations increase the potential risk of perinatal transmission. Although the hepatitis C virus can be transmitted intrapartum, prevention by caesarean delivery is not generally indicated. The HCV virus can be found in maternal milk; however, breast feeding is not contraindicated. In conclusion, there are no antiviral treatment recommendations for HCV-infected women during pregnancy, or guidelines for the prevention of vertical transmission.

  15. Rituximab-Based Treatment, HCV Replication, and Hepatic Flares

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    Evangelista Sagnelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab, a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody directed to the CD20 antigen expressed on pre-B lymphocytes and mature lymphocytes, causes a profound B-cell depletion. Due to its peculiar characteristics, this drug has been used to treat oncohaematological diseases, B cell-related autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and, more recently, HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis. Rituximab-based treatment, however, may induce an increased replication of several viruses such as hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, echovirus, and parvovirus B19. Recent data suggest that rituximab-based chemotherapy induces an increase in HCV expression in hepatic cells, which may become a target for a cell-mediated immune reaction after the withdrawal of treatment and the restoration of the immune control. Only a few small studies have investigated the occurrence of HCV reactivation and an associated hepatic flare in patients with oncohaematological diseases receiving R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. These studies suggest that the hepatic flares are frequently asymptomatic, but life-threatening liver failure occurs in nearly 10% of cases.

  16. Rituximab-based treatment, HCV replication, and hepatic flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Sagnelli, Caterina; Coppola, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Rituximab, a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody directed to the CD20 antigen expressed on pre-B lymphocytes and mature lymphocytes, causes a profound B-cell depletion. Due to its peculiar characteristics, this drug has been used to treat oncohaematological diseases, B cell-related autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and, more recently, HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis. Rituximab-based treatment, however, may induce an increased replication of several viruses such as hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus, echovirus, and parvovirus B19. Recent data suggest that rituximab-based chemotherapy induces an increase in HCV expression in hepatic cells, which may become a target for a cell-mediated immune reaction after the withdrawal of treatment and the restoration of the immune control. Only a few small studies have investigated the occurrence of HCV reactivation and an associated hepatic flare in patients with oncohaematological diseases receiving R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). These studies suggest that the hepatic flares are frequently asymptomatic, but life-threatening liver failure occurs in nearly 10% of cases.

  17. Determinazione quantitativa di HCV-RNA: valutazione comparativa dei saggi Abbott Real-Time e Versant bDNA v.3

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    Aldo Manzin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA measurement before, during and after antiviral therapy has become an essential tool in the management of interferon-based treatment of HCV-related infections. Conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR has been largely used to obtain quantitative data, but laborious, time-consuming post-PCR handling steps are required to gain valuable results. Real time (RT PCR now provides advantages over end-point (EP PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination, and has now proven itself to be valuable for the more precise monitoring of viral load kinetics and assessing antiviral response.The Abbott Real-Time HCV-RNA is a recently introduced assay for the automated processing of clinical samples and HCV-RNA quantitation: its basic technology relies on use of fluorescent linear probes (dynamic range using 0.5 ml as input target= 12-108 IU/mL and a hybridization/detection step at low temperature (35°C, which allows target mismatches to be tolerated. To determine the clinical application of the Abbott Real-Time assay and defining its correlation with the Bayer Versant bDNA v.3 assay, 68 consecutive samples from unselected HCV-infected patients were retrospectively analysed with RT and the results obtained using the two tests compared.A good correlation was found between RT-PCR and bDNA: 97% of samples tested had a result within a 0.5 log HCV IU/mL difference (bias=0.15 log, whereas 6 samples negative with bDNA gave positive results with Abbott RT (range, 1.89-3.07 log IU/mL and “in-house” qualitative RT-PCR assays.

  18. TRAIL receptor I (DR4) polymorphisms C626G and A683C are associated with an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HCV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Körner, Christian; Nattermann, Jacob; Spengler, Ulrich; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Riesner, Katarina; Krämer, Benjamin; Eisenhardt, Marianne; Glässner, Andreas; Wolter, Franziska; Berg, Thomas; Müller, Tobias; Sauerbruch, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    Tumour surveillance via induction of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is a key mechanism, how the immune system prevents malignancy. To determine if gene variants in the TRAIL receptor I (DR4) gene affect the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver cancer (HCC), we analysed DR4 mutations C626G (rs20575) and A683C (rs20576) in HCV-infected patients with and without HCC. Frequencies of DR4 gene polymorphisms were determined by LightSNiP assays in 159 and 234 HCV-infected patients with HCC and without HCC, respectively. 359 healthy controls served as reference population. Distribution of C626G and A683C genotypes were not significantly different between healthy controls and HCV-positive patients without HCC. DR4 variants 626C and 683A occurred at increased frequencies in patients with HCC. The risk of HCC was linked to carriage of the 626C allele and the homozygous 683AA genotype, and the simultaneous presence of the two risk variants was confirmed as independent HCC risk factor by Cox regression analysis (Odds ratio 1.975, 95% CI 1.205-3.236; p = 0.007). Furthermore HCV viral loads were significantly increased in patients who simultaneously carried both genetic risk factors (2.69 ± 0.36 × 10 6 IU/ml vs. 1.81 ± 0.23 × 10 6 IU/ml, p = 0.049). The increased prevalence of patients with a 626C allele and the homozygous 683AA genotype in HCV-infected patients with HCC suggests that these genetic variants are a risk factor for HCC in chronic hepatitis C

  19. The three-dimensional positioning system at the VINETA.II experiment—a multipurpose tool for in situ plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesterikov, I.; Milojevic, D.; von Stechow, A.; Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.

    2017-08-01

    The manipulator systems installed at the VINETA.II magnetic reconnection experiment are essential elements for experimental investigation of local plasma parameters. A novel three-dimensional (3D) probe manipulator has been designed, implemented and successfully operated at VINETA.II. This work presents its design and performance for three-dimensional measurements of VINETA.II plasmas. Its design consists of three vertically stacked independent and mutually perpendicular linear motion stages which allow flexible positioning of diagnostic tools such as electrical and magnetic probes or optical diagnostics within the vacuum vessel. Its design features include a wide spatial coverage, sub-millimeter positioning accuracy and the capability to operate in a harsh environment under the influence of microwaves, radio-frequency waves and direct contact with plasma. Manipulator performance is assessed by measuring a volumetric distribution of plasma parameters by a B-dot probe. A typical discharge of the magnetic reconnection setup in VINETA.II with a pulse time of τ=600 μs is chosen for this purpose. The azimuthal magnetic field distribution measured with the 3D manipulator agrees favorably with measurements obtained by the two-dimensional (2D) manipulator, used at VINETA.II as a standard reference diagnostic tool, thereby demonstrating its reliability and performance. A programmable stepper motor controller (TMCM-1110) that is operated remotely by a PC drives all possible features of the manipulator system.

  20. Plasma fractionation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert; Evers, Theo; Falcou, Pierre-Francois; Burnouf, Thierry; Amorim, Luiz; Thomas, Sylvia

    2009-04-01

    Procurement and processing of human plasma for fractionation of therapeutic proteins or biological medicines used in clinical practice is a multi-billion dollar international trade. Together the private sector and public sector (non-profit) provide large amounts of safe and effective therapeutic plasma proteins needed worldwide. The principal therapeutic proteins produced by the dichotomous industry include gamma globulins or immunoglobulins (including pathogen-specific hyperimmune globulins, such as hepatitis B immune globulins) albumin, factor VIII and Factor IX concentrates. Viral inactivation, principally by solvent detergent and other processes, has proven highly effective in preventing transmission of enveloped viruses, viz. HBV, HIV, and HCV.

  1. Related factors to atazanavir plasma levels in a cohort of HIV positive individuals with undetectable viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlia Luz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with plasma concentrations of atazanavir (ATV in a cohort of well-controlled HIV infected subjects (undetectable viremia. Design: Cross-sectional study where 69 subjects were consecutively enrolled between April and November, 2011. METHODS: Patients had to be on atazanavir for at least six months, undetectable viral load for a period equal to or longer than 12 months, T CD4+ lymphocyte count higher than 200 cells/mm³, and aged between 18 years and 70 years old. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, any neurologic disease, active opportunistic disease, hepatitis or cancer. Atazanavir plasma levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overall, 54 patients (mean age of 47 years and 50% women were included in the analysis. Those without ritonavir (unboosted atazanavir had statistically lower plasma concentrations than those with ritonavir boosted atazanavir (p = 0.001 and total and indirect bilirubin were statistically associated with plasma concentration of atazanavir (r = 0.32 and r = 0.33 respectively; p < 0.05 in both cases. no statistical association was found among gender, ethnicity, age, weight, body mass index (BMI, lipid profile, and the plasma concentration of atazanavir. CONCLUSION: in summary, as expected, concomitant ritonavir use was the only factor associated with atazanavir plasma levels. prospective studies with a larger sample size might help to observe an association of atazanavir concentrations to other characteristics such as body weight, since the p-value showed to be close to significance (p = 0.068.

