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Sample records for hazelnut oils simulation

  1. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlorio, M.; Coisson, J. D.; Bordiga, M.; Travaglia, F.; Garino, C.; Zuidmeer, L.; van Ree, R.; Giuffrida, M. G.; Conti, A.; Martelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as oextra-virgino should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers

  2. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct

  3. Oxidation kinetics of hazelnut oil treated with ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Uzun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the oxidation kinetics of hazelnut oil ozonated in different treatment periods (1, 5, 60 and 180 min. The kinetic rate constant (k was taken as the inverse of oxidation onset time (To observing a linear relationship from the plot of lnTo to isothermal temperatures (373, 383, 393, and 403 K carried out at differential scanning calorimetry. Kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea, activation enthalpy (ΔH‡ and entropy (ΔS‡ were calculated based on the Arrhenius equation and activated complex theory. k values showed an exponential rise with the increase of ozone treatment time. The increase in k correlated well with the increase in the peroxide and free fatty acid values of all samples. Ea and ∆H‡ of the ozone treated oils showed a reducing trend and reflected an increased oxidation sensitivity after ozone treatment. Consistently, an increase in ∆S‡ indicated a faster oxidation reaction with an increase in ozone exposure time. However, no significant difference was observed in k, Ea, ΔH‡, ΔS‡ (p < 0.05 as a function of storage period, after the hazelnut oil was treated with ozone for 1 min.

  4. Oxidation kinetics of hazelnut oil treated with ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, H.; Ibanoglu, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the oxidation kinetics of hazelnut oil ozonated in different treatment periods (1, 5, 60 and 180 min). The kinetic rate constant (k) was taken as the inverse of oxidation onset time (To) observing a linear relationship from the plot of ln To to isothermal temperatures (373, 383, 393, and 403 K) carried out at differential scanning calorimetry. Kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea), activation enthalpy (ΔH‡) and entropy (ΔS‡) were calculated based on the Arrhenius equation and activated complex theory. k values showed an exponential rise with the increase of ozone treatment time. The increase in k correlated well with the increase in the peroxide and free fatty acid values of all samples. Ea and ΔH‡ of the ozone treated oils showed a reducing trend and reflected an increased oxidation sensitivity after ozone treatment. Consistently, an increase in ΔS‡ indicated a faster oxidation reaction with an increase in ozone exposure time. However, no significant difference was observed in k, Ea, ΔH‡, ΔS‡ (p < 0.05) as a function of storage period, after the hazelnut oil was treated with ozone for 1 min. [es

  5. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumus, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  6. Chemical Characterization of Major and Minor Compounds of Nut Oils: Almond, Hazelnut, and Pecan Nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the major and minor compounds of laboratory-extracted and commercial oils from sweet almond, hazelnut, and pecan nut. Oils from sweet almond, hazelnut, and pecan nut were obtained by means of an expeller system, while the corresponding commercial oils were provided from Vital Âtman (BR. The contents of triacylglycerols, fatty acids, aliphatic and terpenic alcohols, desmethyl-, methyl-, and dimethylsterols, squalene, and tocopherols were determined. Oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids were the main fatty acids. Desmethylsterols were the principal minor compounds with β-sitosterol being the most abundant component. Low amounts of aliphatic and terpenic alcohols were also found. The major tocopherol in hazelnut and sweet almond oils was α-tocopherol, whereas γ-tocopherol prevailed in pecan nut oil. Principal component analysis made it possible for us to differentiate among samples, as well as to distinguish between commercial and laboratory-extracted oils. Heatmap highlighted the main variables featuring each sample. Globally, these results have brought a new approach on nut oil characterization.

  7. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.; Oeztuerk, E.; Can, Oe.; Conkur, E.S.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  8. Hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortolani, Claudio; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup

    2000-01-01

    Background: Tree nuts are a common cause of food allergy in Europe. However, few studies deal with real food allergy to hazelnuts in subjects believed to be allergic to this food. Objective: We sought to select subjects with a history of allergic reactions on ingestion of hazelnut and determine how...... many of these have true allergy by means of the double-blind, placebo- controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Methods: Eighty-six subjects with a history of symptoms after hazelnut ingestion were recruited from 3 allergy centers (Milan, Zurich, and Copenhagen). All subjects underwent skin prick tests...... (SPTs) with aeroallergens and hazelnut, as well as having their specific hazelnut IgE levels determined. Diagnosis of clinical relevant food allergy was made on the basis of the DBPCFC. Results: Sixty-seven (77.9%) of 86 subjects had a positive DBPCFC result; 8 were placebo responders, and 11 were...

  9. Novel feature selection method based on Stochastic Methods Coupled to Support Vector Machines using H- NMR data (data of olive and hazelnut oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Gualdron

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal inconveniences that analysis and information processing presents is that of the representation of dataset. Normally, one encounters a high number of samples, each one with thousands of variables, and in many cases with irrelevant information and noise. Therefore, in order to represent findings in a clearer way, it is necessary to reduce the amount of variables. In this paper, a novel variable selection technique for multivariable data analysis, inspired on stochastic methods and designed to work with support vector machines (SVM, is described. The approach is demonstrated in a food application involving the detection of adulteration of olive oil (more expensive with hazelnut oil (cheaper. Fingerprinting by H NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze the different samples. Results show that it is possible to reduce the number of variables without affecting classification results.

