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Sample records for hazelnut shell co-pyrolysis

  1. Co-pyrolysis of lignite with hazelnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Haykiri-Acma, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Department

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the formation rates of the apparent pyrolytic products of Elbistan lignite sample from Turkey and Turkish hazelnut shell were investigated. For this purpose, original samples and their blends were subjected to pyrolysis process using a thermogravimetric analyzer under a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere of 40 cc/min. Temperature was increased from ambient to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis curves were obtained, by which the rates of pyrolysis process at different temperatures were evaluated. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Synergy in devolatilization characteristics of lignite and hazelnut shell during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Haykiri-Acma; S. Yaman [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department

    2007-02-15

    Coal/biomass blends were prepared in the lignite/biomass ratios of 98:2, 96:4, 94:6, 92:8, 90:10, and 80:20 using a Turkish lignite from Elbistan region and hazelnut shell. Co-pyrolysis characteristics were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient to 1173 K with a linear heating rate of 20 K/min under dynamic nitrogen flow of 40 ml/min. Char products from pyrolysis were investigated using XRD and SEM techniques. Devolatilization yields from the blends were evaluated in a synergistic manner and found that the overall yields for all the blends exceeded the expected yields which calculated from the additive behavior. As regards to devolatilization characteristics in given temperature intervals, it was concluded that there was significant synergy between 400 and 600 K, whereas additive behavior took place beyond 600 K. No evidence of synergy was observed in the activation energies. It was also concluded that the addition of hazelnut shell into lignite contributed to the sulfur fixing potential of char in the form of CaS and CaSO{sub 4}. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Kinetics evaluation and thermal decomposition characteristics of co-pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge and hazelnut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Xu, Xinyang; Li, Haibo; Chen, Xi; Zeng, Fanqiang

    2017-09-07

    Hazelnut shell, as novel biomass, has lower ash content and abundant hydrocarbon, which can be utilized resourcefully with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) by co-pyrolyisis to decrease total content of pollution. The co-pyrolysis of MSS and hazelnut shell blend was analyzed by a method of multi-heating rates and different blend ratios with TG-DTG-MS under N2 atmosphere. The apparent activation energy of co-pyrolysis was calculated by three iso-conversional methods. Satava-Sestak method was used to determine mechanism function G(α) of co-pyrolysis, and Lorentzian function was used to simulate multi-peaks curves. The results showed there were four thermal decomposition stages, and the biomass were cracked and evolved at different temperature ranges. The apparent activation energy increased from 123.99 to 608.15kJ/mol. The reaction mechanism of co-pyrolysis is random nucleation and nuclei growth. The apparent activation energy and mechanism function afford a theoretical groundwork for co-pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of municipal sewage sludge and hazelnut shell by TG-DTG-MS and residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinyang; Zhao, Bing; Sun, Manli; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Mingchuan; Li, Haibo; Xu, Shucong

    2017-04-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of municipal sewage sludge and hazelnut shell blend have been studied in this work. The behavior of co-pyrolysis was researched by a method of multi-heating rates and different blend ratios to analyze thermal decomposition stages. The experimental data of the blended samples in TG-DTG plots were compared with calculated data to investigate the interactions during co-pyrolysis. The bio-chars investigated by SEM and FTIR spectra were used to examine the physical and chemical changes. The results showed there are four thermal decomposition stages during co-pyrolysis, with hydrocarbon transforming to gas evolution in the second and the third stages. The inhibitive interaction occurred between 260 and 400°C and the accelerative interaction occurred between 450 and 900°C during co-pyrolysis. The activation energy of the blended sample was 51.97-178.84kJ/mol in the second stage and 207.04-630.73kJ/mol in the third stage calculated by DAEM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 7 CFR 982.101 - Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. 982.101... HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Grade and Size Regulation § 982.101 Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. (a) Pursuant to § 982.45(a), no handler shall handle any shelled hazelnuts unless such...

  6. 7 CFR 982.51 - Restricted credit for ungraded inshell hazelnuts and for shelled hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted credit for ungraded inshell hazelnuts and for shelled hazelnuts. 982.51 Section 982.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Control...

  7. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

    2014-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973 K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648 K with a heating rate of 20 K min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region.

  8. Incorporation of hazelnut shell and husk in MDF production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cöpür, Yalçin; Güler, Cengiz; Taşçioğlu, Cihat; Tozluoğlu, Ayhan

    2008-10-01

    Hazelnut shell and husk (Coryllus arellana L.) is an abundant agricultural residue in Turkey and investigating the possibilities of utilizing husk and shell in panel production might help to overcome the raw material shortage that the panel industry is facing. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibilities of utilizing hazelnut shell and husk in medium density fiberboard (MDF) production. To produce general purpose fiberboards, fiber-husk and fiber-shell mixtures at various percentages were examined in this study. The results indicated that panels could be produced utilizing hazelnut husk up to 20% addition without falling below the properties required in the standards. Shell addition was restricted up to 10%, because higher addition levels diminished the elastic modulus and internal bond strength below the acceptable level.

  9. 7 CFR 982.466 - Reports of inshell hazelnuts handled, shelled and withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of inshell hazelnuts handled, shelled and... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.466 Reports of inshell hazelnuts handled, shelled and withheld. Each handler shall report to the Board monthly on...

  10. ADSORPTION OF CONGO RED DYE ON HAZELNUT SHELLS AND DEGRADATION WITH Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo A. Carletto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work concerns the experimental evaluation of hazelnut shells as a low cost natural biosorbent. Adsorption of the direct azo dye Congo Red was performed within a concentrations range of 50-5000 mg/L. Hazelnut shells were employed as organic support for Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures to study the best cultural medium composition for the MnP production. The capability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to take macronutrients as carbon and nitrogen from hazelnut shells was demonstrated. Cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were carried out with hazelnut shells coming from Congo Red adsorption tests, showing that 43% of the adsorbed dye was degraded.

  11. Determination of lead(II) sorption capacity of hazelnut shell and activated carbon obtained from hazelnut shell activated with ZnCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Aziz; Karaboyacı, Mustafa; Kılıç, Mehmet

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the Pb(+2) adsorption capacities of hazelnut shell and activated carbon obtained from hazelnut shell. It also aimed to determine the effect of ZnCl2 in the activation process. The hazelnut was pyrolyzed at 250 and 700 °C. For determining the capture speed of the adsorbents, the pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic studies were performed. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to determine adsorption equilibrium. The surface characterization of hazelnut shell and activated carbon was determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis and FTIR spectrum. Pb(+2) adsorption capacity of obtaining activated carbon was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The raw hazelnut shell's BET surface area is 5.92 m(2)/g and the surface area of activated carbons which is pyrolyzed at 250 and 700 °C were determined (270.2 and 686.7 m(2)/g, respectively. The surface area of hazelnut shell, which pyrolyzed at 700 °C after being activated with ZnCl2, was determined to be 736.49 m(2)/g. Results show that physical adsorption process is dominant for the activated carbon pyrolysis at 700 °C but the chemical adsorption is dominant for the activated carbon pyrolysis at lower degrees and for raw hazelnut shell.

  12. Co-combustion of lignite with hazelnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Department

    2005-07-01

    In this study, co-combustion characteristics of a Turkish lignite sample from Elbistan region, which is a low quality coal, with hazelnut shell was investigated. For this purpose, grounded samples (-250 {mu}m) were blended in the ratios of 90/10 and 80/20. Original samples and these blends were burned using a thermogravimetric analyzer from ambient to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min under dynamic dry air atmosphere of 40 cc/min. Derivative thermogravimetric analysis curves that derived from the results of the thermogravimetric analyses were compared and interpreted. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Investigation of thermal decomposition behavior of hazelnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can Celebi, Mustafa; Karatepe, Nilgun [Istanbul Technical University, Energy Institute (Turkey)], email: mcan.celebi@gmail.com, email: kmnilgun@itu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    The energy industry world-wide is faced with the double challenge of huge capacity power plant installations and the global warming threat. These two problems will become more acute in the future due to population growth and demands for better human well-being. A solution for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from power plants is needed. Agricultural bio-wastes include a mass of energy. The most important part of the energy conversion processes is the thermochemical conversion. The kinetic parameters of the fuels utilized depend on the carbonization process and could be used to inform the design of thermochemical conversion equipment. The purpose of this study is to examine the thermal decomposition behavior of hazelnut shells through dynamic thermogravimetry (TG) under N2 atmosphere. Various experiments were performed to investigate the impacts of heating rate and gas flow rate on the thermal decomposition.

  14. Effects of pretreatment methods for hazelnut shell hydrolysate fermentation with Pichia Stipitis to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yeşim; Eken-Saraçoğlu, Nurdan

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of hazelnut shell as a renewable and low cost lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production for the first time. High lignin content of hazelnut shell is an important obstacle for such a biotransformation. Biomass hydrolysis with acids yields reducing sugar with several inhibitors which limit the fermentability of sugars. The various conditioning methods for biomass and hydrolysate were performed to overcome the toxicity and their effects on the subsequent fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis were evaluated with shaking flasks experiments. Hazelnut shells hydrolysis with 0.7M H(2)SO(4) yielded 49 gl(-1) total reducing sugars and fermentation inhibitors in untreated hydrolysate. First, it was shown that several hydrolysate detoxification methods were solely inefficient in achieving cell growth and ethanol production in the fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysates derived from non-delignified biomass. Next, different pretreatments of hazelnut shells were considered for delignification and employed before hydrolysis in conjunction with hydrolysate detoxification to improve alcohol fermentation. Among six delignification methods, the most effective pretreatment regarding to ethanol concentration includes the treatment of shells with 3% (w/v) NaOH at room temperature, which was integrated with sequential hydrolysate detoxification by overliming and then treatment with charcoal twice at 60 degrees C. This treatment brought about a total reduction of 97% in furans and 88.4% in phenolics. Almost all trialed treatments caused significant sugar loss. Under the best assayed conditions, ethanol concentration of 16.79gl(-1) was reached from a hazelnut shell hyrolysate containing initial 50g total reducing sugar l(-1) after partial synthetic xylose supplementation. This value is equal to 91.25% of ethanol concentration that was obtained from synthetic d-xylose under same conditions. The present study

  15. Effects of ground hazelnut shell, wood, and tea waste on the mechanical properties of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Black Sea Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Fatih Education Faculty; Aslan, A. [Celal Bayar Univ., Manisa (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-08-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of Portland cement mixes with an admixture such as ground hazelnut shell, spruce and beech woods, and tea waste were studied. The compressive and bending strengths test results obtained from these mixes were investigated with comparing to the control mix. From results, it was obtained that especially ground hazelnut shell and beech wood can be used as additives or partial replacement for Portland cement.

  16. Cofiring lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selcuk [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    In this study, cofiring of high ash and sulfur content lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue was investigated in 0.3 MWt METU Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig in terms of combustion and emission performance of different fuel blends. The results reveal that cofiring of hazelnut shell and cotton residue with lignite increases the combustion efficiency and freeboard temperatures compared to those of lignite firing with limestone addition only. CO{sub 2} emission is not found sensitive to increase in hazelnut shell and cotton residue share in fuel blend. Cofiring lowers SO{sub 2} emissions considerably. Cofiring of hazelnut shell reduces NO and N{sub 2}O emissions; on the contrary, cofiring cotton residue results in higher NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. Higher share of biomass in the fuel blend results in coarser cyclone ash particles. Hazelnut shell and cotton residue can be cofired with high ash and sulfur-containing lignite without operational problems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Effect of the heating rate on the morphology of the pyrolytic char from hazelnut shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzade, H.A.; Serdar, Y. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Although biomass chars have a high potential for use in various applications, their performance is directly related to the chemical and the physical properties of the chars. The surface area, porosity, pore size distribution, and density are the physical properties that determine the suitability of the chars to be used. Hazelnut shells are touted as being an extremely appropriate feedstock for high quality pyrolytic char, but the working conditions under which char is obtained have significant influence on the char structure and its properties, such as the thermal reactivity. Therefore, effects of the various parameters on the char structure must be considered. In this context, the present study focused on the physical changes that occur in char as a result of different heating rates during the pyrolysis of hazelnut shells. The effects of the heating rate on the structure of the pyrolytic char obtained from ground hazelnut shells under six different heating rate conditions were investigated. The hazelnut shell was burned in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under nitrogen flow. Non-isothermal heating was performed from ambient to 900 degrees C and held at this temperature until no further mass loss occurred. The changes in char morphology were studied with respect to the heating rate during charring. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used with each char sample to determine the effect of heating rate. The dominant inorganic phases found in hazelnut shells were found to survive in the char. It was concluded that the high lignin content found in the char played a critical role in the decomposition mechanism. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Removal of chlorophenols from aqueous solutions by sorption onto walnut, pistachio and hazelnut shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuśmierek Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of walnut, pistachio and hazelnut shells to remove three monochlorophenols (2-CP, 3-CP and 4-CP from aqueous solutions has been investigated. To describe the kinetic data pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models were used. The kinetics data were fitted better into the pseudo-second order model with the coefficient of determination values greater than 0.99. The k2 values increased in the order 4-CP < 3-CP < 2-CP. Sorption was also analyzed as a function of solution concentration at equilibrium. The experimental data received were found to be well described by the Freundlich isotherm equation. Effectiveness of chlorophenols removal from water on the walnut, pistachio and hazelnut shells was comparable. Individual differences in sorption of monochlorophenols were also negligible.

  19. Experimental evaluation of drying characteristics of sewage sludge and hazelnut shell mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Hüseyin; Ateş, Asude; Özdemir, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    In this study the drying behavior of organic and agricultural waste mixtures has been experimentally investigated. The usability of sewage sludge as an organic waste and hazelnut shell as an agricultural waste was assessed in different mixture range. The paper discusses the applicability of these mixtures as a recovery energy source. Moisture content of mixtures has been calculated in laboratory and plant conditions. Indoor and outdoor solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. A total more than 140 samples including for drying has been carried out to build up results. Indoor and outdoor weather conditions are taken into consideration in winter and summer. The most effective drying capacity is obtained in mixture of 20 % hazelnut shell and 80 % sewage sludge.

  20. Production of xylooligosaccharides by autohydrolysis of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surek, Ece; Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz

    2017-10-15

    Hazelnut shell (HS), husk and pruning residues were characterized and evaluated for xylooligosaccharides (XOS) production by autohydrolysis. HS contained the highest amount of xylan and yielded more XOS compared to other hazelnut residues. The temperature and holding time of HS autohydrolysis greatly influenced the composition of the liquor and the remaining solid. The highest XOS yield (62% of the feedstock xylan) was obtained at 190°C and 5min of holding time. At this temperature, 30min of holding time was required to maximize the percentage of XOS with low degree of polymerization. Xylose, acetic acid and furfural concentrations increased with treatment severity. The concentrations of the products in the autohydrolysis liquors followed specific trends with changing severity factor (log Ro) values. Solubilization of xylan in the treatments enhanced the cellulose and lignin contents in the remaining solids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Damaged Wheat Kernels and Cracked-Shell Hazelnuts with Impact Acoustics Time-Frequency Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new adaptive time-frequency (t-f) analysis and classification procedure is applied to impact acoustic signals for detecting hazelnuts with cracked shells and three types of damaged wheat kernels. Kernels were dropped onto a steel plate, and the resulting impact acoustic signals were recorded with ...

  2. Interaction between biomass and different rank coals during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Effects of biomass on the pyrolytic decomposition of different rank coals were investigated by non-isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method from ambient to 900 C with a heating rate of 40 C/min under nitrogen. Hazelnut shell (HS) which is a woody biomass species was added as much as 10 wt% to coals such as peat, lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite to obtain coal/biomass blends for co-pyrolysis runs. Effects of HS present in the blends were evaluated regarding the apparent decomposition rates and the char yields. It was found that the addition of thermally reactive HS led to some increases in the volatilization rates of coals especially at temperatures below 500 C. Besides, the char yields revealed unexpected variations in case of low rank coals. Although, HS addition did not play significant role on the char yields of bituminous coal and anthracite, considerable deviations from the theoretical char yields were detected in the case of peat and lignites. The presence of HS led to increasing char weight for peat, while the char weights for lignites decreased seriously. These variations were interpreted, and it can be concluded that these variations cannot be explained by simple additive behavior, and the existence of synergistic interactions should be taken into account. (author)

  3. 7 CFR 982.452 - Disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.452 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... hazelnuts. (a) Shelling. (1) Any person desiring to shell restricted hazelnuts during a fiscal year may...

  4. Pyrolysis of hazelnut shells in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. Yields and structural analysis of bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puetuen, A.E.; Oezcan, A.; Puetuen, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yunusemre Campus, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of hazelnut shells to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and well-sweep gas atmosphere (N{sub 2}) on the pyrolysis yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 23.1 wt.% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 500C and heating rate of 7 K min{sup -1}. The pyrolysis products were characterised by elemental analysis and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques and also compared with currently utilised transport fuels by simulated distillation. Bio-oil was then fractionated into pentane soluble and insoluble compounds (asphaltenes). Pentane soluble was then solvent fractionated into pentane, toluene, ether and methanol subfractions by fractionated column chromatography. The aliphatic and low-molecular-weight aromatic subfractions of the bio-oil were then analyzed by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography and GC/MS. Further structural analysis of bio-oil and aromatic and polar subfractions FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR spectra were obtained. The chemical characterization has shown that the bio-oil obtained from hazelnut shells was quite similar to the crude oil and shale oil

  5. Effects of water, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite on in-shell hazelnuts inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Lisa D; Daeschel, Mark A; Durham, Catherine A; Morrissey, Michael T

    2013-12-01

    Recent foodborne disease outbreaks involving minimally processed tree nuts have generated a need for improved sanitation procedures. Chemical sprays and dips have shown promise for reducing pathogens on fresh produce, but little research has been conducted for in-shell hazelnuts. This study analyzed the effectiveness of 3 chemical sanitizers for reducing Salmonella on in-shell hazelnuts. Treatments of water, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 25 and 50 ppm), peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 80 and 120 ppm), and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC; 450, 830, and 1013 ppm) were sprayed onto hazelnut samples inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Panama. Hazelnut samples were immersed in liquid cultures of S. Panama for 24 h, air-dried, and then sprayed with water and chemical treatments. Inoculation achieved S. Panama populations of approximately 8.04 log CFU/hazelnut. Surviving S. panama populations were evaluated using a nonselective medium (tryptic soy agar), incubated 3 h, and then overlaid with selective media (xylose lysine deoxycholate agar). All of the chemical treatments significantly reduced S. Panama populations (P ≤ 0.0001). The most effective concentrations of ASC, PAA, and NaOCl treatments reduced populations by 2.65, 1.46, and 0.66 log units, respectively. ASC showed the greatest potential for use as a postharvest sanitation treatment. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Shells Extract: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Effect and Cytotoxic Activity on Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Tiziana; Sansone, Francesca; Franceschelli, Silvia; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Picerno, Patrizia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Mencherini, Teresa

    2017-02-13

    Hazelnut shells, a by-product of the kernel industry processing, are reported to contain high amount of polyphenols. However, studies on the chemical composition and potential effects on human health are lacking. A methanol hazelnut shells extract was prepared and dried. Our investigation allowed the isolation and characterization of different classes of phenolic compounds, including neolignans, and a diarylheptanoid, which contribute to a high total polyphenol content (193.8 ± 3.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract). Neolignans, lawsonicin and cedrusin, a cyclic diarylheptanoid, carpinontriol B, and two phenol derivatives, C-veratroylglycol, and β-hydroxypropiovanillone, were the main components of the extract (0.71%-2.93%, w/w). The biological assays suggested that the extract could be useful as a functional ingredient in food technology and pharmaceutical industry showing an in vitro scavenging activity against the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) (EC50 = 31.7 μg/mL with respect to α-tocopherol EC50 = 10.1 μg/mL), and an inhibitory effect on the growth of human cancer cell lines A375, SK-Mel-28 and HeLa (IC50 = 584, 459, and 526 μg/mL, respectively). The expression of cleaved forms of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) suggested that the extract induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in both human malignant melanoma (SK-Mel-28) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. The cytotoxic activity relies on the presence of the neolignans (balanophonin), and phenol derivatives (gallic acid), showing a pro-apoptotic effect on the tested cell lines, and the neolignan, cedrusin, with a cytotoxic effect on A375 and HeLa cells.

  7. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. Shells Extract: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Effect and Cytotoxic Activity on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Esposito

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hazelnut shells, a by-product of the kernel industry processing, are reported to contain high amount of polyphenols. However, studies on the chemical composition and potential effects on human health are lacking. A methanol hazelnut shells extract was prepared and dried. Our investigation allowed the isolation and characterization of different classes of phenolic compounds, including neolignans, and a diarylheptanoid, which contribute to a high total polyphenol content (193.8 ± 3.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g of extract. Neolignans, lawsonicin and cedrusin, a cyclic diarylheptanoid, carpinontriol B, and two phenol derivatives, C-veratroylglycol, and β-hydroxypropiovanillone, were the main components of the extract (0.71%–2.93%, w/w. The biological assays suggested that the extract could be useful as a functional ingredient in food technology and pharmaceutical industry showing an in vitro scavenging activity against the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH (EC50 = 31.7 μg/mL with respect to α-tocopherol EC50 = 10.1 μg/mL, and an inhibitory effect on the growth of human cancer cell lines A375, SK-Mel-28 and HeLa (IC50 = 584, 459, and 526 μg/mL, respectively. The expression of cleaved forms of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 suggested that the extract induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in both human malignant melanoma (SK-Mel-28 and human cervical cancer (HeLa cell lines. The cytotoxic activity relies on the presence of the neolignans (balanophonin, and phenol derivatives (gallic acid, showing a pro-apoptotic effect on the tested cell lines, and the neolignan, cedrusin, with a cytotoxic effect on A375 and HeLa cells.

  8. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Shells Extract: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Effect and Cytotoxic Activity on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Tiziana; Sansone, Francesca; Franceschelli, Silvia; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Picerno, Patrizia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Mencherini, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Hazelnut shells, a by-product of the kernel industry processing, are reported to contain high amount of polyphenols. However, studies on the chemical composition and potential effects on human health are lacking. A methanol hazelnut shells extract was prepared and dried. Our investigation allowed the isolation and characterization of different classes of phenolic compounds, including neolignans, and a diarylheptanoid, which contribute to a high total polyphenol content (193.8 ± 3.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract). Neolignans, lawsonicin and cedrusin, a cyclic diarylheptanoid, carpinontriol B, and two phenol derivatives, C-veratroylglycol, and β-hydroxypropiovanillone, were the main components of the extract (0.71%–2.93%, w/w). The biological assays suggested that the extract could be useful as a functional ingredient in food technology and pharmaceutical industry showing an in vitro scavenging activity against the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) (EC50 = 31.7 μg/mL with respect to α-tocopherol EC50 = 10.1 μg/mL), and an inhibitory effect on the growth of human cancer cell lines A375, SK-Mel-28 and HeLa (IC50 = 584, 459, and 526 μg/mL, respectively). The expression of cleaved forms of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) suggested that the extract induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in both human malignant melanoma (SK-Mel-28) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. The cytotoxic activity relies on the presence of the neolignans (balanophonin), and phenol derivatives (gallic acid), showing a pro-apoptotic effect on the tested cell lines, and the neolignan, cedrusin, with a cytotoxic effect on A375 and HeLa cells. PMID:28208804

  9. Validation of a FBC model for co-firing of hazelnut shell with lignite against experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulah, Gorkem [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Performance of a comprehensive system model extended for modelling of co-firing of lignite and biomass was assessed by applying it to METU 0.3 MW{sub t} Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor co-firing lignite with hazelnut shell and validating its predictions against on-line temperature and concentration measurements of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and NO along the same test rig fired with lignite only, lignite with limestone addition and lignite with biomass and limestone addition. The system model accounts for hydrodynamics; volatiles release and combustion, char combustion, particle size distribution for lignite and biomass; entrainment; elutriation; sulfur retention and NO formation and reduction, and is based on conservation equations for energy and chemical species. Special attention was paid to different devolatilization characteristics of lignite and biomass. A volatiles release model based on a particle movement model and a devolatilization kinetic model were incorporated into the system model separately for both fuels. Kinetic parameters for devolatilization were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. Predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations of gaseous species along the combustor were found to be in good agreement. Introduction of biomass to lignite was found to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions but did not affect NO emissions significantly. The system model proposed in this study proves to be a useful tool in qualitatively and quantitatively simulating the processes taking place in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor burning lignite with biomass. (author)

  10. Hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortolani, C; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Hansen, K S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tree nuts are a common cause of food allergy in Europe. However, few studies deal with real food allergy to hazelnuts in subjects believed to be allergic to this food. OBJECTIVE: We sought to select subjects with a history of allergic reactions on ingestion of hazelnut and determine how...... many of these have true allergy by means of the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). METHODS: Eighty-six subjects with a history of symptoms after hazelnut ingestion were recruited from 3 allergy centers (Milan, Zurich, and Copenhagen). All subjects underwent skin prick tests (SPTs......) with aeroallergens and hazelnut, as well as having their specific hazelnut IgE levels determined. Diagnosis of clinical relevant food allergy was made on the basis of the DBPCFC. RESULTS: Sixty-seven (77.9%) of 86 subjects had a positive DBPCFC result; 8 were placebo responders, and 11 were nonresponders. Of the 11...

  11. Investigation of the Changes in Surface Area and FT-IR Spectra of Activated Carbons Obtained from Hazelnut Shells by Physicochemical Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Şencan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, raw hazelnut shells were used to obtain charcoal by pyrolysis at 250°C. The obtained material was subjected to physical, chemical, and physicochemical treatment methods to obtain activated carbons (ACs. Effect of the treatment procedures was determined by measuring the surface area of the produced ACs. In addition, changes in the functional groups of the obtained ACs during these treatments were determined with the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. To determine the most effective chemical agent, the charcoal samples were examined for Pb(II adsorption from aqueous solutions under different pH conditions of 4 to 6. According to the results, the most effective chemical agent was determined as Ca(OCl2. Effect of microwave and ultrasound treatments was also examined during Pb(II adsorption by the chemically treated AC. The results showed that chemical treatment with Ca(OCl2, microwave treatment for 5 minutes, ultrasound treatment for 20 minutes, and pyrolysis at 700°C together were the most suitable combination enhancing the surface area of the adsorbent. This combination increased the surface area and the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent by 202 and 4.76 times, respectively, when compared to those of the raw hazelnut shell.

  12. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of coal and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, L.R.; Zhang, J.M.; Lian, H.; Luo, M. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2007-05-15

    A co-pyrolysis experiment of coal and natural gas was investigated on a fixed-bed reactor. SEM was used to study the structure changes of the exterior surface of char prepared in this co-pyrolysis experiment, while GC was also utilized to analyze the associated gas. The result showed that, with increasing temperature, the coal char tended to agglomerate. GC and SEM results show that the CH{sub 4} decomposition on the exterior surface of char was turned to filamentous char and extended around like coral. It was also proved that the co-pyrolysis of coal and natural gas promoted syngas production. A synergistic effect of coal and natural gas does exist during this process.

  14. Effects of extraction conditions on antioxidant activity of hazelnut shell extract%提取条件对榛子壳提取物抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德海; 刘荣; 孙常雁; 王振宇

    2011-01-01

    Effects of extraction conditions on antioxidant activity of hazelnut shell extract were studied in this paper. The results showed that hazelnut shell extract has antioxidant activity, and the total antioxidant capacity of hazelnut shell extracted by NaOH solution was 1.83 folds higher than that of ascorbic acid. The optimal extraction conditions were obtained by response surface method (RSM) as follows: NaOH concentration 2.4%, the ratio of solid to liquid 1:36, extraction time 2.3h and extraction temperature 63°C. Under these conditions, the total antioxidant capacity of hazelnut shells extraction was 0.931.%该试验研究了提取条件对榛子壳提取物抗氧化活性的影响,利用响应面法优化了榛子壳抗氧化物的提取条件.研究结果表明,榛子壳提取物具有抗氧化活性,其中榛子壳氢氧化钠溶液提取物的总抗氧化性比抗坏血酸的总抗氧化能力好,是其1.83倍.响应面分析法优化结果表明,榛子壳抗氧化物的最佳提取工艺条件为氢氧化钠浓度2.4%,料液比1:36,提取时间2.3h,提取温度63℃,在此条件下榛子壳提取物的总抗氧化活性为0.931.

  15. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  16. Optimization of Preparation of Hazelnut Shell Activated Carbon and Characterization%榛子壳活性炭的制备工艺优化及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房丹丹; 吕春茂; 孟宪军; 张炜佳; 邓晓雨

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of activated carbon of hazelnut shell and characterization were studied. Activated carbon was prepared from waste hazelnut shell through phosphoric acid activation. To optimize the preparation process of phosphoric acid concentration, activation temperature, activation time and solid-to-liquid ratio, the response surface methodology was adopted on the basis of single factor experiment. The results showed that the optimum conditions were determined as follows: phosphoric acid concentration of 48.5%, activation temperature of 494℃, activation time of 117min and solid to liquid ratio of 1:2. Under these conditions, the iodine value of activated carbon was 1029 mg•g-1. The surface characteristics of activated carbon were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and BET specific surface area analyzer etc. The specific surface area was 1364.00m2•g-1,the average pore size was 3.17nm, and the total pore volume was 1.08cm3•g-1. Activated carbon of hazelnut shell has good adsorption effect, can be used as a kind of environmental friendly low-cost adsorbent.%为研究榛子壳活性炭的制备工艺和活性炭表征,以农林果壳废弃物榛子壳作为原料,采用磷酸浸渍活化法制备活性炭。在单因素试验基础上,运用响应面法对活性炭制备工艺中磷酸质量分数、活化温度、活化时间、料液比等各影响因素进行优化。结果表明:在磷酸质量分数为48.5%、活化温度为494℃、活化时间为117min、料液比为1:2条件下,活性炭的碘吸附值为1029mg•g-1。采用扫描式电子显微镜(SEM)、傅里叶红外光谱(FT-IR)、比表面积及孔径分布分析仪等方法对优化条件下制备的活性炭进行表征,活性炭的比表面积可达到1364.00m2•g-1,平均孔径为3.17nm,总孔容为1.08cm3•g-1,表明榛子壳活性炭具有较好的吸附效果,可作为一种环保型低成本吸附剂。

  17. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2015-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900°C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal.

  19. Antioxidant phytochemicals in hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika M

    2007-02-21

    Antioxidant efficacies of ethanol extracts of defatted raw hazelnut kernel and hazelnut byproducts (skin, hard shell, green leafy cover, and tree leaf) were evaluated by monitoring total antioxidant activity (TAA) and free-radical scavenging activity tests [hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical], together with antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and inhibition of strand breaking of supercoiled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In addition, yield, content of phenolics, and phenolic acid profiles (free and esterified fractions) were also examined. Generally, extracts of hazelnut byproducts (skin, hard shell, green leafy cover, and tree leaf) exhibited stronger activities than hazelnut kernel at all concentrations tested. Hazelnut extracts examined showed different antioxidative efficacies, expected to be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Among samples, extracts of hazelnut skin, in general, showed superior antioxidative efficacy and higher phenolic content as compared to other extracts. Five phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid) were tentatively identified and quantified (both free and esterified forms). Extracts contained different levels of phenolic acids. These results suggest that hazelnut byproducts could potentially be considered as an excellent and readily available source of natural antioxidants.

  20. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Isochrysis and Chlorella: Kinetics, biocrude yield and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingwei; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of Isochrysis (high lipid) and Chlorella (high protein) were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively based on DTG curves, biocrude yield and composition by individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis. DTG curves in co-pyrolysis have been compared accurately with those in individual pyrolysis. An interaction has been detected at 475-500°C in co-pyrolysis based on biocrude yields, and co-pyrolysis reaction mechanism appear three-dimensional diffusion in comparison with random nucleation followed by growth in individual pyrolysis based on kinetic analysis. There is no obvious difference in the maximum biocrude yields for individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis, but carboxylic acids (IC21) decreased and N-heterocyclic compounds (IC12) increased in co-pyrolysis. Simulation results of biocrude yield by Components Biofuel Model and Kinetics Biofuel Model indicate that the processes of co-pyrolysis comply with those of individual pyrolysis in solid phase by and large. Variation of percentage content in co-pyrolysis and individual pyrolysis biocrude indicated interaction in gas phase.

  1. Non-destructive detection of flawed hazelnut kernels and lipid oxidation assessment using NIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannico, A.; Schouten, R.E.; Basile, B.; Woltering, E.J.; Cirillo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial contamination, seed browning, bad taste and lipid oxidation are primary causes of quality deterioration in stored hazelnuts, affecting their marketability. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to detect flawed kernels and estimate lipid oxidation in in-shell and shelled hazelnuts was invest

  2. Recent progress on biomass co-pyrolysis conversion into high-quality bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H; Lim, J K; Hameed, B H

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis of biomass with abundantly available materials could be an economical method for production of bio-fuels. However, elimination of oxygenated compounds poses a considerable challenge. Catalytic co-pyrolysis is another potential technique for upgrading bio-oils for application as liquid fuels in standard engines. This technique promotes the production of high-quality bio-oil through acid catalyzed reduction of oxygenated compounds and mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This work aims to review and summarize research progress on co-pyrolysis and catalytic co-pyrolysis, as well as their benefits on enhancement of bio-oils derived from biomass. This review focuses on the potential of plastic wastes and coal materials as co-feed in co-pyrolysis to produce valuable liquid fuel. This paper also proposes future directions for using this technique to obtain high yields of bio-oils.

  3. Co-pyrolysis of different type coals with hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzade Haykiri-Acma; Serdar Yaman [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the co-pyrolysis characteristics of different rank coals such as peat, lignite, and anthracite in the presence of hybrid poplar. For this purpose, non-isothermal thermogravimetry technique was applied up to 900{sup o}C with a heating rate of 40{sup o}C/min under dynamic nitrogen flow of 40 mL/min. Hybrid poplar was added into each coal as much as 10 wt % of the coal sample and the experiments were repeated. Pyrolytic properties such as the char yields, gasification rates, and reactivity of the original samples and the blends were compared from the thermal analysis data, and interpreted. Addition of hybrid poplar to coal had some influences on the pyrolytic properties of coals that might be explained by the synergistic interaction approach. 15 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. CO-PYROLYSIS OF POLYPROPYLENE WITH PETROLEUM OF BACIA DE CAMPOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE ASSUMPÇÃO, Luiz Carlos Fonte Nova; MARQUES, Mônica Regina da Costa; CARBONELL, Montserrat Motas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the process of co-pyrolysis of polypropylene (PP residues with gas-oil was evaluated, varying thetemperature and the amount of polypropylene fed to the reactor. The polypropylene samples and gas-oil weresubmitted to the thermal co-pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere, varying the temperature and the amount of PP.The influence of the gas-oil was evaluated carrying the co-pyrolysis in the absence of PP. The pyrolysed liquidsproduced by this thermal treatment were characterized by modified gaseous chromatography in order toevaluate the yield in the range of distillation of diesel. As a result, the increase of PP amount lead to a reductionin the yield of the pyrolytic liquid and to an increase of the amount of solid generated. The effect of temperatureincrease showed an inverse result. The results show that plastic residue co-pyrolysys is a potential method forchemical recycling of plastic products.

  5. Co-Pyrolysis Behaviors of the Cotton Straw/PP Mixtures and Catalysis Hydrodeoxygenation of Co-Pyrolysis Products over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derun Hua

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The doping of PP (polypropylene with cotton straw improved the bio-oil yield, which showed there was a synergy in the co-pyrolysis of the cotton straw and PP at the range of 380–480 °C. In a fixed-bed reactor, model compounds and co-pyrolysis products were used for reactants of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO over Ni-Mo/Al2O3. The deoxygenation rate of model compounds decreased over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 in the following order: alcohol > aldehyde > acetic acid > ethyl acetate. The upgraded oil mainly consisted of C11 alkane.

  6. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; S. Schreurs; G. Reggers; R. Carleer; J. Yperman [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Lab of Applied Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The Global Warming, the Kyoto Protocol and the emission of greenhouse gasses such as CO{sub 2} are the topics of environmental pleadings. The world's energy supply is limited due to the depletion of fossil fuels, which are still the most important energy sources consumed. The development of new and renewable energies is the key to change. The flash pyrolysis of biomass is a promising route for the production of solid, liquid and gaseous products. A high liquid production requires very low vapour residence time to minimise secondary reactions. Flash co-pyrolytic techniques, at low temperature, provide an alternative way to dispose and convert waste (like plastics) and biomass into high value feedstock. The specific benefits of this method potentially include: the reduction of the volume of the waste, the recovery of chemicals and the replacement of fossil fuels. Co-pyrolysing of PLA (although a biologically degradable polymer, polylactic acid), with biomass (such as willow) may be an alternative waste treatment option. This research indicates that during the flash co-pyrolysis of PLA and willow (even when contaminated with high amounts of heavy metals) a synergy is attained, resulting in a higher yield of bio-oil with a lower water content. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Synergies in co-pyrolysis of Thai lignite and corncob

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Taro [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand); Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Worasuwannarak, Nakorn; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok, 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-12-15

    The results from TGA experiments at the temperature range of 300-600 C evidently distinguished the different pyrolysis behaviours of lignite and corncob; however, no clear synergistic effects could be observed for the mixture. The investigation of co-pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor, however, found significant synergies in both pyrolysis product yields and gas product compositions. The solid yield of the 50:50 lignite/corncob blend was much lower (i.e. 9%) than expected from the calculated value based on individual materials under the range of temperatures studied, and coincided with the higher liquid and gas yield. The synergistic effect in product gas composition was highly pronouncing for CH{sub 4} formation, i.e. three times higher than the calculated value at 400 C. Possible mechanisms were described including the interaction between corncob volatiles and lignite particles, and the effect of the heat profiles of lignite and corncob pyrolysis on the temperature dependent reactions. The enhanced devolatilisation of the blend was explained by the transfer of hydrogen from biomass to coal as well as the promotion of low-temperature thermal decomposition of lignite by exothermic heat released from corncob pyrolysis. Moreover, water, which was one of the major components in corncob volatiles produced mainly at around 200-375 C, can also be expected to act as a reactive agent to promote the secondary tar cracking producing more CH{sub 4}. (author)

  8. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Chemical Engineering Department, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating. (author)

  9. Co-pyrolysis of a Ukrainian low-grade coal (brown) with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.N. Shevkoplyas [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2003-07-01

    An effective pathway of the wastes plastics utilization can be its co-pyrolysis with a low-grade (brown) coal. The Dneprovsky deposit brown coal (Ukraine) and waste plastics as a polyethyleneterephthalate in this investigation were taken. The brown coal-plastics mixed used: 19:1; 9:1 and 4:1 ratio that was as 5, 10 and 20 % plastics additive to the brown coal. The co-pyrolysis mix prepared in the temperature region 450-800{sup o}C in a fixed bed reactor has been carried out. The process time was 0, 60 and 120 min., heating rate - 25{sup o}C/min. The influence plastics additive on the co-pyrolysis yield has been estimated. The influence of the co-pyrolysis isothermal time on the yield and properties of the tars produced has been studied. The mass balances of co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics have been calculated. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis brown coal with plastics is a way to utilize organic pollutants. 3 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  10. Co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and microalgae: Products characteristics and interaction effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Yingquan; Yang, Haiping; Xia, Mingwei; Li, Kaixu; Chen, Xu; Chen, Hanping

    2017-09-06

    Co-pyrolysis of biomass has a potential to change the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil. In this work, co-pyrolysis of bamboo, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, and Nannochloropsis sp. (NS), a microalgae, was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at a range of mixing ratio of NS and bamboo, to find out whether the quality of pyrolytic bio-oil was improved. A significant improvement on bio-oil after co-pyrolysis of bamboo and NS was observed that bio-oil yield increased up to 66.63wt% (at 1:1) and the content of long-chain fatty acids in bio-oil also dramatically increased (the maximum up to 50.92% (13.57wt%) at 1:1) whereas acetic acid, O-containing species, and N-containing compounds decreased greatly. Nitrogen transformation mechanism during co-pyrolysis also was explored. Results showed that nitrogen in microalgae preferred to transform into solid char and gas phase during co-pyrolysis, while more pyrrolic-N and quaternary-N generated with diminishing protein-N and pyridinic-N in char. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Catalytic gasification of char from co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenkui [State key Laboratory of Multi-phase Complex system, the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Song, Wenli; Lin, Weigang [State key Laboratory of Multi-phase Complex system, the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-09-15

    The catalytic gasification of char from co-pyrolysis of coal and wheat straw was studied. Alkali metal salts, especially potassium salts, are considered as effective catalysts for carbon gasification by steam and CO{sub 2}, while too expensive for industry application. The herbaceous type of biomass, which has a high content of potassium, may be used as an inexpensive source of catalyst by co-processing with coal. The reactivity of chars from co-pyrolysis of coal and straw was experimentally examined. The chars were prepared in a spout-entrained reactor with different ratios of coal to straw. The gasification characteristics of chars were measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The co-pyrolysis chars revealed higher gasification reactivity than that of char from coal, especially at high level of carbon conversion. The influence of the alkali in the char and the pyrolysis temperature on the reactivity of co-pyrolysis char was investigated. The experimental results show that the co-pyrolysis char prepared at 750 C have the highest alkali concentration and reactivity. (author)

  12. Aflatoxins in hazelnuts and dried figs: Occurrence and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Bulent

    2016-11-15

    A total of 300 samples of hazelnuts and dried fig were analysed for the incidence of any aflatoxins (AFs). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was used to quantify the amounts of AFs. The limit of quantification varied from 0.21 to 0.30μgkg(-1). No AFs were detected in shells of the hazelnuts, while six raw hazelnut kernel samples (12%) and five roasted hazelnut kernel samples (8.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.09 to 11.3μgkg(-1) and from 0.17 to 11.2μgkg(-1), respectively. Sixteen dried fig samples (12.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.1 to 28.2μgkg(-1) and a mean value of 3.8μgkg(-1). Three hazelnuts and six dried fig samples exceeded the European maximum limits (MLs) of 5 and 2μgkg(-1) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), respectively. The contribution of hazelnuts to AFs exposure is higher than that of dried figs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 7 CFR 982.4 - Hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazelnuts. 982.4 Section 982.4 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.4 Hazelnuts. Hazelnuts means hazelnuts or filberts...

  14. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, T; Cornelissen, T; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; Jans, M; Thewys, T

    2010-12-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e.g. reduction of the water content of the bio-oil, more bio-oil and less char production and an increase of the HHV of the oil. This research paper investigates the economic consequences of the synergistic effects of flash co-pyrolysis of 1:1 w/w ratio blends of willow and different biopolymer waste streams via cost-benefit analysis and Monte Carlo simulations taking into account uncertainties. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow. Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co-pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch. If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co-pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. If the investment expenditure is 15% higher in practice than estimated, the preference for flash co-pyrolysis compared to composting biopolymer waste becomes less clear. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste.

  15. Utilization of selected industrial waste through co-pyrolysis with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavla Licakova; Jaroslav Buchtele [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic). Centre of Environmental Technologies

    2007-07-01

    Difficultly recyclable selected organic waste is possible to process by its co-pyrolysis with coal into the products with high use value. The research subject was to analyse and compare carbonizates yields forming by co-pyrolysis of waste rubber and brown coal mixtures and waste cotton and black coal mixtures. Mixtures were prepared with variable proportion of materials. According to the obtained results both procedures show as technically viable. Addition of rubber to brown coal came to increase specific surface area of activated carbon. The results obtained show that it is possible to prepare by co-pyrolysis of mixtures brown coal with waste rubber granular material with appropriate properties for preparation of sorbent by its sequential activation. The pyrolysis products yields of black coal with the products yields of co-pyrolysis of coal with 30 and 60 % wt. addition of the waste cotton were evaluated and compared. Addition of cotton to black coal came to increase gas volume and tar. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Study of kinetics of co-pyrolysis of coal and waste LDPE blends under argon atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumedha Sharma; Aloke K. Ghoshal [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati (India). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Co-pyrolysis of coal with waste plastic is increasingly being looked upon as a potential technique to counter the present day challenges in energy and waste management by harnessing the multiple benefits associated with the same. In the present work, the kinetics of co-pyrolysis of waste LDPE carried out with coal of Ledo origin from the coalfields of Assam (India) has been studied. A thermo-gravimetric (TG) study of the co-pyrolysis has been carried out taking waste LDPE-coal mixtures in ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 by weight and at five varying heating rates from 5 to 25 K min{sup -1} with a 5 K increment. Experiments were also carried out for the individual components at all the five heating rates. This TG analysis data was used to evaluate the kinetics parameters such as the activation energy, pre-exponential factors, and the reaction orders, applying a model fitting approach. The results of the kinetics analysis indicate higher activation energy for the mixtures. With increase in the coal percentage, the reaction order is found to increase. Also the synergistic effect between the two sample species in the mixtures has been studied and found to indicate presence of interaction between coal and LDPE. The effect of sample composition on the products of co-pyrolysis has also been compared. 48 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Thermal behavior and kinetic study for catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Lei, Hanwu; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Xiaolu; Qian, Moriko; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Wu, Joan; Chen, Shulin

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to investigate the thermal decomposition behaviors and kinetics of biomass (cellulose/Douglas fir sawdust) and plastics (LDPE) in a non-catalytic and catalytic co-pyrolysis over ZSM-5 catalyst by using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). It was found that there was a positive synergistic interaction between biomass and plastics according to the difference of weight loss (ΔW), which could decrease the formation of solid residue at the end of the experiment. The first order reaction model well fitted for both non-catalytic and catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastics. The activation energy (E) of Cellulose-LDPE-Catalyst and DF-LDPE-Catalyst are only 89.51 and 54.51kJ/mol, respectively. The kinetics analysis showed that adding catalyst doesn't change the decomposition mechanism. As a result, the kinetic study on catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass with plastics was suggested that the catalytic co-pyrolysis is a promising technique that can significantly reduce the energy input.

  18. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  19. 7 CFR 982.14 - Restricted hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted hazelnuts. 982.14 Section 982.14... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.14 Restricted hazelnuts. Restricted hazelnuts...

  20. 7 CFR 982.13 - Substandard hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substandard hazelnuts. 982.13 Section 982.13... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.13 Substandard hazelnuts. Substandard hazelnuts...

  1. Mechanism of co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch with polyvinylpyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzyb, B.; Machnikowski, J. [Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum and Coal, Wroclaw University of Technology, Gdanska 7/9, 50-344 Wroclaw (Poland); Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz-IUT, /Rue V. Demange, 57-500 Saint Avold (France)

    2004-08-01

    Co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch and poly(4-vinylpyridine) cross-linked with 25wt.% of divinylbenzene (PVP) or the oxidized form of the co-polymer (PVPox) was studied as a possible way of manufacturing of carbonaceous materials enriched in nitrogen. Interactions of pitch with polymers were evaluated using thermogravimetry, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy in the DRIFT mode, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The tendency to depolymerization of PVP on heat treatment results in a little effect of the polymer on the thermal behaviour of the blend. PVPox is a stronger modifier of pitch carbonization behaviour and much more efficient source of nitrogen in the co-pyrolysis. The principal chemical interaction between pitch and PVPox is the dehydrogenative polymerization of pitch constituents induced by polymer oxygen groups. The oxidation of PVP does not affect the nitrogen functionalities transformation on pyrolysis.

  2. Effects of biomass type, blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on hybrid coal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, Dwiwahju; Wulandari, Winny; Rubani, Inga Shaffira; Rusydiansyah, Rifqi

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study on co-pyrolysis of coal with biomass wastes to produce hybrid coal was conducted to investigate the effects of important process variables, namely biomass type (rice husk and sawdust), blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on the quality of hybrid coal. The experiments were carried out using a vertical tubular furnace equipped with temperature controller to maintain the co-pyrolysis reactor at a given temperature. Nitrogen gas was introduced into the furnace to create an inert environment preventing the sample from burning. A known mass of solid sample consisting of manually granulated blend of coal and biomass with binder in spherical shape was contained in a basket made of stainless sieve. After a given residence time, the sample was taken from the furnace. The blend sample prior to experiment and the produced hybrid coal were then characterized for its proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and calorific value. Experimental findings suggested that by increasing co-pyrolysis temperature from 200 to 400 °C, the calorific value of hybrid coal will increase by 14.5-17.7% to be 5585-7060 kcal/kg. It was also showed that 30% increase in the biomass content in the fuel blend would produce a hybrid coal that emitting up to 25.9% less in CO2 when used for combustion, although its calorific value decreased down to 8% compared to the biomass blend. It is shown that hybrid coal obtained from this study is comparable in calorific value to bituminous coal, thus suitable for power plant while being more environmentally friendly.

  3. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  4. Investigation of waste biomass co-pyrolysis with petroleum sludge using a response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Yubao

    2017-05-01

    The treatment of waste biomass (sawdust) through co-pyrolysis with refinery oily sludge was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. Response surface method was applied to evaluate the main and interaction effects of three experimental factors (sawdust percentage in feedstock, temperature, and heating rate) on pyrolysis oil and char yields. It was found that the oil and char yields increased with sawdust percentage in feedstock. The interaction between heating rate and sawdust percentage as well as between heating rate and temperature was significant on the pyrolysis oil yield. The higher heating value of oil originated from sawdust during co-pyrolysis at a sawdust/oily sludge ratio of 3:1 increased by 5 MJ/kg as compared to that during sawdust pyrolysis alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis. As a result, petroleum sludge can be used as an effective additive in the pyrolysis of waste biomass for improving its energy recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations into the characteristics of oils produced from co-pyrolysis of biomass and tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qing; Jin, Li' e [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China); Bao, Weiren; Lv, Yongkang [Key Laboratory for Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024 China (China)

    2009-03-15

    Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and waste tire with such catalysts as SBA-15, MCM-41 and HZSM-5 was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The influences of the mixture composition on liquid yield and characteristics of the oil were investigated. The properties of the oil were determined by gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), elemental analyzer (EA), thermal analyzer (TA), densimeter, ubbelohde viscosimeter and compared with that of diesel oil 0. The contents of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the oils were also determined by gas chromatograph (GC). The result shows that co-pyrolysis is in favor of inhibiting the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced from tire. There exist a hydrogen transfer and a synthetic effect during co-pyrolysis of the biomass and tire. They improve the quality of the oil. SBA-15 as a catalyst is more significant than MCM-41 or HZSM-5 for reducing the density and viscosity of the oil and it can effectively decompose some large molecular compounds into small ones. (author)

  6. The co-pyrolysis of flame retarded high impact polystyrene and polyolefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, William J.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Mitan, Nona Merry M.; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima Naka, 700-8530 Okayama (Japan); Bhaskar, Thallada [Catalytic Conversion Process Division, Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    2007-10-15

    The co-pyrolysis of brominated high impact polystyrene (Br-HIPS) with polyolefins using a fixed bed reactor has been investigated, in particular, the effect that different types of brominated aryl compounds and antimony trioxide have on the pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis products were analysed using FT-IR, GC-FID, GC-MS, and GC-ECD. Liquid chromatography was used to separate the oils/waxes so that a more detailed analysis of the aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions could be carried out. It was found that interaction occurs between Br-HIPS and polyolefins during co-pyrolysis and that the presence of antimony trioxide influences the pyrolysis mass balance. Analysis of the Br-HIPS + polyolefin co-pyrolysis products showed that the presence of polyolefins led to an increase in the concentration of alkyl and vinyl mono-substituted benzene rings in the pyrolysis oil/wax resulting from Br-HIPS pyrolysis. The presence of Br-HIPS also had an impact on the oil/wax products of polyolefin pyrolysis, particularly on the polyethylene oil/wax composition which converted from being a mixture of 1-alkenes and n-alkanes to mostly n-alkanes. Antimony trioxide had very little impact on the polyolefin wax/oil composition but it did suppress the formation of styrene and alpha-methyl styrene and increase the formation of ethylbenzene and cumene during the pyrolysis of the Br-HIPS. (author)

  7. Valorization of selected biomass and wastes by co-pyrolysis with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliner, R.; Lazaro, M.J.; Suelves, I.; Blesa, M.J. [Inst. of Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Implementation of a more sensible energy-environmental policy should include a 'green alliance of biomass and coal to pursue eco-friendly technologies for co-utilizing biomass and other opportunity fuels with coal or natural gas'. This article discusses two parallel cases of copyolysis of coal with biomass or wastes. In the first case, smokeless fuel briquettes are prepared with a low-rank coal and biomass byproducts such as olive stones and sawdust. Additives to improve the mechanical properties and the sulfur retention in ash are used. The briquettes showed good mechanical properties and slow, uniform, smokeless combustion. In the second case, petroleum residua and waste lubrication oils are used to produce chemicals and energy by co-pyrolysis with coal. It has been shown that co-pyrolysis in the presence of coal char selectively promotes transfer of hydrogen from the parent material to the gas and liquid products, concentrating carbon in the remaining char. Split-off hydrogen from carbon is enhanced when the primary co-pyrolysis products are submitted to thermocatalytic decomposition in a subsequent catalytic step. This process represents an attractive route for the production of carbon dioxide free hydrogen from hydrocarbons, whatever their origin. 34 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal in a free fall reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhang; Shaoping Xu; Wei Zhao; Shuqin Liu [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-02-15

    An experimental study on co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal was performed in a free fall reactor under atmospheric pressure with nitrogen as balance gas. The coal sample selected was Dayan lignite, while the biomass used was legume straw. The operation temperature was over a range of 500-700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of biomass in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt.%. The results indicated that there exist synergetic effects in the co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal. Under the higher blending ratio conditions, the char yields are lower than the theoretical values calculated on pyrolysis of each individual fuel, and consequently the liquid yields are higher. Moreover, the experimental results showed that the compositions of the gaseous products from blended samples are not all in accordance with those of their parent fuels. The CO{sub 2} reactivities of the chars obtained from the co-pyrolysis under the higher blending ratio (around 70 wt.%) conditions are about twice as high as those of coal char alone, even higher than those of biomass alone. 24 refs., 6 figs.,1 tab.