  2. Effect of laser beam focus position on ion emission from plasmas produced by picosecond and sub-nanosecond laser pulses from solid targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel; Vankov, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2001), s. 791-798 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010105 Grant - others:KBN(PL) 2 P03B 082 19 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * laser beam focus position influence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2001

  3. USE OF HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL SIDE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED TO ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT FOR HCV HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mancino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Haematological abnormalities are common during combination antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Although dose reduction or discontinuation can easily treat these side effects, they can adversely affect the efficacy of combination antiviral therapy reducing the likelihood of a sustained viral response (SVR. To avoid potentially diminishing a patient’s chance of response, many physicians have begun using growth factors off-label to manage anaemia and neutropenia in hepatitis C. Haematopoietic growth factors are generally well tolerated and they may be useful for managing haematological side effects of anti-HCV therapy improving patients’ quality of life. To date, the role and benefit of these agents during anti-HCV therapy and their positive impact on SVR have not conclusively determined in the published studies. However, the possibility of a benefit to individual outpatients remains, and an individualized approach is recommended. This review explores the incidence, clinical significance, and management of anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with combination therapy for HCV infection.

  4. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, Milan; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, Václav; Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 045021. ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : streamer * electric field * Blue Jet * air plasma chemistry * transient luminous event Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0963-0252/25/4/045021/meta

  5. Comparison of cobas HCV GT against Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 (LiPA) with confirmation by Sanger sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusrina, Falah; Chua, Cui Wen; Lee, Chun Kiat; Chiu, Lily; Png, Tracy Si-Yu; Khoo, Mui Joo; Yan, Gabriel; Lee, Guan Huei; Yan, Benedict; Lee, Hong Kai

    2018-05-01

    Correct identification of infecting hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is helpful for targeted antiviral therapy. Here, we compared the HCV genotyping performance of the cobas HCV GT assay against the Versant HCV Genotype 2.0 (LiPA) assay, using 97 archived serum samples. In the event of discrepant or indeterminate results produced by either assay, the core and NS5B regions were sequenced. Of the 97 samples tested by the cobas, 25 (26%) were deemed indeterminate. Sequencing analyses confirmed 21 (84%) of the 25 samples as genotype 6 viruses with either subtype 6m, 6n, 6v, 6xa, or unknown subtype. Of the 97 samples tested by the LiPA, thirteen (13%) were deemed indeterminate. Seven (7%) were assigned with genotype 1, with unavailable/inconclusive results from the core region of the LiPA. Notably, the 7 samples were later found to be either genotype 3 or 6 by sequencing analyses. Moreover, 1 sample by the LiPA was assigned as genotypes 4 (cobas: indeterminate) but were later found to be genotype 3 by sequencing analyses, highlighting its limitation in assigning the correct genotype. The cobas showed similar or slightly higher accuracy (100%; 95% CI 94-100%) compared to the LiPA (99%; 95% CI 92-100%). Twenty-six percent of the 97 samples tested by the cobas had indeterminate results, mainly due to its limitation in identifying genotype 6 other than subtypes 6a and 6b. This presents a significant assay limitation in Southeast Asia, where genotype 6 infection is highly prevalent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of TNF-alpha (-308 A/G) and IFN-gamma (+874 A/T) gene polymorphisms in response to spontaneous and treatment induced viral clearance in HCV infected multitransfused thalassemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aritra; Gupta, Nabyendu; Gupta, Debanjali; Datta, Abira; Firdaus, Rushna; Chowdhury, Prosanto; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee; Sadhukhan, Provash C

    2018-06-01

    Multitransfused thalassemic individuals are at high risk of developing transfusion transmitted Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of the study was to correlate the effects of host cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms of TNF-α (-308 A/G) and IFN-γ (+874 A/T) in spontaneous or IFN induced treatment response in the HCV infected thalassemic individuals. A total of 427 HCV sero-reactive thalassemic individuals were processed for HCV viral genomic diversity and host gene polymorphisms analysis of TNF-α (-308 A/G) and IFN-γ (+874 A/T). Out of 427 HCV sero-reactive individuals, 69.09% were found to be HCV RNA positive with genotype 3 as the predominant infecting strain (94.29%). Study highlighted that, A allele was significantly associated with (p < .05) spontaneous clearance of HCV infection and G allele was correlated with viral persistence at TNF-α (-308) gene polymorphism. Whereas in case of IFN-γ (+874) SNPs, A allele was significantly responsible (p < .05) for spontaneous clearance than T allele. Our study also indicated that in relapsed cases, IFN-γ (+874) T allele is more responsible than A allele. Though no significant correlation was found at both TNF-α (-308) and IFN-γ (+874) gene polymorphism among SVR and relapsed thalassemic patients. A allele at both TNF-α (-308) and IFN-γ (+874) were strongly associated with spontaneous clearance among this population. But in case of SVR and relapsed cases no significant association was found. This cytokine gene polymorphisms pattern will help clinicians to take an informed decision about therapeutic management of HCV infected thalassemic individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HCV Core Residues Critical for Infectivity Are Also Involved in Core-NS5A Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Katarzyna; Baugh, James; Chatterji, Udayan; Lim, Precious J.; Bobardt, Michael D.; Gallay, Philippe A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. The molecular machinery of HCV assembly and particle release remains obscure. A better understanding of the assembly events might reveal new potential antiviral strategies. It was suggested that the nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A), an attractive recent drug target, participates in the production of infectious particles as a result of its interaction with the HCV core protein. However, prior to the present study, the NS5A-binding site in the viral core remained unknown. We found that the D1 domain of core contains the NS5A-binding site with the strongest interacting capacity in the basic P38-K74 cluster. We also demonstrated that the N-terminal basic residues of core at positions 50, 51, 59 and 62 were required for NS5A binding. Analysis of all substitution combinations of R50A, K51A, R59A, and R62A, in the context of the HCVcc system, showed that single, double, triple, and quadruple mutants were fully competent for viral RNA replication, but deficient in secretion of viral particles. Furthermore, we found that the extracellular and intracellular infectivity of all the mutants was abolished, suggesting a defect in the formation of infectious particles. Importantly, we showed that the interaction between the single and quadruple core mutants and NS5A was impaired in cells expressing full-length HCV genome. Interestingly, mutations of the four basic residues of core did not alter the association of core or NS5A with lipid droplets. This study showed for the first time that basic residues in the D1 domain of core that are critical for the formation of infectious extracellular and intracellular particles also play a role in core-NS5A interactions. PMID:24533158

  8. Comorbidades entre dependência química, distimia, HIV e HCV: relato de caso Comorbidity between addiction, dysthymia, HIV and HCV: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fabiane Machado Gomes Marsden

    2009-01-01

    , contribute to mental status deterioration and the treatment for such conditions can cause fluctuations on mood. CASE REPORT: A 40 years old patient with comorbidity between chemical dependence (heroin and alcohol and dysthymia, complicated by relapses, IV drug use and serological status positive to HIV-1 and HCV. CONCLUSION: Addiction patients with psychiatric and infectious comorbidity are challenging to diagnose, treat and define therapeutical approaches to the different conditions. Proper clinical investigation and approach leads to benefits in health quality and potential financial benefits.