  10. The study of populations of hazelnut c. Avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. Colurna L. and their selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of populations of hazelnut C. avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. colurna L. in different regions of Serbia were studied over 1998 - 2005. Round-fruit selections suitable for candy industry were concurrently singled out. Populations of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut are characterized by small or medium large fruits with round shape index and kernel index ranging from 0.77 - 0.89 and 0.78 - 0.84 respectively. Singled out selections of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut have averagely medium large fruits and kernel. Round shape index of fruits and kernel of hazelnut amount to 0.98 (1.01 - 0.91 and 0.99 (1.00 - 0.96 respectively, whereas the same parameter in Turkish hazelnut amounts to 0.99 (0.99 - 0.97 and 0.98 (0.98 - 0.97. Average fruit weight of the singled out selections is 1.79 g (hazelnut and 1.74 g (Turkish hazelnut. Average kernel mass is 0.75 - 0.70 g. i.e. kernel ratio in hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut amounts to 41% and 40.2% respectively. The mineral matter content in the kernel of the selections amounted to 2.4% and 2.3% respectively. Raw proteins content ranged from 13.8% - 12.4% respectively, and oil content ranged from 47.7 - 50.2% respectively. The majority of indicators under in situ conditions suggest that all selections singled out from the population deserve attention with objective of more intensified propagation and wider introduction into commercial production. It particularly refers to the round shaped kernel which is the most suitable for the candy industry. .

  11. Oxidation kinetics of hazelnut oil treated with ozone; Cinética de oxidación del aceite de avellana tratado con ozono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzun, H.; Ibanoglu, E.

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigates the oxidation kinetics of hazelnut oil ozonated in different treatment periods (1, 5, 60 and 180 min). The kinetic rate constant (k) was taken as the inverse of oxidation onset time (To) observing a linear relationship from the plot of ln To to isothermal temperatures (373, 383, 393, and 403 K) carried out at differential scanning calorimetry. Kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea), activation enthalpy (ΔH‡) and entropy (ΔS‡) were calculated based on the Arrhenius equation and activated complex theory. k values showed an exponential rise with the increase of ozone treatment time. The increase in k correlated well with the increase in the peroxide and free fatty acid values of all samples. Ea and ΔH‡ of the ozone treated oils showed a reducing trend and reflected an increased oxidation sensitivity after ozone treatment. Consistently, an increase in ΔS‡ indicated a faster oxidation reaction with an increase in ozone exposure time. However, no significant difference was observed in k, Ea, ΔH‡, ΔS‡ (p < 0.05) as a function of storage period, after the hazelnut oil was treated with ozone for 1 min. [Spanish] El presente estudio investiga la cinética de oxidación del aceite de avellana ozonizado durante diferentes períodos (1, 5, 60 y 180 min). La constante de velocidad cinética (k) se tomó como la inversa del tiempo de inicio de la oxidación (To) observando una relación lineal cuando se representa el lnTo con las temperaturas isotérmicas (373, 383, 393 y 403 K) llevadas a cabo en calorimetría de barrido diferencial. Los parámetros cinéticos, energía de activación (Ea), entalpía de activación (ΔH‡) y entropía (ΔS‡) se calcularon sobre la base de la ecuación de Arrhenius y de la teoría compleja activada. Los valores de k mostraron un aumento exponencial con el aumento del tiempo de tratamiento de ozono. El aumento de k se correlacionó bien con el aumento de peróxidos y de los ácidos grasos

  12. World oil market simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive simulation model of the world oil market - the World Oil Market Simulation Model (WOMS). The objective was to construct a computationally simple model which provides a transparent view of the workings of the oil market. In the event WOMS has a number of features which distinguish it from other published models: the effect of exchange rate movements is incorporated in the supply and demand functions; both demand and supply functions are dynamic; the non-OPEC supply functions account for the geological as well as the economic aspects of supply; oil prices can be determined either by OPEC setting prices (as normally included in this type of model) or by OPEC setting volumes and market forces determining the price; and consistency checks on consumers' and producers' behaviour are incorporated to confirm the plausibility of model projections. The paper commences with an outline of the model structure followed by an examination of the choice of the appropriate data. The main sections of the paper discuss the estimation of the demand and non-OPEC supply functions. Finally the modelling of OPEC's behaviour is addressed. Comparisons are made throughout with other published work. As the model was estimated using data covering 1960 to 1985, brief comments are also made comparing the events of 1986 with model determined values. (author)

  13. Cloning of oleosin, a putative new hazelnut allergen, using a hazelnut cDNA library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Schocker, Frauke; Vieths, Stefan; Versteeg, Serge; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Hefle, Sue L.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Richter, Klaus; Ferreira, Fatima; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The clinical presentation of non-pollen related allergy to hazelnut can be severe and systemic. So far, only a limited number of non-pollen related hazelnut allergens have been identified and characterized. The aim of this study was to identify and clone new hazelnut allergens. A lambda ZAP cDNA

  14. Serum IgE Antibodies against Hazelnut in Hazelnut Processing Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Gulec Balbay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Previous studies have shown a higher sensitization rate to hazelnut in processing workers but no relation was found between the respiratory symptoms in workplace and hazelnut sensitization. Material and Method. To evaluate the association between the hazelnut sensitization and workplace-related respiratory complaints, hazelnut processing workers had undergone a questionnaire included work-related respiratory symptoms, smoking history, pulmonary function testing, and measurement of serum IgE antibodies against hazelnut. Results. This study consisted of 88 hazelnut processing workers (79 females and 9 males, aged 14–59 years (Mean ± SD: years. The mean working duration was months (min: 1–max: 180. Specific IgE against hazelnut allergens was positive in 14 of cases (17.1%. There was no significant difference between the cases with and without specific IgE against hazelnut allergens regarding respiratory symptoms, history of allergy, smoking status and spirometric values. Conclusion. 17.1% of the hazelnut processing workers were seropositive against hazelnut. Being sensitized to hazelnut was not found to be associated with work-related respiratory symptoms in this study. Further studies are needed in hazelnut workers respiratory health to search topics other than asthma.

