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Sample records for hcci engines ifp

  1. HCCI engine control and optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Killingsworth, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines have the benefit of high efficiency with low emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates. These benefits are due to the autoignition process of the dilute mixture of fuel and air during compression. However, because there is no direct ignition trigger, control of ignition is inherently more difficult than in standard internal combustion engines. This difficulty necessitates that a feedback controller be used to keep the engine at a desi...

  2. HCCI Engine Optimization and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolf D. Reitz

    2005-09-30

    The goal of this project was to develop methods to optimize and control Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, with emphasis on diesel-fueled engines. HCCI offers the potential of nearly eliminating IC engine NOx and particulate emissions at reduced cost over Compression Ignition Direct Injection engines (CIDI) by controlling pollutant emissions in-cylinder. The project was initiated in January, 2002, and the present report is the final report for work conducted on the project through December 31, 2004. Periodic progress has also been reported at bi-annual working group meetings held at USCAR, Detroit, MI, and at the Sandia National Laboratories. Copies of these presentation materials are available on CD-ROM, as distributed by the Sandia National Labs. In addition, progress has been documented in DOE Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Annual Progress Reports for FY 2002, 2003 and 2004. These reports are included as the Appendices in this Final report.

  3. Development of HCCI Engines for Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene; Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    This report has been prepared for the Danish Energy Agency. It summarizes the results of the project entitled: “Development of HCCI engines for DME”. The project has been financed by “EFP 06”. The chapters about theoretical and experimental studies have been written using the language and termino......This report has been prepared for the Danish Energy Agency. It summarizes the results of the project entitled: “Development of HCCI engines for DME”. The project has been financed by “EFP 06”. The chapters about theoretical and experimental studies have been written using the language...

  4. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guoming [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Yang, Xiaojian [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Huisjen, Andrew [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Stuecken, Tom [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Moran, Kevin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Zhen, Ren [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Zhang, Shupeng [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering; Opra, John [Chrysler Corporation, Auburn Hill, MI (United States); Reese, Ron [Chrysler Corporation, Auburn Hill, MI (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The central objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate an HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) capable SI (spark ignited) engine that is capable of fast and smooth mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion modes. The model-based control technique was used to develop and validate the proposed control strategy for the fast and smooth combustion mode transition based upon the developed control-oriented engine; and an HCCI capable SI engine was designed and constructed using production ready two-step valve-train with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. Finally, smooth combustion mode transition was demonstrated on a metal engine within eight engine cycles. The Chrysler turbocharged 2.0L I4 direct injection engine was selected as the base engine for the project and the engine was modified to fit the two-step valve with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. To develop the model-based control strategy for stable HCCI combustion and smooth combustion mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion, a control-oriented real-time engine model was developed and implemented into the MSU HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) simulation environment. The developed model was used to study the engine actuating system requirement for the smooth and fast combustion mode transition and to develop the proposed mode transition control strategy. Finally, a single cylinder optical engine was designed and fabricated for studying the HCCI combustion characteristics. Optical engine combustion tests were conducted in both SI and HCCI combustion modes and the test results were used to calibrate the developed control-oriented engine model. Intensive GT-Power simulations were conducted to determine the optimal valve lift (high and low) and the cam phasing range. Delphi was selected to be the supplier for the two-step valve-train and Denso to be the electrical variable valve timing system supplier. A test bench was constructed to develop control strategies for

  5. Evaluation of heat transfer correlations for HCCI engine modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soyhan, H.S.; Yasar, H.; Walmsley, H.; Head, B.; Kalghatgi, G.T.; Sorusbay, C.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion in HCCI engines is a controlled auto-ignition of well-mixed fuel, air and residual gas. The thermal conditions of the combustion chamber are governed by chemical kinetics strongly coupled with heat transfer from the hot gas to the walls. The heat losses have a critical effect on HCCI

  6. Review of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engines and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on HCCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akma Tuan Kamaruddin, Tengku Nordayana; Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Sies, Mohsin Mohd

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development in ICE which leads to the new advanced combustion mode named Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). It explains regarding the theory and working principle of HCCI plus the difference of the process in gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Many of pioneer and recent research works are discussed to get the current state of art about HCCI. It gives a better indication on the potential of this method in improving the fuel efficiency and emission produced by the vehicles' engine. Apart from the advantages, the challenges and future trend of this technology are also included. HCCI is applying few types of control strategy in producing the optimum performance. This paper looks into Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) as one of the control strategies.

  7. EMISSION AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT FUELS IN A HCCI ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sendilvelan; S.Mohanamurugan

    2011-01-01

    Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amounts were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics using variable valve actuation (VVA) in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The HCCI engine is a promising concept for future automobile engines and stationary power plants. The two-stage ignition process in a HCCI engine creates advanced ignition and stratified combustion, which makes the ignition timing and combus...

  8. Gasoline Engine HCCI Combustion - Extending the high load limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    There is an increasing global focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. For the automotive industry this means reducing CO2 emissions of the vehicles manufactured, which is synonymous with reducing their fuel consumption or adapting them for using renewable fuels. This thesis is based on a project aimed at improving the efficiency of gasoline engines in the lower load/speed region. The focus was mainly on a combustion strategy called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), but also on homogeneous lean and stratified lean spark-ignited combustion. In contrast to traditional stoichiometric spark-ignited combustion, HCCI can operate with diluted mixtures, which leads to better cycle efficiency, smaller pumping losses and smaller heat losses. However, at relatively high loads, HCCI combustion becomes excessively rapid, generating in-cylinder pressure oscillations (ringing), which are perceived as noise by the human ear. The main objective of the project was to identify ways to avoid this ringing behaviour in order to increase the upper load limit of HCCI. This is vital to avoid the need for mode switches to spark-ignited combustion at higher loads and to operate the engine as much as possible in the more effective HCCI mode. The strategy for reducing ringing investigated most extensively in the project was charge stratification, achieved by injecting part of the fuel late in the compression stroke. Available literature on effects of this strategy gave conflicting indications, both positive and negative effects have been reported, depending on the type of fuel and engine used. It was soon found that the strategy is effective for reducing ringing, but with resulting increases of NOX emissions. Further, in order for the strategy to be effective, global air/fuel ratios must not be much leaner than stoichiometric. The increases in NOX emissions were countered by shifting the ratio towards stoichiometric using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), allowing a three

  9. Effect of different heat transfer models on HCCI engine simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshat, Elaheh; Saray, Rahim Khoshbakhti

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new multi zone model is developed for HCCI combustion modeling. • New heat transfer model is used for prediction of heat transfer in HCCI engines. • Model can predict engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics well. • Appropriate mass and heat transfer models cause to accurate prediction of CO, UHC and NOx. - Abstract: Heat transfer from engine walls has an important role on engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics. The main focus of this study is offering a new relation for calculation of convective heat transfer from in-cylinder charge to combustion chamber walls of HCCI engines and providing the ability of new model in comparison with the previous models. Therefore, a multi zone model is developed for homogeneous charge compression ignition engine simulation. Model consists of four different types of zones including core zone, boundary layer zone, outer zones, which are between core and boundary layer, and crevice zone. Conductive heat transfer and mass transfer are considered between neighboring zones. For accurate calculation of initial conditions at inlet valve closing, multi zone model is coupled with a single zone model, which simulates gas exchange process. Various correlations are used as convective heat transfer correlations. Woschni, modified Woschni, Hohenberg and Annand correlations are used as convective heat transfer models. The new convection model, developed by authors, is used, too. Comparative analyses are done to recognize the accurate correlation for prediction of engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics in a wide range of operating conditions. The results indicate that utilization of various heat transfer models, except for new convective heat transfer model, leads to significant differences in prediction of in-cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions. Using Woschni, Chang and new model, convective heat transfer coefficient increases near top dead center, sharply

  10. Validation of a reduced chemical mechanism coupled to CFD model in a 2-stroke HCCI engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi Najafabadi, M.; Somers, B.; Nuraini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion technology has demonstrated a profound potential to decrease both emissions and fuel consumption. In this way, the significance of the 2-stroke HCCI engine has been underestimated as it can provide more power stroke in comparison to a

  11. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O; Pinchon, Ph

    2004-07-01

    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  12. EMISSION AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT FUELS IN A HCCI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sendilvelan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different intake valve timings and fuel injection amounts were tested in order to identify their effects on exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics using variable valve actuation (VVA in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine. The HCCI engine is a promising concept for future automobile engines and stationary power plants. The two-stage ignition process in a HCCI engine creates advanced ignition and stratified combustion, which makes the ignition timing and combustion rate controllable. Meanwhile, the periphery of the fuel-rich zone leads to fierce burning, which results in slightly high NOx emissions. The experiments were conducted in a modified single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine. In this experiment we use diesel, bio-diesel (Jatropha and gasoline as the fuel at different mixing ratios. HCCI has advantages in high thermal efficiency and low emissions and could possibly become a promising combustion method in internal combustion engines.

  13. Fuels for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Automotive fuels survey. Part 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walwijk, M.

    2001-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a third mode of operation for internal combustion engines, beside spark ignition and conventional compression ignition. This report concentrates on the requirements that HCCI operation puts on fuels for these engines. For readers with limited time available, this summary describes the main findings. Policy makers that need some more background information may turn directly to chapter 7, 'Fuels for HCCI engines'. The rest of this report can be considered as a reference guide for more detailed information. The driving force to investigate HCCI engines is the potential of low emissions and simultaneously high energy efficiency. HCCI is gaining attention the last few years. However, HCCI engines are still in the research phase. After many experiments with prototype engines, people have now started working on computer simulations of the combustion process, to obtain a fundamental understanding of HCCI combustion and to steer future engine developments. In HCCI engines, an air/fuel mixture is prepared before it enters the combustion chamber. The homogeneous mixture is in the combustion chamber compressed to auto-ignition. Unlike in conventional engines, combustion starts at many different locations simultaneously and the speed of combustion is very high, so there is no flame front. Lean air/fuel mixtures (excess air) are used to control combustion speed. Because of the excess air, combustion temperature is relatively low, resulting in low NOx emissions. When the fuel is vaporised to a truly homogeneous mixture, complete combustion results in low particulate emissions. The most important advantages of HCCI engines are: - Emissions of NOx and particulates are very low. - Energy efficiency is high. It is comparable to diesel engines. - Many different fuels (one at a time) can be used in the HCCI concept. There are also some hurdles to overcome: - Controlling combustion is difficult, it complicates engine design

  14. Investigation of a wet ethanol operated HCCI engine based on first and second law analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, Abdul; Trivedi, Shailesh K.; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a conceptual wet ethanol operated homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is proposed to shift the energy balance in favor of ethanol. The investigated option, HCCI engine is a relatively new type of engine that has some fundamental differences with respect to other prime movers. Combined first and second law of thermodynamic approach is applied for a HCCI engine operating on wet ethanol and computational analysis is performed to investigate the effects of turbocharger compressor ratio, ambient temperature, and compressor adiabatic efficiency on first law efficiency, second law efficiency, and exergy destruction in each component. First law and second law efficiencies are found to be an increasing function of the turbocharger pressure ratio, while they are found to be a decreasing function of the ambient temperature. The effect of turbocharger pressure ratio on exergy destruction is found to be more significant than compressor efficiency and ambient temperature. Exergy analysis indicates that maximum exergy is destroyed in HCCI engine which represents about 90.09% of the total exergy destruction in the overall system. Around 4.39% exergy is destroyed by the process of heat transfer in fuel vaporizer and heat exchanger. Catalytic converter contributes about 4.08% of the total exergy destruction. This will provide some original information on the role of operating variables and will be quite useful in obtaining the optimum design of ethanol fuelled HCCI engines. - Highlights: → Direct utilization of wet ethanol in HCCI engines shift the energy balance in favor of ethanol. → First and second law efficiencies of wet ethanol operated HCCI engine increases with the increase in the turbocharger pressure ratio and its polytropic efficiency. → Second law analysis provides a suitable ranking among the components of the system in terms of exergy destruction. → Analysis of the results clearly showed that the highest irreversibility sources

  15. Quasi-Dimensional Modelling and Parametric Studies of a Heavy-Duty HCCI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-dimensional modelling study is conducted for the first time for a heavy duty, diesel-fuelled, multicylinder engine operating in HCCI mode. This quasidimensional approach involves a zero-dimensional single-zone homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion model along with a one-dimensional treatment of the intake and exhaust systems. A skeletal chemical kinetic scheme for n-heptane was used in the simulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio (CR were the two parameters that were altered in order to deal with the challenges of combustion phasing control and operating load range extension. Results from the HCCI mode simulations show good potential when compared to conventional diesel performance with respect to important performance parameters such as peak firing pressure, specific fuel consumption, peak pressure rise, and combustion noise. This study shows that HCCI combustion mode can be employed at part load of 25% varying the EGR rates between 0 and 60%.

  16. Controlling cyclic combustion timing variations using a symbol-statistics predictive approach in an HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazimirsaied, Ahmad; Koch, Charles Robert

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Misfire reduction in a combustion engine based on chaotic theory methods. ► Chaotic theory analysis of cyclic variation of a HCCI engine near misfire. ► Symbol sequence approach is used to predict ignition timing one cycle-ahead. ► Prediction is combined with feedback control to lower HCCI combustion variation. ► Feedback control extends the HCCI operating range into the misfire region. -- Abstract: Cyclic variation of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine near misfire is analyzed using chaotic theory methods and feedback control is used to stabilize high cyclic variations. Variation of consecutive cycles of θ Pmax (the crank angle of maximum cylinder pressure over an engine cycle) for a Primary Reference Fuel engine is analyzed near misfire operation for five test points with similar conditions but different octane numbers. The return map of the time series of θ Pmax at each combustion cycle reveals the deterministic and random portions of the dynamics near misfire for this HCCI engine. A symbol-statistic approach is used to predict θ Pmax one cycle-ahead. Predicted θ Pmax has similar dynamical behavior to the experimental measurements. Based on this cycle ahead prediction, and using fuel octane as the input, feedback control is used to stabilize the instability of θ Pmax variations at this engine condition near misfire.

  17. Research on cylinder processes of gasoline homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofaru, Corneliu

    2017-10-01

    This paper is designed to develop a HCCI engine starting from a spark ignition engine platform. The engine test was a single cylinder, four strokes provided with carburetor. The results of experimental research on this version were used as a baseline for the next phase of the work. After that, the engine was modified for a HCCI configuration, the carburetor was replaced by a direct fuel injection system in order to control precisely the fuel mass per cycle taking into account the measured intake air-mass. To ensure that the air - fuel mixture auto ignite, the compression ratio was increased from 9.7 to 11.5. The combustion process in HCCI regime is governed by chemical kinetics of mixture of air-fuel, rein ducted or trapped exhaust gases and fresh charge. To modify the quantities of trapped burnt gases, the exchange gas system was changed from fixed timing to variable valve timing. To analyze the processes taking place in the HCCI engine and synthesizing a control system, a model of the system which takes into account the engine configuration and operational parameters are needed. The cylinder processes were simulated on virtual model. The experimental research works were focused on determining the parameters which control the combustion timing of HCCI engine to obtain the best energetic and ecologic parameters.

  18. Identification of the dynamic operating envelope of HCCI engines using class imbalance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Nguyen, XuanLong; Sterniak, Jeff; Assanis, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a futuristic automotive engine technology that can significantly improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. HCCI engine operation is constrained by combustion instabilities, such as knock, ringing, misfires, high-variability combustion, and so on, and it becomes important to identify the operating envelope defined by these constraints for use in engine diagnostics and controller design. HCCI combustion is dominated by complex nonlinear dynamics, and a first-principle-based dynamic modeling of the operating envelope becomes intractable. In this paper, a machine learning approach is presented to identify the stable operating envelope of HCCI combustion, by learning directly from the experimental data. Stability is defined using thresholds on combustion features obtained from engine in-cylinder pressure measurements. This paper considers instabilities arising from engine misfire and high-variability combustion. A gasoline HCCI engine is used for generating stable and unstable data observations. Owing to an imbalance in class proportions in the data set, the models are developed both based on resampling the data set (by undersampling and oversampling) and based on a cost-sensitive learning method (by overweighting the minority class relative to the majority class observations). Support vector machines (SVMs) and recently developed extreme learning machines (ELM) are utilized for developing dynamic classifiers. The results compared against linear classification methods show that cost-sensitive nonlinear ELM and SVM classification algorithms are well suited for the problem. However, the SVM envelope model requires about 80% more parameters for an accuracy improvement of 3% compared with the ELM envelope model indicating that ELM models may be computationally suitable for the engine application. The proposed modeling approach shows that HCCI engine misfires and high-variability combustion can be predicted ahead of time

  19. HCCI Combustion Engines Final Report CRADA No. TC02032.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lyford-Pike, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Cummins Engine Company (Cwnmins), to advance the state of the art on HomogeneousCharge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) engines, resulting in a clean, high-efficiency alternative to diesel engines.

  20. Fundamental phenomena affecting low temperature combustion and HCCI engines, high load limits and strategies for extending these limits

    KAUST Repository

    Saxena, Samveg; Bedoya, Ivá n D.

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature combustion (LTC) engines are an emerging engine technology that offers an alternative to spark-ignited and diesel engines. One type of LTC engine, the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, uses a well-mixed fuel–air charge like spark-ignited engines and relies on compression ignition like diesel engines. Similar to diesel engines, the use of high compression ratios and removal of the throttling valve in HCCI allow for high efficiency operation, thereby allowing lower CO2 emissions per unit of work delivered by the engine. The use of a highly diluted well-mixed fuel–air charge allows for low emissions of nitrogen oxides, soot and particulate matters, and the use of oxidation catalysts can allow low emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. As a result, HCCI offers the ability to achieve high efficiencies comparable with diesel while also allowing clean emissions while using relatively inexpensive aftertreatment technologies. HCCI is not, however, without its challenges. Traditionally, two important problems prohibiting market penetration of HCCI are 1) inability to achieve high load, and 2) difficulty in controlling combustion timing. Recent research has significantly mitigated these challenges, and thus HCCI has a promising future for automotive and power generation applications. This article begins by providing a comprehensive review of the physical phenomena governing HCCI operation, with particular emphasis on high load conditions. Emissions characteristics are then discussed, with suggestions on how to inexpensively enable low emissions of all regulated emissions. The operating limits that govern the high load conditions are discussed in detail, and finally a review of recent research which expands the high load limits of HCCI is discussed. Although this article focuses on the fundamental phenomena governing HCCI operation, it is also useful for understanding the fundamental phenomena in reactivity controlled

  1. Fundamental phenomena affecting low temperature combustion and HCCI engines, high load limits and strategies for extending these limits

    KAUST Repository

    Saxena, Samveg

    2013-10-01

    Low temperature combustion (LTC) engines are an emerging engine technology that offers an alternative to spark-ignited and diesel engines. One type of LTC engine, the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, uses a well-mixed fuel–air charge like spark-ignited engines and relies on compression ignition like diesel engines. Similar to diesel engines, the use of high compression ratios and removal of the throttling valve in HCCI allow for high efficiency operation, thereby allowing lower CO2 emissions per unit of work delivered by the engine. The use of a highly diluted well-mixed fuel–air charge allows for low emissions of nitrogen oxides, soot and particulate matters, and the use of oxidation catalysts can allow low emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. As a result, HCCI offers the ability to achieve high efficiencies comparable with diesel while also allowing clean emissions while using relatively inexpensive aftertreatment technologies. HCCI is not, however, without its challenges. Traditionally, two important problems prohibiting market penetration of HCCI are 1) inability to achieve high load, and 2) difficulty in controlling combustion timing. Recent research has significantly mitigated these challenges, and thus HCCI has a promising future for automotive and power generation applications. This article begins by providing a comprehensive review of the physical phenomena governing HCCI operation, with particular emphasis on high load conditions. Emissions characteristics are then discussed, with suggestions on how to inexpensively enable low emissions of all regulated emissions. The operating limits that govern the high load conditions are discussed in detail, and finally a review of recent research which expands the high load limits of HCCI is discussed. Although this article focuses on the fundamental phenomena governing HCCI operation, it is also useful for understanding the fundamental phenomena in reactivity controlled

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI engine based system running on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djermouni, Mohamed; Ouadha, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI based system has been carried out. • A thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process. • The specific heat of the working fluid is temperature dependent. - Abstract: This paper attempts to carry out a thermodynamic analysis of a system composed of a turbocharged HCCI engine, a mixer, a regenerator and a catalytic converter within the meaning of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process and the specific heat temperature dependency of the working fluid. The analysis aims in particular to examine the influence of the compressor pressure ratio, ambient temperature, equivalence ratio, engine speed and the compressor isentropic efficiency on the performance of the HCCI engine. Results show that thermal and exergetic efficiencies increase with increasing the compressor pressure ratio. However, the increase of the ambient temperature involves a decrease of the engine efficiencies. Furthermore, the variation of the equivalence ratio improves considerably both thermal and exergetic efficiencies. As expected, the increase of the engine speed enhances the engine performances. Finally, an exergy losses mapping of the system show that the maximum exergy losses occurs in the HCCI engine

  3. A new technology to overcome the limits of HCCI engine through fuel modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahng, GunWoong; Jang, Dongsoon; Kim, Youngtae; Shin, Misoo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Problems of HCCI engine can be overcome by adopting fuel modification. • Gasoline vapor with HHO gas showed drastic improvement of fuel efficiency. • Performance of single cylinder engine shows fuel efficiency more than double. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of internal combustion engine reached to about 30% only recently. To increase the efficiency, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has been proposed, however, there is no available commercial engine yet. The main problem lies in the delayed heating rate in spite of fast reaction of homogeneous charged state of HCCI with excess air. To overcome this difficulty, a modification of fuel by vaporization of liquid gasoline with water electrolysis gas and air was adopted in order to warrant the fast and high temperature rise. Experiments were carried out with single cylinder engines supplied from the four different manufacturers. Experimental results show that fuel consumption was decreased by more than 50% compared to the case of supplying liquid fuel. It is believed it was due to the combined effects of the high and fast heating potential of water electrolysis gas together with the efficient turbulence mixing effect of vaporized fuel with excess air. By this method, the drawbacks caused by lean burn in the HCCI engine such as small power range can be overcome.

  4. IFP - Annual report 2003; IFP - Rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Institute Francais du Petrole (IFP) is an independent industrial research and development, education and training and information center active in the oil, natural gas and automobile industries. IFP strategy is based on a clear vision of the long term evolution of the world energy sector. IFP strategic positioning is thus aimed at taking advantage of the opportunities that arise and making full use of its scientific and technological strengths. This 2003 annual report presents the IFP strategic positioning, facts and figures, highlights of 2003, IFP executive committee, the IFP as a player in sustainable development, the exploration-reservoir engineering, drilling-production, refining-petrochemicals, engines-energy, education and training activities and the IFP Group. (A.L.B.)

  5. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Samveg

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are one of the most promising engine technologies for the future of energy conversion from clean, efficient combustion. HCCI engines allow high efficiency and lower CO2 emission through the use of high compression ratios and the removal of intake throttle valves (like Diesel), and allow very low levels of urban pollutants like nitric oxide and soot (like Otto). These engines, however, are not without their challenges, such as low power density compared with other engine technologies, and a difficulty in controlling combustion timing. This dissertation first addresses the power output limits. The particular strategies for enabling high power output investigated in this dissertation focus on avoiding five critical limits that either damage an engine, drastically reduce efficiency, or drastically increase emissions: (1) ringing limits, (2) peak in-cylinder pressure limits, (3) misfire limits, (4) low intake temperature limits, and (5) excessive emissions limits. The research shows that the key factors that enable high power output, sufficient for passenger vehicles, while simultaneously avoiding the five limits defined above are the use of: (1) high intake air pressures allowing improved power output, (2) highly delayed combustion timing to avoid ringing limits, and (3) using the highest possible equivalence ratio before encountering ringing limits. These results are revealed by conducting extensive experiments spanning a wide range of operating conditions on a multi-cylinder HCCI engine. Second, this dissertation discusses strategies for effectively sensing combustion characteristics on a HCCI engine. For effective feedback control of HCCI combustion timing, a sensor is required to quantify when combustion occurs. Many laboratory engines use in-cylinder pressure sensors but these sensors are currently prohibitively expensive for wide-scale commercialization. Instead, ion sensors made from inexpensive sparkplugs

  6. Optical Study of Flow and Combustion in an HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Trevor S [Jaguar Cars Ltd., Whitley Engineering Centre, Coventry. CV3 4LF (United Kingdom); Xu Hongming [Jaguar Cars Ltd., Whitley Engineering Centre, Coventry. CV3 4LF (United Kingdom); Richardson, Steve [Jaguar Cars Ltd., Whitley Engineering Centre, Coventry. CV3 4LF (United Kingdom); Wyszynski, Miroslaw L [University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham. B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Megaritis, Thanos [University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham. B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    One of the most widely used methods to enable Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is using negative valve overlapping to trap a sufficient quantity of hot residual gas. The characteristics of air motion with specially designed valve events having reduced valve lift and durations associated with HCCI engines and their effect on subsequent combustion are not yet fully understood. In addition, the ignition process and combustion development in such engines are very different from those in conventional spark-ignition or diesel compression ignition engines. Very little data has been reported concerning optical diagnostics of the flow and combustion in the engine using negative valve overlapping. This paper presents an experimental investigation into the in-cylinder flow characteristics and combustion development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. PIV measurements have been taken under motored engine conditions to provide a quantitative flow characterisation of negative valve overlap in-cylinder flows. The ignition and combustion process was imaged using a high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) camera and the combustion imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data which assisted the analysis of the images. It is found that the flow characteristics with negative valve overlapping are less stable and more valve event driven than typical spark ignition in-cylinder flows, while the combustion initiation locations are not uniformly distributed.

  7. Analysis of benefits of using internal exhaust gas recirculation in biogas-fueled HCCI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozarac, Darko; Vuilleumier, David; Saxena, Samveg; Dibble, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of EGR on combustion of biogas fueled HCCI was investigated. • The aim was to reduce intake temperature requirement by internal EGR. • Combustion products caused the delay of combustion in similar conditions. • Internal EGR enabled by negative valve overlap increased cylinder temperature. • This increase was not enough to significantly reduce the intake temperature. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical study that analyzed the influence of combustion products (CP) concentration on the combustion characteristics (combustion timing and combustion duration) of a biogas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine and the possibility of reducing the high intake temperature requirement necessary for igniting biogas in a HCCI engine by using internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) enabled by negative valve overlap (NVO). An engine model created in AVL Boost, and validated against experimental engine data, was used in this study. The results show, somewhat counter-intuitively, that when CP concentrations are increased the required intake temperature for maintaining the same combustion timing must be increased. When greater NVO is used to increase the in-cylinder CP concentration, the in-cylinder temperature does increase, but the chemical dilution influence of CP almost entirely counteracts this thermal effect. Additionally, it has been observed that with larger fractions of CP some instability of combustion in the calculation was obtained which indicates that the increase of internal EGR might produce some combustion instability

  8. Numerical analysis of knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine based on LES with detailed chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xudong; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine was modeled. • A detailed methanol mechanism was used to simulate the knocking combustion. • Compared with the SI engines, the HCCI knocking combustion burnt faster. • The reaction rate of HCO had two obvious peaks, one was positive, and another was negative. • Compared with the SI engines, the values of the reaction rates of CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , and HO 2 were higher, and it had negative peaks. - Abstract: In this study, knock during HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) was studied based on LES (large eddy simulation) with methanol chemical kinetics (84-reaction, 21-species) in a high compression ratio methanol engine. The non-knocking and knocking combustion of SI (spark ignition) and HCCI engines were compared. The results showed that the auto-ignition spots were initially occurred near the combustion chamber wall. The knocking combustion burnt faster during HCCI than SI methanol engine. The HCO reaction rate was different from SI engine, it had two obvious peaks, one was positive peak, and another was negative peak. Compared with the SI methanol engine, in addition to the concentration of HCO, the concentrations of the other intermediate products and species such as CO, OH, CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , HO 2 were increased significantly; the reaction rates of CH 2 O, H 2 O 2 , and HO 2 had negative peaks, and whose values were several times higher than SI methanol engine

  9. Establishment of Combustion Model for Isooctane HCCI Marine Diesel Engine and Research on the Combustion Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Biao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion mode applied in marine diesel engine is expected to be one of alternative technologies to decrease nitrogen oxide (NOX emission and improve energy utilization rate. Applying the chemical-looping combustion (CLC mechanism inside the cylinder, a numerical study on the HCCI combustion process is performed taking a marine diesel engine as application object. The characteristic feature of combustion process is displayed. On this basis, the formation and emission of NOX are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that the HCCI combustion mode always exhibit two combustion releasing heats: low-temperature reaction and high-temperature reaction. The combustion phase is divided into low-temperature reaction zone, high-temperature reaction zone and negative temperature coefficient (NTC zone. The operating conditions of the high compression ratio, high intake air temperature, low inlet pressure and small excess air coefficient would cause the high in-cylinder pressure which often leads engine detonation. The low compression ratio, low intake air temperature and big excess air coefficient would cause the low combustor temperature which is conducive to reduce NOX emissions. These technological means and operating conditions are expected to meet the NOX emissions limits in MARPOL73/78 Convention-Annex VI Amendment.

  10. Study on gasoline HCCI engine equipped with electromagnetic variable valve timing system; Untersuchung an einem HCCI Verbrennungsmotor mit elektromagnetisch variablem Ventiltriebsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Y.; Awasaka, M.; Takanashi, J.; Kimura, N. [Honda R and D Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    First, this paper describes a study on the technology behind the electromagnetic variable valve timing system. This system provides highly efficient and stable valve opening/closing control. At first, the main purposes of this mechanism were nonthrottling technology that is expected to a reduction in fuel consumption and improving the engine torque with optimal valve timing on stichomythic spark ignited engine. In resent years, increasing attention has been paid to a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We also used this mechanism on HCCI study with controlling the amount of internal EGR and intake air. Schemes to extend the operational region of gasoline compression ignition were explored using single (optical) and 4-cylinder 4-stroke engines equipped with an electromagnetic variable valve timing system. This paper focuses mainly on the use of direct fuel injection devices (multi-hole and pintle types), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) through valve timing, and their effects on the compression ignition operating ranges, and emissions. Also considered is charge boost HCCI using a mechanical supercharger. (orig.)

  11. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Pinchon, Ph.

    2004-07-01

    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  12. Thermodynamic control-oriented modeling of cycle-to-cycle exhaust gas temperature in an HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani Firoozabadi, M.; Shahbakhti, M.; Koch, C.R.; Jazayeri, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First thermodynamic model in the literature to predict exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. • The model can be used for integrated control of HCCI combustion and exhaust temperature. • The model is experimentally validated at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. • Results show a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust temperatures. • Sensitivity of exhaust gas temperature to variation of engine variables is shown. - Abstract: Model-based control of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine exhaust temperature is a viable solution to optimize efficiency of both engine and the exhaust aftertreatment system. Low exhaust temperature in HCCI engines can limit the abatement of hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in an exhaust aftertreatment system. A physical–empirical model is described for control of exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. This model captures cycle-to-cycle dynamics affecting exhaust temperature and is based on thermodynamic relations and semi-empirical correlations. It incorporates intake and exhaust gas flow dynamics, residual gas mixing, and fuel burn rate and is validated with experimental data from a single cylinder engine at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. The validation results indicate a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust gas temperature

  13. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  14. Experimental study of combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol fuelled port injected homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar [Engine Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2011-04-15

    The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative combustion concept for in reciprocating engines. The HCCI combustion engine offers significant benefits in terms of its high efficiency and ultra low emissions. In this investigation, port injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous charge. The combustion and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine fuelled with ethanol were investigated on a modified two-cylinder, four-stroke engine. The experiment is conducted with varying intake air temperature (120-150 C) and at different air-fuel ratios, for which stable HCCI combustion is achieved. In-cylinder pressure, heat release analysis and exhaust emission measurements were employed for combustion diagnostics. In this study, effect of intake air temperature on combustion parameters, thermal efficiency, combustion efficiency and emissions in HCCI combustion engine is analyzed and discussed in detail. The experimental results indicate that the air-fuel ratio and intake air temperature have significant effect on the maximum in-cylinder pressure and its position, gas exchange efficiency, thermal efficiency, combustion efficiency, maximum rate of pressure rise and the heat release rate. Results show that for all stable operation points, NO{sub x} emissions are lower than 10 ppm however HC and CO emissions are higher. (author)

  15. Comparison of combustion characteristics of n-butanol/ethanol–gasoline blends in a HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bang-Quan; Liu, Mao-Bin; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The blends with alcohol autoignite early in the conditions highly diluted by exhaust. • n-Butanol is more reactive than ethanol in the blend with the same alcohol content. • Autoignition timing delays with retarding IVO timing for all alcohol–gasoline blends. • Advanced autoignition for the blends with alcohol leads to lower thermal efficiency. - Abstract: As a sustainable biofuel, n-butanol can be used in conventional spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines in order to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a novel combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of conventional SI engines at part loads. To understand the effect of alcohol structure on HCCI combustion under stoichiometric conditions highly diluted by exhaust gases, the combustion characteristics of n-butanol, ethanol and their blends with gasoline were investigated on a single cylinder port fuel injection gasoline engine with fixed intake/exhaust valve lifts at the same operating conditions in this study. The results show that autoignition timing for alcohol–gasoline blends is dependent on alcohol types and its concentration in the blend, engine speed and intake valve opening (IVO)/exhaust valve closing (EVC) timing. In the operating conditions with the residual gases more than 38% by mass in the mixture, alcohol–gasoline blends autoignite more easily than gasoline. Autoignition timing for n-butanol–gasoline blend is earlier than that for ethanol–gasoline blend with the same alcohol volume fraction at 1500 rpm in most cases while the autoignition timings for the blends with alcohol are relatively close at 2000 rpm at the same IVO/EVC timing. Combustion stability is improved with advanced EVC timing at a fixed IVO timing, which is benefit for the improvement in the thermal efficiency in the case of alcohol–gasoline blends. In addition, n-butanol–gasoline blends autoignite earlier than their ethanol

  16. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  17. Utilization of waste heat from a HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine in a tri-generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarabchi, N.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The waste heat from exhaust gases and cooling water of Homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) are utilized to drive an ammonia-water cogeneration cycle (AWCC) and some heating processes, respectively. The AWCC is a combination of the Rankine cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle. Considering the chemical kinetic calculations, a single zone combustion model is developed to simulate the natural gas fueled HCCI engine. Also, the performance of AWCC is simulated using the Engineering Equation Solver software (EES). Through combining these two codes, a detailed thermodynamic analysis is performed for the proposed tri-generation system and the effects of some main parameters on the performances of both the AWCC and the tri-generation system are investigated in detail. The cycle performance is then optimized for the fuel energy saving ratio (FESR). The enhancement in the FESR could be up to 28.56%. Under optimized condition, the second law efficiency of proposed system is 5.19% higher than that of the HCCI engine while the reduction in CO 2 emission is 4.067% as compared with the conventional separate thermodynamic systems. Moreover, the results indicate that the engine, in the tri-generation system and the absorber, in the bottoming cycle has the most contribution in exergy destruction. - Highlights: • A new thermodynamic tri-generation system is proposed for waste heat recovery of HCCI engine. • A single zone combustion model is developed to simulate the natural gas fueled HCCI engine. • The proposed tri-generation cycle is analyzed from the view points of both first and second laws of thermodynamics. • In the considered cycle, enhancements of 28.56% in fuel energy saving ratio and 5.19% in exergy efficiency are achieved

  18. A Study on the Effects of Compression Ratio, Engine Speed and Equivalence Ratio on HCCI Combustion of DME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of Dimethyl Ether (DME). The study was performed as a parameter variation of engine speed and compression ratio on excess air ratios of approximately 2.5, 3 and 4. The compression ratio was...