  9. Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-pyrolysis of yinning coal and poplar sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Shenghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-process of biomass and coal is perceived as a way to enhance the energy utilization by virtue of the integrated and interactive effects between different types of carbonaceous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-pyrolysis characteristics of Yining coal and poplar sawdust, and to determine whether there is any synergistic effect in pyrolytic product yields. The coal was blended with sawdust at a mass fraction of 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 and 1:9 respectively. The change of char yields, maximum weight loss rate and the corresponding temperature of different coal/sawdust blends during pyrolysis were compared by thermogravimetric analysis (TG. The total tar yields during separate coal, sawdust as well as their blends pyrolysis were acquired from the low temperature aluminum retort distillation test. By compare the experimental and theoretical value of the char yields from TG and tar yields from carbonization test, it was observed that co-pyrolysis of coal/sawdust blends produced less char and tar than the total amount produced by separate coal and sawdust pyrolysis. The different product distribution suggested that there was synergy effect in gas product yields. The co-pyrolysis of demineralized and devolatilized sawdust with coal indicated that the ash in the sawdust was the main contributor to the synergistic effect.

  10. Physicochemical evolution during rice straw and coal co-pyrolysis and its effect on co-gasification reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Gong, Yan; Guo, Qinghua; Ding, Lu; Wang, Fuchen; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-03-01

    Physicochemical evolution (i.e. pore structure variation, carbon structure change and active AAEM transformation) during rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) co-pyrolysis was quantitatively determined in this work. Moreover, the corresponding char gasification was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and relative reactivity was proposed to quantify the co-pyrolysis impact on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that the development of pore structure in co-pyrolyzed chars was first inhibited and then enhanced with the decrease of SF proportion. The promotion effect of co-pyrolysis on order degree of co-pyrolyzed chars gradually weakened with increasing RS proportion. Co-pyrolysis mainly enhanced active K transformation in co-pyrolyzed chars and the promotion effect was alleviated with increasing RS proportion. The inhibition effect of co-pyrolysis on co-gasification reactivity weakened with increasing RS proportion and gasification temperature, which was mainly attributed to the combination of carbon structure evolution and active AAEM transformation in co-pyrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-pyrolysis of hydrothermally upgraded brown coal and wax prepared from waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Miura; Susan A. Roces; Monthicha Pattatapanusak; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Ryuichi Ashida; Masato Morimoto [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    We have recently presented a hydrothermal extraction method that not only removes water from brown coal but also upgrades the coal and extracts low molecular mass compounds simultaneously. The upgraded coal contained much less oxygen than the raw coal. However, it still needs to be further upgraded to be utilized as a substitute for bituminous coal. In this study co-pyrolysis of the upgraded coals and waxes formed from waste plastics was investigated for this purpose. Waxes were prepared through pyrolysis of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephtalate. Upgraded coals were then impregnated with the waxes in an autoclave at 200{sup o}C under pressure. The mixtures of coal and wax were rapidly heated up to 1040{sup o}C at about 3000{sup o}C/s using a Curie point pyrolyzer in an inert atmosphere. The char yield was greatly enhanced by a factor of 1.1 to 1.3 compared to the char yield obtained when the upgraded coals and waxes were pyrolyzed independently. Even under a slower heating rate (0.17{sup o}C/s) the char yields increased by a factor of 1.2 for the all mixtures of the upgraded coal and waxes. Since no such effect was found when the raw brown coal was impregnated with waxes, it was suggested that the modification of the structure of brown coal by the hydrothermal extraction could enhance interactions between the coal and the wax when co-pyrolyzed. Effect of wax mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis behavior was also examined. The char yield dramatically increased when the ratio exceeded about 0.3 g/g for the pyrolysis of both under slow and rapid heating rates. This trend coincided with that of the swelling ratio of the upgraded coal impregnated with wax, indicating that some physical change by wax-impregnation affected the co-pyrolysis behavior. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Self-heating co-pyrolysis of excessive activated sludge with waste biomass: energy balance and sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of sludge with sawdust or rice husk was investigated. The results showed that the co-pyrolysis technology could be used to dispose of the excessive activated sludge without external energy input. The results also demonstrated that no obvious synergistic effect occurred except for heat transfer in the co-pyrolysis if the co-feeding biomass and sludge had similar thermogravimetric characteristics. The experimental results combined with calculation showed that adding sawdust accounting for 49.6% of the total feedstock or rice husk accounting for 74.7% could produce bio-oil to keep the energy balance of the co-pyrolysis system and self-heat it. The sludge from solar drying bed can be further reduced by 38.6% and 35.1% by weight when co-pyrolyzed with rice husk and sawdust, respectively. This study indicates that sludge reduction without external heat supply through co-pyrolysis of sludge with waste biomass is practically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of ZSM-5 zeolite on the pyrolytic intermediates from the co-pyrolysis of pubescens and LDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenwu [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Hu Changwei, E-mail: gchem@scu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yang Yu; Tong Dongmei; Li Guiying; Zhu Liangfang [Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The catalytic reforming of the pyrolytic intermediates from the co-pyrolysis of pubescens and LDPE over the parent and desilicated zeolite ZSM-5 (DeZSM-5) was investigated. The results showed that the parent HZSM-5 exhibited high aromatization activity in the co-pyrolysis, whereas DeZSM-5 exhibited high alkanisation activity. On the other hand, the total relative content of phenolic compounds in aqua obtained by co-pyrolysis catalyzed by both parent HZSM-5 and DeZSM-5 was rather high (60-65%) compared to the thermal co-pyrolysis (26.94%). From the analysis of NH{sub 3}-TPD for ZSM-5, it might be proposed that the aromatization was favored mainly by strong acid sites and the alkanisation was favored chiefly by weak acid sites in catalyst ZSM-5. In addition, the formation of phenolic compounds was mainly related to the interactions between the intermediates from the co-pyrolysis over ZSM-5.

  14. Improved solid fuels from co-pyrolysis of a high-sulphur content coal and different lignocellulosic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cordero; J. Rodriguez-Mirasol; J. Pastrana; J.J. Rodriguez [ETSII, University of Malaga, Malaga (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2004-08-01

    Co-pyrolysis of blends of a high-sulphur coal with different biomass wastes has been investigated as a way to obtain improved solid fuels. Experiments have been performed in a thermogravimetric laboratory system and in a pilot-scale mobile bed furnace, this last operating at 600{sup o}C. The presence of biomass enhances coal desulphurization upon thermal treatment in significant relative amounts, giving rise about as much as twice percent sulphur loss at high biomass-to-coal ratios in the starting blend in comparison with the S loss occurring upon pyrolysis of coal alone. Combustion experiments with chars resulting from co-pyrolysis of these coal-biomass blends confirm this significantly improved desulphurization. Thus, co-pyrolysis of blends of high-sulphur coals with biomass wastes provides a potential way to obtain improved solid fuels combining good heating values with environmentally acceptable S contents. The chars resulting from co-pyrolysis show heating values within the range of high-quality solid fuels whereas the ash contents remain in the vicinity of that of the starting coal except in the case of the coal-straw blend where the relatively high ash content of this biomass waste leads to co-pyrolysis chars with substantially higher ash contents and lower heating values. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Bench-scale experiment design for developing co-pyrolysis and co-gasification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Important technical issues must be resolved before co-pyrolysis and co-gasification technologies can be offered as commercially viable processes. Clearly, issues such as solids handling and solids injection require solutions developed at actual plant or pilot scale. However, research on numerous other residual problems can be carried out effectively, rapidly, and inexpensively at bench-scale level. This article describes several cases where problems encountered during pilot or plant scale operation can be studied by experiments at bench-top levels; the designs of the bench-scale reactors used in these studies are presented and discussed. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Co-pyrolysis of Chinese lignite and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Weijiang

    2014-12-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was applied to pyrolyze lignite, biomass (rice husk) and their blend with high temperature (900 °C) and low heating rate (10 °C/min). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2 h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effects were observed. Addition of biomass obviously influenced the tar and char yields, gas volume yield, gas composition, char structure and tar composition during co-pyrolysis. It was highly possible that char gasification, gaseous phase interactions, and secondary tar cracking were facilitated when lignite and biomass were co-pyrolyzed.

  17. 7 CFR 982.12 - Merchantable hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merchantable hazelnuts. 982.12 Section 982.12... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.12 Merchantable hazelnuts. Merchantable...

  18. 7 CFR 982.53 - Substandard hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substandard hazelnuts. 982.53 Section 982.53... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Control of Distribution § 982.53 Substandard hazelnuts. The Board...

  19. CO{sub 2} removal potential of carbons prepared by co-pyrolysis of sugar and nitrogen containing compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Drage, T.C.; Smith, K.; Snape, C.E. [University of Nottingham, Fuel Science Group, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    The nitrogen enrichment of active carbons is reported to be effective in enhancing the specific adsorbate-adsorbent interactions for CO{sub 2}. In this work, nitrogen-enriched carbons were prepared by co-pyrolysis of sugar and a series of nitrogen compounds with different nitrogen functionalities. The results show that although the amount of nitrogen incorporated to the final adsorbent is important, the N-functionality seems to be more relevant for increasing CO{sub 2} uptake. Thus, the adsorbent obtained from urea co-pyrolysis presents the highest nitrogen content but the lowest CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity. However, the adsorbent obtained from carbazole co-pyrolysis, despite the lower amount of N incorporated, shows high CO{sub 2} uptake, up to 9wt.%, probably because the presence of more basic functionalities as determined by XPS analysis.

  20. Study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal blends in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal were studied in a fixed bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700°C, 800°C and 900°C, respectively. Six different biomass ratios were used. Gas, tar components were analyzed by a gas chromatograph and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry respectively. Under co-pyrolysis conditions, the gas volume yields are higher than the calculated values. Co-pyrolysis tar contains more phenolics, less oxygenate compounds than calculated values. The addition of biomass changes the atmosphere during the pyrolysis process and promotes tar decomposition. The SEM results show that the differences between the blended char and their parents char are not significant. The results of char yields and ultimate analysis also show that no significant interactions exist between the two kinds of particles. The changes of gas yield and components are caused by the secondary reactions and tar decomposition.

  1. Co-pyrolysis mechanism of seaweed polysaccharides and cellulose based on macroscopic experiments and molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Xia, Zhen; Hu, Yamin; He, Zhixia; Uzoejinwa, Benjamin Bernard; Wang, Qian; Cao, Bin; Xu, Shanna

    2017-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis conversion of seaweed (Enteromorpha clathrat and Sargassum fusiforme) polysaccharides and cellulose has been investigated. From the Py-GC/MS results, Enteromorpha clathrata (EN) polysaccharides pyrolysis mainly forms furans; while the products of Sargassum fusiforme (SA) polysaccharides pyrolysis are mainly acid esters. The formation mechanisms of H2O, CO2, and SO2 during the pyrolysis of seaweed polysaccharides were analyzed using the thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile the pyrolysis of seaweed polysaccharide based on the Amber and the ReaxFF force fields, has also been proposed and simulated respectively. The simulation results coincided with the experimental results. During the fast pyrolysis, strong synergistic effects among cellulose and seaweed polysaccharide molecules have been simulated. By comparing the experimental and simulation value, it has been found that co-pyrolysis could increase the number of molecular fragments, increase the pyrolysis conversion rate, and increase gas production rate at the middle temperature range. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of typical medical waste compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 崔文谦; 王维维; 张强; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2014-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of 21 kinds of binary mixtures between typical medical compositions was investigated under nitrogen conditions by dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at 25–800 °C. The weighed sum method (WSM) coupled with thermal analysis was applied to study the interaction between components. Then, co-pyrolysis kinetic model of the binary mixtures (tube for transfusion (TFT) and gauze) was established to verify the reliability of conclusions. The results show the follows. 1) Strong or weak interactions are shown between binary mixtures containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC),the main ingredient of TFT. The addition of other medical waste could enhance first stage decomposition of TFT. While, the secondary stage pyrolysis may be suppressed or enhanced or not affected by the addition. 2) There exists no interaction between catheter and other component, the DTG peak temperature representing CaCO3 decomposition in catheter fraction is obviously lower than that of pure catheter;while, the shape of DTG peak keeps unchanged. 3) No evident reaction occurs between the other mix-samples, it is considered that their co-pyrolysis characteristics are linear superposition of mono-component pyrolysis characteristics.

  3. Fast co-pyrolysis of biomass and lignite in a micro fluidized bed reactor analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yebing; Dong, Lei; Dong, Yuping; Liu, Wenping; Chang, Jiafu; Yang, Shuai; Lv, Zhaochuan; Fan, Pengfei

    2015-04-01

    The co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and lignite were investigated in a Micro Fluidized Bed Reaction Analyzer under isothermal condition. The synergetic effect was evaluated by comparing the experimental gas yields and distributions with the calculated values, and iso-conversional method was used to calculate the kinetic parameters of formation of each gas component. The results showed that synergetic effect was manifested in co-pyrolysis. For the range of conversion investigated, the activation energies for H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were 72.90 kJ/mol, 43.90 kJ/mol, 18.51 kJ/mol and 13.44 kJ/mol, respectively; the reactions for CH4 and CO2 conformed to 2 order chemical reaction model, and for H2 and CO conformed to 1.5 order chemical reaction model; the pre-exponential factors for CH4, CO2, H2 and CO were 249.0 S(-1), 5.290 S(-1), 237.4 S(-1) and 2.693 S(-1), respectively. The discrepancy of the kinetic parameters implied that there were different pathways for forming the different gas.

  4. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of sawdust and coal blend in TGA and a fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.K.; Kim, S.D.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.G. [Korean Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Republic of Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of sawdust and coal blend were determined in TGA and a fixed bed reactor. The yield and conversion of co-pyrolysis of sawdust and coal blend based on volatile matters are higher than those of the sum of sawdust and coal individually. From TGA experiments, weight loss rate of sawdust and coal blend increases above 400{sup o}C and additional weight loss was observed at 700{sup o}C. In a fixed bed at isothermal condition, the synergy to produce more volatiles appeared at 500-700{sup o}C, and the maximum synergy exhibits with a sawdust blending ratio of 0.6 at 600{sup o}C. The gas product yields remarkably increase at lower temperature range by reducing tar yield. The CO yield increases up to 26% at 400{sup o}C and CH{sub 4} yield increases up to 62% at 600{sup o}C compared with the calculated value from the additive model.

  5. Investigation into co-pyrolysis characteristics of oil shale and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Zhenyong; Wu Guoguang; Li Ping; Meng Xianliang; Zheng Zhilei

    2012-01-01

    Samples of five types of coal and oil shale from the Daqing region have been subjected to co-pyrolysis in different blending ratios with thermo-gravimetry (TG).given a heating rate of 30 ℃/min to a final temperature of 900 ℃.Investigations on pyrolysis of mixing coal and oil shale in different proportions were carried out,indicating that the main scope of weight loss corresponding to hydrocarbon oil and gas release was between 350 and 550 ℃.At higher temperatures,significant weight loss was attributed to coke decomposition.Characteristic pyrolysis parameters of blends from oil shale and the high ranked XZ coal varied with the blending ratio,but oil shale dominated the process.At the same blending proportions,highly volatile medium and low ranked coal of low moisture and ash content reacted well during pyrolysis and could easily create synergies with oil shale.Medium and high ranked coal with high moisture content played a negative role in co-pyrolysis.

  6. Influence of reaction parameters on brown coal-polyolefinic plastic co-pyrolysis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K.Marx Str. 42, 660049 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Miguel Luesma, 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, rue V.Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2007-03-15

    Co-processing of polyolefinic polymers with Kansk-Achinsk (Russia) brown coal was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and autoclave pyrolysis under argon and hydrogen pressure in catalytic conditions (or not). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were used to analyze the distillate products. Some synergistic effects indicate chemical interaction between the products of thermal decomposition of coal and plastic. In co-pyrolysis under H{sub 2} a significant increasing of coal conversion degree as a function of polymer amount in feedstock was found. Simultaneously the coal promoted formation of distillate products from polymers. Some alkyl aromatic and O-containing substances were detected in co-pyrolysis fraction boiling in the range 180-350 C, indicating interactions between coal and plastic. Iron containing ore materials, modified by mechanochemical treatment, demonstrated a catalytic activity in hydropyrolysis process. In catalytic conditions, increases of the mixtures conversion degree by 9-13 wt.%, of distillate fraction yields by 1.2-1.6 times and a decrease of olefins and polycyclic components were observed. (author)

  7. Characteristics of hydrogen sulphide released from coal and biomass blends during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Lin-lin; Cheng Shi-qing; Zhang Hai-qing; Yin Bing-yi [Shandong University, Jinan (China). College of Energy and Power Engineering

    2007-10-15

    Thermal gravimetric analysis, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy were used to study the characteristics of hydrogen sulphide released from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal blends. The effects of biomass on the hydrogen sulphide gas released from coal pyrolysis were studied. Results show that when the coal is blended with biomass the quantity of hydrogen sulphide released is affected. During the process of coal pyrolysis hydrogen sulphide is released in the temperature range 100-490{sup o}C but in the process of co-pyrolysis of coal with biomass it is released earlier, during the temperature range 200-490{sup o}C. This is because biomass is pyrolyzed earlier than coal. Abundant active methyl radicals and hydrogen are released providing hydrogen to combine with sulphur. The quantity of hydrogen sulphide is decreased with small proportions of biomass and increased with larger proportions. This is due to the accelerated effect of hydrogenation and the desulphurization effect of alkali metals in biomass. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate with brown coal and effect on monomer production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Orinak; L. Halas; I. Amar; J.T. Andersson; M. Adamova [University of P.J. Safarik, Kosice (Slovakia). Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis capillary gas chromatography has been applied to the study of the co-pyrolysis of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with Slovakian brown coal with the aim of finding pyrolysis conditions yielding a maximum amount of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Effects of pyrolysis temperature and PMMA-coal weight ratios were investigated. Capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detector (cGC-MS) was used for MMA identification. The highest yield of MMA in the pyrolysate was obtained at 750{sup o}C. The optimal PMMA-coal weight ratio for maximum MMA production lies in the interval 0.5 mg PMMA and 0.6-0.8 mg brown coal with an MMA yield of 64%. Coal addition to the sample affects species recombination in gaseous phase, augments MMA production at higher temperatures and eliminates degradation products of PMMA and coal pyrolysis. Different conversion diagrams are characteristic for thermal degradation of single PMMA and in the mixture with coal. Detailed mechanism of synergetic effects arisen during co-pyrolysis are not yet known. It was also found that lower pyrolysis temperatures are more suitable to study degradation mechanism and kinetics while higher temperatures are more applicable for identification purposes. MMA decomposes completely at 900{sup o}C. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. 7 CFR 982.52 - Disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.52 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... restricted hazelnuts. Hazelnuts withheld from handling as inshell hazelnuts pursuant to §§ 982.50 and...

  10. Thermogravimetric characteristics of typical municipal solid waste fractions during co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Long, YanQiu; Meng, AiHong; Li, QingHai; Zhang, YanGuo

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of nine typical municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions during pyrolysis were investigated using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). To compare the mixture results with the calculation results of superposition of single fractions quantitatively, TG overlap ratio was introduced. There were strong interactions between orange peel and rice (overlap ratio 0.9736), and rice and poplar wood (overlap ratio 0.9774). The interactions of mixture experiments postponed the peak and lowered the peak value. Intense interactions between PVC and rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, wool, terylene, and rubber powder during co-pyrolysis were observed, and the pyrolysis at low temperature was usually promoted. The residue yield was increased when PVC was blended with rice, poplar wood, tissue paper, or rubber powder; while the residue yield was decreased when PVC was blended with wool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TG/FTIR analysis on co-pyrolysis behavior of PE, PVC and PS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingli; Chen, Tianju; Luo, Xitao; Han, Dezhi; Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-03-01

    The pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis behaviors of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under N2 atmosphere were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric/Fourier transform infrared (TG/FTIR). The volatile products were analyzed to investigate the interaction of the plastic blends during the thermal decomposition process. The TGA results showed that the thermal stability increased followed by PVC, PS and PE. The pyrolysis process of PE was enhanced when mixed with PS. However, PS was postponed when mixed with PVC. As for PE and PVC, mutual block was happened when mixed together. The FTIR results showed that the free radical of the decomposition could combine into a stable compound. When PE mixed with PVC or PS, large amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon groups existed in products while the content of alkynes was decreased. The methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) bonds were disappeared while PVC mixed with PE.

  12. KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

    2013-10-29

    The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

  13. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. U.S. HAZELNUT MARKET TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR A MICHIGAN HAZELNUT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Cely, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to provide potential Michigan growers with information on major trends and markets of the U.S. hazelnut industry. Another objective was to explore certain important factors. apparent challenges and possible opportunities for a potential Michigan hazelnut industry. In respect to the first goal, this paper analyzed major production and market trends for the Oregon hazelnut industry, which constitutes almost all of the U.S. hazelnut crop, and explored some i...

  15. Serum IgE Antibodies against Hazelnut in Hazelnut Processing Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ege Gulec Balbay; Naciye Karatas; Peri Arbak; Songul Binay; Ozlem Yavuz; Ali Nihat Annakkaya; Oner Balbay; Umran Toru

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Previous studies have shown a higher sensitization rate to hazelnut in processing workers but no relation was found between the respiratory symptoms in workplace and hazelnut sensitization. Material and Method. To evaluate the association between the hazelnut sensitization and workplace-related respiratory complaints, hazelnut processing workers had undergone a questionnaire included work-related respiratory symptoms, smoking history, pulmonary function testing, and measurement of serum ...

  16. Serum IgE antibodies against hazelnut in hazelnut processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Karatas, Naciye; Arbak, Peri; Binay, Songul; Yavuz, Ozlem; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat; Balbay, Oner; Toru, Umran

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Previous studies have shown a higher sensitization rate to hazelnut in processing workers but no relation was found between the respiratory symptoms in workplace and hazelnut sensitization. Material and Method. To evaluate the association between the hazelnut sensitization and workplace-related respiratory complaints, hazelnut processing workers had undergone a questionnaire included work-related respiratory symptoms, smoking history, pulmonary function testing, and measurement of serum IgE antibodies against hazelnut. Results. This study consisted of 88 hazelnut processing workers (79 females and 9 males), aged 14-59 years (Mean ± SD: 33.8 ± 10.5 years). The mean working duration was 38.8 ± 36.6 months (min: 1-max: 180). Specific IgE against hazelnut allergens was positive in 14 of cases (17.1%). There was no significant difference between the cases with and without specific IgE against hazelnut allergens regarding respiratory symptoms, history of allergy, smoking status and spirometric values. Conclusion. 17.1% of the hazelnut processing workers were seropositive against hazelnut. Being sensitized to hazelnut was not found to be associated with work-related respiratory symptoms in this study. Further studies are needed in hazelnut workers respiratory health to search topics other than asthma.

  17. Serum IgE Antibodies against Hazelnut in Hazelnut Processing Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Gulec Balbay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Previous studies have shown a higher sensitization rate to hazelnut in processing workers but no relation was found between the respiratory symptoms in workplace and hazelnut sensitization. Material and Method. To evaluate the association between the hazelnut sensitization and workplace-related respiratory complaints, hazelnut processing workers had undergone a questionnaire included work-related respiratory symptoms, smoking history, pulmonary function testing, and measurement of serum IgE antibodies against hazelnut. Results. This study consisted of 88 hazelnut processing workers (79 females and 9 males, aged 14–59 years (Mean ± SD: years. The mean working duration was months (min: 1–max: 180. Specific IgE against hazelnut allergens was positive in 14 of cases (17.1%. There was no significant difference between the cases with and without specific IgE against hazelnut allergens regarding respiratory symptoms, history of allergy, smoking status and spirometric values. Conclusion. 17.1% of the hazelnut processing workers were seropositive against hazelnut. Being sensitized to hazelnut was not found to be associated with work-related respiratory symptoms in this study. Further studies are needed in hazelnut workers respiratory health to search topics other than asthma.

  18. HAZELNUT SEED LIPASE: EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, İsmail; Sağıroğlu, Ayten

    2012-01-01

    Interest in lipases has markedly increased to their potential industrial applications. Themost of lipases produced commercially are obtained from animal and microbial sources.Nowadays, also obtained from plant seeds such as sunflower, soybean, peanut, castor bean andhazelnut. Hazelnut is one of the most important foods in majority of the world and Turkey islargest hazelnut producer. In this study, It was aimed that Lipase from hazelnut seed identified asyomra species isolated, purified and ch...

  19. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermogravimetric and calorimetric characteristics during co-pyrolysis of municipal solid waste components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Emmanuel; Wang, Lijun; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2016-10-01

    The thermogravimetric and calorimetric characteristics during pyrolysis of wood, paper, textile and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic in municipal solid wastes (MSW), and co-pyrolysis of biomass-derived and plastic components with and without torrefaction were investigated. The active pyrolysis of the PET plastic occurred at a much higher temperature range between 360°C and 480°C than 220-380°C for the biomass derived components. The plastic pyrolyzed at a heating rate of 10°C/min had the highest maximum weight loss rate of 18.5wt%/min occurred at 420°C, followed by 10.8wt%/min at 340°C for both paper and textile, and 9.9wt%/min at 360°C for wood. At the end of the active pyrolysis stage, the final mass of paper, wood, textile and PET was 28.77%, 26.78%, 21.62% and 18.31%, respectively. During pyrolysis of individual MSW components at 500°C, the wood required the least amount of heat at 665.2J/g, compared to 2483.2J/g for textile, 2059.4J/g for paper and 2256.1J/g for PET plastic. The PET plastic had much higher activation energy of 181.86kJ/mol, compared to 41.47kJ/mol for wood, 50.01kJ/mol for paper and 36.65kJ/mol for textile during pyrolysis at a heating rate of 10°C/min. H2O and H2 peaks were observed on the MS curves for the pyrolysis of three biomass-derived materials but there was no obvious H2O and H2 peaks on the MS curves of PET plastic. There was a significant interaction between biomass and PET plastic during co-pyrolysis if the biomass fraction was dominant. The amount of heat required for the co-pyrolysis of the biomass and plastic mixture increased with the increase of plastic mass fraction in the mixture. Torrefaction at a proper temperature and time could improve the grindability of PET plastic. The increase of torrefaction temperature and time did not affect the temperature where the maximum pyrolytic rates occurred for both biomass and plastic but decreased the maximum pyrolysis rate of biomass and increased the maximum pyrolysis

  1. Co-pyrolysis of pine sawdust and lignite in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuyao; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2014-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of lignite and pine sawdust were studied in a TGA and a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and blending ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products (gas, tar, and char) were investigated. TGA experiments showed that pine sawdust decomposition took place at lower temperatures compared to lignite. With increasing the pine sawdust content in the blend, the DTG peaks shifted towards lower temperatures due to synergetic effect. In fixed-bed experiments, the synergetic effect increased the yield of volatile matter compared to the calculated values. The major gases released at low temperatures were CO2 and CO. However, hydrogen was the primary gaseous product at higher temperatures. During co-pyrolysis, concentrations of benzene, naphthalene, and hydrocarbons in the tar decreased, accompanied by an increase in phenols and guaiacol concentrations. With increasing pyrolysis temperature, the OH, aliphatic CH, CO, and CO functional groups in char decomposed substantially.

  2. Occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhen; Liu Ze-chang; Zhou Li-xia [Chemical and Environmental Department of Taishan College, Taian (China)

    2009-08-15

    The occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product including tar and water from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic (WP) and coal were studied. The effect of temperature, holding time, heating rate and gas flow on chlorine concentration in the liquid product was examined. The result indicates that the addition of WP to coal in co-pyrolysis does not increase the organic chlorine compound in the liquid product. However, the tar yield increases, and the water yield decreases. The chlorine in water mainly exists as inorganic form (NH{sub 4}Cl) and organic amine hydrochloride. There is no obvious C-Cl band in IR spectra of tar is observed. This indicates that the organic chlorine in tar is very little. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282

  4. Study of Pyrolysisis of Polymers and Coal and Co-Pyrolysis of Their Blends, Kinetics of the Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana MIKULOVÁ; Večeř, Marek; Jaroslav FRANTÍK

    2012-01-01

    Amount of polymer waste increase every year and for this reason upgrading of this waste is a necessity. Nowadays waste disposal and incineration of polymers waste are the most frequently used methods which (i) did not allowed chemical and energy utilization and (ii) are not environmentally friendly. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis provide an attractive way to dispose of and convert polymer waste and coal into higher value fuel and the specific benefits of this method potentially include many...

  5. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Fan, Liangliang; Cao, Leipeng; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Yunfeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a ZrO2-based polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was prepared and used in catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste vegetable oil and high density polyethylene (HDPE) for hydrocarbon fuel production. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst dosage, and HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio on the product distribution and hydrocarbon fuel composition were examined. Experimental results indicate that the maximum hydrocarbon fuel yield of 63.1wt. % was obtained at 430°C, and the oxygenates were rarely detected in the hydrocarbon fuel. The hydrocarbon fuel yield increased when the catalyst was used. At the catalyst dosage of 15wt.%, the proportion of alkanes in the hydrocarbon fuel reached 97.85wt.%, which greatly simplified the fuel composition and improved the fuel quality. With the augment of HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio, the hydrocarbon fuel yield monotonously increased. At the HDPE to waste vegetable oil ratio of 1:1, the maximum proportion (97.85wt.%) of alkanes was obtained. Moreover, the properties of hydrocarbon fuel were superior to biodiesel and 0(#) diesel due to higher calorific value, better low-temperature low fluidity, and lower density and viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetics of coal/plastic blends during co-pyrolysis in nitrogen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Junqing; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,Tianjin University, Weijin Road No.92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhou, Limin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,Tianjin University, Weijin Road No.92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Xuefu Road No. 56, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344000 (China)

    2008-01-15

    Investigations into the co-pyrolytic behaviours of different plastics (high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene and polypropylene), low volatile coal and their blends with the addition of the plastic of 5 wt.% have been conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The results indicated that plastic was decomposed in the temperature range 438-521 C, while the thermal degradation temperature of coal was 174-710 C. The overlapping degradation temperature interval between coal and plastic was favorable for hydrogen transfer from plastic to coal. The difference of weight loss (triangle W) between experimental and theoretical ones, calculated as an algebraic sum of those from each separated component, was 2.0-2.7% at 550-650 C. These experimental results indicated a synergistic effect during plastic and coal co-pyrolysis at the high temperature region. In addition, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogavimetric data, the estimated kinetic parameters (activation energies and pre-exponential factors) for coal, plastic and their blends, were found to be in the range of 35.7-572.8 kJ/mol and 27-1.7 x 10{sup 38} min{sup -} {sup 1}, respectively. (author)

  7. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetic of plastic and biomass blends co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Limin; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Cai, Junqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical engineering, Tianjin University, Weijin Road No. 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2006-11-15

    Co-pyrolytic behaviours of plastic/biomass mixtures were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyser under heating rate of 20 {sup o}C/min from room temperature to 650 {sup o}C. The biomass sample selected was Chinese pine wood sawdust, while high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene were selected as plastic samples. Results obtained from this comprehensive investigation indicated that plastic was decomposed in the temperature range 438-521 {sup o}C, while the thermal degradation temperature of biomass is 292-480 {sup o}C. The difference of weight loss ({delta}W) between experimental and theoretical ones, calculated as algebraic sums of those from each separated component, is about 6-12% at 530-650 {sup o}C. These experimental results indicate a significant synergistic effect during plastic and biomass co-pyrolysis at the high temperature region. In addition, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data, the global processes being considered as one to three consecutive first order reactions. A reasonable fit to the experimental data was obtained for all materials and their blends. (author)

  8. The effect of mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis of lignite and rapeseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onay, O [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School; Usta, C.; Kockar, O.M. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of lignite on the yield and chemical structure of bio-oil produced from rapeseed using a fast pyrolysis technique. The rapeseed and lignite mixtures were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed reactor. Heating rates and temperatures were controlled by a PID controller. Char yield after pyrolysis was determined from the overall weight losses of the reactor tube, while the liquid phase was collected in a glass liner. Experiments were conducted using a range of blending ratios. While final pyrolysis temperatures were set at 550 degrees C. An elemental analyzer was used to characterize the rapeseed and pyrolysis bio-oils. Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) was used to conduct functional group compositional analyses. The study showed that conversion degree increased with temperature increases. Yields of both conversion and oil increased with biomass concentration. However, distribution between conversion and oil was influenced by the blending ratio. A maximum yield of oil was obtained with a 5 per cent blending ratio of lignite. It was concluded that the co-pyrolysis of rapeseed and coal at a temperature of 550 degrees C increases production by more than 11 per cent. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Physico-chemical properties of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of waste mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, M; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Fonseca, I; Lopes, H

    2012-06-15

    The present work aims to perform a multistep upgrading of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of PE, PP and PS plastic wastes, pine biomass and used tires. The quality of the upgraded chars was evaluated by measuring some of their physico-chemical properties in order to assess their valorisation as adsorbents' precursors. The crude chars were submitted to a sequential solvent extraction with organic solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, mixture 1:1 v/v hexane:acetone and acetone) followed by an acidic demineralization procedure with 1M HCl solution. The results obtained showed that the upgrading treatment allow the recovery of 63-81% of the pyrolysis oils trapped in the crude chars and a reduction in the char's ash content in the range of 64-86%. The textural and adsorption properties of the upgraded chars were evaluated and the results indicate that the chars are mainly mesoporous and macroporous materials, with adsorption capacities in the range of 3.59-22.2 mg/g for the methylene blue dye. The upgrading treatment allowed to obtain carbonaceous materials with quality to be reused as adsorbents or as precursors for activated carbon.

  10. Removal of lead (Pb2+) from aqueous medium by using chars from co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Maria; Mendes, Sandra; Lapa, Nuno; Gonçalves, Margarida; Mendes, Benilde; Pinto, Filomena; Lopes, Helena; Fonseca, Isabel

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of chars from the co-pyrolysis of pine, used tires and plastic wastes for the removal of lead (Pb(2+)) from aqueous medium, was investigated. The chars were predominantly of macroporous nature, but the introduction of tires in the pyrolysis feedstock enhanced their mesoporous content as well as surface area. Pb(2+) sorption with the chars was a slow and unstable process in which sorption-desorption seems to be competing. The highest Pb(2+) removal (88%) was attained by the char resulting from the pyrolysis of a mixture composed by equal mass ratios of used tires and plastics, at 48 h of contact time. This char was also the one with the overall better performance for Pb(2+) sorption, achieving almost 100% of Pb(2+) removal on the study of the effect of adsorbent dose. Mixing the three raw materials for pyrolysis had no advantage for the resulting char concerning the removal efficiency of Pb(2+). The sorption mechanisms varied according to the pyrolysis feedstock: in chars from feedstock with pine, chemisorption involving complexation with oxygenated surface functional groups followed by cation exchange was the presumable mechanism. In tire rubber derived chars, cation exchange with Ca(2+), K(+), and Zn(2+) played the major role on Pb(2+) sorption.

  11. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  12. Co-pyrolysis of corn cob and waste cooking oil in a fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Liu, Cong; Ma, Wenchao; Zhang, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yanbin; Yan, Beibei; Zhou, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Corn cob (CC) and waste cooking oil (WCO) were co-pyrolyzed in a fixed bed. The effects of various temperatures of 500 °C, 550 °C, 600 °C and CC/WCO mass ratios of 1:0, 1:0.1, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 0:1 were investigated, respectively. Results show that co-pyrolysis of CC/WCO produce more liquid and less bio-char than pyrolysis of CC individually. Bio-oil and bio-char yields were found to be largely dependent on temperature and CC/WCO ratios. GC/MS of bio-oil show it consists of different classes and amounts of organic compounds other than that from CC pyrolysis. Temperature of 550 °C and CC/WCO ratio of 1:1 seem to be the optimum considering high bio-oil yields (68.6 wt.%) and good bio-oil properties (HHV of 32.78 MJ/kg). In this case, bio-char of 24.96 MJ/kg appears attractive as a renewable source, while gas with LHV of 16.06 MJ/Nm(3) can be directly used in boilers as fuel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ex-situ catalytic co-pyrolysis of lignin and polypropylene to upgrade bio-oil quality by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dengle; Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Ruan, Roger; Zhao, Yunfeng; Fan, Liangliang; Tayier, Maimaitiaili; Liu, Yuhuan

    2017-10-01

    Microwave-assisted fast co-pyrolysis of lignin and polypropylene for bio-oil production was conducted using the ex-situ catalysis technology. Effects of catalytic temperature, feedstock/catalyst ratio, and lignin/polypropylene ratio on product distribution and chemical components of bio-oil were investigated. The catalytic temperature of 250°C was the most conducive to bio-oil production in terms of the yield. The bio-oil yield decreased with the addition of catalyst during ex-situ catalytic co-pyrolysis. When the feedstock/catalyst ratio was 2:1, the minimum char and coke values were 21.22% and 1.54%, respectively. The proportion of cycloalkanes decreased and the aromatics increased with the increasing catalyst loading. A positive synergistic effect was observed between lignin and polypropylene. The char yield dramatically deceased and the bio-oil yield improved during co-pyrolysis compared with those during lignin pyrolysis alone. The proportion of oxygenates dramatically and the minimum value of 6.74% was obtained when the lignin/polypropylene ratio was 1:1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Study of Pyrolysisis of Polymers and Coal and Co-Pyrolysis of Their Blends, Kinetics of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana MIKULOVÁ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Amount of polymer waste increase every year and for this reason upgrading of this waste is a necessity. Nowadays waste disposal and incineration of polymers waste are the most frequently used methods which (i did not allowed chemical and energy utilization and (ii are not environmentally friendly. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis provide an attractive way to dispose of and convert polymer waste and coal into higher value fuel and the specific benefits of this method potentially include many environmental friendly advantages. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis has been studied using termogravimetry apparatus NETZCH TG-DTA STA 409 EP. The pyrolysis of all polymers except for scrap tyres was a one-step process and temperature range was narrower than for coal pyrolysis. The overlapping temperature range for pyrolysis of polymers and coal was 200–600°C. The synergic effect and kinetics of co-pyrolysis of polymers and coal has been studied in the given temperature range. The addition of polymers to coal led to (i the enhancement of weight loss of brown coal, (ii the shift of temperature of the max pyrolysis speed and (iii the slight influence of EA of coal pyrolysis.

  15. Co-pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of coal and plastic blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Limin [School of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Materials, East China Institute of Technology, Xuefu Road No. 56, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Xuefu Road No. 56, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344000 (China)], E-mail: minglzh@sohu.com; Luo Taian [School of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Materials, East China Institute of Technology, Xuefu Road No. 56, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344000 (China); Huang Qunwu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University, Weijin Road No. 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of different plastics (high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene and polypropylene), low volatile coal (LVC) and their mixtures were investigated by TGA. Experiments were conducted under N{sub 2} atmosphere at heating rate of 20 deg. C/min from room temperature to 750 deg. C. The results showed that the thermal degradation temperature range of plastic was 438-521 deg. C, while that of coal (LVC) was 174-710 deg. C. Plastics showed similar pyrolysis characteristics due to similar chemical bonds in their molecular structures. The overlapping degradation temperature interval between coal and plastic provide an opportunity for free radicals from coal pyrolysis to participate in the reactions of plastic decomposition. The difference of weight loss percent ({delta}W) between experimental and theoretical ones, calculated as an algebraic sum of those from each separated component, {delta}W is 2.0-2.7% at the pyrolysis temperature higher than 530 deg. C, which indicates that the synergistic effect during pyrolysis occurs mainly in the high temperature region. The kinetic studies were performed according to Coats and Redfern method for first-order reaction. It was found that for plastics (HDPE, LDPE and PP), the pyrolysis process can be described by one first-order reaction. However, for LVC and LVC/plastic blends, this process can be described by three and four consecutive first-order reactions, respectively. The estimated kinetic parameters viz., activation energies and pre-exponential factors for coal, plastic and their blends, were found to be in the range of 35.7-572.8 kJ/mol and 27-1.7 x 10{sup 38} min{sup -1}, respectively.

  16. Co-pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of coal and plastic blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Limin [School of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Materials, East China Institute of Technology, Xuefu Road No. 56, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344000 (China)]|[Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Xuefu Road No. 56, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344000 (China); Luo, Taian [School of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Materials, East China Institute of Technology, Xuefu Road No. 56, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344000 (China); Huang, Qunwu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University, Weijin Road No. 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of different plastics (high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene and polypropylene), low volatile coal (LVC) and their mixtures were investigated by TGA. Experiments were conducted under N{sub 2} atmosphere at heating rate of 20 C/min from room temperature to 750 C. The results showed that the thermal degradation temperature range of plastic was 438-521 C, while that of coal (LVC) was 174-710 C. Plastics showed similar pyrolysis characteristics due to similar chemical bonds in their molecular structures. The overlapping degradation temperature interval between coal and plastic provide an opportunity for free radicals from coal pyrolysis to participate in the reactions of plastic decomposition. The difference of weight loss percent ({delta}W) between experimental and theoretical ones, calculated as an algebraic sum of those from each separated component, {delta}W is 2.0-2.7% at the pyrolysis temperature higher than 530 C, which indicates that the synergistic effect during pyrolysis occurs mainly in the high temperature region. The kinetic studies were performed according to Coats and Redfern method for first-order reaction. It was found that for plastics (HDPE, LDPE and PP), the pyrolysis process can be described by one first-order reaction. However, for LVC and LVC/plastic blends, this process can be described by three and four consecutive first-order reactions, respectively. The estimated kinetic parameters viz., activation energies and pre-exponential factors for coal, plastic and their blends, were found to be in the range of 35.7-572.8 kJ/mol and 27-1.7 x 10{sup 38} min{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  17. The study of populations of hazelnut c. Avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. Colurna L. and their selection

    OpenAIRE

    Miletić Rade; Mitrović Milisav; Rakićević Milan; Blagojević Miladin; Karaklajić-Stajić Žaklina

    2007-01-01

    Properties of populations of hazelnut C. avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. colurna L. in different regions of Serbia were studied over 1998 - 2005. Round-fruit selections suitable for candy industry were concurrently singled out. Populations of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut are characterized by small or medium large fruits with round shape index and kernel index ranging from 0.77 - 0.89 and 0.78 - 0.84 respectively. Singled out selections of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut have averagely mediu...

  18. Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Susie MacMurray's Shell installation manifests in Pallant House Gallery, Chichester, like some pulsing exotica, a heavily-textured wall-paper, darkly decorative, heavily luxurious, broodingly present, with more than a hint of the uncanny or the gothic. A remarkable undertaking by an artist of significance, this work's life-span will be just one year, and then it will disappear, leaving no physical trace, but undoubtedly contributing in a much less tangible way to an already rich layering of n...

  19. Hazelnut allergy in children and adults: diagnosis and underlying mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Masthoff, L.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Hazelnut is a frequently consumed tree nut. This thesis shows that allergic symptoms to hazelnut are common but highly variable in severity, and they differ between children and adults. Hazelnut allergy in adults is generally limited to mild and local symptoms in the oral cavity, whereas in children, more severe symptoms such as angio-edema, urticaria and dyspnea are frequently observed. In adults, hazelnut allergy is associated with birch pollen allergy, whereas in children, it is often acco...

  20. Fast co-pyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene for high yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Shi, Shukai; Chen, Minzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-09-01

    Waste newspaper (WP) was first co-pyrolyzed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to enhance the yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons. The effects of WP: HDPE feed ratio (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) and temperature (500-800°C) on products distribution were investigated and the interaction mechanism during co-pyrolysis was also proposed. Maximum yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons reached 85.88% (feed ratio 50:50wt.%, 600°C). Hydrogen supplements and deoxidation by HDPE and subsequently fragments recombination result in the conversion of aldehydes and ketones into branched hydrocarbons. Radicals from WP degradation favor the secondary crack for HDPE products resulting in the formation of linear hydrocarbons with low carbon number. Hydrocarbons with activated radical site from HDPE degradation were interacted with hydroxyl from WP degradation promoting the formation of linear long chain alcohols. Moreover, co-pyrolysis significantly enhanced condensable oil qualities, which were close to commercial diesel No. 0. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Online study on the co-pyrolysis of coal and corn with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yue-Xi; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Pan, Yang; Tian, Zhen-Yu

    2017-11-01

    With the aim to support the experimental tests in a circulating fluidized bed pilot plant, the pyrolysis processes of coal, corn, and coal-corn blend have been studied with an online pyrolysis photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Py-PI-TOFMS). The mass spectra at different temperatures (300-800°C) as well as time-evolved profiles of selected species were measured. The pyrolysis products such as alkanes, alkenes, phenols, aromatics, as well as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species were detected. As temperature rises, the relative ion intensities of high molecular weight products tend to decrease, while those of aromatics increase significantly. During the co-pyrolysis, coal can promote the reaction temperature of cellulose in corn. Time-evolved profiles demonstrate that coal can affect pyrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of corn in blend. This work shows that Py-PI-TOFMS is a powerful approach to permit a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polylactic acid. Part 1: Influence on bio-oil yield and heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; J. Yperman; G. Reggers; S. Schreurs; R. Carleer [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Laboratory of Applied Chemistry

    2008-06-15

    High amounts of water present in bio-oil are one of the major drawbacks for its utilisation as a fuel. One technology that shows the potential to satisfy the demand for bio-oil with a reduced water content is the flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polylactic acid, PLA. The influence of PLA on the pyrolysis of willow is investigated with a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. Flash co-pyrolysis of willow/PLA blends (10:1, 3:1, 1:1 and 1:2) show synergetic interaction. A higher bio-oil yield and a lower water content as a function of the willow/PLA ratios are obtained. Among the tested blends, the 1:2 willow/PLA blend shows the most pronounced synergy: a reduction in the production of pyrolytic water of almost 28%, accompanied by an increase of more than 37% in the production of water-free bio-oil. Additionally, PLA shows to have a positive influence on the energetic value of the bio-oil produced and on the resulting energy recuperation. 23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of waste particle board and polyproplylene over nanoporous Al-MCM-41 catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Choi, Suek Joo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic co-pyrolysis of particle board, a waste wood biomass, and polypropylene (PP), a petroleum-based plastic, was carried out with a mixing ratio of 1:1 over a representative mesoporous material, Al-MCM-41 catalyst. The Si/Al ratios of the Al-MCM-41 catalysts were controlled at 20 and 80 to investigate the effect of the acidity of the catalyst. The characterization of the catalyst was performed by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption. The catalytic pyrolysis of the particle board showed a higher yield of gas and lower yield of oil than the non-catalytic pyrolysis. In oil, the concentration of levoglucosan decreased, and those of furans, furanones, cyclopentanones, aromatics, and light phenolics increased. In the case of the co-pyrolysis of the particle board and PP, C10-C17 products corresponding to the diesel range greatly increased and resulted in an improvement of the bio-oil quality. This suggests that PP is decomposed on the acidic sites of the Al-MCM-41 catalyst, resulting in an increased production of hydrocarbons in the range of diesel.

  4. Hazelnut allergy in children and adults: diagnosis and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masthoff, L.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Hazelnut is a frequently consumed tree nut. This thesis shows that allergic symptoms to hazelnut are common but highly variable in severity, and they differ between children and adults. Hazelnut allergy in adults is generally limited to mild and local symptoms in the oral cavity, whereas in children

  5. 7 CFR 982.453 - Disposition of substandard hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of substandard hazelnuts. 982.453 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... hazelnuts. The Board shall maintain a list of approved users who are crushers, livestock feed...

  6. Antioxidant properties and UPLC-MS/MS profiling of phenolics in jacquemont's hazelnut kernels (Corylus jacquemontii) and its byproducts from western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Kumar, Pawan; Koundal, Rajkesh; Agnihotri, Vijai K

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and selective analytical method was developed to simultaneously quantify seven polyphenolic compounds (gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, kaempferol, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid). 15 phenolics of diverse groups in 80 % ethanolic extracts of jacquemont's hazelnut (Corylus jacquemontii) kernels and its byproducts from western Himalaya using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) were identified. The developed analytical method showed excellent linearity, repeatability and accuracy. Total phenols concentrations were found to be 4446, 1199 and 105 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/Kg of dried extract for jacquemont's hazelnut skin, hard shell and kernels respectively. Antioxidant potential of defatted, raw jacquemont's hazelnut skin, hard shell and kernel extracts assessed by 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods were increased in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values were observed as 23.12, 51.32, 136.46 and 45.73, 63.65, 169.30 μg/ml for jacquemont's hazelnut skin, hard shell, kernels by DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. The high phenolic contents in jacquemont's hazelnut skin contributed towards their free radical scavenging capacities.

  7. Patulin & ergosterol: new quality parameters together with aflatoxins in hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Raci; Otağ, Mustafa; Kadakal, Çetin

    2014-05-01

    Hazelnuts of three different categories, mouldy, hidden mould and sound (undamaged), were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from five hazelnut processing plants located in a major hazelnut producing area in the Black Sea region in Turkey. All aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sound hazelnuts were contaminated with trace or zero amounts of aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts were contaminated with high (246-510ppb; 141-422ppb) aflatoxin levels, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 content was significantly correlated with the patulin and ergosterol contents in mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts. However, there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts.

  8. Beneficial synergetic effect on gas production during co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and biomass in a vacuum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijiang; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Yang, Xiao

    2015-05-01

    A vacuum fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolyze sewage sludge, biomass (rice husk) and their blend under high temperature (900°C). Pyrolytic products were kept in the vacuum reactor during the whole pyrolysis process, guaranteeing a long contact time (more than 2h) for their interactions. Remarkable synergetic effect on gas production was observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The syngas (CO and H2) content and gas lower heating value (LHV) were obviously improved as well. It was highly possible that sewage sludge provided more CO2 and H2O during co-pyrolysis, promoting intense CO2-char and H2O-char gasification, which benefited the increase of gas yield and lower heating value. The beneficial synergetic effect, as a result, made this method a feasible one for gas production.

  9. Preparation and application of porous nitrogen-doped graphene obtained by co-pyrolysis of lignosulfonate and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Bo; Wang, Wen-Dong; Lü, Qiu-Feng; Lin, Ting-Ting; Lin, Qilang; Yang, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene with in-plane porous structure was fabricated by simple co-pyrolysis of lignosulfonate and graphene oxide in the presence of urea. Lignosulfonate first performs as a dispersant adsorbed on the surface of graphene oxide to prevent the aggregation of graphene oxide sheets for preparing homogeneous nitrogen-containing precursor, and then acts as a porogen to render graphene sheets with nanopores in the pyrolysis process of the nitrogen-containing precursor. Urea was used as a nitrogen source to incorporate nitrogen atoms into graphene basal plane. The special nanoporous structure combined with nitrogen content of 7.41at.% endows the nitrogen-doped graphene electrode material with super capacitance up to 170Fg(-1), high rate performance, and excellent cycling stability.

  10. Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wu-Jun; Ding, Hong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable commodity chemicals from bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass has received considerable interests, but hindered by the presence of innumerable components in bio-oil. In present work, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative approach combining atmospheric distillation of bio-oil with co-pyrolysis for mass production of renewable chemicals from biomass, in which no waste was produced. It was estimated that 51.86 wt.% of distillate just containing dozens of separable organic components could be recovered using this approach. Ten protogenetic and three epigenetic compounds in distillate were qualitatively identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography. Among them, the recovery efficiencies of acetic acid, propanoic acid, and furfural were all higher than 80 wt.%. Formation pathways of the distillate components in this process were explored. This work opens up a fascinating prospect for mass production of chemical feedstock from waste biomass. PMID:23350028

  11. Low-temperature co-pyrolysis of a low-rank coal and biomass to prepare smokeless fuel briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesa, M.J.; Miranda, J.L.; Moliner, R.; Izquierdo, M.T. [Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, P.O. Box 589, 50080 Zaragoza (Spain); Palacios, J.M. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless fuel briquettes have been prepared with low-rank coal and biomass. These raw materials have been mixed in different ratios and have been pyrolysed at 600C with the aim to reduce both the volatile matter and the sulphur content, and to increase the high calorific value (HCV). The co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass has shown a synergetic effect. The biomass favours the release of hydrogen sulphide during the thermal treatment. This fact can be explained in terms of the hydrogen-donor character of the biomass. Moreover, the optimisation of the amount of binder and the influence of different types of biomass in the blend have been studied with respect to the mechanical properties of the briquettes (impact resistance, compression strength and abrasion). Briquettes prepared with sawdust (S) present better mechanical properties than those with olive stones (O) because of its fibrous texture.

  12. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu

    2014-10-01

    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance.

  13. Modeling optimal mineral nutrition for hazelnut micropropagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micropropagation of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is typically difficult due to the wide variation in response among cultivars. This study was designed to overcome that difficulty by modeling the optimal mineral nutrients for micropropagation of C. avellana selections using a response surface desig...

  14. Low-temperature co-pyrolysis behaviours and kinetics of oily sludge: effect of agricultural biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiehong; Jia, Hanzhong; Qu, Chengtun; Fan, Daidi; Wang, Chuanyi

    2017-02-01

    Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of oily sludge for oil recovery, and its kinetics and efficiency are expected to be affected by additives. In the present study, the pyrolysis parameters, including heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time of oily sludge in the presence of agricultural biomass, apricot shell, were systematically explored. As a result, maximum oil recovery is achieved when optimizing the pyrolysis conditionas15 K/min, 723 K, and 3 h for heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time, respectively. Thermogravimetric experiments of oily sludge samples in the presence of various biomasses conducted with non-isothermal temperature programmes suggest that the pyrolysis process contains three stages, and the main decomposition reaction occurs in the range of 400-740 K. Taking Flynn-Wall-Ozawa analysis of the derivative thermogravimetry and thermogravimetry results, the activation energy (Ea) values for the pyrolysis of oily sludge in the presence and absence of apricot shell were derived to be 35.21 and 39.40 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The present work supports that the presence of biomass promotes the pyrolysis of oily sludge, implying its great potential as addictive in the industrial pyrolysis of oily sludge.

  15. Determination of lipid and phenolic fraction in two hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars grown in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniewska-Żytkiewicz, Hanna; Verardo, Vito; Pasini, Federica; Bryś, Joanna; Koczoń, Piotr; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2015-02-01

    The fatty acid, tocopherol, sterol, phospholipid and phenolic compositions of Polish hazelnuts (Kataloński and Webba Cenny) were examined. Particularly, free+esterified and bound tocopherol, sterol and phenolic compounds were determined. The major fatty acids found in hazelnuts were oleic and linoleic acids. α-Tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol accounting for 90-92% of the total content. Bound tocopherols represented 45.5% and 21.7% of total tocopherols in Kataloński and Webba Cenny cultivar, respectively. Total free+esterified sterols were between 62.0% and 75.7% of total sterols and β-sitosterol was the first sterol in the two samples. Phosphatidylcholine was the most common phospholipid, accounting for 72.2% for Kataloński and 67.5% Webba Cenny, respectively. The most abundant fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were oleic equally with palmitic acids. Twelve free and six bound phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in hazelnut kernel, instead nine free and six bound phenolic compounds were determined in hard shell.

