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Sample records for hcho levels increasing

  1. Investigation of the role of the calvin cycle and C1 metabolism during HCHO metabolism in gaseous HCHO-treated petunia under light and dark conditions using 13C-NMR.

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    Sun, Huiqun; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that formaldehyde (HCHO) absorbed by plants can be assimilated through the Calvin cycle or C1 metabolism. Our previous study indicated that Petunia hybrida could effectively eliminate HCHO from HCHO-polluted air. To understand the roles of C1 metabolism and the Calvin cycle during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia plants treated with gaseous H(13)CHO under light and dark conditions. Aseptically grown petunia plants were treated with gaseous H(13)CHO under dark and light conditions. The metabolites generated from HCHO detoxification in petunia were investigated using (13)C-NMR. [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) was generated via C1 metabolism and [U-(13)C]glucose (Gluc) was produced through the Calvin cycle simultaneously in petunia treated with low-level gaseous H(13)CHO under light conditions. Generation of [2-(13)C]Gly decreased whereas [U-(13) C]Gluc and [U-(13)C]fructose (Fruc) production increased greatly under high-level gaseous H(13)CHO stress in the light. In contrast, [U-(13)C]Gluc and [U-(13)C] Fruc production decreased greatly and [2-(13)C]Gly generation increased significantly under low-level and high-level gaseous H(13)CHO stress in the dark. C1 metabolism and the Calvin cycle contributed differently to HCHO metabolism and detoxification in gaseous H(13CHO-treated petunia plants. As the level of gaseous HCHO increased, the role of C1 metabolism decreased and the role of the Calvin cycle increased under light conditions. However, opposite changes were observed in petunia plants under dark conditions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Laser-Based and Ultra-Portable Gas Sensor for Indoor and Outdoor Formaldehyde (HCHO) Monitoring

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    Shutter, J. D.; Allen, N.; Paul, J.; Thiebaud, J.; So, S.; Scherer, J. J.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    While used as a key tracer of oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, formaldehyde (HCHO) is also a known human carcinogen and is listed and regulated by the United States EPA as a hazardous air pollutant. Combustion processes and photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the major outdoor sources of HCHO, and building materials and household products are ubiquitous sources of indoor HCHO. Due to the ease with which humans can be exposed to HCHO, it is imperative to monitor levels of both indoor and outdoor HCHO exposure in both short and long-term studies.High-quality direct and indirect methods of quantifying HCHO mixing ratios exist, but instrument size and user-friendliness can make them cumbersome or impractical for certain types of indoor and long-term outdoor measurements. In this study, we present urban HCHO measurements by using a new, commercially-available, ppbv-level accurate HCHO gas sensor (Aeris Technologies' MIRA Pico VOC Laser-Based Gas Analyzer) that is highly portable (29 cm x 20 cm x 10 cm), lightweight (3 kg), easy-to-use, and has low power (15 W) consumption. Using an ultra-compact multipass cell, an absorption path length of 13 m is achieved, resulting in a sensor capable of achieving ppbv/s sensitivity levels with no significant spectral interferences.To demonstrate the utility of the gas sensor for emissions measurements, a GPS was attached to the sensor's housing in order to map mobile HCHO measurements in real-time around the Boston, Massachusetts, metro area. Furthermore, the sensor was placed in residential and industrial environments to show its usefulness for indoor and outdoor pollution measurements. Lastly, we show the feasibility of using the HCHO sensor (or a network of them) in long-term monitoring stations for hazardous air pollutants.

  3. Which processes drive observed variations of HCHO columns over India?

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    Surl, Luke; Palmer, Paul I.; González Abad, Gonzalo

    2018-04-01

    We interpret HCHO column variations observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), aboard the NASA Aura satellite, over India during 2014 using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry and transport model. We use a nested version of the model with a horizontal resolution of approximately 25 km. HCHO columns are related to local emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a spatial smearing that increases with the VOC lifetime. Over India, HCHO has biogenic, pyrogenic, and anthropogenic VOC sources. Using a 0-D photochemistry model, we find that isoprene has the largest molar yield of HCHO which is typically realized within a few hours. We also find that forested regions that neighbour major urban conurbations are exposed to high levels of nitrogen oxides. This results in depleted hydroxyl radical concentrations and a delay in the production of HCHO from isoprene oxidation. We find that propene is the only anthropogenic VOC emitted in major Indian cities that produces HCHO at a comparable (but slower) rate to isoprene. The GEOS-Chem model reproduces the broad-scale annual mean HCHO column distribution observed by OMI (r = 0.6), which is dominated by a distinctive meridional gradient in the northern half of the country, and by localized regions of high columns that coincide with forests. Major discrepancies are noted over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and Delhi. We find that the model has more skill at reproducing observations during winter (JF) and pre-monsoon (MAM) months with Pearson correlations r > 0.5 but with a positive model bias of x≃1×1015 molec cm-2. During the monsoon season (JJAS) we reproduce only a diffuse version of the observed meridional gradient (r = 0.4). We find that on a continental scale most of the HCHO column seasonal cycle is explained by monthly variations in surface temperature (r = 0.9), suggesting a role for biogenic VOCs, in agreement with the 0-D and GEOS-Chem model calculations. We also find that the seasonal cycle during

  4. Synergistic Effect of Nanophotocatalysis and Nonthermal Plasma on the Removal of Indoor HCHO

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    Yuanwei Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis is an effective method of air purification at the condition of a higher pollutant concentration. However, its wide application in indoor air cleaning is limited due to the low level of indoor air contaminants. Immobilizing the nanosized TiO2 particles on the surface of activated carbon filter (TiO2/AC film could increase the photocatalytic reaction rate as a local high pollutant concentration can be formed on the surface of TiO2 by the adsorption of AC. However, the pollutant removal still decreased quickly with the increase in flow velocity, which results in a decrease in air treatment capacity. In order to improve the air treatment capacity by the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO method, this paper used formaldehyde (HCHO as a contaminant to study the effect of combination of PCO with nonthermal plasma technology (NTP on the removal of HCHO. The experimental results show that HCHO removal is more effective with line-to-plate electrode discharge reactor; the HCHO removal and the reaction rate can be enhanced and the amount of air that needs to be cleaned can be improved. Meanwhile, the results show that there is the synergistic effect on the indoor air purification by the combination of PCO with NTP.

  5. Retrieval of tropospheric HCHO in El Salvador using ground based DOAS

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    Abarca, W.; Gamez, K.; Rudamas, C.

    2017-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant carbonyl in the atmosphere, being an intermediate product in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs). HCHO is carcinogenic, and highly water soluble [1]. HCHO can originate from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion and has been observed from satellite and ground-based sensors by using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique [2].DOAS products can be used for air quality monitoring, validation of chemical transport models, validation of satellite tropospheric column density retrievals, among others [3]. In this study, we report on column density levels of HCHO measured by ground based Multi-Axis -DOAS in different locations of El Salvador in March, 2015. We have not observed large differences of the HCHO column density values at different viewing directions. This result points out a reasonably polluted and hazy atmosphere in the measuring sites, as reported by other authors [4]. Average values ranging from 1016 to 1017 molecules / cm2 has been obtained. The contribution of vehicular traffic and biomass burning to the column density levels in these sites of El Salvador will be discussed. [1] A. R. Garcia et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 4545 (2006) [2] E. Peters et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 11179 (2012) [3] T. Vlemmix, et al. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 941-963, 2015 [4] A. Heckel et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, (2005)

  6. The Unique OMI HCHO/NO2 Feature During the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics: Implications for Ozone Production Sensitivity

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    Witte, J. C.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Retscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    In preparation of the Beijing Summer Olympic and Paralympics Games, strict controls were imposed between July and September 2008 on motor vehicle traffic and industrial emissions to improve air quality for the competitors. We assessed chemical sensitivity of ozone production to these controls using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), where their ratio serves as a proxy for the sensitivity. During the emission controls, HCHO/NO2 increased and indicated a NOx-limited regime, in contrast to the same period in the preceding three years when the ratio indicates volatile organic carbon (VOC)-limited and mixed NOx-VOC-limited regimes. After the emission controls were lifted, observed NO2 and HCHO/NO2 returned to their previous values. The 2005-2008 OMI record shows that this transition in regimes was unique as ozone production in Beijing was rarely NOx-limited. OMI measured summertime increases in HCHO of around 13% in 2008 compared to prior years, the same time period during which MODIS vegetation indices increased. The OMI HCHO increase may be due to higher biogenic emissions of HCHO precursors, associated with Beijing's greening initiative for the Olympics. However, NO2 and HCHO were also found to be well-correlated during the summer months. This indicates an anthropogenic VOC contribution from vehicle emissions to OMI HCHO and is a plausible explanation for the relative HCHO minimum observed in August 2008, concurrent with a minimum in traffic emissions. We calculated positive trends in 2005-2008 OMI HCHO and NO2 of about +1 x 10(exp 14) Molec/ square M-2 and +3 x 10(exp 13) molec CM-2 per month, respectively. The positive trend in NO2 may be an indicator of increasing vehicular traffic since 2005, while the positive trend in HCHO may be due to a combined increase in anthropogenic and biogenic emissions since 2005.

  7. Seasonal behavior of carbonyls and source characterization of formaldehyde (HCHO) in ambient air

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    Lui, K. H.; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Louie, Peter K. K.; Chan, C. S.; Lee, S. C.; Hu, Di; Chan, P. W.; Lee, Jeffrey Chi Wai; Ho, K. F.

    2017-03-01

    Gas-phase formaldehyde (HCHO) is an intermediate and a sensitive indicator for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) oxidation, which drives tropospheric ozone production. Effective photochemical pollution control strategies demand a thorough understanding of photochemical oxidation precursors, making differentiation between sources of primary and secondary generated HCHO inevitable. Spatial and seasonal variations of airborne carbonyls based on two years of measurements (2012-2013), coupled with a correlation-based HCHO source apportionment analysis, were determined for three sampling locations in Hong Kong (denoted HT, TC, and YL). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the two most abundant compounds of the total quantified carbonyls. Pearson's correlation analysis (r > 0.7) implies that formaldehyde and acetaldehyde possibly share similar sources. The total carbonyl concentration trends (HT rural). A regression analysis further quantifies the relative primary HCHO source contributions at HT (∼13%), TC (∼21%), and YL (∼40%), showing more direct vehicular emissions in urban than rural areas. Relative secondary source contributions at YL (∼36%) and TC (∼31%) resemble each other, implying similar urban source contributions. Relative background source contributions at TC could be due to a closed structure microenvironment that favors the trapping of HCHO. Comparable seasonal differences are observed at all stations. The results of this study will aid in the development of a new regional ozone (O3) control policy, as ambient HCHO can enhance O3 production and also be produced from atmospheric VOCs oxidation (secondary HCHO).

  8. The Utility of the OMI HCHO and NO2 Data Products in Air Quality Decision- Making Activities

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    Duncan, Bryan N.

    2010-01-01

    We will present three related air quality applications of the OMI HCHO (formaldehyde) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) data products, which we us to support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. First, we will discuss a novel and practical application of the data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2, which we use as an air quality indicator, may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. Second, we will discuss how we use variations in the OMI HCHO product as a proxy for variability in the biogenic hydrocarbon, isoprene, which is an important player for the formation of high levels of ozone and the dominant source of HCHO in the eastern U.S. Third, we will discuss the variability of NO2 in the U.S. as indicated by the OMI NO2 product. In addition, we will show the impact of the 2005 hurricanes on pollutant emissions, including those associated with the intensive oil extraction and refining activities, in the Gulf of Mexico region using the OMI NO2 product. The variability of HCHO and NO2 as indicated by OMI helps us to understand changes in the OMI HCHO/NO2 and the implications for ozone formation.

  9. NO2 and HCHO variability in Mexico City from MAX-DOAS measurements

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    Grutter, M.; Friedrich, M. M.; Rivera, C. I.; Arellano, E. J.; Stremme, W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric studies in large cities are of great relevance since pollution affects air quality and human health. A network of Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (MAX-DOAS) has been established in strategic sites within the Mexico City metropolitan area. Four instruments are now in operation with the aim to study the variability and spatial distribution of key pollutants, providing results of O4, NO2 and HCHO slant column densities (SCD). A numerical code has been written to retrieve gas profiles of NO2 and HCHO using radiative transfer simulations. We present the first results of the variability of these trace gases which will bring new insight in the current knowledge of transport patterns, emissions as well as frequency and origin of extraordinary events. Results of the vertical column densities (VCD) valiability of NO2 and HCHO in Mexico City are presented. These studies are useful to validate current and future satellite observatopns such as OMI, TROPOMI and TEMPO.

  10. Identification of tropospheric emissions sources from satellite observations: Synergistic use of HCHO, NO2, and SO2 trace gas measurements

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    Marbach, T.; Beirle, S.; Khokhar, F.; Platt, U.

    2005-12-01

    We present case studies for combined HCHO, NO2, and SO2 satellite observations, derived from GOME measurements. Launched on the ERS-2 satellite in April 1995, GOME has already performed continuous operations over 8 years providing global observations of the different trace gases. In this way, satellite observations provide unique opportunities for the identifications of trace gas sources. The satellite HCHO observations provide information concerning the localization of biomass burning (intense source of HCHO). The principal biomass burning areas can be observed in the Amazon basin region and in central Africa Weaker HCHO sources (south east of the United States, northern part of the Amazon basin, and over the African tropical forest), not correlated with biomass burning, could be due to biogenic isoprene emissions. The HCHO data can be compared with NO2 and SO2 results to identify more precisely the tropospheric sources (biomass burning events, human activities, additional sources like volcanic emissions). Biomass burning are important tropospheric sources for both HCHO and NO2. Nevertheless HCHO reflects more precisely the biomass burning as it appears in all biomass burning events. NO2 correlate with HCHO over Africa (grassland fires) but not over Indonesia (forest fires). In south America, an augmentation of the NO2 concentrations can be observed with the fire shift from the forest to grassland vegetation. So there seems to be a dependence between the NO2 emissions during biomass burning and the vegetation type. Other high HCHO, SO2, and NO2 emissions can be correlated with climatic events like the El Nino in 1997, which induced dry conditions in Indonesia causing many forest fires.

  11. Mobile mini-DOAS measurement of the outflow of NO2 and HCHO from Mexico City

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    L. Molina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We here present the results from mobile measurements using two ground-based zenith viewing Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS instruments. The measurement was performed in a cross-section of the plume from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA on 10 March 2006 as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. The two instruments operated in the UV and the visible wavelength region respectively and have been used to derive the differential vertical columns of HCHO and NO2 above the measurement route. This is the first time the mobile mini-DOAS instrument has been able to measure HCHO, one of the chemically most important and interesting gases in the polluted urban atmosphere. Using a mass-averaged wind speed and wind direction from the WRF model the instantaneous flux of HCHO and NO2 has been calculated from the measurements and the results are compared to the CAMx chemical model. The calculated flux through the measured cross-section was 1.9 (1.5–2.2 kg/s of HCHO and 4.4 (4.0–5.0 kg/s of NO2 using the UV instrument and 3.66 (3.63–3.73 kg/s of NO2 using the visible light instrument. The modeled values from CAMx for the outflow of both NO2 and HCHO, 1.1 and 3.6 kg/s, respectively, show a reasonable agreement with the measurement derived fluxes.

  12. C1 metabolism plays an important role during formaldehyde metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress.

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    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Sun, Huiqun; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-10-01

    Petunia hybrida is a model ornamental plant grown worldwide. To understand the HCHO-uptake efficiency and metabolic mechanism of petunia, the aseptic petunia plants were treated in HCHO solutions. An analysis of HCHO-uptake showed that petunia plants effectively removed HCHO from 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions. The (13)C NMR analyses indicated that H(13)CHO was primarily used to synthesize [5-(13)C]methionine (Met) via C1 metabolism in petunia plants treated with 2 mM H(13)CHO. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A (CSA) or l-carnitine (LC), the inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, did not affect the synthesis of [5-(13)C]Met in petunia plants under 2 mM H(13)CHO stress, indicating that the Met-generated pathway may function in the cytoplasm. Under 4 or 6 mM liquid H(13)CHO stress, H(13)CHO metabolism in petunia plants produced considerable amount of H(13)COOH and [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) through C1 metabolism and a small amount of [U-(13)C]Gluc via the Calvin Cycle. Pretreatment with CSA or LC significantly inhibited the production of [2-(13)C]Gly in 6 mM H(13)CHO-treated petunia plants, which suggests that chloroplasts and peroxisomes might be involved in the generation of [2-(13)C]Gly. These results revealed that the C1 metabolism played an important role, whereas the Calvin Cycle had only a small contribution during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Ship-based MAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2, SO2, and HCHO distribution along the Yangtze River

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    Hong, Qianqian; Liu, Cheng; Chan, Ka Lok; Hu, Qihou; Xie, Zhouqing; Liu, Haoran; Si, Fuqi; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present ship-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements of tropospheric trace gases' distribution along the Yangtze River during winter 2015. The measurements were performed along the Yangtze River between Shanghai and Wuhan, covering major industrial areas in eastern China. Tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO) were retrieved using the air mass factor calculated by the radiative transfer model. Enhanced tropospheric NO2 and SO2 VCDs were detected over downwind areas of industrial zones over the Yangtze River. In addition, spatial distributions of atmospheric pollutants are strongly affected by meteorological conditions; i.e., positive correlations were found between concentration of pollutants and wind speed over these areas, indicating strong influence of transportation of pollutants from high-emission upwind areas along the Yangtze River. Comparison of tropospheric NO2 VCDs between ship-based MAX-DOAS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations shows good agreement with each other, with a Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of 0.82. In this study, the NO2 / SO2 ratio was used to estimate the relative contributions of industrial sources and vehicle emissions to ambient NO2 levels. Analysis results of the NO2 / SO2 ratio show a higher contribution of industrial NO2 emissions in Jiangsu Province, while NO2 levels in Jiangxi and Hubei provinces are mainly related to vehicle emissions. These results indicate that different pollution control strategies should be applied in different provinces. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis of ambient carbon monoxide (CO) and odd oxygen (Ox) indicated that the primary emission and secondary formation of HCHO contribute 54.4 ± 3.7 % and 39.3 ± 4.3 % to the ambient HCHO, respectively. The largest contribution from primary emissions in winter suggested that

  14. The Utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 in Air Quality Decision-Making Activities

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    Duncan, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss a novel and practical application of the OMI HCHU and NO2 data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. In addition, the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may be used to define new emission control strategies as the photochemical environments of urban areas evolve over time. I will demonstrate the utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 over the U.S. for air quality applications with support from simulations with both a regional model and a photochemical box model. These results support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. However, I'm attending the meeting as the Aura Deputy Project Scientist, so I don't technically need to present anything to justify the travel.

  15. MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a rural site in Southern China

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    Li, X.; Brauers, T.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Lu, K.; Li, Y. P.; Shao, M.; Wagner, T.; Wahner, A.

    2013-02-01

    We performed MAX-DOAS measurements during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta region (PRD), China, for 4 weeks in July 2006 at a site located 60 km north of Guangzhou. The vertical distributions of NO2, HCHO, and CHOCHO were independently retrieved by an automated iteration method. The NO2 mixing ratios measured by MAX-DOAS showed reasonable agreement with the simultaneous, ground based in-situ data. The tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) observed by OMI on board EOS-Aura satellite were higher than with those by MAX-DOAS. The 3-D chemical transport model CMAQ overestimated the NO2 VCDs as well as the surface concentrations by about 65%. From this observation, a reduction of NOx emission strength in CMAQ seems to be necessary in order to well reproduce the NO2 observations. The average mixing ratios of HCHO and CHOCHO were 7 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively, higher than in other rural or semirural environments. The high ratio of 0.062 between CHOCHO and HCHO corresponds to the high VOCs reactivity and high HOx turnover rate consistent with other observations during the campaign.

  16. Global and Seasonal Distributions of CHOCHO and HCHO Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on EOS Aura

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    Kurosu, T. P.; Fu, T.; Volkamer, R.; Millet, D. B.; Chance, K.

    2006-12-01

    Over the two years since its launch in July 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura has demonstrated the capability to routinely monitor the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO). OMI's daily global coverage and spatial resolution as high as 13x24 km provides a unique data set of these molecules for the study of air quality from space. We present the first study of global seasonal distributions of CHOCHO from space, derived from a year of OMI observations. CHOCHO distributions are compared to simultaneous retrievals of HCHO from OMI, providing a first indication of seasonally resolved ratios of these VOCs on a global scale. Satellite retrievals are compared to global simulations of HCHO and CHOCHO, based on current knowledge of sources and sinks, using the GEOS-Chem global chemistry and transport model. Formaldehyde is both directly emitted and also produced from the oxidation of many VOCs, notably biogenic isoprene, and is removed by photolysis and oxidation. Precursors of glyoxal include isoprene, monoterpenes, and aromatics from anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning emissions; it is removed by photolysis, oxidation by OH, dry/wet deposition, and aerosol uptake. As a case study, satellite observations will also be compared to ground-based measurements taken during the Pearl River Delta 2006 field campaign near Guangzhou, China, where high glyoxal concentrations are frequently observed from space.

  17. On the use of harmonized HCHO and NO2 MAXDOAS measurements for the validation of GOME-2 and OMI satellite sensors

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    Pinardi, Gaia; Hendrick, François; Gielen, Clio; Van Roozendael, Michel; De Smedt, Isabelle; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Granville, José; Compernolle, Steven; Richter, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Piters, Ankie; Wagner, Thomas; Wang, Yang; Drosoglou, Theano; Bais, Alkis; Wang, Shanshan; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    During the last decade, the MAXDOAS technique has been increasingly recognized as a source of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) suitable for the validation of satellite nadir observations of species relevant for climate and air quality like NO2 and HCHO. As part of the EU FP7 QA4ECV (Quality Assurance for Essential Climate Variables; see http://www.qa4ecv.eu/) project, efforts have been recently made to harmonize a network of a dozen of MAXDOAS spectrometers in view of their use to assess the quality of satellite climate data records generated within the same project. Harmonization tasks have addressed both retrieval steps involved in MAXDOAS retrievals, i.e. the DOAS spectral fit providing the differential slant column densities (DSCDs) and the conversion of the retrieved DSCDs into vertical profiles and/or vertical column densities (VCDs). In this work, we illustrate the successive harmonization steps and present the resulting QA4ECV MAXDOAS database v2. The approach adopted for the conversion of slant to vertical columns is based on a simplified look-up-table approach. The strength and limitation of this approach are discussed using reference data retrieved using an optimal estimation scheme. The QA4ECV MAXDOAS database is then used to validate satellite data sets of NO2 and HCHO columns derived from the Aura/OMI and MetOp/GOME-2 sensors. The methodology of comparison, which is also a subject of the QA4ECV project, is reviewed with respect to co-location criteria, impact of vertical and horizontal smoothing and representativeness of validation sites. We conclude by assessing the current strengths and limitations of the existing MAXDOAS datasets for NO2 and HCHO satellite validation.

  18. Monoclinic α-Bi2O3 photocatalyst for efficient removal of gaseous NO and HCHO under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Zhihui; Huang Yu; Lee Shuncheng; Zhang Lizhi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We got the monoclinic α-Bi 2 O 3 powders after the calcinations of the plate-like (BiO) 2 CO 3 precursors at 500 deg. C for 4 h. → The synthetic α-Bi 2 O 3 showed high visible light photocatalytic activity for removal of NO and HCHO. - Abstract: The investigation was focused on the visible-light-driven photocatalytic removal of gaseous NO and HCHO at typical indoor air concentration over synthetic α-Bi 2 O 3 . Monoclinic α-Bi 2 O 3 was synthesized via calcination of hydrothermally prepared (BiO) 2 CO 3 precursor at 500 deg. C for 4 h. The synthetic α-Bi 2 O 3 samples were systematically characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The optical band gap energy of the resulting α-Bi 2 O 3 was estimated to be 2.72 eV from the UV-vis absorption spectra. Comparing with the commercial Bi 2 O 3 counterpart, the fabricated α-Bi 2 O 3 showed superior visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity on degradation of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) at typical indoor air concentration. No obvious deactivation of synthetic α-Bi 2 O 3 was observed during the prolonged photocatalytic reaction. This work suggests that the synthesized monoclinic α-Bi 2 O 3 with suitable band gap and high activity is promising photocatalyst for indoor air purification.

  19. Assessing the Levels and Health Risk of Atmospheric Formaldehyde in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Atef M.F. Mohammed; Essam A. Morsy; Turki M. Habeebullah; Said Munir

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric Formaldehyde (HCHO) was monitored in four sites on the Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia during August, 2013. The daily mean concentrations of HCHO were ranged from 1.09-18.92 g/m3. The levels of HCHO were significantly higher than the permissible exposure limit (0.042 μg/m3) of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). However, it were not exceeded the recommended exposure limit of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (20 μg/m3) and Egyptian...

  20. Comparison between premixed and partially premixed combustion in swirling jet from PIV, OH PLIF and HCHO PLIF measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobasov, A. S.; Chikishev, L. M.; Dulin, V. M.

    2017-09-01

    The present paper reports on the investigation of fuel-rich and fuel-lean turbulent combustion in a high-swirl jet. The jet flow was featured by a breakdown of the vortex core, presence of the central recirculation zone and intensive precession of the flow. The measurements were performed by the stereo PIV, OH PLIF and HCHO PLIF techniques, simultaneously. Fluorescence of OH* in the flame and combustion products was excited via transition in the (1,0) vibrational band of the A2Σ+ - X2Π electronic system. The fluorescence was detected in the spectral range of 305-320 nm. In the case of HCHO PLIF measurements the A-X {4}01 transition was excited. The jet Reynolds number was fixed as 5 000 (the bulk velocity was U 0 = 5 m/s). Three cases of the equivalence ratio ϕ of methane/air mixture issued from the nozzle were considered 0.7, 1.4 and 2.5. In all cases the flame front was subjected to deformations due to large-scale vortices, which rolled-up in the inner (around the central recirculation zone) and outer (between the annular jet core and surrounding air) mixing layers.

  1. Observing atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO from space: validation and intercomparison of six retrievals from four satellites (OMI, GOME2A, GOME2B, OMPS with SEAC4RS aircraft observations over the southeast US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO column data from satellites are widely used as a proxy for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, but validation of the data has been extremely limited. Here we use highly accurate HCHO aircraft observations from the NASA SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys campaign over the southeast US in August–September 2013 to validate and intercompare six retrievals of HCHO columns from four different satellite instruments (OMI, GOME2A, GOME2B and OMPS; for clarification of these and other abbreviations used in the paper, please refer to Appendix A and three different research groups. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used as a common intercomparison platform. All retrievals feature a HCHO maximum over Arkansas and Louisiana, consistent with the aircraft observations and reflecting high emissions of biogenic isoprene. The retrievals are also interconsistent in their spatial variability over the southeast US (r  =  0.4–0.8 on a 0.5°  ×  0.5°  grid and in their day-to-day variability (r  =  0.5–0.8. However, all retrievals are biased low in the mean by 20–51 %, which would lead to corresponding bias in estimates of isoprene emissions from the satellite data. The smallest bias is for OMI-BIRA, which has high corrected slant columns relative to the other retrievals and low scattering weights in its air mass factor (AMF calculation. OMI-BIRA has systematic error in its assumed vertical HCHO shape profiles for the AMF calculation, and correcting this would eliminate its bias relative to the SEAC4RS data. Our results support the use of satellite HCHO data as a quantitative proxy for isoprene emission after correction of the low mean bias. There is no evident pattern in the bias, suggesting that a uniform correction factor may be applied to the data until better understanding is achieved.

  2. Assessing the Levels and Health Risk of Atmospheric Formaldehyde in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M.F. Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Formaldehyde (HCHO was monitored in four sites on the Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia during August, 2013. The daily mean concentrations of HCHO were ranged from 1.09-18.92 g/m3. The levels of HCHO were significantly higher than the permissible exposure limit (0.042 μg/m3 of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA. However, it were not exceeded the recommended exposure limit of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (20 μg/m3 and Egyptian law 4/1994 (0.37 mg/m3. Spatial variations of HCHO concentrations most probably due to variations in local meteorology and traffic flow, which was considered the main source of emissions. Exposure doses for various age groups were estimated, which ranged from 0.000004 to 0.000259 mg/kg/day. Maximum exposure dose was recorded for boys (age 12-14 years and children (6-8 years and minimum for females (19-65 years.

  3. 3 dimensional distributions of NO2, CHOCHO, and HCHO measured by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS during MAD-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    We present results of 2 dimensional Multi Axis-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) measurements to infer 3-dimensional measurements of trace gases by characterizing boundary layer vertical profiles and near surface azimuth horizontal distribution of NO2 (14 angles covering 360°). We combine the established optimal estimation inversion with a new parameterization approach; the first method to derive NO2 tropospheric vertical profiles and boundary layer height and the second one to retrieve the azimuth horizontal distribution of near surface NO2 mixing ratios, both at multiple wavelengths (350 nm, 450 nm, and 560 nm). This was conducted for three cloud-free days in the framework of the intensive Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany 2013. By retrieving NO2 at multiple wavelengths range-resolved distributions of NO2 are derived using an 'Onion-peeling' approach, i.e., exploiting the fact that the optical path lengths at different wavelengths probe different horizontal air masses. We also measure glyoxal (CHOCHO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) distributions, and present to our knowledge the first 3-dimesional trace-gas distribution measurements of CHOCHO by a ground-based instrument. We expand the 2D-MAX-DOAS capabilities to calculate azimuth ratios of HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN) and CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN) to pinpoint volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation chemistry and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF) ratios as an indicator of biogenic and/or anthropogenic VOC emissions. The results of RFN correlate well with RGN and we identify azimuth variations that indicate gradients in the VOC/NOx chemistry that leads to O3 and secondary aerosol production. While there is a clear diurnal pattern in the RFN and RGN, no such variations are observed in the RGF, which shows rather constant values below 0.04 throughout the day, consistent with previous measurements, and indicative of urban air masses.

  4. Metabolism in compensatory growth. V. Effect of undegraded protein in compensatory growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prappti Mahyudin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to study the effect of increasing availability of amino acids in growing animal fed maintenance diet and which previously subjected to underfeeding. Twelve wether Iambs were divided into 3 treatment groups, each was fed pelleted lucerne (Medicago sativa. The treatments were: diet at maintenance energy level (M, M + 60 g formaldehyde treatedcasein(M + HCHO-casein and ad libitum. The increase in protein consumption increased nitrogen (N retention, although the highest efficiency of N retention occurred in animal fed M diet (0.36 compared to those fed M + HCHO-casein (0.31 or ad libitum diet (0.2. Provision of amino acids by supplementation of 60 g HCHO-casein resulted in an increment of 19 g glucose/d or 32 g glucose/lOO g protein. Glucose entry rate (GER increased with increasing digestible crude protein. Although GER was not different between animals on M and M + HCHO-casein diet, the uptake of glucose in the hind-limb muscles of animals on the M + HCHO-casein was twice (0. 18mM than that of animals on the M diet (0.08 mM. There was a significant effect on the uptake and output of essential amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, lysine and threonine and non-essential amino acids, tyrosine and glutamine as levels of protein in the diet increased. Supplementation with HCHO-casein increased the arterial blood concentration of branch chain amino acids (BCAA by 76 % and phenylalanine by 61 %. In general there was an increase in the arterial concentration of amino acids in animals fed either M + HCHO-casein or ad libitum. However, this increase was followed by increased amino acids oxidation, which showed in increased urea excretion. There was a positive correlation between urinary urea and N intake, suggesting that amino acids were not fully utilized for protein synthesis or protein deposition.

  5. Mobile Column Measurements of HCHO, NO2, NH3, and C2H6 in Colorado during FRAPPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kille, N.; Volkamer, R. M.; Baidar, S.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Hannigan, J. W.; Cooper, O. R.; Nussbaumer, E.; Pfister, G.

    2015-12-01

    Gases from anthropogenic sources have the potential to have a profound impact on air quality. Emissions from large cattle feedlots and ONG (Oil and Natural Gas) sites are comprised of NH3 (ammonia) and C2H6 (ethane) as pollutants. C2H6 contributes to photochemical ozone (O3) production and oxidation production of HCHO (formaldehyde). NH3 is a major source for reactive nitrogen to form particulate matter 2.5, which negatively affects human health. NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), emitted during combustion, is considered a large-scale pollutant and contributes to the formation of O3. Deploying an innovative suite of remote sensing instruments in a mobile laboratory, a Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (MAX-DOAS), a UV-Vis Spectrometer, and a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, we obtain mobile column measurements at high spatial and temporal resolution, 2 seconds for the UV-Vis and IR spectrometers and 20 seconds for the MAX-DOAS. Within the scope of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) we measure total columns of HCHO, NO2, NH3, and C2H6 using the University of Colorado mobile laboratory. Emissions of urban areas, agriculture, and ONG sites were studied. For the measurement of total columns the solar occultation flux method has been applied. We measured significant variability in the columns. The measurement of total columns allows one to determine the emission flux and source strength when driving a closed box around or upwind and downwind of a source with the mobile laboratory. We present results from select research drives.

  6. Investigation of turbulent swirling jet-flames by PIV / OH PLIF / HCHO PLIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobasov, A. S.; Chikishev, L. M.

    2018-03-01

    The present paper reports on the investigation of fuel-lean and fuel-rich turbulent combustion in a high-swirl jet. Swirl rate of the flow exceeded a critical value for breakdown of the swirling jet’s vortex core and formation of the recirculation zone at the jet axis. The measurements were performed by the stereo PIV, OH PLIF and HCHO PLIF techniques, simultaneously. The Reynolds number based on the flow rate and viscosity of the air was fixed as 5 000 (the bulk velocity was U 0 = 5 m/s). Three cases of the equivalence ratio ϕ of the mixture issuing from the nozzle-burner were considered, viz., 0.7, 1.4 and 2.5. The latter case corresponded to a lifted flame of fuel-rich swirling jet flow, partially premixed with the surrounding air. In all cases the flame front was subjected to deformations due to large-scale vortices, which rolled-up in the inner (around the central recirculation zone) and outer (between the annular jet core and surrounding air) mixing layers.

  7. Hydroxymethane sulfonate as a possible explanation for observed high levels of particulate sulfur during severe winter haze episodes in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, J.; Jacob, D.; Mickley, L. J.; Cheng, Y.; Li, M.; Munger, J. W.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Observed PM2.5 during severe winter haze in Beijing, China, may reach levels as high as 880 μg m-3, with sulfur compounds contributing significantly to PM2.5 composition. Such sulfur has been traditionally assumed to be sulfate, even though models fail to generate such large sulfate enhancements under cold and hazy conditions. We show that particulate sulfur in wintertime Beijing possibly occurs as an S(IV)-HCHO adduct, hydroxymethane sulfonate (HMS), formed by reaction of aqueous-phase HCHO and S(IV) in cloud droplets. We use a 1-D chemistry model extending from the surface through the boundary layer to examine the potential role of HMS during the Beijing haze events of December 2011 and January 2013. Observed and assimilated meteorological fields including cloud liquid water were applied to the model, and we test the sensitivity of HMS formation to cloud pH and ambient SO2 and HCHO. Surface observations from the two haze events show excess ammonium in the aerosol, indicating cloud pH may be relatively high. Model results show that once cloud pH exceeds 4.5, HMS can accumulate rapidly, reaching a few hundred μg m-3 in a few hours. The timing of HMS formation is controlled by the presence of cloud liquid water, with eddy driven diffusion bringing HMS to the surface. The magnitude of HMS peaks is limited by the supply of HCHO. HMS episodes in the model end gradually over 1-3 days as fresh air is entrained into the boundary layer; in observations these episodes typically end when increasing wind speeds destabilize the boundary layer and disperses pollution. We find that consideration of HMS as a source of particulate sulfur significantly improves model match with observations. For example, assuming cloud pH of 5 and average surface SO2 and HCHO levels of 50 ppb and 5.5 ppb, we calculate mean HMS as 43.8 μg m-3 in January 2013, within 7 μg m-3 of observed particulate sulfur. Our 1-D model also captures the timing and magnitude of peak particulate sulfur in January

  8. Cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following three months exposure to formaldehyde gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, T.M.; Morgan, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO), a ubiquitous chemical and rat nasal carcinogen, enhances cell proliferation in rat, monkey, and xenotransplanted human respiratory epithelium following short-term exposure. The present studies were designed to evaluate cell proliferation in relation to tumor induction in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following subchronic HCHO exposure. Male F-344 rats were whole-body exposed to either 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, or 15 ppm HCHO, for wither 4 d (6hr/d), 6 wks (5d/wk) or 3 months. Animals were labeled with tritiated thymidine prior to euthanasia. Nasal sections were processed for autoradiography and cell proliferation data was expressed as unit length labeling indices (ULLI). HCHO-induced lesions and increases in cell proliferation occurred in specific regions of the nose, primarily the wall of the lateral meatus and nasal septum of the anterior nasal cavity. Following 4 d exposure, significant elevations in cell proliferation were observed only in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups (16-, 18-, and 20-fold increase over control, respectively). Increases in ULLI were also present in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups after 6 wks of exposure (12-, 35-, and 40-fold increase over control). However, after 3 months exposure, elevations in ULLI were present only in the 10 and 15 ppm groups (9- and 14-fold increase over controls). These results demonstrate that (1) low levels of HCHO (0.7 and 2 ppm) do not increase cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium; (2) 6 ppm HCHO induces transient increases in cell proliferation; and (3) clearly carcinogenic concentrations of HCHO (10 and 15 ppm) cause sustained elevations in cell proliferation which may play an important role in HCHO-induced carcinogenesis

  9. Specially Treated Aramid Fiber Stabilized Gel-Emulsions: Preparation of Porous Polymeric Monoliths and Highly Efficient Removing of Airborne HCHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfei; Chen, Xiangli; Wang, Pei; Fu, Xuwei; Liu, Kaiqiang; Fang, Yu

    2017-08-01

    Porous polymeric monoliths with densities as low as ≈0.060 g cm -3 are prepared in a gel-emulsion template way, of which the stabilizer employed is a newly discovered acidified aramid fiber that is so efficient that 0.05% (w/v, accounts for continuous phase) is enough to gel the system. The porous monoliths as obtained can be dried at ambient conditions, avoiding energy-consuming processes. Importantly, the monoliths show selective adsorption to HCHO, and the corresponding adsorption capacity (M6) is ≈2700 mg g -1 , the best result that is reported until now. More importantly, the monoliths can be reused after drying. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Global CO emission estimates inferred from assimilation of MOPITT and IASI CO data, together with observations of O3, NO2, HNO3, and HCHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Jones, D. B. A.; Keller, M.; Jiang, Z.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.; Clerbaux, C.; Pierre-Francois, C.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emissions estimated from inverse modeling analyses exhibit large uncertainties, due, in part, to discrepancies in the tropospheric chemistry in atmospheric models. We attempt to reduce the uncertainties in CO emission estimates by constraining the modeled abundance of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid (HNO3), and formaldehyde (HCHO), which are constituents that play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. Using the GEOS-Chem four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system, we estimate CO emissions by assimilating observations of CO from the Measurement of Pollution In the Troposphere (MOPITT) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), together with observations of O3 from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) and IASI, NO2 and HCHO from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and HNO3 from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Our experiments evaluate the inferred CO emission estimates from major anthropogenic, biomass burning and biogenic sources. Moreover, we also infer surface emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and isoprene. Our results reveal that this multiple species chemical data assimilation produces a chemical consistent state that effectively adjusts the CO-O3-OH coupling in the model. The O3-induced changes in OH are particularly large in the tropics. Overall, our analysis results in a better constrained tropospheric chemical state.

  11. Formaldehyde production from isoprene oxidation across NOx regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical link between isoprene and formaldehyde (HCHO is a strong, nonlinear function of NOx (i.e., NO + NO2. This relationship is a linchpin for top-down isoprene emission inventory verification from orbital HCHO column observations. It is also a benchmark for overall photochemical mechanism performance with regard to VOC oxidation. Using a comprehensive suite of airborne in situ observations over the southeast US, we quantify HCHO production across the urban–rural spectrum. Analysis of isoprene and its major first-generation oxidation products allows us to define both a "prompt" yield of HCHO (molecules of HCHO produced per molecule of freshly emitted isoprene and the background HCHO mixing ratio (from oxidation of longer-lived hydrocarbons. Over the range of observed NOx values (roughly 0.1–2 ppbv, the prompt yield increases by a factor of 3 (from 0.3 to 0.9 ppbv ppbv−1, while background HCHO increases by a factor of 2 (from 1.6 to 3.3 ppbv. We apply the same method to evaluate the performance of both a global chemical transport model (AM3 and a measurement-constrained 0-D steady-state box model. Both models reproduce the NOx dependence of the prompt HCHO yield, illustrating that models with updated isoprene oxidation mechanisms can adequately capture the link between HCHO and recent isoprene emissions. On the other hand, both models underestimate background HCHO mixing ratios, suggesting missing HCHO precursors, inadequate representation of later-generation isoprene degradation and/or underestimated hydroxyl radical concentrations. Detailed process rates from the box model simulation demonstrate a 3-fold increase in HCHO production across the range of observed NOx values, driven by a 100 % increase in OH and a 40 % increase in branching of organic peroxy radical reactions to produce HCHO.

  12. Methanol-enhanced removal and metabolic conversion of formaldehyde by a black soybean from formaldehyde solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hao; Xiong, Yun; Li, Kun-Zhi; Chen, Li-Mei

    2017-02-01

    Methanol regulation of some biochemical and physiological characteristics in plants has been documented in several references. This study showed that the pretreatment of methanol with an appropriate concentration could stimulate the HCHO uptake by black soybean (BS) plants. The process of methanol-stimulated HCHO uptake by BS plants was optimized using the Central Composite Design and response surface methodology for the three variables, methanol concentration, HCHO concentration, and treatment time. Under optimized conditions, the best stimulation effect of methanol on HCHO uptake was obtained. 13 C-NMR analysis indicated that the H 13 CHO metabolism produced H 13 COOH, [2- 13 C]Gly, and [3- 13 C]Ser in BS plant roots. Methanol pretreatment enhanced the metabolic conversion of H 13 CHO in BS plant roots, which consequently increased HCHO uptake by BS plants. Therefore, methanol pretreatment might be used to increase HCHO uptake by plants in the phytoremediation of HCHO-polluted solutions.

  13. A simple and sensitive flow injection method based on the catalytic activity of CdS quantum dots in an acidic permanganate chemiluminescence system for determination of formaldehyde in water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method in which CdS quantum dots (QDs) enhanced the CL intensity of a KMnO4-formaldehyde (HCHO) reaction was offered for the determination of HCHO. This CL system was based on the catalytic activity of CdS QDs and their participation in the CL resonance energy transfer (CRET) phenomenon. A possible mechanism for the supplied CL system was proposed using the kinetic curves of the CL systems and the spectra of CL, photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis). The emanated CL intensity of the KMnO4-CdS QDs system was amplified in the presence of a trace level of HCHO. Based on this enhancement effect, a simple and sensitive flow injection CL method was suggested for the determination of HCHO concentration in environmental water and wastewater samples. Under selected optimized experimental conditions, the increased CL intensity was proportional to the HCHO concentration in the range of 0.03-4.5 μg L(-1) and 4.5-10.0 μg L(-1). The detection limits (3σ) were 0.0003 μg L(-1) and 1.2 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for eleven replicate determinations of 4.0 μg L(-1) HCHO were 2.2%. Furthermore, the feasibility of the developed method was investigated via the determination of HCHO concentration in environmental water and wastewater samples.

  14. Variations and sources of ambient formaldehyde for the 2008 Beijing Olympic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-07-01

    As the host city of the 2008 Olympic games, Beijing implemented a series of air pollution control measures before and during the Olympic games. Ambient formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were measured using a fluorometric instrument based on a diffusion scrubber and the Hantzsch reaction; hydrocarbons were simultaneously measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Meteorological parameters, CO, O 3, and NO 2 concentrations were measured by standard commercial instrumentation. In four separate periods: (a) before the vehicle plate number control (3-19 July); (b) during the Olympic Games (8-24 August); (c) during the Paralympic Games (6-17 September) and (d) after the vehicle control was ceased (21-28 September), the average HCHO mixing ratios were 7.31 ± 2.67 ppbv, 5.54 ± 2.41 ppbv, 8.72 ± 2.48 ppbv, and 6.42 ± 2.79 ppbv, while the total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) measured were 30.41 ± 18.08 ppbv, 18.12 ± 9.38 ppbv, 30.50 ± 13.37 ppbv, and 33.33 ± 15.85 ppbv, respectively. Both HCHO and NMHC levels were the lowest during the Olympic games, and increased again during the Paralympic games even with the same vehicle control measures operative. Similar diurnal HCHO and O 3 patterns indicated that photo-oxidation of NMHCs may be the major source of HCHO. The diurnal profile of total NMHCs was very similar to that of NO 2 and CO: morning and evening peaks appeared in rush hours, indicating even after strict vehicle control, automobile emission may still be the dominant source of the HCHO precursors. The contributions of HCHO, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics to OH loss rates were also calculated. HCHO contributed 22 ± 3% to the total VOCs and 24 ± 1% to the total OH loss rate. HCHO was not only important in term of abundance, but also important in chemical reactivity in the air.

  15. Effects of formaldehyde-enriched mists on Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco and Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, P S; Shirazi, A M

    1996-01-01

    The atmosphere in some areas is polluted with formaldehyde (HCHO); however, little is known about effects of HCHO on plants at concentrations resembling those in polluted areas. The effects of simulated fogwater enriched with HCHO on seedlings of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco (Douglas fir) and pendants of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. were assessed. Plants were treated with HCHO-enriched fog (target concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 microm) during five 4-night mist sessions. Growth and nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction rate) for lichens and growth and timing of bud-break for Douglas fir were monitored. Nitrogenase activity was lowest in lichens treated at the highest HCHO concentration after all but the first mist session, and it declined significantly with increasing HCHO concentration after the final mist session (R(2) = 0.60, p = 0.02). However, differences in nitrogenase activity among treatments were generally not statistically significant (most p values from ANOVAs were >/= 0.20). Formaldehyde did not affect growth of the lichens. Budbreak of Douglas firs was slightly delayed and height growth was slightly depressed with increasing HCHO concentration, although effects were not statistically significant.