  19. Combustion visualization and experimental study on spark induced compression ignition (SICI) in gasoline HCCI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi; He Xu; Wang Jianxin; Shuai Shijin; Xu Fan; Yang Dongbo

    2010-01-01

    Spark induced compression ignition (SICI) is a relatively new combustion control technology and a promising combustion mode in gasoline engines with high efficiency. SICI can be divided into two categories, SACI and SI-CI. This paper investigated the SICI combustion process using combustion visualization and engine experiment respectively. Ignition process of SICI was captured by high speed photography in an optical engine with different compression ratios. The results show that SICI is a combustion mode combined with partly flame propagation and main auto-ignition. The spark ignites the local mixture near spark electrodes and the flame propagation occurs before the homogeneous mixture is auto-ignited. The heat release from central burned zone due to the flame propagation increases the in-cylinder pressure and temperature, resulting in the unburned mixture auto-ignition. The SICI combustion process can be divided into three stages of the spark induced stage, the flame propagation stage and the compression ignition stage. The SICI combustion mode is different from the spark ignition (SI) knocking in terms of the combustion and emission characteristics. Furthermore, three typical combustion modes including HCCI, SICI, SI, were compared on a gasoline direct injection engine with higher compression ratio and switchable cam-profiles. The results show that SICI has an obvious combustion characteristic with two-stage heat release and lower pressure rise rate. The SICI combustion mode can be controlled by spark timings and EGR rates and utilized as an effective method for high load extension on the gasoline HCCI engine. The maximum IMEP of 0.82 MPa can be achieved with relatively low NO x emission and high thermal efficiency. The SICI combustion mode can be applied in medium-high load region for high efficiency gasoline engines.

  20. Combustion visualization and experimental study on spark induced compression ignition (SICI) in gasoline HCCI engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhi, E-mail: wangzhi@tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He Xu; Wang Jianxin; Shuai Shijin; Xu Fan; Yang Dongbo [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Spark induced compression ignition (SICI) is a relatively new combustion control technology and a promising combustion mode in gasoline engines with high efficiency. SICI can be divided into two categories, SACI and SI-CI. This paper investigated the SICI combustion process using combustion visualization and engine experiment respectively. Ignition process of SICI was captured by high speed photography in an optical engine with different compression ratios. The results show that SICI is a combustion mode combined with partly flame propagation and main auto-ignition. The spark ignites the local mixture near spark electrodes and the flame propagation occurs before the homogeneous mixture is auto-ignited. The heat release from central burned zone due to the flame propagation increases the in-cylinder pressure and temperature, resulting in the unburned mixture auto-ignition. The SICI combustion process can be divided into three stages of the spark induced stage, the flame propagation stage and the compression ignition stage. The SICI combustion mode is different from the spark ignition (SI) knocking in terms of the combustion and emission characteristics. Furthermore, three typical combustion modes including HCCI, SICI, SI, were compared on a gasoline direct injection engine with higher compression ratio and switchable cam-profiles. The results show that SICI has an obvious combustion characteristic with two-stage heat release and lower pressure rise rate. The SICI combustion mode can be controlled by spark timings and EGR rates and utilized as an effective method for high load extension on the gasoline HCCI engine. The maximum IMEP of 0.82 MPa can be achieved with relatively low NO{sub x} emission and high thermal efficiency. The SICI combustion mode can be applied in medium-high load region for high efficiency gasoline engines.

  1. Study on the knock tendency and cyclical variations of a HCCI engine fueled with n-butanol/n-heptane blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunhua; Zhou, Jiawang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The HCCI combustion was achieved on an engine fueled by n-butanol/n-heptane blends. • The knock tendency and cyclical variation of the HCCI combustion were studied. • The knock tendency can be weakened by increasing the blending ratio of n-butanol. • The knock tendency and cyclical variation are sensitive to the combustion phasing. • Cyclical variation always shows an opposite trend with the knock tendency. - Abstract: The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion operation is conducted in the 2nd cylinder of a natural-aspirated four-stroke diesel engine. In the HCCI combustion mode, the n-butanol, n-heptane and their blends are injected into the intake port to form a lean homogeneous air-fuel mixture, which is consumed by the autoignition after compression. The objective of this study is to investigate the knock tendency and the cyclical variations of the HCCI engine. Experimental results show that the volume fraction of n-butanol affects the knock tendency greatly, which obviously decreases as the n-butanol volume fraction increases. The knocking combustion in the HCCI combustion is characterized by the high heat release rate (HRR). Both elevating the engine speed and raising the intake temperature contributes to an obvious increase in HRR and the knock tendency. But the HRR and knock tendency may slightly decrease when the engine speed reaches to 1400 rev/min and intake temperature reaches to 160 °C. Furthermore, the knock tendency can be weakened by increasing the excess air-fuel ratio. Cyclical variations of the HCCI engine are quantified by the coefficient of variation for the peak pressure (COV_P_m_a_x) and it exhibits an almost opposite trend to the knock tendency. The COV_P_m_a_x may considerably increase along with either increasing the blending ratio of n-butanol or increasing the excess air-fuel ratio. Moreover, it is reveled that the COV_P_m_a_x is sensitive to the relative position of peak HRR. The cyclical

  2. Modeling and controller design architecture for cycle-by-cycle combustion control of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines – A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, Morteza; Jahanian, Omid; Shahbakhti, Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Addressing accuracy-speed compromise of HCCI representation is very important. • Phasing, load, exhaust temperature and emissions are the most important outputs. • Separability between the effects of the inputs on the outputs is of great interest. • Existing actuation systems combining inputs are favorable. • An HCCI controller should be a fast and robust one to become a viable solution. - Abstract: Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engines are advantageous in terms of good fuel economy and low levels of soot-nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. However, they are accompanied with some intrinsic challenges, the most important of which is the lack of any direct control method for ignition trigger. Thus, implementation of HCCI combustion is in fact a control problem, and an optimized control structure is required for attaining the inherent benefits of HCCI. The control structure consists of a proper representation of engine processes; a suitable selection of state variables; useful and applicable set of inputs, outputs and observers; appropriate fixed or variable set-points for controlled parameters; instrumentations including sensors and actuators; and an applicable control law implemented in a controller. The present paper aims at addressing these issues altogether by introducing HCCI engine control structure in progress and presenting highlights from literature. Research should result in appropriately controlled HCCI engines which can provide desired load at rated speed with acceptable performance and emissions characteristics.

  3. AN EXPERIMENTAL NOX REDUCTION POTENTIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE PARTIAL HCCI APPLICATION, ON A HIGH PRESSURE FUEL INJECTION EQUIPPED DIESEL ENGINE BY IMPLEMENTING FUMIGATION OF GASOLINE PORT INJECTION

    OpenAIRE

    ERGENÇ, Alp Tekin; YÜKSEK, Levent; ÖZENER, Orkun; IŞIN, Övün

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of partial HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) application on today's modern diesel engine tail pipe NOx emissions. Gasoline fumigation is supplied via a port fuel injection system located in the intake port of DI(Direct injection) diesel engine to maintain partial HCCI conditions and also diesel fuel injected directly into the combustion chamber before TDC(Top dead center). A single cylinder direct injection diesel research engine equipped w...

  4. Mixture preparation and combustion in an optically-accessible HCCI, diesel engine; La preparation du melange et de la combustion dans un moteur Diesel, HCCI a acces optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashdan, J.; Bruneaux, G. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2006-07-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging techniques have been applied in order to study the mixture preparation and combustion process in a single cylinder, optically-accessible homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engine. In particular, the influence of piston bowl geometry on the in-cylinder mixture distribution and subsequent combustion process has been investigated. A new optically-accessible piston design enabled the application of LIF diagnostics directly within the combustion chamber bowl. Firstly, laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) was exploited in order to characterise the in-cylinder fuel spray and vapour distribution. Subsequently a detailed study of the two-stage HCCI combustion process was conducted by a combination of direct chemiluminescence imaging, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of the intermediate species formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O) which is present during the cool flame and LIF of the OH radical which is subsequently present in the reaction and burned gas zones at higher temperature. Finally, spectrometry measurements were performed with the objective of determining the origin of the emitting species of the chemiluminescence signal. The experiments were performed on a single cylinder optical engine equipped with a direct-injection, common rail injection system and narrow angle injector. The experimental results presented reveal the significant role of the combustion chamber geometry on the mixture preparation and combustion characteristics for late HCCI injection strategies particularly in such cases where liquid impingement is unavoidable. Planar LIF 355 imaging revealed the presence of the intermediate species formaldehyde allowing the temporal and spatial detection of auto-ignition precursors prior to the signal observed by chemiluminescence in the early stages of the cool flame. Formaldehyde was then rapidly consumed at the start of main combustion which was marked not only by the increase in the main heat release

  5. An experimental study for the effects of boost pressure on the performance and exhaust emissions of a DI-HCCI gasoline engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Canakci [Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey). Department of Mechanical Education

    2008-07-15

    As an alternative combustion mode, the HCCI combustion has some benefits compared to conventional SI and CI engines, such as low NOx emission and high thermal efficiency. However, this combustion mode can produce higher UHC and CO emissions than those of conventional engines. In the naturally aspirated HCCI engines, the low engine output power limits its use in the current engine technologies. Intake air pressure boosting is a common way to improve the engine output power which is widely used in high performance SI and CI engine applications. Therefore, in this study, the effect of inlet air pressure on the performance and exhaust emissions of a DI-HCCI gasoline engine has been investigated after converting a heavy-duty diesel engine to a HCCI direct-injection gasoline engine. The experiments were performed at three different inlet air pressures while operating the engine at the same equivalence ratio and intake air temperature as in normally aspirated HCCI engine condition at different engine speeds. The SOI timing was set dependently to achieve the maximum engine torque at each test condition. The effects of inlet air pressure both on the emissions such as CO, UHC and NOx and on the performance parameters such as BSFC, torque, thermal and combustion efficiencies have been discussed. The relationships between the emissions are also provided. 34 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Numerical investigation of ethanol fuelled HCCI engine using stochastic reactor model. Part 2: Parametric study of performance and emissions characteristics using new reduced ethanol oxidation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Akhil, Nekkanti

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Newly developed reduced ethanol mechanism (47 species and 272 reactions) used. • Engine maps over wide range are developed for performance and emissions parameters. • HCCI operating range increases with compression ratio & decreases with engine speed. • Maximum combustion efficiency up to 99% and thermal efficiency up to 50% is achieved. • Maximum N_2O emission found up to 2.7 ppm and lower load have higher N_2O emission. - Abstract: Ethanol fuelled homogenous charge compression ignition engine offers a better alternative to tackle the problems of achieving higher engine efficiency and lower emissions using renewable fuel. Present study computationally investigates the HCCI operating range of ethanol at different compression ratios by varying inlet air temperature and engine speed using stochastic reactor model. A newly developed reduced ethanol oxidation mechanism with NO_x having 47 species and 272 reactions is used for simulation. HCCI operating range for compression ratios 17, 19 and 21 are investigated and found to be increasing with compression ratio. Simulations are conducted for engine speeds ranging from 1000 to 3000 rpm at different intake temperatures (range 365–465 K). Parametric study of combustion and emission characteristics is conducted and engine maps are developed at most efficient inlet temperatures. HCCI operating range is defined using combustion efficiency (>85%) and maximum pressure rise rate (<5 MPa/ms). In HCCI operating range, higher efficiency is found at higher engine loads and lower engine speeds. Emission characteristics of species (NO_x, N_2O, CO, CH_4, C_2H_4, C_2H_6, CH_3CHO, and HCHO) found in significant amount is also analysed for ethanol fulled HCCI engine. Emission maps for different species are presented and discussed for wide range of speed and load conditions. Some of unregulated species such as aldehydes are emitted in significantly higher quantities from ethanol fuelled HCCI engine at higher load

  7. A Study on the Effects of Compression Ratio, Engine Speed and Equivalence Ratio on HCCI Combustion of DME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of Dimethyl Ether (DME). The study was performed as a parameter variation of engine speed and compression ratio on excess air ratios of approximately 2.5, 3 and 4. The compression ratio...... was adjusted in steps to find suitable regions of operation, and the effect of engine speed was studied at 1000, 2000 and 3000 RPM. It was found that leaner excess air ratios require higher compression ratios to achieve satisfactory combustion. Engine speed also affects operation significantly....

  8. Use of catalytic reforming to aid natural gas HCCI combustion in engines: experimental and modelling results of open-loop fuel reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peucheret, S.; Wyszynski, M.L.; Lehrle, R.S. [Future Power Systems Group, Mechanical Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Golunski, S. [Johnson Matthey, Technology Centre, Blount' s Court, Sonning Common, Reading RG4 9NH (United Kingdom); Xu, H. [Jaguar Land Rover Research, Jaguar Land Rover W/2/021, Abbey Road, Coventry CV3 4LF (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    The potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process to deliver drastically reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and improved fuel economy from internal combustion engines is well known. The process is, however, difficult to initiate and control, especially when methane or natural gas are used as fuel. To aid the HCCI combustion of natural gas, hydrogen addition has been successfully used in this study. This hydrogen can be obtained from on-line reforming of natural gas. Methane reforming is achieved here by reaction with engine exhaust gas and air in a small scale monolith catalytic reactor. The benchmark quantity of H{sub 2} required to enhance the feasibility and engine load range of HCCI combustion is 10%. For low temperature engine exhaust gas, typical for HCCI engine operating conditions, experiments show that additional air is needed to produce this quantity. Experimental results from an open-loop fuel exhaust gas reforming system are compared with two different models of basic thermodynamic equilibria calculations. At the low reactor inlet temperatures needed for the HCCI application (approx. 400 deg C) the simplified three-reaction thermodynamic equilibrium model is in broad agreement with experimental results, while for medium (550-650 deg C) inlet temperature reforming with extra air added, the high hydrogen yields predicted from the multi-component equilibrium model are difficult to achieve in a practical reformer. (author)

  9. The effects of key parameters on the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion in a two-stroke free piston linear engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Nguyen Ba; Lim, Ocktaeck; Iida, Norimasa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A free piston engine is modeled and simulated by three mathematical models. • The models include dynamic model, linear alternator model and thermodynamic model. • The SI-HCCI transition is successful if the key parameters are adjusted suitably. • Spring stiffness has a strong influence on reducing peak temperature in HCCI mode. • Adjusting spark timing helps the SI-HCCI transition to be more convenient. - Abstract: An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of key parameters such as intake temperature, equivalence ratio, engine load, intake pressure, spark timing and spring stiffness on the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion in a two-stroke free piston linear engine. Operation of the free piston engine was simulated based on the combination of three mathematical models including a dynamic model, a linear alternator model and a thermodynamic model. These mathematical models were combined and solved by a program written in Fortran. To validate the mathematical models, the simulation results were compared with experimental data in the SI mode. For the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion, the simulation results show that if the equivalence ratio is decreased, the intake temperature and engine load should be increased to get a successful SI-HCCI transition. However, the simulation results also show that the in-cylinder pressure is decreased, while the peak in-cylinder temperature in HCCI mode is increased significantly if the intake temperature is increased so much. Beside the successful SI-HCCI transition, the increase of intake pressure from P in = 1.1 bar to P in = 1.6 bar is one of solutions to reduce peak in-cylinder temperature in HCCI mode. However, the simulation results also indicate that if the intake pressure is increased so much (P in = 1.6 bar), the engine knocking problem is occurred. Adjusting spring stiffness from k = 2.9 N/mm to k = 14.7 N/mm is also considered one of useful solutions for

  10. IFP. 1998 annual report; IFP. Rapport annuel 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This 1998 edition of the annual report of the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) presents the main information relative to the institute: highlights, organization, consulting activity, budget, manpower, quality actions, patents and agreements; the research activities: exploration and fields, drilling and production, refining and petrochemistry, engines and energy research, environmental policy, natural gas; the training activities and the industrial partnerships. (J.S.)

  11. IFP. Annual report 2000; IFP. Rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This annual report presents the highlights of the year 2000 activities of the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP): petroleum exploration, drilling and production, refining and petrochemistry, automotive engines and cogeneration turbines, natural gas technologies, environmental research, training activity, industrial partnerships, industrialization of processes, ISIS group. (J.S.)

  12. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis of the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a biogas/n-heptane fueled HCCI engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kozarac, Darko; Taritas, Ivan; Vuilleumier, David; Saxena, Samveg; Dibble, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of highly reactive fuel as an ignition promoter enables operation of biogas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine at low intake temperatures with practical control of combustion phasing. In order to gain some insight into this operation mode the influence of addition of n-heptane on combustion, performance, emissions and control of combustion phasing of a biogas fueled HCCI engine is experimentally researched and presented in this paper. Additionally, the performance analysis of the practical engine solution for such operation is estimated by using the numerical simulation of entire engine. The results showed that the introduction of highly reactive fuel results with a significant change in operating conditions and with a change in optimum combustion phasing. The addition of n-heptane resulted in lower nitrogen oxides and increased carbon monoxide emissions, while the unburned hydrocarbons emissions were strongly influenced by combustion phasing and at optimal conditions are lowered compared to pure biogas operation. The results also showed a practical operation range for strategies that use equivalence ratio as a control of load. Simulation results showed that the difference in performance between pure biogas and n-heptane/biogas operation is even greater when the practical engine solution is taken into account.

  14. Experimental and numerical analysis of the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a biogas/n-heptane fueled HCCI engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kozarac, Darko

    2016-09-12

    The use of highly reactive fuel as an ignition promoter enables operation of biogas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine at low intake temperatures with practical control of combustion phasing. In order to gain some insight into this operation mode the influence of addition of n-heptane on combustion, performance, emissions and control of combustion phasing of a biogas fueled HCCI engine is experimentally researched and presented in this paper. Additionally, the performance analysis of the practical engine solution for such operation is estimated by using the numerical simulation of entire engine. The results showed that the introduction of highly reactive fuel results with a significant change in operating conditions and with a change in optimum combustion phasing. The addition of n-heptane resulted in lower nitrogen oxides and increased carbon monoxide emissions, while the unburned hydrocarbons emissions were strongly influenced by combustion phasing and at optimal conditions are lowered compared to pure biogas operation. The results also showed a practical operation range for strategies that use equivalence ratio as a control of load. Simulation results showed that the difference in performance between pure biogas and n-heptane/biogas operation is even greater when the practical engine solution is taken into account.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of a Free-Piston Engine with Electrical Generator Using HCCI Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrbai, Mohammad

    governing equations represent a single zone perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) which contain a perfect mixing ideal gas mixture. The chemical kinetics approach is applied using Cantera/ MATLABRTM toolbox, which presents the combustion process. In this research, a homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) at different operational conditions is used. HCCI engines have high efficiencies and low emissions and can work within a wide range of fuels. The results have been presented in a multi-cycle simulation and a parametric study forms. In the case of the multi-cycle simulation, a 100 cycles of the engine operation have been simulated. The overall work that is delivered to the electrical generator presents 47% of the total fuel energy. The model indicates an average frequency of 125 Hz along the operational cycles. In order to eliminate the cyclic variations and ensure a continuous operation, a proportional derivative (PD) controller has been employed. The controller adjusts the generator load in order to minimize the difference between the bottom dead center (BDC) locations along the operation cycles. The PD controller shows weakness in achieving the full steady state operation, for this purpose; a proportional integral (PI) controller has been implemented. The PI controller seeks to achieve a specific compression ratio. The results show that; the PI controller indicates unique behavior after 15 cycles of operation where the model ended to fluctuate between two compression ratios only. The complex relation between the thermodynamics and the dynamics of the engine is the greatest challenge in examining the effectiveness of the PI controller. In the parametric investigations, EGR examinations show that NOx emission is reduced to less than the half, as 30 % of EGR is used; this occurs due to the EGR thermal and dilution effects, which cause significant drop in the peak bulk temperature and CO emissions as well. Under the applied conditions, EGR has the ability to raise the work

  16. Effect of oxygen content on n-heptane auto-ignition characteristics in a HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhijun; Kang, Zhe; Deng, Jun; Hu, Zongjie; Li, Liguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • n-Heptane HCCI combustion under air and oxygen intake was compared. • n-Heptane auto-ignition postponed due to higher specific heat capacity as oxygen increase. • The increment of heat release fraction during low temperature reaction is studied. • Oxygen enrichment lead to suppressed negative temperature coefficient. • The mechanism of low temperature reaction enhancement as oxygen increase is investigated. - Abstract: To take maximum advantage of the high efficiency of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion mode and internal combustion Rankine cycle concept, in this study, the n-heptane auto-ignition characteristics have been investigated using a compression ignition internal combustion Rankine cycle engine test bench and a zero-dimensional thermodynamic model coupled with a detailed kinetic model. The n-heptane auto-ignition process shows that under both air and oxygen intake, a typical two-stage combustion in which oxygen enrichment has very minor effects on the n-heptane high temperature reaction. The higher specific heat capacity of oxygen compared with nitrogen leads to an overall increased specific heat capacity, which lowers the in-cylinder temperature during compression stroke, thereby delaying the low temperature reaction initial timing. The higher oxygen content also improves the H-atom abstraction, first O_2 addition, second O_2 addition and peroxyalkylhydroperoxide isomerization, thereby improving the overall reaction rate and the heat release fraction of low temperature reaction. As a result, the in-cylinder temperature at the end of low temperature reaction also increases, thereby shortening significantly the negative temperature coefficient duration compared with a combustion cycle using air as oxidizer.

  17. Intermediate temperature heat release in an HCCI engine fueled by ethanol/n-heptane mixtures: An experimental and modeling study

    KAUST Repository

    Vuilleumier, David

    2014-03-01

    This study examines intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines using blends of ethanol and n-heptane. Experiments were performed over the range of 0-50% n-heptane liquid volume fractions, at equivalence ratios 0.4 and 0.5, and intake pressures from 1.4bar to 2.2bar. ITHR was induced in the mixtures containing predominantly ethanol through the addition of small amounts of n-heptane. After a critical threshold, additional n-heptane content yielded low temperature heat release (LTHR). A method for quantifying the amount of heat released during ITHR was developed by examining the second derivative of heat release, and this method was then used to identify trends in the engine data. The combustion process inside the engine was modeled using a single-zone HCCI model, and good qualitative agreement of pre-ignition pressure rise and heat release rate was found between experimental and modeling results using a detailed n-heptane/ethanol chemical kinetic model. The simulation results were used to identify the dominant reaction pathways contributing to ITHR, as well as to verify the chemical basis behind the quantification of the amount of ITHR in the experimental analysis. The dominant reaction pathways contributing to ITHR were found to be H-atom abstraction from n-heptane by OH and the addition of fuel radicals to O2. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  18. Intermediate temperature heat release in an HCCI engine fueled by ethanol/n-heptane mixtures: An experimental and modeling study

    KAUST Repository

    Vuilleumier, David; Kozarac, Darko; Mehl, Marco; Saxena, Samveg; Pitz, William J.; Dibble, Robert W.; Chen, Jyhyuan; Sarathy, Mani

    2014-01-01

    This study examines intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines using blends of ethanol and n-heptane. Experiments were performed over the range of 0-50% n-heptane liquid volume fractions, at equivalence ratios 0.4 and 0.5, and intake pressures from 1.4bar to 2.2bar. ITHR was induced in the mixtures containing predominantly ethanol through the addition of small amounts of n-heptane. After a critical threshold, additional n-heptane content yielded low temperature heat release (LTHR). A method for quantifying the amount of heat released during ITHR was developed by examining the second derivative of heat release, and this method was then used to identify trends in the engine data. The combustion process inside the engine was modeled using a single-zone HCCI model, and good qualitative agreement of pre-ignition pressure rise and heat release rate was found between experimental and modeling results using a detailed n-heptane/ethanol chemical kinetic model. The simulation results were used to identify the dominant reaction pathways contributing to ITHR, as well as to verify the chemical basis behind the quantification of the amount of ITHR in the experimental analysis. The dominant reaction pathways contributing to ITHR were found to be H-atom abstraction from n-heptane by OH and the addition of fuel radicals to O2. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  19. Session 4: On-board exhaust gas reforming for improved performance of natural gas HCCI engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amieiro, A.; Golunski, S.; James, D. [Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, Sonning Common, Reading (United Kingdom); Miroslaw, Wyszynski; Athanasios, Megaritis; Peucheret, S. [Birmingham Univ., School of Engineering, Future Power Systems Research Group (United Kingdom); Hongming, Xu [Jaguar Cars Ltd, W/2/021 Engineering Centre, Whitley, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    water, oxygen and methane have been studied, as a function of space velocity, allowing us to assess the relative contributions of partial oxidation, steam reforming and water gas shift to the overall process of hydrogen formation. From this study we are able to identify the optimum auto-thermal conditions for the reforming process, and predict the behaviour of the reformer under different phases of engine operation. The reforming catalyst has been scaled up from a packed bed of granules to a full-sized monolithic reactor, which has been close-coupled with a Jaguar V6 engine. This integrated prototype has been tested with the engine running on natural gas in HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) mode. The reformer adds 5-15% hydrogen to the recirculated exhaust gas, resulting in substantial improvements in the performance and emissions of the engine. (authors)

  20. Exergoeconomic analysis and multi-objective optimization of an ejector refrigeration cycle powered by an internal combustion (HCCI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ejector refrigeration systems powered by HCCI engine is proposed. • A new two-dimensional model is developed for the ejector. • Multi-objective optimization is performed for the proposed system. • Pareto frontier is plotted for multi-objective optimization. - Abstract: Ejector refrigeration systems powered by low-grade heat sources have been an attractive research subject for a lot of researchers. In the present work the waste heat from exhaust gases of a HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine is utilized to drive the ejector refrigeration system. Considering the frictional effects on the ejector wall, a new two-dimensional model is developed for the ejector. Energy, exergy and exergoeconomic analysis performed for the proposed system using the MATLAB software. In addition, considering the exergy efficiency and the product unit cost of the system as objective functions, a multi-objective optimization is performed for the system to find the optimum design variables including the generator, condenser and evaporator temperatures. The product unit cost is minimized while the exergy efficiency is maximized using the genetic algorithm. The optimization results are obtained as a set of optimal points and the Pareto frontier is plotted for multi-objective optimization. The results of the optimization show that ejector refrigeration cycle is operating at optimum state based on exergy efficiency and product unit cost when generator, condenser and evaporator work at 94.54 °C, 33.44 °C and 0.03 °C, respectively

  1. Experimental study of biogas combustion in an HCCI engine for power generation with high indicated efficiency and ultra-low NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoya, Iván D.; Saxena, Samveg; Cadavid, Francisco J.; Dibble, Robert W.; Wissink, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this paper, we study biogas combustion in an HCCI engine operating at 1800 rpm. ► At low loads, slight changes in inlet conditions strongly affect cyclic variations. ► At high loads, slight changes in inlet conditions strongly affect ringing intensity. ► Indicated efficiency at high loads is close to 45% and IMEP g is close to 7.5 bar. ► NO x emissions are below the US-2010 limit of 0.27 g/kW h. - Abstract: Combustion parameters and the main exhaust emissions from a biogas fueled HCCI engine are investigated in this study. The study was conducted on a 4-cylinder, 1.9L Volkswagen TDI Diesel engine, which was modified to run in HCCI mode with biogas by means of inlet charge temperature control, boosted intake pressure, and a sonic flow device upstream of the inlet manifold to control biogas composition and the equivalence ratio. For simulating typical power generation conditions, the engine was coupled to an AC motor generator operating at 1800 rpm. In the startup process, gasoline was used in HCCI mode for all cylinders. During the tests, biogas was used in cylinders 2 and 3, and gasoline was used in cylinders 1 and 4 to allow for more stable engine coolant and oil temperatures. The tests were performed through an experimental factorial design to evaluate the effect of inlet charge temperature, boost pressures, and the equivalence ratio of the biogas–air mixture on HCCI combustion parameters and emissions. For biogas at lower equivalence ratios, slight increases in inlet charge temperature and boost pressures enhanced combustion parameters and reduced CO and HC emissions. For biogas at higher equivalence ratios, the effects of inlet charge conditions on HCCI combustion and CO and HC emissions were attenuated; however, ringing intensities and NO x emissions were increased with higher inlet charge temperature and higher boosted pressures. The maximum gross indicated mean effective pressure was 7.4 bar, the maximum gross indicated

  2. A modelling study into the effects of variable valve timing on the gas exchange process and performance of a 4-valve DI homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, A-F.M.; Potrzebowski, A.; Wyszynski, M.L.; Xu, H.M.; Tsolakis, A.; Luszcz, P.

    2009-01-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion mode is a relatively new combustion technology that can be achieved by using specially designed cams with reduced lift and duration. The auto-ignition in HCCI engine can be facilitated by adjusting the timing of the exhaust-valve-closing and, to some extent, the timing of the intake-valve-opening so as to capture a proportion of the hot exhaust gases in the engine cylinder during the gas exchange process. The effects of variable valve timing strategy on the gas exchange process and performance of a 4-valve direct injection HCCI engine were computationally investigated using a 1D fluid-dynamic engine cycle simulation code. A non-typical intake valve strategy was examined; whereby the intake valves were assumed to be independently actuated with the same valve-lift profile but at different timings. Using such an intake valves strategy, the obtained results showed that the operating range of the exhaust-valve-timing within which the HCCI combustion can be facilitated and maintained becomes much wider than that of the typical intake-valve-timing case. Also it was found that the engine parameters such as load and volumetric efficiency are significantly modified with the use of the non-typical intake-valve-timing. Additionally, the results demonstrated the potential of the non-typical intake-valve strategy in achieving and maintaining the HCCI combustion at much lower loads within a wide range of valve timings. Minimizing the pumping work penalty, and consequently improving the fuel economy, was shown as an advantage of using the non-typical intake-valve-timing with the timing of the early intake valve coupled with a symmetric degree of exhaust-valve-closing timing

  3. A modelling study into the effects of variable valve timing on the gas exchange process and performance of a 4-valve DI homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrous, A-F.M. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lecturer at the Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Shebin El-Kom), Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom (Egypt); Potrzebowski, A.; Wyszynski, M.L.; Xu, H.M.; Tsolakis, A.; Luszcz, P. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion mode is a relatively new combustion technology that can be achieved by using specially designed cams with reduced lift and duration. The auto-ignition in HCCI engine can be facilitated by adjusting the timing of the exhaust-valve-closing and, to some extent, the timing of the intake-valve-opening so as to capture a proportion of the hot exhaust gases in the engine cylinder during the gas exchange process. The effects of variable valve timing strategy on the gas exchange process and performance of a 4-valve direct injection HCCI engine were computationally investigated using a 1D fluid-dynamic engine cycle simulation code. A non-typical intake valve strategy was examined; whereby the intake valves were assumed to be independently actuated with the same valve-lift profile but at different timings. Using such an intake valves strategy, the obtained results showed that the operating range of the exhaust-valve-timing within which the HCCI combustion can be facilitated and maintained becomes much wider than that of the typical intake-valve-timing case. Also it was found that the engine parameters such as load and volumetric efficiency are significantly modified with the use of the non-typical intake-valve-timing. Additionally, the results demonstrated the potential of the non-typical intake-valve strategy in achieving and maintaining the HCCI combustion at much lower loads within a wide range of valve timings. Minimizing the pumping work penalty, and consequently improving the fuel economy, was shown as an advantage of using the non-typical intake-valve-timing with the timing of the early intake valve coupled with a symmetric degree of exhaust-valve-closing timing. (author)

  4. MTU series 1600 HCCI engine with extremely low exhaust emissions over the entire engine map; HCCI-Motor der MTU Baureihe 1600 mit extrem niedrigen Abgasemissionen im gesamten Motorkennfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teetz, Christoph; Bergmann, Dirk; Sauer, Christina; Schneemann, Arne [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Eichmeier, Johannes; Spicher, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). IFKM

    2012-11-01

    The main challenge when developing off-highway engines is to keep emissions within the limits to apply in the future while maintaining low fuel consumption and low CO{sub 2} output. In the USA in particular, diesel engines in the 130 - 560 kW power range are to be subject from 2014 to EPA Tier 4 legislation, which imposes limits of 0.4 g/kWh for NO{sub x} and 0.02 g/kWh for particulate matter. Diesel units can only satisfy those requirements using a combination of in-engine measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems (SCR, particulate filters), which makes them a good deal more complex and expensive. In the face of CO{sub 2} emissions regulations and the growing demand for diesel fuel, greater emphasis is now being placed on alternative fuels. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition or 'HCCI' provides an alternative to complex exhaust aftertreatment systems which generates virtually no soot or nitrous oxide emissions. It does, however, present new challenges with respect to combustion control and engine load. Up to the present, it has not been possible to exploit the full potential of this combustion process over the entire engine map, since the high ignition performance of diesel fuel at high loads results in excessively early combustion and inadmissible pressure gradients. The pre-development department of MTU Friedrichshafen worked with the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to devise a research prototype for an industrial application which would allow semi-homogenous combustion with controlled self-ignition over the full engine map. The engine is based on a 6-cylinder version of the MTU Series 1600 unit and has a rated output of 300 kW. The fuels - gasoline or ethanol and diesel - are mixed in such a way as to avoid the disadvantages associated with most HCCI processes. Since the use of ethanol also enhances combustion efficiency, it has a two-fold positive effect on the CO{sub 2} situation. With

  5. Investigation the performance of 0-D and 3-d combustion simulation softwares for modelling HCCI engine with high air excess ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Coşkun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performance of zero and three dimensional simulations codes that used for simulate a homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine fueled with Primary Reference Fuel PRF (85% iso-octane and 15% n-heptane were investigated. 0-D code, called as SRM Suite (Stochastic Reactor Model which can simulate engine combustion by using stochastic reactor model technique were used. Ansys-Fluent which can simulate computational fluid dynamics (CFD was used for 3-D engine combustion simulations. Simulations were evaluated for both commercial codes in terms of combustion, heat transfer and emissions in a HCCI engine. Chemical kinetic mechanisms which developed by Tsurushima including 33 species and 38 reactions for surrogate PRF fuel were used for combustion simulations. Analysis showed that both codes have advantages over each other.

  6. Numerical investigation of ethanol fuelled HCCI engine using stochastic reactor model. Part 1: Development of a new reduced ethanol oxidation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Akhil, Nekkanti

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Stochastic reactor model used for numerical study of HCCI engine. • New reduced oxidation mechanism with NOx developed (47 species and 272 reactions). • Mechanism predicts cylinder pressure and heat release with sufficient accuracy. • Mechanism was able to capture the trend in NO x emission with sufficient accuracy. - Abstract: Ethanol is considered a potential biofuel for internal combustion engines. In this study, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) simulations of ethanol engine experiments were performed using stochastic reactor model (SRM). Detailed ethanol oxidation mechanism is developed by including NO x reaction in existing detailed oxidation mechanism with 57 species and 383 reactions. Detailed ethanol mechanism with NO x used in this study contains 76 species and 495 reactions. This mechanism was reduced by direct relation graph (DRG) method, which was validated with the experimental results. Existing Lu’s 40-species skeletal mechanism with NO formation were also compared with detailed and reduced mechanisms for predicting maximum cylinder pressure, maximum heat release rate and crank angle position of maximum cylinder pressure in HCCI engine. Reduced mechanism developed in this study exhibited the best resemblance with the experimental data. This reduced mechanism was also validated by measured engine cylinder pressure curves and measured ignition delays in constant volume reactors. The results showed that reduced mechanism is capable of predicting HCCI engine performance parameters with sufficient accuracy. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the influential reactions in ethanol oxidation. Results also show that detailed and reduced mechanism was able to predict NO x emission in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data.

  7. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept - Part II: modeling HCCI combustion in small scales with detailed homogeneous gas phase chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichlmayr, H.T.; Kittelson, D.B.; Zachariah, M.R. [The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry

    2002-10-01

    Operational maps for crankshaft-equipped miniature homogeneous charge compression ignition engines are established using performance estimation, detailed chemical kinetics, and diffusion models for heat transfer and radical loss. In this study, radical loss was found to be insignificant. In contrast, heat transfer was found to be increasingly significant for 10, 1, and 0.1 W engines, respectively. Also, temperature-pressure trajectories and ignition delay time maps are used to explore relationships between engine operational parameters and HCCI. Lastly, effects of engine operating conditions and design on the indicated fuel conversion efficiency are investigated. (author)

  8. Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on CAI/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin

    2006-02-01

    The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the CAI combustion and engine performance.