  16. Solar Drying of Hazelnut by Three Different Types of System

    OpenAIRE

    Olgun, Hayati; RZAYEV, Perviz

    2000-01-01

    Hazelnut is the most important agricultural product of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, and is exported to the world market dried and unshelled. The traditional sun drying process used by hazelnut farmers takes about 3 to 10 days depending on the weather conditions. If precipitation is high during the harvesting period, drying takes longer and causes the harvest to be spoilt. Although Turkey grows almost 75% of the world's hazelnuts, due to the current difficulties in th...

  17. Nutritive Value of Persian Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Orchards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatemeh Amini-Noori; Parisa Ziarati; Afshin Jafarpour

    2016-01-01

    .... Varieties, location, composition of soils, usage of fertilizer and irrigation affect the fatty acid, mineral and vitamin composition of hazelnuts, and consequently influence the nutritional value...

  18. Quantitative sandwich ELISA for determination of traces of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) protein in complex food matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauser, T; Vieths, S

    1999-10-01

    A hazelnut-specific sandwich-type ELISA based on polyclonal antisera was developed for detection of hidden hazelnut protein residues in complex food matrixes. In the absence of a food matrix, extractable protein from different native and toasted hazelnuts was detected at rates of 94 +/- 13 and 96 +/- 7% applying standards prepared from native and toasted hazelnuts, respectively. From complex food matrixes, 0.001-10% of hazelnut was recovered between 67 and 132%, in average by 106 +/- 17%. Depending on the food matrix, hazelnut protein could be detected down to the ppb (ng/g) level. Intraassay precision was hazelnut >/= 0.001% and interassay precision was hazelnut >/= 0.01%. In 12 of 28 commercial food products without labeling or declaration of hazelnut components, between 2 and 421 ppm of hazelnut protein was detected, demonstrating a remarkable presence of potentially allergenic hazelnut protein "hidden" in commercial food products.

  19. The study of populations of hazelnut c. Avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. Colurna L. and their selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of populations of hazelnut C. avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. colurna L. in different regions of Serbia were studied over 1998 - 2005. Round-fruit selections suitable for candy industry were concurrently singled out. Populations of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut are characterized by small or medium large fruits with round shape index and kernel index ranging from 0.77 - 0.89 and 0.78 - 0.84 respectively. Singled out selections of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut have averagely medium large fruits and kernel. Round shape index of fruits and kernel of hazelnut amount to 0.98 (1.01 - 0.91 and 0.99 (1.00 - 0.96 respectively, whereas the same parameter in Turkish hazelnut amounts to 0.99 (0.99 - 0.97 and 0.98 (0.98 - 0.97. Average fruit weight of the singled out selections is 1.79 g (hazelnut and 1.74 g (Turkish hazelnut. Average kernel mass is 0.75 - 0.70 g. i.e. kernel ratio in hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut amounts to 41% and 40.2% respectively. The mineral matter content in the kernel of the selections amounted to 2.4% and 2.3% respectively. Raw proteins content ranged from 13.8% - 12.4% respectively, and oil content ranged from 47.7 - 50.2% respectively. The majority of indicators under in situ conditions suggest that all selections singled out from the population deserve attention with objective of more intensified propagation and wider introduction into commercial production. It particularly refers to the round shaped kernel which is the most suitable for the candy industry. .

  20. HCl emission during co-pyrolysis of demolition wood with a small amount of PVC film and the effect of wood constituents on HCl emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidetoshi Kuramochi; Daisuke Nakajima; Sumio Goto; Kazutoshi Sugita; Wei Wu; Katsuya Kawamoto [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management

    2008-10-15

    In this study, HCl emission during the co-pyrolysis of demolition wood and a small amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film (the Cl content of which ranged from 0.5% to 6% by weight) in an N{sub 2} atmosphere at elevated temperatures of up to 600{sup o}C was measured using a laboratory-scale cylindrical batch reactor. In the pyrolysis experiments, HCl emission was reduced by the presence of wood. The effect of the primary constituents of wood (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) on HCl emission was investigated by not only measuring HCl emission and Cl distribution to various phases during the co-pyrolysis of each constituent with PVC film but also by conducting thermogravimetric analysis of the constituents. This investigation first revealed that hemicellulose significantly reduced HCl emission by fixing most of the Cl molecules in a sample into pyrolyzed residue. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of biomass and food waste to produce aromatics: Analytical Py-GC/MS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Min, Min; Ding, Kuan; Xie, Qinglong; Ruan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    In this study, catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) of corn stalk and food waste (FW) was carried out to produce aromatics using quantitative pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and ZSM-5 zeolite in the hydrogen form was employed as the catalyst. Co-CFP temperature and a parameter called hydrogen to carbon effective ratio (H/C(eff) ratio) were examined for their effects on the relative content of aromatics. Experimental results showed that co-CFP temperature of 600 °C was optimal for the formation of aromatics and other organic pyrolysis products. Besides, H/C(eff) ratio had an important influence on product distribution. The yield of total organic pyrolysis products and relative content of aromatics increased non-linearly with increasing H/C(eff) ratio. There was an apparent synergistic effect between corn stalk and FW during co-CFP process, which promoted the production of aromatics significantly. Co-CFP of biomass and FW was an effective method to produce aromatics and other petrochemicals.

  2. Upgraded bio-oil production via catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of waste cooking oil and tea residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu; Deng, Aidong; Ruan, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) offers a concise and effective process to achieve an upgraded bio-oil production. In this paper, co-CFP experiments of waste cooking oil (WCO) and tea residual (TR) with HZSM-5 zeolites were carried out. The influences of pyrolysis reaction temperature and H/C ratio on pyrolytic products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were performed. Furthermore, the prevailing synergetic effect of target products during co-CFP process was investigated. Experimental results indicated that H/C ratio played a pivotal role in carbon yields of aromatics and olefins, and with H/C ratio increasing, the synergetic coefficient tended to increase, thus led to a dramatic growth of aromatics and olefins yields. Besides, the pyrolysis temperature made a significant contribution to carbon yields, and the yields of aromatics and olefins increased at first and then decreased at the researched temperature region. Note that 600°C was an optimum temperature as the maximum yields of aromatics and olefins could be achieved. Concerning the transportation fuel dependence and security on fossil fuels, co-CFP of WCO and TR provides a novel way to improve the quality and quantity of pyrolysis bio-oil, and thus contributes bioenergy accepted as a cost-competitive and promising alternative energy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic and its emission characteristic during combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zheng; Liu Ze-chang; Zhao Ying; Shi Yu-miao [Chemical and Environmental Engineering College of Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2006-12-15

    The occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic was studied by IR and TG-MS. In addition, the emission characteristic of those solid products during combustion was studied. The results indicates that when co-pyrolysis temperature is below 600{sup o}C, there are some organic as well as inorganic chlorine compounds in coke; when the temperature is above 600{sup o}C, there is only inorganic one in the coke. The emission ratio of chlorine is relative to combustion temperature, the co-pyrolysing temperature as well as the percentage of PVC. The emission ratio of chlorine increases with the rising temperature of combustion. When the combustion temperature is 900{sup o}C, the emission ratio is up to 94%. On the contrary, the emission ratio is lower for the solid product from higher co-pyrolysis temperature as the combustion temperature is the same. The highest chlorine emission ratio from pyrolysis at 400{sup o}C is 99.86%, but that from 1000{sup o}C pyrolysis is 94.35%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Preparation of liquid chemical feedstocks by co-pyrolysis of electronic waste and biomass without formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEEs) and waste biomass to obtain pyrolysis-oil, a liquid fuel or chemical feedstock, was carried out in the present work. The pyrolysis-oil yield of co-pyrolysis reached 62.3% which was significantly higher than those of pyrolysis of WEEEs and biomass alone (i.e., 53.1% for WEEEs and 46.3% for biomass), suggesting that synergistic effects of the WEEEs and biomass happened during the co-pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis-oil mainly contained aromatic compounds, including many aromatic hydrocarbons. More than 90 wt.% of bromides were enriched in pyrolysis-oil and char, which is easily to be recovered by further treatments, and no polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were detected in all products which may be attributed to the blocking of PBDD/Fs generation under special reductive environment of pyrolysis. This work provided a green and environmentally friendly approach for the disposal of the WEEEs as well as resource recovery.

  5. Physico-chemical properties and gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis char from different rank of coal blended with lignocellulosic biomass: Effects of the cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Luo, Zhengyuan; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu; Zhao, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of cellulose on the physicochemical properties and the gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis char was investigated. A specific surface area analyzer and an X-ray diffraction system were used to characterize the pore structure and the micro-crystalline structure of char. Fractal theory and deconvolution method were applied to quantitatively investigate the influence of cellulose on the structure of co-pyrolysis char. The results indicate that the improvements in the pore structure due to the presence of cellulose are more pronounced in the case of anthracite char with respect to bituminous char. Cellulose promotes the ordering of micro-scale structure and the uniformity of both anthracite and bituminous char, while the negative synergetic effect was observed during gasification of co-pyrolysis char. The exponential relationships between fractal dimension and specific surface area were determined, along with the relations between the gasification reactivity index and the microcrystalline structure parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-pyrolysis of waste propylene and gas oil from Campos Basin: a case study; Tecnologia de co-pirolise de polipropileno pos-consumo com gasoleo da Bacia de Campos: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assumpcao, Luiz Carlos F.N. de; Aguiar, Monica Regina M.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Carbonell, Montserrat Motas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this study the process of co-pyrolysis of plastic polypropylene residues with gas-oil was evaluated, varying the temperature and the amount of polypropylene. The co-pyrolysis is a promising route to minimize the environmental impact caused by the inadequate plastic disposal, preventing its accumulation and giving a better use of the not renewable raw material (oil). The polypropylene samples and gas-oil were submitted to the thermal co-pyrolysis in inert atmosphere, varying the temperature from 400 deg C to 500 deg C and the amount of PP from 0,1 to 1,0 g. The influence of gas-oil was evaluated carrying the co-pyrolysis in the absence of PP. The pyrolyzed liquids produced by this thermal treatment had been characterized by modified gaseous chromatography objectifying the evaluation of the diesel fractions generation. As a result, the increase of PP amount lead to a reduction in the income of the pyrolytic liquid and to increase of the amount of solid generated. The effect of the increase of temperature showed an inverse result. The addition of PP in the reactor showed little interference in diesel range of distillation in the co-pyrolysis. On the other hand, an increase in temperature favors the increase of products in this range of distillation. The results show that plastic residue co-pyrolysis is a potential method of chemical recycling. (author)

  7. 7 CFR 982.455 - Exchange of certified merchantable hazelnuts withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exchange of certified merchantable hazelnuts withheld... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.455 Exchange of certified merchantable hazelnuts withheld. Each handler desiring to exchange hazelnuts pursuant...

  8. Comparison of different immunochemical methods for the detection and quantification of hazelnut proteins in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.; Knulst, A.C.; Koers, W.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Peppelman, H.; Vlooswijk, R.; Pigmans, I.; Duijn, G. van; Hessing, M.

    1999-01-01

    Hazelnuts are widely used in the food industry owing to their nutritive value and taste. The amount of hazelnut present in a recipe is usually considered as a mark of quality. On the other hand, contamination of foods that normally do not contain hazelnuts is a threat for patients with a hazelnut al

  9. Determining Suitable Areas for More Efficient Hazelnut Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralioglu, E.; Yildirim, D.; Gungor, O.

    2016-06-01

    Turkey is the largest hazelnut producer and exporter in the world with approximately 75% worldwide production and 70-75% of world exports, yet according to FAO; annual yield gain rate is significantly lower than Italy and USA. While Turkey produces 0.94 ton/hectare hazelnut, average yield rates for USA, Italy and Spain are 2.6 ton/hectare, 1.68 ton/hectare and 1 ton/hectare, respectively. Hazelnut production in Turkey is primarily concentrated along Black Sea coast centered Giresun and Trabzon provinces. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodology to further improve the efficiency in hazelnut production by determining the most significant geographical criteria and using them for spatial queries and analysis in ArcGIS environment to detect most fertile hazelnut plantation areas. For the study, the Surmene district of Trabzon is selected for pilot region. A thematic map of hazelnut plantation areas created from the classification of WorldView-2 image of the district was used as the base map. Furthermore, a database is created with layers and cost maps using multicriteria decision methods. Detected most suitable areas for hazelnut production area are compared with the present situation. Proposed methodology and the database can be used by officials for better management of hazelnut production in Turkey, therefore in the world.

  10. DETERMINING SUITABLE AREAS FOR MORE EFFICIENT HAZELNUT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saralioglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the largest hazelnut producer and exporter in the world with approximately 75% worldwide production and 70-75% of world exports, yet according to FAO; annual yield gain rate is significantly lower than Italy and USA. While Turkey produces 0.94 ton/hectare hazelnut, average yield rates for USA, Italy and Spain are 2.6 ton/hectare, 1.68 ton/hectare and 1 ton/hectare, respectively. Hazelnut production in Turkey is primarily concentrated along Black Sea coast centered Giresun and Trabzon provinces. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodology to further improve the efficiency in hazelnut production by determining the most significant geographical criteria and using them for spatial queries and analysis in ArcGIS environment to detect most fertile hazelnut plantation areas. For the study, the Surmene district of Trabzon is selected for pilot region. A thematic map of hazelnut plantation areas created from the classification of WorldView-2 image of the district was used as the base map. Furthermore, a database is created with layers and cost maps using multicriteria decision methods. Detected most suitable areas for hazelnut production area are compared with the present situation. Proposed methodology and the database can be used by officials for better management of hazelnut production in Turkey, therefore in the world.

  11. A Multiplexed Microsatellite Fingerprinting Set for Hazelnut Cultivar Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a robust and cost-effective fingerprinting set for hazelnuts using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Twenty SSRs containing repeat motifs of = three nucleotides distributed throughout the hazelnut genome were screened on eight genetically diverse cultivars to a...

  12. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct

  13. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct bios

  14. Study of morphology of aerosol aggregates formed during co-pyrolysis of C3H8 + Fe(CO)5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N. A.; Onischuk, A. A.; di Stasio, S.; Baklanov, A. M.; Makhov, G. A.

    2007-04-01

    Formation of aerosol nanoparticles as well as carbon nanotubes and nanofilaments is studied during co-pyrolysis of iron pentacarbonyl and propane with argon as a carrier gas in a flow reactor. Gaseous intermediates from propane thermal decomposition (CH4, C2H6 and C3H4) and Fe(CO)5 conversion are monitored by gas chromatography and IR-spectroscopy, respectively. The aerosol morphology is studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The aerosol particle concentration and size distribution are measured by an automated diffusion battery. The crystal phase composition of particles is studied by x-ray diffractometry. The decomposition of the Fe(CO)5 + Ar mixture resulted in an iron aggregate formation composed of fine primary particles. In the case of lower pyrolysis temperatures, about 450 K, the primary particle mean diameter is about 10 nm, and consequently, the majority of the primary particles are superparamagnetic, thus forming compact aggregates. At intermediate pyrolysis temperatures in the range 800-1040 K the primary particle diameter is about 20-30 nm, and most of the particles are ferromagnetic in nature. The coagulation of these particles results in a chain-like aggregate formation. Finally, at temperatures higher than the Curie point (1043 K) the ferromagnetic properties vanish and the formation of compact aggregates is observed again. The co-pyrolysis of Fe(CO)5 and C3H8 mixed with Ar carrier gas resulted in aerosol aggregate structures dramatically different from those formed by iron pentacarbonyl pyrolysis. In particular, in the temperature range 1070-1280 K, we observed Fe3C particles connected by long carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The aggregate morphology is described in terms of a fractal-like dimension Df, which is determined from TEM images on the basis of a scaling power law linking the aggregate mass (M) and radius (R), M{\\sim}R^{D_f} . The Fe3C-CNT aggregate morphology is a function of the inlet ratio between propane

  15. Influence of minerals and added calcium on the pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanowska, G.; Jones, J.M. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2005-09-01

    The pyrolysis behaviour was studied of two types of biomass (pine and wheat) and a Polish lignite (Turow) in the presence of minerals and ion-exchanged calcium using a variety of laboratory-scale methods including pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC-MS) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled to a FTIR spectrometer (TGA-FTIR). The degree of catalysis displayed by the calcium during pyrolysis of the ion-exchanged samples varied with the fuel used. Significant catalysis by calcium was observed in pyrolysis of pine, but only a small effect was seen for wheat and very little for coal. The inherent minerals also play a catalytic role in all the samples studied, but potassium is by far the most important in the pyrolysis of the raw wheat straw. The gases and light volatiles are influenced by the presence of catalytic metal. For catalysed pyrolysis of pine, a shift was seen in the gas evolution profiles of all monitored species (H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, methane, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid) and the shape of the profiles of the volatile organics and methane also changed. In addition, new peaks were seen in the pyrolysis-GC-MS of the ion-exchanged pine, indicative of a different pyrolysis mechanism. In TGA experiments of co-pyrolysis, a lower char yield was measured from pine/coal mixtures than expected on an additive basis. However, the presence of calcium in one fuel did not appear to catalyse pyrolysis in the other fuel.

  16. Hazelnut Allergens: Molecular Characterization, Detection, and Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Carrapatoso, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2016-11-17

    In last few years, special attention has been given to food-induced allergies, in which hazelnut allergy is highlighted. Hazelnut is one of the most commonly consumed tree nuts, being largely used by the food industry in a variety of processed foods. It has been regarded as a food with potential health benefits, but also as a source of allergens capable of inducing mild to severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. Considering the great number of reports addressing hazelnut allergens, with an estimated increasing trend, this review intends to assemble all the relevant information available so far on the following main issues: prevalence of tree nut allergy, clinical threshold levels, molecular characterization of hazelnut allergens (Cor a 1, Cor a 2, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, Cor a 10, Cor a 11, Cor a 12, Cor a 14, and Cor a TLP) and their clinical relevance, and methodologies for detection of hazelnut allergens in foods. A comprehensive overview of the current data about the molecular characterization of hazelnut allergens is presented, relating to biochemical classification and biological function with clinical importance. Recent advances in hazelnut allergen detection methodologies are summarized and compared, including all the novel protein-based and DNA-based approaches.

  17. Pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Selim; Topçu, Yıldıray

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at investigating physicochemical properties and pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk, an abundant agricultural waste in Turkey. The physicochemical properties were determined by bomb calorimeter, elemental analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Physicochemical analysis results showed that hazelnut husk has a high calorimetric value and high volatile matter content. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer under inert conditions and operated at different heating rates (5, 10, 20°C/min). Three different kinetic models, the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) models and Coats-Redfern method were applied on TGA data of hazelnut husk to calculate the kinetic parameters including activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order. Simulation of hazelnut husk pyrolysis using data obtained from TGA analysis showed good agreement with experimental data. Combining with physicochemical properties, it was concluded that this biomass can become useful source of energy or chemicals.

  18. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polyhydroxybutyrate: Part 1. Influence on bio-oil yield, water content, heating value and the production of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Cornelissen; M. Jans; J. Yperman; G. Reggers; S. Schreurs; R. Carleer [Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium). Laboratory of Applied Chemistry

    2008-09-15

    Bio-oil obtained via flash pyrolysis shows potential to be applied as a renewable fuel. However, bio-oil often contains high amounts of water, which is a major drawback for its application. The influence of a biopolymer - polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on the pyrolysis of willow is investigated using a semi-continuous home-built pyrolysis reactor. The flash co-pyrolysis of willow/PHB blends (w/w ratio 7:1, 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1) clearly shows particular merits: a synergetic increase in pyrolysis yield, a synergetic reduction of the water content in bio-oil, an increase in heating value, and a production of easily separable chemicals. The occurrence of synergetic interactions is observed based on a comparison between the actual pyrolysis results of the willow/PHB blends, the theoretical pyrolysis results calculated from the reference pyrolysis experiments (pure willow and pure PHB) and their respective w/w ratio. The co-pyrolysis of 1:1 willow/PHB shows the best overall results. 24 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Enhancement of biofuels production by means of co-pyrolysis of Posidonia oceanica (L.) and frying oil wastes: Experimental study and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Kaouther; Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aida; Krichah, Samah; Ouerghi, Aymen; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Claumann, Carlos Alberto; André Wüst, Zibetti; Naoui, Silm; Bergaoui, Latifa; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-05-01

    Energy recovery from lignocellulosic solid marine wastes, Posidonia oceanica wastes (POW) with slow pyrolysis responds to the growing trend of alternative energies as well as waste management. Physicochemical, thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and spectroscopic (FTIR) characterizations of POW were performed. POW were first converted by pyrolysis at different temperatures (450°C, 500°C, 550°C and 600°C) using a fixed-bed reactor. The obtained products (bio-oil, syngas and bio char) were analyzed. Since the bio-oil yield obtained from POW pyrolysis is low (2wt.%), waste frying oil (WFO) was added as a co-substrate in order to improve of biofuels production. The co-pyrolysis gave a better yield of liquid organic fraction (37wt.%) as well as syngas (CH4,H2…) with a calorific value around 20MJ/kg. The stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis reactions were performed according to the biomass formula: CαHβOγNδSε. The thermal kinetic decomposition of solids was validated through linearized Arrhenius model.

  20. 褐煤与煤直接液化残渣共热解产物半焦性能研究%Properties of semi-coke from co-pyrolysis of lignite and direct liquefaction residue of Shendong coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓红; 马江山; 薛艳利; 李文英

    2015-01-01

    为使煤直接液化残渣得到清洁高效再利用,采用常压固定床反应器,对神东煤直接液化残渣与呼伦贝尔褐煤共热解制取的半焦进行了研究。结合扫描电镜、N2-吸附、X射线衍射、拉曼光谱以及热重分析发现,共热解过程中存在的软化熔融现象导致液化残渣与褐煤相互黏结,共热解半焦比表面积与孔体积减小,半焦结构有序化程度增加。与褐煤单独热解半焦相比,共热解半焦CO2气化反应性能低。%In order to make use of coal direct liquefaction residue efficiently, co-pyrolysis of Hulunbuir lignite and direct liquefaction residue ( DLR) of Shendong coal were conducted in a fixed bed reactor under atmospheric pressure. The physicochemical properties of co-pyrolysis semi-coke were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer. The results show that DLR semi-coke and lignite semi-coke are cohered each other, because the DLR is softened and melted during co-pyrolysis. The specific surface area and pore volume of co-pyrolysis semi-coke decrease. Characterization of both XRD and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the order degree of co-pyrolysis semi-coke increases with the addition of DLR. Compared with the lignite semi-coke, the CO2 gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis semi-coke decreases.

  1. Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). 1. Compositional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Liyanapathirana, Chandrika M; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2003-06-18

    The quality of Tombul (Round) hazelnut, grown in the Giresun province of Turkey, was determined by measuring proximate composition, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber, amino acids, and taste active components (free amino acids, sugars, and organic acids). Fat was the predominant component in Tombul hazelnut (approximately 61%). The major minerals were potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and selenium. Hazelnut was also found to serve as an excellent source of vitamin E (24 mg/100 g) and a good source of water soluble (B complex) vitamins and dietary fiber. The major amino acids were glutamic acid, arginine, and aspartic acid. The three nonessential amino acids and the essential amino acids contributed 44.9 and 30.9% to the total amino acids present, respectively, while lysine and tryptophan were the limiting amino acids in Tombul hazelnut. Twenty-one free amino acids, six sugars, and six organic acids were positively identified; among these, arginine, sucrose, and malic acid predominated, respectively. These taste active components may play a significant role in the taste and flavor characteristics of hazelnut. Thus, the present results suggest that Tombul hazelnut serves as a good source of vital nutrients and taste active components.

  2. Nutritive Value of Persian Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Amini-Noori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hazelnut (Corylus avellna L. is one of the important nut crops in world. The harvesting of hazelnuts is done either by hand or by manual or mechanical raking of fallen nuts in Iran. Common hazel is widely cultivated for its nuts, including in commercial orchards in Europe, Turkey, and Iran. There are some genotypes of hazelnut in Iran that their growing areas are limited to Gillan, Aredbil, Mazandaran, Golestan, Zanjan and Qazvin Provinces. Varieties, location, composition of soils, usage of fertilizer and irrigation affect the fatty acid, mineral and vitamin composition of hazelnuts, and consequently influence the nutritional value and quality of the product. Therefore, the objective of this study was evaluation of protein, crude fiber, and fatty acids in samples in Tarem and Rudsar County farmlands as two economically important provinces. Samples were collected during the harvest season in 2015 from 10 different distinguished cultivars of trees grown in a replicated trial in an experimental orchard. The chemical and physical properties (crude protein, total fat, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, refractive index were analyzed according to AOAC methods. In investigation on these two varieties, the highest fatty acid had oleic acid with 85.026% in Rudsar (Gillan and 83.226% in Tarem samples. Evaluation of 420 hazelnut seedling samples reveals that Rudsar variety samples have more protein, ash and carbohydrate while crude fiber percentage in Tarem variety is more. The results of this research reveals that geographical conditions affect the nutritional value of hazelnut significantly (p <0.05.

  3. Improvement of bio-oil yield and quality in co-pyrolysis of corncobs and high density polyethylene in a fixed bed reactor at low heating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramono, D.; Lusiani, S.

    2016-11-01

    Over the past few decades, interest in developing biomass-derived fuel has been increasing rapidly due to the decrease in fossil fuel reserves. Bio-oil produced by biomass pyrolysis however contains high oxygen compounds resulting in low calorific-value fuel and therefore requiring upgrading. In co-pyrolysis of the feed blend of plastics of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and biomass of com cob particles, at some compositions free radicals from plastic decomposition containing more hydrogen radicals are able to bond oxygen radicals originating from biomass to reduce oxygenate compounds in the bio-oil thus increasing bio-oil quality. This phenomenon is usually called synergetic effect. In addition to that, the pattern of heating of the feed blend in the pyrolysis reactor is predicted to affect biooil quality and yield. In a batch reactor, co-pyrolysis of corncobs and HDPE requires low heating rate to reach a peak temperature at temperature rise period followed by heating for some time at peak temperature called holding time at constant temperature period. No research has been carried out to investigate how long holding time is set in co-pyrolysis of plastic and biomass to obtain high yield of bio-oil. Holding time may affect either crosslinking of free radicals in gas phase, which increases char product, or secondary pyrolysis in the gas phase, which increases non-condensable gas in the gas phase of pyrolysis reactor, both of which reduce bio-oil yield. Therefore, holding time of co-pyrolysis affects the mass rate of bio-oil formation as the pyrolysis proceeds and quality of the bio-oil. In the present work, effects of holding time on the yield and quality of bio-oil have been investigated using horizontal fixed bed of the feed blends at heating rate of 5°C, peak temperature of 500°C and N2 flow rate of 700 ml/minute. Holding time was varied from 0 to 70 minutes with 10 minutes interval. To investigate the effects of holding time, the composition of HDPE in the

  4. Development of a new hazelnut sandwich ELISA based on detection of Cor a 9, a major hazelnut allergen

    OpenAIRE

    Trashin, Stanislav; Cucu, Tatiana; Devreese, Bart; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The emerging health problem of food-induced allergic reactions, including life-threatening anaphylaxis, presents an important challenge to the food. In the framework of the current ALLERRISK project, analytical approaches for allergen detection are evaluated and developed. Cor a 9 is a major hazelnut protein with nutrient reservoir function, and that also known as a major food allergen. Presence of Cor a 9 indicates contamination of a product with hazelnut and, consequently, potential risk of...

  5. Classification of Hazelnut Kernels by Using Impact Acoustic Time-Frequency Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Habil; Ince, Nuri Firat; Tewfik, Ahmed H.; Yardimci, Yasemin; Pearson, Tom

    2007-12-01

    Hazelnuts with damaged or cracked shells are more prone to infection with aflatoxin producing molds ( Aspergillus flavus). These molds can cause cancer. In this study, we introduce a new approach that separates damaged/cracked hazelnut kernels from good ones by using time-frequency features obtained from impact acoustic signals. The proposed technique requires no prior knowledge of the relevant time and frequency locations. In an offline step, the algorithm adaptively segments impact signals from a training data set in time using local cosine packet analysis and a Kullback-Leibler criterion to assess the discrimination power of different segmentations. In each resulting time segment, the signal is further decomposed into subbands using an undecimated wavelet transform. The most discriminative subbands are selected according to the Euclidean distance between the cumulative probability distributions of the corresponding subband coefficients. The most discriminative subbands are fed into a linear discriminant analysis classifier. In the online classification step, the algorithm simply computes the learned features from the observed signal and feeds them to the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The algorithm achieved a throughput rate of 45 nuts/s and a classification accuracy of 96% with the 30 most discriminative features, a higher rate than those provided with prior methods.

  6. Classification of Hazelnut Kernels by Using Impact Acoustic Time-Frequency Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Pearson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazelnuts with damaged or cracked shells are more prone to infection with aflatoxin producing molds (Aspergillus flavus. These molds can cause cancer. In this study, we introduce a new approach that separates damaged/cracked hazelnut kernels from good ones by using time-frequency features obtained from impact acoustic signals. The proposed technique requires no prior knowledge of the relevant time and frequency locations. In an offline step, the algorithm adaptively segments impact signals from a training data set in time using local cosine packet analysis and a Kullback-Leibler criterion to assess the discrimination power of different segmentations. In each resulting time segment, the signal is further decomposed into subbands using an undecimated wavelet transform. The most discriminative subbands are selected according to the Euclidean distance between the cumulative probability distributions of the corresponding subband coefficients. The most discriminative subbands are fed into a linear discriminant analysis classifier. In the online classification step, the algorithm simply computes the learned features from the observed signal and feeds them to the linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier. The algorithm achieved a throughput rate of 45 nuts/s and a classification accuracy of 96% with the 30 most discriminative features, a higher rate than those provided with prior methods.

  7. 互花米草与褐煤共热解特性试验%Experiment on co-pyrolysis characteristics of Spartina alterniflora and lignite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继红; 杨世关; 李晓彤

    2014-01-01

    Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a saltmarsh plant, has spread in intertidal flats of many regions of China since it was introduced from the USA in 1979. The application of S. alternilfora in energy has gained more attention due to its high production. However, the direct combustion of S. alternilfora was hindered due to its high potassium (K) and sodium (Na) contents. Co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal, a subject of much study in an effort to reduce greenhouse gases emission, was reported to be able to produce a synergetic effect mainly due to the catalytic function of alkali metals in biomass. S. alterniflora, rich in Na and K which are 22 683 mg/kg and 8 063 mg/kg, respectively, has great bioenergy potential as a co-pyrolysis material of coal. In order to to verify the interaction of S. alterniflora and lignite during pyrolysis, experiments were carried out with pure S. alterniflora, pure lignite, and their blends with mass ratio (S. alterniflora to lignite, S:L) of 1:4, 2:3, 3:2, and 4:1 by thermogravimetry coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). S. alternilfora used in the experiments was collected from Dafeng County of Jiangsu Province, China in October 2012. Lignite was from Shanxi Province, China. Na, K, volatile, H/C, O/C, and heating value of S. alterniflora were 16 064.3 mg/kg, 6 175.7 mg/kg, 75.40%, 0.12, 0.80, and 19.08 MJ/kg, respectively. Volatile content, H/C, O/C, and heating value of lignite were 33.92%, 0.07, 0.23, and 20.47 MJ/kg, respectively. TG tests were done under an N2 flow rate of 25 mL/min and at a heating rate of 10℃/min from 30℃ to 900℃. Infrared scanning resolution was set to 4cm-1, and scanning scope varied from 4 000 cm-1 to 500 cm-1. According to TG and DTG analysis, the process of co-pyrolysis can be divided into two stages at 385℃. The pyrolysis of S. alterniflora took place mainly in the first stage of 250℃ to 385℃. The pyrolysis of lignite and fixed carbon in S. alterniflora occurred

  8. 7 CFR 982.55 - Exchange of certified merchantable hazelnuts withheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exchange of certified merchantable hazelnuts withheld... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Control of Distribution § 982.55 Exchange of certified merchantable hazelnuts withheld. Any handler who has withheld from...

  9. 7 CFR 982.468 - Report of hazelnut receipts, disposition, and inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of hazelnut receipts, disposition, and... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.468 Report of hazelnut receipts, disposition, and inventory. On or before January 15 and July 15, or any other...

  10. 7 CFR 982.67 - Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of disposition of restricted hazelnuts. 982.67... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS... disposition of restricted hazelnuts. (a) Each handler, before he disposes of any quantity of...

  11. Weight development and serum biochemistry of rats offered hazelnuts as environmental enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, Peter; Durand, Anne Mette; Rasmussen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Novel food items, such as hazelnuts, are attractive as environmental enrichment, since they form a substrate for both foraging and gnawing behaviour. Hazelnuts are particularly rich in polyunsaturated fat. A hazelnut, weighing 2 g, contains 820 mg crude fat, contributing with 15% of the total int...

  12. Co-pyrolysis behaviour and kinetic of two typical solid wastes in China and characterisation of activated carbon prepared from pyrolytic char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhui; Niu, Ruxuan; Wang, Xiaona; Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Sun, Xiaohong

    2014-11-01

    This is the first study on the co-pyrolysis of spent substrate of Pleurotus ostreatus and coal tar pitch, and the activated carbon prepared from the pyrolytic char. Thermogravimetry (TG) analysis was carried out taking spent substrate, coal tar pitch and spent substrate-coal tar pitch mixture. The activation energies of pyrolysis reactions were obtained via the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods. The kinetic models were determined by the master-plots method. The activated carbons were characterised by N2-adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Experimental results demonstrated a synergistic effect happened during co-pyrolysis, which was characterised by a decreased maximum decomposition rate and an enhanced char yield. The average activation energies of the pyrolysis reactions of spent substrate, coal tar pitch and the mixture were 115.94, 72.92 and 94.38 kJ mol(-1) for the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method, and 112.17, 65.62 and 89.91 kJ mol(-1) for the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The reaction model functions were f(α) = (1-α)(3.42), (1-α)(1.72) and (1-α)(3.07) for spent substrate, coal tar pitch and the mixture, respectively. The mixture char-derived activated carbon had a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area up to 1337 m(2) g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.680 cm(3) g(-1). Mixing spent substrate with coal tar pitch led to the creation of more micropores and a higher surface area compared with the single spent substrate and coal tar pitch char. Also, the mixture char-derived activated carbon had a higher proportion of aromatic stacking. This study provides a reference for the utilisation of spent substrate and coal tar pitch via co-pyrolysis, and their pyrolytic char as a promising precursor of activated carbon.

  13. Effects of hazelnut husk compost application on soil quality parameters in hazelnut orchards in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Ridvan

    2016-04-01

    The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, respiration, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded two hazelnut orchards having different textures by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of different doses (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ton da-1) of hazelnut husk compost (HH) during hazelnut growth. After nine months of HHC application, soil quality parameters such as microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal respiration (BSR), total organic carbon (Corg), total N, C/N ratio, aggregate stability and some soil chemical properties (pH, EC and NO3-N content) were carried out on collected soil samples. The results showed that soil quality parameters were significantly affected by soil texture and HHC application doses. In general, Cmic, BSR, C/N ratio and the contents of Corg and N increased (P<0,001) and Cmic/Corg values decreased (P<0,001) with increasing HHC application in comparison with the control. In addition, HHC markedly increased the contents of NO3-N, the aggregate stability of soil, and the hydrolic conductivity in the soil were notably heightened. According to the results of field experiments conducted different location and condition, when the focusing on the organic substance management and sustainability of the quality parameters in soil, it was clear from the evidence obtained the research that the ideal HHC application was 5 ton per decare to increase the organic matter content by 2%. (This research was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Project number: 111O698).

  14. 煤与生物质共热解的协同作用研究进展%Progress in Research on Synergetic Effect of Coal and Biomass Co-pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 白雪峰; 樊慧娟

    2011-01-01

    作为洁净的可再生能源,生物质的合理利用可以有效地解决能源短缺和环境污染问题.生物质与煤的共热解是生物质利用的重要途径.生物质与煤在共热解过程中的相互作用机制是研究的重要课题.对近年来生物质和煤的共热解研究中是否具有协同作用进行了综述,为生物质与煤的共热解应用提供参考和依据.%As a clean renewable energy resource, the reasonable application of biomass can solve the problems of energy shortage and environmental pollution effectively. The co-pyrolysis of coal-biomass blends is a technological option for taking advantage of biomass resources on a large scale. The interaction mechanism of the process of the co-pyrolysis of coal-biomass blends is an important research subject. Whether the synergy effects exist during the co-pyrolysis process is mainly reviewed in this paper, and some references for the co-pyrolysis of coal-biomass blends are provided.

  15. Functional lipid characteristics of Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Amaral, Joana S; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-12-27

    The quality of crude oil extracted from Tombul (Round) hazelnut, grown in the Giresun province of Turkey, was evaluated for its fatty acid, triacylglycerol (TAG), tocol, and phytosterol compositions. Oleic acid contributed 82.78% to the total fatty acids, followed by linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Among 12 TAGs separated, 11 were identified (including one unknown): LLL, OLL, PLL, OOL, POL, PPL, OOO, POO, PPO, SOO, and PSO (where P, palmitoyl; S, stearoyl; O, oleoyl; and L, linoleoyl). The main components were OOO (71.31%), OOL (12.26%), and POO (9.45%), reflecting the high content of oleic acid present in hazelnut oil. Seven tocol isoforms (four tocopherols and three tocotrienols) and eight phytosterols as well as cholesterol were positively identified and quantified; among these, alpha-tocopherol (40.40 mg/100 g) and beta-sitosterol (134.05 mg/100 g) were predominant in hazelnut oil and contributed 78.74 and 81.28% to the total tocols and phytosterols present, respectively. Tocotrienols were detected in small amounts (1.02% to the total tocols). The crude hazelnut oil extracted from Turkish Tombul hazelnut, thus, serves as a good source of nutrients, bioactives, and health-promoting components.

  16. Potential method for gas production: high temperature co-pyrolysis of lignite and sewage sludge with vacuum reactor and long contact time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Weijiang

    2015-03-01

    Lignite and sewage sludge were co-pyrolyzed in a vacuum reactor with high temperature (900°C) and long contact time (more than 2h). Beneficial synergetic effect on gas yield was clearly observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The gas volume yield, gas lower heating value (LHV), fixed carbon conversion and H2/CO ratio were 1.42 Nm(3)/kg(blend fuel), 10.57 MJ/Nm(3), 96.64% and 0.88% respectively, which indicated this new method a feasible one for gas production. It was possible that sewage sludge acted as gasification agents (CO2 and H2O) and catalyst (alkali and alkaline earth metals) provider during co-pyrolysis, promoting CO2-char and H2O-char gasification which, as a result, invited the improvement of gas volume yield, gas lower heating value and fixed carbon conversion.

  17. Co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake with potassium carbonate and zinc oxide using plasma torch to produce bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Tzeng, Chin-Ching; Wu, Chung-Yu; Lin, Kae-Long; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Yuan, Min-Hao; Li, Heng-Yi; Kuo, Ching-Hui; Yu, Yuh-Jeng; Chang, Lieh-Chih

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of additives of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) on the pyrolysis of waste sunflower-oil cake using a 60 kW pilot-scale plasma torch reactor. The major gaseous products were CO and H2. The productions of CO and CH4 increased while that of H2 decreased with the addition of K2CO3. The use of ZnO reduced while enhanced the formation of CO and H2, respectively. In order to match the appeal of resource reutilization, one can use the waste K2CO3 resulted from the sorption of CO2 with KOH in greenhouse gas control and the waste ZnO obtained from the melting process as additives for the co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake, yielding fuels rich in CO and H2, respectively.

  18. Acetylene from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste tires or coal in the H{sub 2}/Ar plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Cao, Q.; Lv, Y.; Chang, L. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Acetylene from carbon-containing materials via plasma pyrolysis is not only simple but also environmentally friendly. In this article, the acetylene produced from co-pyrolyzing biomass with waste tire or coal under the conditions of H{sub 2}/Ar DC arc plasma jet was investigated. The experimental results showed that the co-pyrolysis of mixture with biomass and waste tire or coal can improve largely the acetylene relative volume fraction (RVF) in gaseous products and the corresponding yield of acetylene. The change trends for the acetylene yield of plasma pyrolysis from mixture with raw sample properties were the same as relevant RVF. But the yield change trend with feeding rate is different from its RVF. The effects of the feeding rate of raw materials and the electric current of plasmatron on acetylene formation are also discussed.

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella in Cashews, Hazelnuts, Macadamia Nuts, Pecans, Pine Nuts, and Walnuts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Melka, David; Wang, Hua; Laasri, Anna; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol; Allard, Marc; Bunning, Vincent K; Musser, Steven M; Johnson, Rhoma; Santillana Farakos, Sofia; Scott, Virginia N; Pouillot, Régis; Doren, Jane M Van; Hammack, Thomas S

    2017-03-01

    Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Of the 3,656 samples collected and tested, 32 were culturally confirmed as containing Salmonella. These isolates represented 25 serotypes. Salmonella was not detected in pecans and in-shell hazelnuts. Salmonella prevalence estimates (and 95% confidence intervals) in cashews, shelled hazelnuts, pine nuts, walnuts, and macadamia nuts were 0.55% [0.15, 1.40], 0.35% [0.04, 1.20], 0.48% [0.10, 1.40], 1.20% [0.53, 2.40], and 4.20% [2.40, 6.90], respectively. The rates of Salmonella isolation from major or big chain supermarkets, small chain supermarkets, discount, variety, or drug stores, and online were 0.64% [0.38, 1.00], 1.60% [0.80, 2.90], 0.00% [0.00, 2.40], and 13.64% [2.90, 35.00], respectively (Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test: P = 0.02). The rates of Salmonella isolation for conventional and organic nuts were not significantly different. Of the samples containing Salmonella, 60.7% had levels less than 0.003 most probable number (MPN)/g. The highest contamination level observed was 0.092 MPN/g. The prevalence and levels of Salmonella in these tree nut samples were comparable to those previously reported for similar foods.

  20. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu; Fikret Saygın; Gülden Balcı; Orhan Dengiz; Hüsnü Demirsoy

    2014-01-01

    Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could b...

  1. Impact of Roasting on Identification of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Origin: A Chemometric Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Monica; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Bordiga, Matteo; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-08-19

    Hazelnuts belonging to different cultivars or cultivated in different geographic areas can be differentiated by their chemical profile; however, the roasting process may affect the composition of raw hazelnuts, thus compromising the possibility to identify their origin in processed foods. In this work, we characterized raw and roasted hazelnuts (Tonda Gentile Trilobata, TGT, from Italy and from Chile, Tonda di Giffoni from Italy, and Tombul from Turkey), as well as hazelnuts isolated from commercial products, with the aim to discriminate their cultivar and origin. The chemometric evaluation of selected chemical parameters (proximate composition, fatty acids, total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and protein fingerprint by SDS-PAGE) permitted us to identify hazelnuts belonging to different cultivars and, concerning TGT samples, their different geographic origin. Also commercial samples containing Piedmontese TGT hazelnuts were correctly assigned to TGT cluster. In conclusion, even if the roasting process modifies the composition of roasted hazelnuts, this preliminary model study suggests that the identification of their origin is still possible.

  2. Detection of flaws in hazelnuts using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of VIS/NIR spectroscopy for detection of flaws in hazelnut kernels was demonstrated. Feature datasets comprising raw absorbance values, raw absorbance Ratios (Abs['1] : Abs['2]) and Differences (Abs['1] – Abs['2]) for all possible pairs of wavelengths from 306.5 nm to 1710.9 nm were ...

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy is feasible to discriminate hazelnut cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Stella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the feasibility of the near infrared (NIR spectroscopy use for hazelnut-cultivar sorting. Hazelnut spectra were acquired from 600 fruit for each cultivar sample, two diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from opposite sides of the same hazelnut. Spectral data were transformed into absorbance before the computations. A different variety of spectral pretreatments were applied to extract characteristics for the classification. An iterative Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA algorithm was used to select a relatively small set of variables to correctly classify samples. The optimal group of features selected for each test was analyzed using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA. The spectral region most frequently chosen was the 1980-2060 nm range, which corresponds to best differentiation performance for a total minimum error rate lower than 1.00%. This wavelength range is generally associated with stretching and bending of the N-H functional group of amino acids and proteins. The feasibility of using NIR Spectroscopy to distinguish different hazelnut cultivars was demonstrated.

  4. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polysaccharides from hazelnut skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Tuncay; Tavman, Şebnem

    2016-03-01

    In this study ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) of polysaccharides from hazelnut skin has been studied. Optimum sonication time has been evaluated depending on responses such as amount of carbohydrate and dried sample and thermogravimetric analysis. Chemical and structural properties of extracted material have been determined by Fourier transform spectroscopy attenuated-total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. Pretreated hazelnut skin powders were extracted in distilled water. Mixture was sonicated by ultrasonic processor probe for 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. The results of UAE showed that maximum ethanol insoluble extracts in 60 min and the highest dry matter content could be obtained in 120 min extraction. Although total carbohydrate content of ethanol insoluble dry extract decreased with time, total carbohydrate in ethanol soluble fraction increased. Polysaccharides extracted from hazelnut skin were assumed to be pectic polysaccharide according to the literature survey of FTIR analysis result. Application time of UAE has an important effect on extraction of polysaccharide from hazelnut skin. This affect could be summarized by enhancing extraction yield up to critical level. Decrease of the yield in ethanol insoluble part could be explained by polymer decomposition. Most suitable model was hyperbolic model by having the lowest root mean square error and the highest R(2) values.

  5. Node position influences viability and contamination in hazelnut shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiation of shoot cultures is difficult in many woody plants due to internal microbial contaminants and general lack of juvenility in material from the source plants. Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) are generally difficult to initiate into culture for these same reasons. This study was designed to...

  6. Biochemical and molecular characterization of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) seed lipoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santino, Angelo; De Paolis, Angelo; Gallo, Antonia; Quarta, Angela; Casey, Rod; Mita, Giovanni

    2003-11-01

    Plant lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of dioxygenases which display diverse functions in several physiological processes such as growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Even though LOXs have been characterized from several plant species, the physiological role of seed LOXs is still unclear. With the aim to better clarify the occurrence of LOXs and their influence on hazelnut seed quality, we carried out the biochemical and molecular characterization of the main LOX isoforms expressed during seed development. A genomic clone containing a complete LOX gene was isolated and fully characterized. The 9887 bp sequence reported contains an open reading frame of 5334 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 99 kDa. Semiquantitative RT-PCR carried out from RNAs extracted from seeds at different maturation stages showed that LOXs are mainly expressed at early developmental stages. These results were confirmed by LOX activity assays. Biochemical characterization of the reaction products of the hazelnut LOX indicated that it is a 9-LOX. Two cDNAs were isolated by RT-PCR carried out on total RNA from immature hazelnut seeds. Sequence analysis indicated that the two cDNAs are highly homologous (91.9% degree of identity) and one of these corresponded exactly to the genomic clone. The deduced amino acid sequences of the hazelnut LOXs showed that they are closely related to a previously reported almond LOX (79.5% identity) and, to a lesser extent, to some LOXs involved in plant responses to pathogens (cotton and tobacco LOXs, 75.5 and 74.6% identity, respectively). The physiological role of hazelnut LOXs and their role in influencing seed quality are also discussed.

  7. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of lignin and low-density polyethylene with HZSM-5 and MgO for improved bio-oil yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangliang; Chen, Paul; Zhang, Yaning; Liu, Shiyu; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Ruan, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of lignin and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with HZSM-5 and MgO was investigated. Effects of pyrolysis temperature, lignin to LDPE ratio, MgO to HZSM-5 ratio, and feedstock to catalyst ratio on the products yields and chemical profiles were examined. 500°C was the optimal co-pyrolysis temperature in terms of the maximum bio-oil yield. The proportion of aromatics increased with increasing LDPE content. In addition, with the addition of LDPE (lignin/LDPE=1/2), methoxyl group in the phenols was completely removed. A synergistic effect was found between lignin and LDPE. The proportion of aromatics increased and alkylated phenols decreased with increasing HZSM-5 to MgO ratio. The bio-oil yield increased with the addition of appropriate amount of catalyst and the proportion of alkylated phenols increased with increasing catalyst to feedstock ratio.

  8. Comparing determination methods of detection and quantification limits for aflatoxin analysis in hazelnut

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Hazelnut is a type of plant that grows in wet and humid climatic conditions. Adverse climatic conditions result in the formation of aflatoxin in hazelnuts during the harvesting, drying, and storing processes. Aflatoxin is considered an important food contaminant, which makes aflatoxin analysis important in the international produce trade. For this reason, validation is important for the analysis of aflatoxin in hazelnuts. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are two ...

  9. Evaluation of co-pyrolysis petrochemical wastewater sludge with lignite in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a packed-bed reactor: Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetics, and products analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lin; Chen, Jianbiao; Yao, Pikai; Zhou, Dapeng; Zhao, Liang; Yin, Hongchao

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge and Huolinhe lignite were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer and packed-bed reactor coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and gas chromatography. The pyrolysis characteristics of the blends at various sludge blending ratios were compared with those of the individual materials. Thermogravimetric experiments showed that the interactions between the blends were beneficial to generate more residues. In packed-bed reactor, synergetic effects promoted the release of gas products and left less liquid and solid products than those calculated by additive manner. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis showed that main functional groups in chars gradually disappeared with pyrolysis temperatures increasing, and H2O, CH4, CO, and CO2 appeared in volatiles during pyrolysis. Gas compositions analysis indicated that, the yields of H2 and CO clearly increased as the pyrolysis temperature and sludge blending ratio increasing, while the changes of CH4 and CO2 yields were relatively complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. UTILIZATION OF HAZELNUT HUSKS, TEA AND TOBACCO WASTES, AS RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ş. İsmail KIRBAŞLAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture, ash, oil and cellulose of hazelnut husks, tea and tobacco wastes were analyzed. The amounts of pentosan, pentose and furfural were determined in the hazelnut husks, tea and tobacco wastes. Furfural was produced from each three waste products by a steam distillation method. IR spectra of each furfural product were measured and compared with standard furfural. Activated carbon prepared from the hazelnut husks at the different temperature, and organic and inorganic pollutants were removed by using the adsorbent obtained from hazelnut husk.

  11. Component-resolved in vitro diagnosis of hazelnut allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Sastre, Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food allergy to hazelnut occurs both with and without concomitant pollen allergy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate a panel of hazelnut allergens for diagnosis of hazelnut allergy in Spain, Switzerland, and Denmark. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with a positive double-blind, placebo......-controlled food challenge result with hazelnuts; 5 patients with a history of anaphylaxis; 62 patients with pollen allergy but hazelnut tolerance; and 63 nonatopic control subjects were included. Serum IgE levels to hazelnut extract, recombinant hazelnut allergens (rCor a 1.04, rCor a 2, rCor a 8, rCor a 11......), and native allergens (nCor a 9, nCor a Bd8K, nCor a Bd11K) were analyzed by means of ImmunoCAP. RESULTS: Among patients with hazelnut allergy, 91% (Switzerland/Spain, 100%; Denmark, 75%) had IgE to hazelnut extract, 75% to rCor a 1.04, 42% to rCor a 2, 28% to rCor a 8, and 2% to rCor a 11. The highest rate...

  12. Comparison of different immunochemical methods for the detection and quantification of hazelnut proteins in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, S J; Knulst, A C; Koers, W J; Penninks, A H; Peppelman, H; Vlooswijk, R; Pigmans, I; van Duijn, G; Hessing, M

    1999-10-29

    Hazelnuts are widely used in the food industry owing to their nutritive value and taste. The amount of hazelnut present in a recipe is usually considered as a mark of quality. On the other hand, contamination of foods that normally do not contain hazelnuts is a threat for patients with a hazelnut allergy. For this reason, the availability of a method for the detection and quantification of hazelnuts in foods would be desirable. The objective of this study was to develop a method for the detection and quantification of minor amounts of hazelnut protein in food products that is potentially applicable for the food industry. Several immunochemical methods, e.g., immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were developed with antibodies from both hazelnut-sensitized patient sera and the sera of rabbits hyperimmunized with hazelnut protein. Immunoblotting appeared to be non-specific when the sera of patients were used as a source of antibodies. Using immunopurified antibodies from rabbits immunized with hazelnuts, immunoblotting became specific, but the sensitivity of this method was limited. Inhibition of IgE binding is a generally used test in clinical laboratories to establish contamination with hazelnuts. This approach is sensitive and specific, but not readily accessible for the food industry since patient serum is needed. Similar results in terms of sensitivity and specificity were obtained with a sandwich ELISA constructed with an immunopurified antibody from rabbits sensitized to hazelnuts. No substantial cross-reactivity with other nuts, legumes or other food constituents was observed, and concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml, corresponding to 1 ppm in food products, were detected. In a field test, several consumer products regarded to be free of hazelnuts were shown to contain traces of hazelnut. This sandwich ELISA constructed with immunopurified antibodies from rabbits sensitized with hazelnut protein is a sensitive and specific method to detect

  13. LIPIDS AND MINERALS OF THE MOST REPRESENTED HAZELNUT VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN CROATIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Vujevic; M Petrovic; N Vahcic; B Milinovic; Z Cmelik

    2014-01-01

      The Croatian autochthonous hazelnut variety Istarski Duguljasti and two introduced varieties Romische Zellernuss and Hallesche Riesen were characterized with respect to their fatty acid composition...