  16. OMI satellite observed formaldehyde column from 2006 to 2015 over Xishuangbanna, southwest China, and validation using ground based zenith-sky DOAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Feng, Tao; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Chanzhen; Guo, Yanlin; Nan, Jialiang; Deng, Yun; Zhou, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) provides a proxy to reveal the isoprene and biogenic volatile organic compounds emission which plays important roles in atmospheric chemical process and climate change. The ground-based observation with zenith-sky DOAS is carried out in order to validate the HCHO columns from OMI. It has a good correlation of 0.71678 between the HCHO columns from two sources. Then we use the OMI HCHO columns from January 2006 to December 2015 to indicate the interannual variation and spatial distribution in Xishuangbanna. The HCHO concentration peaks appeared in March or April for each year significantly corresponding to the intensive fire counts at the same time, which illustrate that the high HCHO columns are strongly influenced by the biomass burning in spring. Temperature and precipitation are also the important influence factors in the seasonal variation when there is nearly no biomass burning. The spatial patterns over the past ten years strengthen the deduction from the temporal variation and show the relationship with land cover and land use, elevation and population density. It is concluded that the biogenic activity plays a role in controlling the background level of HCHO in Xishuangbanna, while biomass burning is the main driving force of high HCHO concentration. And forests are greater contributor to HCHO rather than rubber trees which cover over 20% of the land in the region. Moreover, uncertainties from HCHO slant column retrieval and AMFs calculation are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Chemical modification as an approach for the identification of UDPG-binding polypeptides of UDPG-glucose: (1,3)-Beta-glucan synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The lysine-reactive chemical modification reagents uridine diphosphate pyridoxal (UDP-pyridoxal) and formaldehyde (HCHO) were used to identify UDPG-binding polypeptides of UDP-glucose: (1,3)-β-D-glucan synthase (GS) from red beet storage tissue. Complete enzyme inactivation occurred after exposure to micromolar levels of UDP-pyridoxal and millimolar levels of HCHO. Divalent cations (Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , particularly Ca 2+ ) were required by both for inactivation. Substrate (UDPG) and chelators (EDTA and EGTA) protected plasma membrane GS (PMGS) against UDP-pyridoxal and HCHO inhibition. UDPG protected CHAPS solubilized GS (CSGS) against UDP-pyridoxal inactivation, but not against HCHO. It was concluded that beet GS contains a lysine residue at the UDPG-binding site. When PMGS was directly labeled with UDP[ 3 H]-pyridoxal or [ 14 C]HCHO, random labeling occurred. Therefore, a multi-step labeling procedure was developed. Nonessential lysine residues were first blocked with HCHO while 5 mM UDPG protected the active site lysine. Background labeling was reduced 4-fold. Membranes were recovered by centrifugation and the active site lysine exposed to [ 14 C] HCHO. Major labeled polypeptides were at 200, 76, and 54 kD. Minor polypeptides were seen at 94, 82, 68, 60, and 20-25 kD. CSGS was labeled by a modified multi-step procedure. CSGS was blocked by reaction with UDP-pyridoxal in the presence of UDPG. CSGS was then recovered by product entrapment and labeled with [ 14 C]HCHO. Background labeling was reduced by 8-fold and potential UDPG-binding polypeptides narrowed to 68, 54, 25 and 22 kD

  18. Formaldehyde OMI operational retrieval upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.

    2013-05-01

    Total column of formaldehyde (HCHO), a proxy for biogenic emissions, can be observed from satellites using the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The operational HCHO retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the AURA satellite, part of NASA's A-train constellation of Earth Observing satellites, are described. The operational retrieval, based on a basic optical absorption spectroscopy (BOAS) algorithm, has been affected by the degradation of the instrument especially from 2008 onwards. The most significant problems are the unrealistic increasing high background concentrations of HCHO retrieved from OMI and the row anomaly. An upgrade for the original operational algorithm is therefore needed to ensure its trend quality and to account for these difficulties. The strategies implemented to deal with the instrumental degradation are presented here. Air mass factors (AMFs) in the current fitting window show significant wavelength dependence. Fitting uncertainties can potentially be improved by including shorter wavelengths as long as the AMFs wavelength dependence is taken into account. As part of these improvements a look-up table of wavelength-dependent AMFs have been calculated. Using this new table it is possible to retrieve the HCHO total column directly, weighting the HCHO cross sections with the wavelength-dependent AMFs. Additionally, the pixels affected by the row anomaly are now flagged in the level 2 data generated with the upgraded algorithm.

  19. Detection of formaldehyde emissions from an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta region of China using a proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Diao, Yiwei; Zhang, Bingjie; Wang, Weiwei; Ren, Xinrong; Yang, Dongsen; Wang, Ming; Shi, Xiaowen; Zheng, Jun

    2016-12-01

    A proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PTR-ID-CIMS) equipped with a hydronium (H3+O) ion source was developed and deployed near an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China in spring 2015 to investigate industry-related emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollutants including formaldehyde (HCHO), aromatics, and other trace gases (O3 and CO) were simultaneously measured. Humidity effects on the sensitivity of the PTR-ID-CIMS for HCHO detection were investigated and quantified. The performances of the PTR-ID-CIMS were also validated by intercomparing with offline HCHO measurement technique using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) cartridges and the results showed fairly good agreement (slope = 0.81, R2 = 0.80). The PTR-ID-CIMS detection limit of HCHO (10 s, three-duty-cycle averages) was determined to be 0.9-2.4 (RH = 1-81.5 %) parts per billion by volume (ppbv) based on 3 times the standard deviations of the background signals. During the field study, observed HCHO concentrations ranged between 1.8 and 12.8 ppbv with a campaign average of 4.1 ± 1.6 ppbv, which was comparable with previous HCHO observations in other similar locations of China. However, HCHO diurnal profiles showed few features of secondary formation. In addition, time series of both HCHO and aromatic VOCs indicated strong influence from local emissions. Using a multiple linear regression fit model, on average the observed HCHO can be attributed to secondary formation (13.8 %), background level (27.0 %), and industry-related emissions, i.e., combustion sources (43.2 %) and chemical productions (16.0 %). Moreover, within the plumes the industry-related emissions can account for up to 69.2 % of the observed HCHO. This work has provided direct evidence of strong primary emissions of HCHO from industry-related activities. These primary HCHO sources can potentially have a strong impact on local and regional air pollution formation

  20. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S.; Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H.; Kim, J.; Song, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω HCHO ) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω CMAQ, MEGAN and Ω CMAQ, MOHYCAN ), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω SCIA ). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO 2 ) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO y species. For example, the HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO x radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO y chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia. • Using MEGAN or MOHYCAN emissions in CMAQ well captured

  1. First comparison of formaldehyde integral contents in ABL retrieved during clear-sky and overcast conditions by ZDOAS technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Victor; Borovski, Alexander; Postylyakov, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is involved in a lot of chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Taking into account that HCHO basically undergo by photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radical within a few hours, short-lived VOCs and direct HCHO emissions can cause local HCHO enhancement over certain areas, and, hence, exceeding background level of HCHO can be examined as a local pollution of the atmosphere by VOCs or existence of a local HCHO source. Several retrieval algorithms applicable for DOAS measurements in cloudless were previously developed. In previous works we proposed a new algorithm applicable for the overcast conditions. The algorithm has the typical F-coefficient error of about 10% for winter season, about 5% for summer season, and varying from 15 to 45% for transition season if the atmospheric boundary layer is below the cloud base. In this paper we briefly present our results of the HCHO vertical column retrieval measured at Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS) for overcast. ZSS (55°41'49''N, 36°46'29''E) is located in Moscow region in 38 km west from Moscow. Because Western winds prevail in this region, ZSS is a background station the most part of time. But in cases of Eastern wind, the air quality at ZSS is affected by Moscow megapolis, and polluted air masses formed above Moscow can reach station in a few hours. Due to the absence of alternative overcast data of HCHO, we compare our overcast data with the HCHO vertical content, which we obtained for clear sky. We investigate similarities and differences in their statistical behavior in different air mass. The average overcast HCHO data have similar to clear-sky HCHO positive temperature trends for all wind direction. We found that the average retrieved overcast HCHO contents are systematically greater than the clear-sky retrieval data. But the difference between data retrieved for the overcast and clear-sky conditions are different for Eastern and Western winds. This difference is about 0.5×1016 mol cm-2

  2. Photocatalytic removal of NO and HCHO over nanocrystalline Zn2SnO4 microcubes for indoor air purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Zhihui; Lee Shuncheng; Huang Yu; Ho Wingkei; Zhang Lizhi

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Zn 2 SnO 4 microcubes were hydrothermally synthesized and systematically characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, N 2 adsorption-desorption, and UV-vis DRS analysis. The resulting Zn 2 SnO 4 microcubes with the edge size ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 μm were composed of numerous nanoparticles with size of 10-20 nm, and their optical band gap energy was estimated to be 3.25 eV from the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. On degradation of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) at typical concentrations for indoor air quality, these nanocrystalline Zn 2 SnO 4 microcubes exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to the hydrothermally synthesized ZnO, SnO 2 , and Degussa TiO 2 P25, as well as C doped TiO 2 under UV-vis light irradiation. This enhanced photocatalytic activity of the nanocrystalline Zn 2 SnO 4 microcubes was attributed to their bigger surface areas, smaller particle size, special porous structures, and special electronic configuration. The nanocrystalline Zn 2 SnO 4 microcubes were chemically stable as there was no obvious deactivation during the multiple photocatalytic reactions. This work presents a promising approach for scaling-up industrial production of Zn 2 SnO 4 nanostructures and suggests that the synthesized nanocrystalline Zn 2 SnO 4 microcubes are promising photocatalysts for indoor air purification.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  4. First direct measurements of formaldehyde flux via eddy covariance: implications for missing in-canopy formaldehyde sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. DiGangi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observations of formaldehyde (HCHO flux measured via eddy covariance, as well as HCHO concentrations and gradients, as observed by the Madison Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument during the BEACHON-ROCS 2010 campaign in a rural, Ponderosa Pine forest northwest of Colorado Springs, CO. A median noon upward flux of ~80 μg m−2 h−1 (~24 pptv m s−1 was observed with a noon range of 37 to 131 μg m−2 h−1. Enclosure experiments were performed to determine the HCHO branch (3.5 μg m-2 h−1 and soil (7.3 μg m−2 h−1 direct emission rates in the canopy. A zero-dimensional canopy box model, used to determine the apportionment of HCHO source and sink contributions to the flux, underpredicted the observed HCHO flux by a factor of 6. Simulated increases in concentrations of species similar to monoterpenes resulted in poor agreement with measurements, while simulated increases in direct HCHO emissions and/or concentrations of species similar to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol best improved model/measurement agreement. Given the typical diurnal variability of these BVOC emissions and direct HCHO emissions, this suggests that the source of the missing flux is a process with both a strong temperature and radiation dependence.

  5. Sources and Potential Photochemical Roles of Formaldehyde in an Urban Atmosphere in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Han, Yu; Zhu, Bo; He, Ling-Yan

    2017-11-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important intermediate in tropospheric photochemistry. However, study of its evolution characteristics under heavy pollution conditions in China is limited, especially for high temporal resolutions, making it difficult to analyze its sources and environmental impacts. In this study, ambient levels of HCHO were monitored using a proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometer at an urban site in the Pearl River Delta of China. Continuous monitoring campaigns were conducted in the spring, summer, fall, and winter in 2016. The highest averaged HCHO concentrations were observed in autumn (5.1 ± 3.1 ppbv) and summer (5.0 ± 4.4 ppbv), followed by winter (4.2 ± 2.2 ppbv) and spring (3.4 ± 1.6 ppbv). The daily maximum of HCHO occurs in the early afternoon and shows good correlations with O3 and the secondary organic aerosol tracer during the day, revealing close relationships between ambient HCHO and secondary formations in Shenzhen, especially in summer and autumn. The daytime HCHO is estimated to be the major contributor to O3 formation and OH radical production, indicating that HCHO plays a key role in the urban atmospheric photochemical reactions. Anthropogenic secondary formation was calculated to be the dominant source of HCHO using a photochemical age-based parameterization method, with an average proportion of 39%. The contributions of biogenic sources in summer (41%) and autumn (39%) are much higher than those in spring (26%) and winter (28%), while the contributions of anthropogenic primary sources in spring (20%) and winter (18%) are twice those in summer (9%) and autumn (9%).

  6. Amperometric Detection of Sub-ppm Formaldehyde Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Hydroxylamines: A Referenced Chemiresistive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Shinsuke; Labuta, Jan; Nakanishi, Takashi; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2017-10-27

    We report amperometric detection of formaldehyde (HCHO) using hydroxylamine hydrochloride and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with HCHO to emit HCl vapor, which injects a hole carrier into semiconducting SWCNTs. The increase of conductivity in SWCNTs is easily monitored using an ohmmeter. The debundling of SWCNTs with a metallo-supramolecular polymer (MSP) increased the active surface area in the SWCNTs network, leading to excellent sensitivity to HCHO with a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.016 ppm. The response of sensor is reversible, and the sensor is reusable. The selectivity to HCHO is 10 5 -10 6 times higher than interferences with other volatiles such as water, methanol, and toluene. Moreover, false-positive responses caused by a significant variation of humidity and/or temperature are successfully discriminated from true-positive responses by using two sensors, one with and the other without hydroxylamine hydrochloride, in a referenced system.

  7. Observations of Radical Precursors during TexAQS II: Findings and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, E. P.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Pinto, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Texas Environmental Research Consortium (TERC) sponsored and helped organize significant components of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II). Some of the TERC-sponsored experiments, most notably those associated with the TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP) sited on top of the Moody Tower at the University of Houston, found evidence for the importance of short-lived radical sources such as formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous acid (HONO) in increasing ozone productivity. During TRAMP, daytime HCHO pulses as large as 32 ppb were observed and attributed to industrial activities upwind in the Houston Ship Channel (HSC), and HCHO peaks as large as 52 ppb were detected by in-situ surface monitors in the HSC. In addition, an instrumented Piper Aztec aircraft observed plumes of apparent primary formaldehyde in flares from petrochemical facilities in the HSC. In one such combustion plume, depleted of ozone by large NOx emissions, the Piper Aztec measured an HCHO-to-CO ratio three times that of mobile sources. HCHO from uncounted primary sources or ozonolysis of underestimated olefin emissions could significantly increase ozone productivity in Houston beyond previous expectations. Simulations with the CAMx model show that additional emissions of HCHO from industrial flares can increase peak ozone in Houston by up to 30 ppb, depending on conditions in the planetary boundary layer. Other findings from TexAQS II include significant concentrations of HONO throughout the day, well in excess of current air quality model predictions, with large nocturnal vertical gradients indicating a surface or near-surface source of HONO, and large concentrations of night-time radicals (~30 ppt HO2). Additional HONO sources could increase daytime ozone by more than 10 ppb. Improving the representation of primary and secondary HCHO and HONO in air quality models could enhance the effectiveness of simulated control strategies, and thus make ozone attainment

  8. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (ΩHCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω(CMAQ, MEGAN) and Ω(CMAQ, MOHYCAN)), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω(SCIA)). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO(y) species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO(x) radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO(y) chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulated reaction of formaldehyde and ambient atmospheric particulate matter using a chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueyue Chen; Jia Liu; Jing Shang; Tong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    The reaction of HCHO with Beijing winter's real ambient particulate matter (PM) inside a 3.3 m3 Teflon Chamber was conducted in this study.NO2,O3 and H2O gases were removed from the ambient aerosol before entering into the chamber.The decays of HCHO were monitored (acetylacetone spectrophotometry method) during the reactions at different PM number concentrations (Na) and relative humidities (RHs),and the formed particulate formate was detected by IC and XPS techniques.The results showed that when RH was 10%-15%,the decay rate of HCHO in the chamber was higher with the existence of PM from relatively clean days (with number concentration (Na) < 200,000 particle/L,0.35-22.5 μm) compared to dirty days (Na > 200,000 particle/L,0.35-22.5 μm).When RH increased to 30%-45%,PM can hardly have significant influences on the decay of HCHO.The formations of formate on the reacted PM were consistent with the HCHO decay rates at different ambient PM Na and RH conditions.This is a first study related to the "real" ambient PM reacted with HCHO and suggested that in the clean and low RH days,PM could be an effective medium for the conversion of HCHO to formate.

  10. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, ozone (O3, airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO2, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan’s Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA. However, elevated PM10 and PM2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations.

  11. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang; Lu, Chung-Yen

    2016-12-02

    Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O₃), airborne particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ), bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO₂, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan's Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA). However, elevated PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations.

  12. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H. [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, C.H., E-mail: chsong@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω{sub HCHO}) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MEGAN} and Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MOHYCAN}), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω{sub SCIA}). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO{sub 2}) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO{sub y} species. For example, the HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO{sub x} radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO{sub y} chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia.

  13. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde over California: First Results from the COFFEE Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Josette; St. Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma; Swanson, Andrew; Gore, Warren; Iraci, Laura; Hanisco, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. We will present results from flights performed over the Central Valley of California, including boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. These results will be presented in conjunction with formaldehyde. Targets in the Central Valley consist of an oil field, agricultural areas, and highways, each of which can emit HCHO primarily and generate HCHO through secondary production. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  14. Flexible room-temperature formaldehyde sensors based on rGO film and rGo/MoS2 hybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Wang, Jing; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Xia, Yi; Li, Weiwei; Xiang, Lan; Li, Zhemin; Xu, Shiwei; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2017-08-11

    Gas sensors based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films and rGO/MoS 2 hybrid films were fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate substrates by a simple self-assembly method, which yielded flexible devices for detection of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature. The sensing test results indicated that the rGO and rGO/MoS 2 sensors were highly sensitive and fully recoverable to a ppm-level of HCHO. The bending and fatigue test results revealed that the sensors were also mechanically robust, durable and effective for long-term use. The rGO/MoS 2 sensors showed higher sensitivities than rGO sensors, which was attributed to the enhanced HCHO adsorption and electron transfer mediated by MoS 2 . Furthermore, two kinds of MoS 2 nanosheets were prepared by either hydrothermal synthesis or chemical exfoliation and were compared for their detection of HCHO, which revealed that the hydrothermally produced MoS 2 nanosheets with rich defects led to enhanced sensitivity of the rGO/MoS 2 sensors. Moreover, these fabricated flexible sensors can be applied for the HCHO detection in food packaging.

  15. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde over California: One Year of Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J. E.; St Clair, J. M.; Yates, E. L.; Ryoo, J. M.; Gore, W.; Swanson, A. K.; Iraci, L. T.; Hanisco, T. F.

    2016-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role in multiple atmospheric processes, such as ozone (O3) production in polluted environments. Due to its short lifetime of only a few hours in daytime, HCHO also serves as tracer of recent photochemical activity. While photochemical oxidation of non-methane hydrocarbons is the dominant source, HCHO can also be emitted directly from fuel combustion, vegetation, and biomass burning. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument was built for integration onto the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload, based out of NASA's Ames Research Center (Moffett Field, CA). Using Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF), trace concentrations of HCHO can be detected with a sensitivity of 200 parts per trillion. Since its first research flight in December 2015, COFFEE has successfully flown on more than 20 science missions throughout California and Nevada. Presented here are results from these flights, including boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles throughout the tropospheric column. California's San Joaquin Valley is a primary focus, as this region is known for its elevated levels of HCHO as well as O3. Measurements collected in wildfire plumes, urban centers, agricultural lands, and on and off shore comparisons will be presented. In addition, the correlation of HCHO to other trace gases also measured by AJAX, including O3, methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor will also be shown. Lastly, the implications of these HCHO measurements on calibration and validation of remote sensing data collected by NASA's OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) satellites will be addressed.

  16. Uptake of gaseous formaldehyde by soil surfaces: a combination of adsorption/desorption equilibrium and chemical reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO is an important precursor of OH radicals and a key intermediate molecule in the oxidation of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Budget analyses reveal large discrepancies between modeled and observed HCHO concentrations in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the interactions of gaseous HCHO with soil surfaces through coated-wall flow tube experiments applying atmospherically relevant HCHO concentrations of  ∼  10 to 40 ppbv. For the determination of uptake coefficients (γ, we provide a Matlab code to account for the diffusion correction under laminar flow conditions. Under dry conditions (relative humidity  =  0 %, an initial γ of (1.1 ± 0.05  ×  10−4 is determined, which gradually drops to (5.5 ± 0.4  ×  10−5 after 8 h experiments. Experiments under wet conditions show a smaller γ that drops faster over time until reaching a plateau. The drop of γ with increasing relative humidity as well as the drop over time can be explained by the adsorption theory in which high surface coverage leads to a reduced uptake rate. The fact that γ stabilizes at a non-zero plateau suggests the involvement of irreversible chemical reactions. Further back-flushing experiments show that two-thirds of the adsorbed HCHO can be re-emitted into the gas phase while the residual is retained by the soil. This partial reversibility confirms that HCHO uptake by soil is a complex process involving both adsorption/desorption and chemical reactions which must be considered in trace gas exchange (emission or deposition at the atmosphere–soil interface. Our results suggest that soil and soil-derived airborne particles can either act as a source or a sink for HCHO, depending on ambient conditions and HCHO concentrations.

  17. Uptake of gaseous formaldehyde by soil surfaces: a combination of adsorption/desorption equilibrium and chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Su, Hang; Li, Xin; Kuhn, Uwe; Meusel, Hannah; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Ammann, Markus; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shao, Min; Cheng, Yafang

    2016-08-01

    Gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important precursor of OH radicals and a key intermediate molecule in the oxidation of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Budget analyses reveal large discrepancies between modeled and observed HCHO concentrations in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the interactions of gaseous HCHO with soil surfaces through coated-wall flow tube experiments applying atmospherically relevant HCHO concentrations of ˜ 10 to 40 ppbv. For the determination of uptake coefficients (γ), we provide a Matlab code to account for the diffusion correction under laminar flow conditions. Under dry conditions (relative humidity = 0 %), an initial γ of (1.1 ± 0.05) × 10-4 is determined, which gradually drops to (5.5 ± 0.4) × 10-5 after 8 h experiments. Experiments under wet conditions show a smaller γ that drops faster over time until reaching a plateau. The drop of γ with increasing relative humidity as well as the drop over time can be explained by the adsorption theory in which high surface coverage leads to a reduced uptake rate. The fact that γ stabilizes at a non-zero plateau suggests the involvement of irreversible chemical reactions. Further back-flushing experiments show that two-thirds of the adsorbed HCHO can be re-emitted into the gas phase while the residual is retained by the soil. This partial reversibility confirms that HCHO uptake by soil is a complex process involving both adsorption/desorption and chemical reactions which must be considered in trace gas exchange (emission or deposition) at the atmosphere-soil interface. Our results suggest that soil and soil-derived airborne particles can either act as a source or a sink for HCHO, depending on ambient conditions and HCHO concentrations.

  18. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde Over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Josette Elizabeth; Saint Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  19. Uptake of gaseous formaldehyde onto soil surfaces: a coated-wall flow tube study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Su, Hang; Li, Xin; Meusel, Hannah; Kuhn, Uwe; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shao, Min; Cheng, Yafang

    2015-04-01

    Gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important intermediate molecule and source of HO2 radicals. However, discrepancies exist between model simulated and observed HCHO concentrations, suggesting missing sources or sinks in the HCHO budget. Multiphase processes on the surface of soil and airborne soil-derived particles have been suggested as an important mechanism for the production/removal of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. In this work, the uptake of gaseous HCHO on soil surfaces were investigated through coated-wall flow tube experiments with HCHO concentration ranging from 10 to 40 ppbv. The results show that the adsorption of HCHO occurred on soil surfaces, and the uptake coefficient dropped gradually (i.e., by a factor of 5 after 1 hour) as the reactive surface sites were consumed. The HCHO uptake coefficient was found to be affected by the relative humidity (RH), decreasing from (2.4 ± 0.5) × 10-4 at 0% RH to (3.0 ± 0.08) × 10-5 at 70% RH, due to competition of water molecule absorption on the soil surface. A release of HCHO from reacted soil was also detected by applying zero air, suggesting the nature of reversible physical absorption and the existence of an equilibrium at the soil-gas interface. It implies that soil could be either a source or a sink for HCHO, depending on the ambient HCHO concentration. We also develop a Matlab program to calculate the uptake coefficient under laminar flow conditions based on the Cooney-Kim-Davis method.

  20. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Malinow, M; Pettinger, M; Upson, B; Hunninghake, D

    1999-12-01

    Studies have reported high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine as an independent risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study reported an increase in plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients receiving both colestipol and niacin compared with placebo. Thus the objective of this study was to examine the effect of niacin treatment on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. The Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial, a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examined the effect of niacin compared with placebo on homocyst(e)ine in a subset of 52 participants with peripheral arterial disease. During the screening phase, titration of niacin dose from 100 mg to 1000 mg daily resulted in a 17% increase in mean plasma homocyst(e)ine level from 13.1 +/- 4.4 micromol/L to 15.3 +/- 5.6 micromol/L (P ine levels in the niacin group and a 7% decrease in the placebo group (P =.0001). This difference remained statistically significant at the end of follow-up at 48 weeks. Niacin substantially increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, which could potentially reduce the expected benefits of niacin associated with lipoprotein modification. However, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels can be decreased by folic acid supplementation. Thus further studies are needed to determine whether B vitamin supplementation to patients undergoing long-term niacin treatment would be beneficial.

  1. Removal of formaldehyde from gas streams via packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Huixian; Zhu Aimin; Yang Xuefeng; Li Cuihong; Xu Yong

    2005-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a major indoor air pollutant and can cause serious health disorders in residents. This work reports the removal of formaldehyde from gas streams via alumina-pellet-filled dielectric barrier discharge plasmas at atmospheric pressure and 70 deg. C. With a feed gas mixture of 140 ppm HCHO, 21.0% O 2 , 1.0% H 2 O in N 2 , ∼92% of formaldehyde can be effectively destructed at GHSV (gas flow volume per hour per discharge volume) of 16 500 h -1 and E in = 108 J l -1 . An increase in the specific surface area of the alumina pellets enhances the HCHO removal, and this indicates that the adsorbed HCHO species may have a lower C-H bond breakage energy. Based on an examination of the influence of gas composition on the removal efficiency, the primary destruction pathways, besides the reactions initiated by discharge-generated radicals, such as O, H, OH and HO 2 , may include the consecutive dissociations of HCHO molecules and HCO radicals through their collisions with vibrationally- and electronically-excited metastable N 2 species. The increase of O 2 content in the inlet gas stream is able to diminish the CO production and to promote the formation of CO 2 via O-atom or HO 2 -radical involved reactions

  2. Seasonal behavior and long-term trends of tropospheric ozone, its precursors and chemical conditions over Iran: A view from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunsoo; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-04-01

    To identify spatial and temporal variations over the Iranian region, this study analyzed tropospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), carbon monoxide (CO) columns from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), and tropospheric column O3 (TCO) from OMI/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) satellites from 2005 to 2012. The study discovered high levels of HCHO (∼12 × 1015 molec./cm2) from plant isoprene emissions in the air above parts of the northern forest of Iran during the summer and from the oxidation of HCHO precursors emitted from petrochemical industrial facilities and biomass burning in South West Iran. This study showed that maximum NO2 levels (∼18 × 1015 molec./cm2) were concentrated in urban cities, indicating the predominance of anthropogenic sources. The results indicate that maximum concentrations were found in the winter, mainly because of weaker local winds and higher heating fuel consumption, in addition to lower hydroxyl radicals (OH). The high CO concentrations (∼2 × 1018 molec./cm2) in the early spring were inferred to mainly originate from a strong continental air mass from anthropogenic CO "hotspots" including regions around Caspian Sea, Europe, and North America, although the external sources of CO were partly suppressed by the Arabian anticyclone and topographic barriers. Variations in the TCO were seen to peak during the summer (∼40 DU), due to intensive solar radiation and stratospheric sources. This study also examined long-term trends in TCO and its precursors over a period of eight years in five urban cities in Iran. To perform the analysis, we estimated seasonal changes and inter-seasonal variations using least-squares harmonic estimation (LS-HE), which reduced uncertainty in the trend by 5-15%. The results showed significant increases in the levels of HCHO (∼0.08 ± 0.06 × 1015 molec./cm2 yr-1), NO2 (∼0.08 ± 0.02 × 1015 molec./cm2 yr-1), and peak

  3. Radon and aldehyde concentrations in the indoor environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschandreas, D.J.; Rector, H.E.

    1981-04-01

    Findings regarding indoor air contaminants in the energy-efficient residence (EER) in Mt. Airy, Maryland are reported. The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze relevant air quality samples (specifically radon and aldehydes), characterize the indoor air quality with respect to radon and aldehydes, and develop relationships between air infiltration rates and contaminant levels. One-fifth of the measured formaldehyde concentrations were in the range that may cause health concerns. Although indoor temperature and relative humidity affect indoor HCHO concentration, the elevated formaldehyde concentrations were measured under very low air infiltration rates. The data show that ventilation of the indoor air space is somewhat effective in reducing high HCHO concentrations. The operation of the heat exchanger led to an increase of the air infiltration rate which in turn resulted in substantial reduction of formaldehyde concentrations. A considerable number of the collected samples of indoor air displayed radon concentrations at levels higher than 1.0 to 4.0 nCim -3 (assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5, these radon levels would correspond to working levels above the health guidelines suggested by the US EPA for homes in Florida built on land reclaimed from phosphate mining). As in the case of indoor formaldehyde concentrations, elevated indoor concentrations are substantially reduced when the infiltration rate is increased. The data base shows that the use of the air to air heat exchanger leads to reduction of indoor radon concentration by increasing the residential ventilation rate

  4. Increased carboxyhemoglobin level during liver resection with inflow occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godai, Kohei; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Kuniyoshi, Tamotsu; Matsunaga, Akira; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Controlling stress responses associated with ischemic changes due to bleeding and ischemia/reperfusion injury is essential for anesthetic management. Endogenous carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is produced in the oxidative degradation of heme proteins by the stress-response enzyme heme oxygenase. Although the COHb level is elevated in critically ill patients, changes in endogenous COHb during anesthesia have not been well investigated. Therefore, we evaluated changes in endogenous COHb levels in patients undergoing liver resections with inflow occlusion. Levels of COHb were significantly increased after the Pringle maneuver. The inflow occlusion time in patients with increased COHb after the Pringle maneuver (∆COHb > 0.3 %) was significantly longer than in patients without increased COHb (∆COHb < 0.3 %) (P = 0.01). In addition, COHb changes were correlated with inflow occlusion time (P = 0.005, R(2) = 0.21). Neither total blood loss, transfusion volume of packed red blood cells, operation time, nor anesthetic time differed between patients with and without increased COHb. The results indicated that endogenous COHb levels were increased by inflow occlusion in patients undergoing liver resections, which suggests that changes in COHb may correlate with hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by inflow occlusion.

  5. Molecular analysis of formaldehyde-induced mutations in human lymphoblasts and E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, R.M.; Richardson, K.K.; Craft, T.R.; Benforado, K.B.; Liber, H.L.; Skopek, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    The molecular nature of formaldehyde (HCHO)-induced mutations was studied in both human lymphoblasts and E. coli. Thirty HPRT - human lymphoblast colonies induced by eight repetitive 150 μM HCHO treatments were characterized by Southern blot analysis. Fourteen of these mutants (47%) had visible deletions of some or all of the X-linked HPRT bands, indicating that HCHO can induce large losses of DNA in human lymphoblasts. In E. coli., DNA alterations induced by HCHO were characterized with use of the xanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (gpt) gene as the genetic target. Exposure of E. coli to 4 mM HCHO for 1 hr induced large insertions (41%), large deletions (18%), and point mutations (41%). Dideoxy DNA sequencing revealed that most of the point mutations were transversions at GC base pairs. In contrast, exposure of E. coli to 40 mM HCHO for 1 hr produced 92% point mutations, 62% of which were transitions at a single AT base pair in the gene. Therefore, HCHO is capable of producing different genetic alterations in E. coli at different concentrations, suggesting fundamental differences in the mutagenic mechanisms operating at the two concentrations used. Naked pSV2gpt plasmid DNA was exposed to 3.3 or 10 mM HCHO and transformed into E. coli. Most of the resulting mutations were frameshifts, again suggesting a different mutagenic mechanism

  6. Glycine facilitates gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester-mediated increase in liver glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1997-08-27

    gamma-Glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE) increases reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in GSH-depleted rat hepatocytes. Because glycine, a constituent of GSH, exists at 0.3 to 0.4 mM in rat plasma, we examined the influence of glycine added to the medium on the action of gamma-GCE to increase GSH levels in the rat hepatocytes. Glycine (0.2-0.8 mM) dose-dependently enhanced gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels with an increase in intracellular gamma-GCE levels. These results indicate that exogenous glycine facilitates gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels in rat hepatocytes possibly by enhancing the uptake of gamma-GCE into the cells.

  7. In situ synthesis of manganese oxides on polyester fiber for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinlong; Yunus, Rizwangul; Li, Jinge; Li, Peilin; Zhang, Pengyi; Kim, Jeonghyun

    2015-12-01

    Removal of low-level formaldehyde (HCHO) is of great interest for indoor air quality improvement. Supported materials especially those with low air pressure drop are of necessity for air purification. Manganese oxides (MnOx) was in situ deposited on the surface of fibers of a non-woven fabric made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). As-synthesized MnOx/PET were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis. The growth of MnOx layer on PET is thought to start with partial hydrolysis of PET, followed by surface oxidation by KMnO4 and then surface-deposition of MnOx particles from the bulk phase. The MnOx particles assembled with nanosheets were uniformly coated on the PET fibers. MnOx/PET showed good activity for HCHO decomposition at room temperature which followed the Mars-van Krevelen mechanism. The removal of HCHO was kept over 94% after 10 h continuous reaction under the conditions of inlet HCHO concentration ∼0.6 mg/m3, space velocity ∼17,000 h-1 and relative humidity∼50%. This research provides a facile method to deposit active MnOx onto polymers with low air resistance, and composite MnOx/PET material is promising for indoor air purification.

  8. Pollutant exposures from unvented gas cooking burners: A Simulation-based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group and Residential Building Systems Group; Klepeis, Neil E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; San Diego Univ., CA (United States). Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health; Lobscheid, Agnes B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group; Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group and Residential Building Systems Group

    2014-01-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. In this study, LBNL researchers quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes.The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods -- 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. The study recommends that reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

  9. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid increases brain creatine levels in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental dietary additive that might act as a creatine source in tissues with high-energy requirements. In this case study, we evaluated brain levels of creatine in white matter, gray matter, cerebellum, and thalamus during 8 wk oral GAA......, and 8 wk, the participants underwent brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical chemistry studies, and open-ended questionnaire for side-effect prevalence and severity. RESULTS: Brain creatine levels increased in similar fashion in cerebellum, and white and gray matter after GAA supplementation......, with an initial increase of 10.7% reported after 4 wk, and additional upsurge (7.7%) from the weeks 4 to 8 follow-up (P creatine levels decreased after 4 wk for 6.5% (P = 0.02), and increased nonsignificantly after 8 wk for 8% (P = 0.09). GAA induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate levels at 8...

  10. Formaldehyde measurements by Proton transfer reaction – Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS: correction for humidity effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vlasenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde measurements can provide useful information about photochemical activity in ambient air, given that HCHO is formed via numerous oxidation processes. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS is an online technique that allows measurement of VOCs at the sub-ppbv level with good time resolution. PTR-MS quantification of HCHO is hampered by the humidity dependence of the instrument sensitivity, with higher humidity leading to loss of PTR-MS signal. In this study we present an analytical, first principles approach to correct the PTR-MS HCHO signal according to the concentration of water vapor in sampled air. The results of the correction are validated by comparison of the PTR-MS results to those from a Hantzsch fluorescence monitor which does not have the same humidity dependence. Results are presented for an intercomparison made during a field campaign in rural Ontario at Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments.

  11. Isotope effects and their implications for the covalent binding of inhaled [3H]- and [14C]formaldehyde in the rat nasal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck Hd'; Casanova, M.

    1987-01-01

    DNA-protein crosslinks were formed in the nasal respiratory mucosa of Fischer-344 rats exposed for 3 hr to selected concentrations of [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C]formaldehyde ( 3 HCHO and H 14 CHO). In rats depleted of glutathione (GSH) and exposed to 10 ppm of 3 HCHO and H 14 CHO, the 3 H/ 14 C ratio of the fraction of the DNA that was crosslinked to proteins was significantly (39 +/- 6%) higher than that of the inhaled gas. This suggests an isotope effect, either on the formation of DNA-protein crosslinks by labeled HCHO or on the oxidation of labeled HCHO catalyzed by formaldehyde (FDH) or aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldDH). The possibility of an isotope effect on the formation of crosslinks was investigated using rat hepatic nuclei incubated with [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C]formaldehyde (0.1 mM, 37 degrees C). A small (3.4 +/- 0.9%) isotope effect was detected on this reaction, which slightly favored 3 HCHO over H 14 CHO in binding to DNA. The magnitude of this isotope effect cannot account for the high isotope ratio observed in the crosslinked DNA in vivo. The possibility of an isotope effect on the oxidation of 3 HCHO and H 14 CHO catalyzed by FDH was investigated using homogenates of the rat nasal mucosa incubated with [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C]formaldehyde at total formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 11 microM, NAD+ (1 mM), GSH (15 mM), and pyrazole (1 mM). The experiments showed that 3 HCHO is oxidized significantly more slowly than H 14 CHO under these conditions (Vmax/Km (H 14 CHO) divided by Vmax/Km ( 3 HCHO) = 1.82 +/- 0.11). A similar isotope effect was observed in the absence of GSH, presumably due to the oxidation of 3 HCHO and H 14 CHO catalyzed by AldDH

  12. Influence of fatigue time and level on increases in postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Kevin M; Madigan, Michael L; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatigue time and fatigue level on the increases in postural sway during quiet standing. Centre of pressure-based measures of postural sway were collected both before and after fatiguing participants using three different fatigue levels and two different fatigue times. Results showed increasing fatigue time increased sway velocity and sway area, and increasing fatigue level increased sway velocity. Fatigue time effects are important to consider when applying laboratory-based findings to the field given that the fatigue time can differ substantially between the two. Fatigue level effects imply a dose - response relationship between localized muscle fatigue and risk of falling that can have important implications in work/rest cycle scheduling for occupations at risk of injurious falls.

  13. The variation of cationic microstructure in Mn-doped spinel ferrite during calcination and its effect on formaldehyde catalytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiaoliang [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and Materials, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Peng [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and Materials, Guangzhou 510640 (China); He, Hongping, E-mail: hehp@gig.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and Materials, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wei, Gaoling [Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Chen, Tianhu [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Tan, Wei; Tan, Fuding [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and Materials, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhu, Jianxi; Zhu, Runliang [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and Materials, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Calcination causes the activity variation of Mn-doped ferrites for HCHO oxidation. • The variation of catalytic activity of ferrites by calcination is non-linear. • Mn enriches on the calcinated ferrite surface in the valence of +3 and +4. • The reduction temperature of surface Mn{sup 4+} species is well correlated to T50. - Abstract: In this study, a series of Mn substituted spinel ferrites calcinated at different temperatures were used as catalysts for the oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction were conducted to characterize the structure and physico-chemical properties of catalysts, which were affected by calcination in the range of 200–600 °C. Results show that all the ferrites were with spinel structure, and those calcinated in the range of 300–600 °C were in the phase of maghemite. The calcination changed the valence and distribution of Mn and Fe on the ferrite surface, and accordingly the reducibility of ferrites. The HCHO catalytic oxidation test showed that with the increase of calcination temperature, the activity was initially improved until 400 °C, but then decreased. The variation of HCHO conversion performance was well positively correlated to the variation of reduction temperature of surface Mn{sup 4+} species. The remarkable effect of calcination on the catalytic activity of Mn-doped spinel ferrites for HCHO oxidation was discussed in view of reaction mechanism and variations in cationic microstructure of Mn-doped ferrites.

  14. The variation of cationic microstructure in Mn-doped spinel ferrite during calcination and its effect on formaldehyde catalytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Peng; He, Hongping; Wei, Gaoling; Chen, Tianhu; Tan, Wei; Tan, Fuding; Zhu, Jianxi; Zhu, Runliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calcination causes the activity variation of Mn-doped ferrites for HCHO oxidation. • The variation of catalytic activity of ferrites by calcination is non-linear. • Mn enriches on the calcinated ferrite surface in the valence of +3 and +4. • The reduction temperature of surface Mn"4"+ species is well correlated to T50. - Abstract: In this study, a series of Mn substituted spinel ferrites calcinated at different temperatures were used as catalysts for the oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and H_2 temperature-programmed reduction were conducted to characterize the structure and physico-chemical properties of catalysts, which were affected by calcination in the range of 200–600 °C. Results show that all the ferrites were with spinel structure, and those calcinated in the range of 300–600 °C were in the phase of maghemite. The calcination changed the valence and distribution of Mn and Fe on the ferrite surface, and accordingly the reducibility of ferrites. The HCHO catalytic oxidation test showed that with the increase of calcination temperature, the activity was initially improved until 400 °C, but then decreased. The variation of HCHO conversion performance was well positively correlated to the variation of reduction temperature of surface Mn"4"+ species. The remarkable effect of calcination on the catalytic activity of Mn-doped spinel ferrites for HCHO oxidation was discussed in view of reaction mechanism and variations in cationic microstructure of Mn-doped ferrites.

  15. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  16. Endozepine-4 levels are increased in hepatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano; Motta, Massimo; Giordano, Maria; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2015-08-14

    To evaluate the serum levels of endozepine-4, their relation with ammonia serum levels, the grading of coma and the severity of cirrhosis, in patients with hepatic coma. In this study we included 20 subjects with Hepatic coma, 20 subjects with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and 20 subjects control. All subjects underwent blood analysis, Child Pugh and Model for End - stage liver disease (MELD) assessment, endozepine-4 analysis. Subjects with hepatic coma showed significant difference in endozepine-4 (P blood ammonia concentration was noted to be raised in patients with hepatic coma, with the highest ammonia levels being found in those who were comatose. We also found a high correlation between endozepine-4 and ammonia (P < 0.001). In patients with grade IV hepatic coma, endozepine levels were significantly higher compared to other groups. This study suggests that an increased level of endozepine in subjects with higher levels of MELD was observed. In conclusion, data concerning involvement of the GABA-ergic system in HE coma could be explained by stage-specific alterations.

  17. Multi-year MAX-DOAS observations of formaldehyde and glyoxal in Phimai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, H. M. S.; Irie, H.; Shimizu, A.; Damiani, A.

    2017-12-01

    The first long-term Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations were performed in Phimai, Thailand (15.18 °N, 102.56 °E), a site in Southeast Asia, where ground-based remote sensing observations of trace gases and aerosols are very limited. Vertical profile information of eight components was retrieved independently using the Japanese MAX-DOAS profile retrieval algorithm, version 2 (JM2). Here we focus on the two organic compounds, formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), and study their volume mixing ratio data in the lowest layer (0-1 km) of our retrieved vertical profiles. In addition to the systematic climatological analysis of HCHO and CHOCHO, we also report the ratio of CHOCHO to HCHO, RGF, which is suggested to be an important tracer of changes of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sources. Higher concentration of HCHO and CHOCHO was observed during the dry season (January-April), whereas the concentration level was close to the background level during the wet season (June-September). Such enhancements correspond well the influence of the pronounced seasonal variation of biomass burning activity. The RGF for the Phimai site was estimated to be 0.030±0.010. Our estimated RGF during the dry season ( 0.025±0.008) was lower than that in the wet season ( 0.033±0.012). This change in the RGF is consistent with the satellite retrievals, suggesting a higher RGF for strong biogenic emission sources. While the site can be characterized as environment with a low nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration level ( 1 ppbv), the impact of biomass burning on the lower RGF during the dry season was confirmed by occasional enhancement of the NO2 level as an anthropogenic tracer. The results are further supported by additional error analyses for the cloud influence. Our findings are expected to be used to reduce model uncertainties related to VOC chemistry and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation

  18. Atmospheric implications of simultaneous nighttime measurements of NO3 radicals and hono

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.N. Jr.; Biermann, H.W.; Atkinson, R.; Winer, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of gaseous HONO and the NO 3 radical were measured simultaneously for the first time using long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Diurnal profiles are reported for two successive nights following days of moderate pollution at Riverside, California, together with concurrent measurements of NO 2 , O 3 and NO concentrations and an upper limit for HCHO levels. These measurements permit an examination of selected aspects of the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of HONO and the NO 3 radical and related species. Our data do not support a recently proposed homogeneous gas phase mechanism for HONO formation initiated by the reaction of the NO 3 radical with HCHO

  19. Effects of Ingestion of Different Amounts of Carbohydrate after Endurance Exercise on Circulating Cytokines and Markers of Neutrophil Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumpei Tanisawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% V · O2 max, followed by ingestion of 1.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (HCHO trial, 0.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (LCHO trial, or placebo (PLA trial during the 2 h recovery phase in random order. Circulating glucose, insulin, and cytokine levels, blood cell counts, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin at 1 h after exercise were higher in the HCHO trial than in the LCHO and PLA trials. Although there were significant main effects of time on several variables, including neutrophil count, cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, significant time × trial interactions were not observed for any variables. These results suggest that CHO ingestion after endurance exercise does not enhance exercise-induced increase in circulating neutrophil and cytokine levels and markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, regardless of the amount of CHO ingested.

  20. MAX-DOAS formaldehyde slant column measurements during CINDI: intercomparison and analysis improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pinardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present intercomparison results for formaldehyde (HCHO slant column measurements performed during the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI that took place in Cabauw, the Netherlands, in summer 2009. During two months, nine atmospheric research groups simultaneously operated MAX-DOAS (MultiAXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instruments of various designs to record UV-visible spectra of scattered sunlight at different elevation angles that were analysed using common retrieval settings. The resulting HCHO data set was found to be highly consistent, the mean difference between instruments generally not exceeding 15% or 7.5 × 1015 molec cm−2, for all viewing elevation angles. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the uncertainties in the HCHO slant column retrieval when varying key input parameters such as the molecular absorption cross sections, correction terms for the Ring effect or the width and position of the fitting interval. This study led to the identification of potentially important sources of errors associated with cross-correlation effects involving the Ring effect, O4, HCHO and BrO cross sections and the DOAS closure polynomial. As a result, a set of updated recommendations was formulated for HCHO slant column retrieval in the 336.5–359 nm wavelength range. To conclude, an error budget is proposed which distinguishes between systematic and random uncertainties. The total systematic error is estimated to be of the order of 20% and is dominated by uncertainties in absorption cross sections and related spectral cross-correlation effects. For a typical integration time of one minute, random uncertainties range between 5 and 30%, depending on the noise level of individual instruments.

  1. In situ synthesis of manganese oxides on polyester fiber for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Yunus, Rizwangul; Li, Jinge; Li, Peilin; Zhang, Pengyi; Kim, Jeonghyun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The MnO x particles assembled with nanosheets were uniformly coated on PET fibers. • The growth process of MnO x layer on PET is clearly clarified. • MnO x /PET showed good activity for HCHO decomposition at room temperature. • MnO x /PET material is promising for indoor air purification due to its light, flexible and low air-resistant properties. - Abstract: Removal of low-level formaldehyde (HCHO) is of great interest for indoor air quality improvement. Supported materials especially those with low air pressure drop are of necessity for air purification. Manganese oxides (MnO x ) was in situ deposited on the surface of fibers of a non-woven fabric made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). As-synthesized MnO x /PET were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis. The growth of MnO x layer on PET is thought to start with partial hydrolysis of PET, followed by surface oxidation by KMnO 4 and then surface-deposition of MnO x particles from the bulk phase. The MnO x particles assembled with nanosheets were uniformly coated on the PET fibers. MnO x /PET showed good activity for HCHO decomposition at room temperature which followed the Mars–van Krevelen mechanism. The removal of HCHO was kept over 94% after 10 h continuous reaction under the conditions of inlet HCHO concentration ∼0.6 mg/m 3 , space velocity ∼17,000 h −1 and relative humidity∼50%. This research provides a facile method to deposit active MnO x onto polymers with low air resistance, and composite MnO x /PET material is promising for indoor air purification.

  2. In situ synthesis of manganese oxides on polyester fiber for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinlong [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality (China); Yunus, Rizwangul [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xinjiang Zhongtai Chemical Company, Xinjiang 831511 (China); Li, Jinge; Li, Peilin [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Pengyi, E-mail: zpy@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality (China); Kim, Jeonghyun [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The MnO{sub x} particles assembled with nanosheets were uniformly coated on PET fibers. • The growth process of MnO{sub x} layer on PET is clearly clarified. • MnO{sub x}/PET showed good activity for HCHO decomposition at room temperature. • MnO{sub x}/PET material is promising for indoor air purification due to its light, flexible and low air-resistant properties. - Abstract: Removal of low-level formaldehyde (HCHO) is of great interest for indoor air quality improvement. Supported materials especially those with low air pressure drop are of necessity for air purification. Manganese oxides (MnO{sub x}) was in situ deposited on the surface of fibers of a non-woven fabric made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). As-synthesized MnO{sub x}/PET were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis. The growth of MnO{sub x} layer on PET is thought to start with partial hydrolysis of PET, followed by surface oxidation by KMnO{sub 4} and then surface-deposition of MnO{sub x} particles from the bulk phase. The MnO{sub x} particles assembled with nanosheets were uniformly coated on the PET fibers. MnO{sub x}/PET showed good activity for HCHO decomposition at room temperature which followed the Mars–van Krevelen mechanism. The removal of HCHO was kept over 94% after 10 h continuous reaction under the conditions of inlet HCHO concentration ∼0.6 mg/m{sup 3}, space velocity ∼17,000 h{sup −1} and relative humidity∼50%. This research provides a facile method to deposit active MnO{sub x} onto polymers with low air resistance, and composite MnO{sub x}/PET material is promising for indoor air purification.