  15. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of Turkish Tombul hazelnut samples (natural, roasted, and roasted hazelnut skin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvan, Ebru; Olgun, Elmas Öktem; Karadağ, Ayşe; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2018-04-01

    The phenolic profiles and antioxidant status of hazelnut samples [natural (raw) hazelnut, roasted hazelnut, and roasted hazelnut skin] were compared. Free and bound (ester-linked and glycoside-linked) phenolic acids were examined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Comprehensive identification of phenolics was carried out using Q-exactive hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer (Q-OT-MS). Samples were also assessed for their total phenolics and antioxidant activities using three different assays. Ten free and bound phenolic acids were quantified in hazelnut samples. Roasted hazelnut skin contained the highest content of total phenolic acids, followed by natural and roasted hazelnuts. The majority of phenolic acids were present in the bound form. Using a Q-OT-MS, 22 compounds were tentatively identified, 16 of which were identified for the first time in hazelnut samples. The newly identified compounds consisted of flavonoids, phenolic acids and related compounds, hydrolysable tannins and related compounds, and other phenolics. Three antioxidant assays demonstrated similar trends that roasted hazelnut skin rendered the highest activity. The present work suggests that roasted hazelnut skin is a rich source of phenolics and can be considered as a value-added co-product for use as functional food ingredient and antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous detection of Apple mosaic virus in cultivated hazelnuts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most economically damaging ilarvirus affecting hazelnut on a worldwide scale is the related apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Attempts were made to isolate the virus RNA from hazelnut tissues using different extraction methods. The most suitable extraction method that could detect the virus occurring naturally in hazelnut by ...

  17. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    the water phase. The biofilm formation implies that the concentration of bacteria near the inlet increases. In combination with surfactant production, the biofilm results in a higher surfactant concentration in the initial part of the reservoir. The oil that is initially bypassed in connection...... simulator. In the streamline simulator, the effect of gravity is introduced using an operator splitting technique. The gravity effect stabilizes oil displacement causing markedly improvement of the oil recovery, when the oil density becomes relatively low. The general characteristics found for MEOR in one......-dimensional simulations are also demonstrated both in two and three dimensions. Overall, this MEOR process conducted in a heterogeneous reservoir also produces more oil compared to waterflooding, when the simulations are run in multiple dimensions. The work presented in this thesis has resulted in two publications so far....

  18. Building a roundtable for a sustainable hazelnut supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Castro, Nathalia; Swart, J.

    2017-01-01

    Considering the increasing awareness of the sustainability issues in the hazelnut sector in Turkey as well as its leading role in the international market, this paper provides a thorough qualitative analysis of the potential of creating a roundtable for sustainable hazelnuts, and the key success

  19. Mathematical simulation of oil reservoir properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Romero, A.; Chavez, F.; Carrillo, F.; Lopez, S.

    2008-01-01

    The study and computational representation of porous media properties are very important for many industries where problems of fluid flow, percolation phenomena and liquid movement and stagnation are involved, for example, in building constructions, ore processing, chemical industries, mining, corrosion sciences, etc. Nevertheless, these kinds of processes present a noneasy behavior to be predicted and mathematical models must include statistical analysis, fractal and/or stochastic procedures to do it. This work shows the characterization of sandstone berea core samples which can be found as a porous media (PM) in natural oil reservoirs, rock formations, etc. and the development of a mathematical algorithm for simulating the anisotropic characteristics of a PM based on a stochastic distribution of some of their most important properties like porosity, permeability, pressure and saturation. Finally a stochastic process is used again to simulated the topography of an oil reservoir

  20. Weight development and serum biochemistry of rats offered hazelnuts as environmental enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, Peter; Durand, Anne Mette; Rasmussen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Novel food items, such as hazelnuts, are attractive as environmental enrichment, since they form a substrate for both foraging and gnawing behaviour. Hazelnuts are particularly rich in polyunsaturated fat. A hazelnut, weighing 2 g, contains 820 mg crude fat, contributing with 15% of the total int...

  1. Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    As the need for healthier fats and oils (natural vitamin and trans fat contents) and interest in biofuels are growing, many changes in the world's vegetable oil market are driving the oil industry to developing new technologies and recycling traditional ones. Computational simulation is widely used...... in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of equipment...... could be found in the open literature. This paper tries to fill this gap by presenting results from the study of the effect of processing variables, such as temperature, pressure and percentage of stripping steam, in the final quality of product (deacidified palm oil) in terms of final oil acidity...

  2. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-01-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  3. Determination of fatty acid composition of γ-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecgel, Umit; Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet

    2011-04-01

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  4. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, Umit [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  5. Effect of altitude on fatty acid composition in Turkish hazelnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of fatty acid composition in Delisava, Yomra, Sivri and Karayaglı Turkish hazelnut varieties with altitude. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography (GC) equiped with flame ionisation detector (FID) after obtained fatty acid methyl esters from crude ...

  6. Reducing US Oil Dependence Using Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Fadi; Arnaout, Georges M.

    2011-01-01

    People across the world are addicted to oil; as a result, the instability of oil prices and the shortage of oil reserves have influenced human behaviors and global businesses. Today, the United States makes up only 5% of the global population but consumes 25% of the. world total energy. Most of this energy is generated from fossil fuels in the form of electricity. The contribution of this paper is to examine the possibilities of replacing fossil fuel with renewable energies to generate electricity as well as to examine other methods to reduce oil and gas consumption. We propose a system dynamics model in an attempt to predict the future US dependence on fossil fuels by using renewable energy resources such as, nuclear, wind, solar, and hydro powers. Based on the findings of our model, the study expects to provide insights towards promising solutions of the oil dependency problem.