  9. On Cyclic Variability in a Residual Effected HCCI Engine with Direct Gasoline Injection during Negative Valve Overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hunicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes towards describing the nature of cycle-by-cycle variability in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engines. Experimental measurements were performed using a single cylinder research engine operated in the negative valve overlap (NVO mode and fuelled with direct gasoline injection. Both stoichiometric and lean mixtures were applied in order to distinguish between different exhaust-fuel reactions during the NVO period and their propagation into the main event combustion. The experimental results show that the mode of cycle-by-cycle variability depends on the NVO phenomena. Under stoichiometric mixture conditions, neither variability in the main event indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP nor the combustion timing was affected by the NVO phenomena; however, long period oscillations in IMEP were observed. In contrast, for lean mixture, where fuel oxidation during the NVO period took place, distinctive correlations between NVO phenomena and the main event combustion parameters were observed. A wavelet analysis revealed the presence of both long-term and short-term oscillations in IMEP, in accordance with the extent of NVO phenomena. Characteristic patterns in IMEP were recognized using an in-house algorithm.

  10. Effects of premixed diethyl ether (DEE) on combustion and exhaust emissions in a HCCI-DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, Can; Can, Ozer; Sahin, Fatih; Yucesu, H. Serdar

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of premixed ratio of diethyl ether (DEE) on the combustion and exhaust emissions of a single-cylinder, HCCI-DI engine were investigated. The experiments were performed at the engine speed of 2200 rpm and 19 N m operating conditions. The amount of the premixed DEE was controlled by a programmable electronic control unit (ECU) and the DEE injection was conducted into the intake air charge using low pressure injector. The premixed fuel ratio (PFR) of DEE was changed from 0% to 40% and results were compared to neat diesel operation. The percentages of premixed fuel were calculated from the energy ratio of premixed DEE fuel to total energy rate of the fuels. The experimental results show that single stage ignition was found with the addition of premixed DEE fuel. Increasing and phasing in-cylinder pressure and heat release were observed in the premixed stage of the combustion. Lower diffusion combustion was also occurred. Cycle-to cycle variations were very small with diesel fuel and 10% DEE premixed fuel ratio. Audible knocking occurred with 40% DEE premixed fuel ratio. NO x -soot trade-off characteristics were changed and improvements were found simultaneously. NO x and soot emissions decreased up to 19.4% and 76.1%, respectively, while exhaust gas temperature decreased by 23.8%. On the other hand, CO and HC emissions increased.

  11. A reduced mechanism for predicting the ignition timing of a fuel blend of natural-gas and n-heptane in HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlouli, Keyvan; Atikol, Ugur; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Mohammadi, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage reduction process is used to produce two reduced mechanisms. • The mechanisms are combined to develop a reaction mechanism for a fuel blend. • The genetic algorithm is used for optimization of reaction constants. • The developed reduced mechanism can be used to predict the ignition timing in HCCI engine for a fuel blend. - Abstract: One of the main challenges associated with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engine application is the lack of direct control on ignition timing. One of the solutions to this problem is mixing two fuels with various properties at a variety of ratios on a cycle-by-cycle basis. In the current study, a reduced mechanism for a fuel blend of natural-gas and n-heptane is proposed. The approach is validated for the prediction of ignition timing in the HCCI combustion engine. A single-zone combustion model is used to simulate the HCCI engine. A two-stage reduction process is used to produce two reduced mechanisms of existing semi-detailed GRI-Mech. 3.0 mechanism that contains 53 species and 325 reactions and Golovichev’s mechanism consisting of 57 species and 290 reactions for natural gas and n-heptane fuels, respectively. Firstly, the unimportant species and related reactions are identified by employing the directed relation graph with error propagation (DRGEP) reduction method and then, to extend reduction, the principal component analysis (PCA) method is utilized. To evaluate the validity of the reduced mechanism, representative engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, maximum heat release, and CA50 are used. The reduced mechanism of GRI-Mech. 3.0 mechanism, containing 19 species and 39 reactions, and the reduced mechanism of Golovichev’s mechanism, consisting of 40 species and 95 reactions, provide good prediction for the mentioned parameters in comparison with those of detailed mechanisms. The combination of the generated reduced mechanisms is used to develop a

  12. An experimental and numerical analysis of the HCCI auto-ignition process of primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel in an engine, varying the engine parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon; Gilbert, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    For a future HCCI engine to operate under conditions that adhere to environmental restrictions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining or increasing at the same time the engine efficiency, the choice of the fuel is crucial. For this purpose, this paper presents an auto-ignition investigation concerning the primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel, in order to study the effect of linear alkanes, branched alkanes and aromatics on the auto-ignition. The auto-ignition o...

  13. A Comprehensive Numerical Study on Effects of Natural Gas Composition on the Operation of an HCCI Engine Une étude numérique complète sur les effets de la composition du gaz naturel carburant sur le réglage d’un moteur HCCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanian O.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine is a promising idea to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Natural Gas (NG, usually referred as clean fuel, is an appropriate choice for HCCI engines due to its suitable capability of making homogenous mixture with air. However, varying composition of Natural Gas strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of in-cylinder mixture and the performance of the HCCI engine. This paper has focused on the influence of Natural Gas composition on engine operation in HCCI mode. Six different compositions of Natural Gas (including pure methane have been considered to study the engine performance via a thermo-kinetic zero-dimensional model. The simulation code covers the detailed chemical kinetics of Natural Gas combustion, which includes Zeldovich extended mechanism to evaluate NOx emission. Validations have been made using experimental data from other works to ensure the accuracy needed for comparison study. The equivalence ratio and the compression ratio are held constant but the engine speed and mixture initial temperature are changed for comparison study. Results show that the peak value of pressure/temperature of in-cylinder mixture is dependent of fuel Wobbe number. Furthermore, engine gross indicated power is linearly related to fuel Wobbe number. Gross indicated work, gross mean effective pressure, and NOx are the other parameters utilized to compare the performance of engine using different fuel compositions. Le moteur HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, ou à allumage par compression d’une charge homogène est une idée prometteuse pour réduire la consommation de carburant et les émissions polluantes. Le gaz naturel, considéré généralement comme un carburant propre, est un choix approprié pour les moteurs HCCI en raison de sa capacité à former avec l’air un mélange homogène. Cependant, la composition du gaz naturel influe fortement sur les caract

  14. An experimental investigation into combustion and performance characteristics of an HCCI gasoline engine fueled with n-heptane, isopropanol and n-butanol fuel blends at different inlet air temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyumaz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion was retarded with the increase of the amount of isopropanol and n-butanol in the test fuels. • Combustion was advanced with the increase of air inlet temperature on HCCI combustion. • Isopropanol seems more suitable fuel due to controlling the HCCI combustion and preventing knocking. • Almost zero NO emissions were measured when alcohol used except for n-heptane and B20 test fuels. - Abstract: An experimental study was conducted in a single cylinder, four stroke port injection Ricardo Hydra test engine in order to determine the effects of pure n-heptane, the blends of n-heptane and n-butanol fuels B20, B30, B40 (including 20%, 30%, 40% n-butanol and 80%, 70%, 60% n-heptane by vol. respectively) and the blends of n-heptane and isopropanol fuels P20, P30, P40 (including 20%, 30%, 40% isopropanol and 80%, 70%, 60% n-heptane by vol. respectively) on HCCI combustion. Combustion and performance characteristics of n-heptane, n-butanol and isopropanol were investigated at constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and λ = 2 in a HCCI engine. The effects of inlet air temperature were also examined on HCCI combustion. The test results showed that the start of combustion was advanced with the increasing of inlet air temperature for all test fuels. Start of combustion delayed with increasing percentage of n-butanol and isopropanol in the test fuels. Knocking combustion was seen with B20 and n-heptane test fuels. Minimum combustion duration was observed in case of using B40. Almost zero NO emissions were measured with test fuels apart from n-heptane and B20. The test results also showed that CO and HC emissions decreased with the increase of inlet air temperature for all test fuels. Isopropanol showed stronger resistance for knocking compared to n-butanol in HCCI combustion due to its higher octane number. It was determined that n-butanol was more advantageous according to isopropanol as thermal efficiency. As a result it was found that the HCCI

  15. Evaluation of a combined cycle based on an HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine heat recovery employing two organic Rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaljani, M.; Saray, R. Khoshbakhti; Bahlouli, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a combined power cycle which includes a HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine and two ORCs (Organic Rankine Cycles) is introduced. In the proposed cycle, the waste heats from the engine cooling water and exhaust gases are utilized to drive the ORCs. A parametric study is conducted to show the effects of decision parameters on the performance and on the total cost rate of cycle. Results of the parametric study reveal that increasing the pinch point temperature difference of evaporator and temperature of the condenser leads to reduction in both exergy efficiency and total cost rate of the bottoming cycle. There is a specific evaporator temperature where exergy efficiency is improved, but the total cost rate of the bottoming cycle is maximized. Also, a multi-objective optimization strategy is performed to achieve the best system design parameters from both thermodynamic and economic aspects. The exergy efficiency and the total cost rate of the system have been considered as objective functions. Optimization results indicate that the exergy efficiency of the cycle increases from 44.96% for the base case to 46.02%. Also, approximately1.3% reduction in the cost criteria is achieved. Results of the multi-objective optimization justify the results obtained through the parametric study and demonstrate that the design parameters of both ORCs have conflict effect on the objective functions. - Highlights: • Two Organic Rankine bottoming cycles are coupled with an HCCI Engine. • Exergetic and Exergo-economic analysis of the bottoming cycle are reported. • The system is optimized using multi-objective genetic algorithm. • Objective functions are exergy efficiency and total cost rate of the system. • The exergy efficiency of the cycle increases from 44.96% to 46.02%.

  16. Multidimensional modeling of the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on exergy terms in an HCCI engine fueled with a mixture of natural gas and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarmadar, Samad; Nemati, Peyman; Khodaie, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The exergy efficiency decreases by 41.3%. • The irreversibility increases by 46.80%. • The cumulative heat loss exergy decreases by 68.10%. • The cumulative work exergy decreases by 63.4%. • The exhaust losses exergy increases by 28.79%. - Abstract: One of the most important issues in HCCI engines is auto-ignition timing control. EGR introduction into intake charge can be a method to control combustion phasing and its duration. In the current study, a FORTRAN-based code which includes 10 species (O_2, N_2, H_2O, CO_2, CO, H_2, OH, O, N, NO) associated with combustion products was employed to study the exergy analysis in a dual fuel (natural gas + diesel) HCCI engine at four EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) mass fractions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) while the diesel fuel amount was held constant. In order to achieve this task, a 3-D CFD code was employed to model the energy balance during a closed cycle of running engine simulation. Moreover, an efficient Extend Coherent Flame Model-Three Zone model (ECFM-3Z) method was employed to analyze the combustion process. With crank positions at different EGR mass fractions, the exergy terms were identified and calculated separately. It was found that as EGR mass fraction increased from 0% to 30% (in 10% increment steps), exergy efficiency decreased from 48.9% to 28.7%. Furthermore, with the change in EGR mass fraction, the cumulative heat loss exergy decreased from 10.1% to 5.64% of mixture fuels chemical exergy.

  17. Hydrocarbons and environment: IFP's strategy; hydrocarbures et environnement: la strategie de l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C.; Feugier, A.

    2001-07-01

    This press kit presents the strategy of the French Institute of Petroleum (IFP) in the domain of environment and sustainable development. This strategy concerns the whole R and D activities of IFP: exploration-production, refining-petrochemistry, engines and use of petroleum products. IFP's work in this domain follows three ways of actions: development of energy saving and environmentally friendly technologies of hydrocarbons production, transformation and use, development of methodologies and techniques of remediation of polluted environments, and intensification of the research effort in the domain of greenhouse gases abatement. A set of transparencies and two brochures entitled 'IFP and environment' and 'management of polluted sites' are included. (J.S.)

  18. Experimental validation of a kinetic multi-component mechanism in a wide HCCI engine operating range for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene: Influence of EGR parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machrafi, Hatim

    2008-01-01

    The parameters that are present in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are believed to provide an important contribution to control the auto-ignition process of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) in an engine. For the investigation of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process, a kinetic multi-component mechanism has been developed in former work, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene. This paper presents an experimental validation of this mechanism, comparing the calculated pressure, heat release, ignition delays and CO 2 emissions with experimental data performed on a HCCI engine. The validation is performed in a broad range of EGR parameters by varying the dilution by N 2 and CO 2 from 0 to 46 vol.%, changing the EGR temperature from 30 to 120 deg. C, altering the addition of CO and NO from 0 to 170 ppmv and varying the addition of CH 2 O from 0 to 1400 ppmv. These validations were performed respecting the HCCI conditions for the inlet temperature and the equivalence ratio. The results showed that the mechanism is validated experimentally in dilution ranges going up to 21-30 vol.%, depending on the species of dilution and over the whole range of the EGR temperature. The mechanism is validated over the whole range of CO and CH 2 O addition. As for the addition of NO, the mechanism is validated quantitatively up to 50 ppmv and qualitatively up to 170 ppmv

  19. Experimental validation of concentration profiles in an HCCI engine, modelled by a multi-component kinetic mechanism: Outline for auto-ignition and emission control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim, E-mail: hatim-machrafi@enscp.f [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Universite de Liege, Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles, 17, Allee du Six-Aout, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    In order to contribute to the auto-ignition and emission control for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), a kinetic multi-component mechanism, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene is validated in this work, comparing for the concentration profiles of the fuel, the total hydrocarbons, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, acetaldehyde and iso-butene. These species are sampled during the combustion and quantified. For these measurements an automotive exhaust analyser, a gas chromatograph, coupled to a mass spectrometer and a flame ionisation detector are used, depending on the species to be measured. The fuel, total hydrocarbons, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, iso-butene and acetaldehyde showed a satisfactory quantitative agreement between the mechanism and the experiments. Both the experiments and the modelling results showed the same formation behaviour of the different species. An example is shown of how such a validated mechanism can provide for a set of information of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process and the emission control as a function of engine parameters.

  20. Experimental validation of concentration profiles in an HCCI engine, modelled by a multi-component kinetic mechanism: Outline for auto-ignition and emission control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machrafi, Hatim

    2010-01-01

    In order to contribute to the auto-ignition and emission control for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), a kinetic multi-component mechanism, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene is validated in this work, comparing for the concentration profiles of the fuel, the total hydrocarbons, O 2 , CO 2 , CO, acetaldehyde and iso-butene. These species are sampled during the combustion and quantified. For these measurements an automotive exhaust analyser, a gas chromatograph, coupled to a mass spectrometer and a flame ionisation detector are used, depending on the species to be measured. The fuel, total hydrocarbons, O 2 , CO 2 , iso-butene and acetaldehyde showed a satisfactory quantitative agreement between the mechanism and the experiments. Both the experiments and the modelling results showed the same formation behaviour of the different species. An example is shown of how such a validated mechanism can provide for a set of information of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process and the emission control as a function of engine parameters.

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of hetero-/homogeneous combustion-based HCCI of methane–air mixtures in free-piston micro-engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Junjie; Liu, Baofang; Gao, Xuhui; Xu, Deguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-shot experiments and a transient model of micro-engine were presented. • Coupled combustion can significantly improve in-cylinder temperatures. • Coupled combustion can reduce mass losses and compression ratios. • Heterogeneous reactions cause earlier ignition. • Heat losses result in higher mass losses. - Abstract: The hetero-/homogenous combustion-based HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) of fuel–lean methane–air mixtures over alumina-supported platinum catalysts was investigated experimentally and numerically in free-piston micro-engines without ignition sources. Single-shot experiments were carried out in the purely homogeneous and coupled hetero-/homogeneous combustion modes, involved temperature measurements, capturing the visible combustion image sequences, exhaust gas analysis, and the physicochemical characterization of catalysts. Simulations were performed with a two-dimensional transient model that includes detailed hetero-/homogeneous chemistry and transport, leakage, and free-piston motion to gain physical insight and to explore the hetero-/homogeneous combustion characteristics. The micro-engine performance concerning combustion efficiency, mass loss, energy density, and free-piston dynamics was investigated. The results reveal that both purely homogeneous and coupled hetero-/homogeneous combustion of methane–air mixtures in a narrow cylinder with a diameter of 3 mm and a height of approximately 0.3 mm are possible. The coupled hetero-/homogeneous mode can not only significantly improve the combustion efficiency, in-cylinder temperature and pressure, output power and energy density, but also reduce the mass loss because of its lower compression ratio and less time spent around TDC (top dead center) and during the expansion stroke, indicating that this coupled mode is a promising combustion scheme for micro-engine. Heat losses result in higher mass losses. Heterogeneous reactions cause earlier ignition

  2. Universal autoignition models for designer fuels in HCCI combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersickel, A.; Boulouchos, K.; Wright, Y.M. [LAV - Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory - Institute of Energy Technology, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)], email: vandersickel@lav.mavt.ethz.ch

    2010-07-01

    In the energy sector, stringent regulations have been implemented on combustion emissions in order to address health and environmental concerns and help improve air quality. A novel combustion mode, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), can improve the emissions performance of an engine in terms of NOx and soot release over that of diesel while maintaining the same efficiencies. However, problems of ignition timing control arise with HCCI. The aim of this paper is to determine how fuel properties impact the HCCI ignition process and operating range. This study was carried out as part of a collaboration among several universities and automotive companies and 10 fuels were investigated experimentally and numerically using Arrhenius' model and a lumped reaction model. The two ignition models were successfully adapted to describe the behavior of the studied fuels; atomizer engine experiments validated their results. Further work will be conducted to optimize the reaction mechanism for the remaining process fuels.

  3. An experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio on the HCCI auto-ignition process of Primary Reference Fuels in an engine

    OpenAIRE

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand better the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio were varied and their influence on the pressure, the heat release and the ignition delays were measured, The inlet temperature was changed from 25 to 70 degrees C and the equivalence ratio from 0.18 to 0.41, while the compression ratio varied from 6 to 13.5. The fuels t...

  4. Experimental validation of a kinetic multi-component mechanism in a wide HCCI engine operating range for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene: Influence of EGR parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim [LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris/ Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-11-15

    The parameters that are present in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are believed to provide an important contribution to control the auto-ignition process of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) in an engine. For the investigation of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process, a kinetic multi-component mechanism has been developed in former work, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene. This paper presents an experimental validation of this mechanism, comparing the calculated pressure, heat release, ignition delays and CO{sub 2} emissions with experimental data performed on a HCCI engine. The validation is performed in a broad range of EGR parameters by varying the dilution by N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} from 0 to 46 vol.%, changing the EGR temperature from 30 to 120 C, altering the addition of CO and NO from 0 to 170 ppmv and varying the addition of CH{sub 2}O from 0 to 1400 ppmv. These validations were performed respecting the HCCI conditions for the inlet temperature and the equivalence ratio. The results showed that the mechanism is validated experimentally in dilution ranges going up to 21-30 vol.%, depending on the species of dilution and over the whole range of the EGR temperature. The mechanism is validated over the whole range of CO and CH{sub 2}O addition. As for the addition of NO, the mechanism is validated quantitatively up to 50 ppmv and qualitatively up to 170 ppmv. (author)

  5. An experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio on the HCCI auto-ignition process of Primary Reference Fuels in an engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert (France); Cavadiasa, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert (France)

    2008-11-15

    In order to understand better the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio were varied and their influence on the pressure, the heat release and the ignition delays were measured. The inlet temperature was changed from 25 to 70 C and the equivalence ratio from 0.18 to 0.41, while the compression ratio varied from 6 to 13.5. The fuels that were investigated were PRF40 and n-heptane. These three parameters appeared to decrease the ignition delays, with the inlet temperature having the least influence and the compression ratio the most. A previously experimentally validated reduced surrogate mechanism, for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene, has been used to explain observations of the auto-ignition process. The same kinetic mechanism is used to better understand the underlying chemical and physical phenomena that make the influence of a certain parameter change according to the operating conditions. This can be useful for the control of the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine. (author)

  6. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  7. An experimental and numerical analysis of the HCCI auto-ignition process of primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel in an engine, varying the engine parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr-I' Ecole (France); Gilbert, Philippe [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr-I' Ecole (France)

    2008-11-15

    For a future HCCI engine to operate under conditions that adhere to environmental restrictions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining or increasing at the same time the engine efficiency, the choice of the fuel is crucial. For this purpose, this paper presents an auto-ignition investigation concerning the primary reference fuels, toluene reference fuels and diesel fuel, in order to study the effect of linear alkanes, branched alkanes and aromatics on the auto-ignition. The auto-ignition of these fuels has been studied at inlet temperatures from 25 to 120 C, at equivalence ratios from 0.18 to 0.53 and at compression ratios from 6 to 13.5, in order to extend the range of investigation and to assess the usability of these parameters to control the auto-ignition. It appeared that both iso-octane and toluene delayed the ignition with respect to n-heptane, while toluene has the strongest effect. This means that aromatics have higher inhibiting effects than branched alkanes. In an increasing order, the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio had a promoting effect on the ignition delays. A previously experimentally validated reduced surrogate mechanism, for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene, has been used to explain observations of the auto-ignition process. (author)

  8. IFP Energies nouvelles. 2016 Activity Report - Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    IFP Energies Nouvelles is a major research and training player in the fields of energy, transport and the environment. From research to industry, technological innovation is central to all its activities, structured around three strategic priorities: sustainable mobility, new energies and responsible oil and gas. As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFPEN focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the transition towards sustainable mobility and the emergence of a more diversified energy mix; - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. An integral part of IFPEN, its graduate engineering school - IFP School - prepares future generations to take up these challenges. IFPEN has proven expertise across the entire value chain, from fundamental research to innovation. It is funded both by a state budget and by its own resources provided by industrial partners. The latter account for over 50% of IFPEN's total budget, a configuration that is quasi unique in France. The aim of IFPEN's R and I programs is to overcome existing scientific and technological challenges in order to develop innovations that can be used by industry. IFPEN's fundamental research program aims to create a bedrock of knowledge essential for the development of innovations. The scientific expertise of IFPEN's researchers is internationally recognized and they are regularly consulted by the public authorities to provide their insight in their specific fields to inform the decision-making process. IFPEN's economic model is based on the transfer to industry of the technologies developed by its researchers. This technology transfer to industry generates jobs and business, fostering the economic development of fields and approaches related to the mobility, energy and eco-industry sectors

  9. Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Methane HCCI Engine Ignition Timing and Emissions Using a Multi-zone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-han; Wang, Chun-mei; Tang, Hua-xin; Zuo, Cheng-ji; Xu, Hong-ming

    2009-06-01

    Ignition timing control is of great importance in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. The effect of hydrogen addition on methane combustion was investigated using a CHEMKIN multi-zone model. Results show that hydrogen addition advances ignition timing and enhances peak pressure and temperature. A brief analysis of chemical kinetics of methane blending hydrogen is also performed in order to investigate the scope of its application, and the analysis suggests that OH radical plays an important role in the oxidation. Hydrogen addition increases NOx while decreasing HC and CO emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) also advances ignition timing; however, its effects on emissions are generally the opposite. By adjusting the hydrogen addition and EGR rate, the ignition timing can be regulated with a low emission level. Investigation into zones suggests that NOx is mostly formed in core zones while HC and CO mostly originate in the crevice and the quench layer.

  10. Dual-fuel HCCI operation with DME/LPG/gasoline/hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines include usage of the different type of fuels, ultra low nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions and improved fuel economy. Disadvantages include an excessive combustion rate, engine noise, and hydrocarbon and carbon emissions. An experiment on dual-fuel HCCI operation with dimethyl ether (DME)/liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/gasoline/hydrogen was presented. The advantages and disadvantages were first presented and the dual-fuel HCCI combustion engine was illustrated through an experimental apparatus. The experimental conditions were also presented in terms of engine speed, DME injection quantity, LPC injection quantity, and LPC composition. Experimental results were discussed for output performance and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). It was concluded that the effect of LPG composition in a DME-LPG dual-fueled HCCI engine at various injection quantity and injective timing were observed. Specifically, it was found that propane was a more effective way to increase IMEP in this study, and that in a DME HCCI engine, higher load limit was extended by using LPG as an ignition inhibitor. tabs., figs.

  11. Effects of cetane number on HCCI combustion efficiency and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, V.; Neill, W.S.; Guo, H.; Chippior, W.L. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Fairbridge, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Mitchell, K. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. This exothermic reaction releases chemical energy into a sensible form that can be transformed in an engine into work and heat. The effects of cetane number on HCCI combustion efficiency and emissions were examined in this presentation. The presentation discussed the experimental setup, fuels, experimental procedures, and results. The setup included an enhanced fuel injector/vaporizer consisting of an OEM gasoline port fuel injector, air blast for improved atomization, and heated section to improved vaporization. A minimally processed and low cetane number fuel derived from oil sands was used as the base fuel in the study. Two sets of experiments were devised and described to evaluate each test fuel. One set used controlled input conditions exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-air-fuel ratio (AFR) while the other set employed controlled engine outputs (such as speed and load). Results were presented for hydroprocessing; cetane improver addition; blending with supercetane renewable diesel; and a comparison of fuels with similar cetane numbers. It was concluded that increasing the fuel cetane number shifted the AFR-EGR operating window for HCCI combustion towards higher AFT (leaner mixtures) and reduced the cyclic variations. tabs., figs.

  12. Experimental investigation on the effect of intake air temperature and air-fuel ratio on cycle-to-cycle variations of HCCI combustion and performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar [Engine Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Combustion in HCCI engines is a controlled auto ignition of well-mixed fuel, air and residual gas. Since onset of HCCI combustion depends on the auto ignition of fuel/air mixture, there is no direct control on the start of combustion process. Therefore, HCCI combustion becomes unstable rather easily, especially at lower and higher engine loads. In this study, cycle-to-cycle variations of a HCCI combustion engine fuelled with ethanol were investigated on a modified two-cylinder engine. Port injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous charge for HCCI combustion. The experiments were conducted at varying intake air temperatures and air-fuel ratios at constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and P-{theta} diagram of 100 consecutive combustion cycles for each test conditions at steady state operation were recorded. Consequently, cycle-to-cycle variations of the main combustion parameters and performance parameters were analyzed. To evaluate the cycle-to-cycle variations of HCCI combustion parameters, coefficient of variation (COV) of every parameter were calculated for every engine operating condition. The critical optimum parameters that can be used to define HCCI operating ranges are 'maximum rate of pressure rise' and 'COV of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP)'. (author)

  13. Reaction Mechanisms and HCCI Combustion Processes of Mixtures of n-Heptane and the Butanols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A reduced primary reference fuel (PRF-Alcohol-Di-tert-butyl Peroxide (DTBP mechanism with 108 species and 435 reactions, including sub-mechanisms of PRF, methanol, ethanol, DTBP and the four butanol isomers, is proposed for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine combustion simulations of butanol isomers/n-heptane mixtures. HCCI experiments fuelled with butanol isomer/n-heptane mixtures on two different engines are conducted for the validation of proposed mechanism. The mechanism has been validated against shock tube ignition delays, laminar flame speeds, species profiles in premixed flames and engine HCCI combustion data, and good agreements with experimental results are demonstrated under various validation conditions. It is found that although the reactivity of neat tert-butanol is the lowest, mixtures of tert-butanol/n-heptane exhibit the highest reactivity among the butanol isomer/n-heptane mixtures if the n-heptane blending ratio exceeds 20% (mole. Kinetic analysis shows that the highest C-H bond energy in the tert-butanol molecule is partially responsible for this phenomenon. It is also found that the reaction tC4H9OH+CH3O2 =tC4H9O+CH3O2H plays important role and eventually produces the OH radical to promote the ignition and combustion. The proposed mechanism is able to capture HCCI combustion processes of the butanol/n-heptane mixtures under different operating conditions. In addition, the trend that tert-butanol /n-heptane has the highest reactivity is also captured in HCCI combustion simulations. The results indicate that the current mechanism can be used for HCCI engine predictions of PRF and alcohol fuels.

  14. Blending Behavior of Ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A Gasoline in HCCI Combustion Mmode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer; Atef, Nour; Singh, Eshan; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Sarathy, Mani; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    but the chemical effect responsible for the non-linear blending behavior of ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A was not understood. Hence, in this study the experimental measurements were simulated using zero-dimensional HCCI engine model with detailed chemistry

  15. Simulating HCCI Blending Octane Number of Primary Reference Fuel with Ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Eshan

    2017-03-28

    The blending of ethanol with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures comprising n-heptane and iso-octane is known to exhibit a non-linear octane response; however, the underlying chemistry and intermolecular interactions are poorly understood. Well-designed experiments and numerical simulations are required to understand these blending effects and the chemical kinetic phenomenon responsible for them. To this end, HCCI engine experiments were previously performed at four different conditions of intake temperature and engine speed for various PRF/ethanol mixtures. Transfer functions were developed in the HCCI engine to relate PRF mixture composition to autoignition tendency at various compression ratios. The HCCI blending octane number (BON) was determined for mixtures of 2-20 vol % ethanol with PRF70. In the present work, the experimental conditions were considered to perform zero-dimensional HCCI engine simulations with detailed chemical kinetics for ethanol/PRF blends. The simulations used the actual engine geometry and estimated intake valve closure conditions to replicate the experimentally measured start of combustion (SOC) for various PRF mixtures. The simulated HCCI heat release profiles were shown to reproduce the experimentally observed trends, specifically on the effectiveness of ethanol as a low temperature chemistry inhibitor at various concentrations. Detailed analysis of simulated heat release profiles and the evolution of important radical intermediates (e.g., OH and HO) were used to show the effect of ethanol blending on controlling reactivity. A strong coupling between the low temperature oxidation reactions of ethanol and those of n-heptane and iso-octane is shown to be responsible for the observed blending effects of ethanol/PRF mixtures.

  16. Simulating HCCI Blending Octane Number of Primary Reference Fuel with Ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Eshan; Waqas, Muhammad; Johansson, Bengt; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    The blending of ethanol with primary reference fuel (PRF) mixtures comprising n-heptane and iso-octane is known to exhibit a non-linear octane response; however, the underlying chemistry and intermolecular interactions are poorly understood. Well-designed experiments and numerical simulations are required to understand these blending effects and the chemical kinetic phenomenon responsible for them. To this end, HCCI engine experiments were previously performed at four different conditions of intake temperature and engine speed for various PRF/ethanol mixtures. Transfer functions were developed in the HCCI engine to relate PRF mixture composition to autoignition tendency at various compression ratios. The HCCI blending octane number (BON) was determined for mixtures of 2-20 vol % ethanol with PRF70. In the present work, the experimental conditions were considered to perform zero-dimensional HCCI engine simulations with detailed chemical kinetics for ethanol/PRF blends. The simulations used the actual engine geometry and estimated intake valve closure conditions to replicate the experimentally measured start of combustion (SOC) for various PRF mixtures. The simulated HCCI heat release profiles were shown to reproduce the experimentally observed trends, specifically on the effectiveness of ethanol as a low temperature chemistry inhibitor at various concentrations. Detailed analysis of simulated heat release profiles and the evolution of important radical intermediates (e.g., OH and HO) were used to show the effect of ethanol blending on controlling reactivity. A strong coupling between the low temperature oxidation reactions of ethanol and those of n-heptane and iso-octane is shown to be responsible for the observed blending effects of ethanol/PRF mixtures.

  17. The IFP and the CO{sub 2}; L'IFP et le CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The IFP (french petroleum institute) developed research programs on the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease. This colloquium presents the IFP research programs in the domain the greenhouse effect fight (regulations framework implementation, the European Union actions); the carbon dioxide emissions fight (motors combustion improvement, the alternative fuels) and the carbon dioxide capture storage. (A.L.B.)

  18. Auto-ignition modelling: analysis of the dilution effects by the unburnt gases and of the interactions with turbulence for diesel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines; Modelisation de l'auto-inflammation: analyse des effets de la dilution par les gaz brules et des interactions avec la turbulence dediee aux moteurs Diesel a charge homogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, G.

    2005-09-15

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is an alternative engine combustion process that offers the potential for substantial reductions in both NO{sub x} and particulate matter still providing high Diesel-like efficiencies. Combustion in HCCI mode takes place essentially by auto-ignition. It is mainly controlled by the chemical kinetics. It is therefore necessary to introduce detailed chemistry effects in combustion CFD codes in order to properly model the HCCI combustion process. The objective of this work is to develop an auto-ignition model including detailed chemical kinetics and its interactions with turbulence. Also, a comprehensive study has been performed to analyze the chemical influence of CO and H{sub 2} residual species on auto-ignition, which can be present in the exhaust gases. A new auto-ignition model, TKI-PDF (Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition - with turbulent mixing interactions through a pdf approach) dedicated to RANS 3D engine combustion CFD calculations is proposed. The TKI-PDF model is formulated in order to accommodate the detailed chemical kinetics of auto-ignition coupled with turbulence/chemistry interactions. The complete model development and its validation against experimental results are presented in two parts. The first part of this work describes the detailed chemistry input to the model. The second part is dedicated to the turbulent mixing description. A method based on a progress variable reaction rate tabulation is used. A look-up table for the progress variable reaction rates has been built through constant volume complex chemistry simulations. Instantaneous local reaction rates inside the CFD computational cell are then calculated by linear interpolation inside the look-up table depending on the local thermodynamic conditions. In order to introduce the turbulent mixing effects on auto-ignition, a presumed pdf approach is used. The model has been validated in different levels. First, the detailed kinetic approach was

  19. Method for reduction of the NOX emissions in marine auxiliary diesel engine using the fuel mixtures containing biodiesel using HCCI combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puškár, Michal; Kopas, Melichar; Puškár, Dušan; Lumnitzer, Ján; Faltinová, Eva

    2018-02-01

    The marine auxiliary diesel engines installed in the large transoceanic ships are used in order to generate the electricity but at the same time these engines are able to produce a significant amount of the harmful exhaust gas emissions. Therefore the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) concluded an agreement, which has to control generating of gaseous emissions in maritime transport. From this reason started to be used some of the alternative fuels in this branch. There was performed a study, which investigated emissions of the auxiliary marine diesel engine during application of the experimental fuels. The different testing fuels were created using the ratios 0%, 50%, 80% and 100% between the biodiesel and the ULSDF (Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel Fuel). The experimental measurements were performed at the different engine loading levels and various engine speeds in order to investigate an influence of the mixed fuels on the engine operational characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GM's HCCI. In-vehicle experience with a future combustion system; GM's HCCI. Erfahrungen mit einem zukuenftigen Verbrennungssystem im Fahrzeugeinsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritze, Stefan; Koenigstein, Achim [Adam Opel GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Rayl, Allen; Chang, Chen-Fang; Najt, Paul; Grebe, Uwe D. [General Motors LLC, Warren/Ponitac, MI (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) stands at General Motors (GM) for the auto-ignition of a homogeneous air-fuel mixture in a gasoline engine. HCCI enables unthrottle operation under part load conditions with the high potential for fuel consumption reduction at lowest NO{sub x} emission levels even with lean mixtures. It is capable to use worldwide available fuel qualities with conventional exhaust aftertreatment. Important requirements for the application in a vehicle are the realization of a large usable steady state map covering lowest engine loads including idle operation and an outstanding transient combustion performance in terms of robustness and responsiveness. The prerequisites to achieve this were set based on a spray-guided gasoline direct injection with a strategy to control the residuals by trapping and recompressing them in the combustion chamber and sensing of individual cylinder pressure. The main characteristics of the combustion system will be discussed. The application in a vehicle sets new targets in terms of engine controller requirements and the complexity of the control algorithms. Considering only indirect control of combustion being very sensitive against extraneous impacts, it becomes extremely challenging to realize robust transitions among the various operation modes. The results achieved with the integration of the presented HCCI combustion system in prototype vehicles of the midsize segment support the chosen development path. Further improvements can be expected considering the latest achievements of the combustion system development. (orig.)

  1. Reduction of HCCI combustion noise through piston crown design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    . The largest and most consistent reduction in noise level was however achieved with a diesel bowl type piston. The increased surface area as well as the larger crevice volumes of the experimental piston crowns generally resulted in lower IMEP than the flat piston. While the crevice volumes can be reduced...... away from the engine. The experiments were conducted in a diesel engine that was run in HCCI combustion mode with a fixed quantity of DME as fuel. The results show that combustion knock is effectively suppressed by limiting the size of the volume in which the combustion occurs. Splitting...... the compression volume into four smaller volumes placed between the perimeter of the piston and the cylinder liner increased the noise to a higher level than that generated with a flat piston crown. This was due to resonance between the four volumes. Using eight volumes instead decreased the noise. The noise...