  3. Both experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase cardiac irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, E; Menevse, E; Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R

    2018-01-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered myokine and adipokine that increases total body energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the levels of irisin in heart tissue in rats. The study was performed on the 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental groups were designed as; Control, Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroidism+L-Thyroxine, Hyperthyroidism and Hyperthyroidism + PTU. Following 3 weeks experimental period, irisin levels were determined in heart tissues. Hypothyroidism group values of irisin were higher than in the control group, but lower than in the hyperthyroidism group. The hyperthyroidism group had the highest levels of cardiac irisin. The results of the study showed that the experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increased the heart irisin levels, but the increase in the hyperthyroidism group was much higher than in the hypothyroidism group. However, treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism corrected cardiac irisin levels (Fig. 1, Ref. 28).

  4. Effects of Water Level Increase on Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangdong Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water level fluctuation may affect physico-chemical characteristics, and consequently ecosystem function, in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, we assessed the changes of phytoplankton assemblages in response to water level increase in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia. The water level increased from a low of 137 m to 161 m in 2014 as a part of the South–North Water Diversion Project. Phytoplankton assemblages were sampled four times per year before, during and after the water level increase, at 10 sites. Environmental variables such as total nitrogen as well as phytoplankton biomass decreased after the water level increase. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis indicated that before the water level increase, phytoplankton assemblages showed distinct seasonal variation with diatom dominance in both early and late seasons while such seasonal variation was much less evident after the water level increase. Month and year (before and after explained 13% and 6% of variance in phytoplankton assemblages (PERMANOVA, p < 0.001 respectively, and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly different before and after the water level increase. Both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria became more abundant in 2015. Phytoplankton compositional change may largely reflect the environmental changes, such as hydrodynamics mediated by the water level increase.

  5. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Indoor air quality/air infiltration in selected low-energy houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohl Wagner, B.; Phillips, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Indoor air quality and air infiltration were measured in 16 low-energy California houses. Eleven has gas stoves; all had average infiltration rates of 0.5 h -1 of less, recent construction dates, low natural ventilation, and no mechanical ventilation. HCHO levels in 12 houses and radon-222 and NO 2 levels in all houses were measured using passive monitors. Blower door measurements and local weather data were used to calculate average infiltration rates during the monitoring period. Correlation of pollutant concentrations with infiltration rates and building characteristics indicate that new houses with average heating season infiltration rates less than 0.5 h -1 do not necessarily experience poor indoor air quality, HCHO and radon-222 levels in new houses exceeded the lowest currently proposed standards or guidelines, and much higher levels probably exist elsewhere. Therefore, some strategy for identifying 'problem' houses is needed. We recommend an approach for future research in this area. (Author)

  7. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Photochemistry and transport of tropospheric ozone and its precursors in urban and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel Craig

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) adversely affects human health, reduces crop yields, and contributes to climate forcing. To limit these effects, the processes controlling O3 abundance as well as that of its precursor molecules must be fully characterized. Here, I examine three facets of O 3 production, both in heavily polluted and remote environments. First, using in situ observations from the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in the Baltimore/Washington region, I evaluate the emissions of the O 3 precursors CO and NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). I find that CO/NOx emissions ratios derived from observations are 21% higher than those predicted by the NEI. Comparisons to output from the CMAQ model suggest that CO in the NEI is accurate within 15 +/- 11%, while NOx emissions are overestimated by 51-70%, likely due to errors in mobile sources. These results imply that ambient ozone concentrations will respond more efficiently to NOx controls than current models suggest. I then investigate the source of high O3 and low H2O structures in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). A combination of in situ observations, satellite data, and models show that the high O3 results from photochemical production in biomass burning plumes from fires in tropical Southeast Asia and Central Africa; the low relative humidity results from large-scale descent in the tropics. Because these structures have frequently been attributed to mid-latitude pollution, biomass burning in the tropics likely contributes more to the radiative forcing of climate than previously believed. Finally, I evaluate the processes controlling formaldehyde (HCHO) in the TWP. Convective transport of near surface HCHO leads to a 33% increase in upper tropospheric HCHO mixing ratios; convection also likely increases upper tropospheric CH 3OOH to ~230 pptv, enough to maintain background HCHO at ~75 pptv. The long-range transport of polluted air, with NO four times the convectively controlled background

  9. GOME-2 observations of oxygenated VOCs: what can we learn from the ratio glyoxal to formaldehyde on a global scale?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vrekoussis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Collocated data sets of glyoxal (CHO.CHO and formaldehyde (HCHO were retrieved for the first time from measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 during the first two years of operation in 2007 and 2008. Both oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds, OVOC, are key intermediate species produced during the oxidation of precursor hydrocarbons. Their short lifetime of a few hours in the lower troposphere links them to emission sources and makes them useful tracers of photochemical activity. The global composite maps of GOME-2 HCHO and CHO.CHO have strong similarities confirming their common atmospheric and/or surface sources. The highest column amounts of these OVOCs are recorded over regions with enhance biogenic emissions (e.g. tropical forests in South America, Africa and Indonesia. Enhanced OVOC values are also present over areas of anthropogenic activity and biomass burning (e.g. over China, N. America, Europe and Australia. The ratio of CHO.CHO to HCHO, RGF, has been used, for the first time on a global scale, to classify the sources according to biogenic and/or anthropogenic emissions of the precursors; RGF between 0.040 to 0.060 point to the existence of biogenic emissions with the highest values being observed at the highest Enhanced Vegetation Index, EVI. RGFs below 0.040 are indicative of anthropogenic emissions and associated with high levels of NO2. This decreasing tendency of RGF with increasing NO2 is also observed when analyzing data for individual large cities, indicating that it is a common feature. The results obtained for RGF from GOME-2 data are compared with the findings based on regional SCIAMACHY observations showing good agreement. This is explained by the excellent correlation of the global retrieved column amounts of CHO.CHO and HCHO from the GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY instruments for the period 2007

  10. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p  0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production

  13. Gas phase hydrolysis of formaldehyde to form methanediol: impact of formic acid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Montu K; Francisco, Joseph S; Sinha, Amitabha

    2013-11-21

    We find that formic acid (FA) is very effective at facilitating diol formation through its ability to reduce the barrier for the formaldehyde (HCHO) hydrolysis reaction. The rate limiting step in the mechanism involves the isomerization of a prereactive collision complex formed through either the HCHO···H2O + FA and/or HCHO + FA···H2O pathways. The present study finds that the effective barrier height, defined as the difference between the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPE) corrected energy of the transition state (TS) and the HCHO···H2O + FA and HCHO + FA···H2O starting reagents, are respectively only ∼1 and ∼4 kcal/mol. These barriers are substantially lower than the ∼17 kcal/mol barrier associated with the corresponding step in the hydrolysis of HCHO catalyzed by a single water molecule (HCHO + H2O + H2O). The significantly lower barrier heights for the formic acid catalyzed pathway reveal a new important role that organic acids play in the gas phase hydrolysis of atmospheric carbonyl compounds.

  14. Peroxy radical chemistry and the control of ozone photochemistry at Mace Head, Ireland during the summer of 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Fleming

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radical (HO2+ΣRO2 measurements, using the PEroxy Radical Chemical Amplification (PERCA technique at the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer EXperiment (NAMBLEX at Mace Head in summer 2002, are presented and put into the context of marine, boundary-layer chemistry. A suite of other chemical parameters (NO, NO2, NO3, CO, CH4, O3, VOCs, peroxides, photolysis frequencies and meteorological measurements, are used to present a detailed analysis of the role of peroxy radicals in tropospheric oxidation cycles and ozone formation. Under the range of conditions encountered the peroxy radical daily maxima varied from 10 to 40 pptv. The diurnal cycles showed an asymmetric shape typically shifted to the afternoon. Using a box model based on the master chemical mechanism the average model measurement agreement was 2.5 across the campaign. The addition of halogen oxides to the model increases the level of model/measurement agreement, apparently by respeciation of HOx. A good correlation exists between j(HCHO.[HCHO] and the peroxy radicals indicative of the importance of HCHO in the remote atmosphere as a HOx source, particularly in the afternoon. The peroxy radicals showed a strong dependence on [NO2] with a break point at 0.1 ppbv, where the radicals increased concomitantly with the reactive VOC loading, this is a lower value than seen at representative urban campaigns. The HO2/(HO2+ΣRO2 ratios are dependent on [NOx] ranging between 0.2 and 0.6, with the ratio increasing linearly with NOx. Significant night-time levels of peroxy radicals were measured up to 25 pptv. The contribution of ozone-alkenes and NO3-alkene chemistry to night-time peroxy radical production was shown to be on average 59 and 41%. The campaign mean net ozone production rate was 0.11±0.3 ppbv h-1. The ozone production rate was strongly dependent on [NO] having linear sensitivity (dln(P(O3/dln(NO=1.0. The results imply that the N(O3 (the in-situ net photochemical rate of ozone

  15. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  16. Serum levels of polyamine synthesis enzymes increase in diabetic patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kenan Çelik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between diabetes and breast cancer and the detection of enzymes and ornithine levels in polyamine synthesis pathway in diabetes, breast cancer and diabetic breast cancer patients. Methods: Ornithine, arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase and agmatinase levels have been measured in serum of all groups. Ornithine levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase and agmatinase levels were determined by ELISA kits. Results: Except for the diabetic group, the levels of enzymes in the polyamine synthesis pathway were increased in all and statistically significant (P < 0.05. The increase in the levels of agmatinase was very important among the enzymes (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Decreased levels of polyamine synthase enzymes in diabetes mellitus were found to be increased patients with breast cancer. Whether and how diabetes-based breast cancer development relates to increase activity of enzymes responsible for polyamine synthesis requires further mechanistic and prospective monitoring studies in larger patient cohorts.

  17. Acute binge drinking increases serum endotoxin and bacterial DNA levels in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bala

    Full Text Available Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic alcohol use results in increased gut permeability and increased serum endotoxin levels that contribute to many of the biological effects of chronic alcohol, including alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute binge drinking in healthy adults on serum endotoxin levels. We found that acute alcohol binge resulted in a rapid increase in serum endotoxin and 16S rDNA, a marker of bacterial translocation from the gut. Compared to men, women had higher blood alcohol and circulating endotoxin levels. In addition, alcohol binge caused a prolonged increase in acute phase protein levels in the systemic circulation. The biological significance of the in vivo endotoxin elevation was underscored by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, and chemokine, MCP-1, measured in total blood after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our findings indicate that even a single alcohol binge results in increased serum endotoxin levels likely due to translocation of gut bacterial products and disturbs innate immune responses that can contribute to the deleterious effects of binge drinking.

  18. Epalrestat increases intracellular glutathione levels in Schwann cells through transcription regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epalrestat (EPS, approved in Japan, is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Here we report that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH, which is important for protection against oxidative injury, through transcription regulation. Treatment of Schwann cells with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. EPS increased the mRNA levels of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, the enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in regulating the expression of γ-GCS. ELISA revealed that EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels. Knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, pretreatment with EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2, tert-butylhydroperoxide, 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride, and menadione, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting against oxidative stress. This is the first study to show that EPS induces GSH biosynthesis via the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has new beneficial properties that may prevent the development and progression of disorders caused by oxidative stress.

  19. Increased Heme Levels in the Heart Lead to Exacerbated Ischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Konrad Teodor; Shang, Meng; Wu, Rongxue; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Khechaduri, Arineh; Sato, Tatsuya; Kamide, Christine; Liu, Ting; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Ardehali, Hossein

    2015-07-31

    Heme is an essential iron-containing molecule for cardiovascular physiology, but in excess it may increase oxidative stress. Failing human hearts have increased heme levels, with upregulation of the rate-limiting enzyme in heme synthesis, δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2), which is normally not expressed in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that increased heme accumulation (through cardiac overexpression of ALAS2) leads to increased oxidative stress and cell death in the heart. We first showed that ALAS2 and heme levels are increased in the hearts of mice subjected to coronary ligation. To determine the causative role of increased heme in the development of heart failure, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ALAS2. While ALAS2 transgenic mice have normal cardiac function at baseline, their hearts display increased heme content, higher oxidative stress, exacerbated cell death, and worsened cardiac function after coronary ligation compared to nontransgenic littermates. We confirmed in cultured cardiomyoblasts that the increased oxidative stress and cell death observed with ALAS2 overexpression is mediated by increased heme accumulation. Furthermore, knockdown of ALAS2 in cultured cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia reversed the increases in heme content and cell death. Administration of the mitochondrial antioxidant MitoTempo to ALAS2-overexpressing cardiomyoblasts normalized the elevated oxidative stress and cell death levels to baseline, indicating that the effects of increased ALAS2 and heme are through elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of these findings was supported by the finding of increased ALAS2 induction and heme accumulation in failing human hearts from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy compared to nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Heme accumulation is detrimental to cardiac function under ischemic conditions, and reducing heme in the heart may be a novel approach for protection against the

  20. Solid strong base K-Pt/NaY zeolite nano-catalytic system for completed elimination of formaldehyde at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaoqing; Wu, Xi; Lu, Changhai; Wen, Meicheng; Le, Zhanggao; Jiang, Shujuan

    2018-06-01

    Solid strong base nano-catalytic system of K-modification NaY zeolite supported 0.08% Pt (K-Pt/NaY) were constructed for eliminating HCHO at room temperature. In the catalytic process, activation energy over K-Pt/NaY nano-catalytic system was greatly decreased along with the enhanced reaction rate. Characterization and catalytic tests revealed the surface electron structure of K-Pt/NaY was improved, as reflected by the enhanced HCHO adsorption capability, high sbnd OH concentration, and low-temperature reducibility. Therefore, the optimal K-Pt/NaY showed high catalytic efficiency and strong H2O tolerance for HCHO elimination by directly promoting the reaction between active sbnd OH and formate species. These results may suggest a new way for probing the advanced solid strong base nano-catalytic system for the catalytic elimination of indoor HCHO.

  1. Relative tropospheric photolysis rates of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde measured at the European Photoreactor Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Bache-Andreassen, Lihn; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0.03 ar.......03 are obtained from three days of experiments for each reaction in the period June 17 to July 7, 2006.......The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0...

  2. Efficiency of fisheries is increasing at the ecosystem level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Burgess, Matthew G; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2017-01-01

    examine the efficiency of North Sea and Baltic Sea fisheries with respect to economic rent and ecosystem impact, finding both to be inefficient but steadily improving. Our results suggest the following: (i) a broad and encouraging trend towards ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries; (ii) that ecosystem......Managing fisheries presents trade-offs between objectives, for example yields, profits, minimizing ecosystem impact, that have to be weighed against one another. These trade-offs are compounded by interacting species and fisheries at the ecosystem level. Weighing objectives becomes increasingly...... regressing at least one other. We investigate the ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries in five large marine ecosystems (LMEs) with respect to yield and an aggregate measure of ecosystem impact using a novel calibration of size-based ecosystem models. We estimate that fishing patterns in three LMEs (North...

  3. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  4. Halogen poisoning effect of Pt-TiO{sub 2} for formaldehyde catalytic oxidation performance at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122#, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122#, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Ho, Wingkei, E-mail: keithho@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies and Centre for Education in Environmental Sustainability, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, N.T. Hong Kong (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The Pt-TiO{sub 2} catalyst is deactivated by adsorption of halogen ions. • The halogen poison is mainly attributed to the active site blocking of the Pt surface. • Halogen ions and Pt form Pt−X coordination bonds. • Large halogen diameter exhibits severe poisoning effect. - Abstract: Catalytic decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature is an important method for HCHO removal. Pt-based catalysts are the optimal catalyst for HCHO decomposition at room temperature. However, the stability of this catalyst remains unexplored. In this study, Pt-TiO{sub 2} (Pt-P25) catalysts with and without adsorbed halogen ions (including F{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, and I{sup −}) were prepared through impregnation and ion modification. Pt-TiO{sub 2} samples with adsorbed halogen ions exhibited reduced catalytic activity for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature compared with the Pt-TiO{sub 2} sample; the catalytic activity followed the order of F-Pt-P25, Cl-Pt-P25, Br-Pt-P25, and I-Pt-P25. Characterization results (including XRD, TEM, HRTEM, BET, XPS, and metal dispersion) showed that the adsorbed halogen ions can poison Pt nanoparticles (NPs), thereby reducing the HCHO oxidation activity of Pt-TiO{sub 2}. The poison mechanism is due to the strong adsorption of halogen ions on the surface of Pt NPs. The adsorbed ions form coordination bonds with surface Pt atoms by transferring surplus electrons into the unoccupied 5d orbit of the Pt atom, thereby inhibiting oxygen adsorption and activation of the Pt NP surface. Moreover, deactivation rate increases with increasing diameter of halogen ions. This study provides new insights into the fabrication of high-performance Pt-based catalysts for indoor air purification.

  5. IGF-1 levels may increase paradoxically with dopamine agonist treatment for prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akirov, Amit; Greenman, Yona; Glaser, Benjamin; S'chigol, Irena; Mansiterski, Yossi; Eizenberg, Yoav; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Shimon, Ilan

    2018-05-04

    Hyperprolactinemia is common in acromegaly and in these patients, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 level may decrease with dopamine agonist. We report a series of patients with prolactinoma and a paradoxical increase of IGF-1 levels during cabergoline treatment. Clinical characteristics and response to treatment of patients with prolactinomas, in whom normal or slightly elevated baseline IGF-1 levels increased with cabergoline. The cohort consisted of ten prolactinoma patients (nine males, mean age 48 ± 14 years). Mean adenoma size was 23.8 ± 16.2 mm, with cavernous sinus invasion in eight. In five patients baseline IGF-1 levels were normal and in four levels were 1.2-1.5-fold the upper limit of the normal (ULN). One patient had IGF-1 measured shortly after initiating cabergoline and it was 1.4 × ULN. During cabergoline treatment (dose range 0.5-2 mg/week) PRL normalization was achieved in all and tumor shrinkage occurred in seven patients. The mean IGF-1 increase on cabergoline was 1.7 ± 0.4 × ULN. Cabergoline dose reduction or interruption was attempted in five patients and resulted in decreased IGF-1 levels in all, including normalization in two patients. Three patients were eventually diagnosed with acromegaly, one was referred for pituitary surgery followed by complete remission, another patient was switched to somatostatin analogue, and the third was treated by combination of somatostatin analogues with pegvisomant, with reduction of IGF-1 in all these patients. IGF-1 levels may increase to clinically significant levels during cabergoline treatment for PRL-adenoma. We suggest IGF-1 monitoring in all patients treated with dopamine agonists and not only in those presenting symptoms of acromegaly.

  6. Characterisation of Central-African emissions based on MAX-DOAS measurements, satellite observations and model simulations over Bujumbura, Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Clio; Hendrick, Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; De Smedt, Isabelle; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Bauwens, Maité; Ndenzako, Eugene; Nzohabonayo, Pierre; Akimana, Rachel; Niyonzima, Sébastien; Müller, Jean-Francois; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Central Africa is known for its strong biogenic, pyrogenic, and to a lesser extent anthropogenic emissions. Satellite observations of species like nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO), as well as inverse modelling results have shown that there are large uncertainties associated with the emissions in this region. There is thus a need for additional measurements, especially from the ground, in order to better characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic products emitted in this area. We present MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols performed in Central Africa, in the city of Bujumbura, Burundi (3°S, 29°E, 850m). A MAX-DOAS instrument has been operating at this location by BIRA-IASB since late 2013. Aerosol-extinction and trace-gases vertical profiles are retrieved by applying the optimal-estimation-based profiling tool bePRO to the measured O4, NO2 and HCHO slant-column densities. The MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for investigating the diurnal and seasonal cycles of NO2, HCHO, and aerosols. Regarding the aerosols, the retrieved AODs are compared to co-located AERONET sun photometer measurements for verification purpose, while in the case of NO2 and HCHO, the MAX-DOAS vertical columns and profiles are used for validating GOME-2 and OMI satellite observations. To characterise the biomass-burning and biogenic emissions in the Bujumbura region, the trace gases and aerosol MAX-DOAS retrievals are used in combination to MODIS fire counts/radiative-power and GOME-2/OMI NO2 and HCHO satellite data, as well as simulations from the NOAA backward trajectory model HYSPLIT. First results show that HCHO seasonal variation around local noon is driven by the alternation of rain and dry periods, the latter being associated with intense biomass-burning agricultural activities and forest fires in the south/south-east and transport from this region to Bujumbura. In contrast, NO2 is seen to depend mainly on local emissions close to the city, due

  7. Sensitivity of Ambient Atmospheric Formaldehyde and Ozone to Precursor Species and Source Types Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important air pollutant from both an atmospheric chemistry and human health standpoint. This study uses an instrumented photochemical Air Quality Model, CMAQ-DDM, to identify the sensitivity of HCHO concentrations across the United States (U.S.) to major...

  8. Increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women correlates to hygiene level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cendrowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis, particularly among women in Europe and North America, has a multifactorial aetiology. Method: The aim of the current study was to ascertain the relation between the hygiene level and occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in Poland. The study was based on a large cohort of 14,200 multiple sclerosis individuals (male – 6,106, female – 8,094 who died in the years 1981–2010 in Poland. The female to male ratio (the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group was calculated using the number of deaths per year. The rate of late mortality in infants (LMI per 1,000 live births yearly was used as a marker of the hygiene level. A correlation analysis was carried out between the rate of LMI and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis cohort in the years 1981–2010. Demographic data were obtained from the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw. Results: The F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group evidently increased (range 1.08–1.79 in the years 1981–2010, showing increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women (p < 0.0001. A significant, strong and inverse correlation was found between the marker of the hygiene level (LMI rate and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group over three decades: linear correlation coefficient by Pearson: r = –0.693, p < 0.0001. By contrast with this result, no correlation was established between the hygiene level marker and proportion of women to men in the general population on account of extremely low variance of the F:M ratio (0.000025. Conclusion: The improvement of the hygiene level showed association with the increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in the years 1981–2010. The higher the hygiene level was, the greater the occurrence of female multiple sclerosis in Poland.

  9. Retrievals of formaldehyde from ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations at the Jungfraujoch station and comparisons with GEOS-Chem and IMAGES model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As an ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs, formaldehyde (HCHO plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation pathways leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study, HCHO profiles have been successfully retrieved from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR solar spectra and UV-visible Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS scans recorded during the July 2010–December 2012 time period at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.. Analysis of the retrieved products has revealed different vertical sensitivity between both remote sensing techniques. Furthermore, HCHO amounts simulated by two state-of-the-art chemical transport models (CTMs, GEOS-Chem and IMAGES v2, have been compared to FTIR total columns and MAX-DOAS 3.6–8 km partial columns, accounting for the respective vertical resolution of each ground-based instrument. Using the CTM outputs as the intermediate, FTIR and MAX-DOAS retrievals have shown consistent seasonal modulations of HCHO throughout the investigated period, characterized by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum. Such comparisons have also highlighted that FTIR and MAX-DOAS provide complementary products for the HCHO retrieval above the Jungfraujoch station. Finally, tests have revealed that the updated IR parameters from the HITRAN 2012 database have a cumulative effect and significantly decrease the retrieved HCHO columns with respect to the use of the HITRAN 2008 compilation.

  10. The synthetic evaluation of CuO-MnOx-modified pinecone biochar for simultaneous removal formaldehyde and elemental mercury from simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaoyao; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Du, Xueyu; Gao, Lei; Chen, Jiaqiang; Zhai, Yunbo; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-02-01

    A series of low-cost Cu-Mn-mixed oxides supported on biochar (CuMn/HBC) synthesized by an impregnation method were applied to study the simultaneous removal of formaldehyde (HCHO) and elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) at 100-300° C from simulated flue gas. The metal loading value, Cu/Mn molar ratio, flue gas components, reaction mechanism, and interrelationship between HCHO removal and Hg 0 removal were also investigated. Results suggested that 12%CuMn/HBC showed the highest removal efficiency of HCHO and Hg 0 at 175° C corresponding to 89%and 83%, respectively. The addition of NO and SO 2 exhibited inhibitive influence on HCHO removal. For the removal of Hg 0 , NO showed slightly positive influence and SO 2 had an inhibitive effect. Meanwhile, O 2 had positive impact on the removal of HCHO and Hg 0 . The samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET, XPS, ICP-AES, FTIR, and H 2 -TPR. The sample characterization illustrated that CuMn/HBC possessed the high pore volume and specific surface area. The chemisorbed oxygen (O β ) and the lattice oxygen (O α ) which took part in the removal reaction largely existed in CuMn/HBC. What is more, MnO 2 and CuO (or Cu 2 O) were highly dispersed on the CuMn/HBC surface. The strong synergistic effect between Cu-Mn mixed oxides was critical to the removal reaction of HCHO and Hg 0 via the redox equilibrium of Mn 4+ + Cu + ↔ Mn 3+ + Cu 2+ .

  11. Gas-phase formaldehyde adsorption isotherm studies on activated carbon: correlations of adsorption capacity to surface functional group density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E; Ramirez, David

    2011-08-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) adsorption isotherms were developed for the first time on three activated carbons representing one activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth, one all-purpose granular activated carbon (GAC), and one GAC commercially promoted for gas-phase HCHO removal. The three activated carbons were evaluated for HCHO removal in the low-ppm(v) range and for water vapor adsorption from relative pressures of 0.1-0.9 at 26 °C where, according to the IUPAC isotherm classification system, the adsorption isotherms observed exhibited Type V behavior. A Type V adsorption isotherm model recently proposed by Qi and LeVan (Q-L) was selected to model the observed adsorption behavior because it reduces to a finite, nonzero limit at low partial pressures and it describes the entire range of adsorption considered in this study. The Q-L model was applied to a polar organic adsorbate to fit HCHO adsorption isotherms for the three activated carbons. The physical and chemical characteristics of the activated carbon surfaces were characterized using nitrogen adsorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Boehm titrations. At low concentrations, HCHO adsorption capacity was most strongly related to the density of basic surface functional groups (SFGs), while water vapor adsorption was most strongly influenced by the density of acidic SFGs.

  12. Evidence of disturbed sleep and mood state in well-trained athletes during short-term intensified training with and without a high carbohydrate nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, S C; Svendsen, I S; Jeukendrup, A E; Gleeson, M

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on sleep physiology in well-trained athletes. We investigated changes in sleep markers, mood state and exercise performance in well-trained cyclists undergoing short-term intensified training and carbohydrate nutritional intervention. Thirteen highly-trained male cyclists (age: 25 ± 6y, [Formula: see text]O 2max : 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) participated in two 9-day periods of intensified training while undergoing a high (HCHO) or moderate (CON) carbohydrate nutritional intervention before, during and after training sessions. Sleep was measured each night via wristwatch actigraphy. Mood state questionnaires were completed daily. Performance was assessed with maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]. Percentage sleep time fell during intensified training (87.9 ± 1.5 to 82.5 ± 2.3%; p Sleep efficiency decreased during intensified training (83.1 ± 5.3 to 77.8 ± 8.6%; p sleep time was significantly higher in CON than HCHO throughout intensified training. Mood disturbance increased during intensified training and was higher in CON than HCHO (p sleep quality, mood state and maximal exercise performance.

  13. The formaldehyde budget as seen by a global-scale multi-constraint and multi-species inversion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fortems-Cheiney

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, carbon monoxide (CO and formaldehyde (HCHO satellite retrievals are used together with methane (CH4 and methyl choloroform (CH3CCl3 or MCF surface measurements in an advanced inversion system. The CO and HCHO are respectively from the MOPITT and OMI instruments. The multi-species and multi-satellite dataset inversion is done for the 2005–2010 period. The robustness of our results is evaluated by comparing our posterior-modeled concentrations with several sets of independent measurements of atmospheric mixing ratios. The inversion leads to significant changes from the prior to the posterior, in terms of magnitude and seasonality of the CO and CH4 surface fluxes and of the HCHO production by non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC. The latter is significantly decreased, indicating an overestimation of the biogenic NMVOC emissions, such as isoprene, in the GEIA inventory. CO and CH4 surface emissions are increased by the inversion, from 1037 to 1394 TgCO and from 489 to 529 TgCH4 on average for the 2005–2010 period. CH4 emissions present significant interannual variability and a joint CO-CH4 fluxes analysis reveals that tropical biomass burning probably played a role in the recent increase of atmospheric methane.

  14. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  15. Nine years of global hydrocarbon emissions based on source inversion of OMI formaldehyde observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Maite; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Müller, Jean François; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Sindelarova, Katerina; Guenther, Alex

    2016-01-01

    As formaldehyde (HCHO) is a high-yield product in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by fires, vegetation, and anthropogenic activities, satellite observations of HCHO are well-suited to inform us on the spatial and temporal variability of the underlying VOC sources. The

  16. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B.; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. PMID:26017184

  17. New Methods for Air Quality Model Evaluation with Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Harkey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advances in the ability of satellites to detect gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, there remains significant, untapped potential to apply space-based data to air quality regulatory applications. Here, we showcase research findings geared toward increasing the relevance of satellite data to support operational air quality management, focused on model evaluation. Particular emphasis is given to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite, and evaluation of simulations from the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. This work is part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST), and is motivated by ongoing dialog with state and federal air quality management agencies. We present the response of satellite-derived NO2 to meteorological conditions, satellite-derived HCHO:NO2 ratios as an indicator of ozone production regime, and the ability of models to capture these sensitivities over the continental U.S. In the case of NO2-weather sensitivities, we find boundary layer height, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity to be the most important variables in determining near-surface NO2 variability. CMAQ agreed with relationships observed in satellite data, as well as in ground-based data, over most regions. However, we find that the southwest U.S. is a problem area for CMAQ, where modeled NO2 responses to insolation, boundary layer height, and other variables are at odds with the observations. Our analyses utilize a software developed by our team, the Wisconsin Horizontal Interpolation Program for Satellites (WHIPS): a free, open-source program designed to make satellite-derived air quality data more usable. WHIPS interpolates level 2 satellite retrievals onto a user-defined fixed grid, in effect creating custom-gridded level 3 satellite product. Currently, WHIPS can process the following data products: OMI NO2 (NASA retrieval); OMI NO2 (KNMI retrieval); OMI

  18. CONTINUOUS FORMALDEHYDE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM BASED ON MODIFIED FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is developing advanced open-path and cell-based optical techniques for time-resolved measurement of priority hazardous air pollutants such as formaldehyde (HCHO). Due to its high National Air Toxics Assessment risk factor, there is increasing interest in continuous measuremen...

  19. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  20. Pressure dependent deuterium fractionation in the formation of molecular hydrogen in formaldehyde photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Andersen, Vibeke Friis; Skov, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the relative photolysis rates of HCHO and HCDO has been investigated using a new photochemical reactor at the University of Copenhagen. The relative photolysis rate of HCHO vs. HCDO under UVA lamp irradiation was mea- 5 sured at total pressures of 50, 200, 400, 600...

  1. SCIAMACHY formaldehyde observations: constraint for isoprene emission estimates over Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dufour

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the troposphere. Sources of HCHO are largely dominated by its secondary production from VOC oxidation, methane and isoprene being the main precursors in unpolluted areas. As a result of the moderate lifetime of HCHO, its spatial distribution is determined by reactive hydrocarbon emissions. We focus here on Europe and investigate the influence of the different emissions on HCHO tropospheric columns with the CHIMERE chemical transport model in order to interpret the comparisons between SCIAMACHY and simulated HCHO columns. Europe was never specifically studied before for these purposes using satellite observations. The bias between measurements and model is less than 20% on average. The differences are discussed according to the errors on the model and the observations and remaining discrepancies are attributed to a misrepresentation of biogenic emissions. This study requires the characterisation of: (1 the model errors and performances concerning formaldehyde. The errors on the HCHO columns, mainly related to chemistry and mixed emission types, are evaluated to 2×1015 molecule/cm2 and the model performances evaluated using surface measurements are satisfactory (~13%; (2 the observation errors that define the needs in spatial and temporal averaging for meaningful comparisons. Using SCIAMACHY observations as constraint for biogenic isoprene emissions in an inverse modelling scheme reduces their uncertainties by about a factor of two in region of intense emissions. The retrieved correction factors for the isoprene emissions range from a factor of 0.15 (North Africa to a factor of 2 (Poland, the United Kingdom depending on the regions.

  2. High Circulating Adrenaline Levels at Admission Predict Increased Mortality After Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, hematology, biochemistry, circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline, 11 biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage, glycocalyx degradation, natural anticoagulation and fibrinolysis (histone-complexed DNA fragments, high-mobility group box 1......:: The adrenaline level was increased in nonsurvivors (p = 0.026), it was independently associated with increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.034) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.007), a marker of glycocalyx degradation, and it correlated with biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage (histone......-complexed DNA, high-mobility group box 1, soluble thrombomodulin) and hyperfibrinolysis (tissue-type plasminogen activator, d-dimer). Furthermore, nonsurvivors had higher syndecan-1, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and d-dimer levels (all p adrenaline was independently associated with 30...

  3. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina eSorwell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  5. An active nano-supported interface designed from gold nanoparticles embedded on ionic liquid for depositing DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Liping; Kang Tianfang; Cheng Shuiyuan; Guo Xiurui

    2009-01-01

    The use of an active nano-interface designed from gold nanoparticles embedded on ionic liquid for DNA damage resulted from formalehyde (HCHO) is reported in this article. The active nano-interface was fabricated by depositing gold nanoparticles on the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluroborate ([bmim][BF 4 ]). A glassy carbon electrode modified by this composite film was fabricated to immobilize DNA for probing into the damage resulted from HCHO. The modifying process was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemistry involving electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the modified film performs effectively in studying the DNA damage by electrocatalytic activity toward HCHO oxidation.

  6. High-resolution inversion of OMI formaldehyde columns to quantify isoprene emission on ecosystem-relevant scales: application to the southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jennifer; Jacob, Daniel J.; Zhu, Lei; Travis, Katherine R.; Fisher, Jenny A.; González Abad, Gonzalo; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xuesong; Fried, Alan; Crounse, John D.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Isoprene emissions from vegetation have a large effect on atmospheric chemistry and air quality. Bottom-up isoprene emission inventories used in atmospheric models are based on limited vegetation information and uncertain land cover data, leading to potentially large errors. Satellite observations of atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO), a high-yield isoprene oxidation product, provide top-down information to evaluate isoprene emission inventories through inverse analyses. Past inverse analyses have however been hampered by uncertainty in the HCHO satellite data, uncertainty in the time- and NOx-dependent yield of HCHO from isoprene oxidation, and coarse resolution of the atmospheric models used for the inversion. Here we demonstrate the ability to use HCHO satellite data from OMI in a high-resolution inversion to constrain isoprene emissions on ecosystem-relevant scales. The inversion uses the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution to interpret observations over the southeast US in August-September 2013. It takes advantage of concurrent NASA SEAC4RS aircraft observations of isoprene and its oxidation products including HCHO to validate the OMI HCHO data over the region, test the GEOS-Chem isoprene oxidation mechanism and NOx environment, and independently evaluate the inversion. This evaluation shows in particular that local model errors in NOx concentrations propagate to biases in inferring isoprene emissions from HCHO data. It is thus essential to correct model NOx biases, which was done here using SEAC4RS observations but can be done more generally using satellite NO2 data concurrently with HCHO. We find in our inversion that isoprene emissions from the widely used MEGAN v2.1 inventory are biased high over the southeast US by 40 % on average, although the broad-scale distributions are correct including maximum emissions in Arkansas/Louisiana and high base emission factors in the oak-covered Ozarks of southeast

  7. Increasing Resilience Through Engagement In Sea Level Rise Community Science Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, L. A.; Rindge, H.

    2017-12-01

    Science literate and engaged members of the public, including students, are critical to building climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant facilitates programs that work to build and strengthen these connections. The Urban Tides Community Science Initiative (Urban Tides) and the Youth Exploring Sea Level Rise Science Program (YESS) engage communities across the boundaries of public engagement, K-12 education, and informal education. YESS is an experiential sea level rise education program that combines classroom learning, field investigations and public presentations. Students explore sea level rise using a new curricula, collect their own data on sea level rise, develop communication products, and present their findings to city governments, researchers, and others. Urban Tides engages community members, informal education centers, K-12 students, and local government leaders in a citizen science program photo- documenting extreme high tides, erosion and coastal flooding in Southern California. Images provide critical information to help calibrate scientific models used to identify locations vulnerable to damage from future sea level rise. These tools and information enable community leaders and local governments to set priorities, guidelines, and update policies as they plan strategies that will help the region adapt. The program includes a mobile app for data collection, an open database to view photos, a lesson plan, and community beach walks. Urban Tides has led to an increase in data and data-gathering capacity for regional scientists, an increase in public participation in science, and an increase in ocean and climate literacy among initiative participants. Both of these programs bring informed and diverse voices into the discussion of how to adapt and build climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant will share impacts and lessons learned from these two unique programs.

  8. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health

  9. Enteral nutrition increases interstitial brain glucose levels in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois J; Beer, Ronny; Gaasch, Maxime; Rhomberg, Paul; Stover, John; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2018-03-01

    Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition. Sixty-three interventions were analyzed. The mean amount of EN per intervention was 472.4 ± 10.7 kcal. CMD-glucose levels significantly increased from 1.59 ± 0.13 mmol/l at baseline to a maximum of 2.03 ± 0.2 mmol/l after 5 h (p  40) and the microdialysis probe location. The increase in CMD-glucose was directly dependent on the magnitude of increase of serum glucose levels (p = 0.007). No change in CMD-lactate, CMD-pyruvate, CMD-LPR, or CMD-glutamate (p > 0.4) was observed. Routine EN also increased CMD-glucose even if baseline concentrations were critically low ( < 0.7 mmol/l, neuroglucopenia; p < 0.001). These results may have treatment implications regarding glucose management of poor-grade aneurysmal SAH patients.

  10. Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers without increased lactate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shigemi; Ozasa, Shiro; Nakamura, Kyoko; Nomura, Keiko; Kosuge, Hirofumi

    2009-07-01

    Myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers is one of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations have been identified in the mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA)(Lys) at positions 8344 and 8356. Characteristics of myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers include myoclonic epilepsy, generalized epilepsy, hearing loss, exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis, and ragged-red fibers. The elevated lactate level is one of the most important symptoms needed to make a diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. In the present case, however, myoclonic epilepsy was associated with ragged-red fibers but without increased lactate levels. Therefore, myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers should be suspected in a patient who has myoclonic epilepsy that is difficult to control with antiepileptic medications and who has other symptoms of mitochondrial disease, such as mental retardation, even if the patient's lactate level is normal.

  11. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of VEGF in overweight/obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L.; Patterson, Sharla G.; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E.; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D.; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity. We previously reported that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in men. However, there is no data on women. The present study determines the following: 1) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers; 2) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound-VEGF than lean women. 72 African American and Caucasian adult women volunteers aged from 18–44 were enrolled into the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity (55–59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO2) was quantified by utilizing a metabolic cart. We had the blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays (R&D Systems) showed that plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 minutes), significantly higher than basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P < 0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase of sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and Caucasian (P=0.533) or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. Basal plasma levels of unbound-VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than basal levels of unbound-VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P < 0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise-induced plasma levels of sFlt-1 could be an important clinical biomarker to explore the mechanisms of exercise

  12. Climate variability and trends in biogenic emissions imprinted on satellite observations of formaldehyde from SCIAMACHY and OMI sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Müller, Jean-François; Bauwens, Maite; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions (BVOC) respond to temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, leaf area index, as well as to factors like leaf age, soil moisture, and ambient CO2 concentrations. Isoprene is the principal contributor to BVOC emissions and accounts for about half of the estimated total emissions on the global scale, whereas monoterpenes are also significant over boreal ecosystems. Due to their large emissions, their major role in the tropospheric ozone formation and contribution to secondary organic aerosols, BVOCs are highly relevant to both air quality and climate. Their oxidation in the atmosphere leads to the formation of formaldehyde (HCHO) at high yields. Satellite observations of HCHO abundances can therefore inform us on the spatial and temporal variability of the underlying sources and on their emission trends. The main objective of this study is to investigate the interannual variability and trends of observed HCHO columns during the growing season, when BVOC emissions are dominant, and interpret them in terms of BVOC emission flux variability. To this aim, we use the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model driven by the ECMWF ERA-interim meteorology to calculate bottom-up BVOC fluxes on the global scale (Müller et al. 2008, Stavrakou et al. 2014) over 2003-2015, and satellite HCHO observations from SCIAMACHY (2003-2011) and OMI (2005-2015) instruments (De Smedt et al. 2008, 2015). We focus on mid- and high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere in summertime, as well as tropical regions taking care to exclude biomass burning events which also lead to HCHO column enhancements. We find generally a very strong temporal correlation (>0.7) between the simulated BVOC emissions and the observed HCHO columns over temperate and boreal ecosystems. Positive BVOC emission trends associated to warming climate are found in almost all regions and are well corroborated by the observations. Furthermore, using OMI HCHO observations over 2005-2015 as constraints in

  13. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  14. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  15. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  16. Proposed Trace Gas Measurements Over the Western United States for TROPOMI Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parworth, Caroline L.; Marrero, Josette E.; Yates, Emma L.; Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Iraci, Laura T.

    2018-01-01

    The Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX), located in the Bay Area of California, is a joint effort between NASA Ames Research Center and H211, LCC. AJAX makes in-situ airborne measurements of trace gases 2-4 times per month, resulting in over 216 flights since 2011. Current measurements include ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), water (H2O), formaldehyde (HCHO), and meteorological measurements (i.e., ambient pressure, temperature, and 3D winds). Currently, the AJAX team is working to incorporate nitrogen dioxide (NO2) measurements with a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Spectrometer (CAPS). Successful science flights coincident with satellite overpasses have been performed since 2011 by the Alpha Jet, with more than 40 flights under the Greenhouse Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and several flights under the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). Results from these flights, which have covered a range of different surfaces and seasonal conditions, will be presented. In-situ vertical profiles of O3, CO2, CH4, H2O, HCHO, and NO2 from the surface to 28,000 feet made by AJAX will also be valuable for satellite validation of data products obtained from the TROPOspheric Montoring Instrument (TROPOMI). TROPOMI is on board the Copernicus Sentinel-5 precursor (S5p) satellite, with level 2 products including O3, CO, CH4, HCHO, NO2, and aerosols.

  17. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  18. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Furuhashi

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level.Canagliflozin (100 mg/day was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39 for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment.At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008, though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7% out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044, HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044 and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041 but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables.Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2.UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151.

  19. Increased Sclerostin Levels after Further Ablation of Remnant Estrogen by Aromatase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonjin Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSclerostin is a secreted Wnt inhibitor produced almost exclusively by osteocytes, which inhibits bone formation. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs, which reduce the conversion of steroids to estrogen, are used to treat endocrine-responsive breast cancer. As AIs lower estrogen levels, they increase bone turnover and lower bone mass. We analyzed changes in serum sclerostin levels in Korean women with breast cancer who were treated with an AI.MethodsWe included postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer (n=90; mean age, 57.7 years treated with an AI, and compared them to healthy premenopausal women (n=36; mean age, 28.0 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to take either 5 mg alendronate with 0.5 µg calcitriol (n=46, or placebo (n=44 for 6 months.ResultsPostmenopausal women with breast cancer had significantly higher sclerostin levels compared to those in premenopausal women (27.8±13.6 pmol/L vs. 23.1±4.8 pmol/L, P0.05.ConclusionSerum sclerostin levels increased with absolute deficiency of residual estrogens in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer who underwent AI therapy with concurrent bone loss.

  20. Transgenic cells with increased plastoquinone levels and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Richard T.; Subramanian, Sowmya; Cahoon, Edgar

    2016-12-27

    Disclosed herein are transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase (DXS) protein, or a combination of two or more thereof. In particular examples, the disclosed transgenic cells have increased plastoquinone levels. Also disclosed are methods of increasing cell growth rates or production of biomass by cultivating transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a PDH protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding an HST protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a DXS protein, or a combination of two or more thereof under conditions sufficient to produce cell growth or biomass.

  1. Is TB Testing Associated With Increased Blood Interferon-Gamma Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aideen E. Kennedy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Ireland reports a relatively low prevalence of Johne’s disease (JD compared to international counterparts. Postulated reasons for this include a lower average herd size and a grass-based production system. Ireland also engages in high levels of bovine tuberculosis (bTB testing. As interferon-gamma (IFN-γ is believed to play a key role in protecting against JD, it is our hypothesis that administration of purified protein derivative (PPD, as part of the bTB test, is associated with a systemic increase in IFN-γ production, which may potentially limit clinical progression of the disease. We studied 265 cows (202 Friesian and 63 “Non-Friesian,” e.g., JerseyX, Norwegian Red to assess IFN-γ levels and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP antibody response before and after the bTB test. As part of the compulsory annual bTB test, avian and bovine PPD were administered at two separate cervical sites. To assess IFN-γ production, blood samples were taken before and 72 h after PPD administration. MAP antibody response was assessed before and 10 days post-PPD administration. A significant increase in MAP antibody response was identified post-bTB compared to pre-bTB response (p < 0.001. Additionally, IFN-γ production significantly increased at the post-bTB time point (p < 0.001 compared to the pre-bTB test readings. This may indicate a beneficial effect of bTB testing in controlling JD.

  2. Childhood maltreatment is associated with increased body mass index and increased C-reactive protein levels in first-episode psychosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepgul, N; Pariante, C M; Dipasquale, S; DiForti, M; Taylor, H; Marques, T R; Morgan, C; Dazzan, P; Murray, R M; Mondelli, V

    2012-09-01

    The high incidence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with psychosis is mainly attributed to antipsychotic treatment. However, it is also possible that psychological stress plays a role, inducing a chronic inflammatory process that may predispose to the development of metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the association between childhood maltreatment and inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in subjects with first-episode psychosis and healthy controls. Body mass index (BMI), weight and waist circumference were measured in 95 first-episode psychosis patients and 97 healthy controls. Inflammatory and metabolic markers were measured in a subsample of 28 patients and 45 controls. In all the subjects we collected information on childhood maltreatment and recent stressors. Patients with childhood maltreatment had higher BMI [25.0 (S.E.=0.6) kg/m2] and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels [1.1 (S.E.=0.6) mg/dl] when compared with healthy controls [23.4 (S.E.=0.4) kg/m2, p=0.030 and 0.2 (S.E.=0.1) mg/dl, p=0.009, respectively]. In contrast, patients without childhood maltreatment were not significantly different from healthy controls for either BMI [24.7 (S.E.=0.6) kg/m2, p=0.07] or CRP levels [0.5 (S.E.=0.2) mg/dl, p=0.25]. After controlling for the effect of BMI, the difference in CRP levels across the three groups remained significant (F 2,58=3.6, p=0.035), suggesting that the increase in inflammation was not driven by an increase in adipose tissue. Childhood maltreatment is associated with higher BMI, and increased CRP levels, in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Further studies need to confirm the mechanisms underlying the putative causal relationship between childhood maltreatment and higher BMI, and whether this is indeed mediated by increased inflammation.