  7. Computer simulation of the Shetland oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, A.; Proctor, R.

    1994-01-01

    Model predictions of the movement of oil released during the Shetland oil spill in January 1993 commenced immediately following the grounding of the Braer. The initial forecast, made with a 5 nautical mile grid model, predicted oil along the west coast of the island but were too coarse to resolve the coastal bathymetry and circulation. This forced the development of a fine grid (924m) hydrodynamic model of the region which was interfaced to surface wind forecasts and meshed to a shelf-wide storm surge model. (author)

  8. Modelling the oil producers: Capturing oil industry knowledge in a behavioural simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morecroft, J.D.W.; Van der Heijden, K.A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    A group of senior managers and planners from a major oil company met to discuss the changing structure of the oil industry with the purpose of improving group understanding of oil market behaviour for use in global scenarios. This broad ranging discussion led to a system dynamics simulation model of the oil producers. The model produced new insights into the power and stability of OPEC (the major oil producers' organization), the dynamic of oil prices, and the investment opportunities of non-OPEC producers. The paper traces the model development process, starting from group discussions and leading to working simulation models. Particular attention is paid to the methods used to capture team knowledge and to ensure that the computer models reflected opinions and ideas from the meetings. The paper describes how flip-chart diagrams were used to collect ideas about the logic of the principal producers' production decisions. A sub-group of the project team developed and tested an algebraic model. The paper shows partial model simulations used to build confidence and a sense of ownership in the algebraic formulations. Further simulations show how the full model can stimulate thinking about producers' behaviour and oil prices. The paper concludes with comments on the model building process. 11 figs., 37 refs

  9. Direct numerical simulation of water droplet coalescence in the oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Mehdi; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh; Bayat, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► VOF computational technique has been used to simulate coalescence of two water droplets in oil. ► The model was validated with the experimental data for binary droplet coalescence. ► Based on the CFD simulation results a correlation has been proposed to predict the coalescence time. - Abstract: Coalescence of two water droplets in the oil was simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The finite volume numerical method was applied to solve the Navier–Stokes equations in conjunction with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach for interface tracking. The effects of some parameters consisting of the collision velocity, off-center collision parameter, oil viscosity and water–oil interfacial tension on the coalescence time were investigated. The simulation results were validated against the experimental data available in the literature. The results revealed that quicker coalescence could be achieved if the head-on collisions occur or the droplets approach each other with a high velocity. In addition, low oil viscosities or large water–oil interfacial tensions cause less coalescence time. Moreover, a correlation was developed to predict coalescence efficiency as a function of the mentioned parameters.

  10. Component-resolved in vitro diagnosis of hazelnut allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Sastre, Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food allergy to hazelnut occurs both with and without concomitant pollen allergy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate a panel of hazelnut allergens for diagnosis of hazelnut allergy in Spain, Switzerland, and Denmark. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with a positive double-blind, placebo......-controlled food challenge result with hazelnuts; 5 patients with a history of anaphylaxis; 62 patients with pollen allergy but hazelnut tolerance; and 63 nonatopic control subjects were included. Serum IgE levels to hazelnut extract, recombinant hazelnut allergens (rCor a 1.04, rCor a 2, rCor a 8, rCor a 11......), and native allergens (nCor a 9, nCor a Bd8K, nCor a Bd11K) were analyzed by means of ImmunoCAP. RESULTS: Among patients with hazelnut allergy, 91% (Switzerland/Spain, 100%; Denmark, 75%) had IgE to hazelnut extract, 75% to rCor a 1.04, 42% to rCor a 2, 28% to rCor a 8, and 2% to rCor a 11. The highest rate...

  11. Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Oil well Logging Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcurra, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented.The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively.The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation.The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B.Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation.In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation.Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition

  12. Monte Carlo simulations of neutron oil well logging tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcurra, Mario O.; Zamonsky, Oscar M.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented. The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively. The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation. The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B. Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation. In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation. Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition. (author)

  13. Isolation, cloning, and characterization of the 2S albumin: A new allergen from hazelnut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garino, Cristiano; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Marsh, Justin; Lovegrove, Alison; Morati, Maria; Versteeg, Serge; Schilte, Piet; Shewry, Peter; Arlorio, Marco; van Ree, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Scope: 2S albumins are the major allergens involved in severe food allergy to nuts, seeds, and legumes. We aimed to isolate, clone, and express 2S albumin from hazelnut and determine its allergenicity. Methods: 2S albumin from hazelnut extract was purified using size exclusion chromatography and

  14. In vitro and in vivo characterization of hazelnut skin prick test extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Hefle, Susan L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hazelnut allergy ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. Clinical symptoms range from the oral allergy syndrome to life threatening anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of hazelnut allergy partially relies on in vivo testing by means of skin prick testing (SPT). The aim of this study

  15. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  16. Experiences with linear solvers for oil reservoir simulation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, W.; Janardhan, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Biswas, D.; Carey, G.

    1996-12-31

    This talk will focus on practical experiences with iterative linear solver algorithms used in conjunction with Amoco Production Company`s Falcon oil reservoir simulation code. The goal of this study is to determine the best linear solver algorithms for these types of problems. The results of numerical experiments will be presented.