  9. Performance and diagnostic usefulness of commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and rapid kits for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Susmita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV, HBV and HCV pose a major public health problem throughout the world. Detection of infection markers for these agents is a major challenge for testing laboratories in a resource poor setting. As blood transfusion is an important activity saving millions of live every year, it also carries a risk of transfusion transmissible infections caused by these fatal blood borne pathogens if the quality of testing is compromised. Conventional ELISA is regarded as the mostly used screening technique but due to limitations like high cost, unavailability in many blood banks and testing sites, involvement of costly instruments, time taking nature and requirement of highly skilled personnel for interpretation, rapid tests are gaining more importance and warrants comparison of performance. Results A comparative study between these two techniques has been performed using commercially available diagnostic kits to assess their efficacy for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. Rapid kits were more efficient in specificity with synthetic antigens along with high PPV than ELISA in most cases. Comparison between different ELISA kits revealed that Microlisa HIV and Hepalisa (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.; ERBA LISA HIV1 + 2, ERBA LISA Hepatitis B and ERBA LISA HCV (Transasia Bio-medicals Ltd. gives uniform result with good performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and efficiency, whereas, Microlisa HCV (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd., Microscreen HBsAg ELISA and INNOVA HCV (Span Diagnostics Ltd. did not perform well. Rapid kits were also having high degree of sensitivity and specificity (100% except in HIV Comb and HCV Comb (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.. The kit efficiency didn’t vary significantly among different companies and lots in all the cases except for HCV ELISA showing statistically significant variation (p  Conclusions ELISA is a good screening assay for markers of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. Rapid tests are useful for

  10. Plasma level of the macrophage-derived soluble CD163 is increased and positively correlates with severity in Gaucher's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; de Fost, Maaike; Aerts, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Recently, soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been identified as a macrophage/monocyte-specific plasma protein and increased concentrations have been measured in patients with infection and myeloid leukaemia. In the present study we investigated the levels of sCD163 in patients with Gaucher's disease...

  11. Arabidopsis cortical microtubules position cellulose synthase delivery to the plasma membrane and interact with cellulose synthase trafficking compartments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez, R.; Lindeboom, J.J.; Paredez, A.R.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ehrhardt, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Plant cell morphogenesis relies on the organization and function of two polymer arrays separated by the plasma membrane: the cortical microtubule cytoskeleton and cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. Studies using in vivo markers confirmed that one function of the cortical microtubule array is

  12. Zinc sulfate treatment of secondary male infertility associated with positive serum and seminal plasma anti-sperm antibody test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar M. Jawad

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, infertile men with elevated level of ASA and poor basic parameters of seminal fluid characters can be treated with zinc sulfate protocol with great chance for decreasing the level of serum and seminal plasma ASA, and alleviating the serious side effects associated with corticosteroids.

  13. Low prevalence of antibodies and other plasma factors binding to CC chemokines and IL-2 in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Svenson, M; Larsen, Carsten Schade

    2000-01-01

    Neutralizing cytokine antibodies are found in healthy and diseased individuals, including patients treated with recombinant cytokines. Identification of CCR-5 as co-receptor for HIV has focused interest on CC chemokines and their potential therapeutic use. Chemokine-binding components in plasma...

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfections in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Puglia

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: We have observed less advanced disease in HIV and HCV-HIV patients compared with HBV–HIV coinfected patients. Moreover, our results show a higher prevalence of HIV/HCV among drug addicts and in the age-group 35–59, corresponding to those born in years considered most at risk for addiction. This study also confirms the finding of a less advanced HIV disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

  15. Effect of ethanol on innate antiviral pathways and HCV replication in human liver cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Nelson

    2005-12-01

    alcohol have extremely low response rates to IFN therapy 9, but the mechanisms involved have not been clarified. MAPKs play essential roles in regulation of differentiation, cell growth, and responses to cytokines, chemokines and stress. The core element in MAPK signaling consists of a module of 3 kinases, named MKKK, MKK, and MAPK, which sequentially phosphorylate each other 10. Currently, four MAPK modules have been characterized in mammalian cells: Extracellular Regulated Kinases (ERK1 and 2, Stress activated/c-Jun N terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK, p38 MAP kinases, and ERK5 11. Interestingly, ethanol modulates MAPKs 12. However, information on how ethanol affects MAPKs in the context of innate antiviral pathways such as the Jak-Stat pathway in human cells is extremely limited. When IFN-α binds its receptor, two receptor associated tyrosine kinases, Tyk2 and Jak1 become activated by phosphorylation, and phosphorylate Stat1 and Stat2 on conserved tyrosine residues 13. Stat1 and Stat2 combine with the IRF-9 protein to form the transcription factor interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF-3, which binds to the interferon stimulated response element (ISRE, and induces transcription of IFN-α-induced genes (ISG. The ISGs mediate the antiviral effects of IFN. The transcriptional activities of Stats 1, 3, 4, 5a, and 5b are also regulated by serine phosphorylation 14. Phosphorylation of Stat1 on a conserved serine amino acid at position 727 (S727, results in maximal transcriptional activity of the ISGF-3 transcription factor complex 15. Although cross-talk between p38 MAPK and the Jak-Stat pathway is essential for IFN-induced ISRE transcription, p38 does not participate in IFN induction of Stat1 serine phosphorylation 1416171819. However, cellular stress responses induced by stimuli such as ultraviolet light do induce p38 MAPK mediated Stat1 S727 phosphorylation 18. In the current report, we postulated that alcohol and HCV proteins modulate MAPK and Jak-Stat pathways in human

  16. Study of Various HCV Genotypes in Patients Managing by Referral Clinic in Yazd Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pedarzadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining virus genotype is a major factor for initiation of treatment because various kinds of genotypes need different antiviral drugs. Distribution of hepatitis C genotype in the word is variable in each country or even in each province. So we need to determine distribution pattern of hepatitis C genotype in our region. This study was performed in referral clinic of Yazd province. Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted between 2007 and 2010 on patients who were observed by Yazd referral clinic (the clinic for evaluating and management of patients with high risk behaviors. Ninety two patients who had positive RIBA test for hepatitis C infection were randomly selected and entered the study. Genotyping was performed using RT-PCR method. The primer was "universal primer HCV". Prevalence of various genotypes was analyzed according to gender, addiction and co- existence of HCV-HIV infection. Personal information and laboratory results were analyzed using SPSS. Results: The most common genotype in our study was genotype 3a (65% of cases, followed by 1a (35%. Globally 83% of patients were IV drug addict. Genotype distribution in these patients was similar to others. Fifteen patients had co-infection of HCV-HIV, and 47% of them were contaminated by genotype 1a and 53% with 3a. We could not find any patient contaminated with genotypes 2 or 4. No other genotypes except 1 & 3 or mixed genotype infection could be determined in our patients. Twenty three percent of patients had negative PCR despite positive RIBA test. This indicates that self improvement from acute hepatitis C infection in IV drug addict patients is similar to other people. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, about 2/3 of patients were infected by genotype 3a. This kind of chronic hepatitis C shows a better response to treatment comparing genotype 1a (or 1b with shorter duration and lower cost drugs. But despite higher incidence of genotype 3a, we

  17. Genetic Barrier to Direct Acting Antivirals in HCV Sequences Deposited in the European Databank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Alexandre Kliemann

    Full Text Available Development of resistance results from mutations in the viral genome, and the presence of selective drug pressure leads to the emergence of a resistant virus population. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of genetic variability on the genetic barrier to drug resistance to DAAs.The genetic barrier was quantified based on the number and type of nucleotide mutations required to impart resistance, considering full-length HCV NS3, NS5A and NS5B regions segregated by genotype into subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b and 3a. This study analyzeds 789 NS3 sequences, 708 sequences and 536 NS5B sequences deposited in the European Hepatitis C Virus Database, in the following resistance-associated positions: NS3: F43/I/L/S/V, Q80K/R, R155K/G, A156G/S/T and D168A/C/E/G/H/N/T/V/Y; NS5A: L/M28A/T/V, Q30E/H/R, L31F/I/M/V, H58D or P58S and Y93C/F/H/N/S; NS5B: S282P/R/T, C316H/N/Y, S368T, Y448C/H, S556G/R, D559R.Variants that require only one transversion in NS3 were found in 4 positions and include F43S, R80K, R155K/G and A156T. The genetic barrier to resistance shows subtypic differences at position 155 of the NS3 gene where a single transition is necessary in subtype 1a. In the NS5A gene, 5 positions where only one nucleotide change can confer resistance were found, such as L31M which requires one transversion in all subtypes, except in 0.28% of 1b sequences; and R30H, generated by a single transition, which was found in 10.25% of the sequences of genotype 1b. Other subtypic differences were observed at position 58, where resistance is less likely in genotype 1a because a transversion is required to create the variant 58S. For the NS5B inhibitors, the genetic barrier at positions conferring resistance was nearly identical in subtypes 1a and 1b, and single transitions or transversions were necessary in 5 positions to generate a drug-resistant variant of HCV. The positions C316Y and S556D required only one transition in all genotypes, Y448H and S556 G

  18. Increased CD56(bright) NK cells in HIV-HCV co-infection and HCV mono-infection are associated with distinctive alterations of their phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Suvercha; Ahmad, Fareed; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Cornberg, Marcus; Schulze Zur Wiesch, Julian; van Lunzen, Jan; Sarin, Shiv K; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Meyer-Olson, Dirk