  14. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetics on co-pyrolysis of coal and rice husk%煤与稻壳共热解热重分析及动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严东; 周敏; 宋利强

    2012-01-01

    利用热重分析仪对长焰煤和稻壳分别单独及按不同掺混比例进行热质量损失实验研究.通过比较煤与稻壳共热解热质量损失曲线和计算得到的理论曲线发现,添加稻壳对共热解过程有促进作用,在不同的稻壳掺混比例下,共热解过程质量损失率和最大质量损失速率均较理论值有不同程度的增大,推测稻壳掺混对共热解存在促进作用,促进作用与稻壳掺混比例不成线性关系.对煤与稻壳及共热解过程进行动力学分析,获得了反应活化能和频率因子,分析计算热解动力学参数表明共热解过程存在动力学补偿效应.%The long flame coal and the rice husk were co-pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer to investigate the pyrolysis performance of each material, as well as their mixtures. The comparison of the thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA) curves by testing and the theoretical curves by calculating shows that the adding of rice husk has a certain role in promoting co-pyrolysis process, and with the different coal/rice husk mixing ratio, the mass loss rate and the maximum mass loss rate of the co-pyrolysis process both increase in different extent compared with the theoretical values. It is speculated that there is the synergistic effect in co-pyrolysis of coal/rice husk, and the synergy has nonlinear relationship with the rice husk blend ratio. Through the kinetic analysis of he coal, the rice husk and the co-pyrolysis process, the activation energy and the frequency factor were obtained. It reveals that there is a kinetic compensation effect in the co-pyrolysis process by analysis.

  15. 7 CFR 982.467 - Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown..., Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Administrative Rules and Regulations § 982.467 Report of receipts and dispositions of hazelnuts grown outside the United States....

  16. Identification of hazelnut major allergens in sensitive patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Vieths, Stefan; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    The hazelnut major allergens identified to date are an 18-kd protein homologous to Bet v 1 and a 14-kd allergen homologous to Bet v 2. No studies have reported hazelnut allergens recognized in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) results or in patients...... allergic to hazelnut but not to birch....

  17. Authentication and traceability study of hazelnuts from piedmont, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Matteo; Aceto, Maurizio; Baldizzone, Massimo; Musso, Davide; Osella, Domenico

    2009-05-13

    Hazelnut is one of the most important items in high-quality food products from Piedmont, Italy. The 'Tonda Gentile delle Langhe' (TGL) variety is acknowledged all over the world as the best one, and it is particularly appreciated when used to provide flavor in chocolate products. Authentication and/or traceability studies must therefore be developed to safeguard this variety against fraud, which can occur when the product is partially or totally substituted with hazelnuts of lower quality. In this work, a classification of hazelnuts from different countries is presented, showing the possibility to discriminate the TGL from other productions on the basis of the distribution of trace elements as determined by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with particular reference to lanthanides. Accuracy of the sample treatment procedure was tested by analysis of biological certified materials. Data from elemental analysis were chemometrically treated with an unsupervised method, such as principal component analysis (PCA), allowing for a good discrimination among groups.

  18. Hazelnut oil production using pressing and supercritical CO2 extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Stela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the hazelnut oil production it is very important to find an appropriate method to recover the oil from kernels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the oil extraction process from hazelnuts by screw pressing followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. The effects of temperature head presses, frequency and nozzle size in pressing experiments on oil temperature and recovery were monitored. The optimal pressing condition using response surface methodology was determined. In obtained hazelnut oil the following quality parameters were determined: peroxide value 0 mmol O2/kg, free fatty acids 0.23%, insoluble impurities 0.42%, moisture content 0.045%, iodine value 91.55 g I2/100 g, saponification value 191.46 mg KOH/g and p-anisidine value 0.19. Rosemary extract was the most effective in protecting the oil from oxidative deterioration. The residual oil that remained in the cake after pressing was extracted totally with supercritical CO2 and such defatted cake, free of toxic solvents, can be used further in other processes.

  19. Study of morphology of aerosol aggregates formed during co-pyrolysis of C{sub 3}H{sub 8} + Fe(CO){sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, N A [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Onischuk, A A [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Di Stasio, S [Istituto Motori CNR Aerosol and Nanostructures Laboratory, Via Marconi 8, 80125 Naples (Italy); Baklanov, A M [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Makhov, G A [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-07

    Formation of aerosol nanoparticles as well as carbon nanotubes and nanofilaments is studied during co-pyrolysis of iron pentacarbonyl and propane with argon as a carrier gas in a flow reactor. Gaseous intermediates from propane thermal decomposition (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 4}) and Fe(CO){sub 5} conversion are monitored by gas chromatography and IR-spectroscopy, respectively. The aerosol morphology is studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The aerosol particle concentration and size distribution are measured by an automated diffusion battery. The crystal phase composition of particles is studied by x-ray diffractometry. The decomposition of the Fe(CO){sub 5} + Ar mixture resulted in an iron aggregate formation composed of fine primary particles. In the case of lower pyrolysis temperatures, about 450 K, the primary particle mean diameter is about 10 nm, and consequently, the majority of the primary particles are superparamagnetic, thus forming compact aggregates. At intermediate pyrolysis temperatures in the range 800-1040 K the primary particle diameter is about 20-30 nm, and most of the particles are ferromagnetic in nature. The coagulation of these particles results in a chain-like aggregate formation. Finally, at temperatures higher than the Curie point (1043 K) the ferromagnetic properties vanish and the formation of compact aggregates is observed again. The co-pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixed with Ar carrier gas resulted in aerosol aggregate structures dramatically different from those formed by iron pentacarbonyl pyrolysis. In particular, in the temperature range 1070-1280 K, we observed Fe{sub 3}C particles connected by long carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The aggregate morphology is described in terms of a fractal-like dimension D{sub f}, which is determined from TEM images on the basis of a scaling power law linking the aggregate mass (M) and radius (R), M{approx}R{sup D{sub f}}. The

  20. Antioxidant and antiradical activities in extracts of hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut green leafy cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Karamać, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2006-06-28

    Phenolic compounds in the aqueous systems were extracted, from hazelnut kernel (HK) and hazelnut green leafy cover (HGLC), with 80% (v/v) ethanol (HKe and HGLCe) or 80% (v/v) acetone (HKa and HGLCa). The extracts were examined for their phenolic and condensed tannin contents and phenolic acid profiles (free and esterified fractions) as well as antioxidant and antiradical activities by total antioxidant activity (TAA), antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, scavenging of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical, and reducing power. Significant differences (p HGLCe > HKa > HKe. These results suggest that both 80% ethanol and acetone are capable of extracting phenolics, but 80% acetone was a more effective solvent for the extraction process. HGLC exhibited stronger antioxidant and antiradical activities than HK itself in both extracts and could potentially be considered as an inexpensive source of natural antioxidants.

  1. The effect of clay catalyst on the chemical composition of bio-oil obtained by co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solak, Agnieszka; Rutkowski, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.rutkowski@pwr.wroc.pl

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene blend was carried out in a laboratory scale reactor. • Optimization of process temperature was done. • Optimization of clay catalyst type and amount for co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene was done. • The product yields and the chemical composition of bio-oil was investigated. - Abstract: Cellulose/polyethylene (CPE) mixture 3:1, w/w with and without three clay catalysts (K10 – montmorillonite K10, KSF – montmorillonite KSF, B – Bentonite) addition were subjected to pyrolysis at temperatures 400, 450 and 500 °C with heating rate of 100 °C/s to produce bio-oil with high yield. The pyrolytic oil yield was in the range of 41.3–79.5 wt% depending on the temperature, the type and the amount of catalyst. The non-catalytic fast pyrolysis at 500 °C gives the highest yield of bio-oil (79.5 wt%). The higher temperature of catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene mixture the higher yield of bio-oil is. Contrarily, increasing amount of montmorillonite results in significant, almost linear decrease in bio-oil yield followed by a significant increase of gas yield. The addition of clay catalysts to CPE mixture has a various influence on the distribution of bio-oil components. The addition of montmorillonite K10 to cellulose/polyethylene mixture promotes the deepest conversion of polyethylene and cellulose. Additionally, more saturated than unsaturated hydrocarbons are present in resultant bio-oils. The proportion of liquid hydrocarbons is the highest when a montmorillonite K10 is acting as a catalyst.

  2. Lithium insertion into boron containing carbons prepared by co-pyrolysis of coal-tar pitch and borane-pyridine complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machnikowski, J.; Frackowiak, E.; Kierzek, K.; Waszak, D.; Benoit, R.; Beguin, F. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-03-01

    Carbon materials of boron content ranging from 0.6 to 4 wt.% were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of QI-free coal-tar pitch with the borane-pyridine complex. The growing amount of boron introduced into the carbonaceous material is associated with an increase in nitrogen content and a progressive degradation of structural and textural ordering. The structural variations of the boron-doped materials on heat treatment up to 2500{sup o}C were monitored using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The intrinsic boron acts effectively as a catalyst of graphitization above 2100{sup o}C. The carbonaceous material with boron content of about 1.5 wt% shows the highest degree of structural ordering after thermal treatment. A high amount of oxygen was found in the graphitized boronated carbons, proving that the incorporated boron induces a strong chemisorption activity of the material when exposed to air. For a series of cokes calcined at 1000 {sup o}C, the most striking effect of increasing the boron content is an increase of irreversible capacity X-irr from 0.2 to 0.7. The reversible capacity (X-rev) amounts to about 1, with a slight tendency to decrease with the boron content. Upon increasing the temperature up to 2500{sup o}C, X-irr decreases to about 0.1 in the graphitic carbons, while X-rev reaches a minimum of 0.4-0.5 at 1700{sup o}C and next increases to a value close to 1 at 2500{sup o}C. In the boron doped graphite, X-irr has a slight tendency to increase with the boron content, due to the simultaneous presence of nitrogen in these materials and their strong affinity for oxygen from the atmosphere.

  3. Isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic fungi from hazelnut-growing region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although Turkey is the first among all hazelnut-producing countries, yield per unit area of this crop is low in comparison to other countries, mainly because many insect species seriously damage hazelnut trees and their fruit. To find effective and safe biocontrol agents, we conducted a survey study...

  4. Hazelnut allergy across Europe dissected molecularly : A EuroPrevall outpatient clinic survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datema, Mareen R.; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Asero, Riccardo; Barreales, Laura; Belohlavkova, Simona; de Blay, Frederic; Bures, Peter; Clausen, Michael; Dubakiene, Ruta; Gislason, David; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Kowalski, Marek L.; Knulst, Andre C.; Kralimarkova, Tanya; Le, Thuy-My; Lovegrove, Alison; Marsh, Justin; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Popov, Todor; del Prado, Nayade; Purohit, Ashok; Reese, Gerald; Reig, Isabel; Seneviratne, Suranjith L.; Sinaniotis, Athanasios; Versteeg, Serge A.; Vieths, Stefan; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mills, Clare; Lidholm, Jonas; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hazelnut allergy is birch pollen-driven in Northern/Western Europe and lipid transfer protein-driven in Spain and Italy. Little is known about other regions and other allergens. Objective: Establishing a molecular map of hazelnut allergy across Europe. Methods: In 12 European cities, sub

  5. Impact of Maillard Reaction on Immunoreactivity and Allergenicity of the Hazelnut Allergen Cor a 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwan, M.; Vissers, Y.M.; Fiedorowicz, E.; Kostyra, H.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies exist on the influence of processing methods on structural changes and allergenic potential of hazelnut proteins. This study focused on the effect of glycation (Maillard reaction) on the immunoreactivity and degranulation capacity of the purified hazelnut 7S globulin, Cor a 11. After hea

  6. Hazelnut allergy across Europe dissected molecularly : A EuroPrevall outpatient clinic survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datema, Mareen R.; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Asero, Riccardo; Barreales, Laura; Belohlavkova, Simona; de Blay, Frederic; Bures, Peter; Clausen, Michael; Dubakiene, Ruta; Gislason, David; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, Monika; Kowalski, Marek L.; Knulst, Andre C.; Kralimarkova, Tanya; Le, Thuy-My; Lovegrove, Alison; Marsh, Justin; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Popov, Todor; del Prado, Nayade; Purohit, Ashok; Reese, Gerald; Reig, Isabel; Seneviratne, Suranjith L.; Sinaniotis, Athanasios; Versteeg, Serge A.; Vieths, Stefan; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mills, Clare; Lidholm, Jonas; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, Ronald

    Background: Hazelnut allergy is birch pollen-driven in Northern/Western Europe and lipid transfer protein-driven in Spain and Italy. Little is known about other regions and other allergens. Objective: Establishing a molecular map of hazelnut allergy across Europe. Methods: In 12 European cities,

  7. The Reactivity and Allergenic Potential of Hazelnut Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florina Calinoiu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to focus on proteins present in some food products, like hazelnuts and to investigate their allergenic potential. Several techniques were used to characterize these extracted proteins, with respect to their composition, degradability by digestive proteolytic enzymes and their reactivity with specific antibodies. It was important to analyse which proteins were present in the hazelnuts, to see if there were proteins present to trigger an allergic reaction and if the digestion enzymes trypsin and pepsin influence the presence of the (allergic protein compounds. Allergies to tree nuts and seeds can cause life-threatening and sometimes fatal reactions. To examine the properties of Hazelnut protein it was important to solubilize it by extraction. After extraction, it was investigated how hazelnut protein can be modified by proteases and what the effect was on the immune reaction. The Bradford method is a fast and sensitive method to determine the concentration of soluble protein. When the Bradford reagent (Coomassie Brilliant Blue binds to the protein, the colour changes from red to purple and the absorption maximum changes from 495 to 595 nm. The value obtained as the final concentration of proteins was 7.3495. SDS-PAGE is a method to separate mixtures of proteins by electrophoresis. Protein molecules are negatively charged by binding of SDS molecules; subsequently they are separated in an electric field. Their differences in size (molecular weight leads to separation. In this case the method is used to follow proteolytic degradation of hazelnut proteins (allergens by intestinal proteases (trypsin, pepsin. A different, more specific and sensitive method is immunoblotting (Western Blot in which the SDS-PAGE separated proteins are transferred from the gel to a membrane and specific antibodies are used in a series of reactions to visualize specific allergens on this membrane. The remarked spots represented a positive

  8. Age-dependent sensitization to the 7S-vicilin-like protein Cor a 11 from hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in a birch-endemic region

    OpenAIRE

    Verweij, MM; Hagendorens, MM; Trashin, Stanislav; Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devreese, Bart; Bridts, CH; De Clerck, LS; Ebo, DG

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) allergy exhibits age and geographically distinct sensitization patterns that have not yet been fully resolved. Objective: To study sensitization to Cor a 11 in different age groups of hazelnut-allergic patients and infants with atopic dermatitis (AD) sensitized to hazelnut in a birch-endemic region. Methods: Sera from 80 hazelnut-allergic patients, 33 infants under 1 year of age with AD (24 sensitized and 9 not sensitized to hazelnut), 32 healthy ...

  9. Effects of feedstockon co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal in a free fall reactor%原料对自由落下床中生物质与煤共热解行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏立纲; 张丽; 徐绍平

    2011-01-01

    在500~700℃和生物质混合比0~100%(质量分数)条件下,利用自由落下床反应器考察原料对生物质与煤共热解行为的影响.所用煤原料为大雁褐煤(DY)和铁法烟煤(TF),而生物质原料为农业废弃物秸秆(LS)和木材加工余料白松木屑(SD).结果表明,即使在自由落下床中停留时间短的条件下,生物质与煤共热解的协同效应仍然发生.原料种类对共热解产品的产率和半焦反应性影响大:以综纤维素和灰分含量大的LS为原料时,共热解的协同效应比以SD为原料时明显;以高阶煤TF为原料时,共热解的液体产率高于以低阶煤DY为原料时的产率;在特定条件下共热解可提高半焦的反应性;与TF相比,DY存在下的共热解有利于提高半焦的反应性.在生物质与煤共热解过程中,通过选择适当原料可以制取目标产品.%Effects of feedstock on the co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal were investigated in a free fall reactor at 500°C~700°Cwith biomass blending ratio of 0 ~100%(mass ratio).The selected coal samples were Dayan brown coal (DY) and Tiefa bituminous coal(TF),and the biomass samples were agricultural residues legume straw (LS) and woody residues pine sawdust (SD).The results indicate that the synergy can occur even in a short gas residence time during the co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal in a free-fall reactor.The product yields and the CO2 reactivity of char from the co-pyrolysis are greatly influenced by the type of feedstock.The synergy in the presence of LS with high holocellulose and ash content is more significant than that in the presence of SD.The liquid yield of high rank TF co-pyrolysis is higher than that of low rank DY coal.The char reactivity can be improved by the co-pyrolysis at specific conditions.The co-pyrolysis in presence of DY can improve the reactivity of the produced char.

  10. Single-tube nested real-time PCR as a new highly sensitive approach to trace hazelnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Mafra, Isabel; Kuchta, Tomas; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2012-08-22

    Hazelnut is one of the most commonly consumed tree nuts, being largely used by the food industry in a wide variety of processed foods. However, it is a source of allergens capable of inducing mild to severe allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. Hence, the development of highly sensitive methodologies for hazelnut traceability is essential. In this work, we developed a novel technique for hazelnut detection based on a single-tube nested real-time PCR system. The system presents high specificity and sensitivity, enabling a relative limit of detection of 50 mg/kg of hazelnut in wheat material and an absolute limit of detection of 0.5 pg of hazelnut DNA (1 DNA copy). Its application to processed food samples was successfully achieved, detecting trace amounts of hazelnut in chocolate down to 60 mg/kg. These results highlight the adequacy of the technique for the specific detection and semiquantitation of hazelnut as potential hidden allergens in foods.

  11. Study on Co-pyrolysis of Laminated Paper-PE-Al Packaging Material%纸塑铝复合包装材料各组分共热解行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟进胜; 钱杨; 任学勇; 王文亮; 常建民

    2012-01-01

    Paper, PE and A1 were separated from pillow Tetra Pak with formic acid and used as materials for experiment. TG-FTIR analysis technique was applied to study the synergism of components during pyrogena tion process, so as to understand the co pyrolysis behavior, which will provide an experimental basis and scien- tific reference to achieve resource utilization of abandon Tetra Pak. The results showed that there is synergism between paper and PE during co pyrolysis, especially near the decomposing peak; the aluminum promotes and restrains the reaction in different stage of co-pyrolysis as catalyst.%用甲酸分离枕型利乐包所得的纸、聚乙烯、铝作为实验材料,采用热重红外联用(TG—FTIR)分析技术,研究了各组分在热解过程中的协同作用,以探索纸塑铝复合包装各组分共热解机理,为实现废弃利乐包材料的资源化利用提供科学参考和实验依据。结果表明:共热解时纸和聚乙烯之间存在协同作用,在失重峰位置表现得尤为明显;铝在共热解时具有一定的催化作用,在反应的不同阶段起到了相应的促进或者抑制热解的作用。

  12. 固定床反应器中生物质/废塑料共热解制备燃料油%Co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste plastic for biofuel in fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艺; 陈宇; 华德润; 吴玉龙; 杨明德; 陈镇; 唐娜

    2013-01-01

    Thermal pyrolysis of different biomass (sawdust, straw) and plastic (polypropylene, poly vinyl chloride) and synergistic effects of co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic were investigated with TGA. In fixed-bed reactor the influence of plastic content on co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastic was discussed, and the produced bio-oil was analyzed with elemental analysis and GC-MS. The results showed that significant synergy was present in the co-pyrolysis process of biomass and plastic, especially in the co-pyrolysis process of sawdust and polypropylene the synergistic effect was the most prominent. When the content of polypropylene was 80%, bio-oil yield was the highest, obviously higher than that of separate pyrolysis. And the results of elemental and GC-MS analysis showed that the bio-oil had a higher hydrogen content and its calorific value was equal to that of the crude oil equivalent.%通过热重分析不同生物质(木屑和秸秆)单独热解以及与塑料(PP和dcPVC)共热解时的热解行为,研究了生物质与塑料共热解过程中的协同作用.在固定床反应器中考察了塑料的含量对生物质/塑料共热解的影响,最后通过元素分析和GC-MS对所得生物油进行了分析.研究结果表明:生物质和塑料共热解过程中存在明显的协同作用.木屑和PP共热解过程中的协同作用最为显著,当PP含量为80%时,所得生物油的产率最高,明显高于两者单独热解得到的生物油.元素分析和GC-MS分析结果表明:木屑和PP所得生物油的含氢量较高,所得到生物油的热值与石化燃油的相近.

  13. Experiments and kinetic analysis on the co-pyrolysis of cellulose and lignin%纤维素与木质素共热解试验及动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金湓; 李宝霞

    2013-01-01

    采用热重分析仪(TGA)对木质素与纤维素单独热解和共热解基本特性及热解动力学进行了研究.热重分析曲线表明,木质素热解过程是由两个位于不同温度段的热解过程组成,纤维素则仅在300~380℃的温区内迅速热解,在纤维素含量较低(≤40%)共热解时,二者表现为相互抑制作用,但随着纤维素含量增大,二者关系转变为相互促进作用.热解动力学研究表明,纤维素与木质素单独热解和共热解过程都可用一级反应动力学模型来描述,且随着纤维素含量增加,反应活化能(E)也随之增加,但其值总小于活化能线性加和值(Ec),据此可推测共热解过程存在着一定的协同作用.%The characteristics and kinetics of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of the cellulose and lignin were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TG/DTG curves show that the pyrolysis process of lignin alone has two different temperature zones; the rapid pyrolysis of cellulose happens in the temperature zone of 300-380 ℃; mutual inhibition occurs in co-pyrolysis at the low content of cellulose (≤40%), and synergistic effect appears at the high content of cellulose(≥60%). The results of kinetics analysis testify that the process of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of cellulose and lignin can be described with a first order reaction model. The activation energy(E) increases with the content of cellulose increasing further, but its value is always lower than the activation energy of linear additivity(Ec), which partly illustrates that synergistic effect happens in the process of co-pyrolysis.

  14. Furfural production from fruit shells by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-01-21

    Pentosans are hydrolyzed to pentoses by dilute mineral acid hydrolysis. The main source of pentosans is hemicelluloses. Furfural can be produced by the acid hydrolysis of pentosan from fruit shells such as hazelnut, sunflower, walnut, and almond of agricultural wastes. Further dehydration reactions of the pentoses yield furfural. The hydrolysis of each shell sample was carried out in dilute sulfuric acid (0.05 to 0.200 mol/l), at high temperature (450-525 K), and short reaction times (from 30 to 600 s). (author)

  15. MALDI-based identification of stable hazelnut protein derived tryptic marker peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucu, T; De Meulenaer, B; Devreese, B

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is an important health problem especially in industrialised countries. Tree nuts, among which are hazelnuts (Corylus avellana), are typically causing serious and life-threatening symptoms in sensitive subjects. Hazelnut is used as a food ingredient in pastry, confectionary products, ice cream and meat products, therefore undeclared hazelnut can be often present as a cross-contaminant representing a threat for allergic consumers. Mass spectrometric techniques are used for the detection of food allergens in processed foods, but limited information regarding stable tryptic peptide markers for hazelnut is available. The aim of this study was to detect stable peptide markers from modified hazelnut protein through the Maillard reaction and oxidation in a buffered solution. Peptides ³⁹⁵Gly-Arg⁴⁰³ from Cor a 11 and ²⁰⁹Gln-Arg²¹⁷, ³⁵¹Ile-Arg³⁶³, ⁴⁶⁴Ala-Arg⁴⁷⁸ and ⁴⁰¹Val-Arg⁴¹⁷ from Cor a 9 hazelnut allergens proved to be the most stable and could be detected and confirmed with high scores in most of the modified samples. The identified peptides can be further used as analytical targets for the development of more robust quantitative methods for hazelnut detection in processed foods.

  16. Detection of hazelnut in foods using ELISA: challenges related to the detectability in processed foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucu, Tatiana; Devreese, Bart; Trashin, Stanislav; Kerkaert, Barbara; Rogge, Maarten; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Hazelnuts are widely used nowadays, and can pose a serious threat to allergic consumers due to cross-contamination that may occur during processing. This might lead to the presence of hidden hazelnut in foods. Therefore, reliable tests are needed to detect hazelnut, especially in processed foods. A hazelnut-specific indirect competitive ELISA based on polyclonal chicken antibodies was developed. The polyclonal antibodies were raised against modified hazelnut proteins in order to improve the detectability of hazelnut proteins in processed foods. The assay showed a detection limit of 1.36 microg hazelnut protein/mL of 5 mM urea in phosphate-buffered saline buffer (pH 7.4). Limited cross-reactivity with walnut and pecan nut was observed; no cross-reactivity was observed with other food ingredients. Blank cookies spiked before analysis showed recoveries of 73-107%. However, cookies spiked before baking showed that the detectability was severely decreased. Addition of lactose to the cookies, which led to more severe modification through the Maillard reaction, led to an increase in the detectability. These results indicate that using antibodies developed toward allergens modified through food processing-simulating reactions is a better approach for detection.

  17. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) vicilin Cor a 11: molecular characterization of a glycoprotein and its allergenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Iris; Foetisch, Kay; Kolarich, Daniel; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Conti, Amedeo; Altmann, Friedrich; Vieths, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2004-10-15

    In Europe, hazelnuts (Corylus avellana) are a frequent cause of food allergies. Several important hazelnut allergens have been previously identified and characterized. Specific N-glycans are known to induce strong IgE responses of uncertain clinical relevance, but so far the allergenic potential of glycoproteins from hazelnut has not been investigated. The aim of the study was the molecular characterization of the glycosylated vicilin Cor a 11 from hazelnut and the analysis of its allergenic activity. Although MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight) MS showed that one of two potential glycosylation sites of Cor a 11 was glycosylated, CD spectroscopy indicated that recombinant and natural Cor a 11 share similar secondary structures. Thus to analyse the impact of the glycan residues of Cor a 11 on IgE binding, the allergenic activity of natural glycosylated Cor a 11 and recombinant Cor a 11 was compared. In addition, the IgE sensitization pattern to recombinant Cor a 11, Cor a 1, Cor a 2 and Cor a 8 of 65 hazelnut allergic patients was determined in vitro. The prevalence of IgE reactivity to hazelnut vicilin Cor a 11 was below 50%. Basophil histamine-release assays were used to determine the allergenic activity of both natural and recombinant Cor a 11 in comparison with Cor a 1, a birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen-related major hazelnut allergen. Both forms of Cor a 11 induced mediator release from basophils to a similar extent, indicating that the hazelnut allergic patients had cross-linking IgE antibodies binding to the protein backbone and not to carbohydrate structures. In comparison to Cor a 1, a 10000-fold higher concentration of Cor a 11 was required to induce similar basophil mediator release. In conclusion, the hazelnut vicilin Cor a 11 is a minor allergen both in regard to prevalence and allergenic potency, whereas its glycan does not contribute to its allergenic activity.

  18. Comparison of natural and roasted Turkish tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) volatiles and flavor by DHA/GC/MS and descriptive sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2003-08-13

    Natural (raw) and roasted hazelnuts were compared for their differences in volatile components and sensory responses. A total of 79 compounds were detected in both hazelnuts, of which 39 (27 positive, 5 tentative, and 7 unknown) were detected in natural hazelnut and 71 (40 positive, 14 tentative, and 17 unknown) were detected in roasted hazelnut. These included ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids. Pyrazines, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids were detected in roasted hazelnut only. Concentrations of several compounds increased as a result of roasting and these may play significant roles in the flavor of roasted hazelnut. Pyrazines together with ketones, aldehydes, furans, and pyrroles may contribute to the characteristic roasted aroma of hazelnut. Descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that some flavor attributes such as "aftertaste", "burnt", "coffee/chocolate-like", "roasty", and "sweet" were rated significantly higher in roasted hazelnut compared to its natural counterpart. Natural and roasted hazelnuts can be distinguished using these attributes.

  19. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  20. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N2, 0.1% O2 and 1% O2, 21% O2, then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min, a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB1 of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B2 and G2, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B1 was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G1. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics.

  1. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Vallauri, Dario; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2016-04-26

    Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N₂, 0.1% O₂ and 1% O₂, 21% O₂), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min), a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB₁ of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B₁ and G₁ were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B₂ and G₂, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B₁ was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G₁. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics.

  2. Detection of hazelnuts and almonds using commercial ELISA test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Eric A E; Perry, Jesse

    2010-03-01

    Three commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits for the detection of hazelnuts and almonds were evaluated. Limits of detection and dynamic ranges were determined for hazelnuts and almonds spiked into cooked oatmeal, dipping chocolate, and muffins (baked). The limit of detection values varied from 1 to 38 μg/g, depending on the food matrix and ELISA test kit. Percent recoveries based on the standards supplied with the test kits varied from 10% to 170%. It is impossible to ascertain whether the percent recoveries reflect the performance of the ELISAs or differences between the protein content of the nuts used to spike the samples and the test kit standards. Unfortunately, reference materials do not exist that can be used to compare the results from different test kits and standardize the test kit standards. Also, insufficient knowledge regarding the epitope specificity of the antibodies used in the ELISAs further hinders interpretation of the results generated by the different test kits.

  3. 共热解过程对褐煤焦和生物质焦氧化特性的影响%Effect of co-pyrolysis process on the oxidation reactivity of lignite char and biomass char

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭沛; 赵慧明; 贾挺豪; 王美君; 常丽萍

    2015-01-01

    Ximeng lignite and cornstalk were used as the feedstock to prepare lignite char, biomass char and co-pyrolysis char with different blending ratios in a fixed bed reactor with temperature-programmed pyrolysis. The pore and chemical structure of char samples were characterized and the ash composition was analyzed. The oxidation reactivity of the mixtures of lignite char/cornstalk char with different blending ratios and the co-pyrolysis char of lignite and cornstalk with corresponding blending ratios were investigated by the isothermal thermogravimetry at 450℃, aimed at the effect of co-pyrolysis process on the char reactivity. The results show that there are obvious influences on the char structures through secondary reactions during co-pyrolysis process, leading to the char reactivity decrease. Especially with the cornstalk proportion less than 50%, these influences are more significant due to a large number of volatiles from cornstalk during co-pyrolysis enhancing the secondary reactions between the volatile and nascent char, prompting parts of organic structure less than 5 rings turn into the larger organic structure. For the char samples with cornstalk proportion above 50%, the catalytic effect of alkaline and alkaline earth metal in biomass char plays a dominating role, especially the effect of potassium, resulting in the weaker effects of secondary reactions on the structure and oxidation reactivity of the char samples.%以锡盟褐煤和玉米秸秆为原料,利用固定床程序升温热解的方法制备了褐煤焦、生物质焦以及褐煤和生物质不同混合比例的共热解焦样,并进行了孔结构和化学结构的表征以及其灰成分分析。采用等温热重法在450℃下考察褐煤焦和生物质焦的混合样与其相同比例的共热解焦样的氧化活性,对比分析共热解过程对焦样反应活性的影响。实验结果表明,共热解过程中的二次反应对焦样结构有着明显的影响,进一步导

  4. The risk of musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive movements of upper limbs for workers employed in hazelnut sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Colantoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the agro-industrial sector there are many activities whose urgent rhythms can cause a considerable exposure to bio-mechanical risk factors. In the hazelnut sorting, the workers are subject to several biomechanical risks, with repetitive movements, and operations that require a remarkable degree of strength. A thorough study of the workers’ exposure to repetitive manual movements has been carried out, with the aim of setting up the necessary measures to reduce the risk factors. The aim of the research is to assess the risk of work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs due to repetitive work, for workers employed to hazelnut shells sorting. The research was carried out in an agricultural cooperative in the Viterbo’s area. For risk assessment authors used a method (Occupational Repetitive Actions “OCRA” index according to ISO 11228- 3:2009, Ergonomics - Manual handling - Part 3: Handling of low loads at high frequency which keeps into consideration several risk factors (such as repetitiveness, prehension force, posture. The risk was assessed for 16 female workers (in eight workplaces and in two different shifts through this classification: workers with experience less than 1 year, from 1 to 10 years and more than 10 years. This classification is very important for knowing if the professional experience could be considered a “prevention measure” for the risk reduction. The results show a high risk level for the right and left limb. The factors which more have contributed to reach such risk level are the great number of movements and the lack of recovering time.

  5. Roast Effects on Mechnical and Sensory Texture Attributes of Peantus, Almonds, Hazelnuts and Cashews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two instrumental methods were developed to quantify mechanical properties of peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts and cashews that potentially related to sensory texture attributes after thermal processing. The first method involved individual compression testing of multiple separate oilseeds, whereas the se...

  6. Hazelnut oil consumption of families in the central town of Ordu province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat SAYILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative analysis of consumption of edible oil of families in Central Town of OrduProvince. In addition, factor analysis was conducted on factors which affect the consumption of hazelnut oil. The data used in the study in January 2013 was a result of a survey conducted with 272 people. According to the survey, the most consumed oils, butter (71.32% and hazelnut oil (61.76%, which is the amount of total fatconsumption of 6.71 kg/month per family and 1.89 kg/month per person. Families with more than 5 littercontainers prefer buying oil. Hazelnut oil is thought to be healthy and of good quality too much is consumed by local people. As a result of factor analysis, three factors (image and highly attractive, odour and low weight, quality and health affecting hazelnut oil consumption has been collected under the title.

  7. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree-nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffers from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence...... of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. METHOD: We included 155 children suspected off hazelnut allergy and challenged according to guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin Prick Test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein families...... were measured using ImmunoCap. RESULTS: Sixty-five children had a positive hazelnut challenge, and 60% of these also had concomitant peanut allergy. Children allergic to hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 9 and Cor a 14; peanut allergic children to Ara h 2. Sensitization to PR10 protein components were...

  8. Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). 2. Lipid characteristics and oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Ohshima, Toshiaki; Wanasundara, Udaya; Yurttas, Hasan C; Liyanapathirana, Chandrika M; Rodrigues, Fabiana B

    2003-06-18

    The quality of crude hazelnut oil extracted from Tombul (Round) hazelnut, grown in the Giresun province of Turkey, was determined by measuring lipid classes, fatty acids, and fat soluble bioactives (tocopherols and phytosterols). Oxygen uptake, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and alpha-tocopherol levels of stripped and crude hazelnut oils in bulk and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion systems were also evaluated as indices of lipid oxidation over a 21 day storage period at 60 degrees C in the dark. The total lipid content of Tombul hazelnut was 61.2%, of which 98.8% were nonpolar and 1.2% polar constituents. Triacylglycerols were the major nonpolar lipid class and contributed nearly 100% to the total amount. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol were the most abundant polar lipids, respectively. Sixteen fatty acids were identified, among which oleic acid contributed 82.7% to the total, followed by linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 92.2% of the total fatty acids present. Among oil soluble bioactives, alpha-tocopherol (38.2 mg/100 g) and beta-sitosterol (105.5 mg/100 g) were predominant in hazelnut oil and comprised 88 and 93% of the total tocopherols and phytosterols present, respectively. The results also showed that both stripped and crude hazelnut oils were more stable in terms of lipid oxidation in the bulk oil as compared to those in an o/w emulsion.

  9. The influence of thermal processing on emulsion properties of defatted hazelnut flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Deniz; Altay, Filiz; Capanoğlu Güven, Esra

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the influences of roasting and the amount of hazelnut flour on the formation and stabilization of emulsions containing different amounts of oil were investigated. After hazelnuts were roasted in an oven at 140°C for 40 min, the oil content was removed. The emulsions with defatted hazelnut flour containing corn oil at 3%, 10% and 50% were prepared. Roasting process significantly decreased the interfacial tension values of samples down to 1.9 mN/m due to protein denaturation. There was no significant difference between the particle sizes of oil droplets in emulsions with roasted and raw hazelnut flour at the same concentration. However, diffusion coefficients of oil droplets increased for emulsions containing roasted defatted flour samples. The zeta (ζ) potential values of all emulsions increased when roasted hazelnut flour was used, indicating the stabilization of suspensions and the solution resistance against aggregation. Storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″) and complex viscosity (η(∗)) of emulsions were measured. G' value was found to be greater than the G″ value, which fits into weak gel model. The roasting process resulted with lower transition temperatures but with increased transition enthalpies of the flour samples based on differential scanning (DSC) measurements. Lower transition temperatures may be attributed to the partial gelatinization of starch in the flour and partial denaturation of proteins. These results may help to tailor the properties of defatted hazelnut flour when it is used in food products containing emulsions such as sauces, dressings and creams for stabilizing purposes.

  10. Impact of thermal processing and the Maillard reaction on the basophil activation of hazelnut allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Bridts, Chris; Devreese, Bart; Ebo, Didier

    2012-05-01

    Food allergy, an abnormal immunological response due to sensitization to a food component, has become an important health problem, especially in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thermal processing and glycation on the basophil activation by hazelnut proteins using a basophil activation test. Patients with systemic allergic reactions (SR; n=6) to hazelnut as well as patients with an isolated oral allergy syndrome (OAS; n=4) were investigated. Thermal processing of hazelnut proteins either in the presence or absence of wheat proteins did not result in major changes in the stimulatory activity of the basophils for patients with SR or OAS. For the patients with OAS, incubation of hazelnut proteins with glucose led to complete depletion of the stimulatory activity of the basophils. An increase in stimulatory activity of the basophils for two out of six patients with SR was observed. For the other four patients slight or complete abolition of the stimulatory activity was observed. These results indicate that some patients with SR to hazelnut are at risk when exposed to hazelnut proteins, even in processed foods.

  11. Real Time PCR to detect hazelnut allergen coding sequences in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesto, Elisa; Jiménez, Ana; Prieto, Nuria; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Burbano, Carmen; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Rodríguez, Julia; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesús F; Cuadrado, Carmen; Linacero, Rosario

    2013-06-01

    A quantitative RT-PCR method, employing novel primer sets designed on Cor a 9, Cor a 11 and Cor a 13 allergen-coding sequences has been setup and validated. Its specificity, sensitivity and applicability have been compared. The effect of processing on detectability of these hazelnut targets in complex food matrices was also studied. The DNA extraction method based on CTAB-phenol-chloroform was the best for hazelnut. RT-PCR using primers for Cor a 9, 11 and 13 allowed a specific and accurate amplification of these sequences. The limit of detection was 1 ppm of raw hazelnut. The method sensitivity and robustness were confirmed with spiked samples. Thermal treatments (roasting and autoclaving) reduced yield and amplificability of hazelnut DNA, however, high-hydrostatic pressure did not affect. Compared with an ELISA assay, this RT-PCR showed higher sensitivity to detected hazelnut traces in commercial foodstuffs. The RT-PCR method described is the most sensitive of those reported for the detection of hazelnut traces in processed foods.

  12. 煤的理化性质对生物质和煤共热解焦油性质的影响%Effects of coal physicochemical on tar characteristics during co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐初阳; 张德祥; 鲁锡兰

    2016-01-01

    Saw dust,Heishan coal and Shenmu coal were chosen as raw materials.Co-pyrolysis experiments of biomass and coals were performed with difference blending ratios in a tubular furnace.The effects of saw dust additives were investigated and compared upon the co-pyrolysis yields of tar,water and light tar.Then,the thermogravimetric analyses of raw materials and the structure of coals was tested by 13C NMR.The yield and quality mechanisms of co-pyrolysis tar were further discussed,based on the yield comparison of pyrolytic products,thermal chemical reactivity of raw materials and the structure of coals.The results indicated that significant interactions of saw dust and coals increased the yield of light tar and decreased the water yield in the proper blending ratios during copyrolysis.Moreover,the aliphatic hydrocarbon of light tar was derived from alkyl radicals of the pyrolysis of biomass and coal.And the generation of pyrolytic water was inhibited because aromatic radicals of coal were converted to creosotes by the hydroxyl radicals from biomass pyrolysis.%将木屑分别与黑山煤、神木煤以不同比例掺混,利用自制热解干馏炉进行共热解实验.比较木屑的添加对共热解焦油、水和轻质焦油产率的不同影响,结合煤和生物质的热重分析结果与煤的13C核磁共振分析表征,探讨煤的结构、煤和生物质的热化学反应特性,对共热解焦油产率和品质的作用机理.结果表明:在一定配比范围内,木屑和煤之间的交互作用明显提高了共热解焦油中轻质组分的产率,同时热解水产率低于计算值;轻质焦油中的脂肪烃组分主要由木屑和煤热解产生的烷基自由基相互化合生成;煤热解产生的芳烃类自由基由于与生物质热解产生的羟基自由基生成杂酚化合物,从而抑制了热解水的生成.

  13. Drought responses in six hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahi-Gharahlar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major causes of reduction of crop yields worldwide, a problem that will increase in the next decades due to climate change. We describe here an initial attempt to define biochemical markers associated to water stress in several hazelnut cultivars, by measuring the levels of common osmolytes and the generation of secondary oxidative stress, in plants subjected to water stress, and after recovery from the stress treatment. Proline appears to be a reliable marker in this species, as its accumulation in leaves correlates well with the degree of stress affecting the plants. Differences between cultivars in relative Pro accumulation and oxidative stress suggested that some cultivars are more tolerant than others and could be selected for cultivation in drought-affected areas

  14. Catalyzed growth of oriented carbon nanotubes using Fe organosilicon core shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleaca, C. T.; Morjan, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Dumitrache, F.; Soare, I.; Gavrila-Florescu, L.; Le Normand, F.; Ersen, O.

    2008-05-01

    Iron-based nanocomposites were synthesized by the CO 2 laser-induced co-pyrolysis of Fe(CO) 5 and [(CH 3) 3Si] 2O (HMDSO) vapors. The obtained nanoparticles exhibited an iron-based core surrounded by an organosilicon polymer shell. Particles having different thicknesses of the polymer shell were deposited by either a spin-coating or by a drop-casting method on Si(1 0 0) substrates. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by dc plasma-assisted and filaments-activated CCVD processes in H 2/C 2H 2 mixtures at 700 °C. The CNT growth was studied by several analytical techniques: SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. High density of well-aligned, vertical MWCNTs was obtained.

  15. Interaction Effect of Isothermal Co-pyrolysis of Coal Coke and Salix psammophila Charcoal blends%煤半焦和沙柳炭混合物恒温共热解作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武彦伟; 高学艺; 王克冰; 安书琪

    2016-01-01

    采用先混合原沙柳和煤粉再制焦的次序,利用热重分析法研究了4种煤半焦和沙柳炭混合物的恒温共热解作用。从胜利煤的变温热解中,选定恒温共热解的温度400、500和600℃来研究温度对沙柳炭和胜利煤半焦混合物共热解作用的影响,结果显示400和600℃表现为协同作用,500℃表现为抑制作用,通过分析选择600℃作为恒温共热解温度。在600℃时,研究了沙柳炭与不同种类煤半焦在不同掺混比例下的恒温共热解,显示沙柳炭对挥发逸出能力较强或较低的煤半焦(霍林河煤和准格尔煤)均表现为抑制作用,对挥发分逸出能力中等的煤半焦(胜利煤和宝日希勒褐煤)表现为协同作用;受煤种的影响,掺混比例对共热解的作用效果大小无固定的排序。%Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the interaction effects of isothermal co-pyrolysis of Salix psammophila ( Bsl) charcoal and 4 kinds of coal cokes. The isothermal co-pyrolysis temperatures 400, 500 and 600℃ were selected from the temperature-programmed pyrolysis of Shengli lignite ( SL) to study the effects of temperature on the co-pyrolysis of Bsl charcoal and SL coal coke. The results showed that the interactions was synergy effect at 400 and 600℃,and the interaction was inhibition effect at 500℃. By analysis, the selected temperature of co-pyrolysis was 600℃. At 600℃, the isothermal co-pyrolysises of Bsl charcoal and coal cokes of different coal types at different blending ratios were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the interactions were inhibition effects for coal cokes with high content of volatilization ( Huolinhe lignite and Zhunge′er coal) and synergy effect for coal cokes with medium content of volatilization( Shengli lignite and Baorixile lignite) . The interaction effect of coke mixture at different blending ratios had no fixed order for different coal types.

  16. Pilot plant investigations on cleaning efficiencies to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination in industrial manufacture of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Ibach, Anja; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Janise, Annabella; Suwelack, Carola; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Shared equipment in industrial food manufacture has repeatedly been described as a potential source of unlabeled food allergens, i.e., hidden allergens. However, the impact of shared equipment on allergen cross-contamination is basically unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate systematically the extent of hazelnut cross-contamination in fine bakery wares as a model. A product change from cookies with 10% hazelnut to cookies without hazelnuts was simulated on pilot plant equipment. The extent of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each production device (kneaders, rotary molder, wire cutting machine, and steel band oven) and various cleaning procedures used between products. The experiments were performed repeatedly with finely ground hazelnuts and with roughly chopped hazelnut kernels. Cross-contamination from chopped kernels was distributed statistically but not homogeneously, and sampling and analysis with the ELISA was therefore not reproducible. Further analysis concentrated on homogenously distributed HNCC from ground hazelnut. Apart from product changes without intermediate cleaning, the highest HNCC was found after mechanical scraping: Up to 100 mg/kg hazelnut protein was found in the follow-up product after processing by one machine. After additional cleaning with hot water, the HNCC decreased regardless of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg/kg hazelnut protein. In our pilot plant study, the application of an appropriate wet cleaning procedure in combination with quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency reduced the hazelnut protein cross-contamination to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  17. shells 1*ITODO, AU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    determines its adsorption capacities (ii) chemical structure that ... unique properties including large surface area, high degree of ..... Hazelnut, Almond and Apricot Stones. J. of Harzard. Mat . ... of activated carbon from oil palm empty fruit Bunch.

  18. The Effect of Explant Node Position on the Amount and Type of Bacterial Contamination in Hazelnut Shoot Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    New hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars resistant to eastern filbert blight are in demand and micropropagation is used to rapidly increase plant availability. Hazelnut trees contain many endogenous microorganisms, making it difficult to initiate axenic cultures. This study was designed to dete...

  19. Detection of hidden hazelnut protein in food by IgY-based indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Kemmers - Voncken, A.E.M.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Banks, J.; Reece, P.; Danks, C.; Tomkies, V.; Immer, U.; Schmitt, K.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    The development of an indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay for the detection of hidden hazelnut protein in complex food matrices is described. A sensitive and selective polyclonal antibody was raised by immunisation of laying hens with protein extracts from roasted hazelnuts. In contrast to tradi

  20. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L; Aalberse, Rob C; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-12-15

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and detecting rabbit antibodies were raised against pepsin-digested hazelnut and untreated hazelnut protein, respectively. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.7 ng/mL hazelnut protein or hazelnut in 1 g food matrix and a maximum of 0.034% cross-reactivity (peanut). Chocolate samples spiked with 0.5-100 microg hazelnut/g chocolate showed a mean recovery of 97.3%. In 9/12 food products labeled "may contain nuts", hazelnut was detected between 1.2 and 417 microg hazelnut/g food. It can be concluded that the application of antibodies directed to pepsin-digested food extracts in ELISA can facilitate specific detection of stable proteins that have the highest potential of inducing severe food anaphylaxis.

  1. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD).

  2. Field efficacy against the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum and short-term persistence of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Batalla-Carrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a pest affecting hazelnut orchards in Europe, with an important economical repercussion. Its potential control, short-term field persistence and the vertical distribution of native entomopathogenic nematode strains were tested in Muntanyes de Prades, Tarragona (NE Iberian Peninsula over two consecutive years. Steinernema feltiae strain D114, Steinernema sp. strain D122 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain DG46 were used in summer and spring applications at a dosage of 5·105 IJs m-2. The three nematode species reduced the hazelnut weevil population, ranging from 32% to 88% efficacy, without significant differences in efficacy or between the two applications. Persistence evaluation was carried out during 9 weeks for S. feltiae (D114, Steinernema sp. (D122 and H. bacteriophora (DG46 and showed all species capable of lasting for this period. Nematodes and larval vertical distribution was assessed. Most of the hazelnut weevil stayed within the first 25 cm although some were found as deep as 40 cm. Entomopathogenic nematodes were found along all 40 cm depth. This study proves the suitability of entomopathogenic nematodes to control the hazelnut weevil.

  3. Effects of roasting on taste-active compounds of Turkish hazelnut varieties ( Corylus avellana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Pelvan, Ebru; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2010-08-11

    The effect of roasting on taste-active components of 18 native hazelnut varieties, grown in the Giresun province of Turkey, was assessed. Samples were examined for their sugars, organic acids, condensed tannins, and free phenolic acids. Six sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, myo-inositol, raffinose, and stachyose), seven organic acids (oxalic, maleic, citric, malic, lactic, succinic, and acetic), and one phenolic acid (gallic acid) were positively identified in natural and roasted hazelnut varieties; among these, sucrose, malic acid, and gallic acid predominated, respectively. Total sugars among hazelnut varieties ranged from 1.99 to 4.94 g/100 g, organic acids from 0.96 to 2.72 g/100 g, condensed tannins from 3.99 to 40.56 mg of catechin equivalents/g, and gallic acid from 0.159 to 0.871 mg/100 g. Differences existed in the sugar and organic acid contents between natural and roasted hazelnut varieties, but they did not follow any particular trend. Significant losses (p hazelnuts were roasted. The present work suggests that roasting resulted in significant loss in condensed tannins and gallic acid due to the removal of the brown skin. The effect of roasting on sugars and organic acids was not noteworthy.

  4. Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Dal Bello, Barbara; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by members of Aspergillus Section Flavi that are dangerous to humans and animals. Nuts can be potentially contaminated with aflatoxins, often over the legal threshold. Food processes, including roasting, may have different effects on mycotoxins, and high temperatures have proven to be very effective in the reduction of mycotoxins. In this work, two different roasting methods—traditional static hot air roasting and infra-red rays roasting—were applied and compared for the detoxification of hazelnuts from Italy and Turkey. At the temperature of 140 °C for 40 min of exposure, detoxification was effective for both roasting techniques. Residual aflatoxins after infra-red rays treatments were lower compared to static hot air roasting. On Italian hazelnuts, residual aflatoxins were lower than 5%, while for Turkish hazelnuts they were lower than 15% after 40 min of exposure to an infra-red rays roaster. After roasting, the perisperm was detached from the nuts and analyzed for aflatoxin contents. Residual aflatoxins in the perisperm ranged from 80% up to 100%. After roasting, the lipid profile and the nutritional quality of hazelnuts were not affected. Fatty acid methyl esters analyses showed a similar composition for Italian and Turkish hazelnuts. PMID:28230792

  5. Factors for converting hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) into black alder (Alnus glutinosa Yalt.) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkaya, Ali; Durkaya, Birsen

    2009-07-01

    Hazelnut plantations, which are a major source of income for the villagers in the eastern Black sea region are notable to provide sufficient income to the villagers due to price fluctuations and sudden falls witnessed in recent years. Alternative investments in place of hazelnut cultivation are being investigated in order to prevent migration to urban areas and to increase the welfare of the rural population in the region. Black alder plantation investments have been assessed as one of the most essential alternative investment tools within the framework of the study Assessment was carried out by comparing expected possible net present values (NPV). Although value increase occurs 12-18 years later more income can be obtained through black alder than hazelnut plantation. In hazelnut plantations, the best NPV emerged in the lower zone. NPV was positive in the moderate zone but values were close to zero. In upper zone, positive NPV couldn't emerge. As a result, it was understood that black alder plantation investment is an effective alternative for hazelnut plantations.

  6. Effects of roasting on oil and fatty acid composition of Turkish hazelnut varieties (Corylus avellana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Pelvan, Ebru; Topal, Bahar

    2010-09-01

    A total of 18 natural and roasted hazelnut varieties (namely, Aci, Cavcava, Cakildak, Foşa, Ham, Incekara, Kalinkara, Kan, Karafindik, Kargalak, Kuş, Mincane, Palaz, Sivri, Tombul, Uzunmusa, Yassi Badem, and Yuvarlak Badem), grown in the Giresun province of Turkey, were compared for their differences in oil content and fatty acid profiles. The oil content in natural and roasted hazelnut varieties ranged from 57.85% for Kargalak to 68.31% for Incekara and from 61.37% for Kargalak to 71.72% for Incekara, respectively. A total of 20 fatty acids were identified in oils extracted from different varieties of natural and roasted hazelnuts. Among the identified fatty acids in natural hazelnut oils, 18:1omega9 was the dominant fatty acid (ranging from 77.77 to 86.91%). Roasting had minor influence on the fatty acid profiles. These results suggest that semi-commercial hazelnut varieties are as good source of oils and possess valuable fatty acid profiles as commercial varieties (Tombul, Cakildak, Foşa, Karafindik, Mincane, Palaz, and Sivri).

  7. Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) protein concentrates: functional and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, F; Tunç, M T; Kahyaoglu, T

    2015-02-01

    Turkish Tombul hazelnut consumed as natural or processed forms were evaluated to obtain protein concentrate. Defatted hazelnut flour protein (DHFP) and defatted hazelnut cake protein (DHCP) were produced from defatted hazelnut flour (DHF) and defatted hazelnut cake (DHC), respectively. The functional properties (protein solubility, emulsifying properties, foaming capacity, and colour), and dynamic rheological characteristics of protein concentrates were measured. The protein contents of samples varied in the range of 35-48 % (w/w, db) and 91-92 % (w/w, db) for DHF/DHC and DHFP/DHCP samples, respectively. The significant difference for water/fat absorption capacity, emulsion stability between DHF and DHC were determined. On the other hand, the solubility and emulsion activity of DHF and DHC were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Emulsion stability of DHFP (%46) was higher than that of DHCP (%35) but other functional properties were found similar. According to these results, the DHCP could be used as DHFP in food product formulations. The DHFP and DHCP samples showed different apparent viscosity at the same temperature and concentration, the elastic modulus (G' value) of DHPC was also found higher than that of DHFP samples.

  8. Quantitative detection of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in cookies: ELISA versus real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteau, Céline; De Loose, Marc; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Taverniers, Isabel

    2011-11-09

    Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana) are used widely in the food industry, especially in confectionery, where they are used raw, roasted, or in a processed formulation (e.g., praline paste and hazelnut oil). Hazelnuts contain multiple allergenic proteins, which can induce an allergic reaction associated with symptoms ranging from mild irritation to life-threatening anaphylactic shock. To date, immunochemical (e.g., ELISA or dipstick) and PCR-based analyses are the only methods available that can be applied as routine tests. The aim of this study is to make a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of ELISA and real-time PCR in detecting and correctly quantifying hazelnut in food model systems. To this end, the performances of two commercial ELISAs were compared to those of two commercial and one in-house-developed real-time PCR assays. The results showed that although ELISA seemed to be more sensitive compared to real-time PCR, both detection techniques suffered from matrix effects and lacked robustness with regard to food processing. As these impacts were highly variable among the different evaluated assays (both ELISA and real-time PCR), no firm conclusion can be made as to which technique is suited best to detect hazelnut in (processed) food products. In this regard, the current lack of appropriate DNA calibrators to quantify an allergenic ingredient by means of real-time PCR is highlighted.