  2. Development of a new reduced hydrogen combustion mechanism with NO_x and parametric study of hydrogen HCCI combustion using stochastic reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Akhil, Nekkanti

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PDF based stochastic reactor model used for study of hydrogen HCCI engine. • New reduced hydrogen combustion mechanism with NOx developed (30 species and 253 reactions). • Mechanism predicts cylinder pressure and captures NO_x emission trend with sufficient accuracy. • Parametric study of hydrogen HCCI engine over wide range of speed and load conditions. • Hydrogen HCCI operating range increases with compression ratio & decreases with engine speed. - Abstract: Hydrogen is a potential alternative and renewable fuel for homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine to achieve higher efficiency and zero emissions of CO, unburned hydrocarbons as well as other greenhouse gases such as CO_2 and CH_4. In this study, a detailed hydrogen oxidation mechanism with NO_x was developed by incorporating additional species and NO_x reactions to the existing hydrogen combustion mechanism (10 species and 40 reactions). The detailed hydrogen combustion mechanism used in this study consists of 39 species and 311 reactions. A reduced mechanism consisting 30 species and 253 reactions was also developed by using directed relation graph (DRG) method from detailed mechanism. Developed mechanisms were validated with experimental data by HCCI engine simulation using stochastic reactor model. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most important reactions in hydrogen combustion and NO_x formation in HCCI engine. Pathway analysis was also performed to analyze the important reaction pathways at different temperatures. Results revealed that H2 + HO2 [=] H + H2O2 and O2 + NNH [=] N2 + HO2 are the most significant reactions in the hydrogen HCCI combustion and NO_x formation respectively. Detailed parametric study of HCCI combustion was conducted using developed chemical kinetic model. Numerical simulations are performed at different engine operating condition by varying engine speed (1000–3000 rpm), intake air temperature (380–460 K), and compression

  3. DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MODELING OF ISO-OCTANE SI-HCCI TRANSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havstad, M A; Aceves, S M; McNenly, M J; Piggott, W T; Edwards, K D; Wagner, R M; Daw, C S; Finney, C A

    2009-10-12

    The authors describe a CHEMKIN-based multi-zone model that simulates the expected combustion variations in a single-cylinder engine fueled with iso-octane as the engine transitions from spark-ignited (ST) combustion to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. The model includes a 63-species reaction mechanism and mass and energy balances for the cylinder and the exhaust flow. For this study they assumed that the SI-to-HCCI transition is implemented by means of increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at constant engine speed. This transition scneario is consistent with that implemented in previously reported experimental measurements on an experimental engine equipped with variable valve actuation. They find that the model captures many of the important experimental trends, including stable SI combustion at low EGR ({approx} 0.10), a transition to highly unstable combustion at intermediate EGR, and finally stable HCCI combustion at very high EGR ({approx} 0.75). Remaining differences between the predicted and experimental instability patterns indicate that there is further room for model improvement.

  4. IFP Energies nouvelles - 2013 Activity Report. 2013 financial report. Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) is a public research and training player. It has an international scope, covering the fields of energy, transport and the environment. From research to industry, technological innovation is central to all its activities. As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFPEN focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the emergence of a sustainable energy mix; - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. IFPEN has proven expertise across the entire value chain, from fundamental research to industrial research and innovation. It is funded both by a state budget and by resources provided by French and foreign international partners. The aim of IFPEN's R and D programs is to overcome existing scientific and technological barriers in order to develop innovations that can be used by industry. Through its research and resulting innovations, IFPEN fosters the economic development of fields related to the energy, transport and eco-industry sectors. In so doing, it also contributes to creating wealth and jobs. IFPEN's innovations are developed industrially through close partnerships with industrial players and IFP Group subsidiaries. In both emerging and mature markets, IFPEN creates companies or acquires stakeholdings in companies of significant potential, either directly or via capital funds. In addition, IFPEN supports the development of SMEs and SMIs as part of collaboration agreements, contributing its technical and legal expertise. Representing over 50 professions, from geological engineers to power-train engineers, IFPEN's employees form a unique body of globally recognized scientific specialists and an unparalleled network of expertise. In order to carry out their research work at the cutting edge of innovation, they have

  5. An optimized chemical kinetic mechanism for HCCI combustion of PRFs using multi-zone model and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshat, Elaheh; Saray, Rahim Khoshbakhti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new chemical kinetic mechanism for PRFs HCCI combustion is developed. • New mechanism optimization is performed using genetic algorithm and multi-zone model. • Engine-related combustion and performance parameters are predicted accurately. • Engine unburned HC and CO emissions are predicted by the model properly. - Abstract: Development of comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanisms is required for HCCI combustion and emissions prediction to be used in engine development. The main purpose of this study is development of a new chemical kinetic mechanism for primary reference fuels (PRFs) HCCI combustion, which can be applied to combustion models to predict in-cylinder pressure and exhaust CO and UHC emissions, accurately. Hence, a multi-zone model is developed for HCCI engine simulation. Two semi-detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms those are suitable for premixed combustion are used for n-heptane and iso-octane HCCI combustion simulation. The iso-octane mechanism contains 84 species and 484 reactions and the n-heptane mechanism contains 57 species and 296 reactions. A simple interaction between iso-octane and n-heptane is considered in new mechanism. The multi-zone model is validated using experimental data for pure n-heptane and iso-octane. A new mechanism is prepared by combination of these two mechanisms for n-heptane and iso-octane blended fuel, which includes 101 species and 594 reactions. New mechanism optimization is performed using genetic algorithm and multi-zone model. Mechanism contains low temperature heat release region, which decreases with increasing octane number. The results showed that the optimized chemical kinetic mechanism is capable of predicting engine-related combustion and performance parameters. Also after implementing the optimized mechanism, engine unburned HC and CO emissions predicted by the model are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data

  6. IFP Energies Nouvelles. 2014 Activity report - Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the emergence of a sustainable energy mix, - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. Despite the current economic environment, 2014 was a good year for IFPEN. In the field of renewable energies, major milestones were reached in two significant projects dedicated to the production of second generation biofuels in which IFPEN is very actively involved: processes developed in Futurol TM are already in the pre-marketing phase, while the construction of the two pilot units for the BioTfueL project has just been launched. In the field of ocean energies, IFPEN research has led to the first partnership agreements relating to floating wind turbines anchor technologies and command control systems for wind energy and wave energy conversion. In the transport sector, game-changing concepts are beginning to emerge, such as smart battery charging and a Rankine cycle system for an internal combustion engine transforming combustion heat into energy. In addition, IFPEN have joined forces with innovative SMEs to boost their research in the fields of electric power-trains and power electronics. Finally, IFPEN launched an eco-driving application that has proved extremely popular with the public. Turning now to oil and gas, IFPEN continued to expand its range of basin and reservoir simulation, modeling and characterization software, and it signed several contracts in the field of chemical enhanced recovery solutions with its EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) Alliance TM partners. IFPEN also developed new generations of high-performance catalysts and improved the conversion rate of its processes to enable refiners to convert increasingly heavy crudes and

  7. Combustion Homogeneity and Emission Analysis during the Transition from CI to HCCI for FACE I Gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2017-10-10

    Low temperature combustion concepts are studied recently to simultaneously reduce NOX and soot emissions. Optical studies are performed to study gasoline PPC in CI engines to investigate in-cylinder combustion and stratification. It is imperative to perform emission measurements and interpret the results with combustion images. In this work, we attempt to investigate this during the transition from CI to HCCI mode for FACE I gasoline (RON = 70) and its surrogate, PRF70. The experiments are performed in a single cylinder optical engine that runs at a speed of 1200 rpm. Considering the safety of engine, testing was done at lower IMEP (3 bar) and combustion is visualized using a high-speed camera through a window in the bottom of the bowl. From the engine experiments, it is clear that intake air temperature requirement is different at various combustion modes to maintain the same combustion phasing. While a fixed intake air temperature is required at HCCI condition, it varies at PPC and CI conditions between FACE I gasoline and PRF70. Three zones are identified 1) SOI = -180 to -80 CAD (aTDC) is HCCI zone 2) SOI = -40 to -20 CAD (aTDC) is PPC zone 3) After SOI = -15 CAD (aTDC) is CI zone. Combustion duration, ignition delay, start of combustion and CA90 (crank angle at which 90% of fuel burnt) are comparable between FACE I gasoline and PRF70. The combustion images show a prominent soot flame at CI condition, while only blue coloured premixed flames are visible at PPC condition for both the fuels. PRF70 seems to have a pronounced premixed effect when compared to FACE I gasoline at early injections, showing a decreased level of stratification. NOX emission and soot concentration decreases from CI condition and attains a constant zero value at HCCI condition for both FACE I gasoline and PRF70. CO and CO2 emissions matches between FACE I gasoline and PRF70 at PPC and CI condition, while CO emission is lower for PRF70 at HCCI condition.

  8. Combustion Homogeneity and Emission Analysis during the Transition from CI to HCCI for FACE I Gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R; An, Yanzhao; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Chang, Junseok; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature combustion concepts are studied recently to simultaneously reduce NOX and soot emissions. Optical studies are performed to study gasoline PPC in CI engines to investigate in-cylinder combustion and stratification. It is imperative to perform emission measurements and interpret the results with combustion images. In this work, we attempt to investigate this during the transition from CI to HCCI mode for FACE I gasoline (RON = 70) and its surrogate, PRF70. The experiments are performed in a single cylinder optical engine that runs at a speed of 1200 rpm. Considering the safety of engine, testing was done at lower IMEP (3 bar) and combustion is visualized using a high-speed camera through a window in the bottom of the bowl. From the engine experiments, it is clear that intake air temperature requirement is different at various combustion modes to maintain the same combustion phasing. While a fixed intake air temperature is required at HCCI condition, it varies at PPC and CI conditions between FACE I gasoline and PRF70. Three zones are identified 1) SOI = -180 to -80 CAD (aTDC) is HCCI zone 2) SOI = -40 to -20 CAD (aTDC) is PPC zone 3) After SOI = -15 CAD (aTDC) is CI zone. Combustion duration, ignition delay, start of combustion and CA90 (crank angle at which 90% of fuel burnt) are comparable between FACE I gasoline and PRF70. The combustion images show a prominent soot flame at CI condition, while only blue coloured premixed flames are visible at PPC condition for both the fuels. PRF70 seems to have a pronounced premixed effect when compared to FACE I gasoline at early injections, showing a decreased level of stratification. NOX emission and soot concentration decreases from CI condition and attains a constant zero value at HCCI condition for both FACE I gasoline and PRF70. CO and CO2 emissions matches between FACE I gasoline and PRF70 at PPC and CI condition, while CO emission is lower for PRF70 at HCCI condition.

  9. Engelhard and IFP/Procatalyse set up worldwide catalysts venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1992-01-01

    The new joint venture between Engelhard (Iselin, N) and Procatalyse (Paris), jointly owned by process licenser Institut Francais de Petrole (IFP; Rueil Malmaison, France) and Rhone-Poulenc (RP; Paris), marks the latest episode in the worldwide catalyst industry's restructuring. The operation will combine Engelhard's catalyst line, apart from its fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and emission catalysts, with Procatalyse's offering. To be launched at the beginning of 1993, the venture will have annual sales of about $75 million. Reforming catalysts will be the biggest part of the venture's lineup at the outset, making it number three in the US, behind UOP - which dominates the sector - and Criterion. IFP is starting to establish a presence in North America with its reforming technology. But flat gasoline demand and reductions on aromatics in gasoline limit requirements for new reforming units, comments one competitor. Although lower sulfur specifications are putting some new demand into the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst market, both partners play down their prospects. The sector, whose leaders are Akzo and Crtierion, is continuing to suffer from severe overcapacity. Procatalyse's HDS business is mainly linked to IFP licensees, while Engelhard is due to mothball its Salt Lake City HDS catalyst plant by year-end, transferring output to Elyria

  10. A parametric investigation of hydrogen hcci combustion using a multi-zone model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komninos, N.P.; Hountalas, D.T.; Rakopoulos, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of various operating variables of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine fueled with hydrogen, using a multi-zone model developed by the authors. The multi-zone model consists of zones, which are allotted spatial locations within the combustion chamber. The model takes into account heat transfer between the zones and the combustion chamber walls, providing a spatial temperature distribution during the closed part of the engine cycle, i.e. compression, combustion and expansion. Mass transfer between zones is also accounted for, based on the geometric configuration of the zones, and includes the flow of mass in and out of the crevice regions, represented by the crevice zone. Combustion is incorporated using chemical kinetics based on a chemical reaction mechanism for the oxidation of hydrogen. This chemical reaction mechanism also includes the reactions for nitrogen oxides formation. Using the multi-zone model a parametric investigation is conducted, in order to determine the effect of engine speed, equivalence ratio, compression ratio, inlet pressure and inlet temperature, on the performance, combustion characteristics and emissions of an HCCI engine fueled with hydrogen

  11. The effect of the composition of hydrocarbon streams on physical properties and HCCI combustion performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieleciak, R. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    Advanced combustion engines have been developed in tandem with evolving fuels and combustion strategies. Advanced analytical methods such as NMR and two dimensional gas chromatography (2D-GC) are also becoming both more powerful and easier to use. Statistical analysis can be used to link the very complex fuel analysis data sets from these methods to fuel chemistry, fuel properties and engine performance. This poster highlighted a study that applied an advanced statistical analysis technique to 2D-GC data for 17 oil sands derived fuels and correlated results to measured fuel chemical/physical properties, and then to HCCI engine performance. In the HCCI mode, ignition occurs by compression of the homogeneous fuel/air mixture. Advanced combustion strategies must satisfy the need for high efficiency, low emissions, and drivability. The 2D-GC was shown to be an emerging analytical technique which separates compounds in fuels to enable the identification of individual compounds and group compounds by chemistry and boiling points. The Q(2d)RPR technique allows correlations to be developed between the 2D-GC data and fuel chemical / physical properties and engine performance data. tabs., figs.

  12. Biodegradation of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2173

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, E.

    2008-10-01

    Compounds such as 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN) are added to diesel fuel to improve ignition and boost cetane number. The production of 2-EHN reaches around 100000 tons per year in France, principally. Risks associated to its utilization are however poorly known because, in case of accidental release in the environment, nothing is known about its biodegradation. In this study, we aimed at (i) identifying bacterial strains able to degrade 2-EHN and compare their capabilities, (ii) elucidating the degradation pathway, and (iii) identifying the enzymes involved. Biodegradation of 2-EHN was first tested in biphasic cultures under conditions that reduce the toxicity and increase the availability of the hydrophobic substrate. Using optimized culture conditions, we showed that several strains of Mycobacterium austroafricanum were able to degrade 2-EHN. One of the most efficient strain (IFP 2173) which could grow at 2-EHN concentrations up to 6 g.L -1 , was chosen to investigate the degradation pathway. On the basis of carbon balance determination and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis on the culture medium, I found that the degradation of 2-EHN was incomplete and gave rise to the accumulation of a metabolite. This metabolite was identified as β-methyl-γ-butyrolactone by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The structure of the lactone indicated that 2-EHN was degraded through a pathway involving the hydroxylation of the methyl group of the main carbon chain, its oxidation into aldehyde an acid and a subsequent cycle of b-oxidation. Enzymes involved in the 2-EHN biodegradation pathway were looked for by a proteomic approach. Analyses by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that, when exposed to 2-EHN, strain IFP 2173 triggered the synthesis of a bunch of enzymes specialized in fatty acid metabolism such as β-oxidation enzymes, as well as alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. An exhaustive analysis of the IFP 2173 proteome resulted in the identification of more than 200

  13. Blending Behavior of Ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A Gasoline in HCCI Combustion Mmode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer

    2017-09-04

    The blending of ethanol with PRF (Primary reference fuel) 84 was investigated and compared with FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) A gasoline surrogate which has a RON of 83.9. Previously, experiments were performed at four HCCI conditions but the chemical effect responsible for the non-linear blending behavior of ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A was not understood. Hence, in this study the experimental measurements were simulated using zero-dimensional HCCI engine model with detailed chemistry in CHEMKIN PRO. Ethanol was used as an octane booster for the above two base fuels in volume concentration of 0%, 2%, 5% and 10%. The geometrical data and the intake valve closure conditions were used to match the simulated combustion phasing with the experiments. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) was detected by performing heat release analysis. LTHR formation depended on the base fuel type and the engine operating conditions suggesting that the base fuel composition has an important role in the formation of LTHR. The effect of ethanol on LTHR was explained by low temperature chemistry reactions and OH/HO evolution. A strong correlation of low temperature oxidation reactions of base fuels with ethanol was found to be responsible for the observed blending effects.

  14. Biodegradation of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2173; Biodegradation du 2-ethylhexyl nitrate par Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2173

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, E

    2008-10-15

    Compounds such as 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN) are added to diesel fuel to improve ignition and boost cetane number. The production of 2-EHN reaches around 100000 tons per year in France, principally. Risks associated to its utilization are however poorly known because, in case of accidental release in the environment, nothing is known about its biodegradation. In this study, we aimed at (i) identifying bacterial strains able to degrade 2-EHN and compare their capabilities, (ii) elucidating the degradation pathway, and (iii) identifying the enzymes involved. Biodegradation of 2-EHN was first tested in biphasic cultures under conditions that reduce the toxicity and increase the availability of the hydrophobic substrate. Using optimized culture conditions, we showed that several strains of Mycobacterium austroafricanum were able to degrade 2-EHN. One of the most efficient strain (IFP 2173) which could grow at 2-EHN concentrations up to 6 g.L{sup -1}, was chosen to investigate the degradation pathway. On the basis of carbon balance determination and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis on the culture medium, I found that the degradation of 2-EHN was incomplete and gave rise to the accumulation of a metabolite. This metabolite was identified as {beta}-methyl-{gamma}-butyrolactone by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The structure of the lactone indicated that 2-EHN was degraded through a pathway involving the hydroxylation of the methyl group of the main carbon chain, its oxidation into aldehyde an acid and a subsequent cycle of b-oxidation. Enzymes involved in the 2-EHN biodegradation pathway were looked for by a proteomic approach. Analyses by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that, when exposed to 2-EHN, strain IFP 2173 triggered the synthesis of a bunch of enzymes specialized in fatty acid metabolism such as {beta}-oxidation enzymes, as well as alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. An exhaustive analysis of the IFP 2173 proteome resulted in the identification of

  15. Capturing and storing CO2 to combat the greenhouse effect. What IFP is doing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The growing awareness of the international community and the convergence of the scientific data concerning climate change make it urgent to deploy, throughout the world, technologies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Indeed, the growth of the world energy demand will prevent any rapid reduction of the use of fossil fuels - oil, natural gas, and coal - that are the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions. To reconcile the use of these resources with control of the emissions responsible for global warming, the capture and storage of CO 2 are a very promising approach; the economic and industrial stakes are high. To meet the objective of reducing CO 2 emissions, IFP is exploring three approaches: The first approach is to reduce energy consumption by improving the efficiency of energy converters, in particular internal combustion engines. A second approach is to reduce the carbon content of energy by favoring the use of natural gas or by incorporating in the fuel recycled carbon (biofuels and synfuels) and by developing hydrogen as an energy carrier. The third approach is to capture the CO 2 from industrial processes used for electricity, steel, and cement production, which emit it in large quantities, then store it underground so as to keep it out of the atmosphere. This approach for reducing the CO 2 emissions consists in capturing the CO 2 (Post-combustion, oxy-combustion), transporting it to the place of storage, then injecting it underground to store it. Storage sites are selected and evaluated prior to injection in order to estimate the injectivity, the propagation of CO 2 in the subsoil and the impact of geochemical and geomechanical transformations on the tightness of the overburden and of the injection well. The injection phase is followed by a phase of monitoring to ensure the safety and long-term viability of CO 2 storage facilities. IFP, through the research it is conducting either alone or in partnership with universities, research centers, and the

  16. EPA/IFP EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE EMISSION ON NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increas...

  17. Examining Methods to Reduce Wall-Wetting under HCCI conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Erp, D.D.T.M.

    2009-01-15

    HCCI engines (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) are very promising in the reduction of soot and NOx, but several problems must be tackled. Collision of the liquid fuel spray against the cylinder wall (Wall-wetting) is a major problem. Low gas temperatures and low gas densities (typical 600 - 800 K and 5 - 7.4 kg/m{sup 3}) at the moment of the fuel injection slow down the evaporation process of the liquid fuel in the spray and causes wall-wetting. This report investigates different promising measures that can reduce the penetration of the liquid fuel core, in order to prevent wall-wetting. From literature it turns out that the measures, listed below, are the most promising for liquid core length (LL) reduction without changing the design of the injector or the engine design: Increasing the fuel temperature, Changing the fuel pressure, Decrease of injector hole diameter, Multiple injections (first very short injections are examined). Each of the measures will be investigated by a liquid length prediction model (Siebers) and in an experimental setup, the EHPC (Eindhoven High Pressure Cell). A high pressure vessel with optical access makes it possible to visualize the liquid core and the vapor phase of the fuel spray by Mie and Schlieren, respectively. Changes to the setup are made to heat up the fuel up to 120C. Furthermore, changes to the fuel spray visualization techniques have been made. Where in previous experiments the Mie and Schlieren techniques were carried out separately from each other, in this work both visualization techniques are combined to save measurement time and to deal with the same experimental conditions. The combined recording of Mie and Schlieren works well for high gas temperatures and densities. But the combined technique fails for low gas temperatures and densities (below 700K and 7.4 kg/m3), due to the poor contrast between the liquid core and the vapor phase. In further examination of liquid length reducing measures, only the Mie

  18. Update on Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay Keller; Gurpreet Singh

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Recent experimental results of diesel combustion research will be discussed and a description will be given of our HCCI experimental program and of our HCCI modeling work

  19. A numerical study of HCCI combustion of PRF mixtures compared with PCCI experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wijngaarden, B.

    2008-09-15

    For automotive applications engines that produce less soot and NOx are desired. For that reason the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) principle is investigated all over the world, including the technical universities of Berlin (TUB) and Eindhoven. HCCI combines a homogeneous charge, as in an Otto engine with the autoignition principle of a Diesel engine. Auto-ignition and almost instantaneous combustion of a homogeneous charge leads to almost zero soot emissions, lower temperatures and thereby much lower NOx emissions. Auto-ignition timing however, depends on the fuel and its chemistry, which is very sensitive to the applied conditions, being pressure, temperature, equivalence ratio ({phi}), dilution with EGR and engine speed. To study this systematically a 0D model with PRF fuels is used (Primary Reference Fuels are n-heptane, iso-octane and mixtures). A 0D model is chosen because it excludes complex fluid dynamics and thereby allows the use of detailed combustion mechanisms, describing the (PRF) chemistry. Furthermore the model has a multi zone possibility to evaluate in-homogeneities of the charge. PRF fuels are used because n-heptane (CN=55) auto-ignites like a diesel and iso-octane (ON=100) approaches gasoline. For the PRF chemistry three combustion mechanisms were selected, of which two were validated showing a great difference in predicted ignition delay and sensitivity to changes. Furthermore the model was validated with a PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) experiment. Extensive comparisons with PCCI experiments from the TUB showed that when the moment of injection was used to launch the chemistry in the model, only the Soyhan mechanism predicted the ignition close to the experimental ignition moment. Furthermore a 7 zone model was able to approach the experimental CO and NOX emissions. Finally none of the mechanisms was able to predict a pressure profile similar to the experiments. More zones and or a better mechanism could improve

  20. Blending Octane Number of Toluene with Gasoline-like and PRF Fuels in HCCI Combustion Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer

    2018-04-03

    Future internal combustion engines demand higher efficiency but progression towards this is limited by the phenomenon called knock. A possible solution for reaching high efficiency is Octane-on-Demand (OoD), which allows to customize the antiknock quality of a fuel through blending of high-octane fuel with a low octane fuel. Previous studies on Octane-on-Demand highlighted efficiency benefits depending on the combination of low octane fuel with high octane booster. The author recently published works with ethanol and methanol as high-octane fuels. The results of this work showed that the composition and octane number of the low octane fuel is significant for the blending octane number of both ethanol and methanol. This work focuses on toluene as the high octane fuel (RON 120). Aromatics offers anti-knock quality and with high octane number than alcohols, this work will address if toluene can provide higher octane enhancement. Our aim is to investigate the impact of three gasoline-like fuels and two Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). More specifically, fuels are FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) I, FACE J, FACE A, PRF 70 and PRF 84. A CFR engine was used to conduct the experiments in HCCI mode. For this combustion mode, the engine operated at four specific conditions based on RON and MON conditions. The octane numbers corresponding to four HCCI numbers were obtained for toluene concentration of 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Results show that the blending octane number of toluene varies non-linearly and linearly with the increase in toluene concentration depending on the base fuel, experimental conditions and the concentration of toluene. As a result, the blending octane number can range from close to 150 with a small fraction of toluene to a number closer to that of toluene, 120, with larger fractions.

  1. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  2. Naphtha vs. dieseline – The effect of fuel properties on combustion homogeneity in transition from CI combustion towards HCCI

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2018-03-20

    The scope of this research study pertains to compare the combustion and emission behavior between naphtha and dieseline at different combustion modes. In this study, US dieseline (50% US diesel + 50% RON 91 gasoline) and EU dieseline (45% EU diesel + 55% RON 97 gasoline) with derived cetane number (DCN) of 36 are selected for experimentation in an optical engine. Besides naphtha and dieseline, PRF60 is also tested as a surrogate fuel for naphtha. For the reported fuel with same RON = 60, the effect of physical properties on combustion homogeneity when moving from homogenized charge compression ignition (HCCI) to compression ignition (CI) combustion is studied.The combustion phasing of naphtha at an intake air temperature of 95 °C is taken as the baseline data. The engine experimental results show that higher and lower intake air temperature is required for dieseline mixtures to have same combustion phasing as that of naphtha at HCCI and CI conditions due to the difference in the physical properties. Especially at HCCI mode, due to wider distillation range of dieseline, the evaporation of the fuel is affected so that the gas phase mixture becomes too lean to auto-ignite. However, at partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions, all test fuels required almost same intake air temperature to match up with the combustion phasing of baseline naphtha. From the rate of heat release and combustion images, it was found that naphtha and PRF60 showed improved premixed combustion when compared dieseline mixtures. The stratification analysis shows that combustion is more stratified for dieseline whereas it is premixed for naphtha and PRF60. The level of stratification linked with soot emission showed that soot concentration is higher at stratified CI combustion whereas near zero soot emissions were noted at PPC mode.

  3. The development and experimental validation of a reduced ternary kinetic mechanism for the auto-ignition at HCCI conditions, proposing a global reaction path for ternary gasoline surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon; Amouroux, Jacques [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    To acquire a high amount of information of the behaviour of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) auto-ignition process, a reduced surrogate mechanism has been composed out of reduced n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene mechanisms, containing 62 reactions and 49 species. This mechanism has been validated numerically in a 0D HCCI engine code against more detailed mechanisms (inlet temperature varying from 290 to 500 K, the equivalence ratio from 0.2 to 0.7 and the compression ratio from 8 to 18) and experimentally against experimental shock tube and rapid compression machine data from the literature at pressures between 9 and 55 bar and temperatures between 700 and 1400 K for several fuels: the pure compounds n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene as well as binary and ternary mixtures of these compounds. For this validation, stoichiometric mixtures and mixtures with an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are used. The experimental validation is extended by comparing the surrogate mechanism to experimental data from an HCCI engine. A global reaction pathway is proposed for the auto-ignition of a surrogate gasoline, using the surrogate mechanism, in order to show the interactions that the three compounds can have with one another during the auto-ignition of a ternary mixture. (author)

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of ion signals in boosted HCCI combustion using cesium and potassium acetate additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J. Hunter; Butt, Ryan H.; Chen, Yulin; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Dibble, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HCCI engine experiments show that CsOAc and KOAc additives increased the ion SNR. • The ion signal is more apparent at higher equivalence ratios. • An increase in intake pressure produces a decrease in the ion signal. • Use of metal acetates as additives yielded reductions in IMEP g and maximum ROHR. • A numerical model predicted peak ion signal, CA50, and p intake dependence. - Abstract: A sparkplug ion sensor can be used to measure the ion current in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, providing insight into the ion chemistry inside the cylinders during combustion. HCCI engines typically operate at lean equivalence ratios (ϕ) at which the ion current becomes increasingly indistinguishable from background noise. This paper investigates the effect of fuel additives on the ion signal at low equivalence ratios, determines side effects of metal acetate addition, and validates numerical model for ionization chemistry. Cesium acetate (CsOAc) and potassium acetate (KOAc) were used as additives to ethanol as the primary fuel. Concentration levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/L of metal acetate-in-ethanol are investigated at equivalence ratios of 0.08, 0.20, and 0.30. The engine experiments were conducted at a boosted intake pressure of 1.8 bar absolute and compared to naturally aspirated results. Combustion timing was maintained at 2.5° after top-dead-center (ATDC), as defined by the crank angle degree (CAD) where 50% of the cumulative heat release occurs (CA50). CsOAc consistently produced the strongest ion signals at all conditions when compared to KOAc. The ion signal was found to decrease with increased intake pressure; an increase in the additive concentration increased the ion signal for all cases. However, the addition of the metal acetates decreased the gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP g ), maximum rate of heat release (ROHR), and peak cylinder pressure. Experimental results were used to validate ion chemistry

  5. Comparison of Gasoline and Primary Reference Fuel in the Transition from HCCI to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changle; Tunestal, Per; Tuner, Martin; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    Our previous research investigated the sensitivity of combustion phasing to intake temperature and injection timing during the transition from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to partially premixed combustion (PPC) fuelled with generic

  6. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included

  7. Abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions: IFP's solutions; Reduction des emissions de CO{sub 2}: les solutions IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In a context of increasing energy consumption and world economic growth, the fight against greenhouse gases has become a major technological challenge for the coming years. The capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the underground is a promising solution in terms of environmental impact, especially in places and sectors characterized by a strong concentration of CO{sub 2} emissions (power generation plants, big industries). However, such a solution requires important R and D efforts to reduce the costs and warrant the long-term reliability of the storage. The French institute of petroleum (IFP) will play an important role in the implementation of the geological sequestration. This press kit comprises 7 documents: a press release from November 4, 2003; a press conference with a series of slides presenting the stakes, solutions and actions proposed by the IFP in collaboration with several foreign partners (CO{sub 2} capture, storage in depleted hydrocarbon deposits, saline aquifers or abandoned coal seams, storage potential, reduction of costs); a summary of the stakes and solutions for CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep underground; a similar document presented at the Panorama 2003 colloquium; the CO{sub 2} constraint in France and in Europe (international consensus on climatic change, Kyoto protocol, European directive about tradable carbon permits, voluntary commitment of companies in the fight against greenhouse effects (AERES)); the European project Castor (CO{sub 2} from capture to storage); and the IFP brochure 'innovating for a sustainable development in the energy domain'. (J.S.)

  8. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  9. The Low Load Limit of Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) - Experiments in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Borgqvist, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The decreasing oil supply, more stringent pollutant legislations and strong focus on decreasing carbon dioxide emissions drives the research of more efficient and clean combustion engines. One such combustion engine concept is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) which potentially achieves high efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions. One practical realization of HCCI in SI engines is to use a variable valve train to trap hot residual gases in order to increase the temperature of ...

  10. Numerical modeling on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion engine fueled by diesel-ethanol blends

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafi H.; Hasan M.M; Rahman M.M; Noor M.M; Kadirgama K.; Ramasamy D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engines fueled with oxygenated fuels (ethanol blend). A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of ethanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine fueled by diesel. One dimensional simulation was conducted using the renowned commercial software for diesel and its blend fuels with 5% (E5) and 10% ethanol (E10) (in vo...

  11. R and D status of high-current accelerators at IFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, J. J.; Shi, J. S.; Xie, W. P.

    2011-01-01

    High-current accelerators have many important applications in Z-pinches, high-power microwaves, and free electron lasers, imploding liners and radiography and so on. Research activities on Z-pinches, imploding liners, radiography at the Institute of Fluid Physics (IFP) are introduced. Several main high-current accelerators developed and being developed at IFP are described, such as the Linear Induction Accelerator X-Ray Facility Upgrade (LIAXFU, 12 MeV, 2.5 kA, 90 ns), the Dragon-I linear induction accelerator (20 MeV, 2.5 kA, 60 ns), and the Primary Test Stand for Z-pinch (PTS, 10 MA, 120 ns). The design of Dragon-II linear induction accelerator (20 MeV, 2.5 kA, 3 x 60 ns) to be built will be presented briefly.

  12. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  13. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  14. A Study on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Gasoline Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Makoto; Morikawa, Koji; Itoh, Jin; Saishu, Youhei

    A new engine concept consisting of HCCI combustion for low and midrange loads and spark ignition combustion for high loads was introduced. The timing of the intake valve closing was adjusted to alter the negative valve overlap and effective compression ratio to provide suitable HCCI conditions. The effect of mixture formation on auto-ignition was also investigated using a direct injection engine. As a result, HCCI combustion was achieved with a relatively low compression ratio when the intake air was heated by internal EGR. The resulting combustion was at a high thermal efficiency, comparable to that of modern diesel engines, and produced almost no NOx emissions or smoke. The mixture stratification increased the local A/F concentration, resulting in higher reactivity. A wide range of combustible A/F ratios was used to control the compression ignition timing. Photographs showed that the flame filled the entire chamber during combustion, reducing both emissions and fuel consumption.

  15. A review of fission gas release data within the Nea/IAEA IFPE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.; Menut, P.; Sartori, E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the International Fuel Performance Experimental (IFPE) database on nuclear fuel performance. The aim of the project is to provide a comprehensive and well-qualified database on Zr clad UO 2 fuel for model development and code validation in the public domain. The data encompass both normal and off-normal operation and include prototypic commercial irradiations as well as experiments performed in material testing reactors. To date, the database contains some 380 individual cases, the majority of which provide data on FGR either from in-pile pressure measurements or PIE techniques including puncturing, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements. The paper outlines parameters affecting fission gas release and highlights individual datasets addressing these issues. (authors)

  16. Capturing and storing CO{sub 2} to combat the greenhouse effect. What IFP is doing; Capter et stocker le CO{sub 2} pour lutter contre l'effet de serre. L'action de l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The growing awareness of the international community and the convergence of the scientific data concerning climate change make it urgent to deploy, throughout the world, technologies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Indeed, the growth of the world energy demand will prevent any rapid reduction of the use of fossil fuels - oil, natural gas, and coal - that are the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions. To reconcile the use of these resources with control of the emissions responsible for global warming, the capture and storage of CO{sub 2} are a very promising approach; the economic and industrial stakes are high. To meet the objective of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, IFP is exploring three approaches: The first approach is to reduce energy consumption by improving the efficiency of energy converters, in particular internal combustion engines. A second approach is to reduce the carbon content of energy by favoring the use of natural gas or by incorporating in the fuel recycled carbon (biofuels and synfuels) and by developing hydrogen as an energy carrier. The third approach is to capture the CO{sub 2} from industrial processes used for electricity, steel, and cement production, which emit it in large quantities, then store it underground so as to keep it out of the atmosphere. This approach for reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions consists in capturing the CO{sub 2} (Post-combustion, oxy-combustion), transporting it to the place of storage, then injecting it underground to store it. Storage sites are selected and evaluated prior to injection in order to estimate the injectivity, the propagation of CO{sub 2} in the subsoil and the impact of geochemical and geomechanical transformations on the tightness of the overburden and of the injection well. The injection phase is followed by a phase of monitoring to ensure the safety and long-term viability of CO{sub 2} storage facilities. IFP, through the research it is conducting either alone or in partnership with

  17. Comparison of Gasoline and Primary Reference Fuel in the Transition from HCCI to PPC

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changle

    2017-10-10

    Our previous research investigated the sensitivity of combustion phasing to intake temperature and injection timing during the transition from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to partially premixed combustion (PPC) fuelled with generic gasoline. The results directed particular attention to the relationship between intake temperature and combustion phasing which reflected the changing of stratification level with the injection timing. To confirm its applicability with the use of different fuels, and to investigate the effect of fuel properties on stratification formation, primary reference fuels (PRF) were tested using the same method: a start of injection sweep from -180° to -20° after top dead center with constant combustion phasing by tuning the intake temperature. The present results are further developed compared with those of our previous work, which were based on generic gasoline. In the present work, a three-stage fuel-air stratification development process was observed during the transition from HCCI to PPC. Moreover, a transition stage was observed between the HCCI and PPC stages. Within this transition stage, both the combustion and emission characteristics deteriorated. The allocation of this transition area was mainly determined by the geometric design of the fuel injector and combustion chamber. Some differences in charge stratification were observed between the PRF and gasoline. The NO emissions of the PRF were comparable to those of gasoline. However, the NO emissions surged during the transition stage, indicating that the PRF combustion was probably more stratified. The soot emissions from PRF and gasoline were both much higher in the PPC than the HCCI mode, though the PRF produced much less soot than did gasoline in the PPC mode.