  17. High Quality RNA Isolation from Leaf, Shell, Root Tissues and Callus of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khosravi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of high quality RNA is a critical step in molecular genetics studies. Hazelnut is one of the most important nuts plants in the world. The presence of the taxol and other taxanes in hazelnut plant necessitates explaining their biosynthesis pathway and identifying the candidate genes. Therefore, an easy and practical method is necessary for RNA extraction from hazelnuts. Hazelnut has high levels of phenolic compounds. High amounts of polyphenolic and polysaccharide compounds in plants could be causing problems in RNA extraction procedures.  To avoid these problems, a simple and efficient method can be used based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB extraction buffer and lithium chloride for extraction of high quality RNA from different parts of hazelnut plant. Using this method, a high-quality RNA sample (light absorbed in the A260/A280 was 2.04

  18. Purification and crystallization of Cor a 9, a major hazelnut allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Feng; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Wang, Yang; Yu, Xiaoping; Howard, Andrew J.; Fu, Tong-Jen; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The major hazelnut allergen Cor a 9 was purified from the natural source and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) is one of the food sources that induce allergic reaction in a subpopulation of people with food allergy. The 11S legumin-like seed-storage protein from hazelnut has been identified as one of the major hazelnut allergens and named Cor a 9. In this study, Cor a 9 was extracted from hazelnut kernels using a high-salt solution and was purified by desalting out and FPLC to a highly purified state. Diffraction-quality single crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected and a structure solution has been obtained by molecular-replacement calculations. Further refinement of the structure is currently in progress

  19. Simulation of oil pollution in the Persian Gulf near Assaluyeh oil terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihifard, M.; Badri, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulation of oil slick movement with respect to tidal factors and wind effects was performed in order to counteract oil pollution in the Persian Gulf. First, a flow model was invoked with respect to water level fluctuations. The main tidal constituents were applied to the model using the initial conditions of water level variations in the Hormuz Strait near the Hangam Island. The movement of oil pollution was determined due to wind, tide and temperature effects and confirmed by applying a verified field results. Simulations were focused near an important terminal in the Persian Gulf, Assaluyeh Port. The results were led to preparing a risk-taking map in a parallel research for the Persian Gulf.

  20. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery: 3D Simulation with Gravity Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Jessen, K.; Shapiro, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes the activity of microorganisms, where microorganisms simultaneously grow in a reservoir and convert substrate into recovery enhancing products (usually, surfactants). In order to predict the performance of a MEOR process, a simulation tool is required...... using an operator splitting technique. To the best of our knowledge, this has resulted in the first full 3D MEOR streamline simulator. For verification purposes, we compare results from our streamline MEOR simulator to those of a conventional finite difference approach for 1D and 2D displacement...

  1. Enhanced oil recovery by nanoparticles injection: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu; Salama, Amgad

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model and numerical simulation to describe the nanoparticles-water suspension imbibes into a water-oil two-phase flow in a porous medium is introduced. We extend the model to include the negative capillary pressure and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system. Also, buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids and solid properties due to addition of the nanoparticles and check for possible enhancement of the oil recovery process using numerical experiments.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulation: The Behavior of Asphaltene in Crude Oil and at the Oil/Water Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Fengfeng; Xu, Zhen; Liu, Guokui; Yuan, Shiling

    2014-01-01

    of the repulsion of the anionic headgroups. Anionic C5 Pe has a distinct affinity to the oil/water interface during the simulation, while the C5 Pe molecules persist in the crude oil domain. A three-stage model of anionic C5 Pe molecules adsorbed at the oil

  3. Nature preservation acceptance model applied to tanker oil spill simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    is exemplified by a study of oil spills due to simulated tanker collisions in the Danish straits. It is found that the distribution of the oil spill volume per spill is well represented by an exponential distribution both in Oeresund and in Great Belt. When applied in the Poisson model, a risk profile reasonably...... acceptance criterion for the pollution of the environment. This NPWI acceptance criterion is applied to the oil spill example....... be defined in a similar way as the so-called Life Quality Index defined by Nathwani et al [Nathwani JS, Lind NC, Padey MD. Affordable safety by choice: the life quality method. Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo; Waterloo (Ontario, Canada):1997], and can be used to quantify the risk...

  4. Numerical Simulation of Oil Jet Lubrication for High Speed Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Fondelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geared Turbofan technology is one of the most promising engine configurations to significantly reduce the specific fuel consumption. In this architecture, a power epicyclical gearbox is interposed between the fan and the low pressure spool. Thanks to the gearbox, fan and low pressure spool can turn at different speed, leading to higher engine bypass ratio. Therefore the gearbox efficiency becomes a key parameter for such technology. Further improvement of efficiency can be achieved developing a physical understanding of fluid dynamic losses within the transmission system. These losses are mainly related to viscous effects and they are directly connected to the lubrication method. In this work, the oil injection losses have been studied by means of CFD simulations. A numerical study of a single oil jet impinging on a single high speed gear has been carried out using the VOF method. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the resistant torque due to the oil jet lubrication, correlating the torque data with the oil-gear interaction phases. URANS calculations have been performed using an adaptive meshing approach, as a way of significantly reducing the simulation costs. A global sensitivity analysis of adopted models has been carried out and a numerical setup has been defined.