    2016-04-18

    HIV-HCV co-infection is associated with accelerated progression to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma than HCV mono-infection. The contribution of innate immunity during HIV-HCV co-infection has been a relatively under-investigated area. Natural killer (NK) cells are pivotal sentinels of innate immunity against viruses and tumour cells. In this study we evaluated the effect of HIV-HCV co-infection on peripheral blood NK cell subsets with emphasis on the phenotype of CD56(bright) NK cells. Sixty patients were included in the study; HIV mono-infected (n = 12), HCV mono-infected (n = 15), HCV-HIV co-infected (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 16). PBMCs were isolated and immunophenotyping of NK cells was performed by flowcytometry. We observed an expansion of CD56(bright) NK cell subset in HIV-HCV co-infection as compared to healthy controls and HIV mono-infected group. All the infected groups had an upregulated expression of the activating receptor NKG2D on CD56(bright) NK cells in comparison to healthy controls while not differing amongst themselves. The expression of NKp46 in HIV-HCV co-infected group was significantly upregulated as compared to both HIV as well as HCV mono-infections while NKp30 expression in the HIV-HCV co-infected group significantly differed as compared to HIV mono-infection. The CD56(bright) NK cell subset was activated in HIV-HCV co-infection as assessed by the expression of CD69 as compared to healthy controls but was significantly downregulated in comparison to HIV mono-infection. CD95 expression on CD56(bright) NK cells followed the same pattern where there was an increased expression of CD95 in HIV mono-infection and HIV-HCV co-infection as compared to healthy controls. In contrast to CD69 expression, CD95 expression in HCV mono-infection was decreased when compared to HIV mono-infection and HIV-HCV co-infection. Finally, expression of CXCR3 on CD56(bright) NK cells was increased in HIV-HCV co-infection in comparison

  19. High prevalence of human parvovirus 4 infection in HBV and HCV infected individuals in shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Hong, Liang; Wang, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Zhang, Xi; Ghildyal, Reena

    2012-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been detected in blood and diverse tissues samples from HIV/AIDS patients who are injecting drug users. Although B19 virus, the best characterized human parvovirus, has been shown to co-infect patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus (HBV, HCV) infection, the association of PARV4 with HBV or HCV infections is still unknown.The aim of this study was to characterise the association of viruses belonging to PARV4 genotype 1 and 2 with chronic HBV and HCV infection in Shanghai.Serum samples of healthy controls, HCV infected subjects and HBV infected subjects were retrieved from Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) Sample Bank. Parvovirus-specific nested-PCR was performed and results confirmed by sequencing. Sequences were compared with reference sequences obtained from Genbank to derive phylogeny trees.The frequency of parvovirus molecular detection was 16-22%, 33% and 41% in healthy controls, HCV infected and HBV infected subjects respectively, with PARV4 being the only parvovirus detected. HCV infected and HBV infected subjects had a significantly higher PARV4 prevalence than the healthy population. No statistical difference was found in PARV4 prevalence between HBV or HCV infected subjects. PARV4 sequence divergence within study groups was similar in healthy subjects, HBV or HCV infected subjects.Our data clearly demonstrate that PARV4 infection is strongly associated with HCV and HBV infection in Shanghai but may not cause increased disease severity.

  20. [The velocity of HCV subtype 6a transmission in southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guo-hu; Tan, Zhao-xia; Guo, Yan; Mao, Qing

    2011-07-01

    To estimate the velocity of HCV subtype 6a transmission in Southwest China. The HCV CE1 region from 61 patients infected with HCV genotype 6 were amplificated by RT-PCR and sequenced. The subtypes were identified, and the period of HCV 6a strains originated in southwest china was estimated by using molecular clock phylogenetic analysis. The velocity of HCV subtype 6a transmission in southwest China was estimated by BEAST v1.6.1 and Tracer v1.5 software theoretically. Most of HCV 6a strains distributed in Southwest China origine around the year 1968 and at last 4 epidemic strains existed. The earlier origine strains could be isolated both in intravenous drug users (IDU) and non-IDU patients. After 1997, the HCV 6a strains transmission in southwest China accelerated and the trend intensified in 2007. HCV 6a strains spread fastly both in IDU and non-IDU patients, which might be the main HCV subtype distributed in Southwest China in the future.

  1. Association of HCV with diabetes mellitus: an Egyptian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Gamal G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest Hepatitis C Virus (HCV prevalence in the world occurs in Egypt. Several studies from different parts of the world have found that 13% to 33% of patients with chronic HCV have associated diabetes, mostly type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM. In Egypt the prevalence of DM is 25.4% among HCV patients. Therefore, it is important to identify the magnitude of the problem of diabetes in order to optimize the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Methods The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of DM and other extrahepatic (EH manifestations among patients with different HCV morbidity stages including asymptomatic, chronic hepatic and cirrhotic patients. In this study, 289 HCV patients older than 18 were selected as cases. Also, 289 healthy controls were included. Laboratory investigations including Liver Function tests (LFT and blood glucose level were done. Also serological assays including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Results Out of 289 HCV cases, 40 (13.84% were diabetic. Out of 289 healthy controls, 12 (4.15% were diabetic. It was found that the diabetic HCV group mean age was [48.1 (± 9.2]. Males and urbanians represented 72.5% and 85% respectively. Lower level of education was manifested in 52.5% and 87.5% were married. In the nondiabetic HCV group mean age was [40.7 (± 10.4]. Males and urbanians represented 71.5% and 655% respectively. secondary and higher level of education was attained in 55.4% and 76.7% were married. Comparing between the diabetic HCV group and the non diabetic HCV group, age, residence and alcohol drinking were the only significant factors affecting the incidence of diabetes between the two groups. There was no significant difference regarding sonar findings although cirrhosis was more prevalent among diabetic HCV cases and the fibrosis score was higher in diabetic HCV patients than among the non diabetic HCV cases

  2. Cyclophilin B stimulates RNA synthesis by the HCV RNA dependent RNA polymerase

    OpenAIRE

    Heck, Julie A.; Meng, Xiao; Frick, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclophilins are cellular peptidyl isomerases that have been implicated in regulating hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a target of cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressive drug recently shown to suppress HCV replication in cell culture. Watashi et al. recently demonstrated that CypB is important for efficient HCV replication, and proposed that it mediates the anti-HCV effects of CsA through an interaction with NS5B (Mol. Cell 19:111). We examined the effects of pu...

  3. HOMA-AD in Assessing Insulin Resistance in Lean Noncirrhotic HCV Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczuk, Matheus Truccolo; Kappel, Camila Rippol; Birkhan, Oscar; Bragança, Ana Carolina; Alvares-da-Silva, Mário Reis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. There is an association between HCV and insulin resistance (IR), which is currently assessed by HOMA-IR. There is evidence that HOMA-adiponectin (HOMA-AD) is more accurate, but its role in HCV patients is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate IR in an HCV sample and controls, in order to compare the accuracy of HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD. Methods. Ninety-four HCV outpatients aged IR was estimated by HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD. Results. The groups were similar regarding sex and BMI, but the HCV patients were older. The median insulin level was higher in the HCV group (8.6 mU/mL (6.5-13.7) versus 6.5 (4.3-10.7), P = 0.004), as was median HOMA-IR (1.94 (1.51 to 3.48) versus 1.40 (1.02 to 2.36), P = 0.002) and the prevalence of IR (38.3% versus 10.3% (P = 0.009)). No differences were found in adiponectin levels (P = 0.294) and HOMA-AD (P = 0.393). Conclusion. IR is highly prevalent even in low-risk HCV outpatients. Adiponectin is not influenced by the presence of HCV. HOMA-AD does not seem to be useful in assessing IR in HCV patients.

  4. Phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in HCV/HIV co-infected patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roe, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    While hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immune responses are attenuated in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients compared to those infected with HCV alone, the reasons for this remain unclear. In this study, the proportions of regulatory, naïve, and memory T cells, along with chemokine receptor expression, were measured in co-infected and mono-infected patients to determine if there is an alteration in the phenotypic profile of lymphocytes in these patients. HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients had increased proportions of CD4(+) naïve cells and decreased proportions of CD4(+) effector cells when compared to HCV mono-infected patients. The proportions of CD4(+) Tregs and CD4(+) CXCR3(+) T cells were also significantly lower in co-infected patients. A decrease in CD4(+) Tregs and subsequent loss of immunosuppressive function may contribute to the accelerated progression to liver disease in co-infected individuals. Dysregulation of immune responses following reduction in the proportions of CD4(+) CXCR3(+) Th-1 cells may contribute to the reduced functional capacity of HCV-specific immune responses in co-infected patients. The findings of this study provide new information on the T-cell immunophenotype in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients when compared to those infected with HCV alone, and may provide insight into why cell-mediated immune responses are diminished during HCV infection.