  18. Analysis of fuel centre temperatures and fission gas release data from the IFPE Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, A.; Lassmann, K.; Van Uffelen, P.; Van de Laar, J.; Elenkov, D.; Asenov, S.; Boneva, S.; Djourelov, N.; Georgieva, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present work has continued the analysis of fuel centre temperatures and fission gas release, calculated with standard options of the TRANSURANUS code. The calculations are compared to experimental data from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database. It is reported an analysis regarding UO 2 fuel for Western-type reactors: Fuel centre temperatures measured in the experiments Contact 1 and Contact 2 (in-pile tests of 2 rods performed at the Siloe reactor in Grenoble, France, closely simulating commercial PWR conditions); Fission gas release data derived from post-irradiation examinations of 9 fuel rods belonging to the High-Burnup Effects Programme, task 3 (HBEP3). The results allow for a comparison of predictions by TRANSURANUS for the mentioned Western-type fuels with those done previously for Russian-type WWER fuel. The comparison has been extended to include fuel centre temperatures as well as fission gas release. The present version of TRANSURANUS includes a model that calculates the production of Helium. The amount of produced Helium is compared to the measured and to the calculated release of the fission gases Xenon and Krypton

  19. A turbulent time scale based k–ε model for probability density function modeling of turbulence/chemistry interactions: Application to HCCI combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroteaux, Fadila; Pommier, Pierre-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Turbulent time evolution is introduced in stochastic modeling approach. ► The particles number is optimized trough a restricted initial distribution. ► The initial distribution amplitude is modeled by magnitude of turbulence field. -- Abstract: Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine technology is known as an alternative to reduce NO x and particulate matter (PM) emissions. As shown by several experimental studies published in the literature, the ideally homogeneous mixture charge becomes stratified in composition and temperature, and turbulent mixing is found to play an important role in controlling the combustion progress. In a previous study, an IEM model (Interaction by Exchange with the Mean) has been used to describe the micromixing in a stochastic reactor model that simulates the HCCI process. The IEM model is a deterministic model, based on the principle that the scalar value approaches the mean value over the entire volume with a characteristic mixing time. In this previous model, the turbulent time scale was treated as a fixed parameter. The present study focuses on the development of a micro-mixing time model, in order to take into account the physical phenomena it stands for. For that purpose, a (k–ε) model is used to express this micro-mixing time model. The turbulence model used here is based on zero dimensional energy cascade applied during the compression and the expansion cycle; mean kinetic energy is converted to turbulent kinetic energy. Turbulent kinetic energy is converted to heat through viscous dissipation. Besides, in this study a relation to calculate the initial heterogeneities amplitude is proposed. The comparison of simulation results against experimental data shows overall satisfactory agreement at variable turbulent time scale

  20. Emission Characteristics for a Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Split Injection Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the serious issues caused by air pollution and global warming, emission regulations are becoming stricter. New technologies that reduce NOx and PM emissions are needed. To cope with these social exhaust gas regulation demands, many advanced countries are striving to develop eco-friendly vehicles in order to respond to stricter emissions regulations. The homogeneous charged compression ignition engine (HCCI incorporates a multi-stage combustion engine with multiple combustion modes, catalyst, direct fuel injection and partial mixing combustion. In this study, the HCCI combustion was applied to analyze and review the results of engines applying HCCI combustion without altering the conventional engine specifications. The optimization of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio changes provides an optimal fuel economy. In this study, potential for optimum economy within the range of IMEP 0.8 MPa has been evaluated.

  1. Experimental data on PCI and PCMI within the IFPE data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.C.; Sartori, E.; Turnbull, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Following the conclusions reached at the end of the FUMEX-I code comparison exercise, the International Fuel Performance Experimental Database (IFPE) gave priority to collecting and assembling data sets addressing: thermal performance, fission gas release and pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI). The data available that address the last topic are the subject of the current paper. The data on mechanical interaction in fuel rods fall into three broad categories: - Fuel rod diameter changes caused by periods spent at higher than normal power. - The result of power ramp testing to define a failure threshold. - Single effects studies to measure changes in gaseous porosity causing fuel swelling during controlled test conditions. In the first category, the fuel remained un-failed at the end of the test and the resulting permanent clad strain was due to PCMI caused by thermal expansion of the pellet and gaseous fuel swelling. Some excellent data in this category come from the last two Riso Fission Gas Release projects. The second category, namely, failure by pellet-clad interaction (PCI) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) involves the simultaneous imposition of stress and the availability of corrosive fission products. A comprehensive list of tests carried out in the Swedish Studsvik reactor is included in the database. The third category is a recent acquisition to the database and comprises data on fuel swelling obtained from ramp tests on AGR fuel and carried out in the Halden BWR. This data set contains a wealth of well-qualified data which are invaluable for the development and validation of fuel swelling models. (authors)

  2. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables

  3. How to increase and renew the oil and gas reserves? Technology advances and research strategy of IFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Technology progresses made to reach new oil and gas resources (heavy crudes, buried deposits, ultra-deep offshore), to better exploit the available reserves (increase of the recovery ratio) and to reduce the costs will allow to enhance the hydrocarbon reserves and to durably extend the limits of the world energy supply. In a context where geopolitical uncertainties, high price rates and pessimistic declarations increase once again the public fear about petroleum reserves, the French institute of petroleum (IFP) wanted to make a status about the essential role that technology can play in this challenge. This document gathers the transparencies and articles presented at this press conference: how to increase and renew oil and gas reserves, technology advances and research strategy of IFP (O. Appert, J. Lecourtier, G. Fries); how to enhance oil recovery from deposits (primary, secondary and tertiary recovery: polymers injection, CO 2 injection, steam injection, in-situ oxidation and combustion, reservoir modeling, monitoring of uncertainties); the heavy crudes (the Orenoque extra-heavy oil, the tar sands of Alberta, the heavy and extra-heavy crudes of Canada, IFP's research); ultra-deep offshore (the weight challenge: mooring lines and risers, the temperature challenge: paraffins and hydrates deposition, immersion of the treatment unit: economical profitability of satellite fields); fields buried beyond 5000 m (technological challenges: seismic surveys, drilling equipment, well logging, drilling mud; prospects of these fields); oil reserves: data that change with technique and economy (proven, probable and possible reserves, proven and declared reserves, three converging evaluations about the world proven reserves, reserves to be discovered, non-conventional petroleum resources, technical progress and oil prices, production depletion at the end of the century). (J.S.)

  4. Synthesis of the objectives contract 2006-2010 between the State and the IFP. Innovate for a controlled energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IFP, French Institute of Petroleum, is a public organization of research and formation at the service of the energy, the transport and the environment. It assures the technology transfer between fundamental research, applied research and the industrial development. The contract for 2006-2010 presents three major structural evolutions: the increase development of the new technologies of the energy; a new equilibrium in favor of the downstream researches and more particularly the transports, the increase of the industry competitiveness in the hydrocarbons sector and the automobiles. (A.L.B.)

  5. The relevance of the IFPE Database to the modelling of WWER-type fuel behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.; Sartori, E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the International Fuel Performance Experimental Database (IFPE Database) is to provide, in the public domain, a comprehensive and well-qualified database on zircaloy-clad UO 2 fuel for model development and code validation. The data encompass both normal and off-normal operation and include prototypic commercial irradiations as well as experiments performed in Material Testing Reactors. To date, the Database contains over 800 individual cases, providing data on fuel centreline temperatures, dimensional changes and FGR either from in-pile pressure measurements or PIE techniques, including puncturing, Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) measurements. This work in assembling and disseminating the Database is carried out in close co-operation and co-ordination between OECD/NEA and the IAEA. The majority of data sets are dedicated to fuel behaviour under LWR irradiation, and every effort has been made to obtain data representative of BWR, PWR and WWER conditions. In each case, the data set contains information on the pre-characterisation of the fuel, cladding and fuel rod geometry, the irradiation history presented in as much detail as the source documents allow, and finally any in-pile or PIE measurements that were made. The purpose of this paper is to highlight data that are relevant specifically to WWER application. To this end, the NEA and IAEA have been successful in obtaining appropriate data for both WWER-440 and WWER-1000-type reactors. These are: 1) Twelve (12) rods from the Finnish-Russian co-operative SOFIT programme; 2) Kola-3 WWER-440 irradiation; 3) MIR ramp tests on Kola-3 rods; 4) Zaporozskaya WWER-1000 irradiation; 5) Novovoronezh WWER-1000 irradiation. Before reviewing these data sets and their usefulness, the paper touches briefly on recent, more novel additions to the Database and on progress made in the use of the Database for the current IAEA FUMEX II Project. Finally, the paper describes the Computer

  6. DNS Study of the Ignition of n-Heptane Fuel Spray under HCCI Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang; Rutland, Christopher J.

    2004-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the mixing and auto-ignition processes of n-heptane fuel spray in a turbulent field using a skeletal chemistry mechanism with 44 species and 112 reactions. For the solution of the carrier gas fluid, we use the Eulerian method, while for the fuel spray, the Lagrangian method is used. We use an eighth-order finite difference scheme to calculate spacial derivatives and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme for the time integration. The initial gas temperature is 926 K and the initial gas pressure is 30 atmospheres. The initial global equivalence ratio based on the fuel concentration is around 0.4. The initial droplet diameter is 60 macrons and the droplet temperature is 300 K. Evolutions of averaged temperature, species mass fraction, heat release and reaction rate are presented. Contours of temperature and species mass fractions are presented. The objective is to understand the mechanism of ignition under Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) conditions, aiming at providing some useful information of HCCI combustion, which is one of the critical issues to be resolved.

  7. Auto-Ignition of Iso-Stoichiometric Blends of Gasoline-Ethanol-Methanol (GEM) in SI, HCCI and CI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad

    2017-03-28

    Gasoline-ethanol-methanol (GEM) blends, with constant stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (iso-stoichiometric blending rule) and equivalent to binary gasoline-ethanol blends (E2, E5, E10 and E15 in % vol.), were defined to investigate the effect of methanol and combined mixtures of ethanol and methanol when blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) Gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.2, 73.8 and 83.9, respectively, and their corresponding Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used under Spark Ignition and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited modes. An ignition quality tester was utilized in the Compression Ignition mode. One of the promising properties of GEM blends, which are derived using the iso-stoichiometric blending rule, is that they maintain a constant octane number, which has led to the introduction of methanol as a drop-in fuel to supplement bio-derived ethanol. A constant RON/HCCI fuel number/derived Research octane number property was observed in all three combustion modes for high RON fuels, but for low RON fuels, the iso-stoichiometric blending rule for constant octane number did not appear to be valid. The chemical composition and octane number of the base fuel also influenced the behavior of the GEM blends under different conditions.

  8. Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao; Vallinayagam, R; Vedharaj, S; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release. Soot mass concentration was measured and linked with the combustion stratification and the integrated red channel intensity of the high-speed images for the soot emissions. The nucleation nanoscale particle number and the particle size distribution were sampled to understand the effect of combustion mode switch.

  9. Auto-Ignition of Iso-Stoichiometric Blends of Gasoline-Ethanol-Methanol (GEM) in SI, HCCI and CI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad; Naser, Nimal; Sarathy, Mani; Feijs, Jeroen; Morganti, Kai; Nyrenstedt, Gustav; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    Gasoline-ethanol-methanol (GEM) blends, with constant stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (iso-stoichiometric blending rule) and equivalent to binary gasoline-ethanol blends (E2, E5, E10 and E15 in % vol.), were defined to investigate the effect of methanol and combined mixtures of ethanol and methanol when blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) Gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.2, 73.8 and 83.9, respectively, and their corresponding Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used under Spark Ignition and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited modes. An ignition quality tester was utilized in the Compression Ignition mode. One of the promising properties of GEM blends, which are derived using the iso-stoichiometric blending rule, is that they maintain a constant octane number, which has led to the introduction of methanol as a drop-in fuel to supplement bio-derived ethanol. A constant RON/HCCI fuel number/derived Research octane number property was observed in all three combustion modes for high RON fuels, but for low RON fuels, the iso-stoichiometric blending rule for constant octane number did not appear to be valid. The chemical composition and octane number of the base fuel also influenced the behavior of the GEM blends under different conditions.

  10. Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    An, Yanzhao

    2017-10-10

    In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release. Soot mass concentration was measured and linked with the combustion stratification and the integrated red channel intensity of the high-speed images for the soot emissions. The nucleation nanoscale particle number and the particle size distribution were sampled to understand the effect of combustion mode switch.

  11. Combustion optimization and HCCI modeling for ultra low emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koten, Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Zafer Gul, M. [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels and the rising concerns over the environment it is important to develop new technologies both to reduce energy consumption and pollution at the same time. In the transportation sector, new combustion processes are under development to provide clean diesel combustion with no particulate or NOx emissions. However, these processes have issues such as limited power output, high levels of unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide emissions. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology for optimizing combustion performance. The methodology consists of the use of a multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization tool; homogeneous charge compression ignition engine cases were studied with the ECFM-3Z combustion model. Results showed that injected fuel mass led to a decrease in power output, a finding which is in keeping with previous research. This paper presented on optimization tool which can be useful in improving the combustion process.

  12. Homogeneous charge compression ignition compared with Otto-Atkinson in a passenger car size engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Andreas

    2000-07-01

    The use of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) was investigated in an ordinary SI (spark ignition) engine, in this case a modified Volvo 850, working on one cylinder only, the others towed. The major purpose of this study was to examine whether there were the same kind of throttle losses in this engine as in a Diesel engine (Volvo TD 100). One reason for throttling is that HCCI causes very cold exhaust gases. The Diesel engine has a larger cylinder volume (1.6 compared to 0.5 litre), working at low engine speed (1000 rpm) and only two valves with comparably small area. The smaller Volvo 850 engine has four valves and was in this examination working at up to 3500 rpm. To make the engine run by HCCI following modifications were made. The compression was set to 20:1 by changing the piston. To affect the ignition an electrical heater was installed near the air inlet. Mixing iso-octane (ON 100) and N-heptane (ON 0) set the octane number. A couple of camshafts with different cam-profiles were used to achieve the right valve opening duration depending on which kind of combustion that was studied. There could then also be a comparison between Otto and HCCI combustion both working with wide-open throttle. To obtain comparable indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) the engine was working with late (LIVC) or early inlet valve closing (EIVC) at SI combustion. Measurements were taken involving in-cylinder pressure, temperature, speed, fuel-consumption, emissions etc. Regarding emissions there were special consideration taken to hydrocarbon and NO{sub x}, which are known to be extremely high respectively low with HCCI combustion. Important questions that should be answered were: * How does higher engine speed affect the combustion ?, * How does the engine size affect emissions ?, * How much is the valve area affecting gas exchange losses ?, and * How high is the efficiency with HCCI compared with Otto (LIVC/EIVC) ?. The best results are achieved at an indicated mean

  13. Démonstration du procédé IFP de désulfuration des fumées de centrales Demonstration of the Ifp Stack-Gas Desulfurization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les produits pétroliers et le charbon continueront à couvrir les besoins énergétiques pendant plusieurs décennies. La pollution par le SOZ, provenant de la combustion de ces combustibles fossiles, devient une préoccupation pour la population et les Pouvoirs publics. La désulfuration des fumées de combustion devrait, à plus ou moins longue échéance, se développer. L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, mettant à profit ses travaux dans le domaine de la désulfuration, a développé un procédé de traitement des fumées. L'IFP, en collaboration avec Électricité de France (EDF, a effectué en 1976 une opération de démonstration à une échelle pilote (30 MW dans la Centrale de Champagne-sur-Oise. Le procédé consiste à éliminer le S02 des fumées par lavage avec une solution ammoniacale, à produire du soufre à partir de la liqueur obtenue et à recycler l'ammoniaque dans l'étape de lavage. Après quelques modifications d'ordre technologique, l'unité de démonstration a fonctionné d'une manière continue pendant une période de trois mois, correspondant à l'objectif fixé. Les résultats obtenus permettent, actuellement, d'envisager une application de cette technique à une échelle de 250 MW. Oil and coal productswill continue to fulfill energy needs for several more decades. Pollution by SO2 coming from the combustion of such fossil fuels is becoming a preoccupation for the population and the public authorities. The desulfurization of combustion fumes should continue ta develop in the more or less long run. Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has taken advantage of its research in the fixed of desulfurization to develop a stock-gas treating process. In collaboration with Électricite de Fronce (EDF, IFP carried out a demonsiration operation in 1976 on a pilot-plant scale (30MW in a power plant at Champagne-sur-Oise. The process consists in removing S02 from stock gases by scrubbing them with an ammonia solution

  14. The Eni - IFP/Axens GTL technology. From R and D to a successful scale-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zennaro, R. [Eni S.p.A., Milan (Italy); Hugues, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Lyon (France); Caprani, E. [Axens, Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Proven natural gas reserves had reached about 184 Tscm in 2006 to which 36% is stranded gas far from the final market. Fischer Tropsch based GtL options today represent a viable route to develop such remote gas resources into high quality fuels and specialties. Thus opening different markets for the gas historically linked to the oil. Thanks to R and D successful improvements in the field of catalysis and reactor technology coupled with optimized integration and economies of scale have reduced the investment cost for building a Fischer Tropsch GtL complex. Basically all major Oil and Gas companies are involved in proprietary GtL development, and today several industrial projects have been announced. The most advanced is the Oryx project (QP-Sasol) which has been inaugurated the 6{sup th} of June '06 and currently in the starting up phase. Eni and IFP-Axens have developed a proprietary GtL Fischer-Tropsch and Upgrading technology in a close collaboration between the two groups. The Eni/IFP-Axens technology is based on proprietary catalysts and reactor, designed according to scale-up criteria defined in ten years of R and D activity. Unique large scale hydrodynamic facilities (bubble columns, loops) bench-scale dedicated pilot units, as well as large scale Fischer-Tropsch pilot plant, have been developed and operated to minimize reactor and ancillaries scale-up risks. The large scale Fischer-Tropsch pilot plant has been built and operated since 2001. The plant, located within the Eni refinery of Sannazzaro de' Burgondi (Pavia, Italy) is fully integrated to the refinery utilities and network. It reproduces at 20 bpd scale the overall Fischer Tropsch synthesis section: from slurry handling (loading, make-up, withdrawal), to reactor configuration and products separation units. Today the scale-up basis has been completed and the technology is ready for industrial deployment. (orig.)

  15. Development of an engine system simulation software package - ESIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Olof

    2000-10-01

    A software package, ESIM is developed for simulating internal combustion engine systems, including models for engine, manifolds, turbocharger, charge-air cooler (inter cooler) and inlet air heater. This study focus on the thermodynamic treatment and methods used in the models. It also includes some examples of system simulations made with these models for validation purposes. The engine model can be classified as a zero-dimensional, single zone model. It includes calculation of the valve flow process, models for heat release and models for in-cylinder, exhaust port and manifold heat transfer. Models are developed for handling turbocharger performance and charge air cooler characteristics. The main purpose of the project related to this work is to use the ESIM software to study heat balance and performance of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine systems. A short description of the HCCI engine is therefore included, pointing out the difficulties, or challenges regarding the HCCI engine, from a system perspective. However, the relations given here, and the code itself, is quite general, making it possible to use these models to simulate spark ignited, as well as direct injected engines.

  16. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer; Morganti, Kai; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions. In keeping with previous studies, the degree of this non-linearity is shown to be a function of the base fuel composition and octane number. By contrast, the molar blending approach is shown to behave differently depending on the chosen combustion mode, with some non-linearity observed under HCCI operating conditions (i.e. BON RON or MON of pure ethanol). This suggests that the well-established blending rules for SI operating conditions may not always be relevant to other combustion modes that operate with globally lean or diluted air-fuel mixtures. This has implications for the design of future fuel specifications.

  17. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer

    2017-10-08

    The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions. In keeping with previous studies, the degree of this non-linearity is shown to be a function of the base fuel composition and octane number. By contrast, the molar blending approach is shown to behave differently depending on the chosen combustion mode, with some non-linearity observed under HCCI operating conditions (i.e. BON RON or MON of pure ethanol). This suggests that the well-established blending rules for SI operating conditions may not always be relevant to other combustion modes that operate with globally lean or diluted air-fuel mixtures. This has implications for the design of future fuel specifications.

  18. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis of three different engine combustion regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yaopeng; Jia, Ming; Chang, Yachao; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy distributions of three different combustion regimes are studied. • CDC demonstrates the highest utilization efficiency of heat transfer and exhaust. • HCCI achieves the highest energy and exergy efficiencies over CDC and RCCI. • HCCI and RCCI demonstrate lower exergy destruction than CDC. • Combustion temperature, rate, duration and regime affect exergy destruction. - Abstract: Multi-dimensional models were coupled with a detailed chemical mechanism to investigate the energy and exergy distributions of three different combustion regimes in internal combustion engines. The results indicate that the 50% heat release point (CA50) considerably affects fuel efficiency and ringing intensity (RI), in which RI is used to quantify the knock level. Moreover, the burn duration from the 10% heat release point (CA10) to CA50 dominates RI, and the position of 90% heat release point (CA90) affects fuel efficiency. The heat transfer losses of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) strongly depend on the local temperature gradient, while it is closely related to the heat transfer area for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). Among the three combustion regimes, CDC has the largest utilization efficiency for heat transfer and exhaust energy due to its higher temperature in the heat transfer layer and higher exhaust pressure and temperature. The utilization efficiency of heat transfer and exhaust in RCCI is less affected by the variation of CA50 compared to those in CDC and HCCI. Exergy destruction is closely related to the homogeneity of in-cylinder temperature and equivalence ratio during combustion process, the combustion temperature, the chemical reaction rate, and the combustion duration. Under the combined effect, HCCI and RCCI demonstrate lower exergy destruction than CDC at the same load. Overall, the variations of the exergy distribution for the three combustion regimes

  19. Review of Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert W. Carling; Gurpreet Singh

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine facility is under development. Recent experimental results to be discussed are: the effects of injection timing and diluent addition on late-combustion soot burnout, diesel-spray ignition and premixed-burn behavior, a comparison of the combustion characteristics of M85 (a mixture of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline) and DF2 (No.2 diesel reference fuel), and a description of our HCCI experimental program and modeling work

  20. Catabolism of methyl ter-butyl ether (MTBE): characterization of the enzymes of Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 involved in MTBE degradation; Catabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE): caracterisation des enzymes impliquees dans la degradation du MTBE chez Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferreira, N

    2005-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline to meet the octane index requirement. its solubility in water and its poor biodegradability made the use of MTBE a great environmental concern, particularly regarding aquifers. We previously isolated M austroafricanum IFP 2012 able to use MTBE as a sole source of carbon and energy and the MTBE pathway was partially characterized. In the present study, which aimed at isolating the genes involved in MTBE biodegradation in order to use them for estimation of MTBE biodegradation capacities in contaminated environment, we isolated a new M. austroafricanum strain, IFP 2015. A new degradation intermediate, the 2-methyl 1,2-propane-diol (2-M1,2-PD), the product of tert-butanol (TBA) oxidation, was identified. We also determined the enzymes induced during growth of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 on MTBF. Then, using the tools of protein analysis and of molecular biology, we isolated and cloned the mpd genes cluster in the plasmid pCL4D. Heterologous expression of the recombinant plasmid in M smegmatis tmc2 155, showed the involvement of an 2-M1,2-PD dehydrogenase (MpdB) and a hydroxy-iso-butyr-aldehyde dehydrogenase (MpdC), encoded by mpdB and mpdC, respectively. Both enzymes were responsible for the conversion of 2-M 1,2-PD to hydroxy-isobutyric acid (HIBA). A further survey of different M austroafricanum strains, including IFP 2012, IFP 2015 and JOBS (ex-M vaccae) showed the link between the ability to grow on C{sub 2} to C{sub 16} n-alkanes and the MTBE and TBA degradation capacities. The alkB gene was partially sequenced in all these strains. Expression of alkB was demonstrated in M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 after growth on propane, hexane, hexadecane and TBA. Finally, we identified 2-propanol as the intermediate of HIBA degradation. The gene encoding the 2-propanol:p-N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitroso-aniline (NDMA) oxidoreductase was detected M austroafricanum IFP 2012. (author)

  1. Catabolism of methyl ter-butyl ether (MTBE): characterization of the enzymes of Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 involved in MTBE degradation; Catabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE): caracterisation des enzymes impliquees dans la degradation du MTBE chez Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferreira, N.

    2005-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline to meet the octane index requirement. its solubility in water and its poor biodegradability made the use of MTBE a great environmental concern, particularly regarding aquifers. We previously isolated M austroafricanum IFP 2012 able to use MTBE as a sole source of carbon and energy and the MTBE pathway was partially characterized. In the present study, which aimed at isolating the genes involved in MTBE biodegradation in order to use them for estimation of MTBE biodegradation capacities in contaminated environment, we isolated a new M. austroafricanum strain, IFP 2015. A new degradation intermediate, the 2-methyl 1,2-propane-diol (2-M1,2-PD), the product of tert-butanol (TBA) oxidation, was identified. We also determined the enzymes induced during growth of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 on MTBF. Then, using the tools of protein analysis and of molecular biology, we isolated and cloned the mpd genes cluster in the plasmid pCL4D. Heterologous expression of the recombinant plasmid in M smegmatis tmc2 155, showed the involvement of an 2-M1,2-PD dehydrogenase (MpdB) and a hydroxy-iso-butyr-aldehyde dehydrogenase (MpdC), encoded by mpdB and mpdC, respectively. Both enzymes were responsible for the conversion of 2-M 1,2-PD to hydroxy-isobutyric acid (HIBA). A further survey of different M austroafricanum strains, including IFP 2012, IFP 2015 and JOBS (ex-M vaccae) showed the link between the ability to grow on C{sub 2} to C{sub 16} n-alkanes and the MTBE and TBA degradation capacities. The alkB gene was partially sequenced in all these strains. Expression of alkB was demonstrated in M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 after growth on propane, hexane, hexadecane and TBA. Finally, we identified 2-propanol as the intermediate of HIBA degradation. The gene encoding the 2-propanol:p-N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitroso-aniline (NDMA) oxidoreductase was detected M austroafricanum IFP 2012. (author)

  2. Experimental investigation of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of biodiesel fuel with external mixture formation in a CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, D; Nagarajan, G; Ganesan, S

    2014-01-01

    In parallel to the interest in renewable fuels, there has also been increased interest in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. HCCI engines are being actively developed because they have the potential to be highly efficient and to produce low emissions. Even though HCCI has been researched extensively, few challenges still exist. These include controlling the combustion at higher loads and the formation of a homogeneous mixture. To obtain better homogeneity, in the present investigation external mixture formation method was adopted, in which the fuel vaporiser was used to achieve excellent HCCI combustion in a single cylinder air-cooled direct injection diesel engine. In continuation of our previous works, in the current study a vaporised jatropha methyl ester (JME) was mixed with air to form a homogeneous mixture and inducted into the cylinder during the intake stroke to analyze the combustion, emission and performance characteristics. To control the early ignition of JME vapor-air mixture, cooled (30 °C) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technique was adopted. The experimental result shows 81% reduction in NOx and 72% reduction in smoke emission.

  3. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assanis, Dennis N. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Atreya, Arvind [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chen, Jyh-Yuan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Wai K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dibble, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Edwards, Chris [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Filipi, Zoran S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gerdes, Christian [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Im, Hong [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lavoie, George A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wooldridge, Margaret S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2009-12-31

    The objective of the University consortium was to investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines and develop methods to extend those boundaries to improve the fuel economy of these engines, while operating with ultra low emissions. This work involved studies of thermal effects, thermal transients and engine management, internal mixing and stratification, and direct injection strategies for affecting combustion stability. This work also examined spark-assisted Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and exhaust after-treatment so as to extend the range and maximize the benefit of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/ Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) operation. In summary the overall goals were; Investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines; Develop methods to extend LTC boundaries to improve the fuel economy of HCCI engines fueled on gasoline and alternative blends, while operating with ultra low emissions; and Investigate alternate fuels, ignition and after-treatment for LTC and Partially Premixed compression Ignition (PPCI) engines.

  4. Fundamental Interactions in Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines with Fuel Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Benjamin Matthew

    Transportation accounted for 28% of the total U.S. energy demand in 2011, with 93% of U.S. transportation energy coming from petroleum. The large impact of the transportation sector on global climate change necessitates more-efficient, cleaner-burning internal combustion engine operating strategies. One such strategy that has received substantial research attention in the last decade is Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). Although the efficiency and emissions benefits of HCCI are well established, practical limits on the operating range of HCCI engines have inhibited their application in consumer vehicles. One such limit is at high load, where the pressure rise rate in the combustion chamber becomes excessively large. Fuel stratification is a potential strategy for reducing the maximum pressure rise rate in HCCI engines. The aim is to introduce reactivity gradients through fuel stratification to promote sequential auto-ignition rather than a bulk-ignition, as in the homogeneous case. A gasoline-fueled compression ignition engine with fuel stratification is termed a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine. Although a reasonable amount of experimental research has been performed for fuel stratification in GCI engines, a clear understanding of how the fundamental in-cylinder processes of fuel spray evaporation, mixing, and heat release contribute to the observed phenomena is lacking. Of particular interest is gasoline's pressure sensitive low-temperature chemistry and how it impacts the sequential auto-ignition of the stratified charge. In order to computationally study GCI with fuel stratification using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and chemical kinetics, two reduced mechanisms have been developed. The reduced mechanisms were developed from a large, detailed mechanism with about 1400 species for a 4-component gasoline surrogate. The two versions of the reduced mechanism developed in this work are: (1) a 96-species version and (2

  5. Investigation of split injection in a single cylinder optical diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Rodríguez, Álvaro

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Over the last decade, the diesel engine has made dramatic progress in its performance and market penetration. However, in order to meet future emissions legislations, Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions will need to be reduced simultaneously. Nowadays researchers are focused on different combustion modes like homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and...

  6. Real-time, adaptive machine learning for non-stationary, near chaotic gasoline engine combustion time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam; Bohac, Stanislav V

    2015-10-01

    Fuel efficient Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine combustion timing predictions must contend with non-linear chemistry, non-linear physics, period doubling bifurcation(s), turbulent mixing, model parameters that can drift day-to-day, and air-fuel mixture state information that cannot typically be resolved on a cycle-to-cycle basis, especially during transients. In previous work, an abstract cycle-to-cycle mapping function coupled with ϵ-Support Vector Regression was shown to predict experimentally observed cycle-to-cycle combustion timing over a wide range of engine conditions, despite some of the aforementioned difficulties. The main limitation of the previous approach was that a partially acasual randomly sampled training dataset was used to train proof of concept offline predictions. The objective of this paper is to address this limitation by proposing a new online adaptive Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) extension named Weighted Ring-ELM. This extension enables fully causal combustion timing predictions at randomly chosen engine set points, and is shown to achieve results that are as good as or better than the previous offline method. The broader objective of this approach is to enable a new class of real-time model predictive control strategies for high variability HCCI and, ultimately, to bring HCCI's low engine-out NOx and reduced CO2 emissions to production engines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ozone applied to the homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to control alcohol fuels combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masurier, J.-B.; Foucher, F.; Dayma, G.; Dagaut, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ozone was useful to control combustion phasing of alcohol fuels in HCCI engine. • Ozone helps to improve the combustion and advance its phasing. • Butanol is more impacted by ozone than methanol and ethanol. • HCCI combustion parameters may be controlled by managing ozone concentration. • Kinetics demonstrates that alcohol fuels are initially oxidized by O-atoms. - Abstract: The present investigation examines the impact of seeding the intake of an HCCI engine with ozone, one of the most oxidizing chemical species, on the combustion of three alcohol fuels: methanol, ethanol and n-butanol. The research was performed through engine experiments and constant volume computations. The results showed that increasing the ozone concentration led to an improvement in combustion coupled with a combustion advance. It was also observed, by comparing the results for each fuel selected, that n-butanol is the most impacted by ozone seeding and methanol the least. Further analyses of the experimental results showed that the alcohol fuel combustion can be controlled with ozone, which presents an interesting potential. Finally, computation results confirmed the experimental results observed. They also showed that in presence of ozone, alcohol fuels are not initially oxidized by molecular oxygen but by O-atoms coming from the ozone decomposition.

  8. How to increase and renew the oil and gas reserves? Technology advances and research strategy of IFP; Comment accroitre et renouveler les reserves de petrole et de gaz? Avancees de la technologie et strategie de recherche de l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Technology progresses made to reach new oil and gas resources (heavy crudes, buried deposits, ultra-deep offshore), to better exploit the available reserves (increase of the recovery ratio) and to reduce the costs will allow to enhance the hydrocarbon reserves and to durably extend the limits of the world energy supply. In a context where geopolitical uncertainties, high price rates and pessimistic declarations increase once again the public fear about petroleum reserves, the French institute of petroleum (IFP) wanted to make a status about the essential role that technology can play in this challenge. This document gathers the transparencies and articles presented at this press conference: how to increase and renew oil and gas reserves, technology advances and research strategy of IFP (O. Appert, J. Lecourtier, G. Fries); how to enhance oil recovery from deposits (primary, secondary and tertiary recovery: polymers injection, CO{sub 2} injection, steam injection, in-situ oxidation and combustion, reservoir modeling, monitoring of uncertainties); the heavy crudes (the Orenoque extra-heavy oil, the tar sands of Alberta, the heavy and extra-heavy crudes of Canada, IFP's research); ultra-deep offshore (the weight challenge: mooring lines and risers, the temperature challenge: paraffins and hydrates deposition, immersion of the treatment unit: economical profitability of satellite fields); fields buried beyond 5000 m (technological challenges: seismic surveys, drilling equipment, well logging, drilling mud; prospects of these fields); oil reserves: data that change with technique and economy (proven, probable and possible reserves, proven and declared reserves, three converging evaluations about the world proven reserves, reserves to be discovered, non-conventional petroleum resources, technical progress and oil prices, production depletion at the end of the century). (J.S.)

  9. Effects of Direct Fuel Injection Strategies on Cycle-by-Cycle Variability in a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Sample Entropy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hunicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we summarize and analyze experimental observations of cyclic variability in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion in a single-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was configured with negative valve overlap (NVO to trap residual gases from prior cycles and thus enable auto-ignition in successive cycles. Correlations were developed between different fuel injection strategies and cycle average combustion and work output profiles. Hypothesized physical mechanisms based on these correlations were then compared with trends in cycle-by-cycle predictability as revealed by sample entropy. The results of these comparisons help to clarify how fuel injection strategy can interact with prior cycle effects to affect combustion stability and so contribute to design control methods for HCCI engines.

  10. Synthesis of the objectives contract 2006-2010 between the State and the IFP. Innovate for a controlled energy transition; Synthese du contrat d'objectifs 2006-2010 entre l'Etat et l'IFP. Innover pour une transition energetique maitrisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The IFP, French Institute of Petroleum, is a public organization of research and formation at the service of the energy, the transport and the environment. It assures the technology transfer between fundamental research, applied research and the industrial development. The contract for 2006-2010 presents three major structural evolutions: the increase development of the new technologies of the energy; a new equilibrium in favor of the downstream researches and more particularly the transports, the increase of the industry competitiveness in the hydrocarbons sector and the automobiles. (A.L.B.)