  9. Effect of replacing beef fat with hazelnut oil on quality characteristics of sucuk - A Turkish fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız-Turp, G; Serdaroğlu, M

    2008-04-01

    Turkish fermented sausages (sucuk) were produced by replacing 15, 30 and 50% of beef fat with hazelnut oil incorporated as pre-emulsified with simplesse(®) 100 (whey protein powder) Each treatment was formulated to contain 20% total fat and beef fat was the only fat material used in the control (C) group. After 12 days of fermentation and ripening, all sucuk samples had TBA values within acceptable limits (replacement had a significant effect on redness values of the samples. Cholesterol content decreased progressively as the percentage of hazelnut oil increased in the formulation. Replacement of 50% beef fat with 50% hazelnut oil significantly increased MUFA, PUFA and MUFA+PUFA/SFA ratios. The use of hazelnut oil resulted in significant decreases in the slice appearance, texture and taste scores. However there was no significant difference in the overall acceptability score of samples, except those in which hazelnut oil replaced 15% beef fat, which had the highest score.

  10. Development of a sandwich ELISA-type system for the detection and quantification of hazelnut in model chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Ansari, Parisa; Mafra, Isabel; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Baumgartner, Sabine

    2015-04-15

    Hazelnut is one of the most appreciated nuts being virtually found in a wide range of processed foods. The simple presence of trace amounts of hazelnut in foods can represent a potential risk for eliciting allergic reactions in sensitised individuals. The correct labelling of processed foods is mandatory to avoid adverse reactions. Therefore, adequate methodology evaluating the presence of offending foods is of great importance. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a highly specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of hazelnut in complex food matrices. Using in-house produced antibodies, an ELISA system was developed capable to detect hazelnut down to 1 mg kg(-1) and quantify this nut down to 50 mg kg(-1) in chocolates spiked with known amounts of hazelnut. These results highlight and reinforce the value of ELISA as rapid and reliable tool for the detection of allergens in foods.

  11. Allergen sanitation in the food industry: a systematic industrial scale approach to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Ibach, Anja; Mücke, Ingo; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Recently, we investigated the impact of shared equipment on cross-contamination of cookies at a pilot plant scale. Based on those findings, this study investigated the extent and subsequent sanitation of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) of cookies at the industrial scale. Similarly, a product change from cookies with hazelnut ingredient to cookies without hazelnut was performed on standard equipment. HNCC in the hazelnut-free follow-up product was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for each production device and the applied cleaning procedure. All experiments were repeated in duplicate. The highest HNCC was found in concordance with previous studies after mere mechanical scraping: more than 1,000 mg of hazelnut protein per kg was quantified in the follow-up product after processing by a cookie machine. Additional cleaning with hot water decreased the HNCC irrespective of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg of hazelnut protein per kg. Furthermore, raw materials for cookie production were monitored over a period of 24 months for unwanted preloads of hazelnut and peanut: hazelnut was quantified in 16% of the investigated raw materials as being between 0.26 and 90 mg/kg. Further critical control points at the industrial scale, where cross-contamination might occur, were identified but did not display noteworthy sources of cross-contamination. In conclusion, the quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency at the industrial scale confirmed the procedure of manual scraping plus wet cleaning as a qualified sanitation procedure to effectively reduce the hazelnut protein cross-contamination down to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  12. Marker peptide selection for the determination of hazelnut by LC-MS/MS and occurrence in other nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Parisa; Stoppacher, Norbert; Baumgartner, Sabine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was identifying and selecting hazelnut marker peptides and subsequently developing a complementary method of common immunoassay for the detection of hazelnut. For this purpose, at first, an in silico digestion of three major hazelnut allergens (Cor a 8, Cor a 9 and Cor a 11) was performed to get information about expected peptides. After extraction and trypsin digestion of hazelnut proteins, the samples were measured with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) by direct infusion, which led to identification of 14 peptides. Eight of them with the highest MS signal were synthesized and used as standards for developing a liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS method in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Since almost all food allergens derived from nuts belong to the seed storage protein family and have homologue structure, a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search was performed to identify the hazelnut specificity of the developed method. According to BLAST, only one peptide occurs in three other nuts, and the remaining seven selected peptides are hazelnut specific. Additionally to hazelnut, the eight other listed nuts in Directive 2003/89/EC as allergen were extracted, digested and measured with the developed method to prove the BLAST results. The analytical data confirmed that six peptides are hazelnut specific, on the contrary to anti-hazelnut antibodies, which showed cross-reactivities to all other nut extracts. Comparing these results, it could be shown that with this LC-MS/MS method in SRM mode, the specific detection of hazelnut is possible.

  13. Detection of potentially allergenic hazelnut (Corylus avellana) residues in food: a comparative study with DNA PCR-ELISA and protein sandwich-ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Stephan, Oliver; Vieths, Stefan

    2002-10-09

    Allergen detection is of increasing interest for food labeling purposes. A comparative study with a commercial hazelnut-specific PCR-ELISA and a sandwich-type ELISA detecting hazelnut protein was performed to investigate to what extent immunochemical and DNA-based techniques would correlate in the detection of trace amounts of potentially allergenic hazelnut residues. Both methods were highly sensitive and allowed the detection of even hazelnut in complex food matrixes. The protein-ELISA was highly specific for hazelnut. However, some foods could lead to false-positive results at the 10 ppm level. The PCR-ELISA did not show any cross-reactions with non-hazelnut foods, thus reducing the probability of having false positives at the trace level. Forty-one commercial food products with and without hazelnut components on their labels were analyzed for the presence of hazelnut. Of the 27 products in which hazelnut components were detected, two samples were not identified by the protein-ELISA, and only one sample, namely one white chocolate having hazelnut protein, was not detected by PCR-ELISA. The good correlation of the results of PCR-ELISA and protein-ELISA suggested that both PCR-based and immunochemical techniques are suitable for reliable detection of potentially allergenic hazelnut residues in foods at the trace level.

  14. Analysis of different European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars: authentication, phenotypic features, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Mazzeo, Maria F; Minasi, Paola; Peluso, Angela; De Luca, Antonio; Piccirillo, Pasquale; Siciliano, Rosa A; Carbone, Virginia

    2014-07-02

    Hazelnuts exhibit functional properties due to their content in fatty acids and phenolic compounds that could positively affect human health. The food industry requires precise traits for morphological, chemical, and physical kernel features so that some cultivars could be more suitable for specific industrial processing. In this study, agronomical and morphological features of 29 hazelnut cultivars were evaluated and a detailed structural characterization of kernel polyphenols was performed, confirming the presence of protocatechuic acid, flavan-3-ols such as catechin, procyanidin B2, six procyanidin oligomers, flavonols, and one dihydrochalcone in all the analyzed cultivars. In addition, an innovative methodology based on the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of peptide/protein components extracted from kernels was developed for the authentication of the most valuable cultivars. The proposed method is rapid, simple, and reliable and holds the potential to be applied in quality control processes. These results could be useful in hazelnut cultivar evaluation and choice for growers, breeders, and food industry.

  15. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, S. F.; Kontominas, M. G.

    2009-06-01

    The present study evaluated the quality of hazelnuts as a function of irradiation dose to determine dose levels causing minimal undesirable changes to hazelnuts. Physicochemical (color, peroxide value (PV), hexanal content, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds) and sensory (color, texture, odor and taste) properties were determined. Results showed a twenty fold increase in peroxide value and twenty-eight fold increase in hexanal content after irradiation at a dose of 7 kGy. An increase was also observed in saturated fatty acids (10%-23%) with a parallel decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (90-77%). Volatile compounds such as ketones, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, furans, aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic monoterpenes and acids were produced mostly comprising secondary oxidation products of hazelnut lipids after irradiation. Color parameter b* increased ( phazelnuts retain acceptable sensory quality when irradiated up to a dose of 1.5 kGy.

  16. Structural and Functional Characterization of the Hazelnut Allergen Cor a 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Lesa R; Bublin, Merima; Perdue, Makenzie L; Pfeifer, Sabine; Dubiela, Pawel; Borowski, Tomasz; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin

    2015-10-21

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are basic proteins, stabilized by four disulfide bonds, and are expressed throughout the plant kingdom. These proteins are also known as important allergens in fruits and tree nuts. In this study, the nsLTP from hazelnuts, Cor a 8, was purified and its crystal structure determined. The protein is stable at low pH and refolds after thermal denaturation. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to provide an insight into conformational changes of Cor a 8 upon ligand binding. When known epitope areas from Pru p 3 were compared to those of Cor a 8, differences were obvious, which may contribute to limited cross-reactivity between peach and hazelnut allergens. Differences in epitope regions may contribute to limited cross-reactivity between Cor a 8 and nsLTPs from other plant sources. The structure of Cor a 8 represents the first resolved structure of a hazelnut allergen.

  17. Structural and Functional Characterization of the Hazelnut Allergen Cor a 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are basic proteins, stabilized by four disulfide bonds, and are expressed throughout the plant kingdom. These proteins are also known as important allergens in fruits and tree nuts. In this study, the nsLTP from hazelnuts, Cor a 8, was purified and its crystal structure determined. The protein is stable at low pH and refolds after thermal denaturation. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to provide an insight into conformational changes of Cor a 8 upon ligand binding. When known epitope areas from Pru p 3 were compared to those of Cor a 8, differences were obvious, which may contribute to limited cross-reactivity between peach and hazelnut allergens. Differences in epitope regions may contribute to limited cross-reactivity between Cor a 8 and nsLTPs from other plant sources. The structure of Cor a 8 represents the first resolved structure of a hazelnut allergen. PMID:26417906

  18. Chemical composition of hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    1998-05-01

    Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) samples were collected from all replications of six different cultivars of trees grown in an experimental orchard at Lincoln University. Five cultivars were originally imported from overseas, three from the USA and two from Europe, and one cultivar was selected locally. Representative samples of nuts were harvested from 12-year-old trees in autumn 1995. The total oil content of the hazelnuts ranged from 54.6 to 63.2% while the crude protein ranged from 14.3 to 18.2%. Dietary fibre ranged from 9.8 to 13.2% while the starch and free glucose content together made up no more than 5% of the remaining portion of the kernel. The amino acid content of the hazelnuts was similar between each cultivar and the pattern of essential amino acids was characteristic of a high quality protein.

  19. Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy Anette Stensgaard, Audrey DunnGalvin, Dorthe Nielsen, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen (Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, ORCA (Odense Research Centre for Anaphylaxis), Odense University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark) Aim......: International research shows that Food Allergy has an impact on the quality of life for the affected child, adolescent and even in adulthood – as well for the parents. The aim of this study is to gain more knowledge on quality of life for Danish patients diagnosed with peanut, egg or/and hazelnut allergy...... and for their family members. Methods: The cohort comprises an existing database with 394 Danish children, teenagers and adults diagnosed with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy in accordance with EAACI guidelines. We use the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ). The questionnaires have been...

  20. Metabolic profile of different Italian cultivars of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Impellizzeri, Danilo; Mannina, Luisa; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Venditti, Alessandro; Delfini, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy was performed on three Italian hazelnut cultivars, Tonda di Giffoni, Mortarella and Tonda Gentile Romana, and it allowed to define their metabolic profile. The hazelnuts were grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions in the Monti Cimini (Latium) area. The samples were obtained by using a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction protocol which did not give rise to artefacts arising from the demolition of macromolecular structures such as proteins and polysaccharides. Metabolites belonging to different chemical classes (amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, lipids and miscellaneous compounds) were identified and quantified. The three cultivars were discriminated by means of univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (PCA) statistical analysis.

  1. Preparation of biochar from co-pyrolysis of dewatered sewage sludge-pine sawdust and its adsorption capability%脱水污泥-松木共热解生物炭的制备及吸附性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成功; 孙蕾; 焦李; 肖波

    2013-01-01

    以脱水污泥(含水率80%)和松木的混合物为原料共热解制备生物炭.研究了松木掺混比、热解温度对生物炭产率和BET比表面积(SBET)的影响,采用元素分析、工业分析和扫描电镜比较了单独热解及共热解生物炭的元素组成和表面形貌.结果表明,生物炭产率随着松木掺混比的增加而提高,随着热解温度的升高而下降.2种原料共热解存在明显的协同效果:松木提高了生物炭的碳元素含量,污泥的水分具有一定的活化作用,生物炭表面粗糙程度增加、SBET扩大.当松木掺混比为60%、热解温度为750℃时,生物炭 SBET达到最高的213.4 m2/g.此外,生物炭对水中苯酚的吸附符合准二级动力学,等温吸附过程能用Freundlich模型描述.%Blends of dewatered sewage sludge(moisture content was 80%) and pine sawdust were used as feed stocks for biochar preparation from co-pyrolysis.The effects of blending ratio of pine sawdust and pyrolysis temperature on yield and SBET of biochar were studied; furthermore,the element composition and surface topography of biochars prepared from pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis were compared through ultimate analysis,proximate analysis and SEM.The results showed that,biochar yield increased with the increasing of pine sawdust while decreased with the increasing of pyrolysis temperature.A synergetic effect was found during the co-pyrolysis of the two feed stocks.As the addition of pine sawdust increased the carbon content of the biochar and the activating ability of the water in the sludge,the surface roughness and SBET of the biochar were increased.The maximal SBET reached 213.4 m2/g,which was obtained under the condition that the blending ratio of pine sawdust was 60% and the pyrolysis temperature was 750 ℃.Moreover,the adsorption of phenol by the biochar followed the pseudo second-order kinetics model and the adsorption isotherm could be described by Freundlich model.

  2. 生物质与低阶煤低温共热解转化研究%STUDY ON LOW TEMPERATURE CO-PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS AND LOW RANK COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何选明; 潘叶; 陈康; 吴梁森

    2012-01-01

    将野生浮萍与长焰煤以不同比例掺混,采用自行设计的煤干馏实验装置进行生物质与煤共热解实验,对液体产物煤焦油进行GC-MS分析,以探索生物质与煤低温共热解的反应及煤焦油轻质化规律.同时采用热重分析仪,探讨生物质添加对煤热解过程的影响机理.结果表明,随着混合样品中生物质量的增加,焦油收率增大10%左右,焦油中直链烷烃及高附加值的萘、酚和芴等化合物得到一定的富集,实现了低温煤焦油轻质化的目的.样品失重率增大,TG曲线向低温区移动,热解活化能逐渐减小,长焰煤、生物质及其混合物热分解动力学模型符合准一级动力学方程,两者的掺混促进了整个反应的进行.%Co-pyrolysis characteristics of low rank coal mixed with biomass(duckweed )in different proportions were studied in a dry distillation equipment, and focusing on the coal tar of the product with GC-MS in order to investigate the reaction mechanism of the co-pyrolysis between biomass and coal. Furthermore, the research studied on the pyrolysis mechanism with bio-mass added by thermogravimetric analyzer. The results show that low-temperature tar could be upgraded with the increasing of biomass content, straight chain alkanes and high-value chemicals such as naphthalene, phenol, anthracene were enriched. The biomass can do favor to the pyrolysis process of coal by reducing the temperature of coaPs pyrolysis and active energy(E), The co-pyrolysis process belongs to first-order kinetic reaction, and the synergetic effect was found during coal and biomass co-prolysis by comparing with the individual pyrolysis.

  3. Sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for the detection of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) protein traces in food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeste, C K; Holden, L; Plassen, C; Almli, B

    2006-07-31

    Allergy to hazelnut is one of the most prevalent causes of severe food-allergic reactions in Norway, as recorded by The Norwegian National Reporting System and Register of Severe Allergic Reactions to Food. In the majority of the reported cases, there is "hidden", unlabelled hazelnut protein in processed foods like chocolate, cookies and cereal mixtures the eliciting agent. For a food survey study performed to evaluate the labelling practices with regards to hazelnut on behalf of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, a new sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) for the detection of hazelnut protein traces in food matrices was developed and validated. The unique fluorometric properties of the europium-chelates used improved the signal-to-noise ratio because of low matrix interference and led to an enhanced sensitivity. The limit of detection was 0.1 mg/kg and the limit of quantitation was 0.33 mg/kg hazelnut protein. The recovery ranged from 73% to 123% in cookies and cereals, and from 50 to 77% in chocolate. The intra-assay precision was 7% and the inter-assay precision was 19%. Of 100 randomly chosen retail food products in Norway labelled "may contain hazelnut", 36 contained 10 mg/kg hazelnut protein, demonstrating how differently this precautionary label is used.

  4. Role of hazelnut consumption on DNA damage and lipid-related markers in children with primary dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Del Bo'

    2015-06-01

    Sixty children (11.5 ± 2.5 years have participated in an 8-week controlled, parallel, dietary intervention study with hazelnuts (0.43 g/kg body weight per day. Subjects received dietary guidelines and were randomized in 3 groups: 1- hazelnuts with skin; 2- hazelnut without skin; 3- control (without hazelnuts. Before and after intervention, blood samples were collected and used to evaluate the levels of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG-sensitive sites and H2O2-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (by comet assay, serum lipid profile (by automatic analyzer and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids composition (by gas chromatography analysis. Preliminary results in a subgroup (5 subjects receiving hazelnut with skin and 5 controls show a reduction in the FPG-sensitive sites (from 13.8 ± 3.16% to 7.88 ± 2.98% and H2O2-induced DNA damage (from 44.4 ± 3.1% to 35.7 ± 7.6% following 8-week hazelnut consumption, while no effect seems to occur in the control group. Hazelnut decreases serum LDL-C level (-11.2%; p= 0.01 and seems to affect erythrocyte membrane phospholipids composition compared to baseline, while no difference in triglycerides, total and HDL-C levels has been documented in the subgroup analyzed. These preliminary results show a tendency towards a decrease in the levels of FPG-sensitive sites, H2O2-induced DNA damage and serum LDL-C after an 8-week hazelnut intervention. Data elaboration on the complete group of subjects will help understanding the effect of hazelnut consumption on lipid profile and markers of oxidative stress in children affected by primary dyslipidemia.

  5. Effect of synergism between biomass and coal during co-pyrolysis in a free fall reactor on tar components%自由落下床中生物质与煤共热解的协同效应对焦油组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏立纲; 张丽; 徐绍平

    2012-01-01

    The liquid products from co-pyrolysis of Dayan lignite (DY) and legume straw (LS) and from pyrolysis of the single fuel were classified into asphalts, phenols, aliphatic, aromatics and polar fractions by solvent extraction-column chromatography. Compared with the calculated yield of asphalts, i. e. the mass weighted mean value 19. 0% from pyrolysis of the single coal and biomass, the experimental yield from co-pyrolysis decreased to 11.4% , and the aromaticity of the co-pyrolysis asphalts increased. At the same time, the yield of light molecular weight phenols, methylphenol, dimethylphenol and their derivatives increased at about 5% during the co-pyrolysis; while the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons with long chains decreased. The content of decalins was 43.37% in aromatic fraction of the co-pyrolysis tar, whereas it was almost not found in the tars from pyrolysis of the individual fuel. These results verified that the synergy existed during co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass under the experimental conditions. It was contributed to the reactions such as hydropyrolysis and hydrogenation during co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass under the hydrogen atmosphere mainly supplied by biomass pyrolysis. Co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass favors producing low molecular weight compounds and improving the quality of the liquid product.%利用溶剂萃取-柱层析方法,将自由落下床中豆秸与大雁褐煤共热解以及单种原料热解的液体产品分为沥青烯、酚类、脂肪烃类、芳香烃类和极性物等组分.结果表明,共热解的沥青烯产率为11.4%,低于根据煤和生物质单独热解的质量加权平均计算值19.0%,且芳香性增大;与计算值相比,低分子量的酚类、甲基苯酚、二甲基苯酚及其衍生物的含量提高了5%;而且长侧链的脂肪烃含量减少.共热解焦油的芳香类组分中十氢萘的质量分数是43.37%,但其在单一原料热解焦油中并没有被检测到.热解油分析结果表

  6. Algorithms for the detection of hazelnut oil in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreda, W.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to olive oil can be only detected in high proportions (20–25%, using the D7-stigmastenol and the difference between triacylglycerols of equivalent carbon number 42, determined experimentally by HPLC and calculated theoretically from the fatty acid composition (DECN42. A new method   lies on a sequential comparison of the values of several algorithms with a database built with data obtained from genuine virgin olive oils. The algorithms are: LLLexp vs %L; (LLL/OLLnexp - (LLL/OLLntheor vs DECN44 and (ECN44/LLLexp vs %L; being LLLexp,  OLLnexp,  and ECN44exp  the percentage of triacylglycerols determined by HPLC; LLLtheor, OLLntheor, and ECN44theor the percentage of those calculated theoretically from the fatty acid composition;  DECN44 the difference between the experimental and theoretical value of ECN44; and finally %L the percentage of linoleic acid. The database has been built considering the values obtained from olive oils of different fatty acid composition and from admixtures between them. The method allows the detection of low percentages of hazelnut oil in olive oil (5 %.La adición fraudulenta de aceite de avellana en aceite de oliva puede  ser detectada sólo en altas proporciones (20–25 %, usando el   D7-estigmastenol y la diferencia entre los triglicéridos con número de carbono equivalente igual a 42, determinados experimentalmente por HPLC y teóricamente a partir de la composición de ácidos grasos (DECN42. Se propone un nuevo método que consiste en la comparación de los valores de varios algoritmos con una base de datos de valores experimentales obtenidos de aceites de oliva virgen  genuinos. Estos algoritmos son: LLLexp en función de %L; (LLL/OLLnexp  - (LLL/OLLnteor  en función de  DECN44 y  (ECN44/LLLexp  en función de %L; siendo LLLexp, OLLnexp,  y ECN44exp los porcentajes de los triglicéridos obtenidos por HPLC; LLLteor , OLLnteor,  y ECN44teor los

  7. Characterization of the key odorants in raw Italian hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. var. Tonda Romana) and roasted hazelnut paste by means of molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdack-Freitag, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2012-05-23

    The concentrations of 19 odorants, recently characterized by GC-olfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis as the most odor-active compounds in raw hazelnuts, were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Calculation of odor activity values (OAV) on the basis of odor thresholds in oil revealed high OAVs, in particular for linalool, 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 4-methylphenol. A model mixture in sunflower oil containing the 13 odorants showing OAVs above 1 in their natural concentrations resulted in a good similarity compared to the overall nut-like, fruity aroma of the raw hazelnuts. Quantitation of the 25 most odor-active compounds in roasted hazelnut paste by SIDA showed clear changes in the concentrations of most odorants, and formation of new odor-active compounds induced by the roasting process was observed. The highest OAVs were calculated for 3-methylbutanal (malty), 2,3-pentanedione (buttery), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), and (Z)-2-nonenal (fatty), followed by dimethyl trisulfide, 2-furfurylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone. The aroma of a model mixture containing the 19 odorants with OAVs above 1 in their actual concentrations in the roasted nut material was judged to elicit a very good similarity to the popcorn-like, coffee-like, and sweet-smoky aroma of the roasted hazelnut paste. New SIDAs were developed for the quantitation of 5-methyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2-thenylthiol, and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone.

  8. Parental anxiety before and after food challenges in children with suspected peanut and hazelnut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wieneke T.; Flinterman, Annebeth E.; Soeters, Lotte; Knulst, Andre C.; Sinnema, Gerben; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Pasmans, Suzanne G.

    2010-01-01

    As ingestion of peanut and hazelnut by allergic children is potentially life threatening, parents of these children need to be vigilant about their child's dietary intake. This may cause high levels of anxiety. To assess parental anxiety about food-allergic reaction in their child (state anxiety) an

  9. Effect of MW-assisted roasting on nutritional and chemical properties of hazelnuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kalkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the flavor, texture, color, and appearance of hazelnuts, they are roasted during postharvest processing. In this study, raw hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L. were roasted using microwave (MW and MW-assisted hot air methods under various roasting conditions. The hazelnuts roasted were then examined to determine the percent DPPH radical scavenging activity, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, resistant starch, non-resistant starch, total starch, and protein concentration. The roasting experiments were done using a completely randomized factorial arrangement of two roasting types by three roasting times (9, 15, and 21 min by three roasting temperatures (70, 90, and 110°C using three replications within each experiment. These roasting methods were found to yield significant differences in antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, resistant starch, non-resistant starch, and protein concentration between MW and MW-assisted hot air roasting processes, while no difference was found in percent DPPH radical scavenging activity and total starch. The results obtained may be of great importance to the food research community and industrial hazelnut roasting technologies.

  10. Nitrogen fertilization for young established hybrid hazelnuts in the Upper Midwest of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrids of Corylus avellana, C. americana, and C. cornuta are proposed as a new crop for the Upper Midwest. Anecdotal information from midwestern growers suggests that these hybrid hazelnuts have high N requirements, but this has not been confirmed in replicated trials. Current nitrogen (N) recommen...

  11. Chemical composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Morais, Jorge Sá; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, Letícia; Pereira, José Alberto

    2008-05-01

    Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is a very popular dry fruit in the world being consumed in different form and presentations. In the present work, three hazelnut cultivars (cv. Daviana, Fertille de Coutard and M. Bollwiller) produced in Portugal, were characterized in respect to their chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity. The samples were analysed for proximate constituents (moisture, fat, crude protein, ash), nutritional value and fatty acids profile by GC/FID. Antioxidant potential was accessed by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. Their antimicrobial capacity was also checked against Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans). Results showed that the main constituent of fruits was fat ranging from 56% to 61%, being the nutritional value around 650 kcal per 100 g of fruits. Oleic was the major fatty acid varying between 80.67% in cv. F. Coutard and 82.63% in cv. Daviana, followed by linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Aqueous hazelnut extract presented antioxidant activity in a concentration-dependent way, in general with similar behaviour for all cultivars. Hazelnut extracts revealed a high antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (MIC 0.1 mg/mL) showing a good bioactivity of these fruits.

  12. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mexis, S.F. [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Kontominas, M.G. [Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)], E-mail: mkontomi@cc.uoi.gr

    2009-06-15

    The present study evaluated the quality of hazelnuts as a function of irradiation dose to determine dose levels causing minimal undesirable changes to hazelnuts. Physicochemical (color, peroxide value (PV), hexanal content, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds) and sensory (color, texture, odor and taste) properties were determined. Results showed a twenty fold increase in peroxide value and twenty-eight fold increase in hexanal content after irradiation at a dose of 7 kGy. An increase was also observed in saturated fatty acids (10%-23%) with a parallel decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (90-77%). Volatile compounds such as ketones, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, furans, aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic monoterpenes and acids were produced mostly comprising secondary oxidation products of hazelnut lipids after irradiation. Color parameter b* increased (p<0.05) after irradiation at a dose of {>=}5 kGy, while color parameters L* and a* remained unchanged by irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed that texture and color were not affected by irradiation. Taste, the most sensitive sensory attribute showed that hazelnuts retain acceptable sensory quality when irradiated up to a dose of 1.5 kGy.

  13. Effects of hazelnuts consumption on fasting blood sugar and lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Darvish Damavandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that nuts consumption have beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles in hyperlipidemic or normolipidemic subjects. However, similar studies in diabetes field are quite rare. So, we aimed to investigate the effects of hazelnut consumption on fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 Diabetes. Materials and Methods: An 8-week controlled randomized parallel study in patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty eligible volunteers were assigned to either the control or intervention groups. 10% of total daily calorie intake was replaced with hazelnuts in intervention group. Blood samples were collected from fasting patients at the start and at the end of the study. Results: After 8 weeks, there were significant differences in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations between two groups, using analyses of covariance ( P = 0.009, which was due to the larger HDL-C reduction in control group ( P = 0.003. Although, Hazelnut group achieved greater reduction in triglyceride (TG concentrations than control group, these changes were not statistically significant. Neither between-group changes nor within-group changes were significant for FBS, total cholesterol (TC, TG, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C levels. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that incorporation of hazelnuts into diet can prevent reduction of HDL-C concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes, but had no effect on FBS or other lipid profile indices.

  14. USE OF COVER CROPS FOR WEED SUPPRESSION IN HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, D; Dok, M; Ak, K; Macit, I; Demir, Z; Mennan, H

    2014-01-01

    Weed management is critical in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) production. Weeds reduce nutrient availability, interfere with tree growth, and reduce hand-harvesting efficiency. Field experiments were conducted to test effects of cover crops as alternative weed management strategies in hazelnut. The cover crop treatments consisted of Trifolium repens L., Festuca rubra subsp. rubra L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Vicia villosa Roth. And Trifolium meneghinianum Celmand fallow with no cover crop. Control plots such as weedy control, herbicide control and mechanical control were added as reference plots. The lowest weed dry biomass was obtained from Vicia villosa plots, and there were no significant differences among all other cover crop treatments. The highest cover crop dry biomass was measured in the Trifolium meneghinianum plots. Regarding the effect of cover crops on hazelnut yields, the lowest yield was ob- tained from weedy control plots, while the highest yield was obtained from F. arundinacea plots. This research indicated that cover crops could be used as living mulch in integrated weed management programs to manage weeds in the hazelnut orchards.

  15. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumus, M. [Automotive Division, Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, Ziverbey, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  16. SSR Fingerprinting Panel Verifies Identities of Clones in Backup Hazelnut Collection of USDA Genebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service maintains a genebank representing world hazelnut (Corylus L.) diversity. More than 670 clones are preserved as self-rooted trees in a two-hectare field planting in Corvallis, Oregon, with a single tree per accession. In 1996 an...

  17. Comparing determination methods of detection and quantification limits for aflatoxin analysis in hazelnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Şengül

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazelnut is a type of plant that grows in wet and humid climatic conditions. Adverse climatic conditions result in the formation of aflatoxin in hazelnuts during the harvesting, drying, and storing processes. Aflatoxin is considered an important food contaminant, which makes aflatoxin analysis important in the international produce trade. For this reason, validation is important for the analysis of aflatoxin in hazelnuts. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ are two important parameters in validation. In this study, the LOD and LOQ values have been determined using the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC Method 991.31, which is one of the most viable high-performance liquid chromatography analysis methods in the analysis of aflatoxin in hazelnuts. Several approaches can be used to calculate LOD and LOQ values. In this study, to calculate the LOD and LOQ values, the visual evaluation (empirical method, the signal-to-noise method, and calibration curve approaches were applied. The most appropriate approaches were compared. Our conclusion is that the visual evaluation method provided much more realistic LOD and LOQ values.

  18. Roasted hazelnuts--allergenic activity evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K Skamstrup; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Lüttkopf, D

    2003-01-01

    Allergy to hazelnuts is a common example of birch pollen related food allergy. Symptoms upon ingestion are often confined to the mouth and throat, but severe systemic reactions have been described in some patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction in allergenicity by roasting...

  19. Developing improved micropropagation medium for hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) based on ion concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelnuts are one of the most challenging crops to propagate because of the varied nutritional requirements of the genotypes. Initial steps to improving growth medium determined needed changes to the minor nutrient components. Major mineral nutrients are not yet optimized. To develop a medium optim...

  20. Near infrared spectroscopy is suitable for the classification of hazelnuts according to Protected Designation of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Roberto; Radicetti, Emanuele; Monarca, Danilo; Cecchini, Massimo; Massantini, Riccardo

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy for the authentication of the 'Nocciola Romana' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cvs Tonda Gentile Romana and Nocchione) as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) hazelnut from central Italy. Algorithms for the selection of the optimal pretreatments were tested in combination with the following discriminant routines: k-nearest neighbour, soft independent modelling of class analogy, partial least squares discriminant analysis and support vector machine discriminant analysis. The best results were obtained using a support vector machine discriminant analysis routine. Thus, classification performance rates with specificities, sensitivities and accuracies as high as 96.0%, 95.0% and 95.5%, respectively, were achieved. Various pretreatments, such as standard normal variate, mean centring and a Savitzky-Golay filter with seven smoothing points, were used. The optimal wavelengths for classification were mainly correlated with lipids, although some contribution from minor constituents, such as proteins and carbohydrates, was also observed. Near infrared spectroscopy could classify hazelnut according to the PDO 'Nocciola Romana' designation. Thus, the experimentation lays the foundations for a rapid, online, authentication system for hazelnut. However, model robustness should be improved taking into account agro-pedo-climatic growing conditions. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Nut traits and nutritional composition of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) as influenced by zinc fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özenç, Nedim; Özenç, Damla Bender

    2015-07-01

    Zinc is an essential element for plants and its deficiency is a widespread problem throughout the world, causing decreased yields and nutritional quality. In this study the effect of zinc fertilization on some nut traits and the nutritional composition of 'Tombul' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) variety cultivated in the Black Sea region of Turkey was investigated and the contribution of this nut to human nutrition determined. Trials were carried out at 'Tombul' hazelnut orchards, and zinc fertilizers were applied at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) in three consecutive years. Significant differences in some nut traits and mineral composition (protein, total oil, ash, kernel percentage, empty and wrinkled nuts, copper, boron, manganese and molybdenum) were observed with zinc fertilizer applications. In terms of daily nutritional element requirements, 100 g of hazelnut provided about 44.74% phosphorus, 13.39% potassium, 19.32% calcium, 37.49% magnesium, 0.19% sodium, 51.63% iron, 25.73% zinc and 14.05% boron of the recommended daily amounts (RDAs), while copper, manganese and molybdenum contents exceeded their RDAs. In order to improve some nut traits and the mineral composition of hazelnut, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) fertilizations could be recommended in practice. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. [The prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in children in Tomsk Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O S; Ogorodova, L M; Fedotova, M M; Evdokimova, T A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy to peanuts and nuts is an actual problem of practical health care, associated with significant prevalence of this disease, severe clinical symptoms and difficulty of diet organization. Purpose of the study--to study the prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in Russian children, the investigation of clinical characteristics of this disease, and the mechanisms of sensitization to allergen components. The cross-sectional study was performed in the framework of the EuroPrevall (No FP6-2006-TTC-TU-5 Proposal 045879). The first stage was performed in random samples of primary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years (n = 13 010) from the Tomsk Region, Russia using a standardized questionnaire. The case-control sample was recruited for the second stage (n = 1288). Thus who reported adverse reactions to food in the screening stage were considered as cases (n = 652), children without reported reactions were controls (n = 636). The case-control stage included the completion of a clinical questionnaire, skin-prick test (ALK-Abelly, Spain), serum specific IgE measurement and component-resolved diagnostic: IgE measurement of allergen components of peanut (Ara h1, Ara h26, Ara h34, Ara h8), hazelnut (Cor a1, Cor a8, Cor a11) and birch allergen Bet v1 (ImmunoCAP, Phadia, Sweden). The prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in children aged 7-10 years in the Tomsk region is 0.08 and 0.09%, respectively. The manifestation of the food allergy to nuts occurs in the preschool years, main reactions associated with allergy to nuts were oral allergy syndrome (75-80%), gastrointestinal disorders (60-80%) and itching skin rash (20-50%). Sensitization to birch is significantly correlated with the level of specific IgE to hazelnut (r = 0.53, p hazelnut Cor a1 (8.8%) (homologues of Bet v1) dominates in the sample of children with food sensitization, that determines the cross-reactivity mechanism in the formation of food sensitization in the studied sample. The

  3. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlorio, M; Coisson, J D; Bordiga, M; Travaglia, F; Garino, C; Zuidmeer, L; Van Ree, R; Giuffrida, M G; Conti, A; Martelli, A

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as "extra-virgin" should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers and consumers. The high degree of similarity between the two fats complicates the detection of low percentages of HAO in EVOO. Many analytical approaches have been developed in recent years to trace HAO in EVOO, principally based on chromatographic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry or nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition adulteration of EVOO with HAO may introduce hazelnut-derived allergens. The aim of this work was to analyse the protein and allergen content of EVOO intentionally spiked with raw cold-pressed HAO or solvent-extracted HAO. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of hazelnut proteins in solvent-extracted HAO with molecular masses ranging 10-60 kDa. In contrast, cold-pressed HAO showed no traces of protein. In spiked EVOO, solvent-extracted HAO was still detectable at a 1% contamination level. Several bands on SDS-PAGE migrated at apparent molecular masses coinciding with known allergens, such as Cor a 1 (approximately 17 kDa), Cor a 2 (approximately 14 kDa), Cor a 8 (approximately 12 kDa), oleosin (approximately 17 kDa) and Cor a 9 (approximately 60 kDa). MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the presence of two oleosin isoforms and of Cor a 9. Immunoblotting demonstrated that an allergic patient with known reactivity to Cor a 1 and Cor a 2 recognized a 17-kDa band in solvent-extracted HAO. In conclusion, we have shown that adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with solvent-extracted hazelnut oil can be traced by simple SDS-PAGE analysis, and that adulteration introduces a potential risk for hazelnut allergic patients.

  4. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  5. Assessment of the energetic potential by hazelnuts pruning in Viterbo’s area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Monarca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the amount of biomass available by the hazelnuts pruning in the province of Viterbo was investigated. At present, the pruning’s residues are destroyed by farmers directly in the field, at the end of the pruning; in this way a large quantity of biomass, represented by hazelnut’s prunings, is lost; the residues obtained from the hazelnut’s pruning, are an important source of biomass that could be used for thermal energy production. The aim of this work is to realize a map with the estimated energy potential from hazelnut pruning biomass, in the province of Viterbo. In the first phase the amount of biomass obtained from a hectare of hazelnut’s cultivationwas estimated:sampling were carried out in some municipalities of Viterbo while hazelnut pruning was taking place, from January to March.In the field, biomass was weighed and some pieces of wood were collected for laboratory analysis; in particular humidity of biomass, low calorific value, ashand the content of carbon (C, hydrogen (H and nitrogen (N were determined. In the calculation of the biomass were considered the age of the plants and the number of plants per hectare. The results show that the amount of biomass obtained from pruning of hazelnuts varies with the age of plants, but even more so by the number of plants per hectare. The average value of biomass obtained from pruning of a hectare of land is just under 0,9 t. Knowing the net calorific value of the hazelnut wood and the number of hectares cultivated for each municipality, a map of thermal potential energy has been realized.

  6. 平欧杂种榛果实发育过程中 Vc 含量的变化研究%Study on Variation of Vitamin C Contents of Crossbred Hazelnut during Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟秋喜

    2013-01-01

    以7年生平欧杂种榛‘82-11’、‘84-237’及‘84-402’为研究对象,在果实成熟期每隔3~6天,采用2,6-二氯靛酚滴定法测定Vc含量,分析其果实发育过程中Vc含量变化。结果表明:幼果迅速发育期, Vc相对含量和绝对含量大幅度下降,平均降幅为90.67%和64.44%;从果壳硬化期到果实成熟, Vc相对含量和绝对含量变化不大,降幅较小,其平均下降幅度为39.72%和30.47%。%Three 7-year-old crossbred hazelnuts ‘82-11 ’ , ‘84-237 ’ and ‘84-402 ’ were selected as the tested samples.During fruit maturation period , Vc contents were detected every 3~6 days by using 2, 6-two chloride in-dophenol titration method , the variation of Vc content of hazelnut during fruit development was studied .The results showed that during young fruit rapid development , there was a dramatic reduction both in Vc relative content and in absolute content .During hazelnut shell hardening period to fruit maturation period , Vc relative content and ab-solute content changed little , the average decreasing ranges were 39.72%and 30.47%respectively , and the re-duction rate was small .

  7. ELISA detection of hazelnut proteins: effect of protein glycation in the presence or absence of wheat proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Cucu, Tatiana; Platteau, Céline; Taverniers, Isabel; Devreese, Bart; De Loose, Marc; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Hazelnuts are widely used in the food industry, especially confectionary foods. Nevertheless, these nuts contain several allergenic proteins which may be unexpectedly present as contaminants in various foods and may pose a serious threat to allergic consumers. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the preferred method to assess the level of hazelnut protein contamination. It is commonly used both by the food industry and enforcement agencies. Several ELISA kits ...

  8. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions and contributing factors (Pav. Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD.

  9. Identification of hazelnut fields using spectral and Gabor textural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Selçuk; Taşdemir, Kadim

    2011-09-01

    Land cover identification and monitoring agricultural resources using remote sensing imagery are of great significance for agricultural management and subsidies. Particularly, permanent crops are important in terms of economy (mainly rural development) and environmental protection. Permanent crops (including nut orchards) are extracted with very high resolution remote sensing imagery using visual interpretation or automated systems based on mainly textural features which reflect the regular plantation pattern of their orchards, since the spectral values of the nut orchards are usually close to the spectral values of other woody vegetation due to various reasons such as spectral mixing, slope, and shade. However, when the nut orchards are planted irregularly and densely at fields with high slope, textural delineation of these orchards from other woody vegetation becomes less relevant, posing a challenge for accurate automatic detection of these orchards. This study aims to overcome this challenge using a classification system based on multi-scale textural features together with spectral values. For this purpose, Black Sea region of Turkey, the region with the biggest hazelnut production in the world and the region which suffers most from this issue, is selected and two Quickbird archive images (June 2005 and September 2008) of the region are acquired. To differentiate hazel orchards from other woodlands, in addition to the pansharpened multispectral (4-band) bands of 2005 and 2008 imagery, multi-scale Gabor features are calculated from the panchromatic band of 2008 imagery at four scales and six orientations. One supervised classification method (maximum likelihood classifier, MLC) and one unsupervised method (self-organizing map, SOM) are used for classification based on spectral values, Gabor features and their combination. Both MLC and SOM achieve the highest performance (overall classification accuracies of 95% and 92%, and Kappa values of 0.93 and 0

  10. ELISA detection of hazelnut proteins: effect of protein glycation in the presence or absence of wheat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucu, T; Platteau, C; Taverniers, I; Devreese, B; de Loose, M; de Meulenaer, B

    2011-01-01

    Hazelnuts are widely used in the food industry, especially confectionary foods. Nevertheless, these nuts contain several allergenic proteins that may be unexpectedly present as contaminants in various foods and may pose a serious threat to allergic consumers. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the preferred method to assess the level of hazelnut protein contamination. It is commonly used by both the food industry and enforcement agencies. Several ELISA kits are commercially available. However, protein detectability by ELISA may be affected by severe changes that proteins undergo during processing. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the impact of processing on the ability to detect hazelnut protein by four commercial ELISA kits. Hazelnut proteins in the presence or absence of soluble wheat proteins were modified with glucose via the Maillard reaction. Changes in hazelnut proteins, such as the formation of protein-bound carbonyls, losses of reactive lysine residues and free amino groups, and severe aggregation dramatically affected the hazelnut protein detection by the commercial kits. The observed impact was highly dependent on the type of ELISA kit used.

  11. 碱木质素与油页岩共热解特性及动力学分析%Co-pyrolysis characteristic and dynamic analysis of alkali lignin and oil shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏静儒; 邵佳晔; 李梦迪; 贾春霞; 王擎

    2016-01-01

    通过油页岩与碱木质素的热解不但可以得到丰富的轻质气体,也存在着有害的含芳环结构化合物以及酚类化合物等物质,通过二者的共热解意在减小有害物质的生成,提高气产率。选取不同工况下碱木质素与油页岩进行共热解试验,并通过2种Model free动力学分析法对该混合试样进行拟合分析。结果表明:5个试样的失质量峰整体都具有相同的规律。油页岩与碱木质素的热解峰有叠加,具备协同的条件。碱木质素添加量为80%的混合试样对气产率存在抑制作用,其余混合比都使气产率增加。基于 FTIR 的检测,混合比对二者的共热解产量影响的研究中表明,向油页岩中添加80%的碱性木质素,可以减少芳环结构化合物与酚类化合物的生成。但对于 H2O、CO、CO2、CH4的累积产量并未产生明显的影响。不同升温速率的试样中,芳环结构化合物、CO2、CH4的累积产量与升温速率和温度成正比,H2O、CO、苯酚类化合物则不同。通过2种Model free法对该试验数据进行拟合且效果较好,证明了该反应机理的复杂性。%Use of different heating rates (30, 50, 80 K/min) for lignin alkaline and oil shale mixed sample (lignin alkaline dosage 20%, 50%, 80%) in co-pyrolysis combined with TG-FTIR technique, we analyzed pyrolysis products and cumulative production trends at different heating rates. After that we fit data in two model free kinetic analysis methods (FWO method, Starink method). The results showed that due to differences in the rate of heat transfer, the amount of heat a sample received determined the quantity of weight loss from a tested sample. Weight loss increase in five specimens was observed with the increase of heating rate at the high temperature region. When lignin alkaline was added to oil shale, DTG curves changed significantly at 400-500℃. After 600℃, both oil shale and lignin in co-pyrolysis had

  12. Identification and characterisation of water and alkali soluble oligosaccharides from hazelnut skin (Corylus avellana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montella, Rosa; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Bordiga, Matteo; Meyrand, Mickael; Barile, Daniela; Arlorio, Marco

    2013-10-15

    Hazelnut skins are a good example of agricultural by-product with the potential to become a valuable source of functional ingredients. In this work, the fibre from hazelnut skins was extracted by using water and alkali solution and characterised by a suite of analytical tools (MALDI-FTICR, nano LC-Chip-Q-ToF and gas chromatography). Over thirty complex free oligosaccharides, composed mainly of galacturonic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, were characterised for the first time in the present study. Their concentration ranged between 16 and 34mg per g of extract. The oligosaccharides isolated from this agricultural by-product are mainly hexose oligosaccharides (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides,) and xyloglucans. The identified composition could justify the bioactive activity of the extracts, namely prebiotic activity, previously demonstrated.

  13. Shell supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  14. Soil management system in hazelnut groves (Corylus sp. versus the presence of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nietupski Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining biodiversity as well as taking advantage of the natural environment’s resistance are the key elements which should be considered when designing integrated plans for the protection of hazelnut groves. An effort has been made in this study to analyse the impact of different soil cultivation methods in hazelnut groves, on the species composition and number of individuals in carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Another aim was to determine which method of inter-row soil management had the least negative effect on assemblages of these beetles. Because of the type of habitat, the xerothermic species characteristic for southeastern Europe, i.e. Calathus ambiguus, Poecilus lepidus, Harpalus calceatus, and H. griseus, were the most numerous. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the captured individuals implied that the optimal soil tillage system in young hazelnut groves is when soil is kept fallow with machines or chemicals, or when soil is covered with manure. The least favourable practice for the appearance of ground beetles of the Carabidae family is the use of polypropylene fabric, bark or sawdust, to cover soil

  15. Effects Of Storage Conditions On The Quality Of Unripe Hazelnuts In The Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markuszewski Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the storability of unripe hazelnuts in the husk of four cultivars: ‘Hall’s Giant’, ‘Catalan’, ‘Webb’s Prize Cob’ and ‘Cosford’. The nuts were stored in normal and controlled atmospheres, and in Xtend® bags for three months. A quality assessment was performed based on the following parameters: weight of the nut in the husk and without the husk, weight of the kernel, percentage of nuts with husk attached, dry matter content in kernels, infection with fungal diseases, and the presence of physiological disorders. The study demonstrated that hazelnuts stored in Xtend® bags and under a controlled atmosphere had a higher weight for the nut in the husk and without the husk, as well as a higher weight of the kernel and water content when compared to batches of hazelnuts stored in a normal atmosphere. The percentage of nuts remaining in the husk was also higher when stored under such conditions. For the majority of investigated cultivars the storage in Xtend® bags, and to a lesser extent under normal atmosphere conditions, resulted in a substantial increase in nuts infected with fungal and abiotic diseases. Among investigated cultivars, ‘Hall’s Giant’ turned out to be the most resistant to storage diseases.

  16. Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012. The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1% to very high (almost 75% across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease.

  17. Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Ridolfi, Roberto; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012). The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1%) to very high (almost 75%) across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old) were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease.

  18. Important chemical and physical traits and variation in these traits in 'tombul' hazelnut cultivar at different elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Bostan, S.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on ‘Tombul’ hazelnut growing at four elevations (0-50 m, 100-150 m, 200-250 m and 300-350 m in Persembe (Ordu/ Northern Turkey province in 1999 and 2000 years. Sixteen traits (oil, protein and ash contents as chemical; nut weight, nut size, shell thickness, kernel weight, kernel size, percent kernel, internal cavity, shriveled kernels, good kernels as physical; pH, organic matter, phosphorus and potassium in soil were examined at each elevation. Interrelationships among important soil, nut and kernel characteristics were examined. There were significant correlation and interrelationships among the traits. The correlation between oil-nut size, oil- protein positively; protein-kernel size, protein- shriveled kernel negatively; organic matter- shell thickness, organic matter-good kernel negatively; pH- shell thickness, pH-good kernel negatively; good kernel-shell thickness positively; shriveled kernel-kernel weight, shriveled kernel-percent kernel negatively; internal cavity-nut weight positively and internal cavity-nut size negatively; percent kernel-kernel weight, percent kernel-kernel size positively; kernel size-kernel weight positively, and kernel weight-nut weight positively were significant. Significant differences among elevations were observed for shell thickness, ash content in kernel, and pH value in soil. The highest coefficients of variation were observed for phosphorus, shriveled kernels, potassium, internal cavity and organic matter, respectivelyEste estudio ha sido realizado en la avellana ’Tombul’ que crece en cuatro elevaciones (0-50 m, 100-150 m, 200-250 m y 300- 350 m en la provincia de Persembe (Ordu/ Norte de Turquía en los años 1999 y 2000. Dieciséis rasgos (contenido en aceite, proteína y ceniza como características químicas; peso, tamaño y grosor de cáscara, peso, tamaño y porcentaje del grano, cavidad interna, granos arrugados y granos buenos como características f

  19. Effects of roasting on the antioxidant status and phenolic profiles of commercial Turkish hazelnut varieties (Corylus avellana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Uzman, Süheyla

    2012-02-08

    The effect of roasting on the antioxidant status and phenolic profiles of seven commercial Turkish hazelnut varieties (namely, Çakıldak, Foşa, Karafındık, Mincane, Palaz, Sivri, and Tombul) was assessed. Samples were examined for their total phenolics, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids (free and bound forms). Significant losses (p hazelnuts were roasted. Some variations both between and within natural and roasted hazelnuts were observed (p hazelnut varieties, albeit to different extents, and the first two were dominant. Mincane, in roasted form, had the highest total phenolics, ORAC values, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids. This was due to the presence of some skin in roasted Mincane. No skin was left in all other varieties upon roasting. The present work suggests that roasting results in a significant loss in the antioxidant status and phenolic profiles because of the removal of the skin, which is a rich source of phenolics. It is highly recommended to consume natural hazelnut instead of the roasted counterpart to take advantage of all of the functional benefits of this nut.

  20. A Novel Proteomic Analysis of the Modifications Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure on Hazelnut Water-Soluble Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Prieto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies to hazelnut represent an important health problem in industrialized countries because of their high prevalence and severity. Food allergenicity can be changed by several processing procedures since food proteins may undergo modifications which could alter immunoreactivity. High-hydrostatic pressure (HHP is an emerging processing technology used to develop novel and high-quality foods. The effect of HHP on allergenicity is currently being investigated through changes in protein structure. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of HHP on the protein profile of hazelnut immunoreactive extracts by comparative proteomic analysis with ProteomeLab PF-2D liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. This protein fractionation method resolves proteins by isoelectric point and hydrophobicity in the first and second dimension, respectively. Second dimension chromatogram analyses show that some protein peaks present in unpressurized hazelnut must be unsolubilized and are not present in HHP-treated hazelnut extracts. Our results show that HHP treatment at low temperature induced marked changes on hazelnut water-soluble protein profile.

  1. A Novel Proteomic Analysis of the Modifications Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure on Hazelnut Water-Soluble Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Nuria; Burbano, Carmen; Iniesto, Elisa; Rodríguez, Julia; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Crespo, Jesus F.; Pedrosa, Mercedes M.; Muzquiz, Mercedes; del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Linacero, Rosario; Cuadrado, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies to hazelnut represent an important health problem in industrialized countries because of their high prevalence and severity. Food allergenicity can be changed by several processing procedures since food proteins may undergo modifications which could alter immunoreactivity. High-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an emerging processing technology used to develop novel and high-quality foods. The effect of HHP on allergenicity is currently being investigated through changes in protein structure. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of HHP on the protein profile of hazelnut immunoreactive extracts by comparative proteomic analysis with ProteomeLab PF-2D liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. This protein fractionation method resolves proteins by isoelectric point and hydrophobicity in the first and second dimension, respectively. Second dimension chromatogram analyses show that some protein peaks present in unpressurized hazelnut must be unsolubilized and are not present in HHP-treated hazelnut extracts. Our results show that HHP treatment at low temperature induced marked changes on hazelnut water-soluble protein profile. PMID:28234319

  2. Decontamination of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus spores on hazelnuts via atmospheric pressure fluidized bed plasma reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, Beyhan Gunaydin; Mutlu, Mehmet; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-01-04

    In this study, an atmospheric pressure fluidized bed plasma (APFBP) system was designed and its decontamination effect on aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) on the surface of hazelnuts was investigated. Hazelnuts were artificially contaminated with A. flavus and A. parasiticus and then were treated with dry air plasma for up to 5min in the APFBP system at various plasma parameters. Significant reductions of 4.50 log (cfu/g) in A. flavus and 4.19 log (cfu/g) in A. parasiticus were achieved after 5min treatments at 100% V - 25kHz (655W) by using dry air as the plasma forming gas. The decontamination effect of APFBP on A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores inoculated on hazelnuts was increased with the applied reference voltage and the frequency. No change or slight reductions were observed in A. flavus and A. parasiticus load during the storage of plasma treated hazelnuts whereas on the control samples fungi continued to grow under storage conditions (30days at 25°C). Temperature change on hazelnut surfaces in the range between 35 and 90°C was monitored with a thermal camera, and it was demonstrated that the temperature increase taking place during plasma treatment did not have a lethal effect on A. flavus and A. parasiticus spores. The damage caused by APFBP treatment on Aspergillus spp. spores was also observed by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. MICROWAVE CO-PYROLYSIS STUDY ON LONG FLAME COAL AND COKING COAL%微波场中长焰煤与焦煤共热解实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永辉; 苏婷; 兰新哲; 裴建军

    2011-01-01

    The microwave co-pyrolysis of Wangjiagou (WJG) long flame coal and coking coal (JM) were carried out in this study to know about the changes of yield and composition of coal pyrolysis product with the different ratio of two raw coals. The results showed that under microwave pyrolysis conditions, the tar yield was gradually reduced with the proportion of JM coal increases, while the ash content and sulfur content of solid coke increased, and the SEM pictures showed the area of porous surface in the solid structure of coke was bigger, the porous borders became increasingly clear. The content of CO2, CO, CH4, and CnHm were gradually increased with the pyrolysis time before 3 min then started to decreased. With the JM mixing ratio increase, the CO2, CO levels have diminished, but the change of CH4 and CHm content was not obvious before 3 min, while increased in the 3 min-15 min interval.%对王家沟(WJG)长焰煤和焦煤(JM)两种原料煤进行了微波共热解实验研究,考察了两种煤配比不同时热解产物的收率及成分变化.结果表明,微波热解条件下,随着混煤中JM比例的增大,焦油收率在逐渐减少,而固体焦的灰分含量与硫含量逐渐增加.SEM照片也表明,固体焦表面的微孔结构越来越多,微孔的边界越来越清晰.煤气中CO2,CO,CH4和CnHm含量在3 min以前随热解时间的延长均逐渐增加,随后逐步减少.随着混煤中JM配比的增大,热解煤气中CO2和CO含量逐渐减少,但CH4和CnHm含量在3 min以前变化不是很明显,在3 min~15 min区间逐渐增加.