  5. Active hepatitis C infection and HCV genotypes prevalent among the IDUs of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uz Zaman Khaleeq

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Injection drug users (IDUs are considered as a high risk group to develop hepatitis C due to needle sharing. In this study we have examined 200 injection drug users from various regions of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province for the prevalence of active HCV infection and HCV genotypes by Immunochromatographic assays, RT-PCR and Type-specific PCR. Our results indicated that 24% of the IDUs were actively infected with HCV while anti HCV was detected among 31.5% cases. Prevalent HCV genotypes were HCV 2a, 3a, 4 and 1a. Majority of the IDUs were married and had attained primary or middle school education. 95% of the IDUs had a previous history of needle sharing. Our study indicates that the rate of active HCV infection among the IDUs is higher with comparatively more prevalence of the rarely found HCV types in KPK. The predominant mode of HCV transmission turned out to be needle sharing among the IDUs.

  6. Real-time Equilibrium Reconstruction and Isoflux Control of Plasma Shape and Position in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.E.; Ferron, J.R.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of the rtEFIT-isoflux algorithm in the digital control system for NSTX has led to improved ability to control the plasma shape. In particular, it has been essential for good gap control for radio-frequency experiments, for control of drsep in H-mode studies, and for X-point height control and κ control in a variety of experiments

  7. Position- and time-resolved Stark broadening diagnostics of a non-thermal laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Stark-broadened line shapes of silicon ions in a laser-induced plasma using a model constructed, without assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), using a Druyvesteyn electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The method is applied to temporally and spatially resolved measurements of Si 2+ and Si 3+ emissions from a transient plasma expanding into vacuum, produced by 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a Si (1 0 0) target. The best-fitting simulated line shapes and the corresponding electron number densities and temperatures (or equivalently, Druyvesteyn average energies) are compared with those returned assuming LTE (i.e. for a Maxwellian EEDF). Non-thermal behavior is found to dominate at all but the very earliest stages of expansion close to the target surface, consistent with McWhirter’s criterion for the establishment of LTE. The Druyvesteyn EEDF always yields an equivalent or better model of the experimental measurements, and the observed increasingly strong departure from the Maxwellian case with time and distance from the ablation event highlights the essential invalidity of the LTE assumption for moderate-power, nanosecond laser-induced plasma expanding in vacuo. (paper)

  8. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oml

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for

  9. The influence of the analog-to-digital conversion error on the JT-60 plasma position/shape feedback control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Michiharu; Kurihara, Kenichi

    1995-12-01

    In the plasma feedback control system (PFCS) and the direct digital controller (DDC) for the poloidal field coil power supply in the JT-60 tokamak, it is necessary to observe signals of all the poloidal field coil currents. Each of the signals, originally measured by a single sensor, is distributed to the PFCS and DDC through different cable routes and different analog-to-digital converters from each other. This produces the conversion error to the amount of several bits. Consequently, proper voltage from feedback calculation cannot be applied to the coil, and hence the control performance is possibly supposed to deteriorate to a certain extent. This paper describes how this error makes an influence on the plasma horizontal position control and how to improve the deteriorated control performance. (author)

  10. School adolescents' knowledge concerning hepatitis C virus (HCV)

    OpenAIRE

    Sierpińska, Lidia; Jankowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Sierpińska Lidia, Jankowska Ewa. School adolescents’ knowledge concerning hepatitis C virus (HCV). Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(1):11-27. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.229140 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4133 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 754 (09.12.2016). 754 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 © Th...

  11. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-04-01

    Food insecurity may be a barrier to achieving optimal HIV treatment-related outcomes among illicit drug users. This study therefore, aimed to assess the impact of severe food insecurity, or hunger, on plasma HIV RNA suppression among illicit drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the potential relationship between hunger and plasma HIV RNA suppression. A sample of n = 406 adults was derived from a community-recruited open prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. A total of 235 (63.7%) reported "being hungry and unable to afford enough food," and 241 (59.4%) had plasma HIV RNA hunger was associated with lower odds of plasma HIV RNA suppression (Odds Ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.015). In multivariate analyses, this association was no longer significant after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, including 95% adherence (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.37-1.10, p = 0.105). Multivariate models stratified by 95% adherence found that the direction and magnitude of this association was not significantly altered by the adherence level. Hunger was common among illicit drug users in this setting. Although, there was an association between hunger and lower likelihood of plasma HIV RNA suppression, this did not persist in adjusted analyses. Further research is warranted to understand the social-structural, policy, and physical factors shaping the HIV outcomes of illicit drug users.

  12. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method for the quantification of alprazolam and α-hydroxy-alprazolam in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogria, Eleni; Pistos, Constantinos; Panderi, Irene

    2013-12-30

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/positive ion electrospray-mass spectrometry (HILIC-ESI/MS) has been developed and fully validated for the quantification of alprazolam and its main metabolite, α-hydroxy-alprazolam, in human plasma. The assay is based on 50μL plasma samples, following liquid-liquid extraction. All analytes and the internal standard (tiamulin) were separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using an X-Bridge-HILIC analytical column (150.0mm×2.1mm i.d., particle size 3.5μm) under isoscratic elution. The mobile phase was composed of a 7% 10mM ammonium formate water solution in acetonitrile and pumped at a flow rate of 0.20mLmin(-1). Running in positive electrospray ionization and selected ion monitoring (SIM) the mass spectrometer was set to analyze the protonated molecules [M+H](+) at m/z 309, 325 and 494 for alprazolam, α-hydroxy-alprazolam and tiamulin (ISTD) respectively. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 2.5-250ngmL(-1) for alprazolam and 2.5-50ngmL(-1) for α-hydroxy alprazolam. Intermediate precision was less than 4.1% over the tested concentration ranges. The method is the first reported application of HILIC in the analysis benzodiazepines in human plasma. With a small sample size (50μL human plasma) and a run time less than 10.0min for each sample the method can be used to support a wide range of clinical studies concerning alprazolam quantification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Single test isolated lupus anticoagulant positivity is associated with increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, S A; Nybo, M; Laustrup, H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single positive test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) is associated with levels of inflammatory markers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, independent of autoimmune disease, thrombophilia and occurrence of other antiphospholipid antibodies. METHODS: In a ...

  14. Role of ribavirin in HCV treatment response: now and in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mamta K; Zoellner, Cindy

    2010-03-01

    Ribavirin is a broad spectrum antiviral agent that is used with pegylated IFN (Peg-IFN) for HCV treatment. Ribavirin does not significantly reduce HCV viral load when used alone but increases rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) when combined with Peg-IFN. HCV genotype 1 infected patients require higher doses of ribavirin administered for a longer duration of time versus HCV genotypes 2 and 3 patients who respond effectively to Peg-IFN with lower doses of ribavirin and shorter duration of therapy. Higher serum concentrations of ribavirin are associated with higher response rates but also higher rates of hemolytic anemia which is a dose limiting side effect. Alternatives to current therapy are under clinical evaluation. Systematic literature review of ribavirin use in HCV patients from 1995 to 2009 was conducted. To review the efficacy and safety of ribavirin in current HCV treatment and in new therapies in Phase III clinical trials. Ribavirin is a drug which is essential to produce higher SVR rates both with Peg-IFN and HCV protease inhibitors currently in Phase III clinical trials. Thus, ribavirin is and will remain an important drug to achieving higher SVR rates in HCV infected persons.

  15. High seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infection in HIV-infected adults in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusine, John; Ondoa, Pascale; Asiimwe-Kateera, Brenda; Boer, Kimberly R.; Uwimana, Jean Marie; Mukabayire, Odette; Zaaijer, Hans; Mugabekazi, Julie; Reiss, Peter; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.

    2013-01-01

    Data on prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Rwanda are scarce. HBV status was assessed at baseline and Month 12, and anti-HCV antibodies at baseline, in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients in Kigali, Rwanda: 104 men and 114

  16. HVR1-mediated antibody evasion of highly infectious in vivo adapted HCV in humanised mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Verhoye, Lieven; Moctezuma, Rodrigo Velazquez

    2016-01-01

    Objective HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility. Design Analysis o...