  5. MALDI-based identification of stable hazelnut protein derived tryptic marker peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucu, T; De Meulenaer, B; Devreese, B

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is an important health problem especially in industrialised countries. Tree nuts, among which are hazelnuts (Corylus avellana), are typically causing serious and life-threatening symptoms in sensitive subjects. Hazelnut is used as a food ingredient in pastry, confectionary products, ice cream and meat products, therefore undeclared hazelnut can be often present as a cross-contaminant representing a threat for allergic consumers. Mass spectrometric techniques are used for the detection of food allergens in processed foods, but limited information regarding stable tryptic peptide markers for hazelnut is available. The aim of this study was to detect stable peptide markers from modified hazelnut protein through the Maillard reaction and oxidation in a buffered solution. Peptides ³⁹⁵Gly-Arg⁴⁰³ from Cor a 11 and ²⁰⁹Gln-Arg²¹⁷, ³⁵¹Ile-Arg³⁶³, ⁴⁶⁴Ala-Arg⁴⁷⁸ and ⁴⁰¹Val-Arg⁴¹⁷ from Cor a 9 hazelnut allergens proved to be the most stable and could be detected and confirmed with high scores in most of the modified samples. The identified peptides can be further used as analytical targets for the development of more robust quantitative methods for hazelnut detection in processed foods.

  6. Hazelnut and neuroprotection: Improved memory and hindered anxiety in response to intra-hippocampal Aβ injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaeddin, Zahra; Yans, Asal; Khodagholi, Fariba; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Sahranavard, Shamim

    2017-07-01

    Corylus avellana L. (hazelnut) is known to be a delicious and nutritious food. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of hazelnut as a therapy for memory impairment because in Iranian traditional medicine, it is recommended for those suffering from a particular type of dementia, with symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, rats were fed with hazelnut kernel [(without skin) 800 mg/kg/day] during 1 week before stereotaxic surgery to 24 hours before behavioral testing (in general, for 16 consecutive days) and the effect of hazelnut eating on memory, anxiety, neuroinflammation and apoptosis was assessed in the amyloid beta-injected rat. The results of this study showed that feeding with hazelnut improved memory, (which was examined by using Y-maze test and shuttle box apparatus), and reduced anxiety-related behavior, that was evaluated using elevated plus maze. Also, western blotting analysis of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein, and caspase-3 showed that hazelnut has an ameliorating effect on the neuroinflammation and apoptosis caused by Aβ. These findings suggest that hazelnut, as a dietary supplement, improves healthy aging and could be a beneficial diet for the treatment of AD.

  7. [Establishment of optimun conditions in order to obtain a protein isolate from Chilean Hazelnut].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Mario; Zapata, Constanza; Pino, Leonardo; Rubilar, Mónica

    2012-03-01

    An alternative to solve the problem of the overall deficit of proteins has been the use ofdefatted cakes generated by the extraction of oil from vegetable sources such as rapeseed, soybean, lupin, etc. This process at the same time increases the protein content, making this feasible to be used to enrich some types of food. This is the case of the chilean hazelnut (Gevuina avellana, Mol), monotypic species characterized by their high percentage of oil (50%) and whose defatted cake isolated protein could be used to obtain an isolated protein. For this purpose optimized conditions of extraction of protein were carried out using the surface response methodology (SRM) and a central composite design with three independent variables: time of contact of the cake with the solvent, sample/solvent ratio and pH was used. All variables were controlled at five different levels. The data were subjected to an analysis of regression and ANOVA, the first to determine the polynomial equation and the second to select the control factors with significant effect on the extraction of the protein. The best combination of factors turned out to be: time between 30 and 40 minutes, pH between 9 and 9.5 and a relationship sample/solvent between 1/15 to 1/16 with a final yield of 76%. The physical characteristics were: density 0,504 g/cm3, compaction 43, 34% apparent and pale yellow. Proximal analysis showed a concentration of protein of 76%, 13%, raw fiber carbohydrate 0.68% and oil 1.29%. With regard to the functional properties emphasized water absorption (320 g/100 g), absorption of oil (410 g/100 g) and foaming capacity (221%).

  8. Stochastic simulation of off-shore oil terminal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, E.G.; Oberle, J.

    1991-01-01

    To cope with the problem of uncertainty and conditionality in the planning, design, and operation of offshore oil transshipment terminal systems, a conditional stochastic simulation approach is presented. Examples are shown, using SLAM II, a computer simulation language based on GERT, a conditional stochastic network analysis methodology in which use of resources such as time and money are expressed by the moment generating function of the statistics of the resource requirements. Similarly each activity has an associated conditional probability of being performed and/or of requiring some of the resources. The terminal system is realistically represented by modelling the statistics of arrivals, loading and unloading times, uncertainties in costs and availabilities, etc

  9. Simulating surface oil transport during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Experiments with the BioCast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, Jason Keith; Smith, Travis A.; Ladner, Sherwin; Arnone, Robert A.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing nowcast/forecast software systems designed to combine satellite ocean color data streams with physical circulation models in order to produce prognostic fields of ocean surface materials. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico provided a test case for the Bio-Optical Forecasting (BioCast) system to rapidly combine the latest satellite imagery of the oil slick distribution with surface circulation fields in order to produce oil slick transport scenarios and forecasts. In one such sequence of experiments, MODIS satellite true color images were combined with high-resolution ocean circulation forecasts from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®) to produce 96-h oil transport simulations. These oil forecasts predicted a major oil slick landfall at Grand Isle, Louisiana, USA that was subsequently observed. A key driver of the landfall scenario was the development of a coastal buoyancy current associated with Mississippi River Delta freshwater outflow. In another series of experiments, longer-term regional circulation model results were combined with oil slick source/sink scenarios to simulate the observed containment of surface oil within the Gulf of Mexico. Both sets of experiments underscore the importance of identifying and simulating potential hydrodynamic conduits of surface oil transport. The addition of explicit sources and sinks of surface oil concentrations provides a framework for increasingly complex oil spill modeling efforts that extend beyond horizontal trajectory analysis.