  4. Co - pyrolysis of biomass and Polish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordylewski, Wlodzimierz; Stojanowska, Grazyna [Politechnika Wroclawska, Wroclaw (Poland); Jones, Jenny [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). Energy and Resources Research Inst.

    2006-01-15

    The paper presents results of studies of the chemical decomposition of coal, biomass and their blends during low rate heating gasification in atmosphere of air or nitrogen. Polish lignite (Turow), sawdust of pine and blends of these two fuels have been used in the research and it has been investigated the influence of ion exchanged calcium on their pyrolysis. The primary products of devolatilization provided important information for understanding subsequently the leading to toxic organic compounds and synergistic effects of these fuels. The influence of blending ratio and influence of calcium catalysts was discussed.

  5. Studies on formation of volatiles produced in the process of co-pyrolysis of xylose/proline mixtures%木糖/脯氨酸共裂解过程挥发性化合物形成规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗昌荣; 谢焰; 印黔黔; 沈世豪; 黄伟; 李炎强; 刘百战

    2013-01-01

    采用木糖与脯氨酸的混合体系,研究二者共同裂解形成的挥发性化合物形成规律.首先对木糖和脯氨酸进行单独裂解,木糖裂解的主要产物为糠醛,糠醛占裂解形成的挥发性化合物的45%,这与葡萄糖、果糖和蔗糖裂解时所形成的主要产物5-羟甲基糠醛(分别为28.9%、38.4%和37.4%)和糠醛(18.4%、35.4%和27.5%)有所不同,对木糖、葡萄糖、果糖和蔗糖裂解形成糠醛以及5-羟甲基糠醛的路径进行推测,认为木糖单独裂解时是通过脱水直接变成糠醛.同时,对不同比例的木糖和脯氨酸混合物进行共裂解,木糖和脯氨酸之间的比例对挥发性产物的形成比例具有明显的影响,脯氨酸的存在改变了木糖形成糠醛的路径,木糖主要经形成A-madori产物降解路线形成糠醛,脯氨酸在木糖降解路径中开始只是起到催化剂的作用,然后脯氨酸才与木糖裂解形成的碎片反应而开始被消耗.木糖和氨基酸共裂解形成的挥发性产物的含量要低于木糖单独裂解时所形成的挥发性产物含量,这可能是木糖与脯氨酸结合形成了大分子物质,而这些大分子物质在裂解过程中主要是被碳化.共裂解形成的苯酚含量也比单独裂解时形成的苯酚含量有明显下降,共裂解形成的苯酚含量约为单独裂解时的33%左右.%The neat xylose and proline were pyrolysed at first, respectively, and it was shown that the main product of pyrolysates was furfural, up to 45%, different from the pyrolysates of glucose, fructose and sucrose with higher 5-hydromethyl furfural (28.9%,38.4% and 37.4% respectively) and furfural (18.4%,35.4% and 27.5% respectively). The formation mechanisms of furfural and 5-hydromethyl furfural were elucidated of four sugars. And it suggested that furfural was formed in the pyrolysis process of xylose via mainly dehydration. Additionally, the co-pyrolysis of different ratio of xylose to proline mixtures

  6. Effects of Hazelnut Consumption on Blood Lipids and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Perna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the pooled (overall effect of hazelnuts on blood lipids and body weight outcomes. Specifically, a Bayesian random effect meta-analysis of mean differences of Δ-changes from baseline across treatment (MDΔ (i.e., hazelnut-enriched diet vs. control diet has been conducted. Nine studies representing 425 participants were included in the analysis. The intervention diet lasted 28–84 days with a dosage of hazelnuts ranging from 29 to 69 g/day. Out of nine studies, three randomized studies have been meta-analyzed showing a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (pooled MDΔ = −0.150 mmol/L; 95% highest posterior density interval (95%HPD = −0.308; −0.003 in favor of a hazelnut-enriched diet. Total cholesterol showed a marked trend toward a decrease (pooled MDΔ = −0.127 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.284; 0.014 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol remained substantially stable (pooled MDΔ = 0.002 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.140; 0.147. No effects on triglycerides (pooled MDΔ = 0.045 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.195; 0.269 and body mass index (BMI (pooled MDΔ = 0.062 kg/m2; 95%HPD = −0.293; 0.469 were found. Hazelnut-enriched diet is associated with a decrease of LDL and total cholesterol, while HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and BMI remain substantially unchanged.

  7. Effects of Hazelnut Consumption on Blood Lipids and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Giacosa, Attilio; Bonitta, Gianluca; Bologna, Chiara; Isu, Antonio; Guido, Davide; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant bioactive substances: their consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and a meta-analysis was performed to combine the results from several trials and to estimate the pooled (overall) effect of hazelnuts on blood lipids and body weight outcomes. Specifically, a Bayesian random effect meta-analysis of mean differences of Δ-changes from baseline across treatment (MDΔ) (i.e., hazelnut-enriched diet vs. control diet) has been conducted. Nine studies representing 425 participants were included in the analysis. The intervention diet lasted 28–84 days with a dosage of hazelnuts ranging from 29 to 69 g/day. Out of nine studies, three randomized studies have been meta-analyzed showing a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (pooled MDΔ = −0.150 mmol/L; 95% highest posterior density interval (95%HPD) = −0.308; −0.003) in favor of a hazelnut-enriched diet. Total cholesterol showed a marked trend toward a decrease (pooled MDΔ = −0.127 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.284; 0.014) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol remained substantially stable (pooled MDΔ = 0.002 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.140; 0.147). No effects on triglycerides (pooled MDΔ = 0.045 mmol/L; 95%HPD = −0.195; 0.269) and body mass index (BMI) (pooled MDΔ = 0.062 kg/m2; 95%HPD = −0.293; 0.469) were found. Hazelnut-enriched diet is associated with a decrease of LDL and total cholesterol, while HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and BMI remain substantially unchanged. PMID:27897978

  8. Morphological and molecular analysis of Fusarium lateritium, the cause of gray necrosis of hazelnut fruit in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, S; Santori, A; Wajnberg, E; Castagnone-Sereno, P; Luongo, L; Belisario, A

    2011-06-01

    Fusarium lateritium is a globally distributed plant pathogen. It was recently reported as the causal agent of nut gray necrosis (NGN) on hazelnut. Isolate characterization within F. lateritium was undertaken to investigate how morphological and molecular diversity was associated with host and geographic origin. Morphological studies combined with inter-simple-sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, and phylogenetic analyses using translation elongation factor 1α (TEF-1α), β-tubulin genes, and nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were conducted to resolve relationships among 32 F. lateritium isolates from NGN-affected hazelnut fruit, and 14 from other substrates or 8 from other hosts than hazelnut. Colonies of F. lateritium from hazelnut showed dark grayish-olive differing from the orange-yellow color of all other isolates from other hosts. Generally, isolates from NGN-affected fruit failed to produce sporodochia on carnation leaf agar. The influence of host and substrate on the genetic structure of F. lateritium was supported by ISSR and analyzed with principal coordinates analysis. A relationship between hazelnut and genetic variation was inferred. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS provided limited resolution while TEF-1α and β-tubulin analyses allowed a clear separation between the European and non-European F. lateritium isolates retrieved from GenBank, regardless of host. Though morphological traits of F. lateritium isolates from hazelnut were generally uniform in defining a typical morphogroup, they were not yet phylogenetically defined. In contrast, the typology related to slimy deep orange cultures, due to spore mass, grouped clearly separated from the other F. lateritium isolates and revealed a congruence between morphology and phylogeny.

  9. A genetic linkage map for hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) based on RAPD and SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlenbacher, Shawn A; Brown, Rebecca N; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bassil, Nahla V; Kubisiak, Thomas L

    2006-02-01

    A linkage map for European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the 2-way pseudotestcross approach. A full-sib population of 144 seedlings from the cross OSU 252.146 x OSU 414.062 was used. RAPD markers in testcross configuration, segregating 1:1, were used to construct separate maps for each parent. Fifty additional RAPD loci were assigned to linkage groups as accessory markers whose exact location could not be determined. Markers in intercross configuration, segregating 3:1, were used to pair groups in one parent with their homologues in the other. Eleven groups were identified for each parent, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of hazelnut (n = x = 11). Thirty of the 31 SSR loci were able to be assigned to a linkage group. The maternal map included 249 RAPD and 20 SSR markers and spanned a distance of 661 cM. The paternal map included 271 RAPD and 28 SSR markers and spanned a distance of 812 cM. The maps are quite dense, with an average of 2.6 cM between adjacent markers. The S-locus, which controls pollen-stigma incompatibility, was placed on chromosome 5S where 6 markers linked within a distance of 10 cM were identified. A locus for resistance to eastern filbert blight, caused by Anisogramma anomala, was placed on chromosome 6R for which two additional markers tightly linked to the dominant allele were identified and sequenced. These maps will serve as a starting point for future studies of the hazelnut genome, including map-based cloning of important genes. The inclusion of SSR loci on the map will make it useful in other populations.

  10. Transcriptome analysis and gene expression profiling of abortive and developing ovules during fruit development in hazelnut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqing Cheng

    Full Text Available A high ratio of blank fruit in hazelnut (Corylus heterophylla Fisch is a very common phenomenon that causes serious yield losses in northeast China. The development of blank fruit in the Corylus genus is known to be associated with embryo abortion. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for embryo abortion during the nut development stage. Genomic information for C. heterophylla Fisch is not available; therefore, data related to transcriptome and gene expression profiling of developing and abortive ovules are needed.In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis were conducted using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina HiSeq 2000. The results of the transcriptome assembly analysis revealed genetic information that was associated with the fruit development stage. Two digital gene expression libraries were constructed, one for a full (normally developing ovule and one for an empty (abortive ovule. Transcriptome sequencing and assembly results revealed 55,353 unigenes, including 18,751 clusters and 36,602 singletons. These results were annotated using the public databases NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO. Using digital gene expression profiling, gene expression differences in developing and abortive ovules were identified. A total of 1,637 and 715 unigenes were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in abortive ovules, compared with developing ovules. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used in order to verify the differential expression of some genes.The transcriptome and digital gene expression profiling data of normally developing and abortive ovules in hazelnut provide exhaustive information that will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of abortive ovule formation in hazelnut.

  11. Identification of two novel Prodelphinidin A-type dimers from roasted hazelnut skins ( Corylus avellana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2013-12-26

    Two new A-type dimeric prodelphinidins, EGC-(2β→O7, 4β→8)-C and EGC-(2β→O5, 4β→6)-C, were isolated from the skins of roasted hazelnut ( Corylus avellana L.) by low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC) and final purification by preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined by a combination of mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and HR-ESI-MS) and NMR spectroscopy that included the application of 2D methods ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY). Furthermore, circular dichroism (CD) and acid-catalyzed degradation (phloroglucinolysis) confirmed the proposed structures.

  12. Young infants with atopic dermatitis can display sensitization to Cor a 9, an 11S legumin-like seed-storage protein from hazelnut (Corylus avellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Marjoke M; Hagendorens, Margo M; De Knop, Kathleen J; Bridts, Chris H; De Clerck, Luc S; Stevens, Wim J; Ebo, Didier G

    2011-03-01

    Allergy to hazelnut (Corylus avellana) can be severe and occur at young age. Atopic dermatitis (AD) can involve sensitization to various foods. The objective is to investigate the pattern of hazelnut sensitization in infants with AD. Sera of 34 infants all under 1 year of age and suffering from AD were selected according to prior specific IgE results. Twenty-nine infants were sensitized to traditional food allergens, five were not. From the 29 infants with a sensitization to at least one food allergen, 20 demonstrated IgE reactivity to hazelnut. All sera were analyzed with the allergen microarray immunoassay (ImmunoCAP ISAC). Twelve (60%) of the children with IgE reactivity to hazelnut demonstrated sensitization to Cor a 9, the 11S legumin-like seed-storage protein from hazelnut. In these infants, no sensitization to Cor a 1, the homologue of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa), or the lipid transfer protein (Cor a 8) from hazelnut was demonstrable. Half of the children sensitized to Cor a 9 demonstrated IgE reactivity to its homologue in peanut (Arachis hypogaea; Ara h 3) from which five were also sensitized to Gly m 6 from soy (Glycine max). None of the infants with AD without IgE reactivity to hazelnut demonstrated sensitization to Cor a 1, 8, or 9. In conclusion, young infants with atopic dermatitis sensitized to hazelnut can already display IgE reactivity to Cor a 9, a potentially dangerous hazelnut component. The mechanism(s) of this early sensitization and its clinical significance remain elusive.

  13. Commercial lateral flow devices for rapid detection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cross-contamination in the industrial production of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Lateral flow devices (LFDs) are qualitative immunochromatographic tests for the rapid and specific detection of target analytes. We investigated commercially available LFDs for their ability to detect potentially allergenic peanut and hazelnut in raw cookie dough and chocolate, two important food matrices in the industrial production of cookies. Each three commercial LFDs for the detection of hazelnut and peanut were performed according to the manufacturers' instructions. All LFDs had comparably satisfactory specificity that was investigated with a variety of characteristic foods and food ingredients used in the production of cookies. In concordance with hazelnut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), walnut was the most cross-reactive food for hazelnut-specific LFD. The sensitivity was verified in raw cookie doughs and chocolates that were either spiked with peanut or hazelnut between 1 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. Two hazelnut-specific LFDs detected hazelnut at a level of 3.5 mg/kg in both matrices, whereas the third LFD detected hazelnut at a level of 3.9 mg/kg in dough and 12.5 mg/kg in chocolate. Two peanut-specific LFDs detected peanut at a level of 1 mg/kg in both matrices. The third LFD detected peanut at a level of 14.2 mg/kg in chocolate and 4 mg/kg in dough. In conclusion, specific and sensitive LFD were identified for each hazelnut and peanut, having a level of sensitivity that is comparable to commercial ELISA for the investigated matrices. Such sensitive, specific, and rapid tests are useful analytical tools for allergen screening and sanitation in the industrial manufacture of foods.

  14. Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers to assess genetic diversity and evolution in hazelnut species, hybrids and cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, preserves more than 800 accessions of hazelnut (Corylus) including C. avellana cultivars and representatives of 10 other recognized shrub and tree species...

  15. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  16. Nitrogen fertilization for new plantings of hybrid hazelnuts in the Upper Midwest of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed-propagated hybrids of Corylus avellana and C. americana are a potential crop for the Upper Midwest. Current N recommendations for hazelnuts are based on research on clonally propagated C. avellana in Oregon and may not be applicable in the Upper Midwest due to differing soils, climate, and plan...

  17. Lipid transfer protein-linked hazelnut allergy in children from a non-Mediterranean birch-endemic area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flinterman, Annebeth E.; Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Jager, Constance F. den Hartog; Rigby, Neil M.; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.; Knuist, Andr C.; van Ree, Ronald; Pasmans, Suzanne G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hazelnut allergy in birch pollen-exposed areas is usually due to cross-reactivity (Cor a 1 and 2) and is usually mild in nature (oral allergy). In areas without birches, severe reactions are more prevalent and linked to sensitization to the lipid transfer protein (LTP) Cor a 8. Objective

  18. How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, S. de; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van

    2003-01-01

    Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions. D

  19. Assessing hazelnut allergens by protein- and DNA-based approaches: LC-MS/MS, ELISA and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Ansari, Parisa; Mafra, Isabel; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Baumgartner, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is responsible for a significant part of the allergies related to nuts. Still, it is a very much appreciated nut and as consequence is widely used in all types of processed foods, such as chocolates. Correct food labelling is currently the most effective means of preventing the consumption of allergenic ingredients, namely hazelnut, by the sensitised/allergic individuals. Thus, to verify labelling compliance and to ensure allergic patient protection, the development of highly sensitive methodologies is of extreme importance. In this study, three major methodologies, namely enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction, were evaluated for their performance regarding the detection of hazelnut allergens in model chocolates. The sandwich ELISA and respective antibodies were in-house developed and produced. With sensitivity levels of approximately 1 mg kg(-1) and limits of quantification of 50-100 mg kg(-1), all the performed methods were considered appropriate for the identification of hazelnut in complex foods such as chocolates. To our knowledge, this was the first successful attempt to develop and compare three independent approaches for the detection of allergens in foods.

  20. Investigation of heat induced reactions between lipid oxidation products and amino acids in lipid rich model systems and hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Yeşim; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Gökmen, Vural

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of lipid oxidation to non-enzymatic browning reactions in lipid rich model and actual food systems. Hazelnut oil and model reaction mixtures consisting of different amino acids were heated under certain conditions to determine possible lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reaction products. In model systems, the Schiff base of 2,4-decadienal, its decarboxylated form, and reaction products formed after hydrolytic cleavage of the Schiff base or decarboxylated form were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. No furosine was detected in hazelnuts after roasting at 160 °C while the concentration of free amino acids significantly decreased. 2,4-Decadienal reacted effectively with all amino acids studied through a Maillard type carbonyl-amine condensation pathway. (2E,4E)-Deca-2,4-dien-1-amine was identified as a typical reaction product in model systems and roasted hazelnuts. In lipid-rich foods like hazelnuts, lipid-derived carbonyls might be responsible for potential modifications of free and protein bound amino acids during heating.

  1. Evaluation of the microelement profile of Turkish hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) varieties for human nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Atilla; Aykut, Osman

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the levels of boron (B), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) microelements in 16 hazelnut samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave digestion, and are discussed for human nutrition and health. Significant differences were observed between the microelement contents of the 16 varieties (P < 0.01). The average microelements concentrations in the varieties varied in the following ranges: B, 13.63-23.87; Co, 0.47-0.82; Cr, 0.22-0.52; Cu, 16.23-32.23; Fe, 31.60-51.60; Li, 0.035-0.042; Ni, 0.58-2.58; Se, 0.96-1.39; and Zn, 22.03-44.03 mg/kg. These results showed that hazelnuts can be an important microelement source for human nutrition and health. According to our trace element data, a daily consumption of 50 g hazelnut can supply easily about 6% for B, 9% for Co, 19% for Fe, 9% for Ni and 16% for Zn of the recommended daily allowance. On the other hand, Se, Cu and Cr levels of 50 g hazelnuts are higher than the respective daily requirements, but slight overdoses of these elements are non-toxic for human health.

  2. [STUDY OF LIPIDS OF THE FRUITS OF USUAL HAZEL-NUT CORYLUS AVELLANA L., GROWING IN GEORGIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B; Gorgaslidze, N; Zurabashvili, D; Sulakvelidze, Ts; Malania, M; Turabelidze, D

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was the study of lipids from the fruits of usual hazel-nut Corylus avellana L, growing in Georgia. Ripe fruits was collected in the West Georgia, just in Imereti. From the powdered fruits was obtained the sums of neutral and pollar lipids. Qualitatively there were established classes entered in them. By using High performance liquid chromatography qualitatively and quantitatively were identified ten fatty acids, which time of deduction hesitate from 4,01 min to 13,00 min. By the analyses there were determined unsaturated fatty acids C12:0 to C24:0. The content of unsaturated fatty acids considerably is distinquished from the content of the oil from the hazel-nut, growing in the other eco-geographical conditions. In the oil of the hazel-nut growing in Georgia content of hexadecanoic acid is by far exceled (surpassed) than of the oil from the nut growing in the other natural conditions. In the other matters dominant acid is octadecanoic acid. The oil from the fruits of hazel-nut content physiologically active compounds, which desirably correlation is interesting not only for receiving (obtaining) cosmetic means, not is important for usage in practical medicine.

  3. The financial feasibility of hazelnut husk and sewage sludge based vermicompost production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Ceyhan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recycling the waste such as hazelnut husk, sewage sludge etc. has been one of the issues into the agenda of many countries. Therefore the purpose of the study was to examine the economic feasibility of the vermicompost production. Technical data about composting hazelnut husk and sewage sludge were gathered from past research. The time series data such as production, export, import and price of vermicompost collected from TURKSTAT, FAO and related institutions. Autoregressive integrating moving average model (ARIMA and smoothing methods such as double exponential model and winter model were used in forecasting process. We followed net present value and internal rate of return procedures when evaluating the financial feasibility of the facility having one ton vermicompost production capacity per day. Research results showed that the profitability of vermicompost production facility was high, while the likelihood of loss was less. Vermicompost production facility with approximately 130 thousands of US dollars initial investment provided net present value of 1.28 million of US dollars during the economic life. The internal rate of vermicompost production facility was 23%. Research results also revealed that production cost of vermicompost was $0.2 per kilogram. Since vermicompost production facility investment with high profitability and low level of risk was good investment alternatives facing with low level of competitive in market, the study suggest to investors who has good back grounding about sector that they should pay attention to marketing system and market observation about organic input market.

  4. The cultivation of hazelnuts, variety “visoka” in Fier district in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAZMI AJAZI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hazelnuts in ecosystem and their importance related to other nut trees. These trees can be grown in hard terrenes with little qualities, so this fact has made hazelnut favorable to cultivate in Mallakastra district. Botanic characteristics and the history of its development in the district. The arrival of variety “visoka” in Albania, the spread and priorities that it took, the adaption with phytoclimatic and terrene’s factors. It is treated the problem of cultivation, the schemes of planting, the recommendation from current experience and the priorities. The agro technique that is used for cultivation and all relevant services, which are connected with development of this cultivar. Priorities’ classification between planting in separated blocks and in plantation. The graphic of costs and the performance for each case.The cultivation’s way in Balkan region and the comparisons with our country. The tables that present land qualities, which are recommended according to the study about Mallakastra district.The graphic of land plots that are speeded in the area. Also the chemical analyses of earth. The techniques of saplings production and given results.Marketing condition and the production priorities of this variety.

  5. Influence of Cultivar and Environmental Conditions on the Triacylglycerol Profile of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Joana S; Cunha, Sara C; Santos, Alberto; Alves, M Rui; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, Beatriz P P

    2006-01-25

    The oil of several hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) samples was extracted and evaluated for their triacylglycerol (TAG) composition. Trials were conducted in two Portuguese localities (Vila Real and Felgueiras) during three consecutive years and involved a total of 19 cultivars. The samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection. Sample preparation was fast and simple, consisting only of the dissolution of the oil in acetone, homogenization, and filtration, allowing this technique to be suitable for routine analyses. All samples presented a similar qualitative profile composed of eleven compounds: LLL, OLL, PLL, OOL, POL, PPL, OOO, POO, PPO, SOO and PSO (P, palmitoyl; S, stearoyl; O, oleoyl; and L, linoleoyl). The main components were OOO, LOO, and POO, reflecting the high content of oleic acid in hazelnut oils. A total of 79 different samples were studied, and the obtained data were statistically analyzed. Significant differences were verified in canonical variate plots when cultivars were grouped by country of origin. In general, the American cultivars were richer in TAGs with saturated fatty acids moieties, and the group of French, German, and English cultivars was richer in TAGs containing linoleic acid moieties. Differences were also significant when cultivars were grouped by year of production, showing that besides genetic factors, the TAG composition can be influenced by environmental factors.

  6. Fat and fatty acid composition of hazelnut kernels in vacuum packages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küçük, Mehmet

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The fat contents and fatty acid compositions of three hazelnut cultivars; Tombul, Palaz and Kalinkara were investigated during storage at 21 °C with 60-65 % relative bhumidity. The total fat contents of kernels in vacuum packages increased significantly with storage time. It is believed that the absolute value of fat content does not increase but that the kernel water content and total weight decrease. The palmitic and oleic acid contents of stored hazelnuts increased, while linoleic acid content decreased. No significant differences were found for stearic and linolenic acids during storage.El contenido en grasa y la composición en ácidos grasos de tres cultivares de avellana (Tombul, Palaz y Kalinkara han sido monitorizados durante su almacenamiento a 21 ºC y una humedad relativa del 60-65 %. Los porcentajes de grasa total de las semillas empaquetadas al vacío aumentaron significativamente con el tiempo de almacenamiento. Ello se cree que es debido no a que el valor absoluto de contenido graso aumente, sino a que disminuye el contenido en agua de la semilla y su peso total. Los porcentajes de ácidos palmítico y oleico aumentan en las avellanas almacenadas, mientras que el porcentaje de linoleico descendíó. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en los porcentajes de los ácidos esteárico y linoleico durante el almacenamiento.

  7. DNA typing and genetic relations among European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccacci, P; Akkak, A; Botta, R

    2006-06-01

    In this work, 78 hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars from various germplasm repositories were studied at 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in order to identify the genotypes and investigate their genetic relations. Polymorphism at SSR loci was evaluated on the basis of number of alleles (mean: 9.4), expected heterozygosity (mean: 0.78), and power of discrimination (mean: 0.91). Several synonyms reported in the literature were confirmed, and new cases of synonymy were identified. The parentage of North American cultivars 'Butler', 'Ennis', and 'Royal', the French selection 'Fercoril-Corabel', and 'Impératrice Eugenie' was investigated on the basis of the alleles present at 16 loci and analysis at 8 additional loci. A dendrogram generated from cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouped cultivars according to their pedigrees or geographical origins. There was an evident differentiation of the northern European cultivars from the southern European ones and from the Turkish cultivars. The latter clustered close to but separate from the Italian and Spanish clusters. It is very likely that exchanges of cultivars occurred between the central and western Mediterranean basin as a result of human migration and trade. A database containing the SSR profiles of the most important hazelnut cultivars will be useful for identification of cultivars and synonyms, legal protection, and parentage analysis.

  8. Chemical, mechanical and sensory monitoring of hot air- and infrared-roasted hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) during nine months of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviso, Simona; Dal Bello, Barbara; Giacosa, Simone; Bertolino, Marta; Ghirardello, Daniela; Giordano, Manuela; Rolle, Luca; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2017-02-15

    Roasted hazelnuts can be consumed as whole nuts, or as an ingredient in the confectionary and bakery industries and are highly appreciated for their typical taste, aroma and crunchy texture. In this work, two hazelnut types (TGT, Ordu) from two harvests were roasted using two different systems (hot air, infrared) at different time/temperature combinations, and the evolution of oxidative stability, the total phenolic content (TPC), the antioxidant capacity, the mechanical and acoustic properties and the sensory perception were determined during storage. The results showed that the oxidative stability was increased by roasting hazelnuts at 120°C for 40min with hot air system. Similar overall trends were not found for the TPC, the antioxidant capacity and the mechanical-acoustic properties. However, for the maintenance of high antioxidant activity, a storage time of 6months at 4°C is recommended. The two roasting systems gave hazelnuts with significant sensory differences only at high roasting temperature.

  9. Hazelnut Oil Administration Reduces Aortic Cholesterol Accumulation and Lipid Peroxides in the Plasma, Liver, and Aorta of Rabbits Fed a High-cholesterol Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HATIPOGLU, Aydan; KANBAGLI, Öznur; BALKAN, Jale; KÜÇÜK, Mutlu; ÇEVIKBAS, Ugur; AYKAÇ-TOKER, Gülçin; BERKKAN, Hakan; UYSAL, Müjdat

    2004-01-01

    Hazelnut oil (HO) is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. We wanted to investigate the effect of HO on lipid levels and prooxidant-antioxidant status in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol (HC) diet...

  10. NIF Double Shell outer-shell experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Daughton, W. S.; Wilson, D. C.; Dodd, E. S.; Renner, D. B.; Cardenas, T.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    At the core of the Double Shell concept is the kinetic energy transfer from the outer shell to the inner shell via collision. This collision sets both the implosion shape of the inner shell, from imprinting of the shape of the outer shell, as well as the maximum energy available to compress the DT fuel. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to control the time-dependent shape of the outer shell, such that the outer shell is nominally round at the collision time. We present the experiment results from our sub-scale ( 1 MJ) NIF outer-shell only shape tuning campaign, where we vary shape by changing a turn-on time delay between the same pulse shape on the inner and outer cone beams. This type of shape tuning is unique to this platform and only possible since the Double Shell design uses a single-shock drive (4.5 ns reverse ramp pulse). The outer-shell only targets used a 5.75 mm diameter standard near-vacuum NIF hohlraum with 0.032 mg/cc He gas fill, and a Be capsule with 0.4% uniform Cu dopant, with 242 um thick ablator. We also present results from a third outer-shell only shot used to measure shell trajectory, which is critical in determining the shell impact time. This work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  11. High resolution TaqMan real-time PCR approach to detect hazelnut DNA encoding for ITS rDNA in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    A broad range of foods have been described as causing allergies, but the majority of allergic reactions can be ascribed to a limited number of food components. Recent extensive surveys showed how tree nuts, particularly hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) seeds, rank amongst the most important sources of food allergy. In order to protect the allergic consumer, efficient and reliable methods are required for the detection of allergenic ingredients. For this purpose, we have developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of hazelnut in commercial food products. In this way a specific hazelnut primer pair based on the ITS marker (70 bp) and a nuclease (TaqMan) probe labelled with FAM and BHQ were designed. Sensibility of real-time PCR was determined by analysis of raw and heat treated hazelnut-wheat flour mixtures with a range of detection of 0.1-100,000 ppm. Practical applicability of the real-time PCR assay developed for determining hazelnut in different food matrices was investigated by analyzing 179 commercial foodstuffs comprising snacks, biscuits, chocolates, bonbons, creams, nut bars, ice creams, precooked meals, breads, beverages, yogurts, cereals, meat products, rice cake and nougat. From the total of samples analyzed, 40 commercial food products that didn't declare hazelnut nor traces on the label were found to contain hazelnut. The real-time PCR method proposed herein due to its high sensitivity facilitates the detection of hazelnut traces in commercial food products and can also be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of cleaning processes and as consequence, can help to prevent the food allergic consumer from unintentional ingestion of hidden allergens.

  12. Determination of hidden hazelnut oil proteins in extra virgin olive oil by cold acetone precipitation followed by in-solution tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    Adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HO) is an illegal practice that could have severe health consequences for consumers due to the possible exposure to hidden hazelnut allergens. Here, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used as a rapid and sensitive technique for the detection of a low concentration of hazelnut proteins in oil samples. Different protocols were tested for protein extraction, and the most efficient (cold acetone) was applied to HO and EVOO adulterated with HO. The subsequent in-solution tryptic digestion of protein extracts and MALDI-MS analysis, using α-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid as matrix, allowed the detection of stable hazelnut peptide markers (i.e., the m/z ions 1002.52, 1356.71, 1394.70, 1440.81, 1453.85, 1555.76, 1629.83, 1363.73, and 1528.67) attributable to the main hazelnut proteins Cor a 9, Cor a 11, and Cor a 1. Thus, the approach might allow the direct detection of specific hazelnut allergens in EVOO at low concentration without time-consuming pretreatments.

  13. 低变质煤-循环煤气微波共热解研究%Study on Microwave Co-Pyrolysis of Low Rank Coal and Circulating Coal Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周军; 杨哲; 刘晓峰; 吴雷; 田宇红; 赵西成

    2016-01-01

    was suggested to carry out the co-pyrolysis experiment of the low rank coal and coal gas generated by the pyrolysis of low rank coal .The results indicated that the yield of the bluecoke and liquid products were up to 62.2% and 26.8% respectively when the optimal pyrolysis process con-ditions with the microwave power of 800W ,pyrolysis time of 40min ,coal samples particle size of 5~10 mm and circulating coal gas flow rate of 0.4 L · min-1 were selected .The infrared spectrogram of the bluecoke under different microwave power and py-rolysis time overlapped roughly .The content of functional groups with —OH , C O ,C C and C—O from the bluecoke through the pyrolysis of particle size coal samples had a larger difference .To improve microwave power ,prolonging pyrolysis time and reducing particle size of coal samples were conducive to converting heavy component to light one into coal tar .

  14. 磷酸二氢钙与生物质共热解提高生物炭固碳效果%Biomass co-pyrolysis with calcium dihydrogen phosphate improving carbon fixation of biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞跃; 张丽; 李孝良; 谢越; 王艳; 汪建飞

    2016-01-01

    Turning biomass wastes into biochar under low temperature and limited oxygen conditions has recently proven as a promising approach for long term carbon sequestration. In order to reveal the effects of mineral addition which is a pretreatment of biochar production on carbon retention and stability of biochar and provide an creative idea for further improvement of carbon sequestration potential by turning biomass into biochar. Calcium dihydrogen phosphate using as a typical mineral was added to sawdust and dairy manure feedstock at the ratio of 20% for biochar formation through co-pyrolysis treatment under lab condition, a typical slow pyrolysis process, heated in a Muffle Furnace at a speed of approximately 20℃/min under limited oxygen and held at 200 to 500℃ with every other 100℃ for 1 h. Moreover, two reliable methods were applied to test biochar stability: One was a simulated long-term stability method using chemical oxidation treatment to assess the labile fraction of C in biochar samples after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation, this method was to determine the chemical stability of biochar; The other was simulated mineralization experiment to test the biochar's microbe-resistance stability, this method was to evaluate the biological stability of biochar in terms of microbial mineralization rate under simulated soil microbial conditions in a lab-scale experiment. The carbon retention was defined as the proportion of the original carbon, which was from plant photosynthesis by sequestrating the CO2 from atmosphere in feedstock, retained in the biochar after the pyrolysis. Compared with the original biochar, modified biochar produced with calcium dihydrogen phosphate addition to sawdust and dairy manure were increased by 31.3% and 26.1%, respectively; With H2O2 oxidation, the carbon loss of modified biochar produced with calcium dihydrogen phosphate addition to sawdust was reduced by 93.1%, compared with its unmodified biochar. However, the carbon loss of

  15. Development of Low-fat Hazelnut Protein Beverage%低脂榛仁蛋白饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯峰; 胡伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective] Using protein in hazelnut meal to develop low-fat hazelnut protein beverage, the aim was to improve utilization rate of ha-zelnut.[Method] With hazelnut meal as main raw material, dried skimmed milk, sugar as auxiliary materials, low-fat hazelnut protein beverage was produced.Through single factor experiment and orthogonal test, the product formula was optimized.[Result] By the sensory evaluation, it was defined that the optimum conditions were:hazelnut powder 11.00%, defatted milk powder 4.00%, sugar 4.00%, SE 0.07%.The opti-mum composite stabilizer was composed of XG and CMC-Na with a ratio of 2∶1, the total amount of that was 0.09%( m/V) .Under the above conditions, the beverage color was milky white with uniform state.[Conclusion] The obtained low-fat hazelnut protein beverage has unique aroma and moderate sweetness, the sensory evaluation is high and the market prospect is good.%[目的]利用榛仁粕中的蛋白质加工低脂榛仁蛋白饮料,提高榛子的利用率。[方法]以榛仁粕为主要原料,脱脂奶粉、白砂糖等为辅料,制成低脂榛仁蛋白饮料。通过单因素和正交试验,优化产品配方。[结果]通过感官评定最终确定低脂榛仁蛋白饮料在榛仁粕11.00%、白砂糖4.00%、脱脂奶粉4.00%、蔗糖酯0.07%、最佳稳定剂黄原胶与CMC-Na质量比2∶1、总用量0.09%(m/V)条件下,饮品色泽呈乳白色,状态均匀。[结论]制得的低脂榛仁蛋白饮料具有榛仁独特的香气并且甜度适中,感官评价较高,市场前景较好。

  16. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY CHARACTERICTIES AND SOIL PROPERTIES OF HAZELNUT GROWN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten KARACA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, enzyme activities of soil cultivated for hazelnut in Terme and Ünye townships were determined and the relationships between the activities and some soil properties, trace elements and heavy metals were evaluated. Correlation and regression analysis showed that there was significant positive correlation between urease activity and organic carbon, nitrogen and extractable Cu; strong positive correlation between acid phosphates activity and organic matter, organic carbon and nitrogen; but negative correlation between the activities and extractable Mn content. Additionally, positive correlation was found between alkaline phosphatase activity and pH, available P, extractable Cu, Zn and Pb contents. With the exception of C/N ratio and extractable Cd content, no significant correlation was observed between ß- glikosidase activity and soil properties.

  17. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  18. Protein precipitating capacity and antioxidant activity of Turkish Tombul hazelnut phenolic extract and its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvan Pelitli, Ebru; Janiak, Michał Adam; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2017-03-01

    Natural (raw) hazelnut was extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone to obtain crude phenolic extract that was then fractionated for elution of low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions. LMW fraction was further purified (LWM-FP) to remove sugars and organic acids. The crude extract and its fractions were determined by measuring their protein precipitating capacity (PPC) using two different proteins [bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gelatin], molecular weights, total phenolics, condensed tannins, and various antioxidant activities. Significant differences (p<0.05) existed in the contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins, antioxidant activities, and PPC among the crude extract and fractions, albeit to different extends. BSA and gelatin was effectively precipitated by HMW fraction. HMW fraction had the highest total phenolics, condensed tannins, and antioxidant activities, followed by crude extract, LWM-FP, and LMW, respectively. The present study suggests that HMW fraction could be utilised as a source of polyphenols for the food industry.

  19. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, Umit, E-mail: ugecgel@nku.edu.t [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  20. Quality of life in families with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anette

    2013-01-01

    and for their family members. Methods: The cohort comprises an existing database with 394 Danish children, teenagers and adults diagnosed with peanut/egg/hazelnut allergy in accordance with EAACI guidelines. We use the validated Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ). The questionnaires have been...... translated from English to Danish in accordance to World Health Organisation´s criteria and are web-based. The questionnaire form varies according to patient’s age group: Parent Form 0 – 7 years (N=123), Child Form 8 – 12 years (n=138), Teenager Form 13 – 17 years (n=80), Adult Form 18 years and up (N=53...... child. The final results of how food allergy impacts the quality of life will be seen in the context of the socio-economic position. Focus will also be on a possible relationship between Quality of life and the clinical sensitivity of the patient (threshold, i.e. the amount of peanut...

  1. Hazelnut Stevioside Production Technology%榛子甜菊糖的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 刘瑞颖; 贾秋燕; 冯晨; 莫迟; 包怡红

    2014-01-01

    为开发利用甜菊糖资源研制一种保健食品。以榛子、甜菊糖为主要原料,在正交试验的基础上,研制出一种口感醇香的榛子甜菊糖。试验结果表明:甜菊糖的用量是影响产品品质的主要因素,最佳配方是:榛子仁8 g,甜菊糖0.030 g,聚葡萄糖56 g,木糖醇8.0 g,苹果酸0.055 g。产品色泽鲜亮,表面光滑,块形完整,具有该品种特有的滋气味,适宜糖尿病人食用。%The aim was to prepare a health food for exploiting stevioside resources. With hazel , stevioside as the main raw materials, on the comparison of orthogonal test, a mellow and sweet hazelnut stevioside was prepared. Results showed that the stevioside dosage was the main factor affecting the product quality , the best formula was:hazelnut 8 g, stevioside 0.03 g, polydextrose 56 g, xylitol 8.0 g, malic acid 0.055 g. The products were bright color, smooth surface,complete bulk shape, and had this kind of product peculiar taste and smell, which were suitable for people with diabetes.

  2. Shell Analysis Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-04-01

    loading (e. g. shallow shell theory , Geckeler’s approximation for symmetrically loaded shells, etc.) Although the Shear Deformation and Specialized...interest. Included are the Reissner-Meissner equations, Geckeler’s approximations, shallow - shell theory , Donnell’s theory, and others. A. General Shells of

  3. 不同品种榛子种仁营养成分含量分析%Nutrient Composition Analysis of Hazelnut Kernel from Different Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文翰; 梁丽松; 王贵禧

    2012-01-01

    通过对平欧杂种榛、平榛、欧洲榛共43个品种的基本营养物质进行测定并分析差异性。结果表明:榛子水分含量3.87%~9.51%,淀粉含量0.92%~2.03%,总糖含量12.66%~19.09%,蛋白质含量29.22~68.57mg/g,脂肪含量53.80%~63.33%。不同榛子品系之间具有一定差异性,欧洲榛所有营养物质均与平榛和平欧杂种榛有显著差异,平榛与平欧杂种榛在淀粉与总糖含量上有显著差异。水分:平欧杂种榛〉平榛〉欧洲榛;淀粉:欧洲榛〉平欧杂种榛〉平榛;总糖:平欧杂种榛〉欧洲榛〉平榛;可溶性蛋白:欧洲榛〉平榛〉平欧杂种榛;脂肪:欧洲榛〉平欧杂种榛〉平榛。%The essential nutrients of 43 hazelnut varieties including Corylus heterophylla,Corylus avellanas and their hybrids were analyzed.Hazelnut kernel contained 3.87%-9.51% water,0.92%-2.03% starch,12.66%-19.09% sugars in total,29.22-68.57 mg/g protein,and 53.80%-63.33% fat content.All the nutrients of Corylus avellana are significantly different with those in Corylus heterophylla and hybrid hazelnuts.The contents of starch and total sugar in Corylus heterophylla and hybrid hazelnuts were significantly different.Three groups of hazelnuts were ranked in decreasing order of as follows: hybrid hazelnuts Corylus heterophylla Corylus avellanas by water content,Corylus avellanas hybrid hazelnuts Corylus heterophylla by starch content,hybrid hazelnuts Corylus avellanas Corylus heterophylla by total sugar content,Corylus avellanas Corylus heterophylla hybrid hazelnuts by soluble protein content,and Corylus avellanas hybrid hazelnuts Corylus heterophylla by fat content.

  4. Identification of prenyl ethyl ether as a source of metallic, solvent-like off-flavor in hazelnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schwager, Hugo; Meier, Roberto; Frey, Peter; Gassenmeier, Klaus F

    2010-11-10

    In a large batch of ground hazelnuts, a metallic, solvent-like off-note was detected. In this investigation, the volatiles from the batch showing off-notes were compared to a batch without off-notes. On the basis of gas chromatography (GC) sniffing and instrumental analysis, a terpenoid compound, prenyl ethyl ether, was identified as a key contributor to the off-note. The compound was quantified, and its contribution to the metallic, solvent-like off-flavor was confirmed by spiking experiments and sensory evaluation. Analytical and sensory experiments found that the off-note was still present in hazelnut cakes. Fat oxidation did not contribute to the off-flavor. Analysis of market products demonstrated the correlation between the identified terpenoid and the off-flavor. It is assumed that fungi are involved in off-flavor formation.

  5. Fractionation analysis of manganese in Turkish hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Umran Seven; Gucer, Seref

    2014-11-05

    In this study, an analytical fractionation scheme based on water, diethyl ether, n-hexane, and methanol extractions has been developed to identify manganese-bound fractions. Additionally, in vitro simulated gastric and intestinal digestion, n-octanol extraction, and activated carbon adsorption were used to interpret the manganese-bound structures in hazelnuts in terms of bioaccessibility. The total content of manganese in the samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion, and additional validation was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water fractions were further evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the identification of water-soluble manganese fractions in hazelnut samples. The limits of detection and quantification were 3.6 and 12.0 μg L(-1), respectively, based on peak height.

  6. Hazelnut meal in diets for seawater farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss: effects on growth performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Bilen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-day feeding trial was designed in order to assess the effect of partial or total replacement of soybean meal by hazelnut meal (HNM on feed intake, growth performance, nutrient utilization and body composition of rainbow trout (initial mean body weight: 80.0±3.5 g in seawater conditions. A control and three experimental diets were formulated in which soybean meal level (25.5% in the control diet was replaced by hazelnut meal at 39.2 (HN 39, 78.4 (HN 78 and 100% (HN 100 to provide 44% crude protein and 20% crude lipid diets. Diets were fed to 125 rainbow trout to apparent satiation by hand twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours under natural photoperiod conditions. At the end of the feeding trial, fish of all groups almost tripled their body weight and no significant difference (P>0.05 was revealed in final weight or specific growth rate between treatments. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR of the HN100 group was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05. There was a slightly decreasing trend in protein efficiency ratio (PER and net protein utilization (NPU with increasing level of dietary hazelnut meal, but it was only significant in groups of fish fed HN100. All groups of fish displayed similar carcass and muscle compositions. According to the results of the present study, it can be stated that hazelnut meal can replace soybean meal at up to 200 g kg-1 in grow-out diets of rainbow trout without any detrimental effects on growth performance.

  7. [A semiempirical mathematical model for assessment of PH3 residues as exemplified by phosphine-fumigated hazelnuts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, S; Reichmuth, C; Wohlgemuth, R

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model for the calculation of residues of PH3 in fumigated hazelnuts in dependence on dosage, fumigation- and storage time is discussed. The model is based on the physical process of the diffusion of a gas out of a sphere. An empirical dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the residue levels can be observed. Adequate agreement is obtained between calculated and experimental values.

  8. Multiple shells in IRC+10216: shell properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauron, N.; Huggins, P. J.

    2000-07-01

    We report on the properties of the multiple shells in the circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216, using deep optical imaging, including data from the Hubble Space Telescope. The intensity profiles confirm the presence of thin ( ~ 0farcs5 -3'' ec), limb-brightened shells in the envelope, seen in stellar and ambient Galactic light scattered by dust. The shells are spaced at irregular intervals of ~ 5'' ec-20'' ec, corresponding to time scales of 200-800 yr, although intervals as short as ~ 1'' ec (40 yr) are seen close to the star. The location of the main shells shows a good correlation with high-resolution, molecular line maps of the inner envelope, indicating that the dust and gas are well coupled. The shell/intershell density contrast is typically ~ 3, and we find that the shells form the dominant mass component of the circumstellar envelope. The shells exhibit important evolutionary effects: the thickness increases with increasing radius, with an effective dispersion velocity of 0.7 km s-1 and there is evidence for shell interactions. Despite the presence of bipolar structure close to the star, the global shell pattern favors a roughly isotropic, episodic mass loss mechanism, with a range of time scales. Based on observations made with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, operated by CNRS, NRCC and UH, and on dearchived observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555

  9. Paraboloid Shell As Footing

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ansari, Mohammed S.

    1999-01-01

    A simplified method for the design of paraboloid shell footing base on the displacement of the shell's crown where the column axial load is transferred to the footing has been developed. A case study was presented to demonstrate the use of the proposed method and to illustrate its capabilities. The results of the proposed method confirm the ability of the shell model in determining accurate and practical results for the design of paraboloid shell footing. Base on the analytical results of thi...

  10. [PH3 residues in hazelnuts, soybeans and wheat following phosphine fumigation with non-constant concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, S; Wohlgemuth, R

    1985-02-01

    In model tests hazelnuts, soy beans and wheat were fumigated with phosphine (PH3) at non constant concentrations. The influence of different concentration characteristics on the fumigation and the decomposition of phosphine residues was investigated in accordance with the fumigation technique. At the beginning the concentration increases, and after attaining the maximum gradually decreases to zero. The level of residues during the fumigation as well as the behaviour of residues during the storage of the fumigated products was monitored with a gas chromatographic method. The residues correlate with the concentration of phosphine, they also pass through a peak. The rate of decomposition of residues which had been formed in the phase of increasing concentration is greater than the rate of residues of equal magnitude which had been formed during the decreasing phase. When the concentration is even the maximum residue occurs later than the maximum concentration; when there is a steep trend both maximums coincide. This behaviour can be explained by the sorption and diffusion of phosphine. A comparison is made with the phosphine concentration which occurs during fumigation in practice. The parameters which produce a constant concentration trend with only one maximum and a non constant trend with an often increasing and decreasing concentration are discussed. The different behaviour of residues in these cases is described. Conclusions are drawn for the practice of fumigation.

  11. Development of nutrient-rich growing media with hazelnut husk and municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Omer Hulusi; Ozdemir, Saim

    2017-07-16

    The aim of the present study was to develop structurally stable, nutrient-rich and environmentally safe growing media by combining waste material: crop residue hazelnut husk (HH) and municipal sewage sludge. In order to achieve this goal, lignocellulosic HH residue was mixed with nutrient-rich sewage sludge (S) in various proportions: HH 100%; HH + S1 87.5% : 12.5%; HH + S2 75% : 2 5%; HH + S3 50% : 5 0%. Following composting, the key physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the growing media were characterized for long-term ornamental nursery crops. The addition of S to the mixture had both significant detrimental and remedial effects on physical properties such as reduced total porosity and water-holding capacity, whilst improved the air capacity, wettability and shrinkage. S content of growing media significantly enriched the plant nutrients, especially the most desired soluble and organic nitrogen fractions and micro nutrients. Germination tests and microbiological analysis confirmed the products as environmentally safe ornamental growing media. We conclude that composting of HH with S is a viable alternative for the development of nutrient-rich growing media and recycling of such waste in the ornamental industry could be a beneficial method in order to sustain waste management and crop production.

  12. Disposable electrochemical DNA-array for PCR amplified detection of hazelnut allergens in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettazzi, Francesca; Lucarelli, Fausto; Palchetti, Ilaria; Berti, Francesca; Marrazza, Giovanna; Mascini, Marco

    2008-04-28

    An electrochemical low-density DNA-array has been designed and implemented to be used in combination with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to investigate the presence of hazelnut major allergens (Cor a 1.04, Cor a 1.03) in foodstuff. Unmodified PCR products were captured at the sensor interface via sandwich hybridization with surface-tethered probes and biotinylated signalling probes. The resulting biotinylated hybrids were coupled with a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and then exposed to a alpha-naphthyl phosphate solution. Differential pulse voltammetry was finally used to detect the alpha-naphthol signal. The detection limits for Cor a 1.03 and Cor a 1.04 were 0.3 and 0.1 nmol L(-1), respectively (R.S.D. 10%). The optimized conditions were used to test several commercially available foodstuffs, claiming to contain or not the targeted nuts. The results were compared with those obtained with classical ELISA tests.

  13. Colonic metabolism of polyphenols from coffee, green tea, and hazelnut skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calani, Luca; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Derlindati, Eleonora; Scazzina, Francesca; Bruni, Renato; Del Rio, Daniele

    2012-10-01

    Dietary polyphenolic compounds are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. The absorbed fraction follows the common metabolic pathway of drugs, undergoing phase II enzymatic detoxification with the conjugation of glucuronic acid, sulfate, and methyl groups. However, the unabsorbed fraction can reach the colon, becoming available for the wide array of enzymes produced by the local commensal microbiota. Gut bacteria can hydrolyze glycosides, glucuronides, sulfates, amides, esters, and lactones and are able to break down the polyphenolic skeleton and perform reactions of reduction, decarboxylation, demethylation, and dehydroxylation. These complex modifications generate several low-molecular-weight metabolites that can be efficiently absorbed in situ, subsequently undergoing further phase II metabolism, locally and/or at the liver level, before entering the systemic blood circulation and finally being excreted in urine in substantial quantities that exceed the excretion of phenolic metabolites formed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This brief work focuses on the phenolic composition and colonic microbial transformation of 2 of the most polyphenol-rich dietary sources, namely, green tea and coffee, and a new interesting and innovative ingredient, hazelnut skin, recently evaluated as one of the richest edible sources of polyphenolic compounds.

  14. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications.

  15. Extensive remodeling of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. avellanae type III secretome associated with two independent host shifts onto hazelnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Brien Heath E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazelnut (Corylus avellana decline disease in Greece and Italy is caused by the convergent evolution of two distantly related lineages of Pseudomonas syringae pv. avellanae (Pav. We sequenced the genomes of three Pav isolates to determine if their convergent virulence phenotype had a common genetic basis due to either genetic exchange between lineages or parallel evolution. Results We found little evidence for horizontal transfer (recombination of genes between Pav lineages, but two large genomic islands (GIs have been recently acquired by one of the lineages. Evolutionary analyses of the genes encoding type III secreted effectors (T3SEs that are translocated into host cells and are important for both suppressing and eliciting defense responses show that the two Pav lineages have dramatically different T3SE profiles, with only two shared putatively functional T3SEs. One Pav lineage has undergone unprecedented secretome remodeling, including the acquisition of eleven new T3SEs and the loss or pseudogenization of 15, including five of the six core T3SE families that are present in the other Pav lineage. Molecular dating indicates that divergence within both of the Pav lineages predates their observation in the field. This suggest that both Pav lineages have been cryptically infecting hazelnut trees or wild relatives for many years, and that the emergence of hazelnut decline in the 1970s may have been due to changes in agricultural practice. Conclusions These data show that divergent lineages of P. syringae can converge on identical disease etiology on the same host plant using different virulence mechanisms and that dramatic shifts in the arsenal of T3SEs can accompany disease emergence.