  17. Mitochondrial Dysfunctions and Altered Metals Homeostasis: New Weapons to Counteract HCV-Related Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arciello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV infection produces several pathological effects in host organism through a wide number of molecular/metabolic pathways. Today it is worldwide accepted that oxidative stress actively participates in HCV pathology, even if the antioxidant therapies adopted until now were scarcely effective. HCV causes oxidative stress by a variety of processes, such as activation of prooxidant enzymes, weakening of antioxidant defenses, organelle damage, and metals unbalance. A focal point, in HCV-related oxidative stress onset, is the mitochondrial failure. These organelles, known to be the “power plants” of cells, have a central role in energy production, metabolism, and metals homeostasis, mainly copper and iron. Furthermore, mitochondria are direct viral targets, because many HCV proteins associate with them. They are the main intracellular free radicals producers and targets. Mitochondrial dysfunctions play a key role in the metal imbalance. This event, today overlooked, is involved in oxidative stress exacerbation and may play a role in HCV life cycle. In this review, we summarize the role of mitochondria and metals in HCV-related oxidative stress, highlighting the need to consider their deregulation in the HCV-related liver damage and in the antiviral management of patients.

  18. Detection of HCV genotypes using molecular and radio-isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Baig, S.M.; Shah, W.A.; Khattak, K.F.; Khan, B.; Qureshi, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for most cases of acute and chronic non-A and non-B liver diseases. Persistent HCV infection may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Six major HCV genotypes have been recognized. Infection with different genotypes results in different clinical pictures and responses to antiviral therapy. In the area of Faisalabad (Punjab province of Pakistan), the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis C virus infection had never been investigated before. In this study, we have made an attempt to determine the prevalence, distribution and clinical significance of HCV infection in 1100 suspected patients of liver disease by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) over a period of four years. HCV genotypes of isolates were determined by dot-blot hybridization with genotype specific radiolabeled probes in 337 subjects. The proportion of patients with HCV genotypes 1,2,3 and 4 were 37.38%, 1.86%, 16.16% and 0.29% respectively. Mixed infection of HCV genotype was detected in 120 (35.6%) patients, whereas 31 (9.1%) samples remained unclassified. This study revealed changing epidemiology of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 and 3 in the patients. Multiple infection of HCV genotype in the same patient may be of great clinical and pathological importance and interest. (author)

  19. Genotypes of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 co-infected individuals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses are the major causes of liver disease worldwide. Co-infections with HBV and HCV have turned out to be increasingly very common among people living with HIV, leading to a major public health concern. Objective: To determine HBV and HCV diversity among HIV infected ...

  20. Impact of duration of therapy on side effect profile of anti-HCV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the plausible risks and adverse effects related to the duration of therapy in hepatitis C (HCV) patients in Lahore, Pakistan. Method: A retrospective observational study involving 250 HCV patients who received combination therapy with ribavirin and interferon was conducted. The patients were ...

  1. Impact of Immunogenetic IL28B Polymorphism on Natural Outcome of HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli De Re

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating whether interleukin 28B gene (IL28B rs1297860 polymorphism is associated with different hepatitis C (HCV infection statuses, we compared IL28B allelic distribution in an Italian case series of 1050 patients with chronic infection and different outcomes, 47 individuals who spontaneously cleared HCV, and 178 blood donors. Furthermore, we compared IL28B variants among 3882 Caucasian patients with chronic infection, 397 with spontaneous clearance, and 1366 blood donors reported in PubMed. Overall data confirmed a relation between IL28B C allele and HCV spontaneous clearance. Furthermore, we found that IL28B T allele had a weak relation with chronic HCV progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Study findings are in accordance with the hepatocellular carcinogenic model where IL28B TT genotype, by promoting a persistent chronic hepatitis which leads to both hepatocyte injury and chronic inflammation, could facilitate HCC development. Conversely, patients with lymphoproliferative disorders had not any significantly different IL28B rs1297860 allelic distribution than those with chronic HCV, but, like all chronic HCV-related diseases, they showed a lower CC frequency than patients who spontaneously cleared HCV. Study results confirmed the model of persistent HCV infection as a risk factor for the pathogenesis of both liver and lymphoproliferative disorders.

  2. Prevalence of anti HCV infection in patients with beta-thalassemia in Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ataei

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings revealed that blood transfusion was the main risk factors for HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients. Therefore, more blood donor screening programs and effective screening techniques are needed to prevent transmission of HCV infection among beta-thalassemic patients.

  3. New modalities in the treatment of HCV in pre and post - transplantation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz, Filiz; Durand, Christine M; Gürakar, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    End-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) secondary to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are the leading indications for liver transplantation (LT) in developed countries. Recurrence of HCV following LT is universal if the recipient has detectable serum HCV RNA at the time of LT. Recurrent HCV has an accelerated course and is associated with poor long term patient and graft survival. Interferon (IFN)-based regimens have achieved low Sustained Virological Rates (SVR) in this setting and are associated with a high rate of adverse events, resulting in treatment discontinuation. With advances in understanding the HCV life cycle, drugs targeting specific steps, particularly inhibiting the NS3/4A protease, NS5B RNA dependent RNA polymerase and the NS5A protein, have been developed. Sofosbuvir (SOF), a nucleotide analogue inhibitor of NS5B polymerase was the first compound to enter the market. Combinations of SOF with new HCV antivirals from other classes have allowed for IFN-free regimens with low rates of adverse events and SVR rates >90%. With the availability of newer agents, the approach to the treatment of HCV infection during the pre-and post-liver transplantation period has changed. We will hereby review the current status of HCV treatment and discuss the potential future therapies in the transplant setting.

  4. [Clinical benefit of HCV core antigen assay in patients receiving interferon and ribavirin combination therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimoto, Makiko; Takahashi, Masahiko; Jokyu, Ritsuko; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2006-02-01

    A highly sensitive second generation HCV core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and kinetics data between commercially available core antigen assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag, and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor Test, Version 2 to estimate the predictive benefit of sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 59 patients treated with interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We found a good correlation between HCV core Ag and HCV RNA level regardless of genotype. Although the sensitivity of the core antigen assay was lower than PCR, the dynamic range was broader than that of the PCR assay, so that we did not need to dilute the samples in 59 patients. We detected serial decline of core Ag levels in 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days after interferon combination therapy. The decline of core antigen levels was significant in SVR patients compared to non-SVR as well as in genotype 2a, 2b patients compared to 1b. Core antigen-negative on day 1 could predict all 10 SVR patients (PPV = 100%), whereas RNA-negative could predict 22 SVR out of 25 on day 14 (PPV = 88.0%). None of the patients who had detectable serum core antigen on day 14 became SVR(NPV = 100%), although NPV was 91.2% on RNA negativity. An easy, simple, low cost new HCV core antigen detecting system seems to be useful for assessing and monitoring IFN treatment for HCV.

  5. HVR1-mediated antibody evasion of highly infectious in vivo adapted HCV in humanised mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Verhoye, Lieven; Moctezuma, Rodrigo Velazquez

    2016-01-01

    Objective HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility. Design Analysis...... as vaccine antigens to boost broadly reactive protective nAb responses....

  6. Low prevalence of antibodies and other plasma factors binding to CC chemokines and IL-2 in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Svenson, M; Schade Larsen, C

    2000-01-01

    of HIV-infected patients were therefore assessed by radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay. IgG from 4/505 HIV patients and 9/2000 healthy controls (p>0.05) bound rMIP-1alpha and rMIP-1beta, but not rRANTES. No other plasma factors bound the chemokines. The antibodies inhibited receptor binding of both...... chemokines. There was no association between presence of antibodies and disease stage or HIV progression rate. Three of 11 patients treated with rIL-2 developed IgG antibodies suppressing cellular binding and growth promotion of rIL-2. Hence, circulating factors, including antibodies MIP-1alpha/MIP-1beta...