  3. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  4. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  5. Low-temperature plasma-catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in atmospheric pressure gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Huixian; Zhu Aimin; Lu Fugong; Xu Yong; Zhang Jing; Yang Xuefeng

    2006-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a typical air pollutant capable of causing serious health disorders in human beings. This work reports plasma-catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in gas streams via dielectric barrier discharges over Ag/CeO 2 pellets at atmospheric pressure and 70 0 C. With a feed gas mixture of 276 ppm HCHO, 21.0% O 2 , 1.0% H 2 O in N 2 , ∼99% of formaldehyde can be effectively destructed with an 86% oxidative conversion into CO 2 at GHSV of 16500 h -1 and input discharge energy density of 108 J l -1 . At the same experimental conditions, the conversion percentages of HCHO to CO 2 from pure plasma-induced oxidation (discharges over fused silica pellets) and from pure catalytic oxidation over Ag/CeO 2 (without discharges) are 6% and 33% only. The above results and the CO plasma-catalytic oxidation experiments imply that the plasma-generated short-lived gas phase radicals, such as O and HO 2 , play important roles in the catalytic redox circles of Ag/CeO 2 to oxidize HCHO and CO to CO 2

  6. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pobesity increased proportionally to baseline fasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend obesity was highest in the group with the highest fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L; Patterson, Sharla G; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity and overweight/obesity. We have reported previously that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and endostatin and decreased unbound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in men. However, there are no data on women. The present study determines the following: (a) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers and (b) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound VEGF than lean women. A total of 72 African American and White adult women volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 44 years were enrolled in the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (55-59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was quantified utilizing a metabolic cart. We obtained blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays showed that the plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 min), significantly higher than the basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P<0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase in the sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and White (P=0.533) women or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. The basal plasma levels of unbound VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than the basal levels of unbound VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P<0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise

  8. Increased levels of circulating arginase I in overweight compared to normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John

    2014-02-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines) recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  10. Serum apolipoprotein e level is not increased in Alzheimer's disease : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, A.J.C.; Knijff, P. de; Hofman, A.; Cruts, M.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Broeckhoven, C. van; Havekes, L.M.; Duijn, C.M. van

    1998-01-01

    The APOE*4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in plasma are increased in Alzheimer's disease. In this population-based study, we found that serum apoE levels were lower in

  11. Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Ku; Park, Seong Bok; Jeon, Jin Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Sang Ho; Hong, Eui Chul; Kim, Chan Ho

    2018-04-12

    This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameter, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal AMEn/kg in floor with deep litter of rice hulls. There were four replicates of each treatment, each consisting of 20 birds in a pen. AMEn intake was increased (linear, p Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved (linear, p hen-day egg production tended to be increased as increasing level of AMEn in diets increased. During the experiment, leukocyte concentration and blood biochemistry (total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, calcium, asparate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were not influenced by increasing level of AMEn in diets. Gross energy and ether extract were increased (linear, p hens fed high AMEn diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not in egg production and egg mass.

  12. Ingestive behavior of grazing steers fed increasing levels of concentrate supplementation with different crude protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D Almeida; da Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento; Macedo, Venício; Abreu Filho, George; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Guimarães, Joanderson Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.

  13. Widespread recent increases in county-level heart disease mortality across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam S; Ritchey, Matthew D; Hannan, Judy; Kramer, Michael R; Casper, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Recent national trends show decelerating declines in heart disease mortality, especially among younger adults. National trends may mask variation by geography and age. We examined recent county-level trends in heart disease mortality by age group. Using a Bayesian statistical model and National Vital Statistics Systems data, we estimated overall rates and percent change in heart disease mortality from 2010 through 2015 for four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years) in 3098 US counties. Nationally, heart disease mortality declined in every age group except ages 55-64 years. County-level trends by age group showed geographically widespread increases, with 52.3%, 58.5%, 69.1%, and 42.0% of counties experiencing increases with median percent changes of 0.6%, 2.2%, 4.6%, and -1.5% for ages 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years, respectively. Increases were more likely in counties with initially high heart disease mortality and outside large metropolitan areas. Recent national trends have masked local increases in heart disease mortality. These increases, especially among adults younger than age 65 years, represent challenges to communities across the country. Reversing these trends may require intensification of primary and secondary prevention-focusing policies, strategies, and interventions on younger populations, especially those living in less urban counties. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Lake-level increasing under the climate cryoaridization conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosov, Mikhail; Strelkov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    A lake genesis and lake-level increasing during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are the paramount issues in paleoclimatology. Investigating these problems reveals the regularities of lake development and figures out an arid territory conditions at the LGM stage. Pluvial theory is the most prevalent conception of lake formation during the LGM. This theory is based on a fact that the water bodies emerged and their level increased due to torrential rainfalls. In this study, it is paid attention to an alternative assumption of lake genesis at the LGM stage, which is called climate cryoaridization. In accordance with this hypothesis, the endorheic water basins had their level enlarged because of a simultaneous climate aridity and temperature decrease. In this research, a lake-level increasing in endorheic regions of Central Asia and South American Altiplano of the Andes is described. The lake investigation is related to its conditions during the LGM. The study also includes a lake catalogue clearly presenting the basin conditions at the LGM stage and nowadays. The data compilation partly consists of information from an earlier work of Mikhail Amosov, Lake-levels, Vegetation And Climate In Central Asia During The Last Glacial Maximum (EGU2014-3015). According to the investigation, a lake catalogue on 27 lakes showed that most of the water bodies had higher level. This feature could be mentioned for the biggest lakes of the Aral Sea, Lake Balkhash, Issyk-Kul etc. and for the small ones located in the mountains, such as Pamir, Tian-Shan and Tibet. Yet some lakes that are situated in Central Asian periphery (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) used to be lower than nowadays. Also, the lake-level increasing of Altiplano turned to be a significant feature during the LGM in accordance with the data of 5 lakes, such as Titicaca, Coipasa-Uyuni, Lejia, Miscanti and Santa-Maria. Most of the current endorheic basins at the LGM stage were filled with water due to abundant

  15. Low oxygen level increases proliferation and metabolic changes in bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuki, Shogo; Hara, Tomotaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-05

    The present study addresses molecular backgrounds underlying low oxygen induced metabolic changes and 1.2-fold change in bovine granulosa cell (GCs) proliferation. RNA-seq revealed that low oxygen (5%) upregulated genes associated with HIF-1 and glycolysis and downregulated genes associated with mitochondrial respiration than that in high oxygen level (21%). Low oxygen level induced high glycolytic activity and low mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Low oxygen level enhanced GC proliferation with high expression levels of HIF-1, VEGF, AKT, mTOR, and S6RP, whereas addition of anti-VEGF antibody decreased cellular proliferation with low phosphorylated AKT and mTOR expression levels. Low oxygen level reduced SIRT1, whereas activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol increased mitochondrial replication and decreased cellular proliferation with reduction of phosphorylated mTOR. These results suggest that low oxygen level stimulates the HIF1-VEGF-AKT-mTOR pathway and up-regulates glycolysis, which contributes to GC proliferation, and downregulation of SIRT1 contributes to hypoxia-associated reduction of mitochondria and cellular proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased Cord Blood Betatrophin Levels in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Du, Caiqi; Yuan, Guandou; Ning, Qin; McCormick, Kenneth; Luo, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Aim Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined at 24–48 weeks gestation after a 75-g OGTT. Cord blood and placental tissue was collected immediately post delivery. Metabolic parameters were determined in the Clinical Laboratory. Cord blood betatrophin levels were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Placental mitochondrial content was determined by real-time PCR. Results Cord blood betatrophin levels were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group compared with the normoglycemic group. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with maternal gestational 2h post-OGTT glucose, cord blood insulin, HOMA-IR, and inversely correlated with placental mitochondrial content. Conclusions Cord blood betatrophin may function as a potential biomarker of maternal intrauterine hyperglycemia and fetal insulin resistance, which may presage for long-term metabolic impact of GDM on offspring. PMID:27196053

  17. Increased Arousal Levels and Decreased Sleep by Brain Music in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Zhan Fang; Chun-Peng Zhang; Dan Wu; Yang Xia; Yong-Xiu Lai; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    More and more studies have been reported on whether music and other types of auditory stimulation would improve the quality of sleep.Many of these studies have found significant results,but others argue that music is not significantly better than the tones or control conditions in improving sleep.For further understanding the relationship between music and sleep or music and arousal,the present study therefore examines the effects of brain music on sleep and arousal by means of biofeedback.The music is from the transformation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) of rats using an algorithm in the Chengdu Brain Music (CBM) system.When the brain music was played back to rats,EEG data were recorded to assess the efficacy of music to induce or improve sleep,or increase arousal levels by sleep staging,etc.Our results demonstrate that exposure to the brain music increases arousal levels and decreases sleep in rats,and the underlying mechanism of decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep may be different.

  18. Low-molecular weight heparin increases circulating sFlt-1 levels and enhances urinary elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Hagmann

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Preeclampsia is a devastating medical complication of pregnancy which leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. While the etiology of preeclampsia is unclear, human and animal studies suggest that excessive circulating levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine-kinase-1 (sFlt-1, an alternatively spliced variant of VEGF-receptor1, contribute to the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. Since sFlt-1 binds to heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, we hypothesized that the anticoagulant heparin, which is often used in pregnancy, may interfere with the levels, distribution and elimination of sFlt-1 in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We systematically determined serum and urine levels of angiogenic factors in preeclamptic women before and after administration of low molecular weight heparin and further characterized the interaction with heparin in biochemical studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum and urine samples were used to measure sFlt-1 levels before and after heparin administration. Serum levels of sFlt-1 increased by 25% after heparin administration in pregnant women. The magnitude of the increase in circulating sFlt-1 correlated with initial sFlt-1 serum levels. Urinary sFlt-1 levels were also elevated following heparin administration and levels of elimination were dependent on the underlying integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Biochemical binding studies employing cation exchange chromatography revealed that heparin bound sFlt-1 had decreased affinity to negatively charged surfaces when compared to sFlt-1 alone. CONCLUSION: Low molecular weight heparin administration increased circulating sFlt1 levels and enhanced renal elimination. We provide evidence that both effects may be due to heparin binding to sFlt1 and masking the positive charges on sFlt1 protein.

  19. Regional level approach for increasing energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viholainen, Juha; Luoranen, Mika; Väisänen, Sanni; Niskanen, Antti; Horttanainen, Mika; Soukka, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive snapshot of regional energy system for decision makers. • Connecting regional sustainability targets and energy planning. • Involving local players in energy planning. - Abstract: Actions for increasing the renewable share in the energy supply and improving both production and end-use energy efficiency are often built into the regional level sustainability targets. Because of this, many local stakeholders such as local governments, energy producers and distributors, industry, and public and private sector operators require information on the current state and development aspects of the regional energy efficiency. The drawback is that an overall view on the focal energy system operators, their energy interests, and future energy service needs in the region is often not available for the stakeholders. To support the local energy planning and management of the regional energy services, an approach for increasing the regional energy efficiency is being introduced. The presented approach can be seen as a solid framework for gathering the required data for energy efficiency analysis and also evaluating the energy system development, planned improvement actions, and the required energy services at the region. This study defines the theoretical structure of the energy efficiency approach and the required steps for revealing such energy system improvement actions that support the regional energy plan. To demonstrate the use of the approach, a case study of a Finnish small-town of Lohja is presented. In the case example, possible actions linked to the regional energy targets were evaluated with energy efficiency analysis. The results of the case example are system specific, but the conducted study can be seen as a justified example of generating easily attainable and transparent information on the impacts of different improvement actions on the regional energy system.

  20. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; pEcstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

  1. Trans fatty acids increase nitric oxide levels and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Tjahjono DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of diabetes in Indonesia is increasing due to various factors, including life style changes such as trans fatty acid (TFA intake. High TFA intake is known to be related to blood lipid profile changes resulting in cardiovascular disorders. This study was to identify the effect of TFA on nitric oxide (NO production and on necrosis of pancreatic beta cells. Methods A study of randomized pre-test post–test design with control group. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e. group K (control, group P1 receiving a diet with 5% TFA, and P2 receiving 10% TFA. The intervention was performed for 8 weeks. NO level and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis were analyzed using Pearson’s chi square test. Results After 4 weeks of treatment there was no change in NO levels in group K, but increased NO in P2 (2.6-3.8 ìM. At 8 weeks after treatment, NO levels in groups P1 and P2 increased to 2.6-3.4 ìM and 4.2-14.3 ìM, respectively, while in group K only 2 rats had increased NO levels of 2.8-2.9 ìM. With Pearson’s chi-square test, there was a signifant difference in the proportions of necrotic pancreatic beta cells after 4 weeks and 8 weeks (p=0.000. No necrosis of beta cells was found in group K, mild necrosis in group P1 (1-25% and moderate necrosis in group P2 (26-50%. Conclusion TFA consumption significantly increases NO levels in Sprague Dawley rats and also results in moderate grades of necrosis of pancreatic beta cells.

  2. Trans fatty acids increase nitric oxide levels and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Tjahjono DK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The prevalence of diabetes in Indonesia is increasing due to various factors, including life style changes such as trans fatty acid (TFA intake. High TFA intake is known to be related to blood lipid profile changes resulting in cardiovascular disorders. This study was to identify the effect of TFA on nitric oxide (NO production and on necrosis of pancreatic beta cells. METHODS A study of randomized pre-test post–test design with control group. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e. group K (control, group P1 receiving a diet with 5% TFA, and P2 receiving 10% TFA. The intervention was performed for 8 weeks. NO level and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis were analyzed using Pearson’s chi square test. RESULTS After 4 weeks of treatment there was no change in NO levels in group K, but increased NO in P2 (2.6-3.8 ìM. At 8 weeks after treatment, NO levels in groups P1 and P2 increased to 2.6-3.4 ìM and 4.2-14.3 ìM, respectively, while in group K only 2 rats had increased NO levels of 2.8-2.9 ìM. With Pearson’s chi-square test, there was a signifant difference in the proportions of necrotic pancreatic beta cells after 4 weeks and 8 weeks (p= 0.000. No necrosis of beta cells was found in group K, mild necrosis in group P1 (1-25% and moderate necrosis in group P2 (26-50%. CONCLUSION TFA consumption significantly increases NO levels in Sprague Dawley rats and also results in moderate grades of necrosis of pancreatic beta cells

  3. Increased levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts pretreated with sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.I.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Pretreatment of growing normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) human fibroblasts with sodium butyrate at concentrations of 5-20 mM results in increased levels of DNA repair synthesis measured by autoradiography after exposure of the cells to 254 nm UV radiation in the fluence range 0-25 J/m 2 . The phenomenon manifests as an increased extent and an increased initial rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). This experimental result is not due to an artifact of autoradiography related to cell size. Xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, D and E and XP variant cells all exhibit increases in the levels of UV-induced UDS in response to sodium butyrate proportional to those observed with normal cells. These UDS increases associated with butyrate pretreatment correlate with demonstrable changes in intracellular thymidine pool size and suggest that sodium butyrate enhances uptake of exogenous radiolabeled thymidine during UV-induced repair synthesis by reducing endogenous levels of thymidine. (author)

  4. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  5. Erythropoetin treatment can increase 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgegård, G; Sandhagen, B

    2001-01-01

    Some patients experience an improved well-being during treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin even with an unchanged Hb level. We have hypothesized that this may not be only a placebo effect. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells increases in response to anaemia/hypoxia and causes a shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, allowing a more effective oxygen delivery. We have investigated red cell 2,3-DPG concentrations during erythropoietin treatment in healthy volunteers as a mediator of a possible physiological explanation. Thirteen healthy subjects with no iron deficiency were recruited and randomly assigned to a treatment group comprising five males and three females and a control group including three males and two females. The treatment group was treated with erythropoietin (Recormon), 20 IE/kg subcutaneously three times/week for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at each injection day and 10 days after the last injection and at corresponding times in the control group. B-Hb, red cell 2,3-DPG and P50 were measured by standard techniques and oxygen-releasing capacity was calculated. due to the sampling (26 ml each time, three times/week) the mean Hb level was lowered from 140.5 +/- 5.9 to 128.6 +/- 10.4 g/L in the control group whereas the erythropoietin treatment group maintained a mean Hb level of about 142 g/L (plevel curve as well as that for oxygen releasing capacity also differed significantly between the two groups (p levels. treatment with erythropoietin causes an increase in red cell 2,3-DPG levels.

  6. Effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration provided warmer atmospheric temperature and higher atmospheric water vapor content, but not necessarily more precipitation. A set of experiments performed with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (2, 4 and 16 times the present-day mean value) were analyzed and compared with a control experiment to evaluate the effect of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons. Generally, the monsoon precipitation responses to CO{sub 2} forcing are largest if extreme concentrations of carbon dioxide are used, but they are not necessarily proportional to the forcing applied. In fact, despite a common response in terms of an atmospheric water vapor increase to the atmospheric warming, two out of the six monsoons studied simulate less or equal summer mean precipitation in the 16 x CO{sub 2} experiment compared to the intermediate sensitivity experiments. The precipitation differences between CO{sub 2} sensitivity experiments and CTRL have been investigated specifying the contribution of thermodynamic and purely dynamic processes. As a general rule, the differences depending on the atmospheric moisture content changes (thermodynamic component) are large and positive, and they tend to be damped by the dynamic component associated with the changes in the vertical velocity. However, differences are observed among monsoons in terms of the role played by other terms (like moisture advection and evaporation) in shaping the precipitation changes in warmer climates. The precipitation increase, even if weak, occurs despite a weakening of the mean circulation in the monsoon regions (''precipitation-wind paradox''). In particular, the tropical east-west Walker circulation is reduced, as found from velocity potential analysis. The meridional component of the monsoon circulation is changed as well, with larger (smaller) meridional (vertical) scales. (orig.)

  7. Increased level of miRNA 30b-3p in patients with prostatic hyperplasia and testosterone with high-level of prostate-specific antigen

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    Wasnaa Jumaa Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common causing cancer-related in death in men and lack of reliable diagnostic tool. MicroRNAs are small molecules single-stranded RNA that affecting protein expression at the level of translation and dysregulation can dramatically affect cell metabolism. However, the using of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for diagnosis of PCa is still unknown. Methods: Ten patients with prostatic hyperplasia with high-level of PSA and 10 healthy controls were conducted in this study. The reverse transcription of miRNA based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were used for evaluating the dysregulation of miRNA 30b-3p and using of ELISA to evaluate the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA and testosterone hormone. Results: Circulating miRNA 30b-3p level was increased in patients with prostatic hyperplasia with higher level of PSA as compared with healthy controls. Also, the testosterone hormone was increased in those patients as compared with normal level of testosterone in healthy individuals. Conclusion: The serum miRNA 30b-3p level increased in patients with hyperplasia in prostate and may be one of potential biomarker for diagnosis of PCa.

  8. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

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    Itziar Montalvo

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  9. Modelling the increased frequency of extreme sea levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to sea level rise and other effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A

    2015-07-01

    Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to sea level. Climate change could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of sea level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that sea level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These sea level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of climate change on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme sea levels. A shelf-sea model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of sea level rise and changes in other environmental conditions under climate change may alter the frequency of extreme sea level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from climate model projections and the future scenario increase in sea level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme sea level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how sea level rise and other effects of climate change may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end

  10. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  11. Heart rate kinetics during very heavy and severe exercise performed after dietary manipulation. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p52

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    Carlos Rafaell Correia de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about heart rate (HR kinetics during exercise in the very heavy (VH and severe (SE intensity domains. The objective of this study was to describe mathematically the HR kinetics during exercise performed in these intensity domains and to compare the parameters derived from these models between situations of high (HCHO, low (LCHO and control (C carbohydrate availability. Twelve men performed three trials to exhaustion in the VH or SE domains after diet manipulation with HCHO, LCHO and C. The VH intensity was ΔLW75% (75% of the difference between VO2max and LL2 and SE was 115% of VO2max identified in a previous incremental test (20 W/3 min. HR responses were mathematically fitted by mono- and biexponential functions. In the VH domain, the residual sum of squares (RSS obtained with the biexponential model was significantly lower than that obtained with the monoexponential model (P 0.05. In the VH domain, there were no significant differences in biexponential parameters between the HCHO, LCHO and C conditions. In the SE domain, there were no significant differences in monoexponential parameters between the HCHO, LCHO and C conditions, although the time constant of the monoexponential model was significantly reduced in LCHO when compared to HCHO (51.5 ± 26.4 vs 65.4 ± 34.1 s; P < 0.05. The bi- and monoexponential mathematical models seem to be the best description of HR responses during exercise performed in the HV and SE intensity domains, respectively. In addition, carbohydrate availability only seems to affect HR kinetics during exercise performed at SE intensity.

  12. Heart rate kinetics during very heavy and severe exercise performed after dietary manipulation. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin Kiss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about heart rate (HR kinetics during exercise in the very heavy (VH and severe (SE intensity domains. The objective of this study was to describe mathematically the HR kinetics during exercise performed in these intensity domains and to compare the parameters derived from these models between situations of high (HCHO, low (LCHO and control (C carbohydrate availability. Twelve men performed three trials to exhaustion in the VH or SE domains after diet manipulation with HCHO, LCHO and C. The VH intensity was ΔLW75% (75% of the difference between VO2max and LL2 and SE was 115% of VO2max identified in a previous incremental test (20 W/3 min. HR responses were mathematically fitted by mono- and biexponential functions. In the VH domain, the residual sum of squares (RSS obtained with the biexponential model was significantly lower than that obtained with the monoexponential model (P 0.05. In the VH domain, there were no significant differences in biexponential parameters between the HCHO, LCHO and C conditions. In the SE domain, there were no significant differences in monoexponential parameters between the HCHO, LCHO and C conditions, although the time constant of the monoexponential model was significantly reduced in LCHO when compared to HCHO (51.5 ± 26.4 vs 65.4 ± 34.1 s; P < 0.05. The bi- and monoexponential mathematical models seem to be the best description of HR responses during exercise performed in the HV and SE intensity domains, respectively. In addition, carbohydrate availability only seems to affect HR kinetics during exercise performed at SE intensity.

  13. Ultrasensitive determination of formaldehyde in environmental waters and food samples after derivatization and using silver nanoparticle assisted SERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Pinyi; Wang, Di; Yang, Qingqing; Song, Daqian; Wang, Xinghua; Liang, Fanghui; Ding, Yaying; Yu, Yong; Gao, Dejiang

    2015-01-01

    A selective and ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method was developed for the determination of formaldehyde (HCHO) in environmental waters and food samples. It is based on derivatization of HCHO with 4-amino-5-hydrazino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AHMT) with HCHO. One of the products of the derivative reaction, 6-mercapto-5-triazolo[4,3-b]-s-tetrazine (MTT), can be quantified by SERS at 832 cm −1 using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as substrates. The incubation time for derivatization, the volume of reagents and the mixing times were optimized. The peak areas of the SERS are linearly related to the concentration of HCHO in the 1 − 1,000 μg L −1 range, the limit of detection is 0.15 μg L −1 , and the limit of quantification is 0.45 μg L −1 . Recoveries obtained by analyzing two spiked samples of environmental water and two spiked food samples were in the range between 91.0 and 108.7 %. There is no significant difference between the results obtained by the present method and the liquid chromatographic method (Chinese industrial standard method, SN/T 1547-2011). (author)

  14. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

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    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  15. Fed levels of amino acids are required for the somatotropin-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fiona A; Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renán A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Gazzaneo, Maria C; Davis, Teresa A

    2008-10-01

    Chronic somatotropin (pST) treatment in pigs increases muscle protein synthesis and circulating insulin, a known promoter of protein synthesis. Previously, we showed that the pST-mediated rise in insulin could not account for the pST-induced increase in muscle protein synthesis when amino acids were maintained at fasting levels. This study aimed to determine whether the pST-induced increase in insulin promotes skeletal muscle protein synthesis when amino acids are provided at fed levels and whether the response is associated with enhanced translation initiation factor activation. Growing pigs were treated with pST (0 or 180 microg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) for 7 days, and then pancreatic-glucose-amino acid clamps were performed. Amino acids were raised to fed levels in the presence of either fasted or fed insulin concentrations; glucose was maintained at fasting throughout. Muscle protein synthesis was increased by pST treatment and by amino acids (with or without insulin) (P<0.001). In pST-treated pigs, fed, but not fasting, amino acid concentrations further increased muscle protein synthesis rates irrespective of insulin level (P<0.02). Fed amino acids, with or without raised insulin concentrations, increased the phosphorylation of S6 kinase (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), decreased inactive 4EBP1.eIF4E complex association, and increased active eIF4E.eIF4G complex formation (P<0.02). pST treatment did not alter translation initiation factor activation. We conclude that the pST-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis requires fed amino acid levels, but not fed insulin levels. However, under the current conditions, the response to amino acids is not mediated by the activation of translation initiation factors that regulate mRNA binding to the ribosomal complex.

  16. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

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    Danaë M A Rozendaal

    Full Text Available In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012. Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in

  17. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  18. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

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    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM or vehicle for 1day (acute or 7 days (chronic. RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05. Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  19. On the increase of predictive performance with high-level data fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Smilde, A.K.; Hageman, J.A.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Eeuwijk, F.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The combination of the different data sources for classification purposes, also called data fusion, can be done at different levels: low-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices, medium-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices after feature selection and high-level, i.e. combining model outputs. In this paper the predictive performance of high-level data fusion is investigated. Partial least squares is used on each of the data sets and dummy variables representing the classes are used as response variables. Based on the estimated responses y-hat j for data set j and class k, a Gaussian distribution p(g k |y-hat j ) is fitted. A simulation study is performed that shows the theoretical performance of high-level data fusion for two classes and two data sets. Within group correlations of the predicted responses of the two models and differences between the predictive ability of each of the separate models and the fused models are studied. Results show that the error rate is always less than or equal to the best performing subset and can theoretically approach zero. Negative within group correlations always improve the predictive performance. However, if the data sets have a joint basis, as with metabolomics data, this is not likely to happen. For equally performing individual classifiers the best results are expected for small within group correlations. Fusion of a non-predictive classifier with a classifier that exhibits discriminative ability lead to increased predictive performance if the within group correlations are strong. An example with real life data shows the applicability of the simulation results.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection specifically increases the levels of key host microRNAs.

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    Gusti M Zeiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in virtually any nucleated cell in many species of warm-blooded animals; thus, it has evolved the ability to exploit well-conserved biological processes common to its diverse hosts. Here we have investigated whether Toxoplasma modulates the levels of host microRNAs (miRNAs during infection.Using microarray profiling and a combination of conventional molecular approaches we report that Toxoplasma specifically modulates the expression of important host microRNAs during infection. We show that both the primary transcripts for miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 and the pivotal miRNAs that are derived from miR-17 approximately 92 display increased abundance in Toxoplasma-infected primary human cells; a Toxoplasma-dependent up-regulation of the miR-17 approximately 92 promoter is at least partly responsible for this increase. The abundance of mature miR-17 family members, which are derived from these two miRNA clusters, remains unchanged in host cells infected with the closely related apicomplexan Neospora caninum; thus, the Toxoplasma-induced increase in their abundance is a highly directed process rather than a general host response to infection.Altered levels of miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 are known to play crucial roles in mammalian cell regulation and have been implicated in numerous hyperproliferative diseases although the mechanisms driving their altered expression are unknown. Hence, in addition to the implications of these findings on the host-pathogen interaction, Toxoplasma may represent a powerful probe for understanding the normal mechanisms that regulate the levels of key host miRNAs.

  1. Increased abdominal fat levels measured by bioelectrical impedance are associated with histological lesions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, Aikaterini; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Tileli, Nafsika; Georgoulis, Michael; Deutsch, Melanie; Zafeiropoulou, Rodessa; Tiniakos, Dina; Manios, Yannis; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papatheodoridis, George V

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal fat is considered to play an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not adequately studied because abdominal fat levels cannot be estimated easily. In this study, associations between abdominal obesity, as assessed by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the characteristics of patients with NAFLD were explored. Seventy-four consecutive NAFLD patients who underwent measurement of abdominal fat levels by BIA were included. Levels of abdominal fat 12.5 or less and more than 12.5 were considered to be average and increased, respectively. The mean±SD BMI was 30±4 kg/m and the mean abdominal fat levels were 16±5, whereas 26% of patients had average abdominal fat levels. Patients with average compared with those with increased abdominal fat levels were more frequently women (50 vs. 12%, P=0.001), had lower BMI (27±3 vs. 31±4 kg/m, Pabdominal fat levels (78 vs. 38%, P=0.030) and in patients with BMI 30 or more compared with less than 30 kg/m (87 vs. 48%, P=0.033), but similar in patients with increased or normal waist circumference (67 vs. 56%, P=0.693). Average levels of abdominal fat, as assessed by abdominal BIA, are mainly present in female patients with NAFLD and are associated with a lower degree of insulin resistance. Increased abdominal fat as assessed by BIA and obesity seem to represent strong risk factors for histological steatohepatitis.

  2. Heparin-induced increase in serum levels of aminotranferases. A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H K; Husted, S E; Koopmann, H D; Fasting, H; Simonsen, O; Andersen, K; Husegaard, H C; Petersen, T K

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-four patients over the age of 40 years, undergoing elective surgery of at least one hour's duration, were randomized to treatment with either a thromboembolic deterrent ( TED ) stocking (Kendall Co.) or subcutaneous low-dose heparin 5 000 IU every 12 hours. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (S-ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (S-ASAT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (S-gamma-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (S-ALP) were measured. S-ALAT increased significantly on the 5th and 10th postoperative day, from 27 +/- 2 (x +/- SE) to 40 +/- 4 (p less than 0.01) and 55 +/- 7 U/l (p less than 0.001), respectively, in the heparin group and was significantly higher in the heparin than in the TED group both on the 5th (p less than 0.01) and 10th (p less than 0.05) postoperative day. S-ASAT and S-gamma-GT increased significantly during heparin treatment, but did not differ significantly from the values of the TED group. No change in S-ALP was registered in either group. It is concluded that prophylactic treatment with low-dose heparin induces a significant increase in S-aminotransferase levels, especially in S-ALAT. The phenomenon has profound differential diagnostic implications in conditions such as pulmonary embolism and acute myocardial infarction.

  3. Music stimuli lead to increased levels of nitrite in unstimulated mixed saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luyuan; Zhang, Mengbi; Xu, Junji; Xia, Dengsheng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jingsong; Wang, Songlin

    2018-06-15

    Concentration of salivary nitrate is approximately 10-fold to that of serum. Many circumstances such as acute stress could promote salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. However, whether other conditions can also be used as regulators of salivary nitrate/nitrite has not yet been explored. The present study was designed to determine the influence of exposure to different music on the salivary flow rate and nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females and 12 males) were exposed to silence, rock music, classical music or white noise respectively on four consecutive mornings. The unstimulated salivary flow rate and stimulated salivary flow rate were measured. Salivary ionic (Na + , Ca 2+ Cl - , and PO 4 3- ) content and nitrate/nitrite levels were detected. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly increased after classical music exposure compared to that after silence. Salivary nitrite levels were significantly higher upon classical music and white noise stimulation than those under silence in females. However, males were more sensitive only to white noise with regard to the nitrite increase. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that classical music stimulation promotes salivary nitrite formation and an increase in saliva volume was observed. These observations may play an important role in regulating oral function.

  4. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  5. Modeling caspian sea water level oscilLations Under Diffrent Scenarioes of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

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    GholamReza Roshan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in thecoastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was stimulated. Variations in environmentalparameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, tmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for bothpast (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software(version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17ºC per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increasedby ca. +36 mm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64ºC and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin,temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78ºC and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels projectfuture water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  6. [Severely increased serum lipid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta

    2017-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, hrafnkell.stefans@gmail.com.

  7. Increased CSF levels of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy protein following bout in amateur boxers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Neselius

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of mild TBI is hampered by the lack of imaging or biochemical measurements for identifying or quantifying mild TBI in a clinical setting. We have previously shown increased biomarker levels of protein reflecting axonal (neurofilament light protein and tau and glial (GFAP and S-100B damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after a boxing bout. The aims of this study were to find other biomarkers of mild TBI, which may help clinicians diagnose and monitor mild TBI, and to calculate the role of APOE ε4 allele genotype which has been associated with poor outcome after TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty amateur boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in a prospective cohort study. CSF and blood were collected at one occasion between 1 and 6 days after a bout, and after a rest period for at least 14 days (follow up. The controls were tested once. CSF levels of neurofilament heavy (pNFH, amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and sAPPβ, ApoE and ApoA1 were analyzed. In blood, plasma levels of Aβ42 and ApoE genotype were analyzed. RESULTS: CSF levels of pNFH were significantly increased between 1 and 6 days after boxing as compared with controls (p<0.001. The concentrations decreased at follow up but were still significantly increased compared to controls (p = 0.018. CSF pNFH concentrations correlated with NFL (r =  0.57 after bout and 0.64 at follow up, p<0.001. No significant change was found in the other biomarkers, as compared to controls. Boxers carrying the APOE ε4 allele had similar biomarker concentrations as non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Subconcussive repetitive trauma in amateur boxing causes a mild TBI that may be diagnosed by CSF analysis of pNFH, even without unconsciousness or concussion symptoms. Possession of the APOE ε4 allele was not found to influence biomarker levels after acute TBI.

  8. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  9. Association between iron level, glucose impairment and increased DNA damage during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Salam; Rachidi, Samar; Shami, Nadine; Sharara, Iman; Cheikh-Ali, Khawla; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Salameh, Pascale; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Elevated circulating ferritin has been reported to increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). When high ferritin translates into high iron stores, iron excess is also a condition leading to free radical damage. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress (OS) induced by iron status and GDM risk in non iron-supplemented pregnant women. This was a pilot observational study conducted on 93 non-anemic pregnant women. Iron status was assessed at the first trimester of gestation. Blood sampling was done at 24-28 weeks' gestation for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin and biological markers of oxidative damage tests. A significant increase in DNA damage was found in patients who developed GDM. Women with elevated DNA damage had a six-fold increased risk of developing GDM (Exp (B)=6.851, P=0.038; 95% CI [1.108-42.375]). The serum ferritin levels at first trimester were significantly correlated to lipid peroxidation (rho=0.24, p=0.012). The stratified analysis suggests that ferritin is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative stress (OS) and glucose intolerance. Moderate ferritin levels due to iron intake without iron-supplement, at early pregnancy is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative damage and glucose intolerance in pregnant women. Larger studies to evaluate the risk of food iron intake induced increased oxidative damage in offspring are warranted to propose nutrition advice regarding iron intake in women with a high risk of GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Cigarette smoking increases radon working level exposures to all occupants of the smoker's home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H. Jr.; Rosario, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the 1988 National Academy of Sciences report on radon health risks evaluated the combined effects of radon exposures and cigarettes on the lung cancer risk to smokers. This report showed that the risk of lung cancer is about 10 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers at the same Working Level exposures. In 1986, the Surgeon General reported that 106,000 lung cancer deaths occurred among smokers. Therefore, the health risks of cigarettes alone or in combination with radon exposures are well recognized. What has not been studied is the effect of cigarette smoke on the Working Levels in homes that increases the exposure to radon decay products to all occupants, both smokers and nonsmokers. Preliminary studies in a radon chamber at Radon QC showed that the smoke from a single cigarette increased the Working Levels by a factor of five within four hours. Furthermore, the Working Levels remained at an elevated level for more than 24 hours. The equilibrium ratio of radon decay products to radon gas also went from about 14% up to 71%, with a slow decrease over 24 hours. Similar studies in the homes of a smoker and nonsmoker confirmed the laboratory observations. The studies in homes also showed the effects of thoron decay products

  11. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  12. The increasing of beta-defensin-2 level in saliva after probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Kusumaningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commesal bacteria is an excellent inducer for beta defensin-2 (BD-2. Probiotics bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri as commensal bacteria may play the same role as an excellent inducer for BD-2. Beta defensin is natural antimicrobial peptides widely expressed in oral cavity, including in epithelium salivary gland. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans as the main of bacteria causing caries are sensitive to BD-2. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine whether administration of probiotic L. reuteri can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats. Methods: This research can be considered as a laboratory experimental research with a randomized control group post test only design. Twenty-four male Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats aged 3 months were used. They were randomly divided into four groups, namely two control groups (negative control group that was not induced and positive control group induced with S. mutans, and two treatment groups (K1: induced with L. reuteri for 14 days and S. mutans for 7 days, and K2: induced with L. reuteri and S. mutans simultaneously for 14 days. L. reuteri culture at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml and S. mutans culture at a concentration of 1010CFU/ml were induced into the oral cavity of Wistar rats. An examination of BD-2 level was then conducted by using Elisa techniques. results: There was significant difference of salivary BD-2 level among those treatment groups (p=0.001. BD-2 level in saliva was increased after the administration of L. reuteri. Conclusion: L. reuteri probiotic can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats.

  13. Increased osteopontin plasma levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with bone-specific markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, M.H.J.; ten Kate, J.; Drent, R.J.M.; Polman, C.H.; Hupperts, R.

    2010-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin has been found to be highly expressed in multiple sclerosis lesions and plasma levels are increased during relapses in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis patients. The objective was to determine the relationship between osteopontin plasma and cerebrospinal

  14. Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid-Base Status in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amelia J; Sharma, Avish P; Ross, Megan L; Welvaert, Marijke; Slater, Gary J; Burke, Louise M

    2018-02-18

    Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid-base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO₃ - ) and lactate (La - ) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female) elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9), PCHO (n = 7), or HCHO (n = 8) under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO₃ - ], and blood [La - ] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP) over the previous 48-72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO₃ - ], or [La - ], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day -1 ) (95% CI = [10.44; 36.04]). Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid-base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid-base status than nutritional intake.

  15. Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid–Base Status in Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Carr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although short (up to 3 days exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate [HCO3−] and lactate [La−] in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9, PCHO (n = 7, or HCHO (n = 8 under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO3−], and blood [La−] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP over the previous 48–72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO3−], or [La−], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day−1 (95% CI = (10.44; 36.04. Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid–base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid–base status than nutritional intake.

  16. Ultrathin Bi2WO6 nanosheet decorated with Pt nanoparticles for efficient formaldehyde removal at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Le, Yao; Jiang, Chuanjia; Cheng, Bei

    2018-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin bismuth tungstate (Bi2WO6) nanosheets (BWO-NS) with a thickness of approximately 4.0 nm were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method, and decorated with platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) via an impregnation/borohydride-reduction approach. The as-prepared ultrathin Pt-BWO-NS exhibited superior catalytic activity for removing gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) at ambient temperature, in comparison with bulk counterpart with Bi2WO6 sheet thickness of tens of nanometers. The ultrathin structure endowed the Pt-BWO-NS sample with larger specific surface area, which can provide abundant surface active sites for HCHO adsorption and facilitate the homogeneous dispersion of Pt NPs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction analyses revealed the interaction between the Bi2WO6 support and Pt species, which is crucial for activating surface oxygen atoms to participate in the catalytic HCHO oxidation process. By conducting in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy under different atmospheres, i.e., gaseous HCHO in nitrogen or oxygen (O2), the reaction mechanism and the role of O2 were elucidated, with dioxymethylene, formate and linearly adsorbed carbon monoxide identified as the main reaction intermediates. This study may provide new enlightenment on fabricating novel 2D nanomaterials for efficient indoor air purification and potentially other environmental applications.

  17. The common inhalation anesthetic isoflurane induces caspase activation and increases amyloid beta-protein level in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongcong; Culley, Deborah J; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Guohua; Zhang, Bin; Moir, Robert D; Frosch, Matthew P; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2008-12-01

    An estimated 200 million patients worldwide have surgery each year. Anesthesia and surgery have been reported to facilitate emergence of Alzheimer's disease. The commonly used inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has previously been reported to induce apoptosis, and to increase levels and aggregation of Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in cultured cells. However, the in vivo relevance has not been addressed. We therefore set out to determine effects of isoflurane on caspase activation and levels of beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE) and Abeta in naive mice, using Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Here we show for the first time that a clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia (1.4% isoflurane for 2 hours) leads to caspase activation and modest increases in levels of BACE 6 hours after anesthesia in mouse brain. Isoflurane anesthesia induces caspase activation, and increases levels of BACE and Abeta up to 24 hours after anesthesia. Isoflurane may increase BACE levels by reducing BACE degradation. Moreover, the Abeta aggregation inhibitor, clioquinol, was able to attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in vivo. Given that transient insults to brain may lead to long-term brain damage, these findings suggest that isoflurane may promote Alzheimer's disease neuropathogenesis and, as such, have implications for use of isoflurane in humans, pending human study confirmation.

  18. Increased complement C1q level marks active disease in human tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement functions as an important host defense system and complement C5 and C7 have been implicated in immunopathology of tuberculosis. However, little is known about the role of other complement components in tuberculosis. METHODS: Complement gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of tuberculosis patients and controls were determined using whole genome transcriptional microarray assays. The mRNA and protein levels of three C1q components, C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC, were further validated by qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The percentages of C1q expression in CD14 positive cells were determined by flow cytometry. Finally, C1qC protein level was quantified in the pleural fluid of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis pleurisy. RESULTS: C1q expression increases significantly in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls and individuals with latent TB infection. The percentage of C1q-expressing CD14 positive cells is significantly increased in active TB patients. C1q expression in the peripheral blood correlates with sputum smear positivity in tuberculosis patients and is reduced after anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Notably, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that C1qC mRNA levels in peripheral blood efficiently discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection and healthy controls. Additionally, C1qC protein level in pleural effusion shows improved power in discriminating tuberculosis from non-tuberculosis pleurisy when compared to other inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: C1q expression correlates with active disease in human tuberculosis. C1q could be a potential diagnostic marker to discriminate active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection as well as tuberculosis pleurisy from non-tuberculosis pleurisy.

  19. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in centenarians are not associated with increased production in T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, Marie; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Kemp, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by increased inflammatory activity reflected by increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, concomitant with an altered cytokine profile of T lymphocytes. High plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are strongly associated with morbidity...... and mortality in elderly humans. However, the cellular source and mechanisms for the increased circulating TNF-alpha levels are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate if high plasma levels of TNF-alpha are associated with increased production of TNF-alpha by T lymphocytes in elderly...... humans. METHODS: TNF-alpha production by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin in 28 young controls, 14, 81-year-olds and 25 centenarians. RESULTS: Plasma levels of TNF-alpha increased with increasing age...

  20. Increased circulating miR-21 levels are associated with kidney fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Glowacki

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNA acting at a post-transcriptional level to control the expression of large sets of target mRNAs. While there is evidence that miRNAs deregulation plays a causative role in various complex disorders, their role in fibrotic kidney diseases is largely unexplored. Here, we found a strong up-regulation of miR-21 in the kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and also in the kidneys of patients with severe kidney fibrosis. In addition, mouse primary fibroblasts derived from fibrotic kidneys exhibited higher miR-21 expression level compared to those derived from normal kidneys. Expression of miR-21 in normal primary kidney fibroblasts was induced upon TGFβ exposure, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis. Finally, ectopic expression of miR-21 in primary kidney fibroblasts was sufficient to promote myofibroblast differentiation. As circulating miRNAs have been suggested as promising non-invasive biomarkers, we further assess whether circulating miR-21 levels are associated with renal fibrosis using sera from 42 renal transplant recipients, categorized according to their renal fibrosis severity, evaluated on allograft biopsies (Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy (IF/TA. Circulating miR-21 levels are significantly increased in patients with severe IF/TA grade (IF/TA grade 3: 3.0±1.0 vs lower grade of fibrosis: 1.5±1.2; p = 0.001. By contrast, circulating miR-21 levels were not correlated with other renal histological lesions. In a multivariate linear regression model including IF/TA grade and estimated GFR, independent associations were found between circulating miR-21 levels and IF/TA score (ß = 0.307, p = 0.03, and between miR-21 levels and aMDRD (ß = -0.398, p = 0.006. Altogether, these data suggest miR-21 has a key pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis and may represent a novel, predictive and reliable blood marker of kidney fibrosis.

  1. Increased level and interferon-γ production of circulating natural killer cells in patients with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Ji; Jin, Hye-Mi; Cho, Young-Nan; Kim, Seong Eun; Kim, Uh Jin; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2017-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are essential immune cells against several pathogens. Not much is known regarding the roll of NK cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Thus, this study aims to determine the level, function, and clinical relevance of NK cells in patients with scrub typhus. This study enrolled fifty-six scrub typhus patients and 56 health controls (HCs). The patients were divided into subgroups according to their disease severity. A flow cytometry measured NK cell level and function in peripheral blood. Circulating NK cell levels and CD69 expressions were significantly increased in scrub typhus patients. Increased NK cell levels reflected disease severity. In scrub typhus patients, tests showed their NK cells produced higher amounts of interferon (IFN)-γ after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 relative to those of HCs. Meanwhile, between scrub typhus patients and HCs, the cytotoxicity and degranulation of NK cells against K562 were comparable. CD69 expressions were recovered to the normal levels in the remission phase. This study shows that circulating NK cells are activated and numerically increased, and they produced more IFN-γ in scrub typhus patients.

  2. Increased level and interferon-γ production of circulating natural killer cells in patients with scrub typhus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ji Kang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are essential immune cells against several pathogens. Not much is known regarding the roll of NK cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Thus, this study aims to determine the level, function, and clinical relevance of NK cells in patients with scrub typhus.This study enrolled fifty-six scrub typhus patients and 56 health controls (HCs. The patients were divided into subgroups according to their disease severity. A flow cytometry measured NK cell level and function in peripheral blood. Circulating NK cell levels and CD69 expressions were significantly increased in scrub typhus patients. Increased NK cell levels reflected disease severity. In scrub typhus patients, tests showed their NK cells produced higher amounts of interferon (IFN-γ after stimulation with interleukin (IL-12 and IL-18 relative to those of HCs. Meanwhile, between scrub typhus patients and HCs, the cytotoxicity and degranulation of NK cells against K562 were comparable. CD69 expressions were recovered to the normal levels in the remission phase.This study shows that circulating NK cells are activated and numerically increased, and they produced more IFN-γ in scrub typhus patients.

  3. Injection Seeded Laser for Formaldehyde Differential Fluorescence Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwemmer G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design and development of an injection seeded Nd:YVO4 laser for use in a differential fluorescence lidar for measuring atmospheric formaldehyde profiles. A high repetition rate Q-switched laser is modified to accept injection seed input to spectrally narrow and tune the output. The third harmonic output is used to excite formaldehyde (HCHO fluorescence when tuned to a HCHO absorption line. Spectral confirmation is made with the use of a photoacoustic cell and grating spectrometer.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. The results need to be confirmed by a study that will be conducted in a larger patient group also including a healthy control group to demonstrate the

  5. Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis induces decreased prolificacy and increased progesterone levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Orihuela-Trujillo, Agustín; Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Murcia-Mejía, Clara; Bielli, Alejandro; Hoffman, Kurt L; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-10-15

    Reproductive alterations in hosts infected by parasites have been recognized in several phyla, especially in arthropods and mollusks, but it has been less studied in higher vertebrates, particularly in mammals. In the present study, ten eight week-old female New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were either infected with Taenia pisiformis eggs or uninfected, and 7 weeks later they were mated. We found that serum progesterone levels were increased during pregnancy in infected does. At birth, litter size of infected does was reduced by half as compared to the control group, and, at weaning, the number of kits and the weight of litters was lower. Since serum progesterone levels have a key role in the maintenance of pregnancy and implantation, we propose that the observed prolificacy alterations in does infected with T. pisiformis infection were due to changes in the levels of circulating progesterone during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tolerance of soil flagellates to increased NaCl levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    The ability of heterotrophic flagellates to survive and adapt to increasing salinities was investigated in this study. Whole soil samples were subjected to salinities corresponding to marine conditions and clonal cultures were used to perform growth and adaptation experiments at a wide range...... of different salinities (0-50 ppm). More morphotypes tolerant to elevated NaCl levels were found in road verge soil that was heavily exposed to de-icing salt than in less exposed soils, though there were fewer tolerant than intolerant morphotypes in all soils examined. Heterotrophic flagellates isolated...... on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1-5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long...

  7. Increased 5-hydroxymethylation levels in the sub ventricular zone of the Alzheimer's brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mastroeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subventricular zone (SVZ is a site of neurogenesis in the aging brain, and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in regulating the “normal” distribution of new nerve cells into the existing cellular milieu. In a case-control study of human primary SVZ cultures and fixed tissue from the same individuals, we have found significant increases in DNA hydroxymethylation levels in the SVZ of Alzheimer's disease patients compared with nondiseased control subjects. We show that this increase in hydroxymethylation directly correlates to an increase in cellular proliferation in Alzheimer's disease precursor cells, which implicates the hydroxymethylation tag to a higher degree of cellular proliferation.