  16. Cocoa, hazelnuts, sterols and soluble fiber cream reduces lipids and inflammation biomarkers in hypertensive patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Solà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocoa, mixed with other food ingredients, intake can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers. We compared the effects of 4 cocoa cream products on some of these biomarkers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this multi-centered, randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel trial, volunteers (n = 113; age range: 43-65 years who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive and hypercholesterolemic received one of 4 cocoa cream products (13 g/unit; 1 g cocoa/unit, 6 units/d; 465 Kcal/d added to a low saturated fat diet for 4 weeks. The groups were: A (n = 28, cocoa cream considered as control; B (n = 28, cocoa+hazelnut cream (30 g/d hazelnuts; C (n = 30, cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols (2 g/d; and D (n = 27, cocoa+hazelnuts+phytosterols+soluble fiber (20 g/d the patented "LMN product". Primary outcome measures were BP, LDL-c, apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo B, ApoB/ApoA ratio, oxidized LDL (oxLDL and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP determined at baseline and post-cocoa cream product intake. Statistical analysis used was ANCOVA or mixed models (in case of repeated measurements, with baseline observation included as a covariate. After 4 weeks, compared to product A, product C reduced LDL-c by 11.2%, Apo B by 8.1% and ApoB/ApoA ratio by 7.8% (P = 0.01. LMN decreased LDL-c by 9.2%, Apo B-100 by 8.5%, ApoB/ApoA ratio by 10.5%, hsCRP by 33.4% and oxLDL by 5.9% (P = 0.01. Surprisingly, even "control" product A reduced systolic BP (-7.89 mmHg; 95%CI: -11.45 to -4.3 and diastolic BP (-5.54 mmHg; 95%CI: -7.79 to -3.29. The BP reductions were similar with the other 3 products. Limitations of the study are that the trial period was relatively short and that a better "BP control" product would have been preferable. CONCLUSION: The creams (particularly the LMN have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in addition to lowering LDL-c, Apo B and ApoB/ApoA ratio. Thus, the soluble fiber effects amplified with sterols (as contained in

  17. Determination of the Effects of Hazelnut Husk and Tea Waste Treatments on Urease Enzyme Activity and Its Kinetics in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Rıdvan KIZILKAYA; EKBERLİ, İmanverdi

    2008-01-01

    In this research, the effects of 5% treatment of hazelnut husk (HH) and tea production waste (TEW) to clay loam soil on urease enzyme activity and its kinetics were determined in a 30-day soil incubation experiment. For this purpose, kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, and Vmax/Km,) were calculated by determining urease activity in organic wastes treated soils in different substrate concentrations (0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12%), incubation periods (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h), and incubation ...

  18. 7 CFR 982.32 - Initial members and nomination of successor members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.32... hazelnuts and, when shelled hazelnut grade and size regulations are in effect, the inshell equivalent of certified shelled hazelnuts (computed to the nearest whole ton) recorded by the Board as handled by...

  19. Spiral Shell Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    In 1988 Zheng Haigen, a seaman with the Towboat Company of the Shanghai Salvage Bureau, began collecting spiral shells. Today he has more than 600 in his collection. The most valuable are the rare parrot shell and a shell whose spirals wind counter-clockwise. In 1991 a miniature conch with a diameter of 0.31 millimeters that he found buried in tons of sand made the Guinness Book of World Records.

  20. Off-Shell Tachyons

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi-Lei

    2015-01-01

    The idea that the new particles invented in some models beyond the standard model can appear only inside the loops is attractive. In this paper, we fill these loops with off-shell tachyons, leading to a solution of the zero results of the loop diagrams involving the off-shell non-tachyonic particles. We also calculate the Passarino-Veltman $A_0^o$ and $B_0^o$ of the off-shell tachyons.

  1. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of nanosized iron-polyoxocarbosilane core-shell composites prepared by laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, R.; Morjan, I.; Dumitrache, F.; Pola, J.; Vorlicek, V.; Marysko, M.; Gavrila, L.; Scarisoreanu, M.; Voicu, I.; Sandu, I.; Fleaca, C.; Popovici, E.; Prodan, G.

    2007-03-01

    Because of their quantum-scale dimensions, nanoparticles exhibit properties different from those of the bulk. As a result of their unique properties, numerous efforts have been made to disperse nanoparticles in polymers to enhance or modify their structural and magnetic properties. A new in situ synthesis method was used to incorporate small iron nanoparticles into a polyoxocarbosilane polymer matrix. Nano-magnetic iron-based composites were obtained by a one-step procedure consisting of the IR laser co-pyrolysis of a sensitized (with ethylene) gaseous mixture containing gaseous iron pentacarbonyl and hexamethyldisiloxane in argon. The simultaneously occurring formation of iron from iron pentacarbonyl and that of organosilicon polymer from hexamethyldisiloxane yield iron nanoparticles surrounded by an organosilicon polymer shell. The particles become superficially oxidized in the atmosphere. They were characterized by Raman analysis, electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. The properties of the nanocomposite particles depend on the experimental synthesis parameters such as flow rates of precursors, total pressure and laser power. Magnetization curves, exchange bias Hex at T = 5 K and AC susceptibility were studied in the temperature range 5-400 K. It was found that the nanocomposite should be in a ferromagnetic blocked state with a minor superparamagnetic contribution of the smallest nanoparticles.

  3. Cytogenetic characterization by in situ hybridization techniques and molecular analysis of 5S rRNA genes of the European hazelnut (Corylus avellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falistocco, E; Marconi, G

    2013-03-01

    The European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is widespread in Europe, where it has been cultivated for centuries. Despite progress in genetics, most of the cytogenetic aspects of this species have been overlooked. The aim of this study was to fill in this gap and obtain basic information on the chromosome structure of this species. Karyomorphological analysis confirmed the chromosome number 2n = 22 and showed that, despite their apparent uniformity, the chromosomes could be separated into three groups of different size: large (L), medium (M), and small (S). As a first step towards the physical mapping of the hazelnut chromosomes, we applied FISH to localize the position of rRNA genes (rDNA). The sites of 45S and 5S rDNA enabled us to identify two chromosome pairs belonging, respectively, to the L and S groups. The self-GISH procedure revealed that repetitive DNA is concentrated in the pericentromeric regions of the chromosomes, as with other species with rather small genomes. The analysis of 5S rDNA repeats offered additional information on the hazelnut genome by obtaining the whole sequence of the transcribed region so far unpublished. The overall results constitute a substantial advance in hazelnut cytogenetics. Further investigation of other species of Corylus could be an effective approach to understanding the phylogenesis of the genus and resolving taxonomic problems.

  4. Preparation of concentrated hazelnut protein by ethanol extraction%醇提法制备榛仁浓缩蛋白的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    矫春娜; 芦明春; 张星

    2012-01-01

    以榛仁粕为原料,用乙醇浸出法生产榛仁浓缩蛋白.研究了乙醇体积分数、浸提温度、浸提时间、固液比、浸提次数等因素对榛仁浓缩蛋白中蛋白质量分数的影响.通过正交试验,确定了醇法制备榛仁浓缩蛋白的最佳工艺条件为:乙醇体积分数65%、固液比1:9、浸提温度55℃、浸提4次(30 min/次).由该条件制备的榛仁浓缩蛋白中粗蛋白质量分数为81.73%,其色浅味淡,无溶剂残留.%Concentrated hazelnut protein was extracted from hazelnut meal by ethanol. The effects of ethanol concentration, temperature, extraction time, solid-to-liquid ratio and extraction times on the content of concentrated hazelnut protein were studied by orthogonal experimental design. The optimized processing conditions were found to be ethanol concentration of 65%, extraction temperature of 55 ℃ , extraction time of 30 min, liquid-to-solid ratio of 1 : 9 and extracted 4 times, then the concentrated hazelnut protein acquired 81. 73%.

  5. Comparison of four variants of a major allergen in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Cor a 1.04 with the major hazel pollen allergen Cor a 1.01

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüttkopf, D; Müller, U; Skov, P S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce the Bet v 1-related major hazelnut allergen Cor a 1.0401 and variants thereof as recombinant allergens, and to compare their immuno-reactivity with the major hazel pollen allergen using sera of patients whose hazelnut allergy recently was confirmed by double......-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) in a multicenter study. Total RNA was isolated from immature hazelnuts and transcribed into cDNA. Full length coding DNA obtained by PCR-strategy was subcloned into pTYB11 vector and expressed in E. coli ER2566 cells. Native non-fusion target proteins were...... residue in position 99. Surprisingly, only 63% identity was revealed with hazel pollen Cor a 1. EAST with 43 sera of patients with positive DBPCFC to hazelnut indicated IgE reactivity to Cor a 1.0401 in 95% of the sera, to Cor a 1.0402 in 93%, to Cor a 1.0403 in 91%, and in only 74% of the sera...

  6. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to larvae and adults of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential virulence and entry routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hazel nut weevil, Curculio nucum, is a major pest of hazel nuts, particularly in Europe; hazel nut weevil is also closely related to other nut-attacking weevils such as pecan weevil (Curculio caryae). In this study, the basis for differential susceptibility of the hazelnut weevil (to entomopatho...

  7. Development of a highly sensitive and robust Cor a 9 specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of hazelnut traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trashin, Stanislav A; Cucu, Tatiana; Devreese, Bart; Adriaens, Annemie; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-12-05

    Allergy to tree nuts represents an acute health problem. Sensitized people can be inadvertently exposed to hidden allergens resulting from cross-contamination of foods. For this reason, reliable and highly sensitive analytical methods are needed to be developed for control and labeling of food ingredients and products. In the present paper we have proposed a new allergen specific sandwich-ELISA for hazelnut operated in optical and electrochemical modes. The ELISA was based on chicken egg yolk antibodies raised against a major hazelnut allergen, Cor a 9. The developed ELISA has a limit of detection in phosphate buffer of 4 ng mL(-1). No significant cross-reactivity with peanut, wheat or other food ingredients has been detected. Extracts of blank control cookies did not show any false positive response and the limit of detection in cookies was estimated to be 0.1 μg of hazelnut protein per g of food (0.1 ppm). The ELISA protocol was successfully adapted to operate in electrochemical mode and it was applied for the detection of hazelnut traces in cookies.

  8. Detection of allergenic ingredients using real-time PCR: a case study on hazelnut (Corylus avellena) and soy (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteau, Céline; De Loose, Marc; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Taverniers, Isabel

    2011-10-26

    Compliance with the European allergen labeling legislation (Directive 2007/68/EC) is only possible when coupled with appropriate methods to detect allergens in food. The aim of the current study was to develop new real-time PCR assays for the detection of hazelnut and soy and evaluate these assays via comparison with commercially available kits. Although the new assays were not as sensitive as the commercial qualitative assays, they proved to be more specific. Moreover, the cross-reactivity study indicated contamination of some of the food products used with either hazelnut or soy, which presents a risk for the allergic consumer. The assays were able to quantify as few as 5-15 genome copies. This unit, used to express analytical results for allergen detection by means of PCR, needs to be converted to a unit expressing the amount of allergenic ingredient in order to be informative. This study emphasizes that the use of real-time PCR for allergen quantification is complicated by the lack of appropriate reference materials for allergens.

  9. Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction residues in the stabilisation of sesame seed paste (tahini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlogimenou, Anthi; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Sesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which, upon long-term storage, tends to exhibit undesirable phenomena of oiling-off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich-in-fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated in this study. The extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilisers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilising ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. In contrast, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilising the sesame paste. Shear stress-rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilising behaviour of the three powders. The intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling-off upon long-term storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. An Innovative Agro-Forestry Supply Chain for Residual Biomass: Physicochemical Characterisation of Biochar from Olive and Hazelnut Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and food productivity have spurred interest in biochar, a form of charred organic material typically used in agriculture to improve soil productivity and as a means of carbon sequestration. An innovative approach in agriculture is the use of agro-forestry waste for the production of soil fertilisers for agricultural purposes and as a source of energy. A common agricultural practice is to burn crop residues in the field to produce ashes that can be used as soil fertilisers. This approach is able to supply plants with certain nutrients, such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, B, S, and Mo. However, the low concentration of N and P in the ashes, together with the occasional presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Al, etc., has a negative effect on soil and, therefore, crop productivity. This work describes the opportunity to create an innovative supply chain from agricultural waste biomass. Olive (Olea europaea and hazelnut (Corylus avellana pruning residues represent a major component of biomass waste in the area of Viterbo (Italy. In this study, we evaluated the production of biochar from these residues. Furthermore, a physicochemical characterisation of the produced biochar was performed to assess the quality of the two biochars according to the standards of the European Biochar Certificate (EBC. The results of this study indicate the cost-effective production of high-quality biochar from olive and hazelnut biomass residues.

  11. 荧光定量PCR方法检测榛果过敏原成分%Detection of the allergen of hazelnut by real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬雪; 张霞; 黄晨; 刘国红; 王乃福

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立榛果过敏原成分的荧光定量PCR检测方法,并将此方法与酶联免疫吸附法(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA)方法进行比对实验。方法根据榛果成分oleosin特异性基因设计并筛选合适的引物和探针,优化反应体系和反应条件,建立榛果过敏原成分的荧光定量 PCR 检测方法,对荧光定量 PCR 方法与ELISA方法检测结果进行分析。结果建立的榛果过敏原成分荧光定量PCR方法特异性良好,可用于榛果过敏原成分的定量检测,但检测灵敏度低于ELISA检测方法。结论所建立的榛果过敏原成分的荧光定量PCR检测方法特异性好,灵敏度达到10 mg/kg,具有较好的实用性, ELISA检测方法灵敏度高于荧光定量PCR法,但当榛果过敏蛋白被破坏后有可能出现假阴性结果。%Objective To establish a real-time PCR method for detection of the allergen of hazelnut, and compare the method with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Methods According to the oleosin gene of hazelnut, the optimized reaction system and the reaction conditions had been proposed. To establish a real-time PCR method for detection of the allergen of hazelnut, a comparative analysis of the detection results by this method and ELISA was made. Results The method was specific for hazelnut allergens, and was suitable for the detection of hazelnut allergens. But the sensitivity of this method was lower than ELISA. Conclusion The real-time PCR method for detecting the allergen of hazelnut is suitable for application, the sensitivity is up to 10 mg/kg, lower than the ELISA detection method, but a false negative result may occur in ELISA method due to the hazelnut allergic protein damaged.

  12. Analysis of olive and hazelnut oil mixtures by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols and gas-liquid chromatography of non-saponifiable compounds (tocopherols and sterols).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcerisa, J; Casals, I; Boatella, J; Codony, R; Rafecas, M

    2000-06-09

    We analysed the triacylglycerol, tocopherol and sterol composition of hazelnut oil, olive oil and their mixtures (90% olive oil with 10% hazelnut oil, 70% olive with 30% hazelnut oil and 50% olive oil with 50% hazelnut oil). The main triacylglycerols were 1,2,3-trioleylglycerol, 2,3-dioleyl-1-palmitoylglycerol, 2,3-dioleyl-1-linoleylglycerol and 2,3-dioleyl-1-stearoylglycerol. Non-saponfiable compounds (tocopherols and sterols) were derivatised as O-trimethylsilyl ethers. Alpha-tocopherol was the main vitamin E isomer in all samples; however, small amounts of beta-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol were also found. Beta-sitosterol and delta5-avenasterol were the principal sterols in all samples; campesterol and stigmasterol were minor sterol compounds in all samples. Obtusifoliol, which was a major sterol in olive oil and oil mixtures, was not found in hazelnut oil. The discriminant analysis showed that hazelnut oil, olive oil and oil mixtures were clearly separated according to their triacylglycerol composition.

  13. Elastic platonic shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ee Hou; Nelson, David R; Mahadevan, L

    2013-10-25

    On microscopic scales, the crystallinity of flexible tethered or cross-linked membranes determines their mechanical response. We show that by controlling the type, number, and distribution of defects on a spherical elastic shell, it is possible to direct the morphology of these structures. Our numerical simulations show that by deflating a crystalline shell with defects, we can create elastic shell analogs of the classical platonic solids. These morphologies arise via a sharp buckling transition from the sphere which is strongly hysteretic in loading or unloading. We construct a minimal Landau theory for the transition using quadratic and cubic invariants of the spherical harmonic modes. Our approach suggests methods to engineer shape into soft spherical shells using a frozen defect topology.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Steele

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Shell structures are indispensable in virtually every industry. However, in the design, analysis, fabrication, and maintenance of such structures, there are many pitfalls leading to various forms of disaster. The experience gained by engineers over some 200 years of disasters and brushes with disaster is expressed in the extensive archival literature, national codes, and procedural documentation found in larger companies. However, the advantage of the richness in the behavior of shells is that the way is always open for innovation. In this survey, we present a broad overview of the dynamic response of shell structures. The intention is to provide an understanding of the basic themes behind the detailed codes and stimulate, not restrict, positive innovation. Such understanding is also crucial for the correct computation of shell structures by any computer code. The physics dictates that the thin shell structure offers a challenge for analysis and computation. Shell response can be generally categorized by states of extension, inextensional bending, edge bending, and edge transverse shear. Simple estimates for the magnitudes of stress, deformation, and resonance in the extensional and inextensional states are provided by ring response. Several shell examples demonstrate the different states and combinations. For excitation frequency above the extensional resonance, such as in impact and acoustic excitation, a fine mesh is needed over the entire shell surface. For this range, modal and implicit methods are of limited value. The example of a sphere impacting a rigid surface shows that plastic unloading occurs continuously. Thus, there are no short cuts; the complete material behavior must be included.

  15. MIXTURE OF CHARCOAL KAYU GALAM (Melaleuca leucadendron LINN AND SHELL CANDLENUT (Aleurites moluceana WILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUSYIANI LUSYIANI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT.  The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mixture composition Galam wood with walnut shells to the quality of the resulting charcoal briquettes. The results and analysis of variance showed that the treatment given very real effect on the moisture content, ash content, the levels of substances fly, carbon residue, and the calorific value and significantly affect the density. The addition of hazelnut shell causes an increase in moisture content, ash content, and levels of substances that reduce the amount of carbon fly and the rest of the calorific value generated. The addition of hazelnut shells up to 50% (treatment A3 results in a briquette charcoal briquettes are still compliant imports (Japanese standard. Based on the results of the test, the charcoal briquettes produced have physical and chemical properties as follows: the average water content of 7.949%, the average ash content of 2.855%, the average levels of substance flew 29.510%, the average carbon remaining 67.652%, average the average density of 0.779 gram/cm3, and the average calorific value of 6202.6594 cal / gram. Keywords: moisture content, ash content, carbon residue, ABSTRAK.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh komposisi campuran kayu galam dengan tempurung kemiri terhadap kualitas briket arang yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian dan analisis sidik ragam menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan yang diberikan berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap kadar air, kadar abu, kadar zat terbang, karbon sisa, dan nilai kalor serta berpengaruh nyata terhadap kerapatan. Penambahan tempurung kemiri menyebabkan kenaikan kadar air, kadar abu, dan kadar zat terbang sehingga mengurangi jumlah karbon sisa dan nilai kalor yang dihasilkan. Penambahan tempurung kemiri sampai 50% (perlakuan A3 menghasilkan briket arang yang masih memenuhi standar briket impor (standar Jepang. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian, briket arang yang dihasilkan mempunyai sifat fisik dan kimia sebagai

  16. Multi-Shell Hollow Nanogels with Responsive Shell Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas J; Dubbert, Janine; Rudov, Andrey A; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Lindner, Peter; Karg, Matthias; Potemkin, Igor I; Richtering, Walter

    2016-03-17

    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity.

  17. Hazelnut Trees Planted inside the Silkworm Sericulture Technology Research%蚕场空地栽植平欧大果榛子养蚕技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝毓; 丛福君

    2015-01-01

    How to effectively use the space of silkworm rearing farm field and the area surrounding it .Experimental studies have shown that the trees of hazelnuts planted on the ground could bear fruits ,while silkworm went to the hazelnut tree to produce cocoon ,which create a dual eco-nomic benefits .Silkworm farm can be obtained a high-value use .%如何使蚕场内和蚕场周边空地得到有效利用。试验研究证明,在空地上栽植平欧大果榛子,其可以结果,蚕也可以到平欧大果榛子上作茧,可创造双重经济效益,蚕场可以得到高值化利用。

  18. Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi TAJBAKHSH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

  19. Comparison of four variants of a major allergen in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Cor a 1.04 with the major hazel pollen allergen Cor a 1.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttkopf, D; Müller, U; Skov, P S; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Wüthrich, B; Skamstrup Hansen, K; Poulsen, L K; Kästner, M; Haustein, D; Vieths, S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce the Bet v 1-related major hazelnut allergen Cor a 1.0401 and variants thereof as recombinant allergens, and to compare their immuno-reactivity with the major hazel pollen allergen using sera of patients whose hazelnut allergy recently was confirmed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) in a multicenter study. Total RNA was isolated from immature hazelnuts and transcribed into cDNA. Full length coding DNA obtained by PCR-strategy was subcloned into pTYB11 vector and expressed in E. coli ER2566 cells. Native non-fusion target proteins were purified by DTT-induced self-cleavage of the intein-tagged N-terminal fusion proteins. IgE reactivity of the recombinant allergens was tested by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST), EAST-inhibition, immunoblot-inhibition and histamine release assays. Four recombinant allergens were produced showing deduced amino acid sequence identities among each other of 97-99%, and were considered as variants Cor a 1.0401 (GenBank Accession no.: AF136945), Cor a 1.0402 (AF323973), Cor a 1.0403 (AF323974) and Cor a 1.0404 (AF323975). Cor a 1.0402 and 03 only differed in a C4S exchange. Cor a 1.0404 had a unique proline residue in position 99. Surprisingly, only 63% identity was revealed with hazel pollen Cor a 1. EAST with 43 sera of patients with positive DBPCFC to hazelnut indicated IgE reactivity to Cor a 1.0401 in 95% of the sera, to Cor a 1.0402 in 93%, to Cor a 1.0403 in 91%, and in only 74% of the sera to the proline variant Cor a 1.0404. The allergenic activity of the four variants was confirmed by histamine release assays in 15 hazelnut-allergic patients stimulated with the four variants and controls. Eleven sera were positive with extract from native hazelnut, 13 with rCor a 1.0401, 12 with rCor a 1.0402, 11 with rCor a 1.0403, and only two with rCor a 1.0404 containing the proline exchange. The high IgE binding variant Cor a 1.0401 showed only partial IgE cross-reactivity with

  20. The dose of hazelnuts influences acceptance and diet quality but not inflammatory markers and body composition in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra W; Delahunty, Conor M; Brown, Rachel C

    2013-08-01

    Regular nut consumption may improve markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The quantity of nuts required to achieve these health benefits without compromising body weight and acceptance is unknown. This study compared the effects of incorporating hazelnuts at 2 different doses with a diet without nuts on inflammatory markers, cell adhesion molecules, and body composition in 107 overweight and obese individuals. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel 12-wk intervention including 3 treatment arms: no nuts (control group), 30 g/d of hazelnuts, or 60 g/d of hazelnuts. Blood pressure, body composition, plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), lipid, and apolipoprotein (apo) profiles were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 wk. "Desire" and "liking" for nuts were assessed during the intervention. Results showed no significant differences in follow-up clinical outcomes between groups after adjusting for baseline values, age, sex, and BMI (all P ≥ 0.10), except for a tendency toward improvement in VCAM-1 concentration in the 60-g/d nut group (P = 0.07). Hazelnut consumption significantly improved diet quality in a dose-response manner. Desire and liking for nuts remained stable in the 30-g/d group, whereas these ratings decreased significantly over time in the 60-g/d group (both P obese individuals. Nut consumption improves diet quality without adversely affecting body composition. Consuming 30 g/d of nuts regularly is achievable, whereas 60 g/d appears to compromise desire and liking.

  1. Co-pyrolysis of coal and scrap tyres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuzana Mikulova; Vaclav Roubrek; Kamil Wichterle; Roman Smelik; Jan Pavelka

    2009-07-01

    From the pyrolysis of coal, scrap tyres and their blends, these conclusions may be made: (i) consumption of energy is higher for blends, (ii) addition of scrap tyres increases liquid phase and (iii) addition of scrap tyres increases concentration of some hydrocarbons and value of gross calorific value. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Interactions between coking coals and plastics during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Sakurovs [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2003-10-01

    Blends of three Australian coking coals and polypropylene, polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile and polyphenylene sulfide were prepared and the extent to which the blends fused on heating was monitored using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis in order to identify interactions between them that could affect their fluidity. Different plastics had different effects. Polystyrene strongly reduced the fluidity of all of the coals, confirming previous findings. Polypropylene did not affect the fluidity of the two coking coals of lower rank. Polyphenylene sulfide reduced the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the solidification temperature of the coals, and polyacrylonitrile appeared to increase the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the softening temperature of the coals. The very different effects different plastics have on coal fluidity show that the interaction between plastics and coals must be carefully examined before plastics are added to coking coal blends. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N.; Baryshnikov, S.V. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Weber, J.V.; Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France)

    2006-06-01

    The pyrolysis in a hydrogen atmosphere of pine wood and synthetic polymers (polyethylene and polypropylene) mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. The effects of reaction temperature, wood/polymers mixture composition and catalysts, on the mixtures conversion into liquids and gases were established and discussed. The used catalysts were pyrrhotite and haematite materials activated by mechanochemical treatment. In the co-liquefaction processes the interaction between fragments of wood and polymers thermal decomposition took place. This results in non-additive increase of the wood/polymers conversion degree by 10-15wt.% and of the yield of distillate fractions by 14-19wt.%. Iron ore materials were found catalytically active in the process of hydropyrolysis of wood/polymers mixtures. By using these catalysts a significant increase of the distillable liquids amounts (by 14-21wt.%) and a sharp decrease of olefins and cycloparaffins content (by approximately two to three times) were observed. (author)

  4. Preparation of Wild Hazelnut Protein Compound Yogurt Beverage%野生榛子复合蛋白酸乳饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延辉; 郑凤荣; 刘艳霞; 刘超

    2016-01-01

    The fermentation processing of hazelnut protein compound yogurt beverage made from hazelnut and fresh milk was studied by single factors tests and orthogonal tests. Taking milk amount as standards , the optimal fermentation procssing was as follows:starter culture 4%, including Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus Bulgaricus and S.thermophilus, hazelnut seriflux 30%, sugar 9%. After 3.5 h fermented, the product was rich in nutrition and good flavor.%以鲜牛奶和野生榛仁乳为主要原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验研究开发新型蛋白酸乳饮料制品。试验结果表明,以牛乳质量为计算基准,添加其质量4%的双歧杆菌、保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌混合发酵剂,30%打浆后的榛仁浆液,9%的绵白糖,发酵3.5 h后可制得质味俱佳的榛仁蛋白饮料。

  5. Sensitization with 7S Globulins from Peanut, Hazelnut, Soy or Pea Induces IgE with Different Biological Activities Which Are Modified by Soy Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Rigby, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    , such as stability to digestion, have also been suggested. 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy, and pea were studied to determine whether related proteins would induce a similar sensitization when removed from their ‘normal’ matrix. Methods: Brown Norway rats (soy tolerant or nontolerant) were immunized i.p. 3...... times with 100 μg purified peanut, hazelnut, soy, or pea 7S without adjuvant. Sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by different ELISAs (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE), inhibition ELISA, and rat basophilic leukemia cell assay. Results: The 4 related 7S globulins induced a response with an almost identical...... level of specific antibodies, but peanut 7S induced IgE of higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, had a higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. Soy tolerance reduced the functionality of IgE without influencing antibody titers. Conclusions: Although the 4 7S globulins are structurally...

  6. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to Larvae and Adults of the Hazelnut Weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential Virulence and Entry Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla-Carrera, Laia; Morton, Ana; Shapiro-Ilan, David; Strand, Michael R; García-Del-Pino, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the existing susceptibility differences of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum L. (Coleoptera:, Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes by assessing the main route of entry of the nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae strain B14 and S. feltiae strain D114, into larvae and adult insects, as well as host immune response. Our results suggested that S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily entered adult insects and larvae through the anus. Larvae were more susceptible to S. feltiae D114 than S. carpocapsae B14 and adults were highly susceptible to S. carpocapsae B14 but displayed low susceptibility to S. feltiae D114. Penetration rate correlated with nematode virulence. We observed little evidence that hazelnut weevils mounted any cellular immune response toward S. carpocapsae B14 or S. feltiae D114. We conclude the differential susceptibility of hazelnut weevil larvae and adults to S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily reflected differences in the ability of these two nematodes to penetrate the host.

  7. Development and validation of a SYBR-Green I real-time PCR protocol to detect hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) in foods through calibration via plasmid reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Matteo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Garino, Cristiano; Arlorio, Marco

    2009-12-09

    Many tree nuts are considered to be a serious problem in food safety, because of the presence of causative factors in IgE-mediated food allergies. Among these, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) seeds are largely used in a range of confectionery products and contain many well-characterized allergens. DNA-based methods and ELISA tests may prove to be useful to assess the presence of hidden ingredients in foods. The aim of this work was the development and validation of a species-specific SYBR Green I real-time PCR protocol for the detection of hazelnut in foods. A novel efficient primer pair on the Cor a 8 genomic coding region was designed by preparing a plasmid vector-based internal reference standard to calibrate the PCR. A good sensitivity, down to 20 (genomic) and 15 (plasmid) DNA copies, was established. All of the commercial samples considered in our study (containing hazelnut as ingredient or as a potential trace cross-contamination) were effectively amplified by PCR, showing a perfect correspondence with an ELISA commercial test, employed as a reference standard method.

  8. From shell logs to shell scripts

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Nico; Blockeel, Hendrik

    2001-01-01

    Analysing the use of a Unix command shell is one of the classic applications in the domain of adaptive user interfaces and user modelling. Instead of trying to predict the next command from a history of commands, we automatically produce scripts that automate frequent tasks. For this we use an ILP association rule learner. We show how to speedup the learning task by dividing it into smaller tasks, and the need for a preprocessing phase to detect frequent subsequences in the data. We illustrat...

  9. Sensational spherical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.

  10. Fabrication of diamond shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen; Wild, Christoph; Woerner, Eckhard

    2016-11-01

    A novel method for fabricating diamond shells is introduced. The fabrication of such shells is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on predetermined mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removal of the mandrel by an etch process. The resultant shells of the present invention can be configured with a surface roughness at the nanometer level (e.g., on the order of down to about 10 nm RMS) on a mm length scale, and exhibit excellent hardness/strength, and good transparency in the both the infra-red and visible. Specifically, a novel process is disclosed herein, which allows coating of spherical substrates with optical-quality diamond films or nanocrystalline diamond films.

  11. Economic Traits of Special Nut-Processed Cultivars of Ping'ou Hybrid Hazelnuts (Corylus heterophylla × C.avellana)%仁用加工型平欧杂种榛品种(系)的坚果经济性状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾吉尔·阿不拉; 马庆华; 王贵禧; 梁维坚; 梁丽松; 赵天田

    2013-01-01

    In order to select special nut-processed cultivars,we measured and analyzed a number of economic indexes of 43 cultivars and varieties of 5-6 years old Ping' ou hybrid hazelnuts (Corylus heterophylla × C.avellana) planted in the same orchard with identical management at Anqiu county,Shandong province.The processing traits of the nuts and kernels were measured and the traits were graded according to the forestry industry criteria and China Fruit' s Monograph.The results showed that nut weight varied from 1.45 g to 3.30 g,nut shape index varied from 0.67 to 1.08,kernel weight varied from 0.76 g to 1.44 g,shell thickness varied from 0.90 mm to 1.76 mm and kernel weight percentage varied from 35.06% to 56.00%.The processing traits,such as nut size,plumpness of the kernel,thickness of the shell and kernel percentage of most candidates reached to relative higher grades of the industry standards,indicating the high potential selectivity in the population.There were significant differences in the economic traits among the candidate cultivars and varieties and the variation coefficients (CV) were 5.30%-70.31%.There were to different degrees relationships between paired traits,which should be considered for the cultivar selection.However,there were small amount of round nut types in the population,which was a limiting factor in the selection of nut-processed cultivars.Based on this study,the main traits and criteria for selecting special nut-processed cultivars included in turn,nut weight ≥ 2.00 g,kernel weight percentage ≥ 40%,kernel plumpness 0.80-0.90,kernel weight ≥ 0.80 g,round nut (nut shape index 0.90-1.00).Four cultivars and varieties i.e.‘ Liaozhen No.2',‘ Ping' ou 30',‘ Ping' ou 90' and ‘ Ping' ou 28' were selected as the special nut-processed cultivars.

  12. 平欧榛油的氧化稳定性研究%Oxidation Stability of Flat-European Hybrid Hazelnut Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 吕春茂; 陆长颖; 魏雅静; 孙俪金

    2014-01-01

    In order to learn the storage characteristics and extend the shelf-life of Flat-European hazelnut oil, peroxide value (POV) was used as an index, the effects of different extraction technology, temperature, light conditions, antioxidants on the oxidation stability of Flat-European hybrid hazelnut oil were studied under accelerated oxidation conditions. The results showed that the oxidation stability of Flat-European hybrid hazelnut oil extracted by solvent was higher than that by means of aqueous enzymatic extraction, and using solvent extraction would prolong the storage period of 15d at room temperature. The oxidation stability of Flat-European hybrid hazelnut oil reduced quickly with the increasing of temperature, low temperature was suitable for the storage. Light condition affected significantly on oxidation stability of Flat-European hybrid hazelnut oil. Antioxidation of 0.015% Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 0.005%VC was the best, the storage period was extended from 105 days to 831 days.%为了解平欧榛油的贮藏特性并延长其货架期,采用烘箱加速氧化法,以过氧化值(POV)为指标,探讨了提取工艺、温度、光照和抗氧化剂等对平欧榛油氧化稳定性的影响。结果表明:有机溶剂法提取平欧榛油的氧化稳定性高于水酶法,室温条件下可延长储藏期15d;随温度升高平欧榛油氧化稳定性降低较快,低温适于其储藏;光照对平欧榛油的稳定性影响较大,避光利于其保藏;采用0.015%特丁基对苯二酚(TBHQ)和0.005%维生素C协同使用对于平欧榛油稳定性效果最佳,储藏期可由105d延长至831d。

  13. 榛子牛奶复合保健饮料的研制%PREPARATION OF COMPOSITE HEALTH BEVERAGE CONTAINING HAZELNUT AND MILK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽杰

    2013-01-01

    将榛子磨浆,添加到鲜牛奶中,再经灭菌制成榛子乳饮料.试验结果表明,牛奶与榛子浆的体积比为100∶35,磨浆工艺为加水质量是榛仁质量的8倍,50%蔗糖溶液添加量为0.6%、25%柠檬酸溶液添加量为0.1%,此条件下榛子牛奶复合饮料的风味最好.复合稳定剂为m(微晶纤维素)∶m(卡拉胶)∶m(海藻酸钠)为7∶1∶2,复合乳化剂为m(单甘酯)∶m(蔗糖酯)为1∶9,用量均为0.4%时,复合饮料口感细腻,具有良好的稳定效果.%In this paper, a composite beverage was prepared by grinding hazelnut to obtain hazelnut milk, adding hazelnut milk into fresh milk, and sterilizing. The results showed that the composite beverage prepared under the following conditions had the best flavor: the ratio of milk to hazelnut milk was 100:35, the water amount added in the grinding step was 8 times the mass of hazelnut, 50% sucrose solution amount was 0.6%, and 25% citric acid solution amount was 0.1%; and the composite beverage had delicate taste and good stability when a composite stabilizer and a composite emulsifier were added into the beverage at an amount of 0.4%, wherein the composite stabilizer contained microcrystalline cellulose, carrageenan and sodium alginate at a mass ratio of 7:1: 2; and the composite emulsifier contained monoglyceride and sucrose ester at a mass ratio of 1:9.

  14. Research on Formula and Process of Hazelnut Flavoring Paste%榛子风味酱的配方及工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 郑凤荣; 李延辉

    2016-01-01

    Mainly focus on the special flavored hazelnut paste,which is produced by taking soybean and hazelnut as raw materials,and to determine the best formula of the product by adopting the methods of single-factor test and orthogonal test on the basis of sensory evaluation standard.Result:The ratio of hazelnut and soybean is 2.5 ∶ 7.5,the inoculation quantity of fermentation strain is 0.5%,and the suitable quantity of salt is 14% with 30 days'fermentation.The produced hazelnut flavoring paste is of bright reddish brown with proper thickness,without mold and impurity;it has an aromatic fragrance of soybean and hazelnut,without unpleasant flavor,and with fresh and mellow flavor,moderate taste,without peculiar smell.All physical and chemical indicators of the paste meet the ideal standard.%主要研究以黄豆和榛子为原材料生产具有特殊风味的榛子酱,通过单因素试验和正交试验,根据感官评价标准评分,确定产品最佳配方:榛仁与大豆配比为2.5∶7.5、发酵剂菌种接种量为0.5%、食盐添加量为14%、发酵时间为30天;制得榛子风味酱呈现光泽鲜艳的红褐色,粘稠合适、无霉花、无杂质;具有酱香、榛仁香、醇香、酯香,无不良气味,其味鲜醇厚、咸淡适中,无酸、苦、涩、焦糊及异味,且酱品各项理化指标均达到理想标准。

  15. Simulation for double shell pinch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gang-Hua; Hu Xi-Jing; Sun Cheng-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Basic shock phenomena are presented in a composite pinch, a hybrid of the Z-pinch. The successive transfer of current within the plasma structure is demonstrated by our calculations. Properties of the shock wave are described.The current distribution between the two shells after the outer shell hitting the inner shell is also discussed.

  16. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  17. Recent Advances in Shell Evolution with Shell-Model Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Utsuno, Yutaka; Tsunoda, Yusuke; Shimizu, Noritaka; Honma, Michio; Togashi, Tomoaki; Mizusaki, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Shell evolution in exotic nuclei is investigated with large-scale shell-model calculations. After presenting that the central and tensor forces produce distinctive ways of shell evolution, we show several recent results: (i) evolution of single-particle-like levels in antimony and cupper isotopes, (ii) shape coexistence in nickel isotopes understood in terms of configuration-dependent shell structure, and (iii) prediction of the evolution of the recently established $N=34$ magic number towards smaller proton numbers. In any case, large-scale shell-model calculations play indispensable roles in describing the interplay between single-particle character and correlation.

  18. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack....

  19. Adsorptive Properties of an Adsorbent to Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B Prepared from Sludge and Coal by Co-Pyrolysis%污泥与煤共热解制备吸附剂及其对活性艳红X-3B的吸附性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉湖; 张双圣; 张双全; 罗鹏; 邱超

    2011-01-01

    An adsorbent was prepared by co-pyrolysis from wastewater treatment plant dehydration sludge and coal, and was then used for the adsorption of simulated dye wastewater containing Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B. The influences of adsorption time,temperature, pH and the adsorbent dosage on the adsorption were studied, and the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics were also discussed. The results indicated that the iodine absorption value of the self-prepared sludge adsorbent was 321.62 mg/g, its yield was 44. 85% ,its specific surface area was 189.23 m2/g,and heavy metals were not detected in the leaching solution. The removal efficiency of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B by the self-prepared sludge adsorbent increased along with the increase of adsorption time,temperature and the adsorbent dosage, and then the value gradually reached equilibrium. However, the removal efficiency decreased along with the increase of pH. The adsorption kinetics of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B on the adsorbent was in accordance with the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation and the two-step adsorption kinetics rate equation roughly. Intra-particle diffusion was not the only adsorption rate-controlling step. Compared with the Freundlich isotherm equation, the Langmuir isotherm equation was more appropriate for the adsorption. The adsorption was an endothermic ( enthalpy change △H0 > 0 )and spontaneous (free energy change △G0 < 0 ) process with an increase in entropy (△S0 > 0 ). The increase of the adsorption temperature was helpful to the adsorption.%以污水处理站脱水污泥和煤为原料共热解制备吸附剂,将其用于活性艳红X-3B模拟染料废水的吸附处理.考察了吸附时间,温度,pH及吸附剂投加量对吸附效果的影响,并对其吸附动力学和热力学特性进行了探讨.结果表明:所制备吸附剂的碘吸附值为321.62 mg/g,产率为44.85%,比表面积为189.23 m2/g,浸出液中未检测出重金属;吸附剂对活性艳红X-3B的

  20. Ultrasound-potentiated salicylic acid-induced physiological effects and production of taxol in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ayatollah; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe

    2011-11-01

    Effects of ultrasound (US), salicylic acid (SA) and their combined use on the growth and secondary metabolite production of suspension-cultured Corylus avellana cells were investigated. The cultures were treated with US (40 kHz) for short periods of time (2, 3, 5 and 10 min) and SA (25 and 50 mg L(-1)). Results showed that although phenolic content of the cells was significantly increased under exposure to treatments, flavonoids content significantly decreased. Taxol biosynthesis was improved by all treatments. US exposure increased the extracellular, cell-associated and total taxol yield three-, 1.6-, and two-fold compared with that of the control, respectively. SA at all levels was more effective than US in stimulating cell-associated and total taxol production. Combined treatment of US and SA at 50 mg L(-1) resulted in the most improvement in total taxol production, which was about seven times higher than that of the US, three times higher than that of the SA and 14 times higher than that of the control. The results suggest a synergism between US and SA in enhancing taxol production by hazelnut cells.

  1. Energy Characterization and Gasification of Biomass Derived by Hazelnut Cultivation: Analysis of Produced Syngas by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Monarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is an extremely energy intensive process. However, high agricultural productivities and the growth of green revolution has been possible only by large amount of energy inputs, especially those coming from fossil fuels. These energy resources have not been able to provide an economically viable solution for agricultural applications. Biomass energy-based systems had been extensively used for transportation and on farm systems during World War II: the most common and reliable solution was wood or biomass gasification. The latter means incomplete combustion of biomass resulting in production of combustible gases which mostly consist of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen (H2 and traces of methane (CH4. This mixture is called syngas, which can be successfully used to run internal combustion engines (both compression and spark ignition or as substitute for furnace oil in direct heat applications. The aim of the present paper is to help the experimentation of innovative plants for electric power production using agro-forest biomass derived by hazelnut cultivations. An additional purpose is to point out a connection among the chemical and physical properties of the outgoing syngas by biomass characterization and gas-chromatography analysis.

  2. HRMS Profile of a Hazelnut Skin Proanthocyanidin-rich Fraction with Antioxidant and Anti-Candida albicans Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Pagano, Imma; Esposito, Tiziana; Mencherini, Teresa; Porta, Amalia; Petrone, Anna Maria; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Rastrelli, Luca; Aquino, Rita Patrizia

    2016-01-27

    Roasted hazelnut skins (RHS) represent a byproduct of kernel industrial processing. In this research, a RHS extract (RHS-M) and its fraction RHS-M-F3 enriched in proanthocyanidins (PAs), with antioxidant activity, were characterized in terms of total phenolic compound and PA contents. RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 showed antifungal properties against Candida albicans SC5314 (MIC2 = 3.00 and 0.10 μg/mL and MIC0 = 5.00 and 0.50 μg/mL, respectively), determined by the microbroth dilution method and Candida albicans morphological analysis. No cytotoxic effect on HEKa and HDFa cell lines was exhibited by RHS-M and RHS-M-F3. The metabolite profiling of RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 was performed by thiolysis followed by HPLC-UV-HRMS analysis and a combination of HRMS-FIA and HPLC-HRMS(n). Extract and fraction contain oligomeric PAs (mDP of 7.3 and 6.0, respectively, and DP up to 10) mainly constituted by B-type oligomers of (epi)-catechin. Also, (epi)-gallocatechin and gallate derivatives were identified as monomer units, and A-type PAs were detected as minor compounds.

  3. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil (Curculio nucum) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum, the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT50, and LT90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  4. Blended Isogeometric Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    possibilities that heretofore have not been investigated, namely, “rigid bodies” [7]. Another need for the use of these techniques is in multi-patch NURBS meshes... techniques is completely satisfactory in all cases. Even if they can be used successfully in certain situations they can give rise to reduced critical...condition which is violated at the patch boundaries. The C0 boundaries between patches behave like piano hinges for thin shell formulations, and

  5. Off-Shell Supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Chiu Man; Okada, Nobuchika

    2014-01-01

    Supersymmetry does not dictate the way we should quantize the fields in the supermultiplets, and so we have the freedom to quantize the Standard Model (SM) particles and their superpartners differently. We propose a generalized quantization scheme under which a particle can only appear off-shell, while its contributions to quantum corrections are exactly the same as those in the usual quantum field theory. We apply this quantization scheme solely to the sparticles in the $R$-parity preserving...

  6. Diurnal and annual exchanges of mass and energy between an aspen-hazelnut forest and the atmosphere: Testing the mathematical model Ecosys with data from the BOREAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R. F.; Black, T. A.; den Hartog, G.; Berry, J. A.; Neumann, H. H.; Blanken, P. D.; Yang, P. C.; Russell, C.; Nalder, I. A.

    1999-11-01

    There is much uncertainty about the net carbon (C) exchange of boreal forest ecosystems, although this exchange may be an important part of global C dynamics. To resolve this uncertainty, net C exchange has been measured at several sites in the boreal forest of Canada as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). One of these sites is the Southern Old Aspen site at which diurnal CO2 and energy (radiation, latent, and sensible heat) fluxes were measured during 1994 using eddy correlation techniques at different positions within a mixed 70 year old aspen-hazelnut forest. These measurements were used to test a complex ecosystem model "ecosys" in which mass and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere are simulated hourly under diverse conditions of soil, management, and climate. These simulations explained between 70% and 80% of diurnal variation in ecosystem CO2 and energy fluxes measured during three 1 week intervals in late April, early June, and mid-July. Total annual CO2 fluxes indicated that during 1994, aspen was a net sink of 540 (modeled) versus 670 (measured) g C m-2 yr-1, while hazelnut plus soil were a net source of 472 (modeled) versus 540 (measured) g C m-2 yr-1. The aspen-hazelnut forest at the BOREAS site was therefore estimated to be a net sink of about 68 (modeled) versus 130 (measured) g C m-2 yr-1 during 1994. Long-term simulations indicated that this sink may be larger during cooler years and smaller during warmer years because C fixation in the model was less sensitive to temperature than respiration. These simulations also indicated that the magnitude of this sink declines with forest age because respiration increases with respect to fixation as standing phytomass grows. Confidence in the predictive capabilities of ecosystem models at decadal or centennial timescales is improved by well-constrained tests of these models at hourly timescales.

  7. Evaluation of process parameters governing the aroma generation in three hazelnut cultivars (Corylus avellana L.) by correlating quantitative key odorant profiling with sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-06-05

    The majority of the world hazelnut crop is roasted, thus developing a unique aroma that depends on the cultivar used and on the roasting conditions applied. Although several studies have investigated the volatile fraction of different cultivars and have correlated the data with overall sensory profiles, studies establishing a correlation between key odorants among the bulk of odorless volatiles and the respective aroma profiles are not yet available. On the basis of recently published stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS), differences in concentrations of key odorants in different hazelnut cultivars roasted under defined conditions were monitored and compared with sensory data obtained by projective mapping, aroma profile analysis, and triangle tests. The results showed that the aroma-active compounds 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 3,5-dimethyl-2-ethylpyrazine, and 2-furfurylthiol are appropriate marker odorants to differentiate the various nut aromas. In particular, the appreciated roasty, nutty aroma of optimally roasted hazelnuts was developed if both 5-methyl-(E)-2-hepten-4-one and 3-methyl-4-heptanone were >450 μg/kg, whereas the sum of the two 2-acyl-1-pyrrolines and two pyrazines should not exceed 400 μg/kg to avoid an over-roasted smell. Such a desired aroma can be obtained for each cultivar, but obviously specific roasting times, temperatures, and roasting techniques had to be applied.

  8. Detection of hazelnut allergens by real time PCR assay%实时荧光PCR法检测食物中榛子过敏原成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏; 梁君妮; 徐彪; 高宏伟; 林超; 刘彩霞

    2011-01-01

    Hazelnut is one of the most common allergens. After experimenting on primers and probes specific to different genes of hazelnut and optimizing experimental parameters, a real time PCR assay for detecting hazelnut allergen was established. The primers and probes targeting hspl gene were proved to be preferable,which had a sensitivity up to 0.1 1ng purified DNA and had no cross-reactions with other species. This assay may provide a potential tool for food allergens supervision, which is of importance in protecting consumers' right and promoting exportation.%榛子是最常见的食品过敏原之一,选择针对榛子不同基因的引物和探针,进行验证、比对和条件优化,建立榛子过敏原的实时荧光PCR检测方法经实验比较,针对榛子热休克蛋白设计合成的引物和探针具有相对较高的灵敏性,检测限可达0.1 lng DNA,而且和常见的食物种类无交叉反应,适于榛子过敏原的检测.该方法的建立,对于加强食品过敏原的标识管理,保护消费者利益、促进进出口贸易具有重要意义.

  9. Kinetics Modeling of Hazelnut Quality Change under Nitrogen Packaging%充氮包装下榛子品质变化的动力学建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹤腾; 董静

    2012-01-01

    The effect of packaging method on hazelnut quality was discussed. The results showed that nitrogen packaging has the best preservative effects. Kinetic models of peroxide value and acid value at different storage time and temperatures were established to predict and control the quality and shelf life of hazelnut during storage. The results showed that the peroxide value and acid value of hazelnut increases with storage time and storage temperature ; however, they increase slower because of good preservative performance of nitrogen packaging; the acid value and peroxide value has high fitting precision with the first order chemical reaction model and the Arrhenius equation.%探索了不同包装方式对榛子品质变化的影响,结果表明充氮包装保鲜效果最好。建立了充氮包装下酸价、过氧化值随贮藏温度和时间变化的动力学模型,以控制榛子在贮藏过程中的品质和货架期。结果表明,随着贮藏时间的延长和贮藏温度的升高,榛子的酸价和过氧化值不断增加,普通包装增加最快,充氮包装由于良好的保鲜性能而增长较慢。酸价、过氧化值对一级化学反应模型和Arrhenius方程具有很高的拟合精度。

  10. Shell model calculations of 109Sb in the sdgh shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, E.; Novoselsky, A.; Vallieres, M.

    2001-12-01

    The energy spectra of the antimony isotope 109Sb in the sdgh shell are calculated in the nuclear shell model approach by using the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon interaction. The modified Drexel University parallel shell model code (DUPSM) was used for the calculations with maximum Hamiltonian dimension of 762 253 of 5.14% sparsity. The energy levels are compared to the recent experimental results. The calculations were done on the Cyborg Parallel Cluster System at Drexel University.

  11. Multi-Shell Shell Model for Heavy Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yang; Wu, Cheng-Li

    2003-01-01

    Performing a shell model calculation for heavy nuclei has been a long-standing problem in nuclear physics. Here we propose one possible solution. The central idea of this proposal is to take the advantages of two existing models, the Projected Shell Model (PSM) and the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM), to construct a multi-shell shell model. The PSM is an efficient method of coupling quasi-particle excitations to the high-spin rotational motion, whereas the FDSM contains a successful t...

  12. Description of Paratylenchus (Gracilacus straeleni (De Coninck, 1931 Oostenbrink, 1960 (Nematoda: Criconematoidea, Tylenchulidae from hazelnut in Turkey and its comparison with other world populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyazi F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paratylenchus (Gracilacus straeleni (De Coninck, 1931 Oostenbrink, 1960 was detected for the first time in Turkey. Our studied population was found in the rhizosphere soil of hazelnut orchards in Ordu. Females and males were studied morphologically and morphometrically by light microscopy and molecularly by sequencing the D2-D3 of the 28S rDNA gene. We present here the morphological and molecular characterisation, phylogenetic analysis of examined population and comparison of variability of worldwide known populations of P. straeleni.

  13. 微发酵榛子玛芬蛋糕制作工艺的研究%Processing Technology of Slightly Fermented Hazelnut Muffin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡睿; 邵媛; 何计国; 梁建芬

    2016-01-01

    为了开发具有松软质构、发酵风味和感官品质良好的榛子玛芬蛋糕,以油脂蛋糕的基本配方为基础,增加酵母为膨松剂,并以蛋糕的硬度、弹性等 TPA 特性指标和感官评价为依据,确定了一种微发酵榛子蛋糕的配方及制作工艺。具体配方:小麦粉100、榛子粉40、鸡蛋120、绵白糖45、黄油64、酵母5、牛奶36(以小麦粉为100计)。制作工艺:蛋黄与蛋清分别与油脂类和粉类物质搅打,牛奶预活化酵母,发酵20 min,上火160℃、下火180℃烘焙,制得的蛋糕具有软绵细腻的口感,并带有榛子与酵母发酵的香气。%This paper aims to develop a kind of hazelnut muffin with soft texture,fermented flavor and ac-ceptable sensory experience.Based on the basic recipe of pound cake,this paper proposes a kind of recipe and production technique of slightly fermented hazelnut cake.The final product is evaluated by TPA of hardness,elasticity,and sensory evaluation,as well.The optimum proportion of each ingredient is as fol-lows,wheat flour 100,hazelnut powder 40,egg 120,sugar 45,butter 64,yeast 5 and milk 36(wheat flour is used as 100 basis).The main production technique is as follows:first,whip egg yolk and egg white re-spectively with oil and powder material;then,pre -activate yeast by milk;third,ferment 20min;finally, bake with temperature 160 ℃ from top and 180 ℃ at the bottom to make the cake taste soft and delicate with the aroma of hazelnut and yeast fermentation.

  14. 榛子分离蛋白提取及其功能特性的研究%Extraction of hazelnut protein isolate and its functional properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春红; 盛芳; 宋晓艺

    2011-01-01

    Low denatured hazelnut cake was defatted, and then the alkali extraction and acid precipitation process was adopted to prepare hazelnut protein isolate. 'Hie optimal extraction conditions were confirmed, and the functional properties of hazelnut protein isolate were analyzed. The result showed that the optimal preparation conditons were as follows: solid liquid ratio 1:15, alkali extraction pH 9. 0, temperature 501, time 70 min, acid precipitation pH 4. 5. Under the optimal conditions, the solubility, water -holding capacity, oil - absorbing capacity of hazelnut protein isolate were 34. 0% ,2. 6 mL/g and 2. 15 mL/g, respectively, and the emulsion capacity, emulsion stability, foaming capacity and foam stability were 61. 2% ,85.0% ,86. 5% and 24.0% , respectively. The isoeletric point of the product was 4. 52.%以低变性榛子饼为原料,经脱脂后采用碱提酸沉法提取榛子分离蛋白,确定了最佳提取工艺条件,并分析了榛子分离蛋白的功能特性.结果表明,提取榛子分离蛋白的最佳工艺条件为:料液比1:15,碱提pH9.0,碱提温度50℃,碱提时间70 min,酸沉pH4.5.最佳条件下榛子分离蛋白的溶解性、持水性和吸油性分别为34.0%、2.6 mL/g和2.15 mL/g,乳化性、乳化稳定性、起泡性和泡沫稳定性分别为61.2%、85.0%、86.5%和24.0%,榛子分离蛋白的等电点为4.52.