  7. Design, synthesis and identification of silicon-containing HCV NS5A inhibitors with pan-genotype activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baomin; Gai, Kuo; Qin, Hui; Liu, Xushi; Cao, Yuan; Lu, Qin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Deyang; Shen, Hengqiao; Song, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xiaojin; Xu, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yinsheng

    2018-03-25

    Modification of a HCV NS5A inhibitor, ombitasvir, led to the identification of 10d with improved pan-genotype NS5A inhibition and better pharmacokinetic properties. The key structural changes to ombitasvir include bioisosteric replacement of carbon with silicon atom. Compared with ombitasvir, the activity of anti-HCV genotypes (GT 1 to 6) of 10d is increased to some extent, especially the inhibitory activity against genotype 3a and 6a is increased by more than seven times, and the dog's in vivo pharmacokinetics properties were also superior to ombitasvir. Further drug evaluation showed that 10d was similar to ombitasvir on plasma protein binding and liver distribution profiles, with no cytotoxicity and no inhibitory effect on both CYP 450 and hERG ligand binding. However, permeability assay results indicated that 10d was not the substrate of P-gp or BCRP transporter, which is different from that of ombitasvir. The results of a 14-day repeat-dose toxicity study identified no toxicity with 10d. Our findings in preclinical tests suggest that the silicon-containing compound 10d could be worthy of continued study as a potential drug candidate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma zinc, vitamin B(12) and α-tocopherol are positively and plasma γ-tocopherol is negatively associated with Hb concentration in early pregnancy in north-west Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Kabir, Alamgir; Merrill, Rebecca D; Ali, Hasmot; Rashid, Mahbubur; Schulze, Kerry; Labrique, Alain; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the current analysis was to explore the association of multiple micronutrients with Hb concentration among pregnant women in a South Asian setting, a topic that has not been adequately explored. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and micronutrient status (plasma ferritin, transferrin receptor, retinol, a- and g-tocopherol, folate, vitamin B12, Zn) and Hb concentration were assessed at early pregnancy. The biochemical sub-study was nested within a double-blind, placebo-controlled, community-based vitamin A and b-carotene supplementation trial in rural north-western Bangladesh (JiVitA). All assessments were conducted before trial supplementation was initiated. A systematic sample of 285 women was selected from those enrolled in the biochemical sub-study. Seventeen per cent of women were mildly anaemic; moderate and severe anaemia was uncommon (2.1 %). a-Tocopherol, vitamin B12 and Zn deficiencies were common (43.5%, 19.7% and 14.7%, respectively); however, vitamin A, folate and Fe deficiencies were comparatively rare (7.4%, 2.8% and ,1%,respectively). Plasma Zn, vitamin B12 and a-tocopherol were positively associated and plasma g-tocopherol was negatively associated with Hb (P < 0.05) after adjustment for gestational age, inflammation status, season and nutritional status measured by mid-upper arm circumference. Among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh with minimal Fe deficiency, plasma Zn, vitamin B12, and a- and g-tocopherol concentrations were associated with Hb concentration. Appreciating the influence on Hb of micronutrients in addition to those with known associations with anaemia, such as Fe, folate, and vitamin A, is important when addressing anaemia in similar settings.

  9. Anti-HCV activity of the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Youki; Mori, Kyoko; Satoh, Shinya; Dansako, Hiromichi; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-02

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global health problem. Although the sustained virologic response rate in the treatment of genotype 1 using new triple therapy (pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir/boceprevir) has been improved by more than 70%, several severe side effects such as skin rash/ageusia and advanced anemia have become a problem. Under these circumstances, a new type of anti-HCV oral drug with few side effects is needed. Our recently developed HCV drug assay systems, including the HuH-7 cell line-derived OR6 and AH1R, and the Li23 cell line-derived ORL8 and ORL11, allow genome-length HCV RNAs (several strains of genotype 1b) encoding renilla luciferase to replicate efficiently. Using these systems as anti-HCV candidates, we have identified numerous existing medicines that can be used against HCV with few side effects, such as statins and teprenon. To obtain additional anti-HCV candidates, we evaluated a number of oral health supplements, and found that the capsule but not the liquid form of Cordyceps militaris (CM) (Ascomycotinanorth, North Chinese caterpillar fungus), which is used as a Chinese herbal medicine, exhibited moderate anti-HCV activity. In combination with interferon-α or ribavirin, CM exhibited an additive inhibitory effect. Among the main components of CM, cordycepin, but not ergosterol, contributed to the anti-HCV activity of CM. In consideration of all these results, we suggest that CM would be useful as an oral anti-HCV agent in combination with interferon-α and/or ribavirin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatites pós-transfusionais na cidade de Campinas, SP, Brasil: II. Presença dos anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV em candidatos a doadores de sangue e ocorrência de hepatites pós-transfusionais pelo vírus C nos receptores de sangue ou derivados Post-transfusional hepatitis in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil: II- Presence of anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies in blood donors and occurrence of post-transfusional hepatitis C virus in recipients of blood or derivates

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    Fernando Lopes Gonçales Júnior

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisamos os anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV em amostras de soros provenientes de 799 candidatos a doadores, que tiveram suas unidades de sangue ou derivados transfundidas a 111 receptores. O anti-HBc e o anti-HCV foram reagentes, em respectivamente 9 e 2,1% dos doadores testados. Observamos que entre os 111 receptores, 44 haviam recebido pelo menos uma unidade anti-HBc positiva e 67 haviam sido transfundidos somente com unidades anti-HBc negativas. Houve um risco 4,5 vezes maior de aquisição de hepatite por vírus C pelos receptores que receberam pelo menos uma unidade anti-HBc positiva Se a pesquisa do anti-HBc fosse realizada na triagem sorológica dos doadores de sangue, cerca de 56% dos casos de HVC nos receptores saiam evitados. A população de receptores que recebeu pelo menos uma unidade anti-HCV reagente, apresentou um risco 29 vezes maior de adquirir esta hepatite, quando comparada aos receptores transfundidos com todas as unidades anti-HCV negativas. A realização do teste para a pesquisa do anti-HCV na triagem dos doadores de sangue, preveniria 79% dos casos de HVC pós-transfusionais. Os candidatos a doadores brasileiros parecem ser acometidos simultânea ou sequencialmente, pelos vírus B e C das hepatites, pois, 44,4% dos doadores anti-HCV positivos, também foram anti-HBc positivos. A realização dos testes para as pesquisas dos anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV, nas triagens hemoterápicas, está indicada para prevenir a transmissão de hepatites pós-transfusionais, em nosso meio.We have analysed anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies in serum samples from 799 donors which had their blood or derivates transfused to 111 recipients. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV were reactive in respectively 9 and 2.1% of the donors tested. We have observed that among the 111 recipients, 44 had received at least one positive anti-HBc unit and 67 had been transfused only with negative anti-HBc, units. The risk of developing hepatitis C virus was 4.5 times

  11. [Comparison of the performance of the ECLusys anti-HCV reagent with the Lumipulse f and HISCL 2000-i HCVAb assays].

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    Sugiura, Aya; Iwahara, Kunihiro; Suga, Yasuyuki; Uchiyama, Sachinori; Maekawa, Masato

    2012-09-01

    We compared the ECLusys Anti-HCV (ECL) reagent to the Lumipulse f (LPf) and HISCL (HIS) HCV assays. In a correlation test using 210 routine clinical specimens measured using the Lumipulse method (96 positive and 114 negative), most of the results were consistent for all specimens. In a dilution sensitivity test using three different routine positive specimens, the ECL assay enabled detection at higher levels of sensitivity than either the LPf or the HIS assay. Moreover, when the distribution of the cut-off index (C.O.I.) values of the routine LPf negative specimens were compared to those on the ECL and HIS assays, it was found that on the ECL assay, most of the specimens had cut-off index values < 0.1, indicating a more clear-cut distribution. In a specificity test using high RF positive specimens(n = 33), pregnancy specimens (n = 35), cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody positive specimens (n = 36), and high M protein positive specimens (n = 21), the ECL assay yielded positive results for a CMV antibody positive specimen and three high M protein positive specimens. Further testing using samples from the same patients collected on different days than these four samples resulted in a second positive result for the CMV positive specimen, and single antigen measurement yielded a Core/NS3 positive result, as well, suggesting past infection. However, since negative results were obtained for the three M protein positive specimens, the possibility of this being a ECLusys non-specific reaction could not be ruled out. The above results confirmed that the ECL assay provides superior fundamental performance, and possesses test performance nearly identical to that of the existing measurement methods that are widely used at a large number of facilities, and would therefore be a suitable assay for use in routine HCV antibody screening.

  12. Elemental depth profiles and plasma etching rates of positive-tone electron beam resists after sequential infiltration synthesis of alumina

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    Ozaki, Yuki; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    By scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDS), we investigated the elemental depth profiles of organic electron beam resist films after the sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) of inorganic alumina. Although a 40-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film was entirely hybridized with alumina, an uneven distribution was observed near the interface between the substrate and the resist as well as near the resist surface. The uneven distribution was observed around the center of a 100-nm-thick PMMA film. The thicknesses of the PMMA and CSAR62 resist films decreased almost linearly as functions of plasma etching period. The comparison of etching rate among oxygen reactive ion etching, C3F8 reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), and Ar ion beam milling suggested that the SIS treatment enhanced the etching resistance of the electron beam resists to chemical reactions rather than to ion collisions. We proposed oxygen- and Ar-assisted C3F8 RIBE for the fabrication of silica imprint molds by electron beam lithography.