  11. Investigation of spray characteristics from a low-pressure common rail injector for use in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kihyung; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2004-03-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion provides extremely low levels of pollutant emissions, and thus is an attractive alternative for future IC engines. In order to achieve a uniform mixture distribution within the engine cylinder, the characteristics of the fuel spray play an important role in the HCCI engine concept. It is well known that high-pressure common rail injection systems, mainly used in diesel engines, achieve poor mixture formation because of the possibility of direct fuel impingement on the combustion chamber surfaces. This paper describes spray characteristics of a low-pressure common rail injector which is intended for use in an HCCI engine. Optical diagnostics including laser diffraction and phase Doppler methods, and high-speed camera photography, were applied to measure the spray drop diameter and to investigate the spray development process. The drop sizing results of the laser diffraction method were compared with those of a phase Doppler particle analyser (PDPA) to validate the accuracy of the experiments. In addition, the effect of fuel properties on the spray characteristics was investigated using n-heptane, Stoddard solvent (gasoline surrogate) and diesel fuel because HCCI combustion is sensitive to the fuel composition. The results show that the injector forms a hollow-cone sheet spray rather than a liquid jet, and the atomization efficiency is high (small droplets are produced). The droplet SMD ranged from 15 to 30 µm. The spray break-up characteristics were found to depend on the fuel properties. The break-up time for n-heptane is shorter and the drop SMD is smaller than that of Stoddard solvent and diesel fuel.

  12. Numerical modeling on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion engine fueled by diesel-ethanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engines fueled with oxygenated fuels (ethanol blend. A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of ethanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine fueled by diesel. One dimensional simulation was conducted using the renowned commercial software for diesel and its blend fuels with 5% (E5 and 10% ethanol (E10 (in vol. under full load condition at variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 2750 rpm with 250 rpm increment. The model was then validated with other researcher’s experimental result. Model consists of intake and exhaust systems, cylinder, head, valves and port geometries. Performance tests were conducted for volumetric efficiency, brake engine torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, and brake thermal efficiency, while exhaust emissions were analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC. The results showed that blending diesel with ethanol increases the volumetric efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while it decreases brake engine torque, brake power and brake mean effective pressure. In term of emission characteristics, the CO emissions concentrations in the engine exhaust decrease significantly with ethanol as additive. But for HC emission, its concentration increase when apply in high engine speed. In conclusion, using Ethanol as fuel additive blend with Diesel operating in HCCI shows a good result in term of performance and emission in low speed but not recommended to use in high speed engine. Ethanol-diesel blends need to researched more to make it commercially useable.

  13. Blending Octane Number of Toluene with Gasoline-like and PRF Fuels in HCCI Combustion Mode

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Sarathy, Mani; Johansson, Bengt

    2018-01-01

    Future internal combustion engines demand higher efficiency but progression towards this is limited by the phenomenon called knock. A possible solution for reaching high efficiency is Octane-on-Demand (OoD), which allows to customize the antiknock

  14. Direct numerical simulations of exhaust gas recirculation effect on multistage autoignition in the negative temperature combustion regime for stratified HCCI flow conditions by using H2O2 addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ju, Yiguang

    2013-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a stratified flow in a homogeneous compression charge ignition (HCCI) engine are performed to investigate the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and temperature/mixture stratification effects on the autoignition of synthetic dimethyl ether (DME) in the negative temperature combustion region. Detailed chemistry for a DME/air mixture is employed and solved by a hybrid multi-time scale (HMTS) algorithm to reduce the computational cost. The effect of ? to mimic the EGR effect on autoignition are studied. The results show that adding ? enhances autoignition by rapid OH radical pool formation (34-46% reduction in ignition delay time) and changes the ignition heat release rates at different ignition stages. Sensitivity analysis is performed and the important reactions pathways affecting the autoignition are specified. The DNS results show that the scales introduced by thermal and mixture stratifications have a strong effect after the low temperature chemistry (LTC) ignition especially at the locations of high scalar dissipation rates. Compared to homogenous ignition, stratified ignitions show similar first autoignition delay times, but 18% reduction in the second and third ignition delay times. The results also show that molecular transport plays an important role in stratified low temperature ignition, and that the scalar mixing time scale is strongly affected by local ignition in the stratified flow. Two ignition-kernel propagation modes are observed: a wave-like, low-speed, deflagrative mode and a spontaneous, high-speed, ignition mode. Three criteria are introduced to distinguish these modes by different characteristic time scales and Damkhöler numbers using a progress variable conditioned by an ignition kernel indicator. The low scalar dissipation rate flame front is characterized by high displacement speeds and high mixing Damkhöler number. The proposed criteria are applied successfully at the different ignition stages and

  15. Controlling the heat release in HCCI combustion of DME with methanol and EGR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper; Yanai, Tadanori

    2010-01-01

    quantity required was determined. The added methanol increased the BMEP by increasing the total heat release and retarding the combustion to after TDC. Engine knock was reduced with increasing quantities of methanol. The highest BMEP was achieved when the equivalence ratio of methanol was around 0.......12 at 1000 RPM, and around 0.76 at 1800 RPM. EGR was also used to retarding the timing. With a moderate amount of EGR the effect on the combustion was not notable, but as the equivalence ratio approached unity the combustion was increasingly delayed and the rate of reaction reduced. Engine knock seized...

  16. Use of a single-zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemistry to study a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junnian; Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Auto-ignition characteristics of a natural gas fueled HCCI engine. ► Engine speed had the greatest effect on the auto-ignition process. ► Increases of C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 improved the auto-ignition process. ► Engine performance was not sensitive to small changes in C 2 H 6 or C 3 H 8 . ► Nitric oxides concentrations decreased as engine speed or EGR level was increased. - Abstract: A single zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemical kinetics was used to simulate a natural gas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model employed Chemkin and used chemical kinetics for natural gas with 53 species and 325 reactions. This simulation was used to complete analyses for a modified 0.4 L single cylinder engine. The engine possessed a compression ratio of 21.5:1, and had a bore and stroke of 86 and 75 mm, respectively. Several sets of parametric studies were completed to investigate the minimal initial temperature, engine performance, and nitric oxide emissions of HCCI engine operation. The results show significant changes in combustion characteristics with varying engine operating conditions. Effects of varying equivalence ratios (0.3–1.0), engine speeds (1000–4000 RPM), EGR (0–40%), and fuel compositions were determined and analyzed in detail. In particular, every 0.1 increase in equivalence ratio or 500 rpm increase in engine speed requires about a 5 K higher initial temperature for complete combustion, and leads to around 0.7 bar increase in IMEP.

  17. The influence of charge stratification on the spectral signature of partially premixed combustion in a light-duty optical engine

    KAUST Repository

    Najafabadi, M. Izadi

    2017-03-25

    The origin of light emission during low-temperature combustion in a light-duty IC engine is investigated by high-speed spectroscopy in both HCCI and PPC regimes. Chemiluminescence and thermal radiation are expected to be the dominant sources of light emission during combustion. A method has been developed to distinguish chemiluminescence from thermal radiation, and different chemiluminescing species could be identified. Different combustion modes and global equivalence ratios are analyzed in this manner. The results indicate that the spectral signature (270–540 nm range) of the combustion is highly dependent on the stratification level. A significant broadband chemiluminescence signal is detected and superimposed on all spectra. This broadband chemiluminescence signal can reach up to 100 percent of the total signal in HCCI combustion, while it drops to around 80 percent for stratified combustion (PPC). We show that this broadband signal can be used as a measure for the heat release rate. The broadband chemiluminescence did also correlate with the equivalence ratio quite well in both HCCI and PPC regimes, suggesting that the total emission in the spectral region of 330–400 nm can serve as a proxy of equivalence ratio and the rate of heat release. Regarding C2* chemiluminescence, we see two different chemical mechanisms for formation of C2* in the PPC regime: first during the early stage of combustion by the breakup of bigger molecules and the second during the late stage of combustion when soot particles are forming.

  18. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol in HCCI, SI and CI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad

    2016-10-17

    The effect of ethanol blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.3, 71.8 and 83.5, respectively, were compared to PRF70 and PRF84 with the same ethanol concentrations, these being 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume. A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used to understand the blending effect of ethanol with FACE gasolines and PRFs in spark-ignited and homogeneous charge compression ignited mode. Blending octane numbers (BON) were obtained for both the modes. All the fuels were also tested in an ignition quality tester to obtain Blending Derived Cetane numbers (BDCN). It is shown that fuel composition and octane number are important characteristics of all the base fuels that have a significant impact on octane increase with ethanol. The dependency of octane number for the base fuel on the blending octane number depended on the combustion mode operated. The aromatic composition in the base fuel, effects blending octane number of the mixture, for fuels with higher aromatic content lower blending octane numbers were observed for ethanol concentration.

  19. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol in HCCI, SI and CI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad; Naser, Nimal; Sarathy, Mani; Morganti, Kai; Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ethanol blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.3, 71.8 and 83.5, respectively, were compared to PRF70 and PRF84 with the same ethanol concentrations, these being 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume. A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used to understand the blending effect of ethanol with FACE gasolines and PRFs in spark-ignited and homogeneous charge compression ignited mode. Blending octane numbers (BON) were obtained for both the modes. All the fuels were also tested in an ignition quality tester to obtain Blending Derived Cetane numbers (BDCN). It is shown that fuel composition and octane number are important characteristics of all the base fuels that have a significant impact on octane increase with ethanol. The dependency of octane number for the base fuel on the blending octane number depended on the combustion mode operated. The aromatic composition in the base fuel, effects blending octane number of the mixture, for fuels with higher aromatic content lower blending octane numbers were observed for ethanol concentration.

  20. Experimental optimization of a direct injection homogeneous charge compression ignition gasoline engine using split injections with fully automated microgenetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli Univ., Izmit (Turkey); Reitz, R.D. [Wisconsin Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is receiving attention as a new low-emission engine concept. Little is known about the optimal operating conditions for this engine operation mode. Combustion under homogeneous, low equivalence ratio conditions results in modest temperature combustion products, containing very low concentrations of NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) as well as providing high thermal efficiency. However, this combustion mode can produce higher HC and CO emissions than those of conventional engines. An electronically controlled Caterpillar single-cylinder oil test engine (SCOTE), originally designed for heavy-duty diesel applications, was converted to an HCCI direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. The engine features an electronically controlled low-pressure direct injection gasoline (DI-G) injector with a 60 deg spray angle that is capable of multiple injections. The use of double injection was explored for emission control and the engine was optimized using fully automated experiments and a microgenetic algorithm optimization code. The variables changed during the optimization include the intake air temperature, start of injection timing and the split injection parameters (per cent mass of fuel in each injection, dwell between the pulses). The engine performance and emissions were determined at 700 r/min with a constant fuel flowrate at 10 MPa fuel injection pressure. The results show that significant emissions reductions are possible with the use of optimal injection strategies. (Author)

  1. Ifp's New Flexible Hydrocracking Process Combines Maximum Conversion with Production of High Viscosity, High Vi Lube Stocks Le nouveau procédé IFP d'hydrocraquage à haute flexibilité combine conversion maximum et production de bases, huile à haute viscosité et à indice de viscosité élevé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennico A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has developed a new dual catalytic system for its hydrocracking process that enables high conversion to middle distillates and production of high viscosity, high VI lube stocks. Although the hydrocracking process is mainly devoted to the conversion of vacuum distillates, deasphalted oil or mixture of both into high quality middle distillates, it can also produce a residue, that after dewaxing will be a very high VI lube base oil. In this presentation major emphasis is put on the possibility to produce very high VI lubes with high viscosity thanks to the development of the new catalytic system. Large flexibility in feedstock selection and easy control of operating variables allow the production of all grades of lube oils associated with high quality middle distillates for a large range of conversion levels. L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP a mis au point, pour son procédé d'hydrocraquage, un nouveau système catalytique à 2 catalyseurs qui permet une forte conversion en distillats moyens et la production de fractions lubrifiantes à haute viscosité et indice de viscosité élevé. Si le procédé d'hydrocraquage est essentiellement utilisé pour la conversion de distillats sous vide, d'huile désasphaltée ou d'un mélange des deux en distillats moyens de haute qualité, il peut aussi produire un résidu qui, après déparaffinage, fournira une base pour lubrifiant à indice de viscosité très élevé. Cet article souligne particulièrement la possibilité de produire des lubrifiants à indice de viscosité très élevé et haute viscosité, grâce à ce nouveau système catalytique. Une grande flexibilité dans le choix des produits à traiter et la facilité de contrôle des paramètres opératoires permet la production de toutes les qualités d'huiles lubrifiantes associées à des distillats moyens de haute qualité, pour une large gamme de niveaux de conversion.

  2. Anpassning av ett avgassystem för en motkolvstvåtaktsmotor med HCCI-förbränning

    OpenAIRE

    LAINEZ MARTÍ, JAVIER

    2010-01-01

    Målet för detta examensarbete har varit att förbättra driften av en motkolvs tvåtaktsmotormed HCCI-förbränning. Huvudfokus för arbetet har varit på gasväxlingsprocessen, dåfrämst avgasprocessen.Motorn har studerats med utgångspunkt från hur en tvåtakts Otto-cykel fungerar.Gasväxlingsprocessen i tvåtaktsmotorer kännetecknas av behovet av att snabbt få ut denförbrända gasen och införa ny blandning vid varje expansionstakt, samt avsaknaden avventiler. Behovet att kunna kontrollera gasflödet geno...

  3. Internal combustion engine report: Spark ignited ICE GenSet optimization and novel concept development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Blarigan, P. Van [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    In this manuscript the authors report on two projects each of which the goal is to produce cost effective hydrogen utilization technologies. These projects are: (1) the development of an electrical generation system using a conventional four-stroke spark-ignited internal combustion engine generator combination (SI-GenSet) optimized for maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, and (2) the development of a novel internal combustion engine concept. The SI-GenSet will be optimized to run on either hydrogen or hydrogen-blends. The novel concept seeks to develop an engine that optimizes the Otto cycle in a free piston configuration while minimizing all emissions. To this end the authors are developing a rapid combustion homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine using a linear alternator for both power take-off and engine control. Targeted applications include stationary electrical power generation, stationary shaft power generation, hybrid vehicles, and nearly any other application now being accomplished with internal combustion engines.

  4. Experimental and modeling study of hydrogen/syngas production and particulate emissions from a natural gas-fueled partial oxidation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, Michael H.; Lawson, Seth A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a combustion model was first applied to conditions representing varying compression ratios and equivalence ratios to investigate engine exhaust composition from partial oxidation (POX) of natural gas in reciprocating engines. The model was experimentally validated over a range of equivalence ratios from 1.3 to 1.6 with a spark-ignited single cylinder engine fueled by natural gas. The modeling results matched well with engine gaseous emission data over the experimental range. The model was also extended to higher equivalence ratios to predict H 2 and CO production at engine conditions and stoichiometries representative of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Secondly, over the same experimental range of equivalence ratios, particulate samples were taken to determine both total particulate mass production (g/hph) via gravimetric measurement as well as particle size distribution and loading via a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). While experiments indicate hydrogen yields up to 11% using spark ignition (SI), modeling results indicate that greater than 20% H 2 yield may be possible in HCCI operation. Over the experimental range, rich-burn particulate matter (PM) production is no greater than that from typical lean-burn operation. Finally, an energy balance was performed over the range of engine experimental operation. (author)

  5. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  6. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A.

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  7. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    modes of engine operation experimentally. The two modes were direct injection compression ignition (DICI) and "pseudo" homogeneously charged compression ignition (PHCCI). Simulation was performed to include HCCI operation in the study. The study showed that the HCCI operation resulted in higher peak cylinder pressure than that of DICI operation. A combined genetic algorithm-artificial neural network predictor model was used along with the simulation model to find the combination of engine parameters that yielded the highest engine efficiency. The predictor-simulator model suggested the most efficient combination of engine parameters.

  8. Analysis on reduced chemical kinetic model of N-heptane for HCCI combustion. Paper no. IGEC-1-072

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, M.; Zheng, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Because of high complexity coupled with multidimensional fluid dynamics, it is difficult to apply detailed chemical kinetic model to simulate practical engines. A reduced model of n-heptane has been developed on the basic of detailed mechanism by sensitivity analysis and reaction path analysis of every stage of combustion. The new reduced mechanism consists of 35 species and 41 reactions, and it is effective in engine condition. The results show that it gives predictions similar to the detailed model in ignition timing, in-cylinder temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the reduced mechanism can be used to simulate boundary condition of partial combustion in good agreement with the detailed mechanism. (author)

  9. Expansion in the presence of FGF-2 enhances the functional development of cartilaginous tissues engineered using infrapatellar fat pad derived MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, C T; Kelly, D J

    2012-07-01

    MSCs from non-cartilaginous knee joint tissues such as the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) and synovium possess significant chondrogenic potential and provide a readily available and clinically feasible source of chondroprogenitor cells. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been shown to be a potent mitotic stimulator during ex vivo expansion of MSCs, as well as regulating their subsequent differentiation potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the longer term effects of FGF-2 expansion on the functional development of cartilaginous tissues engineered using MSCs derived from the IFP. IFP MSCs were isolated and expanded to passage 2 in a standard media formulation with or without FGF-2 (5 ng/ml) supplementation. Expanded cells were encapsulated in agarose hydrogels, maintained in chondrogenic media for 42 days and analysed to determine their mechanical properties and biochemical composition. Culture media, collected at each feed, was also analysed for biochemical constituents. MSCs expanded in the presence of FGF-2 proliferated more rapidly, with higher cell yields and lower population doubling times. FGF-2 expanded MSCs generated the most mechanically functional tissue. Matrix accumulation was dramatically higher after 21 days for FGF-2 expanded MSCs, but decreased between day 21 and 42. By day 42, FGF-2 expanded MSCs had still accumulated ∼1.4 fold higher sGAG and ∼1.7 fold higher collagen compared to control groups. The total amount of sGAG synthesised (retained in hydrogels and released into the media) was ∼2.4 fold higher for FGF-2 expanded MSCs, with only ∼25% of the total amount generated being retained within the constructs. Further studies are required to investigate whether IFP derived MSCs have a diminished capacity to synthesise other matrix components important in the aggregation, assembly and retention of proteoglycans. In conclusion, expanding MSCs in the presence of FGF-2 rapidly accelerates chondrogenesis in 3D agarose

  10. Autoignition characterization of primary reference fuels and n-heptane/n-butanol mixtures in a constant volume combustion device and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, Marc E.

    2013-12-19

    In this study, the autoignition behavior of primary reference fuels (PRF) and blends of n-heptane/n-butanol were examined in a Waukesha Fuel Ignition Tester (FIT) and a Homogeneous Charge Compression Engine (HCCI). Fourteen different blends of iso-octane, n-heptane, and n-butanol were tested in the FIT - 28 test runs with 25 ignition measurements for each test run, totaling 350 individual tests in all. These experimental results supported previous findings that fuel blends with high alcohol content can exhibit very different ignition delay periods than similarly blended reference fuels. The experiments further showed that n-butanol blends behaved unlike PRF blends when comparing the autoignition behavior as a function of the percentage of low reactivity component. The HCCI and FIT experimental results favorably compared against single and multizone models with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms - both an existing mechanism as well as one developed during this study were used. The experimental and modeling results suggest that that the FIT instrument is a valuable tool for analysis of high pressure, low temperature chemistry, and autoignition for future fuels in advanced combustion engines. Additionally, in both the FIT and engine experiments the fraction of low temperature heat release (fLTHR) was found to correlate very well with the crank angle of maximum heat release and shows promise as a useful metric for fuel reactivity in advanced combustion applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Control of harmful hydrocarbon species in the exhaust of modern advanced GDI engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A. O.; Abu-jrai, A.; Turner, D.; Tsolakis, A.; Xu, H. M.; Golunski, S. E.; Herreros, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic but currently non-regulated hydrocarbon compounds ranging from C5-C11, before and after a zoned three-way catalytic converter (TWC) in a modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GDI engine has been operated under conventional and advanced combustion modes, which result in better fuel economy and reduced levels of NOx with respect to standard SI operation. However, these fuel-efficient conditions are more challenging for the operation of a conventional TWC, and could lead to higher level of emissions released to the environment. Lean combustion leads to the reduction in pumping losses, fuel consumption and in-cylinder emission formation rates. However, lean HCCI will lead to high levels of unburnt HCs while the presence of oxygen will lower the TWC efficiency for NOx control. The effect on the catalytic conversion of the hydrocarbon species of the addition of hydrogen upstream the catalyst has been also investigated. The highest hydrocarbon engine-out emissions were produced for HCCI engine operation at low engine load operation. The catalyst was able to remove most of the hydrocarbon species to low levels (below the permissible exposure limits) for standard and most of the advanced combustion modes, except for naphthalene (classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer) and methyl-naphthalene (which has the potential to cause lung damage). However, when hydrogen was added upstream of the catalyst, the catalyst conversion efficiency in reducing methyl-naphthalene and naphthalene was increased by approximately 21%. This results in simultaneous fuel economy and environmental benefits from the effective combination of advanced combustion and novel aftertreatment systems.

  12. A Study of a Diesel Engine Based Micro-CHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, C.R.; Andrews, J.; Tutu, N.; Butcher, T.

    2010-08-31

    This project, funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Agency (NYSERDA), investigated the potential for an oil-fired combined heat and power system (micro-CHP system) for potential use in residences that use oil to heat their homes. Obviously, this requires the power source to be one that uses heating oil (diesel). The work consisted of an experimental study using a diesel engine and an analytical study that examined potential energy savings and benefits of micro-CHP systems for 'typical' locations in New York State. A search for a small diesel engine disclosed that no such engines were manufactured in the U.S. A single cylinder engine manufactured in Germany driving an electric generator was purchased for the experimental work. The engine was tested using on-road diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur), and biodiesel blends. One of the main objectives was to demonstrate the possibility of operation in the so-called HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode. The HCCI mode of operation of engines is being explored as a way to reduce the emission of smoke, and NOx significantly without exhaust treatment. This is being done primarily in the context of engines used in transportation applications. However, it is felt that in a micro-CHP application using a single cylinder engine, such an approach would confer those emission benefits and would be much easier to implement. This was demonstrated successfully by injecting the fuel into the engine air intake using a heated atomizer made by Econox Technologies LLC to promote significant vaporization before entering the cylinder. Efficiency and emission measurements were made under different electrical loads provided by two space heaters connected to the generator in normal and HCCI modes of operation. The goals of the analytical work were to characterize, from the published literature, the prime-movers for micro-CHP applications, quantify parametrically the expected energy savings of using micro

  13. Para-petroleum industry: international context. Results of the 2002 inquiry carried out by GEP, CEP and M and IFP (part. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Fraysse, S.; Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is the 2. part of the presentation of the inquiry about the 2002 economic results of the world para-petroleum industry: 1 - exploration-production: investments, geophysical activity (number of seismic survey teams, geophysical services market), drilling activity, construction of offshore production facilities (platforms construction, production equipments engineering), regional analysis (North America, North Sea, Latin America, Africa, Commonwealth of Independent States, Middle-East, Asia-Pacific). 2 - Refining and petrochemistry: economic context, refining industry expenses, fusions and results of refining companies, world petrochemical expenses, fusion and results of petrochemical companies. (J.S.)

  14. Direct numerical simulations of ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture with temperature and composition inhomogeneities relevant to HCCI and SCCI combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Minh Bau

    2015-12-01

    The effects of temperature and composition stratifications on the ignition of a lean n-heptane/air mixture at three initial mean temperatures under elevated pressure are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs) with a 58-species reduced mechanism. Two-dimensional DNSs are performed by varying several key parameters: initial mean temperature, T0, and the variance of temperature and equivalence ratio (T\\' and φ\\') with different T-φcorrelations. It is found that for cases with φ\\' only, the overall combustion occurs more quickly and the mean heat release rate (HRR) increases more slowly with increasing φ\\' regardless of T0. For cases with T\\' only, however, the overall combustion is retarded/advanced in time with increasing T\\' for low/high T0 relative to the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime resulting from a longer/shorter overall ignition delay of the mixture. For cases with uncorrelated T-φfields, the mean HRR is more distributed over time compared to the corresponding cases with T\\' or φ\\' only. For negatively-correlated cases, however, the temporal evolution of the overall combustion exhibits quite non-monotonic behavior with increasing T\\' and φ\\' depending on T0. All of these characteristics are found to be primarily related to the 0-D ignition delays of initial mixtures, the relative timescales between 0-D ignition delay and turbulence, and the dominance of the deflagration mode during the ignition. These results suggest that an appropriate combination of T\\' and φ\\' together with a well-prepared T-φdistribution can alleviate an excessive pressure-rise rate (PRR) and control ignition-timing in homogeneous charge compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion. In addition, critical species and reactions for the ignition of n-heptane/air mixture through the whole ignition process are estimated by comparing the temporal evolution of the mean mass fractions of important species with the overall reaction pathways of n

  15. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  16. Influence of fuel type, dilution and equivalence ratio on the emission reduction from the auto-ignition in an Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim [UPMC Universite Paris 06, ENSCP, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, TIPs - Fluid Physics, CP165/67, 50 Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, ENSCP, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Amouroux, Jacques [UPMC Universite Paris 06, ENSCP, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2010-04-15

    One technology that seems to be promising for automobile pollution reduction is the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). This technology still faces auto-ignition and emission-control problems. This paper focuses on the emission problem, since it is incumbent to realize engines that pollute less. For this purpose, this paper presents results concerning the measurement of the emissions of CO, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and hydrocarbons. HCCI conditions are used, with equivalence ratios between 0.26 and 0.54, inlet temperatures of 70 C and 120 C and compression ratios of 10.2 and 13.5, with different fuel types: gasoline, gasoline surrogate, diesel, diesel surrogate and mixtures of n-heptane/toluene. The effect of dilution is considered for gasoline, while the effect of the equivalence ratio is considered for all the fuels. No significant amount of NO{sub x} has been measured. It appeared that the CO, O{sub 2} and hydrocarbon emissions were reduced by decreasing the toluene content of the fuel and by decreasing the dilution. The opposite holds for CO{sub 2}. The reduction of the hydrocarbon emission appears to compete with the reduction of the CO{sub 2} emission. Diesel seemed to produce less CO and hydrocarbons than gasoline when auto-ignited. An example of emission reduction control is presented in this paper. (author)

  17. La banque de données platform de l'Institut français du pétrole : un outil de base pour des études de risque Ifp's Platform Databank: a Basic Implement for Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand A. R. V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La banque de données PLATFORM de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP concerne les accidents survenus depuis 1955 aux engins pétroliers de forage, de production et d'habitation en mer, de type fixe (plates-formes en acier, en béton . . . ou mobile (submersibles, auto-élévatrices, semi-submersibles, navires, barges . . . et ayant donné lieu à un arrêt de travail ni programmé, ni prévisible, d'au moins 24 heures. Ce critère, éliminant les nombreux incidents mineurs, peu ou mal connus, lui confère une certaine homogénéité indispensable à la validité de toute banque de données d'accidents. Comportant : - une banque de connaissanceconstituée de fiches détaillées sur le déroulement et des conséquences de chaque accident, et - une banque informatiséebasée sur les seuls paramètres principaux mis en mémoire d'ordinateur, la banque PLATFORM présente le double avantage de : - regrouper, sous une forme ramassée et facilement interrogeable, l'ensemble des accidents connus d'une branche industrielle, - fournir des résultats chiffrés (comptages, statistiques, . . . qui, même approximatifs, sont irremplaçables pour les études de risque, de sécurité et de fiabilité. Différents exemples d'application illustrent les possibilités de PLATFORM en s'appuyant sur des paramètres aussi variés que les types d'engin, d'accident, d'activité au moment de l'accident, de facteurs préliminaires, de zones géographiques. IFP's PLATFORM databank concerns accidents since 1955 to all kinds of off-shore drilling, production or accomodation platforms, both fixed (steel, cement, etc. and mobile (jackups, submersibles, semi-submersibles, drillships, barges, etc. having caused an unplanned and unforeseen work stoppage of at least 24 hours. The databank is designed to underline the homogeneity of the data gathered, which is an indispensible condition for obtaining valid statistics. PLATFORM consists of (1 a knowledge base made up of an ongoing

  18. Impact of Formaldehyde Addition on Auto-Ignition in Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Kazunari; Ando, Hiromitsu; Furutani, Masahiro; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    By employing a direct-injection diesel engine equipped with a common-rail type of injection system, by adding formaldehyde (CH2O) to the intake air, and by changing the fuel-injection timing, the compression ratio and the intake-air temperature, a mechanism for CH2O as a fuel additive to affect auto-ignition was discussed. Unlike an HCCI type of engine, the diesel engine can expose an air-fuel mixture only to a limited range of the in-cylinder temperature before the ignition, and can separate low- and high-temperature parts of the mechanism. When low-temperature oxidation starts at a temperature above 900K, there are cases that the CH2O advances the ignition timing. Below 900K, to the contrary, it always retards the timing. It is because, above 900K, a part of the CH2O changes into CO together with H2O2 as an ignition promoter. Below 900K, on the other hand, the CH2O itself acts as an OH radical scavenger against cool-flame reaction, from the beginning of low-temperature oxidation. Then, the engine was modified for its extraordinary function as a gasoline-knocking generator, in order that an effect of CH2O on knocking could be discussed. The CH2O retards the onset of auto-ignition of an end gas. Judging from a large degree of the retardation, the ignition is probably triggered below 900K.

  19. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  20. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  1. The role of environmental factors in regulating the development of cartilaginous grafts engineered using osteoarthritic human infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Buckley, Conor T; Downey, Richard; Mulhall, Kevin J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2012-08-01

    Engineering functional cartilaginous grafts using stem cells isolated from osteoarthritic human tissue is of fundamental importance if autologous tissue engineering strategies are to be used in the treatment of diseased articular cartilage. It has previously been demonstrated that human infrapatellar fat pad (IFP)-derived stem cells undergo chondrogenesis in pellet culture; however, the ability of such cells to generate functional cartilaginous grafts has not been adequately addressed. The objective of this study was to explore how environmental conditions regulate the functional development of cartilaginous constructs engineered using diseased human IFP-derived stem cells (FPSCs). FPSCs were observed to display a diminished chondrogenic potential upon encapsulation in a three-dimensional hydrogel compared with pellet culture, synthesizing significantly lower levels of glycosaminoglycan and collagen on a per cell basis. To engineer more functional cartilaginous grafts, we next explored whether additional biochemical and biophysical stimulations would enhance chondrogenesis within the hydrogels. Serum stimulation was observed to partially recover the diminished chondrogenic potential within hydrogel culture. Over 42 days, stem cells that had first been expanded in a low-oxygen environment proliferated extensively on the outer surface of the hydrogel in response to serum stimulation, assembling a dense type II collagen-positive cartilaginous tissue resembling that formed in pellet culture. The application of hydrostatic pressure did not further enhance extracellular matrix synthesis within the hydrogels, but did appear to alter the spatial accumulation of extracellular matrix leading to the formation of a more compact tissue with superior mechanically functionality. Further work is required in order to recapitulate the environmental conditions present during pellet culture within scaffolds or hydrogels in order to engineer more functional cartilaginous grafts using

  2. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  3. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  4. A comprehensive study on the emission characteristics of E-diesel dual-fuel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Avinash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, the ultimate goal of emission legislation is to force technology to the point where a practically viable zero emission vehicle becomes a reality. Albeit the direction to reach this target is a formidable challenge, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI is a new combustion concept to produce ultra low nitrogen oxides (NOx and smoke emissions. By the way, an endeavor has been made in this work to achieve a simultaneous reduction in both NOx and smoke levels in a direct injection compression ignition engine converted to operate on premixed charge compression ignition mode. Indeed, these promises were made possible in this work by preparing premixed fuel–air mixture outside the engine cylinder. For this purpose, ethanol was injected in the intake port at various premixed ratios (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% and conventional diesel was injected as usual. It was extrapolated from the experimental results that e-diesel operation can significantly reduce NOx and smoke levels. In addition, NOx and smoke levels reduced in this experimental study with increase in premixed fraction. Nevertheless, unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC and carbon monoxide (CO emissions exhibited reverse trend with increase in premixed fraction and the maximum value of HC and CO emission levels was noted with 30% premixed fraction.

  5. Methodology to estimate the threshold in-cylinder temperature for self-ignition of fuel during cold start of Diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broatch, A.; Ruiz, S.; Margot, X.; Gil, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cold startability of automotive direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is frequently one of the negative features when these are compared to their closest competitor, the gasoline engine. This situation worsens with the current design trends (engine downsizing) and the emerging new Diesel combustion concepts, such as HCCI, PCCI, etc., which require low compression ratio engines. To mitigate this difficulty, pre-heating systems (glow plugs, air heating, etc.) are frequently used and their technologies have been continuously developed. For the optimum design of these systems, the determination of the threshold temperature that the gas should have in the cylinder in order to provoke the self-ignition of the fuel injected during cold starting is crucial. In this paper, a novel methodology for estimating the threshold temperature is presented. In this methodology, experimental and computational procedures are adequately combined to get a good compromise between accuracy and effort. The measurements have been used as input data and boundary conditions in 3D and 0D calculations in order to obtain the thermodynamic conditions of the gas in the cylinder during cold starting. The results obtained from the study of two engine configurations -low and high compression ratio- indicate that the threshold in-cylinder temperature is a single temperature of about 415 o C.

  6. Experimental study of hydrogen as a fuel additive in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saanum, Inge

    2008-07-01

    . % hydrogen to the methane, but 5 vol. % hydrogen also resulted in a noticeable increase. The flame structure was also influenced by the hydrogen addition as the flame front had a higher tendency to become wrinkled or cellular. The effect is believed to mainly be caused by a reduction in the effective Lewis number of the mixture. In the gas engine experiments, the effect of adding 25 vol. % hydrogen to natural gas was investigated when the engine was run on lean air/fuel mixtures and on stoichiometric mixtures with exhaust gas recirculation. The hydrogen addition was found to extend the lean limit of stable combustion and hence caused lower NO{sub x} emissions. The brake thermal efficiency increased with the hydrogen addition, both for the fuel lean and the stoichiometric mixtures with exhaust gas recirculation. This is mainly because of shorter combustion durations when the hydrogen mixture was used, leading to thermodynamically improved cycles. Two types of experiments were performed in compression ignition engines. First, homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) experiments were performed in a single cylinder engine fueled with natural gas and diesel oil. As HCCI engines have high thermal efficiency and low NO{sub x} and PM emissions it may be more favorable to use natural gas in HCCI engines than in spark ignition engines. The mixture of natural gas, diesel oil and air was partly premixed before combustion. The natural gas/diesel ratio was used to control the ignition timing as the fuels have very different ignition properties. The natural gas was also replaced by a 20 vol. % hydrogen/natural gas mixture to study the effect of hydrogen on the ignition and combustion process. Also, rape seed methyl ester (RME) was tested instead of the diesel oil. The combustion phasing was found to mainly be controlled by the amount of liquid fuel injected. The last experiments with compression ignition were performed by using a standard Scania diesel engine where the possibilities

  7. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  8. Development and validation of an Eulerian model towards the simulation of fuel injection in internal combustion engines; Developpement et validation d'un modele eulerien en vue de la simulation des jets de carburants dans les moteurs a combustion interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truchot, B.