  10. Simulation of an oil film at the sea surface and its radiometric properties in the SWIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenger, F.; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of the optical contrast of an oil layer on the sea under various surface roughness conditions is of great interest for oil slick monitoring techniques. This paper presents a 3D simulation of a dynamic sea surface contaminated by a floating oil film. The simulation considers the damping

  11. A Dynamic Remote Sensing Data-Driven Approach for Oil Spill Simulation in the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that oil spill remote sensing could only generate the oil slick information at a specific time and that traditional oil spill simulation models were not designed to deal with dynamic conditions, a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS was introduced. The DDDAS entails both the ability to incorporate additional data into an executing application and, in reverse, the ability of applications to dynamically steer the measurement process. Based on the DDDAS, combing a remote sensor system that detects oil spills with a numerical simulation, an integrated data processing, analysis, forecasting and emergency response system was established. Once an oil spill accident occurs, the DDDAS-based oil spill model receives information about the oil slick extracted from the dynamic remote sensor data in the simulation. Through comparison, information fusion and feedback updates, continuous and more precise oil spill simulation results can be obtained. Then, the simulation results can provide help for disaster control and clean-up. The Penglai, Xingang and Suizhong oil spill results showed our simulation model could increase the prediction accuracy and reduce the error caused by empirical parameters in existing simulation systems. Therefore, the DDDAS-based detection and simulation system can effectively improve oil spill simulation and diffusion forecasting, as well as provide decision-making information and technical support for emergency responses to oil spills.

  12. Morphological description and molecular detection of Pestalotiopsis sp. on hazelnut in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasić, T.; Jevremović, D.; Krnjaja, V.; Leposavić, A.; Anđelković, S.; Živković, S.; Paunović, S.

    2017-07-01

    In autumn 2015, hazelnut plants with leaf blight symptoms were noticed in a commercial plantation in the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Symptomatic samples were collected and submitted to laboratory analysis. Based on morphological characterization, the fungus isolated from the material was initially identified as Pestalotiopsis sp. Pathogenicity tests showed that two selected isolates infected hazelnut leaves and fruits that developed symptoms after artificial inoculation. The pathogen was re-isolated from diseased leaves and fruits, confirming Koch’s postulates. Molecular identification was performed with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of ITS, EF1-α, and TUB genomic regions. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the results of the morphological identification. The detection of Pestalotiopsis sp., a causal agent of leaf blight on hazelnut in Serbia, is one of a few reports of these pathogenic fungi on hazelnut.

  13. Fast classification of hazelnut cultivars through portable infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Marcello; Robotti, Elisa; Quasso, Fabio; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Calabrese, Giorgio; Marengo, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    The authentication and traceability of hazelnuts is very important for both the consumer and the food industry, to safeguard the protected varieties and the food quality. This study investigates the use of a portable FTIR spectrometer coupled to multivariate statistical analysis for the classification of raw hazelnuts. The method discriminates hazelnuts from different origins/cultivars based on differences of the signal intensities of their IR spectra. The multivariate classification methods, namely principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), with or without variable selection, allowed a very good discrimination among the groups, with PLS-DA coupled to variable selection providing the best results. Due to the fast analysis, high sensitivity, simplicity and no sample preparation, the proposed analytical methodology could be successfully used to verify the cultivar of hazelnuts, and the analysis can be performed quickly and directly on site.

  14. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, S. F.; Kontominas, M. G.

    2009-06-01

    The present study evaluated the quality of hazelnuts as a function of irradiation dose to determine dose levels causing minimal undesirable changes to hazelnuts. Physicochemical (color, peroxide value (PV), hexanal content, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds) and sensory (color, texture, odor and taste) properties were determined. Results showed a twenty fold increase in peroxide value and twenty-eight fold increase in hexanal content after irradiation at a dose of 7 kGy. An increase was also observed in saturated fatty acids (10%-23%) with a parallel decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (90-77%). Volatile compounds such as ketones, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, furans, aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic monoterpenes and acids were produced mostly comprising secondary oxidation products of hazelnut lipids after irradiation. Color parameter b* increased ( pTaste, the most sensitive sensory attribute showed that hazelnuts retain acceptable sensory quality when irradiated up to a dose of 1.5 kGy.

  15. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... applied to filtration model provides formation of two oil banks during recovery. This feature is not reproduced by application of REA model or DBF with growth in attached phase. This makes it possible to select a right model based on the qualitative analysis of the experimental data. A criterion...... is introduced to study the process efficiency: the dimensionless time at which average recovery between pure water injection and maximum surfactant effect is reached. This characteristic recovery period (CRP) was studied as a function of the different MEOR parameters such as bacterial activity, filtration...

  16. Effects of pretreatment methods for hazelnut shell hydrolysate fermentation with Pichia Stipitis to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yeşim; Eken-Saraçoğlu, Nurdan

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of hazelnut shell as a renewable and low cost lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production for the first time. High lignin content of hazelnut shell is an important obstacle for such a biotransformation. Biomass hydrolysis with acids yields reducing sugar with several inhibitors which limit the fermentability of sugars. The various conditioning methods for biomass and hydrolysate were performed to overcome the toxicity and their effects on the subsequent fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis were evaluated with shaking flasks experiments. Hazelnut shells hydrolysis with 0.7M H(2)SO(4) yielded 49 gl(-1) total reducing sugars and fermentation inhibitors in untreated hydrolysate. First, it was shown that several hydrolysate detoxification methods were solely inefficient in achieving cell growth and ethanol production in the fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysates derived from non-delignified biomass. Next, different pretreatments of hazelnut shells were considered for delignification and employed before hydrolysis in conjunction with hydrolysate detoxification to improve alcohol fermentation. Among six delignification methods, the most effective pretreatment regarding to ethanol concentration includes the treatment of shells with 3% (w/v) NaOH at room temperature, which was integrated with sequential hydrolysate detoxification by overliming and then treatment with charcoal twice at 60 degrees C. This treatment brought about a total reduction of 97% in furans and 88.4% in phenolics. Almost all trialed treatments caused significant sugar loss. Under the best assayed conditions, ethanol concentration of 16.79gl(-1) was reached from a hazelnut shell hyrolysate containing initial 50g total reducing sugar l(-1) after partial synthetic xylose supplementation. This value is equal to 91.25% of ethanol concentration that was obtained from synthetic d-xylose under same conditions. The present study