  8. Total circulating microparticle levels are increased in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munrós, J; Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Coloma, J L; Torrente, M A; Reverter, J C; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2017-02-01

    Are the levels of total circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) and circulating tissue factor-containing microparticles (cMP-TF) increased in patients with endometriosis? The levels of total cMP, but not cMP-TF, were higher in patients with endometriosis, and these were attributed to higher levels in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of total cMP in inflammatory conditions as well as higher levels of other inflammatory biomarkers in endometriosis. Increased expression of tissue factor (a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis has been described. There is no previous data regarding total cMP and cMP-TF levels in patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study including two groups of patients was carried out. The E group included 65 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (37 with DIE lesions) and the C group comprises 33 women without surgical findings of any form of endometriosis. Patients and controls were recruited during the same 10-month period. Controls were the next patient without endometriosis undergoing surgery, after including two patients with endometriosis. Venous blood samples for total cMP and cMP-TF determinations were obtained at the time of surgery, before anesthesia at a tertiary care center. To assess total cMP, an ELISA functional assay was used and cMP-TF activity in plasma was measured using an ELISA kit. Total cMP levels in plasma were higher in the E group compared with the C group (P < 0.0001). The subanalysis of endometriosis patients with DIE or with ovarian endometriomas without DIE showed that total cMP levels were higher in the DIE group (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in cMP-TF levels among the groups analyzed. This is a preliminary study in which the sample size was arbitrarily decided, albeit in keeping with previous studies analyzing

  9. Constitutive expression of feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase increases methionine levels in soybean leaves and seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yang; HOU Wen-sheng; YaeI Hacham; SUN Shi; WU Cun-xiang; Ifat Matityahu; SONG Shikui; RacheI Amir; HAN Tian-fu

    2018-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a major crop that provides plant-origin protein and oil for humans and livestock. Although the soybean vegetative tissues and seeds provide a major source of high-quality protein, they suffer from low concentration of an essential sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, which significantly limits their nutritional quality. The level of methionine is mainly controlled by the first unique enzyme of methionine synthesis, cystathione γ-synthase (CGS). Aiming to elevate methionine level in vegetative tissues and seeds, we constitutively over-expressed a feedback-insensitive Arabidopsis CGS (AtD-CGS) in soybean cultivars, Zigongdongdou (ZD) and Jilinxiaoli 1 (JX). The levels of soluble methionine increased remarkably in leaves of transgenic soybeans compared to wild-type plants (6.6- and 7.3-fold in two transgenic ZD lines, and 3.7-fold in one transgenic JX line). Furthermore, the total methionine contents were significantly increased in seeds of the transgenic ZD lines (1.5- to 4.8-fold increase) and the transgenic JX lines (1.3- to 2.3-fold increase) than in the wild type. The protein contents of the transgenic soybean seeds were significantly elevated compared to the wild type, suggesting that the scarcity of methionine in soybeans may limit protein accumulation in soybean seeds. The increased protein content did not alter the profile of major storage proteins in the seeds. Generally, this study provides a promising strategy to increase the levels of methionine and protein in soybean through the breeding programs.

  10. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels are increased in patients with IgA nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Koki; Uto, Hirofumi; Takami, Yoichiro; Mera, Kumiko; Nishida, Chika; Yoshimine, Yozo; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Oku, Manei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Nosaki, Tsuyoshi; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → IGFBP-1 mRNA over express in kidneys obtained from mice model of IgA nephropathy. → Serum IGFBP-1 levels are high in patients with IgA nephropathy. → Serum IGFBP-1 levels correlate with renal function and the severity of renal injury. -- Abstract: The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) are not well understood. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in kidneys obtained from mice with high serum IgA levels (HIGA mice), which exhibit features of human IgAN. Female inbred HIGA, established from the ddY line, were used in these experiments. Serum IgA levels, renal IgA deposition, mesangial proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis were increased in 32-week-old HIGA mice in comparison to ddY animals. By microarray analysis, five genes were observed to be increased by more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old HIGA in comparison to 16-week-old HIGA; these same five genes were decreased more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old ddY in comparison to 16-week-old ddY mice. Of these five genes, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-1 exhibited differential expression between these mouse lines, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls. In patients with IgAN, these levels correlated with measures of renal function, such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), but not with sex, age, serum IgA, C3 levels, or IGF-1 levels. Pathologically, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly associated with the severity of renal injury, as assessed by mesangial cell proliferation and interstitial fibrosis. These results suggest that increased IGFBP-1 levels are associated with the severity of renal pathology in patients with IgAN.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels are increased in patients with IgA nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Koki [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Uto, Hirofumi, E-mail: hirouto@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Takami, Yoichiro; Mera, Kumiko; Nishida, Chika; Yoshimine, Yozo; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Oku, Manei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Nosaki, Tsuyoshi; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} IGFBP-1 mRNA over express in kidneys obtained from mice model of IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels are high in patients with IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels correlate with renal function and the severity of renal injury. -- Abstract: The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) are not well understood. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in kidneys obtained from mice with high serum IgA levels (HIGA mice), which exhibit features of human IgAN. Female inbred HIGA, established from the ddY line, were used in these experiments. Serum IgA levels, renal IgA deposition, mesangial proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis were increased in 32-week-old HIGA mice in comparison to ddY animals. By microarray analysis, five genes were observed to be increased by more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old HIGA in comparison to 16-week-old HIGA; these same five genes were decreased more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old ddY in comparison to 16-week-old ddY mice. Of these five genes, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-1 exhibited differential expression between these mouse lines, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls. In patients with IgAN, these levels correlated with measures of renal function, such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), but not with sex, age, serum IgA, C3 levels, or IGF-1 levels. Pathologically, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly associated with the severity of renal injury, as assessed by mesangial cell proliferation and interstitial fibrosis. These results suggest that increased IGFBP-1 levels are associated with the severity of renal pathology in patients with IgAN.

  13. Is use of fall risk-increasing drugs in an elderly population associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorell, Kristine; Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for hip fracture are well studied because of the negative impact on patients and the community, with mortality in the first year being almost 30% in the elderly. Age, gender and fall risk-increasing drugs, identified by the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden......, are well known risk factors for hip fracture, but how multimorbidity level affects the risk of hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs is to our knowledge not as well studied. This study explored the relationship between use of fall risk-increasing drugs in combination with multimorbidity...... level and risk of hip fracture in an elderly population. METHODS: Data were from Östergötland County, Sweden, and comprised the total population in the county aged 75 years and older during 2006. The odds ratio (OR) for hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs was calculated by multivariate...

  14. Core design experience of WWER-440 reactors when they working on increased power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeev, V.; Panov, A.; Melenchuk, I.

    2015-01-01

    The Kola NPP continues commercial operation of 2nd generation fuel (FA-2) and trial operation of 3rd generation fuel (FA-3), which has a number of design features providing the best operational characteristics. This report gives the results of VVER-440 core operation with FA-2 and FA-3 with enrichment increased up to 4.87%, and at the power level uprated to 107% of nominal power level. Brief analysis of obtained data is carried out. Peculiarities and techniques of developing loading patterns with new types of nuclear fuel for operation at the uprated power level are reviewed. (authors)

  15. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity.

  16. Increase of {sup 210}Po levels in human semen fluid after mussel ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.co [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programs in Environmental Science and Marine Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos Santos [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) radioactive concentrations were determined in human semen fluid of vasectomized non-smoker volunteers. The {sup 210}Po levels ranged from 0.10 to 0.39 mBq g{sup -1} (mean: 0.23 {+-} 0.08 mBq g{sup -1}). This value decreased to 0.10 {+-} 0.02 mBq g{sup -1} (range from 0.07 to 0.13 mBq g{sup -1}) after two weeks of a controlled diet, excluding fish and seafood. Then, volunteers ate during a single meal 200 g of the cooked mussel Perna perna L., and {sup 210}Po levels were determined again, during ten days, in semen fluid samples collected every morning. Volunteers continued with the controlled diet and maintained sexual abstinence through the period of the experiment. A 300% increase of {sup 210}Po level was observed the day following mussel consumption, with a later reduction, such that the level returned to near baseline by day 4.

  17. Increased macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Eriko; Sekiya, Akiko; Hayashi, Tomoe; Kadohira, Yasuko; Maekawa, Mio; Yamazaki, Masahide; Asakura, Hidesaku; Nakao, Shinji; Ohtake, Shigeki

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have found markedly elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with Graves' disease (GD). We investigated the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in GD. We assayed concentrations of M-CSF in sera from 32 patients with GD (25 untreated; 7 receiving thiamazole therapy). We also studied 32 age-matched healthy subjects as controls. Relationships between serum M-CSF and both thyroid state and serum lipids were examined. Moreover, to examine the effect of thyroid hormone alone on serum M-CSF, T3 was administered orally to normal subjects. Serum concentrations of M-CSF in GD patients who were hyperthyroid were significantly increased compared with GD patients who were euthyroid (P oral T3 administered to 15 volunteers for 7 days produced significant increases in serum levels of M-CSF (P production of M-CSF in patients with GD.

  18. [Increased oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in peritoneal fluid of women with advanced-stage endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Mazurek, Diana; Rogala, Ewelina; Nowicka, Aldona; Derewianka-Polak, Magdalena; Kotarski, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Proinflammatory and prooxidative environment in the peritoneal cavity may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Imbalance between reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant capacity leads to oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). The importance of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) in the development of atherosclerosis is well recognized. The aim of our study was to evaluate for the presence of ox-LDL in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with and without endometriosis. A total of 60 women who underwent laparoscopy were divided into groups: endometriosis sufferers with minimal to mild (n 20) and moderate to severe (n 20) stages, and the reference group (n 20) with functional follicle ovarian cysts. Oxidized LDL levels were determined in the PF using enzyme immunoassay Oxidized LDL levels were detectable in all peritoneal fluid samples. Significantly increased levels of ox-LDL were observed in PF of women with stage III/IV endometriosis compared to the reference group (p = 0.03). However peritoneal fluid ox-LDL concentrations did not differ significantly between patients with minimal/mild and women with moderate/severe stage of the disease (p = 0.2). No significant difference in the PF ox-LDL concentrations was also found between women with stage I/II endometriosis and patients with follicle cysts (p = 0.3). Increased peritoneal fluid ox-LDL levels observed in women with advanced-stage endometriosis suggest the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  19. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  20. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  1. Balanced Physical Exercise Increase Physical Fitness, Optimize Endorphin Levels, and Decrease Malondialdehyde Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Adams Pangkahila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness determines the level of human health. A good physical fitness can be achieved if conducted with a balance and active physical fitness. The aims of this study was to elucidate the effect of balanced physical exercise on physical fitness, endorphin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Methods: This study was a true experimental with pretest-posttest control group design using 24 students of IKIP PGRI Denpasar. Selected samples divided into two groups: the control group given conventional physical training (P0 and the treatment group given balanced physical training (P1. Physical fitness tests was performed using Cooper method and blood sampling was done to evaluate the level of endorphins and MDA before (pre test and after (post test treatment of 8 weeks. The data of endorphin and MDA levels were analyzed using independent T test. Whereas, the physical fitness was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Physical fitness of the group given a balanced physical training was significantly higher compare to the group given a conventional physical training (p < 0.05. Balanced physical training was proven to enhance physical fitness as measured by the Cooper method better than conventional physical training. In contrast, the levels of endorphins of the balanced physical training group did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Levels of MDA of balanced physical training group also did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Conclusions: balanced physical training can maintain physical fitness of people and improve the health and quality of life. 

  2. Prevalence of Congenital Hypothyroidism and Transient Increased Levels of TSH in Yazd Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shojaeifar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most preventable causes of mental retardation. Worldwide, incidences vary from 1:3000 to 1:4000 and mean incidence in Iran is estimated to be 1:1000. Neonatal screening and early treatment within first 2 weeks of neonatal period can prevent neurocognitive deficits. We aimed to study the incidence of CH and increased levels of TSH in Yazd province and collect data describing the disease status and designing first and second levels of preventive interventions. Methods: This descriptive analytic study was performed by census cross sectional method on 13022 neonates in Yazd province in 2006-2007(March 2006- March 2007 including 6495 females and 6527 males. Sampling was done (within the first 3-5 days of life by lancet sticking of neonatal heel. After transfer of 3 blood drops over filter papers, the TSH level was measured. If the TSH level was equal or higher than 5 mu/l, additional confirmation tests were done. Neonates were diagnosed according to serum confirmation test (TSH10 mu/l or T4<6.5g/dl and underwent treatment according to national guidelines. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Total number of patients was 45, including 25 males (55.5% and 20 females (44.5%. Prevalence in males, females and overall was consecutively, 1:261, 1:325 and 1:289, but this difference was not statistically significant. Prevalence in urban and rural areas was 1:315 and 1:216, but the difference was statistically not significant. The prevalence during spring, summer, autumn& winter was 1:95, 1:250, 1:1934 and 1:369, respectively, that was statistically significant. Mean age at sampling was 7.2 days, mean TSH level 2.3 mu/l and mean age of mothers was 25.8 years. Conclusions: Incidence of CH and transient increased levels of TSH in Yazd province is significantly higher than national and worldwide levels that necessitate the constancy and reinforcement of neonatal screening program. On the other

  3. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  4. Increasing levels of zeolite and Yucca schidigera in diets for adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Charleaux Roque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the additives Yucca schidigera (YSC and zeolite (clinoptilolite on digestibility, fecal texture and odor, blood parameters and urine pH of domesticated felines was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with twenty-one cats, in two periods, distributed in seven treatments: moist commercial feed (control; control + 125, 250 and 375 ppm YSC; and control + 0.5; 0.75 and 1.0 % zeolite. No differences were observed between the diets regarding apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrient, energy, urine pH or blood parameters. However, levels of 0.5 and 0.75% zeolite were effective both in reducing odor (R² = 96.39 and for fecal texture (R² = 99.63, showing a quadratic pattern for these variables. Levels of 125 and 375 ppm YSC were also efficient in reducing fecal odor; however they did not adjust to regression. Levels of 0.5% and 0.75% zeolite significantly reduce odor of feces and increase fecal texture when added to commercial feed for cats.

  5. Irisin levels increase after treatment in patients with newly diagnosed Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uc, Z A; Gorar, S; Mizrak, S; Gullu, S

    2018-05-18

    Irisin is a newly identified myokine secreted by skeletal muscle and has significant effects on body metabolism. Thyroidal functional state has a profound influence on the metabolism of human body. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible changes in serum irisin concentrations before and after treatment in hypothyroid subjects. The study included 26 patients with overt hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto thyroiditis and 19 healthy subjects. Baseline serum thyroid function tests and presence of thyroid autoantibodies and levels of creatine kinase (CK) and irisin were measured in both groups. All measurements in the hypothyroid group were repeated after euthyroidism was achieved. Serum irisin levels were significantly lower in the hypothyroid groups than the control group (p treatment (p hypothyroid patients were treated to achieve euthyroidism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing insight that low serum irisin levels significantly increased following treatment to euthyroid state in overt hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Larger scale studies are needed to confirm these results and to ensure irisin as a possible biomarker of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  6. Increasing seat belt use through state-level demonstration projects : a compendium of initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts and results from four of six State-level demonstration projects supported with cooperative agreements from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The projects were intended to increase seat belt use sta...

  7. Increased Circulating and Urinary Levels of Soluble TAM Receptors in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Lattenist, Lionel; Ahdi, Mohamed; Kers, Jesper; Uil, Melissa; Claessen, Nike; Leemans, Jaklien C; Florquin, Sandrine; Meijers, Joost C M; Gerdes, Victor E A; Roelofs, Joris J T H

    2017-09-01

    TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer) have been implicated in innate immunity. Circulating TAM receptor soluble forms (sTyro3, sAxl, sMer) are related to autoimmune disorders. We investigated TAM and their ligand protein S in patients with diabetes. Urinary and plasma levels of protein S, sTyro3, sAxl, and sMer were determined in 126 patients with diabetes assigned to a normoalbuminuric or macroalbuminuric (urinary albumin excretion 300 mg/24 hours, respectively) study group and 18 healthy volunteers. TAM and protein S immunostaining was performed on kidney biopsy specimens from patients with diabetic nephropathy (n = 9) and controls (n = 6). TAM expression and shedding by tubular epithelial cells were investigated by PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in an in vitro diabetes model. Patients with macroalbuminuria diabetes had higher circulating levels of sMer and more urinary sTyro3 and sMer than normoalbuminuric diabetics. Increased clearance of sTyro3 and sMer was associated with loss of tubular Tyro3 and Mer expression in diabetic nephropathy tissue and glomerular depositions of protein S. During in vitro diabetes, human kidney cells had down-regulation of Tyro3 and Mer mRNA and increased shedding of sTyro3 and sMer. Renal injury in diabetes is associated with elevated systemic and urine levels of sMer and sTyro3. This is the first study reporting excretion of sTAM receptors in urine, identifying the kidney as a source of sTAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, M; Mortensen, S P; Hellsten, Y

    2013-03-01

    Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study 2, young (23 ± 1 years, n = 8), older lifelong sedentary (66 ± 2 years, n = 8) and older lifelong endurance-trained (62 ± 2 years, n = 8) subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. Skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels were increased with age and plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  9. Responses to ozone pollution of alfalfa exposed to increasing salinity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, Albino; Chiaranda, Fabrizio Quaglietta; Cefariello, Roberto; Fagnano, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Stomatal closure and biosynthesis of antioxidant molecules are two fundamental components of the physiological machinery that lead to stress adaptation during plant's exposure to salinity. Since high stomatal resistance may also contribute in counteracting O 3 damages, we hypothesized that soil salinization may increase O 3 tolerance of crops. An experiment was performed with alfalfa grown in filtered (AOT40 = 0 in both years) and non-filtered (AOT40 = 9.7 in 2005 and 6.9 ppm h in 2006) open-top chambers. Alfalfa yield was reduced by O 3 (-33%) only in plants irrigated with salt-free water, while the increasing levels of soil salinity until 1.06 dS m -1 reduced both stomatal conductance and plant O 3 uptake, thus linearly reducing O 3 effects on yield. Therefore a reliable flux-based model for assessing the effects of O 3 on crop yield should take into account soil salinity. - Moderate saline stress can reduce ozone uptake and yield losses in alfalfa plants.

  10. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    KAUST Repository

    Fanucchi, Francesca

    2012-06-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    KAUST Repository

    Fanucchi, Francesca; Alpi, Emanuele; Olivieri, Stefano; Cannistraci, Carlo; Bachi, Angela; Alpi, Amedeo; Alessio, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occlusal Disharmony Transiently Impairs Learning and Memory in the Mouse by Increasing Dynorphin A Levels in the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Ono, Yumie; Kubo, Kin-Ya; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-05-01

    Occlusal disharmony sometimes causes not only stiffness of neck but also psychiatric depression, suggesting that the condition of oral cavity may affect the central nervous system. Dynorphin A is an endogenous opioid peptide that specifically binds the κ-opioid receptor and has a protective role against stress. Dynorphinergic nervous system is intensely distributed in the amygdala and hippocampus that are coping areas with stress. As a model of malocclusion, we placed dental resin on the molars to increase the occlusal vertical dimension (bite-raise). After various survival times, we analyzed the amygdala and hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, the effects on learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test. In the amygdala, the levels of dynorphin A were increased on the 1st day after increasing the vertical dimension as indicated by immunohistochemical and ELISA assessments. The levels of dynorphin A returned to control levels on the 5th day. In the hippocampus, there were no noticeable changes in dynorphin A levels. The water maze test indicated that increasing the vertical dimension caused longer escape latency times on the 3rd day compared to those of sham-operated group. However, the bite-raised mice treated with a dynorphin antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine, showed similar escape latency times to the times of sham-operated group, even on the 3rd day. These results suggest that occlusal disharmony causes stress resulting in a transient increase of dynorphin A levels at least in the amygdala and that the increased dynorphin A levels transiently impair learning and memory.

  13. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Demontis, Ditte; Ollendorff, Mathias Kaas

    2015-01-01

    measured by immunoassay, and potential determinants of the serum sortilin level were assessed by generalized linear models. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in previous studies. We identified a significant increase of serum...... sortilin levels in depressed individuals compared with controls (P = 0.0002) and significant positive correlation between serum sortilin levels and the corresponding levels of BDNF and VEGF. None of the genotyped SNPs were associated with depression. Additional analyses showed that the serum sortilin level...... was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which may relate...

  14. Efficient decomposition of formaldehyde at room temperature over Pt/honeycomb ceramics with ultra-low Pt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Longhui; Zheng, Yingqiu; Yu, Jiaguo

    2014-09-14

    Pt/honeycomb ceramic (Pt/HC) catalysts with ultra-low Pt content (0.005-0.055 wt%) were for the first time prepared by an impregnation of honeycomb ceramics with Pt precursor and NaBH4-reduction combined method. The microstructures, morphologies and textural properties of the resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained Pt/HC catalysts were used for catalytic oxidative decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature. It was found that the as-prepared Pt/HC catalysts can efficiently decompose HCHO in air into CO2 and H2O at room temperature. The catalytic activity of the Pt/HC catalysts increases with increasing the Pt loading in the range of 0.005-0.013 wt%, and the further increase of the Pt loading does not obviously improve catalytic activity. From the viewpoint of cost and catalytic performance, 0.013 wt% Pt loading is the optimal Pt loading amount, and the Pt/HC catalyst with 0.013 wt% Pt loading also exhibited good catalytic stability. Considering practical applications, this work will provide new insights into the low-cost and large-scale fabrication of advanced catalytic materials for indoor air purification.

  15. Parallel increases in sister chromatid exchanges at base level and with UV treatment in human opiate users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, D.A.; Falek, A.; Madden, J.J.; Tadayon, F.; Pline, M.; Kuehnle, J.C.; Mendelson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The SCE base level frequency and SCE levels induced by far-UV (254 nm) treatment of cells in early G 1 and early S phases of the cell cycle were significantly higher in leukocytes from heroin addicts as compared to controls. The increased SCE levels in addicts was greatest at base level and smallest after UV irradiation of cells in S phase. These results corrobate and extend our previous findings of increased chromosome damage and reduced DNA-repair synthesis in heroin users. Since opiates do not directly damage DNA, the elevated cytogenetic effects associated with opiate use probably arise from secondary promotional effects related to opiate-mediated alterations in leukocyte metabolism. (orig.)

  16. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  17. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MIXED JUICE MUNG BEAN AND GUAVA FOR INCREASING HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IN CANCER PATIENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Huda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in a year. One of therapy in curing cancer is chemotherapy. But unfortunately chemotherapy has some negative effects such as decreasing the level of hemoglobin (Hb. Mung bean that contain a lot of iron and Guava which is rich of vitamin C for iron absorption are useful in cancer patient with chemotherapy. Therefore, a mixture of both is believed in increasing hemoglobin level significantly. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mixed juice mung bean and guava for increasing hemoglobin level in experiment and control group of cancer patient with chemotherapy.This research used Quasi Experiment design with pretest-posttest design control group approach. The total number of respondent was 30 chosen by purposive sampling method. Results of this study showed hemoglobin level in experiment group 14.07 and 10.42 in control group with p value (0,000 < α (0,05. It can be concluded that a mixture juice mung beans and guava effective for increasing hemoglobin level in cancer patient with chemotherapy. This research suggests that this mixture can be an option for nursing intervention in increasing hemoglobin level for cancer patient after receiving chemotherapy.

  18. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  19. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Mark L.; Braune, Birgit M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Conor D.; Forbes, Mark R.; Wells, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health

  20. High LDL levels lead to increased synovial inflammation and accelerated ectopic bone formation during experimental osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munter, W. de; Bosch, M.H. van den; Sloetjes, A.W.; Croce, K.J.; Vogl, T.; Roth, J.; Koenders, M.I.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Berg, W.B. van den; Kraan, P.M. van der; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A relation between osteoarthritis (OA) and increased cholesterol levels is apparent. In the present study we investigate OA pathology in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-)(/-) mice with and without a cholesterol-rich diet, a model for high systemic low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels

  1. Brief strategic therapy in first myocardial infarction patients with increased levels of stress: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Jadwiga Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of interventions targeting chronic stress levels on clinical outcomes among myocardial infarction (MI) patients with increased levels of stress. To examine the impact of the addition of brief strategic therapy (BST) to usual care (UC) on clinical outcomes in first MI patients with increased levels of stress. Eighty-one patients were randomly assigned to BST in conjunction with UC (medical treatment, risk factor information, and guidance on unhealthy behavior change) or to UC. The outcome measures were scores on the Perceived Stress Scale, reinfarction and cardiac mortality rates, and scores on the Health Survey. Measures were taken before, post-treatment, and at two follow-ups. Patients subjected to BST showed reduced perceived stress at post-treatment and maintained decreased levels at follow-ups. At 1-year follow-up, they had a lower rate of non-fatal reinfarction, and at 2.5-year follow-up, they had a lower rate of fatal reinfarction. Their mental and physical health was improved at post-treatment and this was sustained at follow-ups. The addition of BST to UC favorably influences the disease course after MI in patients with increased levels of stress.

  2. The Common Inhalational Anesthetic Sevoflurane Induces Apoptosis and Increases β-Amyloid Protein Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Guohua; Zhang, Bin; Moir, Robert D.; Xia, Weiming; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Culley, Deborah J.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of sevoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on apoptosis and β-amyloid protein (Aβ) levels in vitro and in vivo. Subjects: Naive mice, H4 human neuroglioma cells, and H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein. Interventions: Human H4 neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein were exposed to 4.1% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Mice received 2.5% sevoflurane for 2 hours. Caspase-3 activation, apoptosis, and Aβ levels were assessed. Results: Sevoflurane induced apoptosis and elevated levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme and Aβ in vitro and in vivo. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD decreased the effects of sevoflurane on apoptosis and Aβ. Sevoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation was attenuated by the γ-secretase inhibitor L-685,458 and was potentiated by Aβ. These results suggest that sevoflurane induces caspase activation which, in turn, enhances β-site amyloid precursor protein–cleaving enzyme and Aβ levels. Increasedlevels then induce further rounds of apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane may promote Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. If confirmed in human subjects, it may be prudent to caution against the use of sevoflurane as an anesthetic, especially in those suspected of possessing excessive levels of cerebral Aβ. PMID:19433662

  3. Which Exercise Is Better for Increasing Serum Testosterone Levels in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kyun Yeo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the correlations of serum total testosterone (TT levels with body composition and physical fitness parameters in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED to know the best exercise for testosterone deficiency. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven ED patients underwent serum TT assessment as well as body composition and basic exercise testing. The bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess body composition. Seven types of basic exercise tests were used to determine physical fitness. Correlations between serum TT levels and body composition/physical function parameters were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. A serum TT cut-off value was obtained for the parameters significantly correlated with serum TT levels. Results: The subjects had a mean serum TT level of 342.1 ng/dL. Among the body composition parameters, body and abdominal fat percentages showed statistically significant negative correlations with serum TT levels. Among the basic exercise test parameters, only the cycle ergometer test for cardiorespiratory fitness showed a statistically significant positive correlation with serum TT levels. Conclusions: Serum TT levels in patients with ED, may be increased by reducing fat percentage and improving cardiorespiratory fitness via aerobic exercise.

  4. Estimated Cost of the Administration's Proposal to Increase the Army's and the Marine Corps's Personnel Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmit, Matt; Wheelock, Jason; Newman, David

    2007-01-01

    .... The Administration also plans to increase the size of the Army Reserve and National Guard. The cost of the Administration's proposal to increase the size of the armed forces depends on the personnel levels it is being measured against...

  5. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  6. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0–10) was reduced to zer...

  7. Clusterin levels are increased in Alzheimer's disease and influence the regional distribution of Aβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, J Scott; Clarke, Polly; Love, Seth

    2017-05-01

    Clusterin, also known as apoJ, is a lipoprotein abundantly expressed within the CNS. It regulates Aβ fibril formation and toxicity and facilitates amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier. Genome-wide association studies have shown variations in the clusterin gene (CLU) to influence the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore whether clusterin modulates the regional deposition of Aβ, we measured levels of soluble (NP40-extracted) and insoluble (guanidine-HCl-extracted) clusterin, Aβ40 and Aβ42 by sandwich ELISA in brain regions with a predilection for amyloid pathology-mid-frontal cortex (MF), cingulate cortex (CC), parahippocampal cortex (PH), and regions with little or no pathology-thalamus (TH) and white matter (WM). Clusterin level was highest in regions with plaque pathology (MF, CC, PH and PC), approximately mirroring the regional distribution of Aβ. It was significantly higher in AD than controls, and correlated positively with Aβ42 and insoluble Aβ40. Soluble clusterin level rose significantly with severity of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and in MF and PC regions was highest in APOE ɛ4 homozygotes. In the TH and WM (areas with little amyloid pathology) clusterin was unaltered in AD and did not correlate with Aβ level. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of clusterin and the regional levels of insoluble Aβ42; however, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 declined with insoluble Aβ42 level in a region-dependent manner, being lowest in regions with predilection for Aβ plaque pathology. Under physiological conditions, clusterin reduces aggregation and promotes clearance of Aβ. Our findings indicate that in AD, clusterin increases, particularly in regions with most abundant Aβ, but because the increase does not match the rising level of Aβ42, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 in those regions falls, probably contributing to Aβ deposition within the tissue. © 2016

  8. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  9. Protein synthesis levels are increased in a subset of individuals with Fragile X syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Pacini, Laura; Jønch, Aia E

    2018-01-01

    architecture and plasticity. Preclinical studies revealed that pharmacological interventions restore those deficits, which are thought to mediate the FXS cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Here we characterized the de novo rate of protein synthesis in patients with FXS and their relationship with clinical...... severity. We measured the rate of protein synthesis in fibroblasts derived from 32 individuals with FXS and from 17 controls as well as in fibroblasts and primary neurons of 27 Fmr1 KO mice and 20 controls. Here we show that levels of protein synthesis are increased in fibroblasts of individuals with FXS...... and Fmr1 KO mice. However, this cellular phenotype displays a broad distribution and a proportion of fragile X individuals and Fmr1 KO mice do not show increased levels of protein synthesis, having measures in the normal range. Because the same Fmr1 KO animal measures in fibroblasts predict those...

  10. In utero exposure to benzene increases embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels in CD-1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Joanne; Winn, Louise M.

    2008-01-01

    Benzene is a known human leukemogen, but its role as an in utero leukemogen remains controversial. Epidemiological studies have correlated parental exposure to benzene with an increased incidence of childhood leukemias. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to benzene may cause leukemogenesis by affecting the embryonic c-Myb/Pim-1 signaling pathway and that this is mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with either 800 mg/kg of benzene or corn oil (i.p.) on days 10 and 11 of gestation and in some cases pretreated with 25 kU/kg of PEG-catalase. Phosphorylated and total embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and maternal and embryonic oxidative stress were assessed by measuring reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios. Our results show increased oxidative stress at 4 and 24 h after exposure, increased phosphorylated Pim-1 protein levels 4 h after benzene exposure, and increased Pim-1 levels at 24 and 48 h after benzene exposure. Embryonic c-Myb levels were elevated at 24 h after exposure. PEG-catalase pretreatment prevented benzene-mediated increases in embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels, and benzene-induced oxidative stress. These results support a role for ROS in c-Myb and Pim-1 alterations after in utero benzene exposure

  11. Treatment of HIV infection with a raltegravir-based regimen increases LDL levels, but improves HDL cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, Nicholas T; Xu, Dihua; Playford, Martin P; Joshi, Aditya A; Andrade, Adriana; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lederman, Michael M; Mehta, Nehal N

    2017-01-01

    Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. We report results from 39 ART-naive participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir, emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 48 weeks after ART initiation. We performed advanced lipid phenotyping using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Liposcience, Raleigh, NC, USA) for lipid particle size and number, and examined high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function measuring reverse cholesterol transport using J774 macrophages. We report significant increases in total cholesterol (13 mg/dl; PLDL; 8 mg/dl; P=0.03), with no change in triglycerides and without an increase in LDL particle number (P>0.1 all time points). HDL levels were increased over baseline levels at all time points (PLDL (oxLDL) levels decreased by week 12, but rose subsequently, and were not different from baseline at later time points. HDL increases were associated with increases in beneficial HDL particles and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity, which may reduce future CVD events. Persistent inflammation in these HIV+ participants, may be a cause or consequence of oxLDL levels, and may contribute to declining levels of HDL over time. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00660972.

  12. Increasing phylogenetic resolution at low taxonomic levels using massively parallel sequencing of chloroplast genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronn Richard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular evolutionary studies share the common goal of elucidating historical relationships, and the common challenge of adequately sampling taxa and characters. Particularly at low taxonomic levels, recent divergence, rapid radiations, and conservative genome evolution yield limited sequence variation, and dense taxon sampling is often desirable. Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing make it possible to rapidly obtain large amounts of sequence data, and multiplexing makes extensive sampling of megabase sequences feasible. Is it possible to efficiently apply massively parallel sequencing to increase phylogenetic resolution at low taxonomic levels? Results We reconstruct the infrageneric phylogeny of Pinus from 37 nearly-complete chloroplast genomes (average 109 kilobases each of an approximately 120 kilobase genome generated using multiplexed massively parallel sequencing. 30/33 ingroup nodes resolved with ≥ 95% bootstrap support; this is a substantial improvement relative to prior studies, and shows massively parallel sequencing-based strategies can produce sufficient high quality sequence to reach support levels originally proposed for the phylogenetic bootstrap. Resampling simulations show that at least the entire plastome is necessary to fully resolve Pinus, particularly in rapidly radiating clades. Meta-analysis of 99 published infrageneric phylogenies shows that whole plastome analysis should provide similar gains across a range of plant genera. A disproportionate amount of phylogenetic information resides in two loci (ycf1, ycf2, highlighting their unusual evolutionary properties. Conclusion Plastome sequencing is now an efficient option for increasing phylogenetic resolution at lower taxonomic levels in plant phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. With continuing improvements in sequencing capacity, the strategies herein should revolutionize efforts requiring dense taxon and character sampling

  13. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Li, X.; Shao, M.; Lu, S.; Li, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, Z.; Hu, W.; Huang, X.; He, L.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-03-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone-forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008, 2 months of emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observational evidence reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogenic pollutants (CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons, i.e., NMHCs) by 30-40%. In this study, the influence of the emission restrictions on ambient levels of OVOCs was explored using a neural network analysis with consideration of meteorological conditions. Statistically significant reductions in formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methanol were found to be 12.9, 15.8, 17.1 and 19.6%, respectively, when the restrictions were in place. The effect of emission controls on acetone was not detected in neural network simulations, probably due to pollution transport from surrounding areas outside Beijing. Although the ambient levels of most NMHCs were reduced by ~35% during the full control period, the emission ratios of reactive alkenes and aromatics closely related to automobile sources did not present much difference (zero-dimensional box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCM3.2) was applied to evaluate how OVOC production responds to the reduced precursors during the emissions control period. On average, secondary HCHO was produced from the oxidation of anthropogenic alkenes (54%), isoprene (30%) and aromatics (15%). The importance of biogenic sources for the total HCHO formation was almost on par with that of anthropogenic alkenes during the daytime. Anthropogenic alkenes and alkanes dominated the photochemical production of other OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, acetone and MEK. The relative changes of modeled HCHO, CH3CHO, methyl vinyl ketone

  14. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Suramin Inhibits Osteoarthritic Cartilage Degradation by Increasing Extracellular Levels of Chondroprotective Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanalaris, Anastasios; Doherty, Christine; Marsden, Brian D; Bambridge, Gabriel; Wren, Stephen P; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease for which no disease-modifying drugs are currently available. Attempts to treat the disease with small molecule inhibitors of the metalloproteinases that degrade the cartilage matrix have been hampered by a lack of specificity. We aimed to inhibit cartilage degradation by augmenting levels of the endogenous metalloproteinase inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3, through blocking its interaction with the endocytic scavenger receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We discovered that suramin (C 51 H 40 N 6 O 23 S 6 ) bound to TIMP-3 with a K D value of 1.9 ± 0.2 nM and inhibited its endocytosis via LRP1, thus increasing extracellular levels of TIMP-3 and inhibiting cartilage degradation by the TIMP-3 target enzyme, adamalysin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5. NF279 (8,8'-[carbonyl bis (imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis -1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid hexasodium salt), a structural analog of suramin, has an increased affinity for TIMP-3 and increased ability to inhibit TIMP-3 endocytosis and protect cartilage. Suramin is thus a promising scaffold for the development of novel therapeutics to increase TIMP-3 levels and inhibit cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  16. Elevated levels of homocysteine increase IL-6 production in monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, B. E.; Jansen, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if exposure of monocytic cells to increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) induces the accumulation of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin (IL)-6 production by monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6

  17. Predictors for increasing eligibility level among home help service users in the Japanese long-term care insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kuniyasu; Sasou, Kenji; Fujita, Makoto; Yamada, Sumio

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study described the prevalence of possible risk factors for increasing eligibility level of long-term care insurance in home help service users who were certified as support level 1-2 or care level 1-2 in Japan. Data were collected from October 2011 to November 2011. Variables included eligibility level, grip strength, calf circumference (CC), functional limitations, body mass index, memory impairment, depression, social support, and nutrition status. A total of 417 subjects (109 males and 308 females, mean age 83 years) were examined. There were 109 subjects with memory impairment. When divided by cut-off values, care level 2 was found to have higher prevalence of low grip strength, low CC, and depression. Some potentially modifiable factors such as muscle strength could be the risk factors for increasing eligibility level.

  18. Responses to ozone pollution of alfalfa exposed to increasing salinity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, Albino; Chiaranda, Fabrizio Quaglietta; Cefariello, Roberto [DIAAT, Naples University Federico II, via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Fagnano, Massimo, E-mail: fagnano@unina.i [DIAAT, Naples University Federico II, via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal closure and biosynthesis of antioxidant molecules are two fundamental components of the physiological machinery that lead to stress adaptation during plant's exposure to salinity. Since high stomatal resistance may also contribute in counteracting O{sub 3} damages, we hypothesized that soil salinization may increase O{sub 3} tolerance of crops. An experiment was performed with alfalfa grown in filtered (AOT40 = 0 in both years) and non-filtered (AOT40 = 9.7 in 2005 and 6.9 ppm h in 2006) open-top chambers. Alfalfa yield was reduced by O{sub 3} (-33%) only in plants irrigated with salt-free water, while the increasing levels of soil salinity until 1.06 dS m{sup -1} reduced both stomatal conductance and plant O{sub 3} uptake, thus linearly reducing O{sub 3} effects on yield. Therefore a reliable flux-based model for assessing the effects of O{sub 3} on crop yield should take into account soil salinity. - Moderate saline stress can reduce ozone uptake and yield losses in alfalfa plants.

  19. Can treatment of nocturia increase testosterone level in men with late onset hypogonadism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-04-01

    To assess the effect of desmopressin on serum testosterone level in men with nocturia and late onset hypogonadism. We prospectively enrolled men with nocturia and symptoms of late onset hypogonadism. Desmopressin (0.1 mg) was administered once daily to patients for 12 weeks, and we then compared serum testosterone levels, electrolytes, frequency volume chart indices, and changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function, and Aging Male's Symptom scales before and after treatment. Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or hyponatremia, those using hypnotics, and those who had primary hypogonadism or hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were excluded from the study. Sixty-two men (mean age, 68.4 years) completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaires and underwent laboratory testing. At the end of the study, the testosterone levels in men with low testosterone levels (treatment (2.85 ± 0.58 to 3.97 ± 1.44 ng/mL; P = .001). Mean scores had decreased from 17.7 to 13.9 (IPSS), 3.8 to 3.2 (IPSS-Quality of Life), and 33.7 to 31.1 (Aging Male's Symptom). On the frequency volume chart, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, actual number of nocturia events, nocturia index, and nocturnal bladder capacity index were significantly decreased. Desmopressin improved nocturia and other urinary symptoms. Moreover, serum testosterone levels increased significantly in men with low testosterone levels after 12-week desmopressin treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Acceptability and storage stability of pork products with increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Krol, B.

    1980-01-01

    Several batches of back bacon, belly bacon, Dutch-style cervelat sausage, pork loin roll, shoulder with fat, Bologna, Guelders ring sausage, Saxon liver sausage and luncheon meat were produced with increasing PUFA-levels using raw materials containing up to 30% linoleic acid in their fats. Only

  2. Effects of glycerol on the metabolism of broilers fed increasing glycerine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Romano,GG; Menten,JFM; Freitas,LW; Lima,MB; Pereira,R; Zavarize,KC; Dias,CTS

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the metabolic response of broilers fed diets containing increasing crude glycerine levels in two bioassays. Birds were house in metabolic cages, and were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments of 4 replicates each (1st assay: 5 birds/ cage; 2nd assay: 1-20 days = 8 birds/ cage, and 21-42 days = 4 birds/cage). Treatments consisted of a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, and four other diets containing 2.5%, 5.0%,...

  3. Prospects of increasing the engineering level of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to main problems related to development and industrial introduction of NPP components corresponding to the perspective world-wide engineering level. The nearest task in this field is to elevate the engineering level of developed and being produced power equipment up to the level of similar equipment, manufactured by leading foreign companies

  4. Th2-like chemokine levels are increased in allergic children and influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelius, Martina S; Lempinen, Esma; Lindblad, Karin; Ernerudh, Jan; Berg, Göran; Matthiesen, Leif; Nilsson, Lennart J; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2014-06-01

    The influence of the intra-uterine environment on the immunity and allergy development in the offspring is unclear. We aimed to investigate (i) whether the pregnancy magnifies the Th2 immunity in allergic and non-allergic women, (ii) whether the maternal chemokine levels during pregnancy influenced the offspring's chemokine levels during childhood and (iii) the relationship between circulating Th1/Th2-associated chemokines and allergy in mothers and children. The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and the Th2-associated chemokines CCL17, CCL18 and CCL22 were quantified by Luminex and ELISA in 20 women with and 36 women without allergic symptoms at gestational week (gw) 10-12, 15-16, 25, 35, 39 and 2 and 12 months post-partum and in their children at birth, 6, 12, 24 months and 6 years of age. Total IgE levels were measured using ImmunoCAP Technology. The levels of the Th2-like chemokines were not magnified by pregnancy. Instead decreased levels were shown during pregnancy (irrespectively of maternal allergy status) as compared to post-partum. In the whole group, the Th1-like chemokine levels were higher at gw 39 than during the first and second trimester and post-partum. Maternal CXCL11, CCL18 and CCL22 levels during and after pregnancy correlated with the corresponding chemokines in the offspring during childhood. Increased CCL22 and decreased CXCL10 levels in the children were associated with sensitisation and increased CCL17 levels with allergic symptoms during childhood. Maternal chemokine levels were not associated with maternal allergic disease. Allergic symptoms and sensitisation were associated with decreased Th1- and increased Th2-associated chemokine levels during childhood, indicating a Th2 shift in the allergic children, possibly influenced by the maternal immunity during pregnancy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Specific Increase of Protein Levels by Enhancing Translation Using Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Upstream Open Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-01-01

    A number of diseases are caused by low levels of key proteins; therefore, increasing the amount of specific proteins in human bodies is of therapeutic interest. Protein expression is downregulated by some structural or sequence elements present in the 5' UTR of mRNAs, such as upstream open reading frames (uORF). Translation initiation from uORF(s) reduces translation from the downstream primary ORF encoding the main protein product in the same mRNA, leading to a less efficient protein expression. Therefore, it is possible to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to specifically inhibit translation of the uORF by base-pairing with the uAUG region of the mRNA, redirecting translation machinery to initiate from the primary AUG site. Here we review the recent findings that translation of specific mRNAs can be enhanced using ASOs targeting uORF regions. Appropriately designed and optimized ASOs are highly specific, and they act in a sequence- and position-dependent manner, with very minor off-target effects. Protein levels can be increased using this approach in different types of human and mouse cells, and, importantly, also in mice. Since uORFs are present in around half of human mRNAs, the uORF-targeting ASOs may thus have valuable potential as research tools and as therapeutics to increase the levels of proteins for a variety of genes.

  6. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Elli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4±2.3/1.0±1.4, 10.2±6.7/2.2±3.0 and 3.7±2.7/1.3±1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism.

  7. Increased circulating full-length betatrophin levels in drug-naïve metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Sheyu; He, He; Yu, Chuan; Li, Xiaodan; Liang, Libo; Chen, Yi; Li, Jianwei; Li, Jianshu; Sun, Xin; Tian, Haoming; An, Zhenmei

    2017-03-14

    Betatrophin is a newly identified circulating adipokine playing a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. But its role in metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to compare the circulating betatrophin concentrations between patients with MetS and healthy controls. We recruited 47 patients with MetS and 47 age and sex matched healthy controls. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed, and serum betatrophin levels were detected by ELISA. Full-length betatrophin levels in patients with MetS were significantly higher than those in controls (694.84 ± 365.51 pg/ml versus 356.64 ± 287.92 pg/ml; P <0.001). While no significant difference of total betatrophin levels was found between the two groups (1.20 ± 0.79 ng/ml versus 1.31 ± 1.08 ng/ml; P = 0.524). Full-length betatrophin level was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (r = 0.357, P = 0.014) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) (r = 0.38, P <0.01). Binary logistic regression models indicated that subjects in the tertile of the highest full-length betatrophin level experienced higher odds of having MetS (OR, 8.6; 95% CI 2.8-26.8; P <0.001). Our study showed that full-length betatrophin concentrations were increased in drug-naïve MetS patients.

  8. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children?s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 a...

  9. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-09-08

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0-10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Increased sorbitol levels in the hypertrophic ligamentum flavum of diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaquan; Huang, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Zeng, Zhaoxun; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Zhongzu; Pan, Zhimin; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hikata, Tomohiro; Iwanami, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Cao, Kai

    2017-05-01

    The pathomechanism of the ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy in diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) remains unclear. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of LF hypertrophy in these patients. Twenty-four diabetic and 20 normoglycemic patients with LSCS were enrolled in the study. The structure of the LF in the study subjects was evaluated using histological and immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the fibrogenic factor, TGF-β1, in the LF were analyzed. In vitro experiments were performed using NIH3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate the effect of high-glucose conditions and an aldose reductase inhibitor on the cellular production of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1. We found that the LF of diabetic patients exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-β1 and of CD68-positive staining than that of the normoglycemic subjects. The diabetic LF was significantly thicker than that of the controls, and showed evidence of degeneration. The high glucose-cultured fibroblasts exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1 compared to the low glucose-cultured cells, and these levels were dose-dependently reduced by treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggests that increased sorbitol levels in the LF of diabetic patients results in increased production of pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic factor, which contribute to LF hypertrophy, and could increase the susceptibility of diabetic patients to LSCS. Furthermore, aldose reductase inhibition effectively reduced the levels of sorbitol and sorbitol-induced pro-inflammatory factor expression in high glucose-cultured fibroblasts. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1058-1066, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cofilin/Twinstar phosphorylation levels increase in response to impaired coenzyme a metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Siudeja

    Full Text Available Coenzyme A (CoA is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK, which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neurodegenerative disorder PKAN. However, the consequences of impaired PANK activity are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila and human neuronal cell cultures to show how PANK deficiency leads to abnormalities in F-actin organization. Cells with reduced PANK activity are characterized by abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin, a conserved actin filament severing protein. The increased levels of phospho-cofilin coincide with morphological changes of PANK-deficient Drosophila S2 cells and human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. The latter exhibit also markedly reduced ability to form neurites in culture--a process that is strongly dependent on actin remodeling. Our results reveal a novel and conserved link between a metabolic biosynthesis pathway, and regulation of cellular actin dynamics.

  12. Increased serological cancer-associated biomarker levels at large bowel endoscopy and risk of subsequent primary cancer (†)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolris, Martin H; Piper, Thomas B; Hammer, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frequently, subjects offered colonoscopy due to symptoms of colorectal neoplasia are diagnosed with diverticula. The symptoms may, however, also be related to extra-colonic neoplasia. The present retrospective study evaluated a possible association between increased levels of predefined...... biomarkers in subjects diagnosed with diverticula and risk of developing a primary malignant disease. Methods: During 2004/2005, about 4509 subjects were included in a multicenter study with collection of blood samples before bowel endoscopy. The aim was to evaluate a relation between the protein biomarkers...... was calculated. The relation with the four biomarkers was divided into three groups: 0 = none increased; 1 = one increased and 2 = two or more increased. Results: In the observation period, 148 subjects developed a primary malignant disease. Univariable analyzes of the biomarker levels showed that CEA, TIMP-1...