    2005-12-15

    The objective of this work is to develop an Eulerian two phase model to improve the prediction of fuel injection in internal combustion engines, particularly the dense liquid zone close to the nozzle. Lagrangian models, usually used in engine simulations, are based on the assumption of dispersed two phase flows with low liquid volume fraction, which is not fulfilled in the case of direct injection engine technology. Different Eulerian approaches are available in the literature. Physical phenomena that occur near the nozzle and characteristics of each model lead to the choice of a two fluids two pressures model. Several open terms appear in the equations of the model: exchange between the two phases and turbulent correlations. Closures of exchange terms are based on the spherical droplets hypothesis while a RANS approach is adopted to close turbulent correlations. This model has been integrated in the IFP CFD code, IFP-C3D. Several numerical tests and analytical validations (for single and two phase flows) have been then carried out in order to check the correct implementation of equations and the predictivity of the model and closures. Modifications in the turbulent model of the gas have required validations in both the gas phase (flow behind a sudden enlargement) and the liquid phase (pure liquid injection). A two phase mixing layer has been then used to validate the whole model. Finally, injection tests have been achieved under realistic conditions (similar to those encountered in automotive engines) in order to check the feasibility of engine computations using the developed Eulerian approach. These tests have also allowed to check the compatibility of this approach with the specificities of engine simulations (especially mesh movement). (author)

  9. The syngas production by partial oxidation using a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yoon Cheol; Lim, Mun Sup; Chun, Young Nam

    2009-01-01

    It is essential to develop the environment-friendly alternative energies urgently considering the limited fossil fuel and the global warming caused by environmental destruction. In this research, the new technology was studied to produce syngas from methane or simulated biogas with a HCCI reforming engine. The purpose is to provide the basics for the research on biogas treatment mainly comprising of methane and carbon dioxide, the cause of global warming. This experiment was conducted on the changes in syngas concentration according to the variations of oxygen/methane ratio, total flow rate, intake heating temperature, CO 2 in mixture and oxygen enrichment with partial oxidation. Through the parametric screening studies, optimum conditions and their results in this study was taken as follows; The maximum content of syngas was; 27.4% at 0.3 of oxygen/methane ratio, 32.38% at 117.3 L/min of total flow rate, and 35.83% at 355 C of intake heating temperature. 41.06% of syngas was produced at 50.33% of oxygen enrichment ratio. (author)

  10. Engineering opportunities in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The pattern of education and training of Nuclear Engineers in the UK is outlined under the headings; degree courses for professional engineers, postgraduate courses, education of technician engineers. Universities which offer specific courses are stated and useful addresses listed. (UK)

  11. Final Report for NFE-07-00912: Development of Model Fuels Experimental Engine Data Base & Kinetic Modeling Parameter Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    The automotive and engine industries are in a period of very rapid change being driven by new emission standards, new types of after treatment, new combustion strategies, the introduction of new fuels, and drive for increased fuel economy and efficiency. The rapid pace of these changes has put more pressure on the need for modeling of engine combustion and performance, in order to shorten product design and introduction cycles. New combustion strategies include homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), partial-premixed combustion compression ignition (PCCI), and dilute low temperature combustion which are being developed for lower emissions and improved fuel economy. New fuels include bio-fuels such as ethanol or bio-diesel, drop-in bio-derived fuels and those derived from new crude oil sources such as gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids, oil sands, oil shale, and wet natural gas. Kinetic modeling of the combustion process for these new combustion regimes and fuels is necessary in order to allow modeling and performance assessment for engine design purposes. In this research covered by this CRADA, ORNL developed and supplied experimental data related to engine performance with new fuels and new combustion strategies along with interpretation and analysis of such data and consulting to Reaction Design, Inc. (RD). RD performed additional analysis of this data in order to extract important parameters and to confirm engine and kinetic models. The data generated was generally published to make it available to the engine and automotive design communities and also to the Reaction Design Model Fuels Consortium (MFC).

  12. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  13. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  14. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion: Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Izadi Najafabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine and car manufacturers are experiencing the demand concerning fuel efficiency and low emissions from both consumers and governments. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI is an alternative combustion technology that is cleaner and more efficient than the other types of combustion. Although the thermal efficiency and NOx emission of HCCI engine are greater in comparison with traditional engines, HCCI combustion has several main difficulties such as controlling of ignition timing, limited power output, and weak cold-start capability. In this study a literature review on HCCI engine has been performed and HCCI challenges and proposed solutions have been investigated from the point view of Ignition Timing that is the main problem of this engine. HCCI challenges are investigated by many IC engine researchers during the last decade, but practical solutions have not been presented for a fully HCCI engine. Some of the solutions are slow response time and some of them are technically difficult to implement. So it seems that fully HCCI engine needs more investigation to meet its mass-production and the future research and application should be considered as part of an effort to achieve low-temperature combustion in a wide range of operating conditions in an IC engine.

  15. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  16. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  17. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  18. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  19. Computer Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  20. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  1. IFPE/GBGI, Grain-Bubble Gas Inter-linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Description: The fuel microstructure examination at the thermocouple tips in the lower and upper part of a steady-state irradiated experimental fuel rod with different as fabricated fuel-to-clad gaps in these two regions revealed on-set of grain boundary gas bubble precipitation in the fuel center of the small-gap/low-temperature region (lower part) and developed inter-linkage in the fuel center of the large-gap/high-temperature region (upper part). By use of a diffusion model and the measured temperatures, corresponding grain boundary gas 'concentrations' were calculated

  2. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  3. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  4. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  5. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  6. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  7. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  8. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  9. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  10. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  11. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  12. Mechanical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  13. Biomedical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  14. Materials Science & Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  15. Electrical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  16. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  17. Advances for laser ignition of internal combustion and rocket engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2011-01-01

    field laser physics. Unfortunately, there is no standard definition for the plasma threshold in the literature. Consequently, a clear definition of the focal volume is missing. For this reason it was tried to find a theoretical formula for the volume. This formula is based on the assumption that the focal volume encloses the space where the threshold intensity is higher than Ith =I0/2 or, alternatively, Ith = I0/e2. Laser energy transmission is one of the most important loss factors during plasma development by laser-induced optical breakdown and provides important information about the energy contained in the plasma. Hence, a number of plasma experiments were carried out. In our experiments is was found that for decreasing focal volume the plasma threshold energy (MPE) and the energy transmission can be reduced respectively. In order to investigate the possibility if laser-induced ignition can be made more efficient with respect to the laser pulse energy, several ignition experiments were performed. For these experiments a combustion chamber was employed at a filling pressure of 11 bar and a temperature of 110 o C involving different focal sizes. The thermal ignition experiments were carried out to demonstrate in principle the feasibility of thermal ignition via resonant absorption of IR radiation. By evaluating these results with respect to laser ignition of engines, it is conceivable to employ laser thermal ignition as an innovative ignition mechanism. As in HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines and rocket engines, ignition occurs at specific elevated pressures and temperatures, it can be assumed that the ignition energies are in the range between 20 to 100 mJ. Furthermore, different laser ignition system concepts were developed and evaluated regarding to their qualification for rocket engine ignition. As a consequence of its highest rating in our study, resonant ignition should be considered an interesting alternative to laser spark ignition

  18. Ozone Activated Cool Diffusion Flames of Butane Isomers in a Counterflow Facility

    KAUST Repository

    Al Omier, Abdullah Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    ignition engines (HCCI) have been developed. These new engines rely on the low temperature chemistry (LTC) combustion concept. A detailed investigation of the properties of cool flames, governed by LTC, is essential for the design of these new engines

  19. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  20. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  1. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  2. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  3. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  4. Alimentation des moteurs en mélange homogène pauvre Feeding Homogeneous Lean Mixtures to Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayna B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études effectuées dans le cadre de plusieurs conventions de recherche entre l'Institut de Recherche des Transports (IRT et l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP associé à d'autres organismes industriels (Régie Nationale des Usines Renault (RNUR, Solex... ont permis a de caractériser l'influence de la préparation physique du mélange air-carburant sur le fonctionnement de moteurs monocylindre et multicylindre. L'effet sur le rendement d'inégalités de richesse entre les cylindres a été estimé à l'aide d'un modèle mathématique de simulation du moteur à allumage commandé ; b d'analyser les défauts inhérents à certains systèmes d'alimentation actuels et d'expérimenter des techniques différentes de formation du mélange carburé (car-burateur à dépression constante, pulvérisation pneumatique du carburant. Les résultats obtenus ont montré notamment que des améliorations ne peuvent résulter que d'un aménagement d'ensemble de tous les éléments du circuit d'admission Investigations carried out under thé terms of several research agreements involving Institut de Recherche des Transports (IRT and Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP associated with other industrial organizations (Régie Nationale des Usines Renault (RNUR, Solex served ta a Characterize thé influence of thé physical preparation of thé air/fuel mixture on thé operating of single-cylinder and multicylinder engines. The effect on thé efficiency of unequal air/fuel ratios among thé cylindres was evaluated by a mathematical model used ta simulate a spark-ignition engine. b Analyze thé inhérent defects of some fuel-supply systems now used and ta experiment with différent techniques of mixture preparation (constant depression car-burettor, pneumatic fuel spraying. The results obtained show, in particulor, that improvements con be produced only by redesigning all thé parts of thé fuel-supply circuit.

  5. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  6. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  7. Glycosylation Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H.; Steentoft, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the cellular pathways of glycosylation across phylogeny provides opportunities for designing glycans via genetic engineering in a wide variety of cell types including bacteria, fungi, plant cells, and mammalian cells. The commercial demand for glycosylation engineering is broad......, including production of biological therapeutics with defined glycosylation (Chapter 57). This chapter describes how knowledge of glycan structures and their metabolism (Parts I–III of this book) has led to the current state of glycosylation engineering in different cell types. Perspectives for rapid...

  8. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  9. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A

    2013-01-01

    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  10. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  11. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  12. Engineering personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskievici, W.

    The expansion of nuclear power is taxing human, material, and capital resources in developed and developing countries. This paper explores the human resources as represented by employment, graduation statistics, and educational curricula for nuclear engineers. (E.C.B.)

  13. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  14. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  15. Geoenvironmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Cheol; Park, Jeong Jun

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with definition of soil and scope of clean-up of soil, trend of geoenvironmental engineering at home and foreign countries, main concern of geoenvironmental engineering in domestic and abroad, design and building of landfills such as summary, trend of landfill policy in Korea, post management of landfill facilities, stabilizing and stability of landfill, research method and soil pollution source, restoration technology of soil pollution like restoration technique of oil pollution with thermal processing.

  16. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  17. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  18. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  19. Hire a Milwaukee Engineer | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  20. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  1. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  2. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  3. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  4. Biochemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ho Nam

    1993-01-01

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  5. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  6. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  7. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  8. Corrosion engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

  9. Engineering Obsolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Editor's Note: In this contribution to the series on Hackers, Makers, and Engineers, she tells us about her research on relationships to technological change in a long-lived NASA-ESA software infrastructure project. Her research considers how people live alongside technological change, inhabit...

  10. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  11. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  12. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  13. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  14. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  15. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  16. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  17. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  18. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  19. Materials Science and Engineering |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering? What Is Materials Science and Engineering? MSE combines engineering, physics and chemistry to solve problems in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing, and more ,' which could replace steel. Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering Professors work together to

  20. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  1. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  2. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  3. Engineering Encounters: Teaching Educators about Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina M.; Raman, D. Raj; Lamm, Monica H.; Sundararajan, Sriram; Estapa, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance science teaching. This month's issue describes preservice elementary teachers learning engineering principles from engineers. Few elementary teachers have experience with implementing engineering into the classroom. While engineering professional development opportunities for inservice teachers…

  4. <研究論文>DME燃料による予混合圧縮自己着火機関の特性

    OpenAIRE

    嶽間沢, 秀孝

    2009-01-01

    It converted so that a small engine could be operated by Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with dimethyl ether (DME). It is difficult to control auto-ignition timing in HCCI combustion. The sound performances and the exhaust temperature of compression ignition combustion engine fueled with DME and diesel fuel were investigated. As a result, it succeeded in continuous smokeless operation of an efficient internal combustion engine by DME homogeneous charge system.

  5. Pollution odorante par les moteurs Diesel. Mesure des odeurs d'échappement Odorous Pollution by Diesel Engines. Measuring Exhaust Odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degobert P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études de mesure d'odeur Diesel ont commencé en 1956 aux États-Unis, en particulier pour réduire le niveau odorant des autobus. Cet article expose d'abord les mécanismes de formation des odorants puis les études américaines, qui ont abouti en 1973 à l'odorimètre Arthur D. Little, basé sur l'analyse par chromatographie liquide de l'échappement, et ses corrélations avec les données sensorielles recueillies dans des conditions particulières. Les économies d'énergie dans les villes européennes entraînent un accroissement du nombre de véhicules Diesel, ce qui peut amener un niveau odorant incompatible avec le bien-être. C'est pourquoi l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP étudie actuellement les odeurs Diesel, pour mettre au point des méthodes de mesure fiables, partant de la chromatographie liquide type Arthur D. Little (ADL et de l'évaluation sensorielle. Les résultats actuels montrent qu'à moins de progrès importants en analyse chimique, l'évaluation sensorielle reste la méthode la plus fiable. Les perspectives futures basées sur l'olfactomètre différentiel Mac Leod sont présentées. Research was beg un in the United States in 1956 on the medsurementof diesel engine odors, and especially on reducing the odor from diesel city buses. This article begins by describing the mechanisms of odor formation and then goes on ta, review US research which resulted in the Arthur D. Little odormeter in 1973, based on a liquid chromatography analysis of exhaust and its corrélations with sensory data gathered under specific conditions. Energy conservation in European cities is tending ta, increase the number of diesel vehicles and possibly ta, create an odor level that is incompatible with humal well-being. This is why Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is now investigating diesel eng ine odors for the purpose of developing reliable measuring methods based on liquid chromatography of the Arthur D. Little (ADl type and on

  6. An engineering context for software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Riehle, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    New engineering disciplines are emerging in the late Twentieth and early Twenty-first Century. One such emerging discipline is software engineering. The engineering community at large has long harbored a sense of skepticism about the validity of the term software engineering. During most of the fifty-plus years of software practice, that skepticism was probably justified. Professional education of software developers often fell short of the standard expected for conventional engineers; so...

  7. Mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Division provides the other NAC divisions with design and construction services. Items of special mechanical significance are discussed here. The projects which received major design attention during the past year were: a coupling capacitor for SPC2; a bending magnet and solenoid for ECR ion source; a scanner for outer orbits of the SSC; a scattering chamber for an experimental beamline; a beam swinger; a rotary target magazine for isotope production; a robot arm for isotope production; an isotope transport system and a target cooling system for isotope production. The major projects that were under construction are: a magnetic spectrometer; a second injector cyclotron (SPC2) and extensions to the high-energy beamlines. 4 figs

  8. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  9. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  10. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  11. Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Duc Cung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline compression ignition (GCI has been shown as one of the advanced combustion concepts that could potentially provide a pathway to achieve cleaner and more efficient combustion engines. Fuel and air in GCI are not fully premixed compared to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI, which is a completely kinetic-controlled combustion system. Therefore, the combustion phasing can be controlled by the time of injection, usually postinjection in a multiple-injection scheme, to mitigate combustion noise. Gasoline usually has longer ignition delay than diesel. The autoignition quality of gasoline can be indicated by research octane number (RON. Fuels with high octane tend to have more resistance to autoignition, hence more time for fuel-air mixing. In this study, three fuels, namely, aromatic, alkylate, and E30, with similar RON value of 98 but different hydrocarbon compositions were tested in a multicylinder engine under GCI combustion mode. Considerations of exhaust gas recirculating (EGR, start of injection, and boost were investigated to study the sensitivity of dilution, local stratification, and reactivity of the charge, respectively, for each fuel. Combustion phasing (location of 50% of fuel mass burned was kept constant during the experiments. This provides similar thermodynamic conditions to study the effect of fuels on emissions. Emission characteristics at different levels of EGR and lambda were revealed for all fuels with E30 having the lowest filter smoke number and was also most sensitive to the change in dilution. Reasonably low combustion noise (<90 dB and stable combustion (coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure <3% were maintained during the experiments. The second part of this article contains visualization of the combustion process obtained from endoscope imaging for each fuel at selected conditions. Soot radiation signal from GCI combustion were strong during late injection and also more intense

  12. Perspectives d'amélioration du rendement à très faible charge des moteurs d'automobile Prospects for Lmprovinq the Very-Low-Load Efficiency of Automotive Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le mauvais rendement énergétique des véhicules utilisés à très faible charge (circulation urbaine, vitesses limitées provient entre autres des combustions non optimales. Celles-ci sont de plusieurs types : combustion lente et/ou tardive, ratés de propagation. L'acquisition de cycles de pression au moyen du système DIGITAP développé à l'In-titut Français du Pétrole (IFP est décrite et le calcul instantané du travail cycle-à-cycle permet de définir un critère de stabilité de fonctionnement du moteur. L'analyse thermodynamique des cycles montre que la composition du mélange air + carburant + gaz résiduels, trop proche des limites de propagabilité de flamme, est à l'origine des phénomènes observés. Des voies d'action portant sur les gaz résiduels, la turbulence et les paramètres du système d'allumage sont dégagées et permettent des améliorations importantes du rendement. The poor energy efficiency of vehicles used at very low engine load (urban traffic, limited speeds comes from non-optimum combustion, among other causes. Such combustion may be of several types, i. e. slow and/or late combustion, propagation misfiring. The recording of pressure cycles by the DIGITAP system developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is described, and the instantaneous computing of the cycle-to-cycle work enables a stability criterion for engine operating to be described. The thermodynamic analysis of the cycles shows that the composition of the air + fuel + residuel gas mixture which is too close to flame propagation limits is at the origin of the phenomena observed. Methods of action concerning residual gases, turbulence and the parameters of the ignition system are determined and make for great improvements in efficiency and stability for such types of running.

  13. Emplacement engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Ernest E [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Emplacement Engineering can be defined as that portion of a nuclear explosive project that is concerned with the emplacement of the explosive. This definition would then include virtually everything except the design and fabrication of the explosive and the post-shot-effects program. For future commercial application, the post-shot-effects program will essentially disappear. This emplacement portion of a nuclear explosive project constitutes a large fraction of the total project cost, but it has largely been overshadowed by the explosive and explosive-effects portions. As we move into commercial applications. Emplacement Engineering must receive more attention from both industry and government. To place emplacement costs in their proper relationship with total projects costs, we have performed a study of commercial underground nuclear explosive applications such as gas stimulation. Although there are many intangibles in such a study, we have been able to at least obtain some feel for the relative fractional costs of the non-explosive costs compared with the explosive costs. This study involved estimating the cost elements for applications using a single explosive at 5,000 ft, 10,000 ft, and 15,000 ft. For each depth, the cost estimates were made for a range of emplacement hole and explosive diameters. Results of these estimates for explosive-related costs, hole-related costs, and total costs are shown for the three depths. Note that the explosive package outside diameter is assumed as 2 inches less than the hole (or casing) inside diameter for all cases. For the 5,000-ft application the explosive-related costs dominate, and of particular importance is the indicated diameter for minimum total cost which occurs at approximately a 17.5-in. hole (15.5-in. explosive). The hole-related costs are in 'the same range as the explosive-related costs for the 10,000-ft application. For this case, the minimum total cost occurs at approximately a 14-in. hole (12-in. explosive

  14. Engineers and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    and Bildung. In this chapter, this relation in investigated. In the first part, I present three engineers and their careers. In the second part, the concept of Bildung is analyzed, and in the third part, it is the conceptual relation between Bildung, engineers, and engineering work that is of concern.......What is an engineer? Or maybe better: how are engineers, and how are they “gebilded” in order to be able to be called engineers? In order to shed some light on this question we could ask: How is the relation between engineering and the making of an engineer, or the relation between engineering...

  15. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  16. Biosystems Engineering in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; Cruz, Vasco Fitas

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives the definition of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; Possible revisions of the core curriculum presented in the FEANI report; the current situation of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; The impacts of the transition to Biosystems Engineering; The need for a transition to Biosystems Engineering;Opportunities to the Biosystems Engineer in the labour market.

  17. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  18. Engineering allostery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Srivatsan; Taylor, Noah; Genuth, Naomi; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M

    2014-12-01

    Allosteric proteins have great potential in synthetic biology, but our limited understanding of the molecular underpinnings of allostery has hindered the development of designer molecules, including transcription factors with new DNA-binding or ligand-binding specificities that respond appropriately to inducers. Such allosteric proteins could function as novel switches in complex circuits, metabolite sensors, or as orthogonal regulators for independent, inducible control of multiple genes. Advances in DNA synthesis and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the assessment of millions of mutants in a single experiment, providing new opportunities to study allostery. Using the classic LacI protein as an example, we describe a genetic selection system using a bidirectional reporter to capture mutants in both allosteric states, allowing the positions most crucial for allostery to be identified. This approach is not limited to bacterial transcription factors, and could reveal new mechanistic insights and facilitate engineering of other major classes of allosteric proteins such as nuclear receptors, two-component systems, G protein-coupled receptors, and protein kinases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Collaborating for Multi-Scale Chemical Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Green

    2006-07-14

    Advanced model reduction methods were developed and integrated into the CMCS multiscale chemical science simulation software. The new technologies were used to simulate HCCI engines and burner flames with exceptional fidelity.

  20. Meta Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Describes common options and features to consider in evaluating which meta search engine will best meet a searcher's needs. Discusses number and names of engines searched; other sources and specialty engines; search queries; other search options; and results options. (AEF)

  1. NDE in biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, Aditya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering (BME) is an interdisciplinary field, marking the conjunction of Medical and Engineering disciplines. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy

  2. Standing detonation wave engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan

    2015-01-01

    A detonation engine can detonate a mixture of fuel and oxidizer within a cylindrical detonation region to produce work. The detonation engine can have a first and a second inlet having ends fluidly connected from tanks to the detonation engine

  3. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  4. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as…

  5. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  6. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  7. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  8. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  9. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  10. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  11. Premixed Turbulent Combustion in High Reynolds Number Regimes of Thickened Flamelets and Distributed Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    multiple Damkohler or Karlovitz numbers to account for auto - ignition and other types of chemistry, (d)… For example, residence time is important since...First, the rapid compression of reactants within a shock tube or an HCCI engine is known to rapidly elevate the temperature of the reactants above...the ignition temperature, causing reactions to become distributed in space [4]. Alden et al. reported broad CH zones within an HCCI engine experiment

  12. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  13. Cfd Aided Development of a Si-Di Engine Aide au développement d'un moteur à injection directe d'essence par modélisation 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriot S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI appears to be the most relevant way to improve fuel efficiency of SI engines. But today, GDI is essentially regarded as a suitable technology for relatively high displacement engines, and the literature shows that the R&D effort on GDI engines is generally made for bores larger than 80 mm. For small bore engines (bore below 75 mm, locating an injector in already congested cylinder heads, with ultra lean stratified combustion capability while maintaining high engine specific power and proper cylinder head cooling is a real challenge. For such an engine, IFP is developing a 3-valve per cylinder engine (NSDI-3, based on a narrow spacingconcept, with a spark-plug-close-to-the-injector design and a suitable piston to confine the gasoline spray within the vicinity of the ignition location. This paper describes the contribution of 3D modeling to the development of this engine, from the initial work during the design of the prototype combustion chamber, to the development and tuning of the prototype engine on the test bench. Depuis quelques années, l'injection directe d'essence apparaÎt comme l'une des voies d'investigation les plus performantes pour améliorer le rendement des moteurs à allumage commandé. Cependant, cette technologie est, actuellement, plutôt réservée aux moteurs de cylindrée assez importante, et les travaux de R&D présentés dans la littérature font surtout état de développement pour des moteurs d'alésage supérieur à 80 mm. En ce qui concerne les petits moteurs (alésage inférieur à 75 mm, implanter un injecteur dans une culasse déjà largement encombrée, avec un fort potentiel de combustion en mélange très pauvre stratifié, tout en maintenant de bonnes performances moteur et un circuit de refroidissement bien dimensionné, constitue un véritable défi. Pour un tel moteur, l'Institut français du pétrole (IFP développe une solution à 3 soupapes par cylindre (NSDI-3, basée sur

  14. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr

    This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests...... were designed to investigate the effect of engine speed, compression ratio and equivalence ratio on the combustion timing and the engine performance. It was found that the required compression ratio depended on the equivalence ratio used. A lower equivalence ratio requires a higher compression ratio...... before the fuel is burned completely, due to lower in-cylinder temperatures and lower reaction rates. The study provided some insight in the importance of operating at the correct compression ratio, as well as the operational limitations and emission characteristics of HCCI combustion. HCCI combustion...

  15. 2016 Milwaukee Engineering Research Conference | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  16. Optical Engines as Representative Tools in the Development of New Combustion Engine Concepts Moteurs transparents comme outils représentatifs dans le développement de nouveaux concepts des moteurs à combustion interne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashdan J.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Single cylinder optical engines are used for Internal Combustion (IC engine research as they allow for the application of qualitative and quantitative non-intrusive, diagnostic techniques to study in-cylinder flow, mixing, combustion and emissions phenomena. Such experimental data is not only important for the validation of computational models but can also provide a detailed insight into the physical processes occurring in-cylinder which is useful for the further development of new combustion strategies such as gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI and Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC. In this context, it is therefore important to ensure that the performance of optical engines is comparable to standard all-metal engines. A comparison of optical and all-metal engine combustion and emissions performance was performed within the present study. The objective was to investigate the principal differences between optical and all-metal engines and understand how these differences ultimately affect mixing, combustion and emissions formation processes. Experimental results reveal the significant impact of differences in combustion chamber wall temperatures between optical and standard engine piston bowls on combustion phasing and engine-out emissions. Quantitative measurements of piston wall temperatures using a laser-induced phosphorescence technique were performed which allowed the subsequent definition of appropriate engine operating strategies so as to compensate for differences in heat transfer properties. Furthermore, differences in combustion chamber geometry were also studied. Geometrical differences can arise as a result of dynamic (compressive/tensile and thermal loading of the extended piston-liner assembly on the optical engine, potentially leading to changes in the effective Compression Ratio. In addition, intake charge dilution in optical engines is often achieved via the use of simulated Exhaust Gas Recirculation

  17. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  18. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  19. Strategic Plan | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  20. News | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  1. Structures Laboratory | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  2. Contact | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  3. Johnson Controls | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  4. FAQ's | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  5. Current Students | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  6. Admissions - Undergraduate Students | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  7. Student Organizations | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  8. Community | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  9. Corporate Partners | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  10. Travel Directions | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  11. Strategic Planning | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  12. Fast Facts | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  13. Tutoring | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  14. Transfer Students | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  15. Scholarships | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  16. Donate | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  17. Corporate Services | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  18. Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering | Classification | College of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  19. Alumni | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  20. Advising | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  1. Research Collaborations | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  2. Study Abroad | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  3. Undergraduate Curriculum | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  4. Incoming Freshman | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  5. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  6. Mechanical engineer's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marghitu, Dan B

    2001-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineer's Handbook was developed and written specifically to fill a need for mechanical engineers and mechanical engineering students throughout the world. With over 1000 pages, 550 illustrations, and 26 tables the Mechanical Engineer's Handbook is very comprehensive, yet affordable, compact, and durable. The Handbook covers all major areas of mechanical engineering with succinct coverage of the definitions, formulas, examples, theory, proofs, and explanations of all principle subject areas. The Handbook is an essential, practical companion for all mechanic

  7. Software Engineering Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  8. Health care engineering management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, W B

    1980-01-01

    Today, health care engineering management is merely a concept of dreamers, with most engineering decisions in health care being made by nonengineers. It is the purpose of this paper to present a rationale for an integrated hospital engineering group, and to acquaint the clinical engineer with some of the salient features of management concepts. Included are general management concepts, organization, personnel management, and hospital engineering systems.

  9. Genome scale engineering techniques for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongming; Bassalo, Marcelo C; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has expanded from a focus on designs requiring a small number of genetic modifications to increasingly complex designs driven by advances in genome-scale engineering technologies. Metabolic engineering has been generally defined by the use of iterative cycles of rational genome modifications, strain analysis and characterization, and a synthesis step that fuels additional hypothesis generation. This cycle mirrors the Design-Build-Test-Learn cycle followed throughout various engineering fields that has recently become a defining aspect of synthetic biology. This review will attempt to summarize recent genome-scale design, build, test, and learn technologies and relate their use to a range of metabolic engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational Mechanics Laboratory Environmental Engineering Laboratory Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering

  11. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades

  12. Transforming Systems Engineering through Model Centric Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Contract No. HQ0034-13-D-0004 Report No. SERC-2017-TR-110 Date: August 8, 2017 Transforming Systems Engineering through Model-Centric... Engineering Technical Report SERC-2017-TR-110 Update: August 8, 2017 Principal Investigator: Mark Blackburn, Stevens Institute of Technology Co...Evangelista Sponsor: U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for

  13. Handbook of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This is the first handbook to cover comprehensively both software engineering and knowledge engineering - two important fields that have become interwoven in recent years. Over 60 international experts have contributed to the book. Each chapter has been written in such a way that a practitioner of software engineering and knowledge engineering can easily understand and obtain useful information. Each chapter covers one topic and can be read independently of other chapters, providing both a general survey of the topic and an in-depth exposition of the state of the art.

  14. Biomedical engineering education through global engineering teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, C; Blanckenberg, M; Garth-Davis, B; Eisenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    Most industrial projects require a team of engineers from a variety of disciplines. The team members are often culturally diverse and geographically dispersed. Many students do not acquire sufficient skills from typical university courses to function efficiently in such an environment. The Global Engineering Teams (GET) programme was designed to prepare students such a scenario in industry. This paper discusses five biomedical engineering themed projects completed by GET students. The benefits and success of the programme in educating students in the field of biomedical engineering are discussed.

  15. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  16. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a) Engine...

  17. Teaching Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-03-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be disregarded safely if the practices of engineering are better articulated and modeled through student engagement in engineering projects. A clearer distinction between science and engineering practices is outlined, and prior research is described that suggests that precollege engineering design can strengthen children's understandings about scientific concepts. However, a piecemeal approach to teaching engineering practices is unlikely to result in students understanding engineering as a discipline. The implications for science teacher education are supplemented with lessons learned from a number of engineering education professional development projects.

  18. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  19. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  20. Service Cart For Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  1. Infusing Engineering Concepts: Teaching Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Engineering has gained considerable traction in many K-12 schools. However, there are several obstacles or challenges to an effective approach that leads to student learning. Questions such as where engineering best fits in the curriculum; how to include it authentically and appropriately; toward what educational end; and how best to prepare…

  2. Becoming an Engineer or a Lady Engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, Janwillem; Udas, Pranita Bhushan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, using the Department of Irrigation in Nepal as a case study, we argue that professional performance in irrigation engineering and water resources development is gendered and normalised as ‘masculine’. In Nepal, the masculinity of professional performance in irrigation engineering is

  3. Engineering Encounters: Identifying an Engineering Design Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek, Lisa; VanMeeteren, Beth; McDermott, Mark; Uhlenberg, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Engineering is an intriguing way for students to connect the design process with their knowledge of science (NRC 2012). This article describes the "Engineering a Pancake Recipe" design process which was created to make the structure and properties of matter more meaningful for fifth grade students. The whole pancake recipe engineering…

  4. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  5. Engineering students' sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The empirical base of the article is a nation-wide, web-based survey sent to all newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark commencing their education in the fall term 2010. The response rate was 46%. The survey focused on a variety of different aspects of what can be conceived as sustainability. By means of cluster analysis, three engineering student approaches to sustainability are identified and described. The article provides knowledge on the different prerequisites of engineering students in relation to the role of sustainability in engineering. This information is important input to educators trying to target new engineering students and contribute to the provision of engineers equipped to meet sustainability challenges.

  6. Culture in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Christensen, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    As engineers today often work in intercultural projects and contexts, intercultural competences must be part of the learning objectives in engineering educations. Cultural aspects of engineering education should not just be treated as a question of appropriate communication and teaching: cultural...... aspects are basically part of engineering discipli¬nes, work challenges as well as the contextual elements in engineering curriculum [1,2]. This is reflected in the aims of the CDIO programme [3,4]; however, the programme, as well as the teaching practises, undoubtedly needs to further develop approaches...... to cultural aspects in engineering education. Hence the key-question of this paper is how CDIO support the development of intercultural competences in engineering education. The paper explores the implementation of CDIO in an intercultural arctic engineering programme in Greenland that since 2001 has been...

  7. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  8. Engineering qualifications for competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Engineering Council has a responsibility across all fields of engineering to set standards for those who are registered as Chartered Engineers, Incorporated Engineers or Engineering Technicians. These standards amount to a basic specification of professional competence to which must be added the features needed in each different branch of engineering, such as nuclear, and each particular occupation, such as quality assurance. This article describes The Engineering Council's general standards and includes a guide to the roles and responsibilities which should lie within the domain of those who are registered with the Council. The concluding section describes the title of European Engineer and its relationship to the European Community directive governing the movement of professionals across community frontiers. (author)

  9. NASA systems engineering handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  10. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  11. Unified Engineering Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  12. Mechanical engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering is defined nowadays as a discipline "which involves the application of principles of physics, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems". Recently, mechanical engineering has also focused on some cutting-edge subjects such as nanomechanics and nanotechnology, mechatronics and robotics, computational mechanics, biomechanics, alternative energies, as well as aspects related to sustainable mechanical engineering.This book covers mechanical engineering higher education with a particular emphasis on quality assurance and the improvement of academic

  13. Myanmar Language Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Pann Yu Mon; Yoshiki Mikami

    2011-01-01

    With the enormous growth of the World Wide Web, search engines play a critical role in retrieving information from the borderless Web. Although many search engines are available for the major languages, but they are not much proficient for the less computerized languages including Myanmar. The main reason is that those search engines are not considering the specific features of those languages. A search engine which capable of searching the Web documents written in those languages is highly n...

  14. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  15. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  16. Engineering synergy in biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Fussenegger, Martin; Keasling, Jay

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on approaches in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for the creation of efficient cell factories, which can be bused to convert biomass and other feedstocks for the generation of chemicals. Topics discussed include development of restriction enzymes......, engineering plasmids and recyclable markers, production of 1,3-propanediol using a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli and production of isobutanol by using metabolically engineered yeast....

  17. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  18. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  19. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  20. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  1. Fostering Creative Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2012-01-01

    . As the literature demonstrates, this paper reveals the understanding of complexity in engineering practice and the roles of creativity in engineering practice. In addition, the barriers to creativity in current engineering education and some implications of pedagogic strategies will be discussed. So this paper...

  2. Ethics and engineering design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poel, I.R.; van der Poel, Ibo; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Engineering ethics and science and technology studies (STS) have until now developed as separate enterprises. The authors argue that they can learn a lot from each other. STS insights can help make engineering ethics open the black box of technology and help discern ethical issues in engineering

  3. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  4. Designing requirements engineering research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Engineering sciences study different topics than natural sciences, and utility is an essential factor in choosing engineering research problems. But despite these differences, research methods for the engineering sciences are no different than research methods for any other kind of science. At most

  5. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  6. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  7. Kali Linux social engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide to learning and performing SET attacks with multiple examples.Kali Linux Social Engineering is for penetration testers who want to use BackTrack in order to test for social engineering vulnerabilities or for those who wish to master the art of social engineering attacks.

  8. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  9. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  10. Modern engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balmer, Robert T

    2010-01-01

    Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematica

  11. Programming Google App Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Dan

    2010-01-01

    As one of today's cloud computing services, Google App Engine does more than provide access to a large system of servers. It also offers you a simple model for building applications that scale automatically to accommodate millions of users. With Programming Google App Engine, you'll get expert practical guidance that will help you make the best use of this powerful platform. Google engineer Dan Sanderson shows you how to design your applications for scalability, including ways to perform common development tasks using App Engine's APIs and scalable services. You'll learn about App Engine's a

  12. Solar powered Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-11-24

    In a solar dish module which comprises a dish which receives incident solar rays and reflects them to a focus at which is located the combination of a receiver and a heat engine organized and arranged so that the heat energy of the reflected solar rays collected at the receiver powers the engine, and wherein the receiver and heat engine are supported from the dish by a framework, the improvement is described which comprises journal means for journaling at least the engine on the framework to maintain certain predetermined spatial orientation for the engine in relation to the direction of gravity irrespective of spatial orientation of the dish.

  13. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...

  14. Rehabilitation Engineering: What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corner Strategic Plan Budget Advisory Council Staff Directory Careers History Visitor Information You are here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Rehabilitation Engineering SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links ...

  15. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stirling engine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  17. Mécanisme de l'usure par polissage des cylindres de moteurs diesel Bore Polishing Wear Mechanism in Diesel Engine Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayard J. C.