  15. Multi-shell effective interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Tsunoda, Naofumi; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective interactions, either derived from microscopic theories or based on fitting selected properties of nuclei in specific mass regions, are widely used inputs to shell-model studies of nuclei. Until recently, most shell-model calculations have been confined to a single oscillator shell. Recent interest in nuclei away from the stability line, requires however larger shell-model spaces. Since the derivation of microscopic effective interactions has been limited to degenerate model spaces, there are both conceptual and practical limits to present shell-model calculations that utilize such interactions. Purpose: The aim of this work is to present a novel microscopic method to calculate effective interactions for the nuclear shell model. Its main difference from existing theories is that it can be applied not only to degenerate model spaces but also to non-degenerate model spaces. Methods: The formalism is presented in the form of many-body perturbation theory based on the recently developed Exten...

  16. Shell Biorefinery: Dream or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Huiying; Yan, Ning

    2016-09-12

    Shell biorefinery, referring to the fractionation of crustacean shells into their major components and the transformation of each component into value-added chemicals and materials, has attracted growing attention in recent years. Since the large quantities of waste shells remain underexploited, their valorization can potentially bring both ecological and economic benefits. This Review provides an overview of the current status of shell biorefinery. It first describes the structural features of crustacean shells, including their composition and their interactions. Then, various fractionation methods for the shells are introduced. The last section is dedicated to the valorization of chitin and its derivatives for chemicals, porous carbon materials and functional polymers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  18. Flavonoids and related compounds: new data on dietary sources, metabolism and availability in humans

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The present doctoral thesis deals with dietary polyphenols from several viewpoints. After a brief introduction to the topic, the work starts with an investigation into the polyphenolic composition of hazelnut skin. Hazelnuts are typically consumed whole (raw - with skin, or roasted - without skin) or used as ingredient in a variety of processed foods, especially in bakery and confectionery products. Hazelnut skin, hazelnut hard shell and hazelnut green leafy cover, as well as hazelnut tre...

  19. The notes on thin shells

    CERN Document Server

    Iofa, Mikhail Z

    2016-01-01

    Geometry of the spacetime with a spherical shell embedded in it is studied in two coordinate systems - in Kodama-Schwarzschild coordinates and in Gaussian normal coordinates. We consider transformations between the coordinate systems as in the 4D spacetime so as at the surface $\\S$ swept in the spacetime by the spherical shell. Extrinsic curvatures of the surface swept by the shell are calculated in both coordinate systems. Applications to the Israel junction conditions are discussed.

  20. Shell effects in nuclear magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratyev, V.N.; Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    The magnetization of nuclei in strong magnetic fields associated with magnetars' is considered within the shell model. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field gives rise to a phase-shift of the shell-oscillations in nuclear masses shifting significantly the nuclear magic numbers of the iron region towards smaller mass numbers. Shell-effects are found to result in anomalies of the nuclear magnetization. Such anomalies resemble the behavior associated with a phase transition. (author)

  1. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  2. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition from between the halves of the kernel, and any fragments of either....

  3. Evaluation of the methods based on triglycerides and sterols for the detection of hazelnut oil in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, Ramón

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two analytical methods, based on the difference between theoretical and empirical triglycerides and the ratios between some free and esterified sterols have been checked to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of low quantities of any kind of hazelnut oil in olive oil. The methods were confirmed by means of internal and external validations, the latter carried out in 21 different laboratories in three inter-comparison trials. The resulting information suggests a cut-off at 8% for the method based on triglycerides and 10% for that based on the quantification of sterols. The former also shows better reliability measures in reproducibility; i.e., number of false positives, efficiency (90% vs. 82% and Youden index (0.81 vs. 0.77.Dos métodos analíticos, basados en la diferencia entre triglicéridos teóricos y experimentales y razones entre algunos esteroles libres y esterificados, se han evaluado para determinar su utilidad detectando la presencia de pequeñas cantidades de cualquier tipo de aceite de avellana en aceite de oliva. La validación de los métodos se llevó a cabo mediante validación interna y externa, la última llevada a cabo con 21 laboratorios diferentes en tres estudios colaborativos. La información resultante sugiere un valor de corte en la detección de la adulteración del 8% para el método basado en triglicéridos y del 10% para el basado en la cuantificación de esteroles. El primero también muestra mejores valores de los parámetros de fiabilidad en reproducibilidad; por ejemplo, número de falsos positivos, selectividad (90% vs. 82% e índice de Youden (0.81 vs. 0.77.

  4. Multi-Shell Shell Model for Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Y; Sun, Yang; Wu, Cheng-Li

    2003-01-01

    Performing a shell model calculation for heavy nuclei has been a long-standing problem in nuclear physics. Here we propose one possible solution. The central idea of this proposal is to take the advantages of two existing models, the Projected Shell Model (PSM) and the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM), to construct a multi-shell shell model. The PSM is an efficient method of coupling quasi-particle excitations to the high-spin rotational motion, whereas the FDSM contains a successful truncation scheme for the low-spin collective modes from the spherical to the well-deformed region. The new shell model is expected to describe simultaneously the single-particle and the low-lying collective excitations of all known types, yet keeping the model space tractable even for the heaviest nuclear systems.

  5. Biomechanics of turtle shells: how whole shells fail in compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwene, Paul M; Socha, John J

    2013-02-01

    Turtle shells are a form of armor that provides varying degrees of protection against predation. Although this function of the shell as armor is widely appreciated, the mechanical limits of protection and the modes of failure when subjected to breaking stresses have not been well explored. We studied the mechanical properties of whole shells and of isolated bony tissues and sutures in four species of turtles (Trachemys scripta, Malaclemys terrapin, Chrysemys picta, and Terrapene carolina) using a combination of structural and mechanical tests. Structural properties were evaluated by subjecting whole shells to compressive and point loads in order to quantify maximum load, work to failure, and relative shell deformations. The mechanical properties of bone and sutures from the plastral region of the shell were evaluated using three-point bending experiments. Analysis of whole shell structural properties suggests that small shells undergo relatively greater deformations before failure than do large shells and similar amounts of energy are required to induce failure under both point and compressive loads. Location of failures occurred far more often at sulci than at sutures (representing the margins of the epidermal scutes and the underlying bones, respectively), suggesting that the small grooves in the bone created by the sulci introduce zones of weakness in the shell. Values for bending strength, ultimate bending strain, Young's modulus, and energy absorption, calculated from the three-point bending data, indicate that sutures are relatively weaker than the surrounding bone, but are able to absorb similar amounts of energy due to higher ultimate strain values. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Processing research on Hazelnut-Kefir fermented milk%开菲尔榛子发酵乳的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳霞; 周婷姗

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, the processing of Hazelnut—Kefir fermented milk, Hazelnut milk and milk as raw material, are studied in details. The optimal fermentation conditions are determined by L16(45) orthogonal tests. And the results are as follows: Hazelnut milk and the milk, with the ratio of 8:2, fermented with 3% inoculation at 25℃ for 14 hours. The products have special taste and flavor, with 0.26% alcohol and 83 °T.%利用传统酸牛乳酒(Kefir)的发酵剂—开菲尔粒(Kefir Grains)制作的发酵剂,对榛子乳与牛乳的混合原料进行发酵,采用L16(45)正交试验设计筛选制备开菲尔榛子乳的最佳发酵务件.结果表明:当棒子乳与鲜牛乳混合比例8∶2,接种量为3%,发酵温度25℃,加糖量10%,发酵时间14h时,所得的产品的酸度为83°T,乙醇体积分数为0.26%,风味柔和,口感独特.

  7. Semisynthetic preparation and isolation of dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 from roasted hazelnut skins (Corylus avellana L.) on a large scale using countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Juadjur, Andreas; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2014-07-23

    Dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 were produced via semisynthesis from a polymeric proanthocyanidin fraction of hazelnut skins (Corylus avellana L.). This polymeric fraction was found to consist mostly of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin as upper units. Therefore, according to the choice of nucleophile agent, it is possible to semisynthesize dimeric procyanidins B1, B3, B6, and B7 with (+)-catechin and B2, B4, B5, and B8 with (-)-epicatechin. The semisynthetic mixtures were separated on a preparative scale using high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC). C4 → C8 linked dimeric procyanidins B1-B4 were isolated in amounts of 350-740 mg. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first study isolating dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 in large amounts with countercurrent chromatography. Moreover, the dimeric prodelphinidins B1, B2, and B3 and their structural elucidation by (1)H NMR spectroscopy without derivatization are described for hazelnuts as natural compounds for the first time.

  8. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  9. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poves, P. [Madrid Univ. Autonoma and IFT, UAM/CSIC, E-28049 (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  10. Biomineralisation in Mollusc shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Salomé, M.; Williams, C. T.

    2009-04-01

    The main components of Mollusc shells are carbonate minerals: calcite and aragonite. ACC is present in larval stages. Calcite and aragonite can be secreted simultaneously by the mantle. Despite the small number of varieties, the arrangement of the mineral components is diverse, and dependant upon the taxonomy. They are also associated with organic components much more diverse, the diversity of which reflects the large taxonomic diversity. From TGA analyses, the organic content (water included) is high (>5% in some layers). The biomineralisation process is not a passive precipitation process, but is strongly controlled by the organism. The biological-genetic control is shown by the constancy of the arrangement of the layers, the mineralogy and the microstructure in a given species. Microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.) have shapes that do not occur in non-biogenic counterparts. Nacreous tablets, for example, are flattened on their crystallographic c axis, which is normally the axis of maximum growth rate for non-biogenic aragonite. Morever, their inner structure is species-specific: the arrangements of nacreous tablets in Gastropoda - Cephalopoda, and in Bivalvia differ, and the inner arrangement of the nacreous tablets is different in ectocochlear and endocochlear Cephalopoda. The organic-mineral ratios also differ in the various layers of a shell. Differences in chemical composition also demonstrates the biological-genetic control: for example, aragonite has a low Sr content unknown in non-biogenic samples; two aragonitic layers in a shell have different Sr and Mg contents, S is higher in calcitic layers. Decalcification releases soluble (SOM) and insoluble (IOM) organic components. Insoluble components form the main part of the intercrystalline membranes, and contain proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Soluble phases are present within the crystals and the intercrystalline membranes. These phases are composed of more or less glycosylated proteins

  11. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    . This modelling technique is used to model a plate shell structure with a span of 11.5 meters in the FE software \\textsc{Abaqus}. The structure is analyzed with six different connection details with varying stiffness characteristics, to investigate the influence of these characteristics on the structural effects...... University, a script has been developed for an automated generation of a given plate shell geometry and a corresponding finite element (FE) model. A suitable FE modelling technique is proposed, suggesting a relatively simple method of modelling the connection detail's stiffness characteristics....... Based on these investigations, and FE analysis of other plate shell models, the structural behaviour is described. Possible methods of estimating the stresses in a given plate shell structure are proposed. The non-linear behaviour of a plate shell structure is investigated for varying parameters...

  12. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  13. Influence of Applying Foliar Fe Fertilizer to Hazelnut Tree on the Content of Nutritional Elements in the Leaves of Hybrid Hazelnut%叶面Fe肥对平欧杂种榛树营养元素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严令; 裴帅帅; 季兰

    2012-01-01

    为初步确定榛园榛树叶片黄化是否由缺Fe或缺Cu引起,对9个不同品种(系)、叶片黄化程度一致的平欧杂种榛树进行了叶面增施Fe肥处理,测定了处理前后榛树叶片内叶绿素和N、P、K、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、Mn、Zn的含量,并对两次测定结果进行了比较分析.结果表明,增施Fe肥能有效地使榛树黄化叶片转绿单独增施Fe肥效果优于合施Fe、Cu肥;增施Fe肥在一定程度上降低了黄化榛树叶片内K、Zn的含量.%In order to initially identified if the etiolation of hazelnut leaves in hazel park caused by the lack of Fe or Cu, nine varieties (lines) were used as materials. Foliar Fe fertilizer and Fe+Cu fertilizer were sprayed to etiolated hybrid hazelnut tree and the contents of chlorophyll and concentration of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn in the leaves both before and affter applying Fe fertilizer were tested. Two replicates were analyzed. The results showed that the Fe fertilizer could effectively promote hazelnut leaves turn green. The effect of applying Fe fertilizer in turning leaves green was better than that of applying Fe+Cu fertilizer. Applying Fe fertilizer significantly reduced the content of Zn and K in leaves.

  14. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  15. Pro Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Deshev, Hristo

    2008-01-01

    Targeted at professionals who handle a lot of repetitive tasks, this title serves as not only a tutorial, but also a reference. It shows how PowerShell can help professionals script most system administration tasks and reduce their burden.

  16. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  17. Patterning of the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-08-01

    Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits. The similarity and diversity of turtles allows research into how changes in development create evolutionary novelty, interacting modules, and adaptive physiology and anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rotating thin-shell wormhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovgun, A.

    2016-11-01

    We construct a rotating thin-shell wormhole using a Myers-Perry black hole in five dimensions, using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions. The stability of the wormhole is analyzed under perturbations. We find that exotic matter is required at the throat of the wormhole to keep it stable. Our analysis shows that stability of the rotating thin-shell wormhole is possible if suitable parameter values are chosen.

  19. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  20. Rotating Thin-Shell Wormhole

    CERN Document Server

    Ovgun, A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we construct rotating thin shell wormhole using a Myers-Perry black hole in five dimensions. The stability of the wormhole is analyzed under perturbations follows from the Darmois-Israel junction conditions. We find that it required exotic matter at the throat to keep throat of wormhole stable. Our analysis shows that the stability of the rotating thin-shell wormhole is available with choosing suitable values of parameters.

  1. Stellar Populations of Shell Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsten, S; Zenteno, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the inner (out to $\\sim$1 R$_{\\mathrm{eff}}$) stellar populations of 9 shell galaxies. We derive stellar population parameters from long slit spectra by both analyzing the Lick indices of the galaxies and by fitting Single Stellar Population model spectra to the full galaxy spectra. The results from the two methods agree reasonably well. Many of the shell galaxies in our sample appear to have lower central $\\mathrm{Mg}_{2}$ index values than non-shell galaxies of the same central velocity dispersion, which is likely due to a past interaction event. Our shell galaxy sample shows a relation between central metallicity and velocity dispersion that is consistent with previous samples of non-shell galaxies. Analyzing the metallicity gradients in our sample, we find an average metallicity gradient of -0.16$\\pm$0.10 dex per decade in radius. We compare this with formation models to constrain the merging history of shell galaxies. We argue that our galaxies likely have undergone major mergers in...

  2. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2012-09-04

    This paper constitutes the first steps in our work concerning isogeometric shell analysis. An isogeometric shell model of the Reissner-Mindlin type is introduced and a study of its accuracy in the classical pinched cylinder benchmark problem presented. In contrast to earlier works [1,2,3,4], the formulation is based on a shell model where the displacement, strain and stress fields are defined in terms of a curvilinear coordinate system arising from the NURBS description of the shell middle surface. The isogeometric shell formulation is implemented using the PetIGA and igakit software packages developed by the authors. The igakit package is a Python package used to generate NURBS representations of geometries that can be utilised by the PetIGA finite element framework. The latter utilises data structures and routines of the portable, extensible toolkit for scientific computation (PETSc), [5,6]. The current shell implementation is valid for static, linear problems only, but the software package is well suited for future extensions to geometrically and materially nonlinear regime as well as to dynamic problems. The accuracy of the approach in the pinched cylinder benchmark problem and present comparisons against the h-version of the finite element method with bilinear elements. Quadratic, cubic and quartic NURBS discretizations are compared against the isoparametric bilinear discretization introduced in [7]. The results show that the quadratic and cubic NURBS approximations exhibit notably slower convergence under uniform mesh refinement as the thickness decreases but the quartic approximation converges relatively quickly within the standard variational framework. The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  3. The resistance of hazel (Corylus avellana L. to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Part I. Evaluation of the resistance of several cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Piskornik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of 5 year investigations (1981-1985 considerable differences were found in the resistance of 24 hazel cultivars to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L.. The resistance was determined on the basis of the percentage of nuts damaged by larvae in the total yield. Six classes of resistance were established, from class I - very resistant cultivars, to class VI - very susceptible cultivars. In feeding experiments a positive correlation, significant at the 1% and 5% level was found between the frequency of beetle feeding on hazel fruitlets during the time of oviposition (July, and the class of resistance of cultivars; a negative correlation between these parameters was found in August, i.e. during hatching and development of larvae in the nuts. In July the beetles fed more readily and more frequently on nuts of susceptible cultivars, whereas they avoided them in August, i.e. in the period when larvae developed in many fruits of these cultivars.

  4. Biological Characteristics and Control Measures of Hazelnut weevil%榛实象甲的生物学特性及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 钟思兰; 刘剑锋

    2016-01-01

    The harm, morphological characteristics, and life history of Hazelnut weevil were introduced firstly, and then some measures to pre-vent and control H.weevil by chemical agents, artificially killing, forest management, and biological control were proposed.%分析了榛实象甲给我国榛子产业造成的危害,介绍了棒实象甲的形态特征和生活史,并有针对性地提出了化学药剂防治、人工捕杀、营林措施、生物防治等榛实象甲综合防治措施。

  5. Giffonins A-I, antioxidant cyclized diarylheptanoids from the leaves of the hazelnut tree (Corylus avellana), source of the Italian PGI product "Nocciola di Giffoni".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masullo, Milena; Cerulli, Antonietta; Olas, Beata; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2015-01-23

    Eight new diaryl ether heptanoids, giffonins A-H (1-8), and one diaryl heptanoid, giffonin I (9), were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Corylus avellana. Its hazelnut is the PGI product of the Campania region (Italy) known as "Nocciola di Giffoni". The MeOH extract of C. avellana leaves and giffonins A-I (1-9) were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on human plasma lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 and H2O2/Fe(2+), by measuring the concentration of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances). Compounds 4 and 8 at 10 μM reduced both H2O2- and H2O2/Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation by more than 60% and 50%, respectively, indicating higher activity than curcumin used as reference compound.

  6. STUDY ON THE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY AND STABILITY OF HAZELNUT MILK BEVERAGE%榛子乳饮料加工工艺及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延辉; 郑凤荣; 牛长鑫

    2009-01-01

    To studied on the vegetable protein beverage processing technology and its stability with hazelnuts as the main raw materials. The stability of the hazelnut milk drink was studied as using CMC, carrageenan,xanthan gum, and Tween 80. The experiments showed that the best results of stability was that the carrageenan 0.08 percent, guar gum 0.08 percent, sucrose fatty acid ester 0.1 percent as stabilizer; the optimum homogeneous conditions technological parameters was 70℃, 35 MPa; the best sterilizational condition was 121℃, 20 min of high temperature and high pressure.%研究以棒子为主要原料的植物蛋白饮料的加工工艺及其稳定性.着重对CMC、卡拉胶、黄原胶等单一稳定剂,单甘脂、蔗糖脂、吐温80等乳化剂及乳化稳定剂在棒子乳饮料中的稳定效果进行研究.试验表明,在棒子乳饮料中0.08%卡拉胶、0.08%瓜尔豆胶、0.1%蔗糖脂,0.15%复合稳定剂效果最佳;70℃、35 MPa的条件均质有较好的效果;采用121℃、20 min的高温高压杀菌.

  7. 榛子木质化花柱软化方法的改进%Improvement of Lignified Style Softening Method in Hazelnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云清; 张会弟; 刘剑锋

    2015-01-01

    以野生平榛( C。heterophylla Fisch。)雌花序为供试材料,研究榛子木质化花柱软化的方法。结果表明:(1)1。0 mol/L NaOH溶液浸泡并煮沸比相同处理下蒸馏水的软化效果好;(2)1。0 mol/L NaOH溶液浸泡材料并立即水煮软化20 min后的软化效果优于其他处理时间;(3)苯胺蓝染色环境的缓冲液最佳pH范围为5。7至7。1。此改进方法可以在一天内即可完成榛子花粉管形态的观察,较传统软化方法简单、快捷。%Pistilate flower of wild hazelnut ( C.heterophylla Fisch.) was used as study materials to improve style softening method.The results showed that:(1) 1.0 mol/L boiling NaOH solution soaking was more beneficial for softening of style compared with boiling distilled water;(2) the optimal treatment time was 20 min in 1.0 mol/L boiling NaOH solution;(3) The suitable buffer pH of aniline blue solution ranged from 5.7 to 7.1.After improvement,morphology of pollen tubes of hazelnut could be observed clearly within one day .Thus,this method is more simple and efficient than the traditional one .

  8. ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC PROBLEMS FOR LINEARLY ELASTIC SHELLS JUSTIFICATION OF EQUATIONS FOR DYNAMIC KOITER SHELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the dynamic equatioins of membrane shells and the dynamic equations of flexural shells are obtained from dynamic equations of Koiter shells by the method of asymptotic analysis.

  9. Hazelnut factory workers in working in the evaluation of the frequency of obesity and healthy life habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim:In this study, hazelnuts healthy lifestyle habits of workers in the factories and to evaluate the obesity situation is made in accordance with the principles of descriptive study. Method:This research was carried out between 01.06.2014-13.06.2014 nuts in a factory in Ordu. The scope of research targeted to participate in all but 19 of the 139 workers in this factory workers did not accept the research and the research was conducted with 120 people due to lack of work (86.33% of the population.Has been adopted in this study is completely voluntary, workers who want to participate were excluded from the scope.The demographic characteristics of the data workers in the study, the questionnaire consists of questions including healthy lifestyle habits and by the Spring and friends adapted into Turkish in 2008, Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale II was collected through. Scale is also based on body mass index to assess obesity in the WHO classification of obesity (BMI is used. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software package. To evaluate the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analysis was used by Mann Whitney U tests. Results:120 individuals participated in the study 16.7% male and 83.3% female.Their age is between the ages of 19-61, it was found that the average age was of 37.3 +/- 11.1. The average size of the individual 163.3 +/- 5.4 and the average weight was found to be 75.6 +/- 14.1. Considering the 24.2% of individuals of normal weight and body mass index, 42.5% overweight and 29.2% obese and morbidly obese has been found to be 4.2%. Responsibility of female health workers, nutrition, the scores obtained in the stress management and HPLP be higher than male workers and found the results to be statistically significant difference(p>0.01, p>0.05, p>0.05, p=0.01. When workers BMI According to a healthy lifestyle behaviors are examined, it was found as a result of all the dimensions of the scale of workers with normal

  10. Black hole entropy off-shell vs on-shell

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V P; Zelnikov, A I

    1996-01-01

    Different methods of calculation of quantum corrections to the thermodynamical characteristics of a black hole are discussed and compared. The relation between on-shell and off-shell approaches is established. The off-shell methods are used to explicitly demonstrate that the thermodynamical entropy S^{TD} of a black hole, defined by the first thermodynamical law, differs from the statistical-mechanical entropy S^{SM}, determined as S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}^H\\ln\\hat{\\rho}^H) for the density matrix \\hat{\\rho}^H of a black hole. It is shown that the observable thermodynamical black hole entropy can be presented in the form S^{TD}=\\pi {\\bar r}_+^2+S^{SM}-S^{SM}_{Rindler}. Here {\\bar r}_+ is the radius of the horizon shifted because of the quantum backreaction effect, and S^{SM}_{Rindler} is the statistical-mechanical entropy calculated in the Rindler space.

  11. Studies on Thin-shells and Thin-shell Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Övgün, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The study of traversable wormholes is very hot topic for the past 30 years. One of the best possible way to make traversable wormhole is using the thin-shells to cut and paste two spacetime which has tunnel from one region of space-time to another, through which a traveler might freely pass in wormhole throat. These geometries need an exotic matter which involves a stress-energy tensor that violates the null energy condition. However, this method can be used to minimize the amount of the exotic matter. The goal of this thesis study is to study on thin-shell and thin-shell wormholes in general relativity in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. We also investigate the stability of such objects.

  12. Shell-model calculations for p-shell hypernuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Millener, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of hypernuclear gamma-ray data for p-shell hypernuclei in terms of shell-model calculations that include the coupling of Lambda- and Sigma-hypernuclear states is briefly reviewed. Next, Lambda 8Li, Lambda 8Be, and Lambda 9Li are considered, both to exhibit features of Lambda-Sigma coupling and as possible source of observed, but unassigned, hypernuclear gamma rays. Then, the feasibility of measuring the ground-state doublet spacing of Lambda 10Be, which, like Lambda 9Li, co...

  13. 榛子果实发育中氮·磷元素动态变化%Dynamics and Crrelation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus of a Hazelnut Fruit During its Development Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丽红; 翟秋喜

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究榛子果实发育过程矿物质的动态变化.[方法]研究3个榛子杂交品系果实发育中,氮、磷含量的动态变化规律.[结果]幼果迅速发育期和果仁发育期是榛子果实吸收、累积矿质元素的关键期.3个杂交品系中,氮素的变化规律为前期下降-中期平缓-后期快速增加,磷素的变化规律为前期下降-中期稳定-后期先快速增加,后快速下降.[结论]该研究为保证榛子果实发育中营养元素的合理补充提供理论依据.%[Objective] This paper studied the dynamics of mineral substance in development course of hazelnut fruit. [Method]The dynamics and correlation of nitrogen, phosphorus were analyzed during the development course of three crossbred of hazelnut. [ Result] The young fruit rapid growth stage and kernel development stage were the critical periods for the absorption and accumulation of mineral elements. In the three crossbred of hazelnut, the content variation of nitrogen followed the pattern-decreased in prophase-constant in metaphase-increased markedly in ana-phase, phosphorus followed the pattern-decreased in prophase-constant in metaphase-increased rapidly first, then decreased rapidly in anaphase. [Conclusion]The study provided theoretical basis for the rational supplement of nutrient elements in the development of hazelnut fruit.

  14. 微波辅助提取榛子叶多糖提取工艺研究%Study on the Technology of Microwave-assisted Extraction of Hazelnut Leaf Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申希峰; 林松; 张莲姬

    2016-01-01

    With petroleum ether and 95% ethanol treated hazelnut leaf powder as raw material, microwave-assisted extraction of hazelnut leaf polysaccharide was studied. The impact of leaching temperature, leaching time, the solid-liquid ratio and microwave processing time on polysaccharide yield of hazelnut leaf were investigated. As the result, the optimum conditions obtained by L9(34 ) orthogonal experiment were as follows:leaching temperature was 60 ℃, leaching time was 2 h, solid-liquid ratio was 1:25 ( w:V) , microwave processing time was 3 min. Under the above conditions, the polysaccharide yield of hazelnut leaf was 2. 67%.%以经石油醚和95%乙醇处理过的榛子叶粉为原料,主要研究微波辅助提取榛子叶多糖的工艺条件。分别考察了浸提温度、浸提时间、料液比、微波处理时间对榛子叶多糖得率的影响,并采用L9(34)正交试验优化提取工艺,最后得出的最佳提取工艺条为:浸提温度为60℃,浸提时间为2 h,料液比为1:25( w:V),微波处理时间为3 min,此条件下榛子叶多糖得率为2.67%。

  15. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome

    2011-01-01

    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  16. Shell Models of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Plunian, Franck; Frick, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Shell models of hydrodynamic turbulence originated in the seventies. Their main aim was to describe the statistics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in spectral space, using a simple set of ordinary differential equations. In the eighties, shell models of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence emerged based on the same principles as their hydrodynamic counter-part but also incorporating interactions between magnetic and velocity fields. In recent years, significant improvements have been made such as the inclusion of non-local interactions and appropriate definitions for helicities. Though shell models cannot account for the spatial complexity of MHD turbulence, their dynamics are not over simplified and do reflect those of real MHD turbulence including intermittency or chaotic reversals of large-scale modes. Furthermore, these models use realistic values for dimensionless parameters (high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers, low or high magnetic Prandtl number) allowing extended inertial range and accu...

  17. AI-Based Diagnostic Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verma

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper datails the design and implementation of an AI-based diagnostic shell. The shell has a user-interface which takes in the complaint and aids the user throughout the consultation. The 'expert knowledge' is acquired and encoded in the form of 'IF-THEN' rules, The control mechanism routes through the rules chaining first backwards to identify a fault and then forwards to confirm it.Explanation facilities have been provided to enable the user query the reason for any question asked, a facility to go back and re-answer any previous question, and a trace and explanation of the path of reasoning.This shell was developed and first used for the diagnosis of a digital exchange. It was then applied for the fault-finding of the moving target indicator used in the radar.

  18. Asymptotic safety goes on shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Dario

    2012-01-01

    It is well known in quantum field theory that the off-shell effective action depends on the gauge choice and field parametrization used in calculating it. Nevertheless, the typical scheme in which the scenario of asymptotically safe gravity is investigated is an off-shell version of the functional renormalization group equation. Working with the Einstein-Hilbert truncation as a test bed, we develop a new scheme for the analysis of asymptotically safe gravity in which the on-shell part of the effective action is singled out and we show that the beta function for the essential coupling has no explicit gauge dependence. In order to reach our goal, we introduce several technical novelties, including a different decomposition of the metric fluctuations, a new implementation of the ghost sector and a new cut-off scheme. We find a nontrivial fixed point, with a value of the cosmological constant that is independent of the gauge-fixing parameters.

  19. Survey and Thinking of Wild Hazelnut Resources in Guizhou Karst Mountainous Area%贵州喀斯特山区野生榛子资源概况调查及思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琴; 符裕红; 颜世龙; 彭延英; 杨云彩

    2012-01-01

    As investigated,the wild hazelnut resources in Guizhou karst mountainous area are mainly distributed in West and Southwest Guizhou Province, and in the regions of Xingren, Pu ' an, Anlong, Panxian, Xianning, etc. . The wild hazelnut resources were the richest in Southwest Guizhou Province, and then followed by that in Iiupanshui, but their utilization was very limited. In this paper, the distribution regions, living environment, accompanying plants,and utilization status of the wild hazelnut resources were investigated,and some suggestions were proposed according to the actual situation.%经调查,贵州省喀斯特山区野生榛子资源分布于贵州西部及西南部,主要分布在兴仁、普安、安龙、盘县、威宁等地区.其中黔西南州野生榛子资源最为丰富,六盘水次之,但利用都十分有限.笔者主要对贵州喀斯特山区野生榛子分布区域、生存环境、伴生植物、利用状况等进行详细调查,并根据实际情况提出利用建议.

  20. Nutrients of Wild Hazelnut in Karst Mountains of Guizhou Province%贵州喀斯特山区野生榛子营养成分含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琴; 符裕红; 赵同贵; 黄蔚

    2015-01-01

    采用食品安全国家标准中相关测定方法,对贵州喀斯特山区野生榛子18个样品的营养成分进行测定,结果显示,贵州喀斯特山区的野生榛子皮厚、出仁率低,但榛仁中能量、总碳水化合物、蛋白质、灰分、脂肪等营养成分丰富,尤其是VA、VE较丰富,为贵州喀斯特山区野生榛子营养成分相关性分析及后期品种选育提供了依据。%This paper tested nutrients of 18 wild hazelnut samples from the karst mountains of Guizhou Province according to the specifications in national food safety standards. The results showed that wild hazelnuts in the local area have thicker skin and lower rate of kernel production,but have richer nutrients such as energy,total carbohydrate,protein,ash content,and fat, especially VA and VE. The research provides references for the nutrient correlation analysis and later variety breeding of wild hazelnuts in karst mountains of Guizhou.

  1. Prevalence of anisotropic shell growth in rare earth core-shell upconversion nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Lee, Jim Yang

    2013-05-28

    Through a series of carefully executed experiments, we discovered the prevalence of anisotropic shell growth in many upconversion NaREF4 systems caused by a combination of factors: selective adsorption of ligands on the core surface due to the core crystal structure, ligand etching, and the lattice mismatch between core and shell components. This could lead to incomplete shell formation in core-shell nanocrystals under certain conditions. Shell growth is always faster in the a and b crystallographic directions than in the c direction. In the case of a larger lattice mismatch between the core and shell, shell growth only occurs in the a and b directions resulting in an oblong core-shell structure. These findings are useful for rationalizing shell-dependent emission properties, understanding the emission mechanisms in complex core-shell nanostructures, and for creating accurate models of core-shell designs for multifunctionality and optimal performance in applications.

  2. Stability of facetted translation shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik; Vanggaard, Ole

    2004-01-01

    This article is discussing the spatial stability i.e. rigidity of double curved shell surfaces under different support conditions. It is based upon a method developed by Henrik Almegaard, as part of the theory concerning the stringer system (ALM04a).......This article is discussing the spatial stability i.e. rigidity of double curved shell surfaces under different support conditions. It is based upon a method developed by Henrik Almegaard, as part of the theory concerning the stringer system (ALM04a)....

  3. Learning Shell scripting with Zsh

    CERN Document Server

    Festari, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial that will teach you, through real-world examples, how to configure and use Zsh and its various features. If you are a system administrator, developer, or computer professional involved with UNIX who are looking to improve on their daily tasks involving the UNIX shell, ""Learning Shell Scripting with Zsh"" will be great for you. It's assumed that you have some familiarity with an UNIX command-line interface and feel comfortable with editors such as Emacs or vi.

  4. Design of a stabilizing shell for KTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Wei [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Li, Hong, E-mail: honglee@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Tan, Mingsheng; Lu, Mingjian; Wu, Yanqi; Mao, Wenzhe; Bai, Wei; Tu, Cui; Luo, Bing; Li, Zichao; Adil, Yolbarsop; Hu, Jintong [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Song, Yuntao; Yang, Qingxi; Zhang, Ping [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, Jinlin; Lan, Tao; Liu, Adi [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ding, Weixing [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Xiao, Chijin [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, SK S7 N 5N2 (Canada); and others

    2016-10-15

    The conductive shell in reversed field pinch devices plays an important role in controlling plasma and in suppressing MHD instabilities. The shell in the Keda torus experiment reversed field pinch (KTX-RFP) device includes a 6-mm stainless steel vacuum chamber and a 1.5-mm stabilizing copper shell. This stabilizing shell has both poloidal and toroidal gaps to allow a coupling of electromagnetic energy to the plasma. Nevertheless, any gaps in this shell generate error fields. A 3D electromagnetic field model has been used to study effects of the gap on the shell. Using off-center current filaments instead of the distributed plasma current density, numerical analyses render the induced current distribution on the stabilizing shell and the resultant error field distribution at a specific frequency. From the analyses and comparisons of different configurations for the stabilizing shell, a suitable shell design is chosen consisting of three sections: one primary shell, two poloidal shield shells, and two toroidal shield shells. Moreover, the time evolution of the magnetic field inside and outside the stabilizing shell was obtained for this design and the dependence of the magnetic field penetration time on mode number and location has been investigated.

  5. Method and apparatus for an inflatable shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of assembling an inflatable shell of a structure comprises folding a plurality of shell sections about a set of fold lines and integrating the plurality of shell sections together with one another to form the shell. In another embodiment, an inflatable shell comprises a plurality of shell sections, each shell section having two pairs of fold lines for folding into stowage comprising a first gore section having a plurality of first gore panels layered and collectively folded about at a first set of fold lines. Each layer of the first gore panels and second gore panels are configured such that, once the first gore panel and second gore panel are attached to one another at the respective side edges of each panel, the lines of attachment forming a second set of fold lines for the shell section. A system and method for fabricating gore panels is also disclosed.

  6. Statistical mechanics of thin spherical shells

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmrlj, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes and the local out-of-plane undulations, leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated "pressure". Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows non-linearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power law expone...

  7. Üretim İşletmelerine Ait Fındık Bahçelerine İlişkin Mali İşlemlerin Türkiye Muhasebe Standartları (TMS Çerçevesinde Muhasebeleştirilmesi: Durak Fındık A.Ş. Örneği(The Accounting of Financial Transactions about Hazelnut Groves That Belong To The Manufacturing Companies in Terms of Turkish Accounting Standards (TAS: The Sample of Durak Hazelnut Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAZARKAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Once the TAS 41 “Agriculture” standard which mentions the regulation of accounting transactions about agricultural activities became valid for the first time in 2006 in Turkey, biological assets and the living assets that are used to grow those assets began to be accounted within the scope of this law. The legal practice was valid until 2014 but after a revision of the TAS 41, the concept of “bearer plant” was added to the standard in 2014.Bearer plants, unlike the living * Yrd. Doç. Dr., Ordu Üniversitesi Ünye İİBF, İşletme Bölümü, hayazarkan@gmail.com H.Yazarkan / Üretim İşletmelerine Ait Fındık Bahçelerine İlişkin Mali İşlemlerin Türkiye Muhasebe Standartları (TMS Çerçevesinde Muhasebeleştirilmesi: Durak Fındık A.Ş. Örneği 410 assets, are the plants or the plant communities which has remote possibility of being sold as agricultural produce, except for incidental scrap sales. The bearer plants which have this property came under the TAS 16 “Tangible” standards with the amendment. The study bring out the hazelnut farming which is a type of herbal production. As a biological asset hazelnut fruit is derived from the filbert and filberts fully comply with the all properties of the bearer plants which are defined in TAS 41. So filberts are described as bearer plants in the study. The aim of the study is to offer suggestions about which accounting transactions should be done coherently to the TAS from capitalization the multi-stemmed shrubs to end of term assessment and evaluation for manufacturing companies dealing with hazelnut cultivation. For this reason, it is carried out the case study method in the research and submitted samples for the practice based on real data of a hazelnut grove whose owner is Durak Hazelnut Corporation, one of the important companies in hazelnut industry in Turkey. In the study results, in general it is found that the filberts classified as bearer plants have a separate value

  8. Shell Global Solutions Ready to Benefit China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Thanks to rising oil prices, Global oil giant Royal Dutch Shell has made huge profits - $9 billion - last quarter. Yet the oil giant's main profits come from the exploration of crude oil. Shell Global Solution (SGS),a unit of Shell, is also focusing on providing advanced technology to help Shell's petroleum-related industry segments and its third-party customers to deal with the high price of fossil fuel.

  9. Euclidean Approach for Entropy of Black Shells

    CERN Document Server

    S., J Robel Arenas

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of black shell, consisting on a massive thin spherical shell contracting toward its gravitational radius from the point of view of an external observer far from the shell, in order to effectively model the gravitational collapse. Considering complementary description of entanglement entropy of a black shell and according to Gibbons-Hawking Euclidean approach, we calculate the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy retrieving horizon integral and discarding boundary at infinity.

  10. 响应面法优化碱性蛋白酶提取榛子油工艺%Optimization on Alcalase extraction conditions of hazelnut oil by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜男; 江连洲; 李杨; 李丹丹; 刘琪; 王梅

    2011-01-01

    采用Alcalase碱性蛋白酶水酶法提取榛子油,以提油率为指标,对影响提油率的各个因素进行了研究,并用响应面法优化了提油工艺.F检验可以得到因素影响大小顺序为:酶解时间>加酶量>料液比>酶解温度>酶解pH.得到优化酶解条件为:加酶量1.6%,酶解温度51℃,酶解时间1.9h,料液比1∶5.6,酶解pH 10.在优化酶解条件下,榛子提油率可达92.92%.同时测得榛子油的棕榈酸含量4.33%,油酸67.10%,亚油酸0.09%,亚麻酸0.09%,硬脂酸1.165%.%Hazelnut oil was extracted from hazelnut kernel by aqueous enzymatic method. The effects of different factors on the total extraction rate of hazelnut oil were studied. Then, response surface methodology was applied to optimize the extraction conditions. The effects of five factors on oil extraction rate in descending order were hydrolysis time > enzyme (Alcalase) amount > ratio of solid to liquid > hydrolysis temperature >pH. The optimum conditions were; enzyme amount 1.6% , hydrolysis temperature 511, time 1.9 h, ratio of solid to liquid 1 = 5.6, pH 10. Under the optimum conditions, the total extraction rate of hazelnut oil reached 92. 92%. The content of fatty acid in hazelnut oil were as follows: palmitic acid 4. 33% , oleic acid 67. 10% , linoleic acid 0.09% , linolenic acid 0.09% , stearic acid 1.165%.

  11. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  12. Observability inequalities for thin shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴树根; 姚鹏飞

    2003-01-01

    We consider the exact controllability problem from boundary for thin shells. Under some check-able geometric assumptions on the middle surface, we establish the observability inequalities via the Bochnertechnique for the Dirichlet control and the Neumann control problems. We also give several examples to verifythe geometric assumptions.

  13. Shell morphology of core-shell latexes based on conductive polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F.M; Vercauteren, F.F.; de Ruiter, B.; Kalicharan, D; Hadziioannou, G

    Core-shell latexes with a conductive shell can be used to prepare transparent conducting layers. We have focussed on the relation between the conducting polymer content and the shell morphology and on its influence on conductivity. At low polypyrrole (PPy) concentrations the shell has a smooth

  14. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is...

  15. Shell China Promotes Localization of Employees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Shell China Limited's Executive Chairman Lim Haw Kuang is unquestionably an effective reformer for the Beijing-based company. He localized Shell China Limited's leadership team with Chinese employees going from zero to a majority in three years, and engineered the turnaround of Shell's business in China.

  16. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means...

  17. Shell Expands Polystyrene Joint Venture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ Shell China Ltd. and Shell China Holdings BV, both wholly owned subsidiaries and part of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies, have signed a joint-venture agreement with Jinling Petrochemical Corporation (JPC) on October 17, 1997, in Nanjing, the East China's Jiangsu Province.

  18. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  19. Effective Finite Elements for Shell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-20

    conjunction with a shallow shell theory . It 2 should be noteJ that contrary to the results of earlier investigators [12,19], use of a shallow shell theory in...the inadequacy of the shallow shell theory for the relatively deep element emerging from such a coarse mesh. A considerable improvement is obtained

  20. Vibrations of cantilevered circular cylindrical shells Shallow versus deep shell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. K.; Leissa, A. W.; Wang, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Free vibrations of cantilevered circular cylindrical shells having rectangular planforms are studied in this paper by means of the Ritz method. The deep shell theory of Novozhilov and Goldenveizer is used and compared with the usual shallow shell theory for a wide range of shell parameters. A thorough convergence study is presented along with comparisons to previously published finite element solutions and experimental results. Accurately computed frequency parameters and mode shapes for various shell configurations are presented. The present paper appears to be the first comprehensive study presenting rigorous comparisons between the two shell theories in dealing with free vibrations of cantilevered cylindrical shells.

  1. Pro Bash Programming Scripting the Linux Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Chris FA

    2010-01-01

    The bash shell is a complete programming language, not merely a glue to combine external Linux commands. By taking full advantage of shell internals, shell programs can perform as snappily as utilities written in C or other compiled languages. And you will see how, without assuming Unix lore, you can write professional bash 4.0 programs through standard programming techniques. *Complete bash coverage*Teaches bash as a programming language*Helps you master bash 4.0 features What you'll learn*Use the shell to write new utilities and accomplish most programming tasks.*Use shell parameter expansio

  2. Design aids for stiffened composite shells with cutouts

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sarmila

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the free vibrations of graphite-epoxy laminated composite stiffened shells with cutout both in terms of the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The dynamic analysis of shell structures, which may have complex geometry and arbitrary loading and boundary conditions, is solved efficiently by the finite element method, even including cutouts in shells. The results may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite shells with cutouts. Several shell forms viz. cylindrical shell, hypar shell, conoidal shell, spherical shell, saddle shell, hyperbolic paraboloidal shell and elliptic paraboloidal shell are considered in the book. The dynamic characteristics of stiffened composite shells with cutout are described in terms of the natural frequency and mode shapes. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge constraints of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite shells. The effects of these parametric variat...

  3. Shell Model Depiction of Isospin Mixing in sd Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Yi Hua; Smirnova, Nadya A. [CENBG (CNRS/IN2P3 - Universite Bordeaux 1) Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Caurier, Etienne [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite Louis Pasteur, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2011-11-30

    We constructed a new empirical isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) Hamiltonian in the sd(1s{sub 1/2}, 0d{sub 5/2} and 0d{sub 3/2}) shell-model space. In this contribution, we present its application to two important case studies: (i){beta}-delayed proton emission from {sup 22}Al and (ii) isospin-mixing correction to superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-decay ft-values.

  4. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  5. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  6. Turbine blade with spar and shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel O [Palm City, FL; Peterson, Ross H [Loxahatchee, FL

    2012-04-24

    A turbine blade with a spar and shell construction in which the spar and the shell are both secured within two platform halves. The spar and the shell each include outward extending ledges on the bottom ends that fit within grooves formed on the inner sides of the platform halves to secure the spar and the shell against radial movement when the two platform halves are joined. The shell is also secured to the spar by hooks extending from the shell that slide into grooves formed on the outer surface of the spar. The hooks form a serpentine flow cooling passage between the shell and the spar. The spar includes cooling holes on the lower end in the leading edge region to discharge cooling air supplied through the platform root and into the leading edge cooling channel.

  7. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  8. Shell Evolutions and Nuclear Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Sorlin, O

    2014-01-01

    During the last 30 years, and more specifically during the last 10 years, many experiments have been carried out worldwide using different techniques to study the shell evolution of nuclei far from stability. What seemed not conceivable some decades ago became rather common: all known magic numbers that are present in the valley of stability disappear far from stability and are replaced by new ones at the drip line. By gathering selected experimental results, beautifully consistent pictures emerge, that very likely take root in the properties of the nuclear forces.The present manuscript describes some of these discoveries and proposes an intuitive understanding of these shell evolutions derived from observations. Extrapolations to yet unstudied regions, as where the explosive r-process nucleosynthesis occurs, are proposed. Some remaining challenges and puzzling questions are also addressed.

  9. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, R. L.; Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres, which are used for inertial-confinement fusion targets, are formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a drop-tower furnace. The modelling of this gel-to-sphere transformation has consisted of three phases: gel thermochemistry, furnance-to-gel heat transfer, and gravity-driven degradation of the concentricity of the molten shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the free-falling gel particle was modelled with forced convection. The gel mass, dimensions, and specific heat as well as furnace temperature profile and furnace gas conductivity, were controlled variables. This model has been experimentally verified. In the third phase, a mathematical model was developed to describe the gravity-driven degradation of concentricity in molten glass shells.

  10. Deformed two center shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Gherghescu, R A

    2003-01-01

    A highly specialized two-center shell model has been developed accounting for the splitting of a deformed parent nucleus into two ellipsoidaly deformed fragments. The potential is based on deformed oscillator wells in direct correspondance with the shape change of the nuclear system. For the first time a potential responsible for the necking part between the fragments is introduced on potential theory basis. As a direct consequence, spin-orbit {\\bf ls} and {\\bf l$^2$} operators are calculated as shape dependent. Level scheme evolution along the fission path for pairs of ellipsoidaly deformed fragments is calculated. The Strutinsky method yields the shell corrections for different mass asymmetries from the superheavy nucleus $^{306}$122 and $^{252}$Cf all along the splitting process.

  11. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  12. Stochastic Analysis of Cylindrical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywiński Maksym

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with some chosen aspects of stochastic structural analysis and its application in the engineering practice. The main aim of the study is to apply the generalized stochastic perturbation techniques based on classical Taylor expansion with a single random variable for solution of stochastic problems in structural mechanics. The study is illustrated by numerical results concerning an industrial thin shell structure modeled as a 3-D structure.

  13. Asymptotic safety goes on shell

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Dario

    2011-01-01

    It is well known in quantum field theory that the off-shell effective action depends on the gauge choice and field parametrization used in calculating it. Nevertheless, the typical scheme in which the scenario of asymptotically safe gravity is investigated is an off-shell version of the functional renormalization group equation. Working with the Einstein-Hilbert truncation as a test bed, we develop a new scheme for the analysis of asymptotically safe gravity in which the on-shell part of the effective action is singled out and we show that the beta function for the essential coupling has no explicit gauge-dependence. In order to reach our goal, we introduce several technical novelties, including a different decomposition of the metric fluctuations, a new implementation of the ghost sector, and a new cut-off scheme. We find a non-trivial fixed point, with a value of the cosmological constant which is independent of the gauge-fixing parameters.

  14. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations of co-combustion of hazelnut hull and coal blends: Data-driven modeling and response surface optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukada, Musa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the thermogravimetric behaviour of the co-combustion of hazelnut hull (HH) and coal blends using three approaches: multi non-linear regression (MNLR) modeling based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) (1), optimization based on response surface methodology (RSM) (2), and probabilistic uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation as a function of blend ratio, heating rate, and temperature (3). The response variable was predicted by the best-fit MNLR model with a predicted regression coefficient (R(2)pred) of 99.5%. Blend ratio of 90/10 (HH to coal, %wt), temperature of 405°C, and heating rate of 44°Cmin(-1) were determined as RSM-optimized conditions with a mass loss of 87.4%. The validation experiments with three replications were performed for justifying the predicted-mass loss percentage and 87.5%±0.2 of mass loss were obtained under RSM-optimized conditions. The probabilistic uncertainty analysis were performed by using Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. The comparative analysis of anatomical traits of four largefruited hazelnut cultivars showing different susceptibility to filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli Goetze feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations related to morphological and anatomical traits of leaves of four largefruited hazelnut (Corylus L. cultivars characterised by different susceptibility to filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli Goetze feeding. The following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the number of stomata, the length of secretory and mechanical hairs and their density on the leaf, the thickness of adaxial and abaxial epidermis and the thickness of their external cell walls. Observations of cross sections of the leaves were made in a light microscope and the surface of the adaxial epidermis was analysed in a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that leaves of the cultivars susceptible to M. coryli feeding had the thinnest leaf blade, especially in the main vein, and many more stomata. Besides, the cultivar most resistant to filbert aphid feeding, White Filbert, was marked by the largest height of the adaxial epidermis cells and the strongest striation of the cuticle in abaxial epidermis. On leaves of this cultivar, the number of mechanical hairs was the highest, while the lowest number of them was noted on Wonder from Bollwiller, the most susceptible cultivar.

  16. Shape-tunable core-shell microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthias K; Saenger, Nicolai R; Schuetter, Stefan; Pfleiderer, Patrick; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2014-10-28

    Colloidal polymer particles are an important class of materials finding use in both everyday and basic research applications. Tailoring their composition, shape, and functionality is of key importance. In this article, we describe a new class of shape-tunable core-shell microparticles. They are composed of a cross-linked polystyrene (PS) core and a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell of varying thickness. In the first step, we prepared highly cross-linked PS cores, which are subsequently transferred into a nonpolar dispersant. They serve as the seed dispersion for a nonaqueous dispersion polymerization to generate the PMMA shell. The shape of the particles can subsequently be manipulated. After the shell growth stage, the spherical PS/PMMA core-shell colloids exhibit an uneven and wrinkled surface. An additional tempering procedure allows for smoothing the surface of the core-shell colloids. This results in polymer core-shell particles with a perfectly spherical shape. In addition to this thermal smoothing of the PMMA shell, we generated a selection of shape-anisotropic core-shell particles using a thermomechanical stretching procedure. Because of the unique constitution, we can selectively interrogate molecular vibrations in the PS core or the PMMA shell of the colloids using nonlinear optical microscopy techniques. This is of great interest because no photobleaching occurs, such that the particles can be tracked in real space over long times.

  17. Mussel Shell Impaction in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmin Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mussels are commonly used in cooking around the world. The mussel shell breaks more easily than other shells, and the edge of the broken mussel shell is sharp. Impaction can ultimately cause erosion, perforation and fistula. Aside from these complications, the pain can be very intense. Therefore, it is essential to verify and remove the shell as soon as possible. In this report we describe the process of diagnosing and treating mussel shell impaction in the esophagus. Physicians can overlook this unusual foreign body impaction due to lack of experience. When physicians encounter a patient with severe chest pain after a meal with mussels, mussel shell impaction should be considered when diagnosing and treating the patient.

  18. Flow past a porous approximate spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasacharya, D.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the creeping flow of an incompressible viscous liquid past a porous approximate spherical shell is considered. The flow in the free fluid region outside the shell and in the cavity region of the shell is governed by the Navier Stokes equation. The flow within the porous annulus region of the shell is governed by Darcy’s Law. The boundary conditions used at the interface are continuity of the normal velocity, continuity of the pressure and Beavers and Joseph slip condition. An exact solution for the problem is obtained. An expression for the drag on the porous approximate spherical shell is obtained. The drag experienced by the shell is evaluated numerically for several values of the parameters governing the flow.

  19. SPSM and its application in cylindrical shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Wu; ZHOU Su-lian; PENG Hui

    2008-01-01

    In naval architectures, the structure of prismatic shell is used widely. But there is no suitable method to analyze this kind of structure. Stiffened prismatic shell method (SPSM) presented in this paper, is one of the harmonic semi-analytic methods. Theoretically, strong stiffened structure can be analyzed economically and accurately. SPSM is based on the analytical solution of the governing differential equations for orthotropic cylindrical shells. In these differential equations, the torsional stiffness, bending stiffness and the exact position of each stiffener are taken into account with the Heaviside singular function. An algorithm is introduced, in which the actions of stiffeners on shells are replaced by external loads at each stiffener position. Stiffened shells can be computed as non-stiffened shells. Eventually, the displacement solution of the equations is acquired by the introduction of Green function. The stresses in a corrugated transverse bulkhead without pier base of an oil tanker are computed by using SPSM.

  20. Sensomics analysis of key hazelnut odorants (Corylus avellana L. 'Tonda Gentile') using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Pollner, Gwendola; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-06-05

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) has been used a few times to identify and quantitate single aroma-active compounds, but the capability of this technique to monitor a complete set of key odorants evoking the aroma of a given food in one run has not been exploited so far. A fast, multiodorant analysis using GC×GC-TOF-MS in combination with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) was developed to quantitate the entire set of aroma compounds, the sensometabolome, of raw and roasted hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. 'Tonda Gentile') previously established by GC-olfactometry. The capability of the method to evaluate the aroma contribution of each sensometabolite was evaluated by introducing a new term, the limit of odor activity value (LOAV), indicating whether a given aroma compound can be determined down to an odor activity value (OAV) of 1 (odor activity value = ratio of concentration to odor threshold). The advantage of the new method was proven by comparing the performance parameters with a traditional one-dimensional approach using GC-ion trap mass-spectrometry (GC-IT-MS). The results showed that the detector linearity and sensitivity of GC×GC-TOF-MS was on average higher by a factor of 10 compared to GC-IT-MS, thus enabling the quantitation of the aroma relevant amounts of 22 key odorants of hazelnuts in one run of the 30 aroma-active compounds. Seven novel isotopically labeled internal standards were synthesized to meet the analytical requirements defined by electron impact ionization in TOF-MS, that is, to keep the label. On the basis of the quantitative results obtained, it was possible to closely mimic the aroma of raw and roasted 'Tonda Gentile' hazelnuts by preparing an aroma recombinate containing the key odorants at their natural concentrations occurring in the nuts.