  13. On the quantification of the dissolved hydroxyl radicals in the plasma-liquid system using the molecular probe method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yupengxue; Gong, Xinning; He, Bangbang; Li, Xiaofei; Cao, Dianyu; Li, Junshuai; Xiong, Qing; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Bing Hui; Huo Liu, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyl (OH) radical is one of the most important reactive species produced by plasma-liquid interactions, and the OH in liquid phase (dissolved OH radical, OHdis) takes effect in many plasma-based applications due to its high reactivity. Therefore, the quantification of the OHdis in a plasma-liquid system is of great importance, and a molecular probe method usually used for the OHdis detection might be applied. Herein, we investigate the validity of using the molecular probe method to estimate the [OHdis] in the plasma-liquid system. Dimethyl sulfoxide is used as the molecular probe to estimate the [OHdis] in an air plasma-liquid system, and usually the estimation of [OHdis] is deduced by quantifying the OHdis-induced derivative, the formaldehyde (HCHO). The analysis indicates that the true concentration of the OHdis should be estimated from the sum of three terms: the formed HCHO, the existing OH scavengers, and the H2O2 formed from the OHdis. The results show that the measured [HCHO] needs to be corrected since the HCHO consumption is not negligible in the plasma-liquid system. We conclude from the results and the analysis that the molecular probe method generally underestimates the [OHdis] in the plasma-liquid system. If one wants to obtain the true concentration of the OHdis in the plasma-liquid system, one needs to know the consumption behavior of the OHdis-induced derivatives, the information of the OH scavengers (such as hydrated electron, atomic hydrogen besides the molecular probe), and also the knowledge of the H2O2 formed from the OHdis.

  14. Increasing energy efficiency level of building production based on applying modern mechanization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Building industry in a present day going through the hard times. Machine and mechanism exploitation cost, on a field of construction and installation works, takes a substantial part in total building construction expenses. There is a necessity to elaborate high efficient method, which allows not only to increase production, but also to reduce direct costs during machine fleet exploitation, and to increase its energy efficiency. In order to achieve the goal we plan to use modern methods of work production, hi-tech and energy saving machine tools and technologies, and use of optimal mechanization sets. As the optimization criteria there are exploitation prime cost and set efficiency. During actual task-solving process we made a conclusion, which shows that mechanization works, energy audit with production juxtaposition, prime prices and costs for energy resources allow to make complex machine fleet supply, improve ecological level and increase construction and installation work quality.

  15. Electrophysiological response of chicken's jejunal epithelium to increasing levels of T-2 toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Kröger, Susan; Tichy, Alexander; Zentek, Jürgen; Böhm, Josef

    2013-02-01

    The present investigations were conducted to test the effects of T-2 toxin on electrophysiological variables of jejunal epithelium of chicken. Jejunal segments of broilers were monitored in Ussing chambers in the presence of T-2 toxin at the levels of 0 (negative control), 0 (methanol/vehicle control), 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 μg/ml of buffer. T-2 toxin did not affect basal values of short circuit current (I(sc)), transmural potential difference, or tissue conductivity in the jejunal epithelium. T-2 toxin also did not statistically affect glucose-induced electrophysiological variables during the first 3 min of glucose induction. Compared to the vehicle control, the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) was negatively affected (P = 0.008) only under 5 μg of T-2 toxin/ml. Increasing levels of T-2 toxin negatively affected the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) in a cubic (P = 0.007) fashion. These data indicate that acute exposure to moderate levels of T-2 toxin may progressively impair the cation gradient across the jejunal epithelium.

  16. Increase in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cytosol affects sugar partitioning and increases the lateral shoots in tobacco plants at elevated CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshie; Nedachi, Shigeki; Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    We generated transgenic tobacco plants with high levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressing cyanobacterialfructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol. At ambient CO(2) levels (360 ppm), growth, photosynthetic activity, and fresh weight were unchanged but the sucrose/hexose/starch ratio was slightly altered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. At elevated CO(2) levels (1200 ppm), lateral shoot, leaf number, and fresh weight were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activity was also increased. Hexose accumulated in the upper leaves in the wild-type plants, while sucrose and starch accumulated in the lower leaves and lateral shoots in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contributes to the efficient conversion of hexose into sucrose, and that the change in carbon partitioning affects photosynthetic capacity and morphogenesis at elevated CO(2) levels.

  17. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  19. Heat and exercise acclimation increases intracellular levels of Hsp72 and inhibits exercise-induced increase in intracellular and plasma Hsp72 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Passos, Renata L Freitas; Fonseca, Michele Atalla; Oliveira, Kenya Paula Moreira; Lima, Milene Rodrigues Malheiros; Guimarães, Juliana Bohen; Ferreira-Júnior, João Batista; Martini, Angelo R P; Lima, Nilo R V; Soares, Danusa Dias; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2010-11-01

    In order to verify the effects of heat and exercise acclimation (HA) on resting and exercise-induced expression of plasma and leukocyte heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) in humans, nine healthy young male volunteers (25.0 ± 0.7 years; 80.5 ± 2.0 kg; 180 ± 2 cm, mean ± SE) exercised for 60 min in a hot, dry environment (40 ± 0°C and 45 ± 0% relative humidity) for 11 days. The protocol consisted of running on a treadmill using a controlled hyperthermia technique in which the work rate was adjusted to elevate the rectal temperature by 1°C in 30 min and maintain it elevated for another 30 min. Before and after the HA, the volunteers performed a heat stress test (HST) at 50% of their individual maximal power output for 90 min in the same environment. Blood was drawn before (REST), immediately after (POST) and 1 h after (1 h POST) HST, and plasma and leukocytes were separated and stored. Subjects showed expected adaptations to HA: reduced exercise rectal and mean skin temperatures and heart rate, and augmented sweat rate and exercise tolerance. In HST1, plasma Hsp72 increased from REST to POST and then returned to resting values 1 h POST (REST: 1.11 ± 0.07, POST: 1.48 ± 0.10, 1 h POST: 1.22 ± 0.11 ng mL(-1); p  0.05). HA increased resting levels of intracellular Hsp72 (HST1: 1 ± 0.02 and HST2: 4.2 ± 1.2 density units, p  0.05). Regression analysis showed that the lower the pre-exercise expression of intracellular Hsp72, the higher the exercise-induced increase (R = -0.85, p < 0.05). In conclusion, HA increased resting leukocyte Hsp72 levels and inhibited exercise-induced expression. This intracellular adaptation probably induces thermotolerance. In addition, the non-increase in plasma Hsp72 after HA may be related to lower stress at the cellular level in the acclimated individuals.

  20. Combined effect of lung function level and decline increases morbidity and mortality risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, COPD or coronary heart disease mor- tality, and all-cause mortality were estimated from com- bined effects of level and decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Risks were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models for individuals grouped...... by combinations of baseline predicted FEV1 and quartiles of slope. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % con¿dence intervals (CI) were estimated using strati¿ed analysis by gender, smoking status, and baseline age (B45 and [45). For COPD morbidity, quartiles of increasing FEV1 decline increased HRs (95 % CI......) for individuals with FEV1 at or above the lower limit of normal (LLN) but below 100 % predicted, reaching 5.11 (2.58–10.13) for males, 11.63 (4.75–28.46) for females, and 3.09 (0.88–10.86) for never smokers in the quartile of steepest decline. Signi¿cant increasing trends were also observed for mortality...

  1. Increased circulating heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A) levels in gestational diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamvölgyi, Zoltán; Prohászka, Zoltán; Rigó, János; Kecskeméti, András; Molvarec, Attila

    2015-07-01

    Recent data indicate that serum Hsp70 (HSPA1A) levels are increased in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is no report in the literature on circulating Hsp70 levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. In this pilot study, we measured serum Hsp70 levels in 11 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes, 38 women with gestational diabetes, and 40 healthy pregnant women with ELISA. Plasma glucose levels, serum insulin concentrations, HbA1c values, and the Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index were also determined. According to our results, serum Hsp70 concentrations were significantly higher in women with pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus than in healthy pregnant women. In addition, pregestational diabetic women had significantly higher Hsp70 levels than those with gestational diabetes. Furthermore, in the group of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, serum Hsp70 levels showed a significant positive correlation with HbA1c values. However, there was no other relationship between clinical features and metabolic parameters of the study subjects and their serum Hsp70 levels in either study group. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time in the literature that serum Hsp70 levels are increased and correlate with HbA1c values in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to determine whether circulating Hsp70 plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes or elevated serum Hsp70 levels are only consequences of the disease.

  2. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D-3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56 degrees N for 24 d...... exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D-3 or 25OHD(3) level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease......The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We...

  3. Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Ploetz, Joachim

    2004-02-01

    Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient > 5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination.

  4. Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Ploetz, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient > 5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination

  5. Direct exposure of guinea pig CNS to human luteinizing hormone increases cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral beta amyloid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahjoepramono, Eka J; Wijaya, Linda K; Taddei, Kevin; Bates, Kristyn A; Howard, Matthew; Martins, Georgia; deRuyck, Karl; Matthews, Paul M; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2011-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) has been shown to alter the metabolism of beta amyloid (Aβ), a key protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. While LH and components required for LH receptor signalling are present in the brain, their role in the CNS remains unclear. In vitro, LH has been shown to facilitate neurosteroid production and alter Aβ metabolism. However, whether LH can directly modulate cerebral Aβ levels in vivo has not previously been studied. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic administration of LH to the guinea pig CNS on cerebral Aβ levels. Gonadectomised male animals were administered, via cortical placement, either placebo or LH slow-release pellets. At 14 and 28 days after treatment, animals were sacrificed. Brain, plasma and CSF were collected and Aβ levels measured via ELISA. Levels of the Aβ precursor protein (APP) and the neurosteroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) were also assayed. An increase in CSF Aβ40 levels was observed 28 days following treatment. These CSF data also reflected changes in Aβ40 levels observed in brain homogenates. No change was observed in plasma Aβ40 levels but APP and its C-terminal fragments (APP-CTF) were significantly increased in response to LH exposure. Protein expression of P450scc was increased after 28 days of LH exposure, suggesting activation of the LH receptor. These data indicate that direct exposure of guinea pig CNS to LH results in altered brain Aβ levels, perhaps due to altered APP expression/metabolism. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  7. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes......AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...

  8. Time-Dependent Changes in Increased Levels of Plasma Irisin and Muscle PGC-1α and FNDC5 after Exercise in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Minhui; Yang, Jianwei; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Zhang, Jiayi; Wang, Shengyong; Chen, Xiongfei; Dong, Xiaomei

    2018-02-01

    Exercise induces the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle, which promotes the cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) to irisin. To explore the relationship between irisin and its regulators, we analyzed the plasma irisin levels and the muscle levels of FNDC5 and PGC-1α after exercise. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent a treadmill exercise (60% of VO 2max ) for 30 min or one hour (h), and blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise, and during 24-h recovery after 1-h exercise. We found that plasma irisin levels were significantly increased during exercise (P < 0.05), while FNDC5 protein levels were not significantly increased. Moreover, PGC-1α mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased during 30-min exercise, but were decreased during 1-h exercise. After 1-h exercise, the irisin levels peaked at 6 h (20.71 ± 0.25 ng/ml) and decreased to pre-exercise levels by 24 h (15.45 ± 0.27 ng/ml). Likewise, PGC-1α mRNA and protein levels were increased at 1 h and maintained at elevated levels for 6 h; thereafter, the expression levels of PGC1-α protein were decreased to pre-exercise levels at 12 h. Thus, the restoration of PGC-1α expression to the pre-exercise levels was followed by the decrease in plasma irisin levels. By contrast, during 24-h recovery, the expression levels of FNDC5 mRNA and protein were maintained at elevated levels. These results suggest that the coordinated expression of FNDC5 and PGC-1α may contribute to the increased levels of plasma irisin after exercise.

  9. MAX-DOAS aerosol and trace gases measurements in megacities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin [Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); College of Environmental Science and Engineering Peking University, Beijing (China); Brauers, Theo [Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Shao, Min [College of Environmental Science and Engineering Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAXDOAS) is a new remote sensing technique to measure atmospheric trace gases. Compared to other areas in the world, the atmospheric observations in megacities in China are rather limited. We present MAX-DOAS measurements at four sites in Beijing and Guangzhou in 2006 and 2008. At each site, the scattered sunlight was recorded at 7 elevation angles for about 1 months. Using the zenith spectrum as reference, the Differential Slant Column Densities (DSCDs) of HCHO, CHOCHO, O{sub 4} and NO{sub 2} at offaxis viewing geometries were derived from the DOAS fit. These DSCDs were simulated using a backward Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. The aerosol and trace gas profiles were defined by 3 parameters: the integrated quantities (T), the height of the surface layer (H), and the fraction of T below H. We fitted the modeled values to the measured values at the corresponding viewing geometries by varying the 3 parameters. The aerosol extinction and the boundary layer height were successfully retrieved from the measured O{sub 4} DSCDs as well as ground level concentrations of CHOCHO, HCHO, and NO{sub 2}, the latter being compared to simultaneous in-situ measurements.

  10. Fast fluorometric flow injection analysis of formaldehyde in atmospheric water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S.; Dasgupta, P.K.

    1987-06-01

    Formaldehyde can be determined in aqueous solution at a rate of 45 samples/h with a small sample requirement (100 ..mu..L). The fluorescence of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine formed upon reaction of formaldehyde with ammonium acetate and 2,4-pentanedione (25 s, 95 /sup 0/C) is monitored with a filter fluorometer. The detection limit is 0.1 ..mu..M (3 ..mu..g/L) or 10 pmol of HCHO. The response is linear up to 3.3 ..mu..M (100 ..mu..g/L), the departure from linearity at 0.33 mM is 21%, but high levels are satisfactorily determined with a second-order calibration equation. Interference from S(IV) has been investigated in detail and completely eliminated by addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ before rendering the sample alkaline. There are no effects from commonly occurring metal ions and anions; the method is very selective to formaldehyde compared to other carbonyl compounds. A S(IV)-containing preservative has been formulated for the stabilization of low concentrations of HCHO. Results are presented for fogwater samples. 8 figures, 41 references.

  11. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  12. Impacts of Interannual Variability in Biogenic VOC Emissions near Transitional Ozone Production Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to successful NOx emission controls, summertime ozone production chemistry in urban areas across North America is transitioning from VOC-limited to increasingly NOx-limited. In some regions where ozone production sensitivity is in transition, interannual variability in surrounding biogenic VOC emissions could drive fluctuations in the prevailing chemical regime and modify the impact of anthropogenic emission changes. I use satellite observations of HCHO and NO2 column density, along with a long-term simulation of atmospheric chemistry, to investigate the impact of interannual variability in biogenic isoprene sources near large metro areas. Peak emissions of isoprene in the model can vary by up to 20-60% in any given year compared to the long term mean, and this variability drives the majority of the variability in simulated local HCHO:NO2 ratios (a common proxy for ozone production sensitivity). The satellite observations confirm increasingly NOx-limited chemical regimes with large interannual variability. In several instances, the model and satellite observations suggest that variability in biogenic isoprene emissions could shift summertime ozone production from generally VOC- to generally NOx- sensitive (or vice versa). This would have implications for predicting the air quality impacts of anthropogenic emission changes in any given year, and suggests that drivers of biogenic emissions need to be well understood.

  13. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...

  14. Increased plasma soluble uPAR level is a risk marker of respiratory cancer in initially cancer-free individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne A; Hansen, Tine Willum; Ladelund, Steen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable plasma biomarker associated with inflammation and disease. This study tested the association between suPAR levels and incident respiratory, gastrointestinal or other types of cancer in initially cancer-free individuals...... with respiratory, gastrointestinal and other cancer types, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated suPAR levels were associated with increased risk of incident respiratory cancer and other types of cancer, but not gastrointestinal cancers, independently of established risk factors, CRP and leukocyte numbers. Impact.......RESULTS: suPAR levels ranged from 0.6-22 ng/ml, and median suPAR level was 4.01 ng/ml. 1 ng/ml increase in baseline suPAR was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.61 (95% CI: 1.23-2.11, P

  15. Can Increased CO2 Levels Trigger a Runaway Greenhouse on the Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R.

    2014-04-01

    Recent one-dimensional (globally averaged) climate model calculations suggest that increased atmospheric CO2 could conceivably trigger a runaway greenhouse if CO2 concentrations were approximately 100 times higher than today. The new prediction runs contrary to previous calculations, which indicated that CO2 increases could not trigger a runaway, even at Venus-like CO2 concentrations. Goldblatt et al. argue that this different behavior is a consequence of updated absorption coefficients for H2O that make a runaway more likely. Here, we use a 1-D cloud-free climate model with similar, up-to-date absorption coefficients, but with a self-consistent methodology, to demonstrate that CO2 increases cannot induce a runaway greenhouse on the modern Earth. However, these initial calculations do not include cloud feedback, which may be positive at higher temperatures, destabilizing Earth's climate. We then show new calculations demonstrating that cirrus clouds cannot trigger a runaway, even in the complete absence of low clouds. Thus, the habitability of an Earth-like planet at Earth's distance appears to be ensured, irrespective of the sign of cloud feedback. Our results are of importance to Earth-like planets that receive similar insolation levels as does the Earth and to the ongoing question about cloud response at higher temperatures.

  16. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang; Sourbier, Carole; Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Jeong, Suhyoung; Vira, Manish A.; Ghosh, Manik Chandra; Romero, Vladimir Valera; Sougrat, Rachid; Vaulont, Sophie; Viollet, Benoî t; Kim, Yeongsang; Lee, Sunmin; Trepel, Jane B.; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Yang, Youfeng; Linehan, William Marston; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2011-01-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  17. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang

    2011-09-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of glucocorticoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-10-01

    The possible involvement of glucocorticoid system in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. In the first experiment, mice were treated intrathecally (i.t.) with IL-1β (100 pg). Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA (hypothalamus) and c-Fos mRNA (pituitary gland, spinal cord, and the adrenal gland) levels were measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after IL-1β administration. We found that i.t. injection with IL-1β increased CRH mRNA level in the hypothalamus. The IL-1β administered i.t. elevated c-Fos mRNA levels in the spinal cord, pituitary and adrenal glands. Furthermore, i.t. administration of IL-1β significantly increased the plasma corticosterone level up to 60 min. In addition, the adrenalectomy caused the reductions of the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β injected i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with RU486 (100mg/kg) attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level and pain behavior via an activation of the glucocorticoid system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropeptide Y infusion into the shell region of the rat nucleus accumbens increases extracellular levels of dopamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Wegener, Gregers; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Increases in extracellular dopamine in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens are centrally involved in mediating reinforcement of addictive drugs. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors are present in the nucleus accumbens and have been implicated in addiction mechanisms. This study further...... explored the potential role of NPY in addiction mechanisms using microdialysis to measure extracellular dopamine in vivo after infusion of NPY directly into the accumbal shell region of adult rats. NPY was found to dose-dependently increase extracellular dopamine levels, indicating that NPY could play...... an important role in drug reinforcement by modulating accumbal dopamine levels...

  20. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  1. Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Increasing children's physical activity levels during recess periods in elementary schools: the effects of providing game equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Stefanie J M; Cardon, Greet M; De Clercq, Dirk L R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M M

    2006-08-01

    During recess, children can be active on a daily basis, making it an important school environmental factor for the promotion of health-related physical activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of providing game equipment on children's physical activity levels during morning recess and lunch break in elementary schools. Seven elementary schools were randomly assigned to the intervention group (four schools), including 122 children (75 boys, 47 girls, mean age: 10.8 +/- 0.6 years), and to the control group (three schools), including 113 children (46 boys, 67 girls, mean age: 10.9 +/- 0.7 years). Children's activity levels were measured before and three months after providing game equipment, using MTI accelerometers. During lunch break, children's moderate and vigorous physical activity significantly increased in the intervention group (moderate: from 38 to 50%, vigorous: from 10 to 11%), while it decreased in the control group (moderate: from 44 to 39%, vigorous: from 11 to 5%). At morning recess, providing game equipment was effective in increasing children's moderate physical activity (from 41 to 45%), while it decreased in the control group (from 41 to 34%). Providing game equipment during recess periods was found to be effective in increasing children's physical activity levels. This finding suggests that promoting physical activity through game equipment provision during recess periods can contribute to reach the daily activity levels recommended for good health.

  3. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  4. Increasing levels of crude protein in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplements with differents levels of crude protein (CP or mineral supplements on the nutritional parameters and performance of beef heifers grazing Uruchloa decumbens in the rainy season. A complete random design was employed. The treatments were made up of increasing levels of CP in the multiple supplements and a control treatment (MM in which animals were offered only mineral mixture. Multiple supplements contained 17; 30; 43 and 56% of CP, for treatments CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG (g was 447.7; 554.6; 638.4; 587.9; 590.4, for treatments MM, CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. A quadratic effect of the levels of crude protein was found (p< 0.10 on ADG. A greater intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, ether extract (EE, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN, and digested dry matter (p< 0.10 was found in animals supplemented with multiple supplements. Multiple supplements increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, EE and NFC. Supply of multiple multiple supplements for heifers grazing in medium to high quality pastures in the rainy season improves the performance of the animals.

  5. The Influence of Strategic Alternatives on the Increasing Level Value of the Term Deposits

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    Mirela Catalina Turkes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the influence of the strategic alternative on the value level increase of the term deposits attracted from the Romanian’s population households, during the period 2012 – Q1/2015, depending on the change of the standards related to deposits granting in RON, EURO and other currencies, but also depending on the aggregate volume of deposits demand at a national level. One-way ANOVA represents the ideal model to emphasize that the average of the term deposits attracted from the population’s households during the last four years is influenced by the strategic alternative used by the credit institutions. The results of this analysis underlined the fact that there is a strong link between the strategic alternative adopted by the banks and the change of the value level of the term deposits intended for the population. The strategies to attract RON deposits proved to be more efficient compared to the strategies adopted by the banks for other currencies.

  6. Increased DHT levels in androgenic alopecia have been selected for to protect men from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Shiva

    2014-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia, a condition characterized by increased levels of DHT could have been selected for due to the benefits that prostaglandin D2 (PGD(2)) has on the prostate. A DHT metabolite can increase the transcription of prostaglandin D2 synthase through estrogen receptor beta. The increase of PGD(2) can decrease the risk of prostate cancer and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Therefore, the mechanisms behind male pattern baldness may also curtail the advancement of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IL-33 circulating serum levels are increased in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Mario; Cicero, Francesca; Mannucci, Carmen; Calapai, Gioacchino; Spatari, Giovanna; Barbuzza, Olga; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-09-01

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine, encoded by the IL-33 gene, which is a member of the IL-1 family that drives the production of T-helper-2 (Th-2)-associated cytokines. Serum levels of IL-33 have been reported to be up-regulated in various T-helper (Th)-1/Th-17-mediated diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel. To investigate whether cytokine imbalance plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, we performed a case-control association study by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of IL-33 in our patients. IL-33 serum levels were measured by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay technique in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo and compared with those of healthy controls. IL-33 serum levels in patients with vitiligo were significantly increased than those in healthy controls. There was a positive correlation of IL-33 serum levels with extension of vitiligo and disease activity. This study suggests a possible systemic role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Inhibiting IL-33 activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory disease, like vitiligo.

  8. Relationship between increased serum tumor necrosis factor levels and insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weimin; Li Jinliang; Huang Yongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with essential by pertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α and free insulin (fINS)levels were measured with RIA in 41 patients with essential hypertension and 38 controls. Insulin resistance was calculated with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: The serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with essential hypertension than those in the controls (P<0.001). The HOMA-IR was also significantly higher in hypertension group than that in controls (P<0.001). Serum TNF-α levels was positively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and SBP both in hypertension group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α level was increased in hypertensive patients and positively correlated with obesity and IR. (authors)

  9. Characterizing boundary layer height using surface and column measurements of NO2 and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valin, L.; Szykman, J.; Long, R.; Whitehill, A.; Williams, D. J.; Knepp, T. N.; Crawford, J. H.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Judd, L.; Brown, S.; Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Appel, W.; Hogrefe, C.; Abuhassan, N.; Cede, A.; Spinei, E.; Herman, J. R.; Swap, R.; Cohen, R. C.; Fried, A.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The rate of vertical mixing near the surface determines the rate of human exposure to emitted pollutants and also influences the rate at which ozone and particulate matter are formed. To characterize the variability of atmospheric composition near the surface and above, the EPA Office of Research and Development has deployed instruments to measure surface and column concentrations of NO2, an emitted species, and formaldehyde (HCHO) during KORUS-AQ (May - June 2016, Seoul, Korea), UWFPS (Jan-Feb 2016, Salt Lake City) and LMOS (May - June, 2017, Lake Michigan). We compare the mixed layer height determined by aerosol backscatter profiles to a value determined by dividing the NO2 and HCHO column density (molecule cm-2) by its surface concentration (molecule cm-3), using linear regression to remove influence of layers aloft (y-intercept), such as subtraction of the stratospheric NO2 column. We evaluate our findings by using aircraft soundings of NO2 and HCHO and discuss the implications with respect to photochemical transport modeling results from CMAQ and space-based satellite retrievals. Finally we discuss an overall strategy to make these measurements part of routine monitoring at Photochemical Assessment Monitoring System locations (PAMS).

  10. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

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    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  11. Increased levels of etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of long-term exposure to pure diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meili; Bin, Ping; Li, Haibin; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress. In this study, the aim was to detect the level of etheno-DNA adducts and explore the relationship between the etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of the diesel engine exhaust (DEE)-exposed workers. We recruited 86 diesel engine testing workers with long-term exposure to DEE and 99 non-DEE-exposed workers. The urinary mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and etheno-DNA adducts (εdA and εdC) were detected by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Genotoxicity biomarkers were also evaluated by comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The results showed that urinary εdA was significantly higher in the DEE-exposed workers (p<0.001), exhibited 2.1-fold increase compared with the non-DEE-exposed workers. The levels of urinary OH-PAHs were positively correlated with the level of εdA among all the study subjects (p<0.001). Moreover, we found that the increasing level of εdA was significantly associated with the increased olive tail moment, percentage of tail DNA, or frequency of micronucleus in the study subjects (p<0.01). No significant association was observed between the εdC level and any measured genotoxicity biomarkers. In summary, εdA could serve as an indicator for DEE exposure in the human population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamish Elliott, Kyle; Cesh, Lillian S.; Dooley, Jessica A.; Letcher, Robert J.; Elliott, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent contaminants often vary widely among individuals within a population. We hypothesized that such variation was caused mainly by differences in diet (biomagnification) and in coastal systems by the tendency of marine systems to act as contaminant sinks. We examined the relationship between contaminant concentrations and stable isotope ratios in nestling plasma from an apex predator with a particularly broad diet. Our study included freshwater, estuarine, inshore and pelagic breeding sites. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the pelagic marine sites showed high trophic level and marine input, eagles at the freshwater sites showed low trophic level and marine input, and eagles at the estuarine and inshore marine sites had intermediate values. The relationship between trophic level and marine input may reflect longer food chains in pelagic compared to terrestrial ecosystems. ΣPCBs and DDE concentrations generally increased with trophic level and marine input, with the exception of the freshwater sites, while ΣPBDEs, hydroxylated-PBDEs and hydroxylated-PCBs increased with marine input, but were independent of trophic level. The relationships for ΣPCBs and DDE were often slightly stronger with marine input than trophic level, suggesting that oceanographic processes may be more important than trophic level. At freshwater locations, spatial variation may be more important than trophic level due to the heterogeneity of contaminant profiles between feeding locations (lakes, rivers, agricultural fields). Adults had similar isotopic composition to their chicks but higher contamination. Based on nests where prey composition was determined independently, isotopic enrichment values for nestling plasma were 1.6 ± 0.1 (δ 15 N) and - 0.4 ±0.2 (δ 13 C). We conclude that trophic level and marine influence are significant factors influencing PCB and DDE concentrations in eagles. However, trophic level in particular did not influence PBDEs

  13. Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and improves plasma glucose levels in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

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    Anette I Öberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in identifying compounds that can improve glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle, due to its large mass, is the principal organ for glucose disposal in the body and we have investigated here if shikonin, a naphthoquinone derived from the Chinese plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes, but does not phosphorylate Akt, indicating that in skeletal muscle cells its effect is medaited via a pathway distinct from that used for insulin-stimulated uptake. Furthermore we find no evidence for the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in shikonin induced glucose uptake. Shikonin increases the intracellular levels of calcium in these cells and this increase is necessary for shikonin-mediated glucose uptake. Furthermore, we found that shikonin stimulated the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface in L6 myoblasts. The beneficial effect of shikonin on glucose uptake was investigated in vivo by measuring plasma glucose levels and insulin sensitivity in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Treatment with shikonin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days significantly decreased plasma glucose levels. In an insulin sensitivity test (s.c. injection of 0.5 U/kg insulin, plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in the shikonin-treated rats. In conclusion, shikonin increases glucose uptake in muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. The beneficial effects of shikonin on glucose metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo, show that the compound possesses properties that make it of considerable interest for developing novel treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Occurrence and determinants of increases in blood lead levels in children shortly after lead hazard control activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Scott; Grote, JoAnn; Wilson, Jonathan; Succop, Paul; Chen Mei; Galke, Warren; McLaine, Pat

    2004-01-01

    This study is an examination of the effect of lead hazard control strategies on children's blood lead levels immediately after an intervention was conducted as part of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program. Fourteen state and local government grantees participated in the evaluation. The findings indicated an overall average reduction in the blood lead levels of 869 children soon after the implementation of lead hazard controls. However, 9.3% of these children (n=81) had blood lead increases of 5 μg/dL or more. Data routinely collected as part of the evaluation, as well as additional information supplied by the individual programs, were used to determine potential reasons for these observed increases in blood lead. A logistic regression analysis indicated that three principal factors were associated with the blood lead increases: the number of exterior deteriorations present in the child's home (prior to intervention), the educational level of the female parent or guardian of the child, and the child's age. The statistical analysis did not find evidence that children living in households that either did not relocate or relocated for less than the full work period were significantly more likely to have a blood lead increase equal to or greater than 5 μg/dL than children living in households that fully relocated. Statistical analyses also did not reveal any single interior strategy to be more or less likely than others to be associated with a blood lead increase of 5 μg/dL or more

  15. Increased breath ethane levels in medicated patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are unrelated to erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acid abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Maxwell, Ross; Glen, Iain

    2011-03-30

    Oxidative stress has been reported to be elevated in mental illness. Preliminary evidence suggests this phenomenon can be assessed non-invasively by determining breath levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation product ethane. This study compares alkane levels in chronic, medicated, patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with those in healthy controls. Both ethane and butane levels were significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, although elevated butane levels were likely due to increased ambient gas concentrations. Ethane levels were not correlated with symptom severity or with erythrocyte omega-3 PUFA levels. Our results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is elevated in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder leading to increased breath ethane abundance. This does not appear to be caused by increased abundance of omega-3 PUFA, but rather is likely due to enhanced oxidative damage of these lipids. As such, breath hydrocarbon analysis may represent a simple, non-invasive means to monitor the metabolic processes occurring in these disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Maria D Esteve-Gassent

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348 exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560, and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15 were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC, Decorin binding protein A (DbpA, fibronectin binding protein (BBK32, RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of

  17. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  18. Experimental increase in baseline corticosterone level reduces oxidative damage and enhances innate immune response.

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    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC hormones are significant regulators of homeostasis. The physiological effects of GCs critically depend on the time of exposure (short vs. long as well as on their circulating levels (baseline vs. stress-induced. Previous experiments, in which chronic and high elevation of GC levels was induced, indicate that GCs impair both the activity of the immune system and the oxidative balance. Nonetheless, our knowledge on how mildly elevated GC levels, a situation much more common in nature, might influence homeostasis is limited. Therefore, we studied whether an increase in GC level within the baseline range suppresses or enhances condition (body mass, hematocrit and coccidian infestation and physiological state (humoral innate immune system activity and oxidative balance. We implanted captive house sparrows Passer domesticus with either 60 days release corticosterone (CORT or control pellets. CORT-treated birds had elevated baseline CORT levels one week after the implantation, but following this CORT returned to its pre-treatment level and the experimental groups had similar CORT levels one and two months following the implantation. The mass of tail feathers grown during the initial phase of treatment was smaller in treated than in control birds. CORT implantation had a transient negative effect on body mass and hematocrit, but both of these traits resumed the pre-treatment values by one month post-treatment. CORT treatment lowered oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde and enhanced constitutive innate immunity at one week and one month post-implantation. Our findings suggest that a relatively short-term (i.e. few days elevation of baseline CORT might have a positive and stimulatory effect on animal physiology.

  19. Prediction of temperature increases in a salt repository expected from the storage of spent fuel or high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, G.H.

    1978-04-01

    Comparisons in temperature increases incurred from hypothetical storage of 133 MW of 10-year-old spent fuel (SF) or high-level waste (HLW) in underground salt formations have been made using the HEATING5 computer code. The comparisons are based on far-field homogenized models that cover areas of 65 and 25 sq miles for SF and HLW, respectively, and near-field unit-cell models covering respective areas of 610 ft 2 and 400 ft 2 . Preliminary comparisons based on heat loads of 150 kW/acre and 3.5 kW/canister indicated near-field temperature increases about 20% higher for the storage of the spent fuel than for the high-level waste. In these comparisons, it was also found that the thermal energy deposited in the salt after 500 years is about twice the energy deposited by the high-level waste. The thermal load in a repository containing 10-year-old spent fuel was thus limited to 60 kW/acre to obtain comparable far-field thermal effects as obtained in a repository containing 10-year-old high-level waste loaded at 150 kW/acre. Detailed far-field and unit-cell comparisons of transient temperature increases have been made based on these loadings. Unit-cell comparisons were made between a canister containing high-level waste with an initial heat production rate of 2.1 kW and a canister containing a PWR spent fuel assembly producing 0.55 kW. Using a three-dimensional unit-cell model, a maximum salt temperature increase of 260 0 F was calculated for the high-level waste prior to back-filling (5 years after burial), whereas a maximum temperature increase of 110 0 F was calculated for the spent fuel prior to backfilling (25 years after burial). Comparisons were also made between various configurational models for the high-level waste showing the applicability of each model

  20. Periodontitis increases rheumatic factor serum levels and citrullinated proteins in gingival tissues and alter cytokine balance in arthritic rats.

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    Mônica G Corrêa

    Full Text Available This study investigated some immunological features by experimental periodontitis (EP and rheumatoid arthritis (RA disease interact in destructive processes in arthritic rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: EP +RA; RA; EP; and Negative Control. RA was induced by immunizations with type-II collagen and a local immunization with Complete Freund's adjuvant in the paw. Periodontitis was induced by ligating the right first molars. The serum level of rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACCPA were measured before the induction of EP (T1 and at 28 days after (T2 by ELISA assay. ACCPA levels were also measured in the gingival tissue at T2. The specimens were processed for morphometric analysis of bone loss, and the gingival tissue surrounding the first molar was collected for the quantification of interleukin IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α using a Luminex/MAGpix assay. Paw edema was analyzed using a plethysmometer. Periodontitis increased the RF and ACCPA levels in the serum and in the gingival tissue, respectively. Besides, the level of paw swelling was increased by EP and remained in progress until the end of the experiment, when EP was associated with RA. Greater values of IL-17 were observed only when RA was present, in spite of PE. It can be concluded that periodontitis increases rheumatic factor serum levels and citrullinated proteins level in gingival tissues and alter cytokine balance in arthritic rats; at the same time, arthritis increases periodontal destruction, confirming the bidirectional interaction between diseases.

  1. Adaptive Capacity Mapping of Semarang Offshore Territory by the Increasing of Water Level and Climate Change

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    Ifan Ridlo Suhelm

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tidal inundation, flood and land subsidence are the problems faced by Semarang city related to climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC predicted the increase of sea level rise 18-59 cm during 1990-2100 while the temperature increase 0,6°C to 4°C during the same period. The Semarang coastal city was highly vulnerable to sea level rise and it increased with two factors, topography and land subsidence. The purpose of this study was to map the adaptive capacity of coastal areas in the face of the threat of disasters caused by climate change. The parameters used are Network Number, Employee based educational background, Source Main Livelihoods, Health Facilities, and Infrastructure Road. Adaptive capacity of regions classified into 3 (three classes, namely low, medium and high. The results of the study showed that most of the coastal area of Semarang have adaptive capacities ranging from low to moderate, while the village with low capacity totaling 58 villages (58.62% of the total coastal district in the city of Semarang.

  2. Respiratory Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) levels increase during lung maturation and infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H; End, C; Weiss, C

    2007-01-01

    .0179). An increase of respiratory DMBT1 levels was detected in neonatal infections (P ...Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds and aggregates various bacteria and viruses in vitro. Studies in adults have shown that DMBT1 is expressed mainly by mucosal epithelia and glands, in particular within the respiratory...... tract, and plays a role in innate immune defence. We hypothesized that respiratory DMBT1 levels may be influenced by various developmental and clinical factors such as maturity, age and bacterial infection. DMBT1 levels were studied in 205 tracheal aspirate samples of 82 ventilated preterm and full...

  3. MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, induces human pulmonary fibroblast cell death via increasing ROS levels and GSH depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2012-04-01

    MG132 as a proteasome inhibitor can induce apoptotic cell death in lung cancer cells. However, little is known about the toxicological cellular effects of MG132 on normal primary lung cells. Here, we investigated the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and vitamin C (well known antioxidants) or L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO; an inhibitor of GSH synthesis) on MG132-treated human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF) cells in relation to cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH). MG132 induced growth inhibition and death in HPF cells, accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ∆ψm). MG132 increased ROS levels and GSH-depleted cell numbers in HPF cells. Both antioxidants, NAC and vitamin C, prevented growth inhibition, death and MMP (∆ψm) loss in MG132-treated HPF cells and also attenuated ROS levels in these cells. BSO showed a strong increase in ROS levels in MG132-treated HPF cells and slightly enhanced the growth inhibition, cell death, MMP (∆ψm) loss and GSH depletion. In addition, NAC decreased anonymous ubiquitinated protein levels in MG132-treated HPF cells. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase (SOD) 2, catalase (CTX) and GSH peroxidase (GPX) siRNAs enhanced HPF cell death by MG132, which was not correlated with ROS and GSH level changes. In conclusion, MG132 induced the growth inhibition and death of HPF cells, which were accompanied by increasing ROS levels and GSH depletion. Both NAC and vitamin C attenuated HPF cell death by MG132, whereas BSO slightly enhanced the death.

  4. SPILANTHES ACMELLA AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE INCREASED TESTOSTERONE LEVELS AND OSTEOBLAST CELLS IN GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS MALE MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is leading cause of secondary osteoporosis by decreasing formation activity and increasing resorption activity. Spilanthes acmella, is one of Indonesia medicinal plants that contain of polyphenol and flavonoids. Previously in vitro study showed that buthanol and water fraction from this plant have increased alkaline phosphatase that known as marker of bone formation. The objective of this study to analyze the effect of Spilanthes acmella  and physical exercise in increasing testosterone and  osteoblast cells of femoral’s trabecular glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis male mice. Method: This study using a posttest control group design, 36 male healthy mice (5 months old  were randomizely devided into 6 groups, there are : 1.Healthy control group (without induction dexamethaxone, 2.Osteoporosis groups (induction with dexamethaxone without treatment, 3.Positive control receive suspension alendronat, 4.70% Ethanol extract of Spilanthes acmella group, 5.Combination group of 70% extract ethanol of Spilanthes acmella and exercise, and 6.Exercise group  (walking using mice treadmill 10m/minute, 5-12 minutes 3 times a week. All of the intervention were given for 4 weeks. The serum levels of testosterone were determined using  immunoserology (ELISA and osteoblast cells were determined histomorphometry by light microscopy.  All statistical test were carried out using SPSS 23 and statistical significance was  set at p<0.05 for all analysis. The testosterone levels  between group were compared using Mann-Whitney test and osteoblast cells between group were compared with multiple comparison. Results: It showed that the alendronate group, combination group and the exercise group increasing testosterone level (p<0.05 from that osteoporotic group. There were also increasing osteoblast cells (p<0.05 in the alendronate group and combination group. There was no correlation between testosterone level and

  5. Plasma and adipose tissue level of angiopoietin-like 7 (ANGPTL7) are increased in obesity and reduced after physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Cherian, Preethi; Al-Khairi, Irina; Madhu, Dhanya; Tiss, Ali; Warsam, Samia; Alhubail, Asma; Sriraman, Devarajan; Al-Refaei, Faisal; Abubaker, Jehad

    2017-01-01

    ANGPTL7 is a member of the Angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) protein family that is composed of eight proteins (1-8). Increasing evidence is associating ANGPTL proteins to obesity and insulin resistance. The biological role of ANGPTL7 is yet to be understood except for a recently proposed role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. This study was designed to shed light on the function of ANGPTL7 in obesity and its modulation by physical exercise as well as its potential association with lipid profile. A total of 144 subjects were enrolled in this study and finished three months of physical exercise. The participants were classified based on their BMI, 82 subjects were non-obese and 62 obese. ANGPTL7 levels in plasma and adipose tissue were measured by ELISA, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In this study, we showed that ANGPTL7 level was increased in the plasma of obese subjects (1249.05± 130.39 pg/mL) as compared to non-obese (930.34 ± 87.27 pg/mL) (p-Value = 0.032). ANGPTL7 Gene and protein expression levels in adipose tissue also showed over two fold increase. Physical exercise reduced circulating level of ANGPTL7 in the obese subjects to 740.98± 127.18 pg/mL, (p-Value = 0.007). ANGPTL7 expression in adipose tissue was also reduced after exercise. Finally, ANGPTL7 circulating level showed significant association with TG level in the obese subjects (R2 = 0.183, p-Value = 0.03). In conclusion, our data shows for the first time that obesity increases the level of ANGPTL7 in both plasma and adipose tissue. Increased expression of ANGPTL7 might play a minor role in the regulation of TG level in obese subjects either directly or through interaction with other ANGPTL protein members. Physical exercise reduced the level of ANGPTL7 highlighting the potential for targeting this protein as a therapeutic target for regulating dyslipidemia.

  6. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by endothelial cell damage, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and various degrees of neurological and renal impairment caused by microvascular thrombi. It is rare in children and frequently follows a fatal course. TTP is divided into 2 types: one is inherited and associated with ADAMTS-13 gene mutations and the other is acquired and associated with anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies. The measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma, identification of ADAMTS-13 circulating inhibitor, anti-ADAMTS-13 IgG, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing are crucial to the diagnosis of TTP. Plasma exchanges are the first-line treatment for acquired TTP, combined with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe the case of an adolescent patient with TTP, confirmed by decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and an increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor, who was successfully treated by plasma exchanges.

  7. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  8. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Niskanen, Leo; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Viinamäki, Heimo; Hintikka, Jukka; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Harvima, Ilkka T; Lehto, Soili M

    2012-01-09

    Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS) are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th)-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in MDD. We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN)-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58). In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use). The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22) or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23). Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS), could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  9. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elomaa Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 in MDD. Methods We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58. Results In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use. The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22 or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23. Conclusions Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS, could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  10. Correlation between increasing tissue ischemia and circulating levels of angiogenic growth factors in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Juho; Hautero, Olli; Maksimow, Mikael; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2018-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to assess the circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other suggested therapeutic growth factors with the degree of ischemia in patients with different clinical manifestations of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) according to the Rutherford grades. The study cohort consists of 226 consecutive patients admitted to a Department of Vascular Surgery for elective invasive procedures. PAD patients were grouped according to the Rutherford grades after a clinical assessment. Ankle-brachial pressure indices (ABI) and absolute toe pressure (TP) values were measured. Serum levels of circulating VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured from serum and analysed against Rutherford grades and peripheral hemodynamic measurements. The levels of VEGF (P = 0.009) and HGF (P correlations between Rutherford grades was detected as follows; VEGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.183, P = 0.004), HGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.253, P Pearson's correlation = 0.169, P = 0.008) and PDGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.296, P correlation with ABI (Pearson's correlation -0.19, P = 0.009) and TP (Pearson's correlation -0.20, P = 0.005) measurements. Our present observations show that the circulating levels of VEGF and other suggested therapeutic growth factors are significantly increased along with increasing ischemia. These findings present a new perspective to anticipated positive effects of gene therapies utilizing VEGF, HGF, and bFGF, because the levels of these growth factors are endogenously high in end-stage PAD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca [Biology Department, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6 (Canada); Braune, Birgit M. [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Robertson, Gregory J. [Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Division, 6 Bruce Street, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador A1N 4T3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H. Grant [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Conor D. [Chemistry Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Forbes, Mark R. [Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, Regina [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 512 Lahr Boulevard, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador A0P 1C0 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health.

  12. Something to talk about: Gossip increases oxytocin levels in a near real-life situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondino, Natascia; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Politi, Pierluigi

    2017-03-01

    Gossip is a pervasive social behavior. Its evolutionary survival seems related to its social functions, such as establishing group rules, punishing trespassers, exercising social influence through reputational systems, and developing and strengthening social bonds. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gossip on hormones (oxytocin and cortisol) and at identifying potential mediators of hormonal response to gossip. Twenty-two female students were randomly assigned to a gossip conversation or to an emotional non-gossip conversation. Additionally, all participants underwent a neutral conversation on the second day of the study. Salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels were measured. Oxytocin increased significantly in the gossip compared to the emotional non-gossip conversation. A decrease in cortisol levels was observed in all three conditions (gossip, emotional non-gossip, neutral). Change in cortisol levels was similar across conditions. Psychological characteristics (e.g. empathy, autistic traits, perceived stress, envy) did not affect oxytocin rise in the gossip condition. Our findings suggest that oxytocin may represent a potential hormonal correlate of gossip behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low Adiponectin Levels and Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Pedersen, Sune H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake...... 5.3-6.1]) 6% (n = 38) developed T2DM. Risk of T2DM was analyzed using a competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Low adiponectin levels were associated with increased risk of T2DM (P age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, current smoking.......001). Importantly, plasma adiponectin added to the predictive value of blood glucose, with the combination of high blood glucose and low plasma adiponectin, vastly increasing the risk of developing T2DM (HR 9.6 [3.7-25.3]; P

  14. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Vivi F H; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Chapman, Melissa; Alifrangis, Lene; Andersen, Lene; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bøgh, Ingrid B

    2017-01-01

    The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30-50% (4-6 mM versus 7-9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  15. CARIBIC DOAS observations of nitrous acid and formaldehyde in a large convective cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heue, K.-P.; Riede, H.; Walter, D.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Wagner, T.; Frieß, U.; Platt, U.; Zahn, A.; Stratmann, G.; Ziereis, H.