    2006-11-01

    particulier, l'usure des segments ainsi que les débits de gaz de soufflage, sont plus faibles qu'avec une chemise normale. Enfin, le mécanisme de l'usure par polissage par abrasion douce à deux et à trois corps est parfaitement confirmé par une exploration micrographique et une microanalyse des surfaces polies. A fast and economical method for evaluating lubricants and fuels in relation to the bore polishing wear of super charged diesel-engine cylinders has been developed using a single-cylinder laboratory engine within the framework of an Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine - Institut Français du Pétrole (SNEA-lFP research agreement. This method bears the reference IFP-UP-4/80.It also serves to evaluate the deposit-forming and sticking tendency, ring wear and the oil-consumption tendency of lubricants. It is in good correlation with the CEC-Ford Tornado test and makes an excellent discrimination between the Coordinating European Council (CEC reference cils RL 47 and RL 48. The method is used for investigating the bore polishingwear mechanism by searching for the influence exerted by the principal parameters: (a Composition of the lubricant: the phenomenon is influenced by the base oil and its viscosity, by the amount of polymers improving the viscosity index and especially by the choice of detergent additives. As a first approximation and for homogeneous oil familles, polishing wear increases when the thermal stability of the oil decreases. (b Engine running: polishing increases very fart with the engine load after a certain threshold, and its evolution in time as observed by endoscopic rating shows a characteristic S shape as polishing begins on the thrust side and at the top of the cylinder. (c Composition of the fuel: the increase in the sulfur content of diesel fuel considerably decreases polishing wear caused by an oil reputed to be poorfrom this standpoint but has no effect on a goodoil. (d Surface finish of the cylinder: prepolishing the liner by extremely fine

  18. 78 FR 5710 - Airworthiness Directives; Engine Alliance Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Engine Alliance Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... all Engine Alliance GP7270 and GP7277 turbofan engines. This AD requires initial and repetitive...) Applicability This AD applies to all Engine Alliance GP7270 and GP7277 turbofan engines with a high-pressure...

  19. Systems Engineering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges proposed by the development of the new computer systems demand new guidance related to engineer´s education, because they will solve these problems. In the XXI century, system engineers must be able to integrate a number of topics and knowledge disciplines that complement that traditionally has been known as Computer Systems Engineering. We have enough software development engineers, today we need professional engineers for software integration, leaders and system architects that make the most of the technological development for the benefit of society, leaders that integrate sciences to the solutions they build and propose. In this article the current situation of Computer Systems Engineering is analyzed and is presented a theory proposing the need for modifying the approach Universities have given to these careers, to achieve the education of leader engineers according to the needs of this century.

  20. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  1. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  2. Da "Search engines" a "Shop engines"

    OpenAIRE

    Lupi, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    The change occuring related to “search engines” is going towards e-commerce, transforming all the main search engines into information and commercial suggestion conveying means, basing their businnes on this activity. In a next future we will find two main series of search engines: from one side, the portals that will offer a general orientation guide being convoying means for services and to-buy products; from the other side, vertical portals able to offer information and products on specifi...

  3. What Chemistry To Teach Engineers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines possible general chemistry topics that would be most relevant and practical for engineering majors. Consults the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), engineering textbooks, texts from other required subjects, and practicing engineers for recommendations. (Contains 24 references.) (WRM)

  4. Present day engines pollutant emissions: proposed model for refinery bases impact; Emissions de polluants des moteurs actuels: modelisation de l'impact des bases de raffinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochart, N.; Jeuland, N.; Montagne, X. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Div. Techniques d' Applications Energetiques, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Raux, S. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Div. Techniques d' Applications Energetiques, Centre d' Etudes et de Developpement Industriel, Rene Navarre, 69 - Vernaison (France); Belot, G.; Cahill, B. [PSA-Peugiot-Citroen, 92 - La Garenne-Colombes (France); Faucon, R.; Petit, A. [Renault, 91 - Lardy (France); Michon, S. [Renault Trucks Powertrain, 69 - Saint Priest (France)

    2003-07-01

    Air quality improvement, especially in urban areas, is one of the major concerns for the coming years. For this reason, car manufacturers, equipment manufacturers and refiners have explored development issues to comply with increasingly severe anti-pollution requirements. In such a context, the identification of the most promising improvement options is essential. A research program, carried out by IFP (Institut francais du petrole), and supported by the French Ministry of Industry, PSA-Peugeot-Citroen, Renault and RVI (Renault Vehicules Industriels), has been built to study this point. It is based on a 4-year program with different steps focused on new engine technologies which will be available in the next 20 years in order to answer to more and more severe pollutant and CO{sub 2} emissions regulations. This program is divided into three main parts: the first one for Diesel car engines, the second for Diesel truck engines and the third for spark ignition engines. The aim of the work reported here is to characterize the effect of fuel formulation on pollutant emissions and engine tuning for different engine technologies. The originality of this study is to use refinery bases as parameters and not conventional physical or chemical parameters. The tested fuels have been chosen in order to represent the major refinery bases expected to be produced in the near future. These results, expressed with linear correlations between fuel composition and pollutant emissions, will help to give a new orientation to refinery tool. The engines presented in this publication are, for spark ignition engines, an EuroII lean-burn engine (Honda VTEC which equips the Honda Civic) and an EuroIII 1.8 l stoichiometric-running Renault engine which equips the Laguna vehicles, and, for diesel engines, an EuroII Renault Laguna 2.2 l indirect injection diesel engine and an EuroII RVI truck engine. For the fuel formulation, an original approach is proposed: while the classical studies are based

  5. Mechanical Engineering Department technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Abrahamson, L.; Denney, R.M.; Dubois, B.E (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    Technical achievements and publication abstracts related to research in the following Divisions of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reported in this biannual review: Nuclear Fuel Engineering; Nuclear Explosives Engineering; Weapons Engineering; Energy Systems Engineering; Engineering Sciences; Magnetic Fusion Engineering; and Material Fabrication. (LCL)

  6. Educating the humanitarian engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Kevin M

    2009-12-01

    The creation of new technologies that serve humanity holds the potential to help end global poverty. Unfortunately, relatively little is done in engineering education to support engineers' humanitarian efforts. Here, various strategies are introduced to augment the teaching of engineering ethics with the goal of encouraging engineers to serve as effective volunteers for community service. First, codes of ethics, moral frameworks, and comparative analysis of professional service standards lay the foundation for expectations for voluntary service in the engineering profession. Second, standard coverage of global issues in engineering ethics educates humanitarian engineers about aspects of the community that influence technical design constraints encountered in practice. Sample assignments on volunteerism are provided, including a prototypical design problem that integrates community constraints into a technical design problem in a novel way. Third, it is shown how extracurricular engineering organizations can provide a theory-practice approach to education in volunteerism. Sample completed projects are described for both undergraduates and graduate students. The student organization approach is contrasted with the service-learning approach. Finally, long-term goals for establishing better infrastructure are identified for educating the humanitarian engineer in the university, and supporting life-long activities of humanitarian engineers.

  7. Embedded engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Kaštelan, Ivan; Temerinac, Miodrag; Barak, Moshe; Sruk, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the outcome of the European research project “FP7-ICT-2011-8 / 317882: Embedded Engineering Learning Platform” E2LP. Additionally, some experiences and researches outside this project have been included. This book provides information about the achieved results of the E2LP project as well as some broader views about the embedded engineering education. It captures project results and applications, methodologies, and evaluations. It leads to the history of computer architectures, brings a touch of the future in education tools and provides a valuable resource for anyone interested in embedded engineering education concepts, experiences and material. The book contents 12 original contributions and will open a broader discussion about the necessary knowledge and appropriate learning methods for the new profile of embedded engineers. As a result, the proposed Embedded Computer Engineering Learning Platform will help to educate a sufficient number of future engineers in Europe, capable of d...

  8. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yuntao; Wu, Weiyue; Du, Shijun

    2014-01-01

    Provides a systematic introduction to tokamaks in engineering mechanics. Includes design guides based on full mechanical analysis, which makes it possible to accurately predict load capacity and temperature increases. Presents comprehensive information on important design factors involving materials. Covers the latest advances in and up-to-date references on tokamak devices. Numerous examples reinforce the understanding of concepts and provide procedures for design. Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study of mechanical/fusion engineering with a general understanding of tokamak engineering mechanics.

  9. Engineering and design skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Anne Lise

    2006-01-01

    In various branches of society there is focus on the need for design skills and innovation potential as a means of communicating and handling constant change. In this context, the traditional idea of the engineer as a poly-technician inventing solutions by understanding the laws of nature...... concept of diagrammatic reasoning to some extent incarnates the very method of engineering and design. On this background, it is argued how the work field and techniques of the engineer and the engineering scientist could be characterized in a broader creative context of learning and communication....... This leads to considering the fundamental skills of the engineering practice as basic abilities to see the structures and dynamics of the world, to model it, and to create new solutions concerning practical as well as theoretical matters. Finally, it is assumed that the essence of engineering “bildung...

  10. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  11. Practical electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    N Makarov, Sergey; Bitar, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage of the fundamental concepts of electrical and computer engineering. It is written from an engineering perspective, with special emphasis on circuit functionality and applications. Reliance on higher-level mathematics and physics, or theoretical proofs has been intentionally limited in order to prioritize the practical aspects of electrical engineering. This text is therefore suitable for a number of introductory circuit courses for other majors such as robotics, mechanical, biomedical, aerospace, civil, architecture, petroleum, and industrial engineering. The authors’ primary goal is to teach the aspiring engineering student all fundamental tools needed to understand, analyze and design a wide range of practical circuits and systems. Their secondary goal is to provide a comprehensive reference, for both major and non-major students as well as practicing engineers. Provides a self-contained, fundamental textbook on electric circuits and basic electronic...

  12. Introduction to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John D; Blanchard, Susan M

    2005-01-01

    Under the direction of John Enderle, Susan Blanchard and Joe Bronzino, leaders in the field have contributed chapters on the most relevant subjects for biomedical engineering students. These chapters coincide with courses offered in all biomedical engineering programs so that it can be used at different levels for a variety of courses of this evolving field. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition provides a historical perspective of the major developments in the biomedical field. Also contained within are the fundamental principles underlying biomedical engineering design, analysis, and modeling procedures. The numerous examples, drill problems and exercises are used to reinforce concepts and develop problem-solving skills making this book an invaluable tool for all biomedical students and engineers. New to this edition: Computational Biology, Medical Imaging, Genomics and Bioinformatics. * 60% update from first edition to reflect the developing field of biomedical engineering * New chapters o...

  13. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Anderson, Brian L [Lodi, CA; O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  14. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  15. Standing detonation wave engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan

    2015-10-08

    A detonation engine can detonate a mixture of fuel and oxidizer within a cylindrical detonation region to produce work. The detonation engine can have a first and a second inlet having ends fluidly connected from tanks to the detonation engine. The first and second inlets can be aligned along a common axis. The inlets can be connected to nozzles and a separator can be positioned between the nozzles and along the common axis.

  16. Car engine breather icing

    OpenAIRE

    Horoufi, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    Icing in an engine breather system can block the engine breather pipe, cause excessive crankcase pressure and degrade the engine performance. In this project, a numerical study, experimental tests and CFD analysis are employed in order to understand condensation and the extent of freezing inside a vertical pipe, a horizontal pipe and a T-joint pipe which are exposed to an external convective cooling. The pipe internal flow is assumed to be a vapour/air mixture. This study has l...

  17. Advanced rotary engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1983-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  18. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  19. Stirling Engine Cycle Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Naddaf, Nasrollah

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study strives to provide a clear explanation of the Stirling engine and its efficiency using new automation technology and the Lab View software. This heat engine was invented by Stirling, a Scottish in 1918. The engine’s working principles are based on the laws of thermodynamics and ability of volume expansion of ideal gases at different temperatures. Basically there are three types of Stirling engines: the gamma, beta and alpha models. The commissioner of the thesis ...

  20. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process...

  1. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies......-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories....

  2. Game mechanics engine

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Lars V

    2011-01-01

    Game logic and game rules exists in all computer games, but they are created di erently for all game engines. This game engine dependency exists because of how the internal object model is implemented in the engine, as a place where game logic data is intermingled with the data needed by the low- level subsystems. This thesis propose a game object model design, based on existing theory, that removes this dependency and establish a general game logic framework. The thesis the...

  3. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yuntao; Du, Shijun

    2013-01-01

    Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study

  4. Software engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineer's Pocket Book provides a concise discussion on various aspects of software engineering. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of concerns in software engineering. Chapter 1 discusses software development, and Chapter 2 covers programming languages. Chapter 3 deals with operating systems. The book also tackles discrete mathematics and numerical computation. Data structures and algorithms are also explained. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the specification, design, development, implementation, testing, maintenance, and qualit

  5. Advanced rotary engine studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.

    1980-01-01

    A review of rotary engine developments relevant to a stratified charge rotary aircraft engine is presented. Advantages in module size and weight, fuel efficiency, reliability, and multi-fuel capability are discussed along with developments in turbocharging, increased mean effective pressure, improved apex seal/trochoid wear surfacing materials, and high strength and temperature aluminum casting alloys. A carbureted prototype aircraft engine is also described.

  6. Applied clinical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book demonstrates how clinical engineering has applied engineering principles to the development and use of complex medical devices for the diagnosis and treatment of the sick and injured. It discusses the proper utilization of medical devices and equipment in the health-care industry and provides understanding of complex engineering systems, and their uses in the modern hospital or other health-care facility

  7. Nuclear chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Shin, Young Jun

    1989-08-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of chemical engineering and related chemistry on an atomic reactor, foundation of the chemistry nuclear chemical engineering, theory on nuclear engineering, the cycle of uranium and nuclear fuel, a product of nuclear division, nuclear reprocessing, management of spent fuel separation of radioisotope, materials of an atomic reactor, technology and chemistry related water in atomic reactors and utilization of radioisotope and radiation. This book has the exercises and reference books for the each chapter.

  8. Systems engineering research

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraoui , Abd-El-Kader; Buede , Dennis ,; Sage , Andrew ,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose selected research topics that are believed central to progress and growth in the application of systems engineering (SE). As a professional activity, and as an intellectual activity, systems engineering has strong links to such associated disciplines as decision analysis, operation research, project management, quality management, and systems design. When focussing on systems engineering research, we should distinguish between subjects that ar...

  9. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  10. Mechanical engineers data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Carvill, James

    1994-01-01

    This text provides the student and professional mechanical engineer with a reference text of an essentially practical nature. It is uncluttered by text, and extensive use of illustrations and tables provide quick and clear access to information. It alsoincludes examples of detailed calculations on many of the applications of technology used by mechanical and production engineers, draughtsmen and engineering designers.Although mainly intended for those studying and practising mechanical engineering, a glance at the contents will show that it is also useful to those in related br

  11. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  12. Cyber-Informed Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Benjamin, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Virginia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinones, Luis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Paz, Jonathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A continuing challenge for engineers who utilize digital systems is to understand the impact of cyber-attacks across the entire product and program lifecycle. This is a challenge due to the evolving nature of cyber threats that may impact the design, development, deployment, and operational phases of all systems. Cyber Informed Engineering is the process by which engineers are made aware of both how to use their engineering knowledge to positively impact the cyber security in the processes by which they architect and design components and the services and security of the components themselves.

  13. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  14. Computers in engineering. 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipnis, V.A.; Patton, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following subjects: Knowledge base systems; Computers in designing; uses of artificial intelligence; engineering optimization and expert systems of accelerators; and parallel processing in designing

  15. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  16. Rotary engine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  17. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  18. Cyber-Informed Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Benjamin, Jacob; Wright, Virginia L.; Quinones, Luis; Paz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A continuing challenge for engineers who utilize digital systems is to understand the impact of cyber-attacks across the entire product and program lifecycle. This is a challenge due to the evolving nature of cyber threats that may impact the design, development, deployment, and operational phases of all systems. Cyber Informed Engineering is the process by which engineers are made aware of both how to use their engineering knowledge to positively impact the cyber security in the processes by which they architect and design components and the services and security of the components themselves.

  19. Engine and method for operating an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo [Dunlap, IL; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh [Peoria, IL; Gong, Weidong [Dunlap, IL

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  20. Special theory on chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This book give a special description about chemical engineering. The contents of this book are special technique for isolation on introduction and separation by membrane, biochemistry engineering, process system engineering, energy engineering, environment engineering, a high molecular new material, election material and research on surface property of catalyst. It has appendixes on history of transition on Korean chemical engineering text contents and history of the activity of Korea chemical engineering institute.

  1. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  2. Engineering Sustainable Engineers through the Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherton, Yvette Pearson; Sattler, Melanie; Mattingly, Stephen; Chen, Victoria; Rogers, Jamie; Dennis, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the challenges of sustainable development, our approach to education must be modified to equip students to evaluate alternatives and devise solutions that meet multi-faceted requirements. In 2009, faculty in the Departments of Civil, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington began implementation…

  3. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  4. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  5. An Engineering Context for Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    predictable properties. The first two are due to Boehm as described in Pressman [Pre05] and called validation versus verification. 1. solving the right...Quality Software, 2nd ed., New York: Macmillan, 1991. [Pre05] Pressman , Roger, Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, Sixth Edition, McGraw

  6. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  7. Vertical Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  8. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  9. Electromechanical Engineering Technology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia State Univ., Atlanta. Dept. of Vocational and Career Development.

    This guide offers information and procedures necessary to train electromechanical engineering technicians. Discussed first are the rationale and objectives of the curriculum. The occupational field of electromechanical engineering technology is described. Next, a curriculum model is set forth that contains information on the standard…

  10. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  11. Sustainability in Software Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfram, N.J.E.; Lago, P.; Osborne, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The intersection between software engineering research and issues related to sustainability and green IT has been the subject of increasing attention. In spite of that, we observe that sustainability is still not clearly defined, or understood, in the field of software engineering. This lack of

  12. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, Steven R.; Voss, Linda D.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2017-01-01

    The update of this handbook continues the methodology of the previous revision: a top-down compatibility with higher level Agency policy and a bottom-up infusion of guidance from the NASA practitioners in the field. This approach provides the opportunity to obtain best practices from across NASA and bridge the information to the established NASA systems engineering processes and to communicate principles of good practice as well as alternative approaches rather than specify a particular way to accomplish a task. The result embodied in this handbook is a top-level implementation approach on the practice of systems engineering unique to NASA. Material used for updating this handbook has been drawn from many sources, including NPRs, Center systems engineering handbooks and processes, other Agency best practices, and external systems engineering textbooks and guides. This handbook consists of six chapters: (1) an introduction, (2) a systems engineering fundamentals discussion, (3) the NASA program project life cycles, (4) systems engineering processes to get from a concept to a design, (5) systems engineering processes to get from a design to a final product, and (6) crosscutting management processes in systems engineering. The chapters are supplemented by appendices that provide outlines, examples, and further information to illustrate topics in the chapters. The handbook makes extensive use of boxes and figures to define, refine, illustrate, and extend concepts in the chapters.

  13. Building Open in Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Devin

    2018-01-01

    A description of ongoing efforts to build a culture for open in engineering. I will overview some of the tools that have been developed to promote open practices in engineering and discuss some of the barriers to adoption within the field.Presented 27 March 2018 at the "E"ffordabilitiy Summit, Menomonie, WI.

  14. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  15. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in

  16. Teaching Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be…

  17. Advanced Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    1999-01-01

    This book is developed as a textbook for the course Advanced Control Engineering. The book is intended for students in mechanical engineering and its aim is to provide an understanding of modern control theory as well as methodologies and applications for state space modeling and design...

  18. Engineering for Everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Higgins, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The new Next Generation Science Standards make it a priority for schools to focus more on the E in STEM, to help students learn the skills and practices of engineering. Schools that are doing so face a challenge, however: How to design educational experiences in engineering that engage all students--including girls and minorities, who are…

  19. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  20. Civil engineering work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousyn, Rene; Goubin, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    Although it does not require a specifically new technicality, the Civil Engineering site of a nuclear power plant is a complex work. Considering as an example the power plant currently in construction at Tricastin, the authors describe the main Civil Engineering work and task organization applied to carry it out [fr

  1. Emerging Engine Control Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Chevalier, Alain

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work published by the author and co-authors, a dynamic model called a Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM) was developed. This model is physically based and is intended mainly for control applications. It is especially well suited to embedded model applications in engine controllers, susch...

  2. Radiation engineering formation begin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, A.F.; Starykh, V.B.; Yanovskaya, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The main problems of the military-industrial complex and atomic industry conversion and the ways for their realization are discussed. Development of radiation engineering is considered as one of trends of atomic industry conversion. Rates of radiation engineering development are assumed to be determined by commercial but not governmental structures. 9 refs

  3. The gerontechnology engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Brink, M.; Vlies, van der R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pushing supportive technology to serve an aging society originated from the social sciences. Only about 20 years ago did engineers discover the field and formulated it as gerontechnology. The question arises whether engineers and social scientists have succeeded to form a community of practice with

  4. Engineering of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Morten Emil; Salomonsen, Bo; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2012-01-01

    -efficient methods for identification and validation of candidate genes are needed. This chapter covers the methodology we are using for gene discovery in glucosinolate engineering, namely, guilt-by-association-based in silico methods and fast proof-of-function screens by transient expression in Nicotiana...... here will be beneficial to elucidate and engineer other plant biosynthetic pathways....

  5. Software Engineering Education Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    and Engineering (CMSC 735) Codes: GPEV2 * Textiooks: IEEE Tutoria on Models and Metrics for Software Management and Engameeing by Basi, Victor R...Software Engineering (Comp 227) Codes: GPRY5 Textbooks: IEEE Tutoria on Software Design Techniques by Freeman, Peter and Wasserman, Anthony 1. Software

  6. Unplanned ecological engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Gislason, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    unexpectedly large catches by removing predators from the ecosystem. Such ecosystem engineering stands in stark contrast to reigning management paradigms that do not allow fishing down predators to increase the productivity of their prey. The theoretical support for such a feat of ecosystem engineering is well...

  7. Stirling engine design manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve both as an introduction to Stirling engine analysis methods and as a key to the open literature on Stirling engines. Over 800 references are listed and these are cross referenced by date of publication, author and subject. Engine analysis is treated starting from elementary principles and working through cycles analysis. Analysis methodologies are classified as first, second or third order depending upon degree of complexity and probable application; first order for preliminary engine studies, second order for performance prediction and engine optimization, and third order for detailed hardware evaluation and engine research. A few comparisons between theory and experiment are made. A second order design procedure is documented step by step with calculation sheets and a worked out example to follow. Current high power engines are briefly described and a directory of companies and individuals who are active in Stirling engine development is included. Much remains to be done. Some of the more complicated and potentially very useful design procedures are now only referred to. Future support will enable a more thorough job of comparing all available design procedures against experimental data which should soon be available.

  8. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  9. Disciplinary Literacy in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Lopez, Amy; Minichiello, Angela

    2017-01-01

    People who practice engineering can make a difference through designing products, procedures, and systems that improve people's quality of life. Literacy, including the interpretation, evaluation, critique, and production of texts and representations, is important throughout the engineering design process. In this commentary, the authors outline…

  10. Photovoltaic engineering handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, F; Ang, T G [Asian Institute of Technolgoy, Bangkok (TH)

    1990-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Engineering Handbook is a comprehensive 'nuts and bolts' guide to photovoltaic technology and systems engineering aimed at engineers and designers in the field. It is the first book to look closely at the practical problems involved in evaluating and setting up a PV power system. The authors' comprehensive insight into the different procedures and decisions that a designer needs to make. The book is unique in its coverage and the technical information is presented in a concise and simple way to enable engineers from a wide range of backgrounds to initiate, assess, analyse and design a PV system. Energy planners making decisions on the most appropriate system for specific needs will also benefit from reading this book. Topics covered include technological processes, including solar cell technology, the photovoltaic generator, photovoltaic systems engineering; characterization and testing methods, sizing procedure; economic analysis and instrumentation. (author).

  11. Engineering hydro's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this challenging hydropower market, hydropower engineering services are in high demand. The number of new hydropower projects entering the pipeline may have slowed in recent years but that does not mean work is not being done. Independent developers, utilities and municipalities are carrying out a considerable amount of hydropower activity. Whatever the work involves - preliminary planning, licensing and relicensing, environmental mitigation, plant rehabilitation or new-plant startup - engineering firms are finding a brisk market for their services. The complexity of the regulatory framework makes hydropower facility and other water resource work more important then ever. Executives of three engineering firms - Acres International, Harza Engineering and Black and Veatch - active in these areas discuss their views on the future of the hydropower engineering market

  12. Information Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yan; International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011 will be held on October 21-24, 2011, in Chongqing, China. It is organized by Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Nanyang Technological University, the University of Michigan, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, and sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The objective of IEA 2011 is to facilitate an exchange of information on best practices for the latest research advances in the area of information engineering and intelligence applications, which mainly includes computer science and engineering, informatics, communications and control, electrical engineering, information computing, business intelligence and management. IEA 2011 will provide a forum for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges, social and economic issues, and to present and disc...

  13. Purposeful engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chadderton, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...

  14. Plasma engineering: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This review paper will present the authors perspective of the field of Plasma Engineering as it has evolved over the preceding five years. This embrionic discipline has grown in that period of time to the point where it is sufficiently mature to become part of the curriculum, and a speciality within, the discipline of Nuclear Engineering. Plasma Engineering can be distinguished from the underlying science of plasma physics in that in the pursuit of the latter, our goal is the understanding of the fundamental processes governing the behavior of plasmas while the former discipline seeks the embodiment of these concepts in useful devices. Consequent to this goal, the plasma engineer, of necessity, is concerned with the interfaces between a plasma configuration and the device by which it is produced and maintained. These interface problems, often referred to as kitchen physics are multidisciplinary in nature, and their solution requires careful attention to both plasma physics and machine engineering detail

  15. Turning Engineering Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the relations between engineering and development have changed significantly. On the one hand, at a discursive or macro level, there has been a shift in regard to the kind of development to which engineering is meant to contribute, from furthering economic growth to an approach...... to development that is “sustainable” in one way or another. On the other hand, on a practitioner, or micro level, there has been a change in the kinds of competence that engineers are expected to have in order to be able to contribute to development, due to the emergence of new fields of “technoscience” blurring...... the boundaries between what was previously considered science and what was previously considered technology. Finally, in between, at an institutional or meso level, there have been significant changes in how engineering work and engineering education are organized. This chapter attempts to provide an overview...

  16. Teaching engineering design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blessing, Lucienne; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2005-01-01

    The importance og engineering design as an industrial activity, and the increasingly complex and dynamic context in which it takes place, has led to the wish to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of engineering design in practice as well as in education. Although attempts have been made...... to improve design for centuries, it was not until well in the second half of the 20th century that engineering design became a research topic (see pahl and Beitz (1996), Heymann (2004) for historical overviews). Engineering research, such as research into thermodynamics, mechanics and materials, has a much...... by PhD students. This has created the demand for a clear, efficient way of learning the crafmanship of doing design research, a demand which is in strong contrast to the state of design research in general. This article reflects the authors' efforts in running a summer school om engineering design...

  17. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention......-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental Engineering, thus, in essence...... comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual disciplines, within each...

  18. Multi-office engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowle, E.S.; Hall, L.D.; Koss, P.; Saheb, E.; Setrakian, V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the viability of multi-office project engineering as has been made possible in a large part by the computer age. Brief discussions are provided on two past projects describing the authors' initial efforts at multi-office engineering, and an in-depth discussion is provided on a current Bechtel project that demonstrates their multi-office engineering capabilities. Efficiencies and cost savings associated with executing an engineering project from multiple office locations was identified as a viable and cost-effective execution approach. The paper also discusses how the need for multi-office engineering came about, what is required to succeed, and where they are going from here. Furthermore, it summarizes the benefits to their clients and to Bechtel

  19. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  20. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  1. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention...... of Eco-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental...... Engineering, thus, in essence comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual...

  2. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  3. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  4. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  5. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  6. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  7. Engineering Complex Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  8. MATHEMATICS EDUCATION FOR LOGISTICS ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    BÉLA ILLÉS; GABRIELLA BOGNÁR

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is a crucial language in all engineering courses and researches where mathematical modeling, simulation and manipulation are commonly used. Engineering Mathematics courses are considered difficult courses in engineering curricula. This is reflected in engineering students’ performance at the end of each semester for these courses. Our goal is to overview a few questions on mathematics as a core subject of engineering.

  9. Engineering Science, Skills, and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    The background for the book is a quest for a thorough analysis of engineering, engineering science, and engineering education. Focusing on the concepts of engineering science, skills, and Bildung, the book investigates the real challenges that are confronting engineering today, and discusses how...

  10. Systems Engineering Workshops | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workshops Systems Engineering Workshops The Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop is a biennial topics relevant to systems engineering and the wind industry. The presentations and agendas are available for all of the Systems Engineering Workshops: The 1st NREL Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop

  11. Fundamentals of Aerospace Engineering: An introductory course to aeronautical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Soler, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Aerospace Engineering is a text book that provides an introductory, thorough overview of aeronautical engineering, and it is aimed at serving as reference for an undergraduate course on aerospace engineering.

  12. Technician Career Opportunities in Engineering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineers' Council for Professional Development, New York, NY.

    Career opportunities for engineering technicians are available in the technologies relating to air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, aviation and aerospace, building construction, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial engineering, instrumentation, internal combustion engines, mechanical…

  13. IFPE/FUMEX-II/CASE27, 7 idealised cases for functional dependence of FGR predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.; Rossiter, Glyn; Sontheimer, Fritz; Tayal, Mukesh

    2004-01-01

    Description: Seven idealised cases to illustrate the functional dependence of fission gas release (FGR) predictions. (1) Temperature vs Bu for onset of FGR (draft available); (2a) FGR for constant 15 kW/m to 100 MWd/kgU; (2b) FGR for 20 kW/m at BOL decreasing linearly to 10 kW/m at 100 MWd/kgU; (2c) FGR for more realistic power histories supplied by BNFL; (2d) FGR for idealized 'real' histories supplied by FANP; (3a) Candu-Effect of Power on Fission Gas Release; (3b) Candu-Effect of Power Envelope on Fuel Performance

  14. IFPE/CNEA-MOX-RAMP, CNEA Power Ramp Irradiations with (PHWR) MOX Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Armando Carlos; Turnbull, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Description: The irradiation of the first MOX nuclear fuel rods fabricated in Argentina began in 1986. These experiences were made in the HFR-Petten reactor, Holland. The six rods were fabricated in the a Facility (GAID-CNEA-Argentina). The first rod has been used for destructive pre-irradiation characterization in the KFK (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe), Germany. The second one was a pathfinder for calibrating HFR systems in Petten. Two other rods included pellets doped with iodine. The first contained mostly CsI whilst the second contained elemental iodine. The concentration of iodine was intended to simulate a burn-up of 15000 MWd/ton(M). The power histories were defined from calculations performed with the BACO code. A 15 day cycle was assumed with a power history that induced PCMI during power cycling. The last high power period was maintained until stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was induced. Two further un-doped rods were used in a sub-program named BU15. Here a burn-up of 15000 MWd/ton(M) was achieved at a low power followed by a final power ramp for one of the rods. The ramp was similar to that used for the Iodine test. The HFR irradiation was conducted satisfactorily. The objective was to attempt a correspondence in behaviour between the doped rods and BU15 rods. PIE detected the presence of micro-cracks inside the cladding of the iodine doped rods. Ramping of the BU15 rod was interrupted when an increase of coolant activity was detected. After discharge, a visual inspection of the rod showed the presence of a small circular hole in the cladding. Additional PIE showed that the hole was due to a SCC failure

  15. IFPE/IFA-508 and 515, PCMI Behaviour of Thin Cladding Rods, JAERI and HRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Description: To measure the integrated response of UO 2 and its cladding to conditions associated with PCI, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute carried out a series of experiments in the Halden BWR. The experiment involved two major objectives. The first was to study the influence of rod design parameters on PCI. Diametral gap, wall cladding thickness, SiO 2 additive, and pellet grain size were used as design parameters. The second objective was to study the influence of pre-irradiation (i.e. burnup) on PCI. The maximum burnup attained in the experiment was 23 MWd/kgU. These research results can be applied to current BWR-type fuel rods. The tests were performed between April 1977 and March 1981

  16. IFPE/TRIBULATION R1, Fuel Rod Behaviour at High Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Description: The TRIBULATION (Tests Relative to High Burnup Limitations Arising Normally in LWRs) International Programme started in July 1980 and was organized jointly by BelgoNucleaire and the Nuclear Energy Centre at Mol (CEN/SCK) with the co-sponsorship of 14 participating organizations. The objectives of the programme were twofold. It was primarily a demonstration programme aimed at assessing the fuel rod behaviour at high burn-up, when an earlier transient had occurred in the power plant. The second objective was to investigate the behaviour of different fuel rod designs and manufacturers when subjected to a steady state irradiation history to high burn-up. The first objective was met by irradiating fuel rods under steady state conditions in the BR3 reactor and under transient conditions in BR2. The effect of the transient was determined by comparing data from 4 identical rods tested as follows: i) BR3 irradiation followed by PIE; ii) BR3 irradiation followed by BR2 transient then PIE; iii) BR3 irradiation followed by BR2 transient and re-irradiated in BR3 before PIE; iv) BR3 irradiation and continued BR3 irradiation to maximum burn-up before PIE. The Database contains data from 19 cases using rods fabricated by BelgoNucleaire (BN) (11) and Brown Boveri Reactor GmbH (BBR) (8)

  17. IFPE/IFA-432, Fission Gas Release, Mechanical Interaction BWR Fuel Rods, Halden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Description: It contains data from experiments that have been performed at the IFE/OECD Halden Reactor Project, available for use in fuel performance studies. It covers experiments on thermal performance, fission product release, clad properties and pellet clad mechanical interaction. It includes also experimental data relevant to high burn-up behaviour. IFA-432: Measurements of fuel temperature response, fission gas release and mechanical interaction on BWR-type fuel rods up to high burn-ups. The assembly featured several variations in rod design parameters, including fuel type, fuel/cladding gap size, fill gas composition (He and Xe) and fuel stability. It contained 6 BWR-type fuel rods with fuel centre thermocouples at two horizontal planes, rods were also equipped with pressure transducers and cladding extensometers. Only data from 6 rods are compiled here

  18. IFPE/HBEP REV.1, Battelle's High Burn-Up Effects Programme for Fuel Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Description: It contains data from phase 2 and 3 on fabrication, dimensions, fuel and cladding properties and composition, reactor conditions and Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data of the High Burn-up Effects Programme (HBEP) carried out at the Battelle North-west Laboratories. Each data set contains a full irradiation history with clad temperature and local power listed for each rod at 5, 10 or 12 axial zones as a function of cumulative time to the end of the given time interval over which the power has been constant. Data is provided for 45 rods from phase 2 and 36 rods from phase 3. The different rods have been manufactured by: ASEA/TVO, BN, BNFL, FBFC, FRA/CEA, GE, KWU/CE, WEC

  19. IFPE/IFA-533, Fuel Thermal Behaviour at High Burnup, Halden Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyori, Cs.; Turnbull, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Description: After twelve years irradiation in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor two fuel rods (Rod 807 and Rod 808) were re-instrumented with fuel centre thermocouples and reloaded into the reactor in order to investigate the fuel thermal behaviour at high burnup. The fuel rods were pre-irradiated with four other rods in the upper cluster of IFA-409 (IFA=Instrumented Fuel Assembly) from May 1973 to June 1985. After base irradiation the four neighbouring rods were re-instrumented with pressure transducers and ramp tested in IFA-535.5 and IFA-535.6 providing useful data about fission gas release (FGR) presented in the Fuel Performance Database as well (Ref. 1). The two rods re-instrumented with fuel centre thermocouples have been irradiated as IFA-533.2 from April 1992. As the irradiation history of IFA-533.2 in the first months was very similar to the history of the ramp tests, the fuel temperature and FGR data measured in the different IFAs can complement each other, although the fuel-cladding gap sizes were slightly different and due to re-instrumentation the internal gas conditions were also dissimilar

  20. IFPE/RISOE-II, Fuel Performance Data from Transient Fission Gas Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Description: The RISO National Laboratory in Denmark have carried out three irradiation programs of slow ramp and hold tests, so called 'bump tests' to investigate fission gas release and fuel microstructural changes. The second project took place between 1982 and 1986 and was called 'The RISO Transient Fission Gas Project'. The fuel used in the project was from: IFA-161 irradiated in the Halden BWR (27 to 42 MWd/kgUO 2 ) and GE BWR fuel irradiated in the Millstone 1 reactor 14 to 29 MWd/kgUO 2 . Using the re-fabrication technique, it was possible to back fill the test segment with a choice of gas and gas pressure and to measure the time dependence of fission gas release by continuous monitoring of the plenum pressure. The short length of the test segment was an advantage because, depending on where along the original rod the section was taken, burnup could be chosen variable, and during the test the fuel experienced a single power