  13. Leptin promoter gene polymorphism on -2549 position decreases plasma leptin and increases appetite in normal weight volunteers

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    Sandra Bragança Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigate whether polymorphism in the promoter region encoding leptin and leptin receptor gene, in normal weight individuals, affects hormonal and appetite responses to peanuts.Materials and methods: Appetite, anthropometric indices, body composition, physical activity, dietary intake and leptin, ghrelin and insulin levels were monitored. Polymorphism analyses were also carried out.Results: None of the treatments led to statistical differences in the analyzed hormones. No polymorphism was found for leptin receptor gene, while for leptin gene, 50% of the volunteers presented one polymorphic allele and 13% presented both polymorphic alleles. These last ones presented lower body fat mass, leptin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, and fullness rates. They also presented higher hunger, desire to eat, and desire to eat sweet and salty foods.Conclusions: Peanut did not affect appetite and presented no different hormonal responses, compared to other foods studied. Polymorphic allele carriers in both alleles presented higher probability to develop obesity. However, the magnitude of this probability could not be measured.

  14. Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland.

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    Stone, Jack; Martin, Natasha K; Hickman, Matthew; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Aspinall, Esther; Taylor, Avril; Munro, Alison; Dunleavy, Karen; Peters, Erica; Bramley, Peter; Hayes, Peter C; Goldberg, David J; Vickerman, Peter

    2017-07-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high incarceration rates, and previous incarceration is associated with elevated hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk. In Scotland, national survey data indicate lower HCV incidence in prison than the community (4.3 versus 7.3 per 100 person-years), but a 2.3-fold elevated transmission risk among recently released (prison-related prevention interventions, including scaling-up direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in prison. Dynamic mathematical modelling of incarceration and HCV transmission, using approximate Bayesian computation for model calibration. Scotland, UK. A simulated population of PWID. Population-attributable fraction (PAF) of incarceration to HCV transmission among PWID. Decrease in HCV incidence and chronic prevalence due to current levels of prison opiate substitution therapy (OST; 57% coverage) and HCV treatment, as well as scaling-up DAAs in prison and/or preventing the elevated risk associated with prison release. Incarceration contributes 27.7% [PAF; 95% credible interval (CrI) -3.1 to 51.1%] of HCV transmission among PWID in Scotland. During the next 15 years, current HCV treatment rates (10.4/6.8 per 1000 incarcerated/community PWID annually), with existing prison OST, could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence among all PWID by a relative 10.7% (95% CrI = 8.4-13.3%) and 9.7% (95% CrI = 7.7-12.1%), respectively. Conversely, without prison OST, HCV incidence and chronic prevalence would decrease by 3.1% (95% CrI = -28.5 to 18.0%) and 4.7% (95% CrI = -11.3 to 14.5%). Additionally, preventing the heightened risk among recently released PWID could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence by 45.0% (95% CrI = 19.7-57.5%) and 33.3% (95% CrI = 15.6-43.6%) or scaling-up prison HCV treatments to 80% of chronic PWID prison entrants with sufficient sentences (>16 weeks) could reduce incidence and prevalence by 45.6% (95% CrI = 38.0-51.3%) and 45.5% (95% CrI = 39.3-51.0%), respectively

  15. GENIUS In Silico Screening Technology for HCV Drug Discovery.

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    Patil, Vaishali M; Masand, Neeraj; Gupta, Satya P

    2016-01-01

    The various reported in silico screening protocols such as molecular docking are associated with various drawbacks as well as benefits. In molecular docking, on interaction with ligand, the protein or receptor molecule gets activated by adopting conformational changes. These conformational changes cannot be utilized to predict the 3D structure of a protein-ligand complex from unbound protein conformations rigid docking, which necessitates the demand for understanding protein flexibility. Therefore, efficiency and accuracy of docking should be achieved and various available/developed protocols may be adopted. One such protocol is GENIUS induced-fit docking and it is used effectively for the development of anti-HCV NS3-4A serine protease inhibitors. The present review elaborates the GENIUS docking protocol along with its benefits and drawbacks.

  16. Comparison of liver fibrosis blood tests developed for HCV with new specific tests in HIV/HCV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, Paul; Halfon, Philippe; Batisse, Dominique; Carrat, Fabrice; Perré, Philippe; Penaranda, Guillaume; Guyader, Dominique; d'Alteroche, Louis; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Michelet, Christian; Veillon, Pascal; Lambert, Jérôme; Weiss, Laurence; Salmon, Dominique; Cacoub, Patrice

    2010-08-01

    We compared 5 non-specific and 2 specific blood tests for liver fibrosis in HCV/HIV co-infection. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients were included into derivation (n=183) or validation (n=284) populations. Within these populations, the diagnostic target, significant fibrosis (Metavir F > or = 2), was found in 66% and 72% of the patients, respectively. Two new fibrosis tests, FibroMeter HICV and HICV test, were constructed in the derivation population. Unadjusted AUROCs in the derivation population were: APRI: 0.716, Fib-4: 0.722, Fibrotest: 0.778, Hepascore: 0.779, FibroMeter: 0.783, HICV test: 0.822, FibroMeter HICV: 0.828. AUROCs adjusted on classification and distribution of fibrosis stages in a reference population showed similar values in both populations. FibroMeter, FibroMeter HICV and HICV test had the highest correct classification rates in F0/1 and F3/4 (which account for high predictive values): 77-79% vs. 70-72% in the other tests (p=0.002). Reliable individual diagnosis based on predictive values > or = 90% distinguished three test categories: poorly reliable: Fib-4 (2.4% of patients), APRI (8.9%); moderately reliable: Fibrotest (25.4%), FibroMeter (26.6%), Hepascore (30.2%); acceptably reliable: HICV test (40.2%), FibroMeter HICV (45.6%) (ptests). FibroMeter HICV classified all patients into four reliable diagnosis intervals ( or =F1, > or =F2) with an overall accuracy of 93% vs. 79% (pfibrosis. Tests designed for HCV infections are less effective in HIV/HCV infections. A specific test, like FibroMeter HICV, was the most interesting test for diagnostic accuracy, correct classification profile, and a reliable diagnosis. With reliable diagnosis intervals, liver biopsy can therefore be avoided in all patients. Copyright 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A holistic evolutionary and structural study of flaviviridae provides insights into the function and inhibition of HCV helicase

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    Dimitrios Vlachakis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Viral RNA helicases are involved in duplex unwinding during the RNA replication of the virus. It is suggested that these helicases represent very promising antiviral targets. Viruses of the flaviviridae family are the causative agents of many common and devastating diseases, including hepatitis, yellow fever and dengue fever. As there is currently no available anti-Flaviviridae therapy, there is urgent need for the development of efficient anti-viral pharmaceutical strategies. Herein, we report the complete phylogenetic analysis across flaviviridae alongside a more in-depth evolutionary study that revealed a series of conserved and invariant amino acids that are predicted to be key to the function of the helicase. Structural molecular modelling analysis revealed the strategic significance of these residues based on their relative positioning on the 3D structures of the helicase enzymes, which may be used as pharmacological targets. We previously reported a novel series of highly potent HCV helicase inhibitors, and we now re-assess their antiviral potential using the 3D structural model of the invariant helicase residues. It was found that the most active compound of the series, compound C4, exhibited an IC50 in the submicromolar range, whereas its stereoisomer (compound C12 was completely inactive. Useful insights were obtained from molecular modelling and conformational search studies via molecular dynamics simulations. C12 tends to bend and lock in an almost “U” shape conformation, failing to establish vital interactions with the active site of HCV. On the contrary, C4 spends most of its conformational time in a straight, more rigid formation that allows it to successfully block the passage of the oligonucleotide in the ssRNA channel of the HCV helicase. This study paves the way and provides the necessary framework for the in-depth analysis required to enable the future design of new and potent anti-viral agents.

  18. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

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    Katja Pfafferott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  19. HIV AND HCV COINFECTION: PREVALENCE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

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    Solange Zacalusni Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection, a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3% and 3 (41.7%. The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  20. HIV and HCV coinfection: prevalence, associated factors and genotype characterization in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.