    2014-07-01

    The chemistry in large thunderstorm clouds is influenced by local lightning-NOx production and uplift of boundary layer air. Under these circumstances trace gases like nitrous acid (HONO) or formaldehyde (HCHO) are expected to be formed or to reach the tropopause region. However, up to now only few observations of HONO at this altitude have been reported. Here we report on a case study where enhancements in HONO, HCHO and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were observed by the CARIBIC flying laboratory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The event took place in a convective system over the Caribbean Sea in August 2011. Inside the cloud the light path reaches up to 100 km. Therefore the DOAS instrument on CARIBIC was very sensitive to the tracers inside the cloud. Based on the enhanced slant column densities of HONO, HCHO and NO2, average mixing ratios of 37, 468 and 210 ppt, respectively, were calculated. These data represent averages for constant mixing ratios inside the cloud. However, a large dependency on the assumed profile is found; for HONO a mixing ratio of 160 ppt is retrieved if the total amount is assumed to be situated in the uppermost 2 km of the cloud. The NO in situ instrument measured peaks up to 5 ppb NO inside the cloud; the background in the cloud was about 1.3 ppb, and hence clearly above the average outside the cloud (≈ 150 ppt). The high variability and the fact that the enhancements were observed over a pristine marine area led to the conclusion that, in all likelihood, the high NO concentrations were caused by lighting. This assumption is supported by the number of flashes that the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) counted in this area before and during the overpass. The chemical box model CAABA is used to estimate the NO and HCHO source strengths which are necessary to explain our measurements. For NO a source strength of 10 × 109 molec cm-2 s-1 km-1 is found, which

  16. Levels of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy despite increased insulin resistance, beta-cell function and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, A; Maciulewski, R; Siewko, K; Popławska-Kita, A; Lipińska, D; Kozłowska, G; Górska, M; Szelachowska, M

    2016-12-01

    Evidence in support of an association between betatrophin and insulin resistance (IR) is mounting, with studies demonstrating that betatrophin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of betatrophin in IR and physiological proliferation of beta cells during pregnancy in healthy women. Eighty healthy pregnant women were examined at each trimester [T1 (first), T2 (second), T3 (third)], with a subgroup (n=45) that was also examined at 3 months postpartum (3MPP). The controls comprised 30 non-pregnant healthy women (HW) of reproductive age. Also measured were levels of betatrophin (ELISA), glucose (enzymatic method with hexokinase), insulin (IRMA), C-peptide (EASIA) and HbA 1c (HPLC), while HOMA-IR and HOMA-β scores were calculated. Betatrophin concentration was highest at T1, and differed significantly from T2 and T3 (1.84 [Q 1 =1.16, Q 3 =2.67]ng/mL vs 1.46 [Q 1 =0.96, Q 3 =2.21]ng/mL; Pindex scores increased during gestation, peaking at T3 (2.3 [Q 1 =1.66, Q 3 =2.72] and 227.7 [Q 1 =185.49, Q 3 =326.31], respectively) and returning to levels similar to those of HW at 3MPP (1.53 [Q 1 =1.12, Q 3 =2.41] and 88.86 [Q 1 =62.73, Q 3 =130.45] vs 1.35 [Q 1 =1.02, Q 3 =1.62] and 92.5 [Q 1 =74.20, Q 3 =111.47], respectively). Concentrations of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy, suggesting that the hormone does not play a significant role in the expansion of beta-cell mass and IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Iron Loading Selectively Increases Hippocampal Levels of Ubiquitinated Proteins and Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luciana Silva; de Freitas, Betânia Souza; Garcia, Vanessa Athaíde; Dargél, Vinícius Ayub; Köbe, Luiza Machado; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Schröder, Nadja

    2016-11-01

    Alterations of brain iron levels have been observed in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously demonstrated that iron overload in the neonatal period results in severe and persistent memory deficits in the adulthood. Protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central regulatory role in several cellular processes. Impairment of the UPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined the effects of iron exposure in the neonatal period (12th-14th day of postnatal life) on the expression of proteasome β-1, β-2, and β-5 subunits, and ubiquitinated proteins in brains of 15-day-old rats, to evaluate the immediate effect of the treatment, and in adulthood to assess long-lasting effects. Two different memory types, emotionally motivated conditioning and object recognition were assessed in adult animals. We found that iron administered in the neonatal period impairs both emotionally motivated and recognition memory. Polyubiquitinated protein levels were increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, of adult animals treated with iron. Gene expression of subunits β1 and β5 was affected by age, being higher in the early stages of development in the hippocampus, accompanied by an age-related increase in polyubiquitinated protein levels in adults. In the cortex, gene expression of the three proteasome subunits was significantly higher in adulthood than in the neonatal period. These findings suggest that expression of proteasome subunits and activity are age-dependently regulated. Iron exposure in the neonatal period produces long-lasting harmful effects on the UPS functioning, which may be related with iron-induced memory impairment.

  18. Loss of laforin or malin results in increased Drp1 level and concomitant mitochondrial fragmentation in Lafora disease mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Agarwal, Saloni; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2017-04-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive form of a fatal disorder characterized by the myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, psychosis, dementia, and dysarthria. A hallmark of LD is the presence of abnormal glycogen inclusions called Lafora bodies in the affected tissues including the neurons. LD can be caused by defects either in the laforin phosphatase coded by the EPM2A gene or in the malin E3 ubiquitin ligase coded by the NHLRC1 gene. The mouse models of LD, created by the targeted disruption of the LD genes, display several neurodegenerative changes. Prominent among them are the autophagic defects, abnormally large lysosomes, neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid beta deposits, and abnormal mitochondria. However, whether or not such neurodegenerative changes are a direct effect of the loss of laforin/malin was not unequivocally established. Here, we show that laforin- or malin-deficient neurons and fibroblasts display a significantly higher number of fragmented mitochondria. Loss of laforin or malin resulted in increased levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase Drp1, its enhanced mitochondrial targeting, and increased intracellular calcium levels. Intriguingly, laforin and malin display opposite effects on the cellular level of parkin, an ubiquitin ligase of Drp1; loss of laforin led to reduced levels of parkin while the loss of malin resulted in increased parkin levels. Laforin and malin, however, interact with and positively regulate the activity of parkin, thus explaining the molecular basis of increased Drp1 levels in LD tissues. Our results suggest that laforin and malin are novel regulators of mitochondrial quality control pathway and that the mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the increased Drp1 levels could underlie neuropathology in LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Atypical antipsychotic medications increase postprandial triglyceride and glucose levels in male rats: relationship with stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W

    2011-06-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate Scd1 mRNA expression. To investigate these effects in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, and 3mg/kg/d) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40days. Effects on liver Scd1 mRNA expression and an index of Scd1 activity (the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, 'desaturation index') were determined, as were postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. All atypical antipsychotics increased the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, but not liver Scd1 mRNA expression, at doses found to also increase plasma TG levels. Among all rats (n=122), the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 56% of the variance in TG concentrations. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio was also positively associated with erythrocyte and heart membrane phospholipid 18:1n-9 composition. All antipsychotics except risperidone increased glucose levels at specific doses, and none of the antipsychotics significantly altered insulin levels. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 20% of the variance in glucose levels. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA levels were inversely correlated with the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio and TG and glucose levels. These in vivo data demonstrate that different atypical antipsychotic medications increase the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio in association with elevations in postprandial TG and glucose levels, and that concomitant elevations in PUFA biosynthesis oppose these effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-Term Changes of Tropospheric Trace Gases over Pakistan Derived From Multiple Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Naila; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Murtaza, Rabbia; Noreen, Asma; Khalid, Tameem

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is the expected key environmental issue of Pakistan in coming years due to its ongoing rapid economic growth and this trend suggests only worst air quality over time. In 2014, World bank reported the Pakistan's urban air quality among the most severe in the world and intimated the government to make improvement in air quality as a priority policy agenda. In addition it is recommended to strengthen the institutional and technical capacity of organizations responsible for air quality management. Therefore, the study is designed to put efforts in highlighting air quality issues. The study will provide first database for tropospheric trace gases over Pakistan. The study aims to analyse tropospheric concentrations of CO, TOC, NO2 and HCHO over Pakistan using multisensory data from January 2005 to January 2014. Spatio-temporal and seasonal variability of tropospheric trace gases is observed over the decade to explore long term trend. Hotspots are identified to see variation of species with latitude and to highlight possible sources of trace gases over the Pakistan. High concentrations of trace gases are mainly observed over the Punjab region, which may be attributed to its metropolitan importance. It is the major agricultural, industrialized and urbanized (nearly 60% of the Pakistan's population) sector of the country. Overall significant decreasing trend of CO is identified by MOPITT with relative change of 12.4%. Tropospheric ozone column (TOC) showed insignificant increasing trend with temporal increase of 10.4% whereas NO2 exhibited a significant temporal increase of about 28%. For formaldehyde (HCHO), an increase of about 3.8% is calculated for SCIAMACHY data. Well defined seasonal cycles for these trace gases are observed over the whole study period. CO concentrations showed peak in winter months (November/December/January/February) and dip in the months of Summer/Monsoon (June/July/August). In spite of CO, TCO increases gradually in March and peaks

  1. Evaluating a Space-Based Indicator of Surface Ozone-NO x -VOC Sensitivity Over Midlatitude Source Regions and Application to Decadal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaomeng; Fiore, Arlene M; Murray, Lee T; Valin, Lukas C; Lamsal, Lok N; Duncan, Bryan; Boersma, K Folkert; De Smedt, Isabelle; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Chance, Kelly; Tonnesen, Gail S

    2017-10-16

    Determining effective strategies for mitigating surface ozone (O 3 ) pollution requires knowledge of the relative ambient concentrations of its precursors, NO x , and VOCs. The space-based tropospheric column ratio of formaldehyde to NO 2 (FNR) has been used as an indicator to identify NO x -limited versus NO x -saturated O 3 formation regimes. Quantitative use of this indicator ratio is subject to three major uncertainties: (1) the split between NO x -limited and NO x -saturated conditions may shift in space and time, (2) the ratio of the vertically integrated column may not represent the near-surface environment, and (3) satellite products contain errors. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to evaluate the quantitative utility of FNR observed from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument over three northern midlatitude source regions. We find that FNR in the model surface layer is a robust predictor of the simulated near-surface O 3 production regime. Extending this surface-based predictor to a column-based FNR requires accounting for differences in the HCHO and NO 2 vertical profiles. We compare four combinations of two OMI HCHO and NO 2 retrievals with modeled FNR. The spatial and temporal correlations between the modeled and satellite-derived FNR vary with the choice of NO 2 product, while the mean offset depends on the choice of HCHO product. Space-based FNR indicates that the spring transition to NO x -limited regimes has shifted at least a month earlier over major cities (e.g., New York, London, and Seoul) between 2005 and 2015. This increase in NO x sensitivity implies that NO x emission controls will improve O 3 air quality more now than it would have a decade ago.

  2. Oxidant production from corrosion of nano- and microparticulate zero-valent iron in the presence of oxygen: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hongshin; Lee, Hye-jin; Kim, Hyung-Eun; Kweon, Jihyang; Lee, Byeong-Dae; Lee, Changha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidants from zero-valent iron were quantified in the presence of oxygen and EDTA. • The oxidant yields of nano- and microparticulate zero-valent iron were compared. • Microparticulate zero-valent iron produced higher oxidant yields. • The factors affecting the oxidant production from zero-valent iron were discussed. -- Abstract: In aqueous solution, zero-valent iron (ZVI, Fe 0 ) is known to activate oxygen (O 2 ) into reactive oxidants such as hydroxyl radical and ferryl ion capable of oxidizing contaminants. However, little is known about the effect of the particle size of ZVI on the yield of reactive oxidants. In this study, the production of reactive oxidants from nanoparticulate and microparticulate ZVIs (denoted as nZVI and mZVI, respectively) was comparatively investigated in the presence of O 2 and EDTA. To quantify the oxidant yield, excess amount of methanol was employed, and the formation of its oxidation product, formaldehyde (HCHO), was monitored. The concentration of HCHO in the nZVI/O 2 system rapidly reached the saturation value, whereas that in the mZVI/O 2 system gradually increased throughout the entire reaction time. The mZVI/O 2 system exhibited higher yields of HCHO than the nZVI/O 2 system under both acidic and neutral pH conditions. The higher oxidant yields in the mZVI/O 2 system are mainly attributed to the less reactivity of the mZVI surface with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) relative to the surface of nZVI, which minimize the loss of H 2 O 2 by ZVI (i.e., the two-electron reduction of H 2 O 2 into water). In addition, the slow dissolution of Fe(II) from mZVI was found to be partially responsible for the higher oxidant yields at neutral pH

  3. Potential to increase active commuting level in university area (Case study: Universitas Gadjah Mada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    In order to alleviate the negative impacts of motorized vehicle use as well as create sustainable environment within campus area, it is pivotal to encourage mode shifting among university students. Active transport modes such as walking, cycling, and using public transport can be considered as alternative modes. This paper tried to identify the potential to increase active commuting in UGM by understanding student’s travel behavior. ANOVA test was employed to identify the perceptions between students across residential zones toward motivators and barriers to actively commute. The findings were used to propose strategies for increasing active commuting level in UGM, which are: reducing barriers to actively commute, improving public transport services, improving walking and cycling facilities, and introducing programs to discourage motorized vehicle use.

  4. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; de Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. PMID:28678925

  5. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Filiz; Akdemir, Nermin; Ozden, Selcuk; Cevrioglu, A Serhan; Bilir, Cemil

    2013-09-05

    Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p 0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can predict the further urinary tract infection risk. Finally, serum procalcitonin levels were normal in healthy pregnant women while other inflammatory markers such as WBC, ESR and CRP levels were higher.

  6. INCREASED TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY IN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Celiac disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals precipitated by gluten ingestion. Objective - In this study, we aimed to determine asymptomatic spike-and-wave findings on electroencephalography in children with celiac disease. Methods - A total of 175 children with the diagnosis of celiac disease (study group and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy children as controls (control group were included in the study. In order to determine the effects of gluten free diet on laboratory and electroencephalography findings, the celiac group is further subdivided into two as newly-diagnosed and formerly-diagnosed patients. Medical histories of all children and laboratory findings were all recorded and neurologic statuses were evaluated. All patients underwent a sleep and awake electroencephalography. Results - Among 175 celiac disease patients included in the study, 43 were newly diagnosed while 132 were formerly-diagnosed patients. In electroencephalography evaluation of patients the epileptiform activity was determined in 4 (9.3% of newly diagnosed and in 2 (1.5% of formerly diagnosed patients; on the other hand the epileptiform activity was present in only 1 (1.0% of control cases. There was a statistically significant difference between groups in regards to the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that epileptiform activity in both sleep and awake electroencephalography were positively correlated with tissue transglutaminase levels (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively. Conclusion - We have determined an increased epileptiform activity frequency among newly-diagnosed celiac disease patients compared with formerly-diagnosed celiac disease patients and control cases. Moreover the tissue transglutaminase levels were also correlated with the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Among newly diagnosed celiac disease patients

  7. Evolutionary Modeling Predicts a Decrease in Postcopulatory Sperm Viability as a Response to Increasing Levels of Sperm Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engqvist, Leif

    Sperm competition has been found to have a strong influence on the evolution of many male and female reproductive traits. Theoretical models have shown that, with increasing levels of sperm competition, males are predicted to increase ejaculate investment, and there is ample empirical evidence

  8. Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin and hyperproinsulinemia as markers of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Reis

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG are considered to be an indirect index of hyperinsulinemia, predicting the later onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. In the insulin resistance state and in the presence of an increased pancreatic ß-cell demand (e.g. obesity both absolute and relative increases in proinsulin secretion occur. In the present study we investigated the correlation between SHBG and pancreatic ß-cell secretion in men with different body compositions. Eighteen young men (30.0 ± 2.4 years with normal glucose tolerance and body mass indexes (BMI ranging from 22.6 to 43.2 kg/m2 were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g and baseline and 120-min blood samples were used to determine insulin, proinsulin and C-peptide by specific immunoassays. Baseline SHBG values were significantly correlated with baseline insulin (r = -0.58, P28 kg/m2, N = 8 and nonobese (BMI £25 kg/m2, N = 10 groups, significantly lower levels of SHBG were found in the obese subjects. The obese group had significantly higher baseline proinsulin, C-peptide and 120-min proinsulin and insulin levels. For the first time using a specific assay for insulin determination, a strong inverse correlation between insulinemia and SHBG levels was confirmed. The finding of a strong negative correlation between SHBG levels and pancreatic ß-cell secretion, mainly for the 120-min post-glucose load proinsulin levels, reinforces the concept that low SHBG levels are a suitable marker of increased pancreatic ß-cell demand.

  9. Optimization of a blanching process to reduce the furan level of potato crisps without increasing their oil uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit

    , the objective of this work was to reduce the level of furan in crisps without increasing their oil uptake. To accomplish this purpose a central composite design was used to study the effect of blanching time and temperature on the reduction of reducing sugars, one of furan precursors, in potato slices. After...... levels of both reducing sugar and furan, crisps pre-treated under these conditions presented a significant increasing in their oil content. On the other hand, blanching at temperature of 65° for 10 min was a 30% more efficient (30 %) in the extraction of reducing sugars compared to blanching at lower...

  10. Carotenoid crystal formation in Arabidopsis and carrot roots caused by increased phytoene synthase protein levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Maass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As the first pathway-specific enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase (PSY is a prime regulatory target. This includes a number of biotechnological approaches that have successfully increased the carotenoid content in agronomically relevant non-green plant tissues through tissue-specific PSY overexpression. We investigated the differential effects of constitutive AtPSY overexpression in green and non-green cells of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. This revealed striking similarities to the situation found in orange carrot roots with respect to carotenoid amounts and sequestration mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Arabidopsis seedlings, carotenoid content remained unaffected by increased AtPSY levels although the protein was almost quantitatively imported into plastids, as shown by western blot analyses. In contrast, non-photosynthetic calli and roots overexpressing AtPSY accumulated carotenoids 10 and 100-fold above the corresponding wild-type tissues and contained 1800 and 500 microg carotenoids per g dry weight, respectively. This increase coincided with a change of the pattern of accumulated carotenoids, as xanthophylls decreased relative to beta-carotene and carotene intermediates accumulated. As shown by polarization microscopy, carotenoids were found deposited in crystals, similar to crystalline-type chromoplasts of non-green tissues present in several other taxa. In fact, orange-colored carrots showed a similar situation with increased PSY protein as well as carotenoid levels and accumulation patterns whereas wild white-rooted carrots were similar to Arabidopsis wild type roots in this respect. Initiation of carotenoid crystal formation by increased PSY protein amounts was further confirmed by overexpressing crtB, a bacterial PSY gene, in white carrots, resulting in increased carotenoid amounts deposited in crystals. CONCLUSIONS: The sequestration of carotenoids into crystals can be driven by the

  11. Off-axis Doas Measurements At Observatoire De Haute Provence During 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendael, M. Van; de Mazière, M.; Fayt, C.; Hendrick, F.; Hermans, C.

    Since December 2000, a ground-based off-axis DOAS spectrometer has been operated by BIRA-IASB in the South of France at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP, 44°N). The design of the instrument allows automated observations of the scattered light alternatively in the zenith direction and at 10° above the horizon (off-axis geometry). The spectrometer is polarised and follows the azimuth of the sun. Its temperature is regulated and it is equipped with a Princeton Instruments/ Hammamatsu cooled diode array detector. Observations are made every 5 minutes in the 320-390 nm range. The analysis of the spectra recorded between January and December 2001 demonstrates the sensitivity of the measurements to tropospheric contents of NO2, HCHO, O3 and BrO. Results show a large seasonality in the HCHO content with maximum values in summer. The tropospheric BrO column is found to be stable over the year in the range of approximately 1.5-2 x1013 molec/cm2, roughly consistent with GOME observations at Northern mid-latitudes. Large increases of the BrO concentration are observed in summer likely due to local pollution in the vicinity of the station.

  12. Exogenous t-PA administration increases hippocampal mature BDNF levels. plasmin- or NMDA-dependent mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Rodier

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (rt-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v. while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p. in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling.

  13. Increased Prolactin Levels Are Associated with Impaired Processing Speed in Subjects with Early Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects w...

  14. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi F. H. Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls. The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  15. Increased circulatory levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zonulin signify novel biomarkers of proinflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashree, B; Bibin, Y S; Prabhu, D; Shanthirani, C S; Gokulakrishnan, K; Lakshmi, B S; Mohan, V; Balasubramanyam, M

    2014-03-01

    Emerging data indicate that gut-derived endotoxin (metabolic endotoxemia) may contribute to low-grade systemic inflammation in insulin-resistant states. Specific gut bacteria seem to serve as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sources and several reports claim a role for increased intestinal permeability in the genesis of metabolic disorders. Therefore, we investigated the serum levels of LPS and zonulin (ZO-1, a marker of gut permeability) along with systemic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared to control subjects. Study subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study [CURES], Chennai, India. Study group (n = 45 each) comprised of a) subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and (b) patients with T2DM. LPS, ZO-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were measured by ELISA. Serum levels of LPS [p < 0.05], LPS activity [p < 0.001], ZO-1 [p < 0.001], TNFα [p < 0.001], and IL-6 [p < 0.001] were significantly increased in patients with T2DM compared to control subjects. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that LPS activity was significantly and positively correlated with ZO-1, fasting plasma glucose, 2 h post glucose, HbA1c, serum triglycerides, TNF-α, IL-6, and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol. Regression analysis showed that increased LPS levels were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 13.43, 95 % CI 1.998-18.9; p = 0.003]. In Asian Indians who are considered highly insulin resistant, the circulatory LPS levels, LPS activity, and ZO-1 were significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and showed positive correlation with inflammatory markers and poor glycemic/lipid control.

  16. Formaldehyde and Glyoxal Measurements as Tracers of Oxidation Chemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, M. P.; Dorris, M. R.; Keutsch, F. N.; Springston, S. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Palm, B. B.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Liu, Y.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) are important tracers for oxidative processes in the atmosphere such as oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production of HO2 radicals by photolysis or reaction with OH. Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have direct impacts on human health. During the Green Ocean Amazon campaign (GoAmazon2014/5), HCHO and CHOCHO measurements were obtained together with OH, RO2+HO2, CO, CO2, O3, NOx, (o)VOCs, and aerosol particle size distribution. HCHO concentration was measured by the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) instrument, while CHOCHO concentrations were collected by the Madison Laser-Induced Phosphorescence (Mad-LIP) instrument. Here we present data collected during 2014 at the T3 field site, 60 km to the west of Manaus, Brazil (3°12'47.82"S, 60°35'55.32"W). The T3 GoAmazon site varies between sampling strictly pristine (biogenic) emissions and influence from anthropogenic emissions from Manaus, depending on meteorological conditions. Here we present overall trends and regimes observed during the campaign, with a focus on HCHO, CHOCHO, and related species within the context of VOC oxidation and secondary pollutant production. We acknowledge the support from the Central Office of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), and the Universidade do Estado do Amazonia (UEA). The work was conducted under 001030/2012-4 of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Data were collected from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Additionally, we acknowledge logistical support from the ARM Climate Research Facility. Additional funding from: NSF GRFP DGE-1256259, and NSF AGS-1051338

  17. Bio-template-assisted synthesis of hierarchically hollow SiO2 microtubes and their enhanced formaldehyde adsorption performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Yao; Guo, Daipeng; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2013-01-01

    The indoor air quality is crucial for human health, taking into account that people often spend more than 80% of their time in houses, offices and cars. Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a major pollutant and long-term exposure to HCHO may cause health problems such as nasal tumors and skin irritation. In this work, for the first time, hierarchically hollow silica microtubes (HHSM) were synthesized by a simple sol–gel and calcination method using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and bio-template poplar catkin (PC) as co-templates and the PC/SiO 2 weight ratio R was varied from 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 1. The prepared samples were further modified with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and N 2 physisorption techniques. This was followed by formaldehyde adsorption tests at ambient temperature. The results showed that all the prepared HHSM samples contained small mesopores with peak pore size at ca. 2.5 nm and large several tens of nanometer-sized pores on the tube wall. The R exhibited an obvious influence on specific surface areas and the sample prepared at R = 0.3 exhibited highest specific surface area (896 m 2 /g). All the TEPA-modified samples exhibited enhanced formaldehyde adsorption performance. The maximum HCHO adsorption capacity (20.65 mg/g adsorbent) was achieved on the sample prepared at R = 0.3 and modified by 50 wt.% TEPA. The present study will provide new insight for the utilization of bio-template used for the fabrication of inorganic hollow tubes with high HCHO adsorption performance for indoor air purification.

  18. Pioglitazone treatment increases spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion and stimulated GH levels in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Støving, René Klinkby; Hagen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low GH levels, probably due to insulin resistance and increased abdominal fat mass, are well described in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). GH acts as an important ovarian cogonadotropin, and GH disturbances may be an additional pathogenic factor in PCOS. Decreased abdominal fat mass...

  19. Long-term care-service use and increases in care-need level among home-based elderly people in a Japanese urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Soichi; Furui, Yuji

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of home-based long-term care insurance services on an increase in care need levels and discuss its policy implications. We analyzed care need certification and long-term care service use data for 3006 non-institutionalized elderly persons in a Tokyo ward effective as of October 2009 and 2010. Individual care need assessment intervals and their corresponding changes in care need level were calculated from data at two data acquisition points of care need assessment. Those who had been certified but did not use any long-term care insurance service were defined as the control group. The Cox proportionate hazard model was used to determine whether the use of a long-term care insurance service is associated with increased care need level. After adjusting for sex, age, and care need level, the hazard ratio for the probability of increased care need level among service users was calculated as 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.88; p Home-based long-term care service use may prevent an increase in care need level. Administrative data on care need certification and services use could be an effective tool for evaluating the long-term care insurance system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Dietary Furocoumarin Imperatorin Increases Plasma GLP-1 Levels in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Imperatorin, a dietary furocoumarin, is found not only in medicinal plants, but also in popular culinary herbs, such as parsley and fennel. Recently, imperatorin has been shown to activate GPR119 in cells. Another GPR, GPR131, also called TGR5 or G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, is known to regulate glucose metabolism. Additionally, TGR5 activation increases glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 secretion to lower blood sugar levels in animals. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether the effects of imperatorin on GLP-1 secretion are mediated by TGR5. First, we transfected cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells with the TGR5 gene. Glucose uptake was confirmed in the transfected cells using a fluorescent indicator. Moreover, NCI-H716 cells, which secrete GLP-1, were used to investigate the changes in calcium concentrations and GLP-1 levels. In addition, streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1-like diabetic rats were used to identify the effects of imperatorin in vivo. Imperatorin dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in CHO-K1 cells expressing TGR5. In STZ diabetic rats, similar to the results in NCI-H716 cells, imperatorin induced a marked increase of GLP-1 secretion that was reduced, but not totally abolished, by a dose of triamterene that inhibited TGR5. Moreover, increases in GLP-1 secretion induced by imperatorin and GPR119 activation were shown in NCI-H716 cells. We demonstrated that imperatorin induced GLP-1 secretion via activating TGR5 and GPR119. Therefore, imperatorin shall be considered as a TGR5 and GPR119 agonist.

  1. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Increased serum levels of interleukin-17 and transforming growth factor-β in patients with Graves’ disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, D.; Nasrul, E.; Sofyan, Y.; Decroli, E.; Darwin, E.

    2018-03-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, characterized by excessive autoantibody levels due to tolerance breakdown of thyroid-specific autoantigens. To determine the role of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-β) in GD, we assessed their serum levels in patients with GD and healthy controls. Thirty patients with hyperthyroidism, goiter, and positive thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody diagnosed as GD, according to the clinical diagnostic criteria for autoimmune thyroid disease. Blood samples were also from 30 healthy individuals matched for age and sex as a control. Serum levels of IL-17 and TGF-ß were by using ELISA. IL-17 and TGF-ß levels (14.43 ± 2.15 pg/mL and 10.44 ± 3.19 pg/mL, respectively) were significantly higher in patients with GD than in controls (7.07 ± 1.45 pg/mL and 4.95 ± 1.35 pg/mL, respectively). However, no correlation between IL-17 and TGF-β level in patients with GD. The elevated serum level of IL-17 and TGF-β in patients with GD reflects Th-2 predominance, which causes increasing of these pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  3. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2012-07-01

    The relationship between interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection of IL-1β increased pain behavior. In addition, i.t. IL-1β injection caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. The time-course study showed that maximal blood glucose level was observed 30 and 60 min after i.t. IL-1β administration. Furthermore, i.t. injection of IL-1β enhanced the blood glucose level when mice were orally fed with d-glucose. The i.t. administration of IL-1β antagonist (AF12198) inhibited the hyperglycemia and pain behaviors induced by IL-1β. We found in the present study that adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA level was also increased by i.t. IL-1β injection. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with phentolamine (an α(1)-adrenergic blocker) or yohimbine (an α(2)-adrenergic blocker) significantly attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. However, the blood glucose level and pain behavior were not affected by butoxamine (a β(2)-adrenergic blocker), whereas metoprolol (a β(2)-adrenergic blocker) enhanced IL-1β-induced blood glucose level and pain behavior in mice fed with d-glucose. However, its effect was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level via an activation of α adrenergic nervous system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  5. Increased vaspin levels are associated with beneficial metabolic outcome pre- and post-bariatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HuiLing Lu

    Full Text Available Vaspin (visceral-adipose-tissue-derived-serine-protease-inhibitor is a recently identified adipokine with putative insulin-sensitizing properties. Plasma vaspin responses to surgery-induced weight loss are sparse and contradictory.We evaluated changes in vaspin levels and relationship to post-operative outcomes in men (n = 22 and women (n = 55 undergoing biliopancreatic-diversion/duodenal-switch bariatric surgery. Body composition and plasma parameters were measured at baseline, acutely (1 and 5 days and medium-term (6 and 12 months post-surgery.Fasting preoperative vaspin concentrations were comparable in men vs women. The distribution was biphasic (both men and women with a nadir of 2.5 ng/ml. Subjects were divided into high (≥2.5 ng/mL, HI-group and low (<2.5 ng/mL, LO-group vaspin level. Both groups had comparable sex distribution, age and BMI, but the HI-vaspin group had lower insulin, HOMA, and triglyceride and higher HDL-cholesterol, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and IL-6 levels (all p<0.05. Post-operatively, both groups decreased BMI comparably over 12 months; the HI-vaspin group maintained high vaspin levels, while the LO-vaspin group gradually increased their levels with weight loss over 12 months. The HI-vaspin group maintained a better glucose, insulin, HOMA, fructosamine, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride profile throughout. The HI-vaspin group also had higher gamma-glutamyltransferase and ASP profiles. Finally, baseline vaspin level inversely correlated significantly with baseline and 12-month insulin, HOMA, triglyceride and positively correlated with HDL and ASP. Twelve-month vaspin also correlated similarly, including an inverse correlation with BMI.Globally, this study supports the concept of vaspin as a beneficial adipokine in obesity, which may potentially lead to possible therapeutic targets.

  6. Oxidation Stability of Pig Liver Pâté with Increasing Levels of Natural Antioxidants (Grape and Tea

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    Mirian Pateiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of the addition of increasing levels of the natural antioxidants tea (TEA and grape seed extracts (GRA on the physiochemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés. In addition, a synthetic antioxidant and a control batch were used, thus a total of eight batches of liver pâté were prepared: CON, BHT, TEA (TEA50, TEA200 and TEA1000 and GRA (GRA50, GRA200 and GRA1000. Pâté samples were analyzed following 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of storage. Color parameters were affected by storage period and level of antioxidant extract. Samples with TEA200 and GRA1000 levels of extracts showed lower total color difference between 0 and 24 weeks. At the end of storage period, the lower TBARs values were obtained in samples with the highest concentration on natural extract. Overall, the evolution of volatile compounds showed an increase in those ones that arise from the lipid oxidation and samples with TEA1000 extract showed the lowest values.

  7. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    mice die perinatally as a result of severe craniofacial anomalies that include agenesis of the nasal passages, abnormal development of the maxilla, exencephaly and anophthalmia. These defects arise due to a massive increase in the levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds, which are the site...

  8. Game-Based Learning: Increasing the Logical-Mathematical, Naturalistic, and Linguistic Learning Levels of Primary School Students

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    María Esther Del Moral Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Game-based learning is an innovative methodology that takes advantage of the educational potential offered by videogames in general and serious games in particular to boost training processes, thus making it easier for users to achieve motivated learning. The present paper focuses on the description of the Game to Learn Project, which has as its aim not only to promote the use of serious games and digital mini-games for the development of Multiple Intelligences, but also to analyse whether this methodology results in increased learning. Teachers assessed the level achieved by primary education students (N=119 in each learning category, before and after participating in the project, by means of a qualitative instrument. Finally, after corresponding analysis through descriptive statistical techniques, bivariate correlations, and ANOVA, the results showed significant differences between children’s learning levels in logical-mathematical, naturalistic and linguistic abilities before and after their participation in this innovative project, thus revealing a widespread increase in every indicator.

  9. Ski protein levels increase during in vitro progression of HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the levels of the Ski oncoprotein, an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling, in normal human keratinocytes (HKc), HPV16 immortalized HKc (HKc/HPV16), and differentiation resistant HKc/HPV16 (HKc/DR) in the absence and presence of TGF-β. Steady-state Ski protein levels increased in HKc/HPV16 and even further in HKc/DR, compared to HKc. TGF-β treatment of HKc, HKc/HPV16, and HKc/DR dramatically decreased Ski. TGF-β-induced Ski degradation was delayed in HKc/DR. Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent with maximal Ski expression and localization to centrosomes and mitotic spindles during G2/M. ShRNA knock down of Ski in HKc/DR inhibited cell proliferation. More intense nuclear and cytoplasmic Ski staining and altered Ski localization were found in cervical cancer samples compared to adjacent normal tissue in a cervical cancer tissue array. Overall, these studies demonstrate altered Ski protein levels, degradation and localization in HPV16-transformed human keratinocytes and in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • Ski oncoprotein levels increase during progression of HPV16-transformed cells. • Ski and phospho-Ski protein levels are cell cycle dependent. • Ski knock-down in HPV16-transformed keratinocytes inhibited cell proliferation. • Cervical cancer samples overexpress Ski

  10. Increased serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Boso, Marianna; Brondino, Natascia; Pietra, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-05-30

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that functions as an activator for inducing the immune response and can be released from neurons after glutamate excitotoxicity. The objective of the present study was to measure serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with autistic disorder and to study their relationship with clinical characteristics. We enrolled 22 adult patients with autistic disorder (mean age: 28.1+/-7.7 years) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 28.7+/-8.1 years). Serum levels of HMGB1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with healthy subjects, serum levels of HMGB1 were significantly higher in patients with autistic disorder (10.8+/-2.6 ng/mL versus 5.6+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, Pautistic disorder. Increased HMGB1 may be a biological correlate of the impaired reciprocal social interactions in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  12. Defining a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level that predicts increased risk of penile implant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habous, Mohamad; Tal, Raanan; Tealab, Alaa; Soliman, Tarek; Nassar, Mohammed; Mekawi, Zenhom; Mahmoud, Saad; Abdelwahab, Osama; Elkhouly, Mohamed; Kamr, Hatem; Remeah, Abdallah; Binsaleh, Saleh; Ralph, David; Mulhall, John

    2018-02-01

    To re-evaluate the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk factor for penile implant infection by exploring the association between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and penile implant infection rates and to define a threshold value that predicts implant infection. We conducted a multicentre prospective study including all patients undergoing penile implant surgery between 2009 and 2015. Preoperative, perioperative and postoperative management were identical for the entire cohort. Univariate analysis was performed to define predictors of implant infection. The HbA1c levels were analysed as continuous variables and sequential analysis was conducted using 0.5% increments to define a threshold level predicting implant infection. Multivariable analysis was performed with the following factors entered in the model: DM, HbA1C level, patient age, implant type, number of vascular risk factors (VRFs), presence of Peyronie's disease (PD), body mass index (BMI), and surgeon volume. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to define the optimal HbA1C threshold for infection prediction. In all, 902 implant procedures were performed over the study period. The mean patient age was 56.6 years. The mean HbA1c level was 8.0%, with 81% of men having a HbA1c level of >6%. In all, 685 (76%) implants were malleable and 217 (24%) were inflatable devices; 302 (33.5%) patients also had a diagnosis of PD. The overall infection rate was 8.9% (80/902). Patients who had implant infection had significantly higher mean HbA1c levels, 9.5% vs 7.8% (P HbA1c level, we found infection rates were: 1.3% with HbA1c level of 9.5% (P HbA1c level, whilst a high-volume surgeon had a protective effect and was associated with a reduced infection risk. Using ROC analysis, we determined that a HbA1c threshold level of 8.5% predicted infection with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 65%. Uncontrolled DM is associated with increased risk of infection after penile implant surgery

  13. Nine years of global hydrocarbon emissions based on source inversion of OMI formaldehyde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bauwens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As formaldehyde (HCHO is a high-yield product in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted by fires, vegetation, and anthropogenic activities, satellite observations of HCHO are well-suited to inform us on the spatial and temporal variability of the underlying VOC sources. The long record of space-based HCHO column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI is used to infer emission flux estimates from pyrogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs on the global scale over 2005–2013. This is realized through the method of source inverse modeling, which consists in the optimization of emissions in a chemistry-transport model (CTM in order to minimize the discrepancy between the observed and modeled HCHO columns. The top–down fluxes are derived in the global CTM IMAGESv2 by an iterative minimization algorithm based on the full adjoint of IMAGESv2, starting from a priori emission estimates provided by the newly released GFED4s (Global Fire Emission Database, version 4s inventory for fires, and by the MEGAN-MOHYCAN inventory for isoprene emissions. The top–down fluxes are compared to two independent inventories for fire (GFAS and FINNv1.5 and isoprene emissions (MEGAN-MACC and GUESS-ES. The inversion indicates a moderate decrease (ca. 20 % in the average annual global fire and isoprene emissions, from 2028 Tg C in the a priori to 1653 Tg C for burned biomass, and from 343 to 272 Tg for isoprene fluxes. Those estimates are acknowledged to depend on the accuracy of formaldehyde data, as well as on the assumed fire emission factors and the oxidation mechanisms leading to HCHO production. Strongly decreased top–down fire fluxes (30–50 % are inferred in the peak fire season in Africa and during years with strong a priori fluxes associated with forest fires in Amazonia (in 2005, 2007, and 2010, bushfires in Australia (in 2006 and 2011, and peat burning in Indonesia (in 2006 and 2009, whereas

  14. Increased visfatin levels are associated with higher disease activity in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejová, Hana; Kryštůfková, Olga; Mann, Heřman; Klein, Martin; Pavlíčková, Klára; Zámečník, Josef; Vencovský, Jiří; Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of visfatin in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients, its expression in muscle tissue and to investigate potential relationships between visfatin, B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), disease activity and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody levels. Serum levels of visfatin and BAFF were measured in 38 anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients and 35 healthy subjects. Disease activity was evaluated by myositis disease activity assessment tool (MYOACT) using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by serum muscle enzymes. Visfatin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in muscle tissue of myositis patients (n=10) and compared with non-inflammatory control muscle tissue samples from patients with myasthenia gravis (n=5). Serum visfatin and BAFF levels were significantly higher in myositis patients compared to healthy subjects and were associated with clinical muscle activity assessed by VAS. Only serum BAFF levels, but not visfatin levels, positively correlated with muscle enzyme concentrations and anti-Jo1 antibody levels. There was a positive correlation between visfatin and BAFF serum levels in myositis patients but a negative correlation was observed in healthy subjects. Visfatin expression was up-regulated in endomysial and perimysial inflammatory infiltrates of muscle tissue from myositis patients. Up-regulation of visfatin in myositis muscle tissue and an association between increased visfatin levels and muscle disease activity evaluated by MYOACT in anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients could support possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of myositis.

  15. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

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    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  16. Increased ferritin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa: impact of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanby, P; Berglund, J; Brudin, L; Hedberg, D; Carlsson, M

    2016-09-01

    A few recent studies have found elevated ferritin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), indicating ferritin as a potential biomarker of disease severity. The purpose of this study was to study how body mass index (BMI) and changes in BMI affect plasma ferritin concentrations in Swedish patients with eating disorders. In a retrospective computer search from 2009 to 2014, 662 patients with an eating disorder were identified from more than 200,000 individuals with electronic medical records. Three hundred and eighty-nine patients (374 females and 15 males) were found to have at least one p-ferritin value with a corresponding BMI value. Patients with AN were compared to a combined group consisting of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Patients with AN had lower BMI compared to the combined group of patients with other eating disorders (BMI = 16.5 ± 1.5, n = 77 vs. 21.0 ± 4.7, n = 312, p < 0.001). Patients with AN also had higher plasma ferritin levels (median 42 μg/L (range 3.3-310) vs. 31 μg/L (range 2.8-280); p < 0.001). As BMI increased in patients with AN, ferritin levels decreased (from a median of 40 μg/L (7-400) to 26 (4-170), n = 47; p < 0.001). Measuring ferritin in patients with AN could be valuable in monitoring improvements of nutritional status, but the full clinical value of following ferritin in individual patients has yet to be determined. The study also shows how research can benefit from electronically captured clinical data using electronic health records.

  17. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  18. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  19. Increased reactive oxygen species levels cause ER stress and cytotoxicity in andrographolide treated colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Banerjee, Vivekjyoti; Czinn, Steven; Blanchard, Thomas

    2017-04-18

    Chemotherapy continues to play an essential role in the management of many cancers including colon cancer, the third leading cause of death due to cancer in the United States. Many naturally occurring plant compounds have been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer cell activity and have the potential to supplement existing chemotherapy strategies. The plant metabolite andrographolide induces cell death in cancer cells and apoptosis is dependent upon the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) leading to the unfolded protein response (UPR). The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which andrographolide induces ER stress and to further evaluate its role in promoting cell death pathways. The T84 and COLO 205 cancer cell lines were used to demonstrate that andrographolide induces increased ROS levels, corresponding anti-oxidant response molecules, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. No increases in ROS levels were detected in control colon fibroblast cells. Andrographolide-induced cell death, UPR signaling, and CHOP, Bax, and caspase 3 apoptosis elements were all inhibited in the presence of the ROS scavenger NAC. Additionally, andrographolide-induced suppression of cyclins B1 and D1 were also reversed in the presence of NAC. Finally, Akt phosphorylation and phospho-mTOR levels that are normally suppressed by andrographolide were also expressed at normal levels in the absence of ROS. These data demonstrate that andrographolide induces ER stress leading to apoptosis through the induction of ROS and that elevated ROS also play an important role in down-regulating cell cycle progression and cell survival pathways as well.

  20. How Formaldehyde Inhibits Hydrogen Evolution by [FeFe]-Hydrogenases: Determination by ¹³C ENDOR of Direct Fe-C Coordination and Order of Electron and Proton Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmeier, Andreas; Esselborn, Julian; Hexter, Suzannah V; Krämer, Tobias; Klein, Kathrin; Happe, Thomas; McGrady, John E; Myers, William K; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2015-04-29

    Formaldehyde (HCHO), a strong electrophile and a rapid and reversible inhibitor of hydrogen production by [FeFe]-hydrogenases, is used to identify the point in the catalytic cycle at which a highly reactive metal-hydrido species is formed. Investigations of the reaction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [FeFe]-hydrogenase with formaldehyde using pulsed-EPR techniques including electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy establish that formaldehyde binds close to the active site. Density functional theory calculations support an inhibited super-reduced state having a short Fe-(13)C bond in the 2Fe subsite. The adduct forms when HCHO is available to compete with H(+) transfer to a vacant, nucleophilic Fe site: had H(+) transfer already occurred, the reaction of HCHO with the Fe-hydrido species would lead to methanol, release of which is not detected. Instead, Fe-bound formaldehyde is a metal-hydrido mimic, a locked, inhibited form analogous to that in which two electrons and only one proton have transferred to the H-cluster. The results provide strong support for a mechanism in which the fastest pathway for H2 evolution involves two consecutive proton transfer steps to the H-cluster following transfer of a second electron to the active site.

  1. Increased levels of anti-glycan antibodies in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirche TO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA have been suggested as a screening tool to detect CD in CF. Recently, several new anti-glycan antibodies have been reported in CD. Materials and methods The sera of 119 CF patients of various age groups were prospectively screened for ASCA type IgG (gASCA, anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (ALCA, anti-chitobioside carbohydrate IgA antibodies (ACCA, and anti-mannobioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (AMCA. The frequency of these anti-glycan antibodies was then compared in patients with CD, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis and healthy volunteers. Results A significant number of CF patients were positive for gASCA (51.3% [41.6-60.6] and up to three other anti-glycan antibodies concurrently. Serum levels of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and CD were not related to parameters of inflammation. Despite the well-documented difference in clinical course between male and female CF patients no gender difference of anti-glycan antibodies was found. In contrast, there was a significant positive correlation between anti-glycan markers and age in CF patients. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate for the first time the increased frequency of a panel of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and provide a link between the presence of these serological biomarkers and patient's age. Anti-glycan antibody profiling may therefore become a valuable tool in the care of patients with CF.

  2. Accumulation of methylglyoxal increases the advanced glycation end-product levels in DRG and contributes to lumbar disk herniation-induced persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui-Cui; Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Ruan, Yu-Ting; Huang, Zhu-Xi; Zhang, Su-Bo; Liu, Meng; Luo, Hai-Jie; Wu, Shao-Ling; Ma, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Lumbar disk herniation (LDH) with discogenic low back pain and sciatica is a common and complicated musculoskeletal disorder. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, and there are no effective therapies for LDH-induced pain. In the present study, we found that the patients who suffered from LDH-induced pain had elevated plasma methylglyoxal (MG) levels. In rats, implantation of autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) to the left lumbar 5 spinal nerve root, which mimicked LDH, induced mechanical allodynia, increased MG level in plasma and dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and enhanced the excitability of small DRG neurons (DRG neurons ex vivo increased the number of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses. Furthermore, inhibition of MG accumulation by aminoguanidine attenuated the enhanced excitability of small DRG neurons and the mechanical allodynia induced by NP implantation. In addition, NP implantation increased levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in DRG, and intrathecal injection of MG-derived AGEs induced the mechanical allodynia and DRG neuronal hyperactivity. Intrathecal injection of MG also significantly increased the expression of AGEs in DRG. Importantly, scavenging of MG by aminoguanidine also attenuated the increase in AGEs induced by NP implantation. These results suggested that LDH-induced MG accumulation contributed to persistent pain by increasing AGE levels. Thus generation of AGEs from MG may represent a target for treatment of LDH-induced pain. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study demonstrates that methylglyoxal accumulation via increasing advanced glycation end-product levels in dorsal root ganglion contributes to the persistent pain induced by lumbar disk herniation, which proposed potential targets for the treatment of lumbar disk herniation-induced persistent pain. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Effects of increased low-level diode laser irradiation time on extraction socket healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Bong; Ahn, Su-Jin; Kang, Yoon-Goo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Heo, Jung Sun; Kang, Kyung Lhi

    2015-02-01

    In our previous studies, we confirmed that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a 980-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser was beneficial for the healing of the alveolar bone in rats with systemic disease. However, many factors can affect the biostimulatory effects of LLLT. Thus, we attempted to investigate the effects of irradiation time on the healing of extraction sockets by evaluating the expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. The left and right first maxillary molars of 24 rats were extracted. Rats were randomly divided into four groups in which extraction sockets were irradiated for 0, 1, 2, or 5 min each day for 3 or 7 days. Specimens containing the sockets were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. LLLT increased the expressions of all tested genes, Runx2, collagen type 1, osteocalcin, platelet-derived growth factor-B, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in a time-dependent manner. The highest levels of gene expressions were in the 5-min group after 7 days. Five minutes of irradiation caused prominent increases of the expression of all tested proteins after both 3 and 7 days. The expression level of each protein in group 4 was higher by almost twofold compared with group 1 after 7 days. Laser irradiation for 5 min caused the highest expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. In conclusion, LLLT had positive effects on the early stages of bone healing of extraction sockets in rats, which were irradiation time-dependent.

  4. Smoking is associated with increased levels of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in the lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Friberg Bruun Nielsen, Michael; Quisgaard Gaunsbaek, Maria

    2015-01-01

    lavage (BAL) fluid from smokers, but intracellularly located PAD cannot be responsible for citrullination of extracellular self-antigens. We aimed to establish a link between smoking and extracellular PAD2 in the lungs. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were obtained from 13 smokers and 11 nonsmoking controls...... fluids from smokers as compared to non-smokers (p=0.018). The PAD2 content correlated with the overall CRP levels (p=0.009) and cell count (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This first demonstration of increased levels of extracellular PAD2 in the lungs of smokers supports the hypothesis that smoking promotes...

  5. Plasma level of cyclophilin A is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggests presence of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Surya; Venugopal, Anila; Kutty, V Raman; A, Vinitha; G, Divya; Chitrasree, V; Mullassari, Ajit; Pratapchandran, N S; Santosh, K R; Pillai, M Radhakrishna; Kartha, C C

    2014-02-07

    Cyclophilin A, an immunophilin is secreted from human monocytes activated by high glucose. Given its role as an inflammatory mediator of vascular tissue damage associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we examined plasma levels of cyclophilin A in normal healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes (DM), with or without coronary artery disease (CAD). Study subjects comprised of 212 patients with DM and CAD,101 patients with diabetes, 122 patients with CAD and 121 normal healthy volunteers. Diabetes was assessed by HbA1c levels while coronary artery disease was established by a positive treadmill test and/or coronary angiography. Plasma cyclophilin A was measured using a cyclophilin A ELISA Kit. Relationship of plasma cyclophilin A levels with blood markers of type 2 diabetes, blood lipid levels and medication for diabetes and coronary artery disease were also explored. Plasma Cyclophilin levels were higher in diabetes patients with or without CAD compared to normal subjects (P levels and HbA1C levels were positively associated with increased plasma cyclophilin. Patients using metformin had reduced levels of plasma cyclophilin (p levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides had no significant association with plasma cyclophilin levels. In patients with increased serum CRP levels, plasma cyclophilin A was also elevated (p = 0.016). Prevalence odds for DM, DM + CAD and CAD are higher in those with high cyclophilin values, compared to those with lower values, after adjusting for age and sex, indicating strong association of high cyclophilin values with diabetes and vascular disease. Our study demonstrates that patients with type 2 diabetes have higher circulating levels of cyclophilin A than the normal population. Plasma cyclophilin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease suggesting a role of this protein in accelerating vascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Considering the evidence that

  6. Modeling Effectiveness of Gradual Increases in Source Level to Mitigate Effects of Sonar on Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the

  7. Epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and intravenous iron supply in solid tumor patients: early increase of hemoglobin level during chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalle, M.; Antimi, M.; Pistillucci, G.; D'Aprile, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this observational study was the early evaluation of the impact, a week after the first administration of epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and i.v. dose of 62.5 mg sodium ferric gluconate for seven days in improving hemoglobin levels in cancer patients affected by mild/moderate or severe anemia during chemotherapy. Twenty patients affected by solid tumors who received epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and daily i.v. sodium ferric gluconate for one week were evaluated: 90% of the patients showed hemoglobin increase, with a median level of hemoglobin increase of 0.73 g/L from baseline, and 50% of them showing a hemoglobin increase > 1 gr/L. The treatment was well tolerated and no adverse event was observed. The early increase of hemoglobin level from baseline is interesting and suggestive for the possibility of achieving an adequate hemoglobin level with a short-term treatment. It is still necessary to further explore the real need of iron supplementation to maintain adequate erythropoiesis prior and during epoetin therapy

  8. Sensori-motor synchronisation variability decreases as the number of metrical levels in the stimulus signal increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Timing performance becomes less precise for longer intervals, which makes it difficult to achieve simultaneity in synchronisation with a rhythm. The metrical structure of music, characterised by hierarchical levels of binary or ternary subdivisions of time, may function to increase precision by providing additional timing information when the subdivisions are explicit. This hypothesis was tested by comparing synchronisation performance across different numbers of metrical levels conveyed by loudness of sounds, such that the slowest level was loudest and the fastest was softest. Fifteen participants moved their hand with one of 9 inter-beat intervals (IBIs) ranging from 524 to 3,125 ms in 4 metrical level (ML) conditions ranging from 1 (one movement for each sound) to 4 (one movement for every 8th sound). The lowest relative variability (SD/IBI<1.5%) was obtained for the 3 longest IBIs (1600-3,125 ms) and MLs 3-4, significantly less than the smallest value (4-5% at 524-1024 ms) for any ML 1 condition in which all sounds are identical. Asynchronies were also more negative with higher ML. In conclusion, metrical subdivision provides information that facilitates temporal performance, which suggests an underlying neural multi-level mechanism capable of integrating information across levels. © 2013.

  9. Increased levels of airborne fungal spores to Populus tremuloides grown under elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinoromos, J. N. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Botany; Rillig, M. C.; Allen, M. F. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Zak, D. R. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment; Pregitzer, K. S.; Kubiske, M. E. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forestry and Wood Products

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that soil fungi sporulation would be facilitated by increase levels of CO{sub 2} concentration, leading to higher concentrations of fungal population in the atmosphere. Results showed that airborne fungal propagules were increased fourfold under twice-ambient CO{sub 2} concentration, and the decomposing leaf litter, the main source of fungal propagules, produced a fivefold increase of spores under elevated CO{sub 2} conditions. These results confirm the hypothesis that CO{sub 2} concentrations have a direct effect on microbial functions, which in turn will affect decomposition and plant pathogen dynamics. Since there is increasing evidence for causal relationship and exposure to aeroallergens and development of asthma in humans, there is a compelling need to study fungal epidemiology in the context of a globally changing environment. 28 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Fertilization stimulates an increase in inositol trisphosphate and inositol lipid levels in Xenopus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, P; Yim, D L; Leibow, J D; Saini, S; Nuccitelli, R

    1996-11-25

    Previous experiments from our lab have suggested that the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is required for sperm-induced egg activation in Xenopus laevis. Here we measure the endogenous production of both Ins(1,4,5)P3 and PIP2 during the sperm-induced and ionomycin-induced calcium wave in the egg and find that both increase following fertilization. Ins(1,4,5)P3 increases 3.2-fold from an unfertilized egg level of 0.13 pmole per egg (0.29 microM) to a peak of 0.42 pmole per egg (0.93 microM) as the calcium wave reaches the antipode in the fertilized egg. This continuous production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 during the time that the Ca2+ wave is propagating across the egg suggests the involvement of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in wave propagation. This increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 is smaller in ionomycin-activated eggs than in sperm-activated eggs, suggesting that the sperm-induced production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 involves a PIP2 hydrolysis pathway that is not simply raising intracellular Ca2+. While one might expect PIP2 levels to fall as a result of hydrolysis, we find that PIP2 actually increases 2-fold. The total lipid fraction in unfertilized egg exhibits 0.8 pmole PIP2 per egg and this increases to 1.5 pmole as the calcium wave reaches the antipode. The PIP2 concentration peaks 2 min after the completion of the calcium wave at 1.8 pmole per egg. The amount of PIP2 in the animal and vegetal hemispheres of the egg was also measured by cutting frozen eggs in half. The vegetal hemisphere contained twice the amount of PIP2 as the animal hemisphere but it also contained twice the amount of lipid. Thus, there was an equivalent amount of PIP2 normalized to lipid in each hemisphere. Isolated animal and vegetal hemisphere cortices exhibit similar PIP2 concentrations, suggesting that the 2-fold higher total PIP2 in the vegetal half is not due to a gradient of PIP2 in the plasma membrane, but rather implies that cytoplasmic organelle membranes also contain PIP2.

  11. Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Kaemmerer E, Schneider U, Klaus C, Plum P, Reinartz A, Adolf M, Renner M, Wolfs T G A M, Kramer B W, Wagner N, Mollenhauer J & Gassler N (2012) Histopathology Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis Aims:  Deleted in malignant brain...

  12. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  13. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  14. The grey areas in soil pollution risk mapping : The distinction between cases of soil pollution and increased background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaast, N. van der; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of soil clean up in the Netherlands is severely hindered by the lack of common agreement on how to describe the grey areas of increased background levels of pollutants. In this study practical methods are proposed in which background levels are described as distribution functions within

  15. Using a Music Video Parody to Promote Breastfeeding and Increase Comfort Levels Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Erin L; Beadle, Julie; Lukeman, Sionnach; Lukeman, Ellen; Aquino, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    North Americans are not meeting the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations. Young adults understand that breastfeeding is healthy but are uncomfortable seeing breastfeeding. Research aim: The aim of the current project was to determine if a music video parody promoting breastfeeding is perceived by young adults to be an effective means of promotion and if exposure to such a video could increase comfort levels. Young adults rated how comfortable they felt looking at breastfeeding and bottle-feeding images (pretest). Two months later, a subset of participants watched the music video parody "Breastfeeding My Baby." In Phase 1, participants completed the picture-rating task again (posttest) after a 2-month delay, plus a survey to assess memory and perception of the video. In Phase 2, participants were reminded of the video before completing the comfort ratings, and in the final phase, posttest measures were administered only 1 week after exposure to the video. Across all phases, the video was perceived to be effective and was memorable. Breastfeeding comfort ratings were comparable at pretest across participant groups; comfort ratings improved at posttest for participants who saw the video but only if they were reminded of seeing it before providing their ratings. At shorter intervals between seeing the video and completing the posttests, comfort ratings for breastfeeding images increased for all participants, highlighting the general importance of exposure to breastfeeding. Young adults are receptive to using a music video parody to promote breastfeeding, which can help to increase comfort levels with breastfeeding.

  16. Myeloablative radioimmunotherapy with 188Re-CD66mAb before stem cell transplantation. No increase of proinflammatory cytokine levels of TNF-α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutschler, J.; Reske, S.N.; Steinbach, G.; Bunjes, D.; Buchmann, I.

    2009-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) serum levels may increase due to intensive conditioning regimes with high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation (TBI) before stem cell transplantation. This increases the risk for developing acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) after stem cell transplantation. In this prospective study we investigated the influence of radioimmunotherapy with 188 Re-CD-66-mAb on changes on TNF-α serum levels. Patients, methods: In 18 patients we measured TNF-α before and up to 96 hours after radioimmunotherapy, in 2 patients in addition following TBI, in 9 patients also following chemotherapy. For measuring TNF-α we used an automated immunochemiluminescence assay (Immulite 1000 DPC Biermann, Bad Nauheim). The mean follow up period to record incidence of aGVHD was 100 days after stem cell transplantation. Compared to the basal levels before, the levels of TNF-α after conditioning with 188 Re-CD-66-mAb did not increase significantly and remained in the physiological range. In contrast, these initial physiological cytokine levels increased and became pathological following 48 h after total body irradiation (13.2 ± 6.6 pg/ml) and chemotherapy (10.8 ± 15.7 pg/ml). In our study we found a low incidence of aGvHD (22.2%, n = 4/18). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that additional conditioning therapy with 188 Re-CD-66-mAb does not increase proinflammatory cytokine levels of TNF-α. This finding may indicate that additive radioimmunotherapy may not be a significant factor for increasing the rate of conditioning- associated aGvHD. (orig.)

  17. Microzooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Carotenuto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Microzooplankton grazing and algae growth responses to increasing pCO2 levels (350, 700 and 1050 μatm were investigated in nitrate and phosphate fertilized mesocosms during the PeECE III experiment 2005. Grazing and growth rates were estimated by the dilution technique combined with taxon specific HPLC pigment analysis. Microzooplankton composition was determined by light microscopy. Despite a range of up to 3 times the present CO2 levels, there were no clear differences in any measured parameter between the different CO2 treatments. During days 3–9 of the experiment the algae community standing stock, measured as chlorophyll a (Chl-a, showed the highest instantaneous grow rates (k=0.37–0.99 d−1 and increased from ca. 2–3 to 6–12 μg l−1, in all mesocosms. Afterwards the phytoplankton standing stock decreased in all mesocosms until the end of the experiment. The microzooplankton standing stock, that was mainly constituted by dinoflagellates and ciliates, varied between 23 and 130 μg C l−1 (corresponding to 1.9 and 10.8 μmol C l−1, peaking on day 13–15, apparently responding to the phytoplankton development. Instantaneous Chl-a growth rates were generally higher than the grazing rates, indicating only a limited overall effect of microzooplankton grazing on the most dominant phytoplankton. Diatoms and prymnesiophytes were significantly grazed (12–43% of the standing stock d−1 only in the pre-bloom phase when they were in low numbers, and in the post-bloom phase when they were already affected by low nutrients and/or viral lysis. The cyanobacteria populations appeared more affected by microzooplankton grazing which generally removed 20–65% of the standing stock per day.

  18. QR-codes as a tool to increase physical activity level among school children during class hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kristensen, Allan; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    the students physical activity level during class hours. Methods: A before-after study was used to examine 12 students physical activity level, measured with pedometers for six lessons. Three lessons of traditional teaching and three lessons, where QR-codes were used to make orienteering in school area...... as old fashioned. The students also felt positive about being physically active in teaching. Discussion and conclusion: QR-codes as a tool for teaching are usable for making students more physically active in teaching. The students were exited for using QR-codes and they experienced a good motivation......QR-codes as a tool to increase physical activity level among school children during class hours Introduction: Danish students are no longer fulfilling recommendations for everyday physical activity. Since August 2014, Danish students in public schools are therefore required to be physically active...

  19. Theoretical study on the gas adsorption capacity and selectivity of CPM-200-In/Mg and CPM-200-In/Mg-X (-X = -NH2, -OH, -N, -F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-le; Chen, Guang-Hui; Wang, Xiu-Jun; Li, Peng; Song, Yi-Bing; Li, Rui-Yan

    2017-11-15

    The adsorption capacities of a heterometallic metal-organic framework (CPM-200-In/Mg) to VOCs (HCHO, C 2 H 4 , CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 3 H 8 , C 2 H 6 , C 2 H 3 Cl, C 2 H 2 Cl 2 , CH 2 Cl 2 and CHCl 3 ) and some inorganic gas molecules (HCN, SO 2 , NO, CO 2 , CO, H 2 S and NH 3 ), as well as its selectivity in ternary mixture systems of natural gas and post-combustion flue gas are theoretically explored at the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and density functional theory (DFT) levels. It is shown that CPM-200-In/Mg is suitable for the adsorption of VOCs, particularly for HCHO (up to 0.39 g g -1 at 298 K and 1 bar), and the adsorption capacities of some inorganic gas molecules such as SO 2 , H 2 S and CO 2 match well with the sequence of their polarizability (SO 2 > H 2 S > CO 2 ). The large adsorption capacities of HCN and HCHO in the framework result from the strong interaction between adsorbates and metal centers, based on analyzing the radial distribution functions (RDF). Comparing C 2 H 4 and CH 4 molecules interacting with CPM-200-In/Mg by VDW interaction, we speculate that the high adsorption capacities of their chlorine derivatives in the framework could be due to the existence of halogen bonding or strong electrostatic and VDW interactions. It is found that the basic groups, including -NH 2 , -N and -OH, can effectively improve both the adsorption capacities and selectivity of CPM-200-In/Mg for harmful gases. Note that the adsorption capacity of CPM-200-In/Mg-NH 2 (site 2) (245 cm 3 g -1 ) for CO 2 exceeded that of MOF-74-Mg (228 cm 3 g -1 ) at 273 K and 1 bar and that for HCHO can reach 0.41 g g -1 , which is almost twice that of 438-MOF and nearly 45 times of that in active carbon. Moreover, for natural gas mixtures, the decarburization and desulfurization abilities of CPM-200-In/Mg-NH 2 (site 2) have exceeded those of the MOF-74 series, while for post-combustion flue gas mixtures, the desulfurization ability of CPM-200-In/Mg-NH 2 (site 2) is still

  20. Effects of Three Commercially Available Sports Drinks on Substrate Metabolism and Subsequent Endurance Performance in a Postprandial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lu; Wang, Qi-Rong; Fang, Zi-Long; Wang, Ting; Yu, Ai-Qi; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zheng, Yi; Yi, Mu-Qing

    2017-04-12

    Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O 2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) participated in both study I and study II. Three types of commercially available sports beverage powders were used. The powders consisted primarily of oligosaccharides (low molecular weight carbohydrates, L-CHO), hydrolyzed starch (high molecular weight CHO, H-CHO), and whey protein powder with carbohydrate (CHO-PRO). They were dissolved in purified water with identical CHO concentration of 8% ( w / v ). In study I, each participant underwent two oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and one glycemic response test for each sports drink. In study II, participants cycled for 60 min at 70% V̇O 2max , one hour after consuming a standardized breakfast. One of four prescribed beverages (L-CHO, H-CHO, CHO-PRO, and Placebo control, PLA) was served at 0, 15, 30, 45 min during the exercise. Six hours after the first exercise session, participants came back for a "time to exhaustion test" (TTE). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, and 60 min in the first exercise session, while arterial blood gas analysis was conducted at 0, 30, and 60 min in both sessions. Subjective feelings (rating of perceived exertion and abdominal discomfort) were also evaluated every 30 min during exercise. Results: Compared to the reference standardized glucose solution, the glycemic index of the L-CHO beverage was 117.70 ± 14.25, while H-CHO was 105.50 ± 12.82, and CHO-PRO was 67.23 ± 5.88. During the exercise test, the insulin level at 30 and 60 min was significantly lower than baseline

  1. STRUCTURAL AND METHODICAL MODEL OF INCREASING THE LEVEL OF THEORETICAL TRAINING OF CADETS USING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Bulgakov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Features of training in higher educational institutions of system of EMERCOM of Russia demand introduction of the new educational techniques and the technical means directed on intensification of educational process, providing an opportunity of preparation of cadets at any time in the independent mode and improving quality of their theoretical knowledge. The authors have developed a structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets using information and communication technologies. The proposed structural and methodological model that includes elements to stimulate and enhance cognitive activity, allows you to generate the trajectory of theoretical training of cadets for the entire period of study at the University, to organize a systematic independent work, objective, current and final control of theoretical knowledge. The structural and methodological model for improving the level of theoretical training consists of three main elements: the base of theoretical questions, functional modules "teacher" and "cadet". The basis of the structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is the base of theoretical issues, developed in all disciplines specialty 20.05.01 – fire safety. The functional module "teacher" allows you to create theoretical questions of various kinds, edit questions and delete them from the database if necessary, as well as create tests and monitor their implementation. The functional module "cadet" provides ample opportunities for theoretical training through independent work, testing for current and final control, the implementation of the game form of training in the form of a duel, as well as for the formation of the results of the cadets in the form of statistics and rankings. Structural and methodical model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is implemented in practice in the form of a multi-level automated system

  2. Decreased paraoxonase1 activity and increased malondialdehyde and oxidative DNA damage levels in primary open angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcu, Ugur Yilmaz; Kocer, Ibrahim; Ates, Orhan; Alp, H. Hakan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, paraoxonase1 (PON1) activity and 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patient. Blood samples from 52 healthy individuals and 53 patients with POAG were analyzed for MDA and 8-OHdG by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) and PON1 by spectrophotometry. The data obtained were analyzed statistically. MDA levels were 10.46±8.4 and 4.70±1.79 µmol; PON1 levels were 121±39.55 and 161.62±60.22 U/mL; and 8-OHdG values were 1.32±0.53/106 dG and 0.47±0.27/106 dG in the POAG patients and the control group, respectively. The difference was significant in MDA levels, 8-OHdG levels and PON1 activity in POAG patients in comparison with controls (P<0.001). We concluded that the observed increase in MDA and 8-OHdG levels may be correlated with decreased PON1 activity. Oxidative stress plays an important role in glaucoma development. PMID:27803873

  3. Increased glucose levels are associated with episodic memory in nondiabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolandsson, Olov; Backeström, Anna; Eriksson, Sture; Hallmans, Göran; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of a reduction in cognitive function. We investigated the hypothesis that plasma glucose is associated with a reduction in episodic and/or semantic memory already in nondiabetic subjects. We linked two large population-based datasets in Sweden: the Betula study, in which a random sample from the population aged 35-85 years was investigated for cognitive function, including episodic and semantic memory; and the Västerbotten Intervention Program, a health survey with subjects aged 40, 50, and 60 years, that includes measuring of fasting and 2-h plasma glucose, along with other risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We identified 411 (179 men and 232 women, mean age 50.6 +/- 8.0 years) nondiabetic subjects, free from dementia, who had participated in the two surveys within 6 months. Women had better episodic (score 7.37 +/- 1.42) and semantic memory (score 16.05 +/- 2.76) than men (score 6.59 +/- 1.29 and 15.15 +/- 2.92, respectively, P glucose (fPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory (fPG: B -0.198, SE 0.068, beta -0.209, P = 0.004; and 2hPG: B -0.061, SE 0.031, beta -0.148, P = 0.048, respectively) in women but not in men. The association was not found in relation to semantic memory. We conclude that an increase in plasma glucose is associated with impairment in episodic memory in women. This could be explained by a negative effect on the hippocampus caused by raised plasma glucose levels.

  4. Increased plasma levels of microparticles expressing CD39 and CD133 in acute liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzle, Moritz; Splith, Katrin; Wiuff Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that CD133 and CD39 are expressed by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are mobilized after liver injury and target sites of injury, limit vascular inflammation, and boost hepatic regeneration. Plasma microparticles (MP) expressing CD39 can block...... sacrificed and plasma MP were isolated by ultracentrifugation. HSC and CD133 MP levels were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Patients were enrolled with acute (n=5) and acute on chronic (n=5) liver injury with matched controls (n=7). Blood was collected at admission and plasma CD133 and CD39...... MP subsets were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RESULTS: HSC and CD133 MP levels were significantly increased only in the plasma of wild-type mice with acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (P

  5. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Orho-Melander, Marju; Nilsson, Peter M

    2017-03-08

    Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring ( n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS). Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference ( p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure ( p = 0.003), and glucose levels ( p = 0.036). Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight ( p zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  6. Perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of increased total and visceral fat mass levels in schoolchildren in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kaliora, Adriana C; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Michaletos, Aggelos; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Karachaliou, Alexandra K; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2017-03-01

    To identify possibly independent associations of perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with childhood total and visceral body fat. A representative sample of 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 years) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. A sample of 1228 children having full data on total and visceral fat mass levels, as well as on anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, physical examination, socio-economic and perinatal indices, was examined. Maternal (OR=3·03 and 1·77) and paternal obesity (OR=1·62 and 1·78), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1·72 and 1·93) and rapid infant weight gain (OR=1·42 and 1·96) were significantly and positively associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Children's television watching for >2 h/d (OR=1·40) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=2·46) were associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass level, respectively. Furthermore, increased children's physical activity (OR=0·66 and 0·47) were significantly and negatively associated with children's total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Lastly, both father's age >46 years (OR=0·57) and higher maternal educational level (OR=0·45) were associated with children's increased total visceral fat mass level. Parental sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal indices and pre-adolescent lifestyle behaviours were associated with children's abnormal levels of total and visceral fat mass. Any future programme for childhood prevention either from the perinatal age or at late childhood should take these indices into consideration.

  7. Serum levels of RBP4 and adipose tissue levels of PTP1B are increased in obese men resident in northeast Scotland without associated changes in ER stress response genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoggard N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nigel Hoggard1, Abdelali Agouni2, Nimesh Mody2, Mirela Delibegovic21Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, 2Integrative Physiology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UKBackground: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 is an adipokine identified as a marker of insulin resistance in mice and humans. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B expression levels as well as other genes involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response are increased in adipose tissue of obese, high-fat-diet-fed mice. In this study we investigated if serum and/or adipose tissue RBP4 protein levels and expression levels of PTP1B and other ER stress-response genes are altered in obese and obese/diabetic men resident in northeast Scotland.Methods: We studied three groups of male volunteers: (1 normal/overweight (body mass index [BMI] < 30, (2 obese (BMI > 30, and (3 obese/diabetic (BMI > 30 controlling their diabetes either by diet or the antidiabetic drug metformin. We analyzed their serum and adipose tissue RBP4 protein levels as well as adipose tissue mRNA expression of PTP1B, binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP, activated transcription factor 4 (ATF4, and glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94 alongside other markers of adiposity (percentage body fat, leptin, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance (oral glucose tolerance tests, insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin.Results: We found that obese Scottish subjects had significantly higher serum RBP4 protein levels in comparison to the normal/overweight subjects (P < 0.01. Serum RBP4 levels were normalized in obese/diabetic subjects treated with diet or metformin (P < 0.05. Adipose tissue RBP4 protein levels were comparable between all three groups of subjects as were serum and adipose transthyretin levels. Adipose tissue PTP1B mRNA levels were increased in obese subjects in comparison to normal/overweight subjects (P < 0.05; however diet and/or metformin

  8. Moderate-intensity interval training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and decreases inflammation in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Zeligowska, E; Mencel, J; Jaskolski, A; Jaskolska, A; Marusiak, J

    2014-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy people. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of physical training on the basal serum level of the BDNF in the Parkinson's disease patients (PD patients) in relation to their health status. Twelve PD patients (mean ± S.E.M: age 70 ± 3 years; body mass 70 ± 2 kg; height 163 ± 3 cm) performed a moderate-intensity interval training (three 1-hour training sessions weekly), lasting 8 weeks. Basal serum BDNF in the PD patients before training amounted to 10,977 ± 756 pg x mL(-1) and after 8 weeks of training it has increased to 14,206 ± 1256 pg x mL(-1) (i.e. by 34%, P=0.03). This was accompanied by an attenuation of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (P=0.01). The training resulted also in a decrease of basal serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) (P=0.001) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.03) levels. We have concluded that the improvement of health status of the Parkinson's disease patients after training could be related to the increase of serum BDNF level caused by the attenuated inflammation in those patients.

  9. Increase the level of preparedness of qualified basketball players in the preparatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Gradusov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the adaptation of basketball players of student teams to training loads during the preparatory period of the annual cycle of training on the parameters of motor qualities and functional readiness. Material & Methods: conducted a survey of 12 basketball players on the team (Sumy, the highest league of the Ukrainian Basketball Championship. The following research methods were used: theoretical analysis of literary sources, methods of mathematical statistics, anthropometry and pedagogical control. Result: dynamics of changes at the stage of preparation for the season is shown. It is established and observed that under the influence of training sessions in the examined basketball players, not only the optimization of the functional systems of their organism, but also the level of the functional state of the organism as a whole. Conclusion: assessment of the functional condition of the athlete's body should play an important role in the overall system of medical and biological control in connection with significant additional information on the state of their body and the possibility of timely correction of physical activity and the provision of preventive measures. It is determined that during the preparatory period the level of motor qualities and functional readiness of the basketball players increased.

  10. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363 of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS. Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003, and glucose levels (p = 0.036. Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p < 0.001, obesity (p = 0.047, and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.048. We cannot detect altered zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  11. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  12. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  13. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  14. Protection against UVA-induced photooxidative damage in mammalian cell lines expressing increased levels of metallothionein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, E.J.; Roth, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an endogenous low molecular weight protein that is inducible in a variety of eukaryotic cells and has the ability to selectivity bind heavy metal ions such as zinc and the cadmium. Although the exact physiological role of MT is still not understood, there is strong evidence that MT is involved in providing cellular resistance against the damaging effects of heavy metals and in the regulation of intracellular zinc and copper. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MT can scavenge radiation-induced reactive oxygen intermediates in vitro, specifically hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and because of these observations it has been suggested that MT may provide protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Cell lines expressing increased levels of MT have demonstrated resistance to ionizing radiation, to ultraviolet radiation, and also to various DNA damaging agents including melphalan and cis-diaminedichloroplatinum. It is therefore important to gain some insight into the relationship between cellular MT content and cellular resistance to radiation and other DNA damaging agents. In this study we investigated the role of MT in providing protection against monochromatic 365-nm UVA radiation, which is known to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species that are involved in both DNA damage and cell killing. For this purpose, we used zinc acetate, a potent inducer of MT, to elevate MT levels in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts prior to UVA exposure and determined cell survival for uninduced and induced cultures. In order to eliminate any zinc effects other than MT induction, we also isolated and characterized cadmium chloride-resistant clones of V79 cells that have increased steady-state levels of both MT mRNA and protein, and we examined their survival characteristics against 365-nm radiation in the absence of zinc acetate. 14 refs., 3 figs

  15. Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Guyanas during the GABRIEL field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stickler

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of different Lagrangian and chemical box model calculations with measurement data obtained during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon rainforest in the Guyanas, October 2005. Lagrangian modelling of boundary layer (BL air constrained by measurements is used to derive a horizontal gradient (≈5.6 pmol/mol km−1 of CO from the ocean to the rainforest (east to west. This is significantly smaller than that derived from the measurements (16–48 pmol/mol km−1, indicating that photochemical production from organic precursors alone cannot explain the observed strong gradient. It appears that HCHO is overestimated by the Lagrangian and chemical box models, which include dry deposition but not exchange with the free troposphere (FT. The relatively short lifetime of HCHO implies substantial BL-FT exchange. The mixing-in of FT air affected by African and South American biomass burning at an estimated rate of 0.12 h−1 increases the CO and decreases the HCHO mixing ratios, improving agreement with measurements. A mean deposition velocity of 1.35 cm/s for H2O2 over the ocean as well as over the rainforest is deduced assuming BL-FT exchange adequate to the results for CO. The measured increase of the organic peroxides from the ocean to the rainforest (≈0.66 nmol/mol d−1 is significantly overestimated by the Lagrangian model, even when using high values for the deposition velocity and the entrainment rate. Our results point at either heterogeneous loss of organic peroxides and/or their radical precursors, underestimated photodissociation or missing reaction paths of peroxy radicals not forming peroxides in isoprene chemistry. We calculate a mean integrated daytime net ozone production (NOP in the BL of (0.2±5.9 nmol/mol (ocean and (2.4±2.1 nmol/mol (rainforest. The NOP strongly correlates with NO and has a positive tendency in

  16. Increased cortisol responsivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone and low plasma levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Magnus S; Olovsson, Matts; Nyberg, Sigrid; Thorsen, Kim; Olsson, Tommy; Sundström Poromaa, Inger

    2007-01-01

    To assess the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at all levels, to determine the origin of the previously reported hypercortisolism in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. A secondary aim was to evaluate factors outside the central nervous system which are known to affect the HPA axis, i.e., circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and fat mass-adjusted leptin levels, in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and healthy controls. Cross-sectional study. Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden. Fifteen subjects with hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 14 age- and weight-matched controls. None. We collected blood samples four times during a 24-hour interval for analysis of cortisol, leptin, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 levels. We performed a low-dose oral dexamethasone test and a low-dose ACTH test. We measured body-fat percentage using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer. Patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea had increased diurnal cortisol levels (P<.001). The cortisol response to intravenous low-dose ACTH was increased in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea patients compared to control subjects (P<.01), but they had similar rates of dexamethasone suppression. Patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea also had decreased diurnal leptin (P<.05), and decreased diurnal IL-1Ra levels (P<.05), compared to controls. Body-fat percentage was the main predictor of leptin levels. The present study suggests novel links for the development of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, including increased adrenal responsiveness and impairments in proinflammatory cytokine pathways.

  17. Kaempferol increases levels of coenzyme Q in kidney cells and serves as a biosynthetic ring precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Del-Río, Lucía; Nag, Anish; Gutiérrez Casado, Elena; Ariza, Julia; Awad, Agape M; Joseph, Akil I; Kwon, Ohyun; Verdin, Eric; de Cabo, Rafael; Schneider, Claus; Torres, Jorge Z; Burón, María I; Clarke, Catherine F; Villalba, José M

    2017-09-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant essential in cellular physiology. Patients with Q deficiencies, with few exceptions, seldom respond to treatment. Current therapies rely on dietary supplementation with Q 10 , but due to its highly lipophilic nature, Q 10 is difficult to absorb by tissues and cells. Plant polyphenols, present in the human diet, are redox active and modulate numerous cellular pathways. In the present study, we tested whether treatment with polyphenols affected the content or biosynthesis of Q. Mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial (Tkpts) cells and human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK 293) were treated with several types of polyphenols, and kaempferol produced the largest increase in Q levels. Experiments with stable isotope 13 C-labeled kaempferol demonstrated a previously unrecognized role of kaempferol as an aromatic ring precursor in Q biosynthesis. Investigations of the structure-function relationship of related flavonols showed the importance of two hydroxyl groups, located at C3 of the C ring and C4' of the B ring, both present in kaempferol, as important determinants of kaempferol as a Q biosynthetic precursor. Concurrently, through a mechanism not related to the enhancement of Q biosynthesis, kaempferol also augmented mitochondrial localization of Sirt3. The role of kaempferol as a precursor that increases Q levels, combined with its ability to upregulate Sirt3, identify kaempferol as a potential candidate in the design of interventions aimed on increasing endogenous Q biosynthesis, particularly in kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Caffeine Increases Apolipoprotein A-1 and Paraoxonase-1 but not Paraoxonase-3 Protein Levels in Human-Derived Liver (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayılan Özgün, Gülben; Özgün, Eray; Tabakçıoğlu, Kıymet; Süer Gökmen, Selma; Eskiocak, Sevgi; Çakır, Erol

    2017-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 are antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic structural high-density lipoprotein proteins that are mainly synthesized by the liver. No study has ever been performed to specifically examine the effects of caffeine on paraoxonase enzymes and on liver apolipoprotein A-1 protein levels. To investigate the dose-dependent effects of caffeine on liver apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels. In vitro experimental study. HepG2 cells were incubated with 0 (control), 10, 50 and 200 μM of caffeine for 24 hours. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Apolipoprotein A-1, paraoxonase-1 and paraoxonase-3 protein levels were measured by western blotting. We observed a significant increase on apolipoprotein A-1 and paraoxonase-1 protein levels in the cells incubated with 50 µM of caffeine and a significant increase on paraoxonase-1 protein level in the cells incubated with 200 µM of caffeine. Our study showed that caffeine does not change paraoxonase-3 protein level, but the higher doses used in our study do cause an increase in both apolipoprotein A-1 and paraoxonase-1 protein levels in liver cells.

  19. Increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine are attributable to organophosphate pesticide exposure among young children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guodong; Han Song; Wang, Pei; Gao Yu; Shi Rong; Wang, Guoquan; Tian Ying

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as an important mechanism linking pesticide exposure to health effects. A study of 268 young Shanghai children was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure and a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for five nonspecific dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites [dimethyl phosphates (DMs) and diethyl phosphates (DEs)] and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The creatinine-adjusted median of 8-OHdG in urine samples was 3.99 ng/mg. Increased exposure to OPs was associated with greater levels of urinary 8-OHdG [total DAPs: ß (adjusted) = 0.46 per log 10 unit increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40–0.53, p = 0.000; DMs: ß (adjusted) = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.28–0.41, p = 0.000; DEs: ß (adjusted) = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.42–0.54, p = 0.000]. Thus, the 8-OHdG biomarker is useful for increasing our understanding of the link between childhood exposure to OPs and health outcomes. - Highlights: ► OP exposures are thought to affect health by mechanisms related to oxidative stress. ► We assessed the correlation between OP exposure and a biomarker of oxidative stress. ► Increased exposure to OPs was associated with greater levels of urinary 8-OHdG. - Environmental exposure to OPs may play an important role in oxidative DNA damage in children.

  20. Acute administration of ketamine in rats increases hippocampal BDNF and mTOR levels during forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Hu, Yi-Min; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Guang-Fen; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts fast-acting antidepressant effects in patients and in animal models of depression. However, the underlying mechanisms are not totally understood. This study aims to investigate the effects of acute administration of different doses of ketamine on the immobility time of rats in the forced swimming test (FST) and to determine levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Forty male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 each): group saline and groups ketamine 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg. On the first day, all animals were forced to swim for 15 min. On the second day ketamine (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, respectively) was given intraperitoneally, at 30 min before the second episode of the forced swimming test. Immobility times of the rats during the forced swimming test were recorded. The animals were then decapitated. The hippocampus was harvested for determination of BDNF and mTOR levels. Compared with group saline, administration of ketamine at a dose of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg decreased the duration of immobility (P < 0.05 for all doses). Ketamine at doses of both 10 and 15 mg/kg showed a significant increase in the expression of hippocampal BDNF (P < 0.05 for both doses). Ketamine given at doses of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg showed significant increases in relative levels of hippocampal p-mTOR (P < 0.05 for all doses) The antidepressant effect of ketamine might be related to the increased expression of BDNF and mTOR in the hippocampus of rats.

  1. Predicting long-term temperature increase for time-dependent SAR levels with a single short-term temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluccio, Giuseppe; Bruno, Mary; Collins, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Present a novel method for rapid prediction of temperature in vivo for a series of pulse sequences with differing levels and distributions of specific energy absorption rate (SAR). After the temperature response to a brief period of heating is characterized, a rapid estimate of temperature during a series of periods at different heating levels is made using a linear heat equation and impulse-response (IR) concepts. Here the initial characterization and long-term prediction for a complete spine exam are made with the Pennes' bioheat equation where, at first, core body temperature is allowed to increase and local perfusion is not. Then corrections through time allowing variation in local perfusion are introduced. The fast IR-based method predicted maximum temperature increase within 1% of that with a full finite difference simulation, but required less than 3.5% of the computation time. Even higher accelerations are possible depending on the time step size chosen, with loss in temporal resolution. Correction for temperature-dependent perfusion requires negligible additional time and can be adjusted to be more or less conservative than the corresponding finite difference simulation. With appropriate methods, it is possible to rapidly predict temperature increase throughout the body for actual MR examinations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Induction of increased cAMP levels in articular chondrocytes blocks matrix metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage degradation, but not aggrecanase-mediated cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten Asser; Sumer, Eren Ufuk; Wulf, Helle

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Calcitonin has been suggested to have chondroprotective effects. One signaling pathway of calcitonin is via the second messenger cAMP. We undertook this study to investigate whether increased cAMP levels in chondrocytes would be chondroprotective. METHODS: Cartilage degradation......-dependently inhibited by forskolin and IBMX. The highest concentration of IBMX lowered cytokine-induced release of sGAG by 72%. CONCLUSION: Levels of cAMP in chondrocytes play a key role in controlling catabolic activity. Increased cAMP levels in chondrocytes inhibited MMP expression and activity and consequently...... strongly inhibited cartilage degradation. Specific cAMP modulators in chondrocytes may be potential treatments for cartilage degenerative diseases....

  3. Dramatic increase of nitrite levels in hearts of anoxia-exposed crucian carp supporting a role in cardioprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2012-01-01

    the generation of reactive oxygen species upon reoxygenation. The crucian carp naturally survives extended periods without oxygen in an active state, which has made it a model for studying how evolution has solved the problems of anoxic survival. We investigated the role of nitrite and NO in the anoxia...... increases in nitrite, S-nitrosothiols (SNO) and iron-nitrosyl (FeNO) compounds in anoxic heart tissue. Nitrite levels were maintained in anoxic brain, liver and gill tissues, whereas SNO and FeNO increased in a tissue-specific manner. Reoxygenation reestablished normoxic values. We conclude that nitrite...

  4. The Enhanced Formaldehyde-Sensing Properties of P3HT-ZnO Hybrid Thin Film OTFT Sensor and Further Insight into Its Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Tai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin-film transistor (TFT having an organic–inorganic hybrid thin film combines the advantage of TFT sensors and the enhanced sensing performance of hybrid materials. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT-zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles’ hybrid thin film was fabricated by a spraying process as the active layer of TFT for the employment of a room temperature operated formaldehyde (HCHO gas sensor. The effects of ZnO nanoparticles on morphological and compositional features, electronic and HCHO-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO thin film were systematically investigated. The results showed that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film sensor exhibited considerable improvement of sensing response (more than two times and reversibility compared to the pristine P3HT film sensor. An accumulation p-n heterojunction mechanism model was developed to understand the mechanism of enhanced sensing properties by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM characterizations were used to investigate the stability of the sensor in-depth, which reveals the performance deterioration was due to the changes of element composition and the chemical state of hybrid thin film surface induced by light and oxygen. Our study demonstrated that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film TFT sensor is beneficial in the advancement of novel room temperature HCHO sensing technology.

  5. Amperometric Formaldehyde Sensor Based on a Pd Nanocrystal Modified C/Co2P Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine Pd nanocrystals were grown on the cobalt phosphide (Co2P decorated Vulcan XC-72 carbon (C/Co2P, which is realized by first implementing the corresponding metal precursor and then the further chemical reduction process. The as-synthesized C/Co2P/Pd composite was further constructed to form a gas permeable electrode. This electrode can be applied for formaldehyde (HCHO detection. The results demonstrate that the Co2P nanocrystal can significantly improve the sensing performance of the C/Co2P/Pd electrode for catalytic oxidation of HCHO, which is considered to be attributed to the effective electron transfer from Co2P to Pd in the C/Co2P/Pd composites. Furthermore, the assembled C/Co2P/Pd sensor exhibits high sensitivity of 617 nA/ppm and good selectivity toward various interfering gases such as NO2, NO, SO2, CO2, and CO. It also shows the excellent linear response that the correlation coefficient is 0.994 in the concentration range of 1–10 ppm. Therefore, the proposed cost-effective C/Co2P/Pd nanocomposite, which owns advantages such as high activity and good stability, has the potential to be applied as an effective electrocatalyst for amperometric HCHO detection.

  6. Increased concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 levels in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Çatlı, Gönül; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic molecule, seems to play a role in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation of nesfatin-1 with anthropometric and metabolic (ghrelin, leptin) parameters in children with idiopathic chronic malnutrition. Materials and methods: The study included 37 underweight and 38 healthy children who were similar regarding age, sex, and pubertal status. Anthropometric and biochemical (nesfatin-1, ghrelin, and leptin levels) variables were assessed. Results: A total of 37 underweight subjects (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years) and 38 heathy subjects (mean age 10.3 ± 2.3 years) were recruited. Underweight children had significantly higher nesfatin-1 (2.76 ± 0.4 vs. 1.56 ± 0.7, P malnutrition, who were subsequently found to have significantly higher nesfatin-1 levels. Our study underlines that nesfatin-1 may play a role in the development of malnutrition by inhibiting food intake in children.

  7. Using satellite-based measurements to explore ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently spatially averaged) measurements of atmospheric conditions to diagnose the occurrence of NPF and NPF characteristics. We demonstrate the potential for using satellite-measurements of insolation (UV), trace gas concentrations (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone (O3)), aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE)), and a proxy of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (leaf area index (LAI), temperature (T)) as predictors for NPF characteristics: formation rates, growth rates, survival probabilities, and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations at five locations across North America. NPF at all sites is most frequent in spring, exhibits a one-day autocorrelation, and is associated with low condensational sink (AOD×AE) and HCHO concentrations, and high UV. However, there are important site-to-site variations in NPF frequency and characteristics, and in which of the predictor variables (particularly gas concentrations) significantly contribute to the explanatory power of regression models built to predict those characteristics. This finding may provide a partial explanation for the reported spatia

  8. Do building wakes increase ground level concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.J.; Melbourne, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the EPRI Plume Rise and Downwash Project to develop and evaluate new mathematical algorithms representing plume rise and downwash, physical model studies were performed on the plume dispersion from Combustion Turbine Unit 4, (CT 4), at the Jersey Central Power and Light Sayreville Generating Station, Sayreville, New Jersey. Studies were performed both in neutral and stably stratified model atmospheric boundary layer conditions with the primary objective being to determine the behavior of the combustion turbine plume under high and low ambient wind speed conditions within the wake region produced by the combustion turbine itself. Field measurements were also performed at the site and to this end a base case wind direction of β = 335 degree was chosen for both the field and model studies in an attempt to minimize the effects of other building wakes on the plume. This paper looks at the flow and dispersion characteristics with and without these large structures in the model in an attempt to explain why the differences in concentration levels occurred

  9. Serum NT-proCNP levels increased after initiation of GH treatment in patients with achondroplasia/hypochondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Wang, Wei; Miura, Kohji; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Keiko; Fujiwara, Makoto; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Tachibana, Makiko; Kitaoka, Taichi; Takakuwa, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoko; Namba, Noriyuki; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-06-01

    Serum amino-terminal propeptide of C-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) levels have been proposed as a biomarker of linear growth in healthy children. The usefulness of NT-proCNP in patients with achondroplasia (ACH)/hypochondroplasia (HCH) remains to be elucidated. The objective was to study whether serum NT-proCNP level is a good biomarker for growth in ACH/HCH and other patients of short stature. This was a longitudinal cohort study. Sixteen children with ACH (aged 0·4-4·3 years), six children with HCH (2·7-6·3 years), 23 children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) (2·2-9·0 years), eight short children with GH deficiency (GHD) (2·9-6·8 years) and five short children born small for gestational age (SGA) (2·0-6·6 years). Patients with ACH/HCH received GH treatment for 1 year. Serum NT-proCNP levels and height were measured. NT-proCNP levels positively correlated with height velocity in these short children (P < 0·05, r = 0·27). NT-proCNP levels inversely correlated with age in children with ISS alone (P < 0·01, r = -0·55). Serum NT-proCNP levels in patients with ACH/HCH were increased 3 months following the initiation of GH treatment (P < 0·05). Height SDS gain during GH treatment for 1 year was positively correlated with the changes in NT-proCNP levels after the initiation of GH (P < 0·01, r = 0·72). Serum NT-proCNP levels may be a good biomarker to indicate the effect of GH treatment on growth in patients with ACH/HCH at least in the first year and height velocity in short stature patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Increased serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ghaneei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated serum levels of oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (oxLDL have been found in type 2 and in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has common features with type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxLDL in women with GDM compared to normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ninety-two subjects were randomly allocated to either GDM (n=46 or control (n=46 groups matched for age, body mass index and parity from March 2013 to March 2014. GDM was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria at 24-26 weeks of gestation. OxLDL was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were applied for analyzing the data by using SPSS version 17. Results: Compared to the controls, significantly higher oxLDL levels were found in the GDM group (17.16 ± 3.71 U/L vs. 8.77 ± 1.84 U/L, respectively, p < 0.001. No significant correlations were found between oxLDL and age and BMI of the patients in the groups. Conclusion: Our study found significant increase of oxLDL in GDM emphasizing the role of short-term hyperglycemia in the formation of oxLDL during GDM. The importance of aptly diagnosis of GDM in maternal health may also be concluded.

  11. Zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, is increased in association with liver enzymes in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Heo, Ju Sun; Baek, Kyung Suk; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Jung Hyun; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Ki Eun; Sheen, Youn Ho

    2018-06-01

    Zonulin is acknowledged as the only physiological mediator established to reversibly regulate intestinal permeability through modulation of intercellular tight junctions. We aimed to determine whether there are differences in zonulin levels between 74 subjects with overweight or obesity and 76 with normal-weight and to assess correlations of circulating zonulin levels with anthropometric measures and obesity-related biomarkers. We assessed anthropometric and laboratory measures, including body mass index (BMI) z-score, blood pressure, liver enzymes, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance. Serum zonulin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of the participants was 12.8 ± 1.5 years. Circulating serum zonulin levels were significantly increased in subjects with overweight/obesity compared with those of normal-weight (P = 0.03). Zonulin levels were significantly and positively associated with BMI z-score, alanine aminotransferase levels, triglyceride, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (all P zonulin levels in adolescents with overweight or obesity (P zonulin levels in this subgroup analysis (P = 0.06). Serum zonulin is a biomarker associated with hepatic metabolic disturbances in young adolescents with overweight or obesity. The positive relationship suggests a potentially relevant pathophysiological mechanism linking zonulin to hepatic metabolism in this age group of young adolescents with overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High levels of retinal membrane docosahexaenoic acid increase susceptibility to stress-induced degenerations⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanito, Masaki; Brush, Richard S.; Elliott, Michael H.; Wicker, Lea D.; Henry, Kimberly R.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The fat-1 gene cloned from C. elegans encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 PUFA. Mice carrying the fat-1 transgene and wild-type controls were fed an n-3-deficient/n-6-enriched diet [fat-1- safflower oil (SFO) and wt-SFO, respectively]. Fatty acid profiles of rod outer segments (ROS), cerebellum, plasma, and liver demonstrated significantly lower n-6/n-3 ratios and higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in fat-1-SFO compared with wt-SFO. When mice were exposed to light stress: 1) the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was reduced; 2) amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) were lower; 3) the number of apoptotic photoreceptor cells was greater; and 4) modification of retinal proteins by 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of n-3 PUFA oxidation was increased in both fat-1-SFO and wt mice fed a regular lab chow diet compared with wt-SFO. The results indicate a positive correlation between the level of DHA, the degree of n-3 PUFA lipid peroxidation, and the vulnerability of the retina to photooxidative stress. In mice not exposed to intense light, the reduction in DHA resulted in reduced efficacy in phototransduction gain steps, while no differences in the retinal morphology or retinal biochemistry. These results highlight the dual roles of DHA in cellular physiology and pathology. PMID:19023138

  13. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa

    2009-01-01

    an effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased......Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker...... of depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish...

  14. Dialysis Hypotension : A Role for Inadequate Increase in Arginine Vasopressin Levels? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Esmee M.; Zittema, Debbie; Kuipers, Johanna; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Vart, Priya; de Jong, Paul E.; Westerhuis, Ralf; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of hemodialysis (HD). Some studies have suggested that inadequate arginine vasopressin (AVP) increase could play a role in the pathogenesis of intradialytic hypotension. However, AVP levels during HD and its relation to hypotension has

  15. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase plasma irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, Emine; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Menevse, Esma

    2017-11-28

    Background A recently discovered hormone, irisin is accepted to be significantly involved in the regulation of body weight. Thyroid functions may be, directly or indirectly, associated with irisin. Aim The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of experimental thyroid dysfunction on irisin levels in rats. Methods The study registered 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were allocated to groups as follows: 1. Control; 2. Hypothyroidism induced by injection of 10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal propylthiouracil (PTU) for 3 weeks; 3. Hypothyroidism (PTU 2 weeks) + L-thyroxin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 1 week); 4. Hyperthyroidism induced in rats by 3-week thyroxin (0.3 mg/kg/day); 5. Hyperthyroidism + PTU. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected to quantify free triiodothyronine (FT3), free triiodothyronine (FT4)