  17. Evaluating environmental effects of oil spills by simulating the behaviour and spreading of oil on the sea surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.K.; Ivanov, I.V.; Sokolov, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The area of polluted surface of the sea and the volume of crude oil carried to the coastline are the main parameters that determine ecological damage. This paper considered some of the problems surrounding the assessment of environmental impacts caused by oil spills in the marine environment. Assessment of potential damage involves the analysis of many possible scenarios and the conditions that accompany them, including varying weather conditions. Computer simulations of the behaviour of spilled oil on the sea surface along with other criteria allow for the evaluation of the predicted scenario. Computer simulations provide knowledge of the spreading and drift of oil, as well as its volume and thickness. Knowledge of the following factors, combined with a knowledge of weather conditions is important in emergency response planning: vulnerability of oil pollution areas on shore; calculation of impact factors; detection of vulnerability to oil pollution; the possibility of incidents of the inadmissible oil pollution forecast; and results of a simulation of 48 hour drift of oil slick formed due to a spill in Devkin Zavod Bay. Adequate meteorological information is crucial for the development of valid data. Further progress is currently being developed for specific water areas around oil fields, tanker routes, seabed crude oil pipeline, wind currents, heaving, hydrological and environmental characteristics of sea water. 5 refs., 3 figs

  18. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree-nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffers from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence...... of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. METHOD: We included 155 children suspected off hazelnut allergy and challenged according to guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin Prick Test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein families...... were measured using ImmunoCap. RESULTS: Sixty-five children had a positive hazelnut challenge, and 60% of these also had concomitant peanut allergy. Children allergic to hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 9 and Cor a 14; peanut allergic children to Ara h 2. Sensitization to PR10 protein components were...

  19. Identification of Optimal Mechanization Processes for Harvesting Hazelnuts Based on Geospatial Technologies in Sicily (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sicily is a region located in the southern Italy. Its typical Mediterranean landscape is appreciated due to its high biodiversity. Specifically, hazelnut plantations have adapted in a definite area in Sicily (the Nebroidi park due to specific morphological and climatic characteristics. However, many of these plantations are not used today due to adverse conditions, both to collect hazelnuts and to reach hazel groves. Though a geospatial analysis, the present paper aims to identify which hazelnut contexts can be actively used for agricultural, economic (e.g., introduction of a circular economy and energetic purposes (to establish a potential agro-energetic district. The examination revealed the most suitable areas giving several criteria (e.g., slope, road system, ensuring an effective cultivation and consequent harvesting of hazelnuts and (ii providing security for the operators since many of hazelnut plants are placed in very sloped contexts that are difficult to reach by traditional machines. In this sense, this paper also suggests optimal mechanization processes for harvesting hazelnuts in this part of Sicily.

  20. Numerical Simulation of In Situ Combustion of Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the process of in situ combustion of oil shale, taking into account the transport and chemical reaction of various components in porous reservoirs. The physical model is presented, including the mass and energy conservation equations and Darcy’s law. The oxidation reactions of oil shale combustion are expressed by adding source terms in the conservation equations. The reaction rate of oxidation satisfies the Arrhenius law. A numerical method is established for calculating in situ combustion, which is simulated numerically, and the results are compared with the available experiment. The profiles of temperature and volume fraction of a few components are presented. The temperature contours show the temperature variation in the combustion tube. It is found that as combustion reaction occurs in the tube, the concentration of oxygen decreases rapidly, while the concentration of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide increases contrarily. Besides, the combustion front velocity is consistent with the experimental value. Effects of gas injection rate, permeability of the reservoir, initial oil content, and injected oxygen content on the ISC process were investigated in this study. Varying gas injection rate and oxygen content is important in the field test of ISC.

  1. Oil flow at the scroll compressor discharge: visualization and CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiu; Hrnjak, Pega

    2017-08-01

    Oil is important to the compressor but has other side effect on the refrigeration system performance. Discharge valves located in the compressor plenum are the gateway for the oil when leaving the compressor and circulate in the system. The space in between: the compressor discharge plenum has the potential to separate the oil mist and reduce the oil circulation ratio (OCR) in the system. In order to provide information for building incorporated separation feature for the oil flow near the compressor discharge, video processing method is used to quantify the oil droplets movement and distribution. Also, CFD discrete phase model gives the numerical approach to study the oil flow inside compressor plenum. Oil droplet size distributions are given by visualization and simulation and the results show a good agreement. The mass balance and spatial distribution are also discussed and compared with experimental results. The verification shows that discrete phase model has the potential to simulate the oil droplet flow inside the compressor.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of radon accumulation in water and oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafong, Elvira; Drossel, Barbara [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas that can enter the human body from air or from ground water. Radon can accumulate to levels that considerably rise the risk of lung cancer while it is also known as a a treatment of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis. The accumulation of radon differs between tissues, with particularly high concentrations in fatty cells. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the different solubility of radon in water and fat, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radon gas at ambient conditions in contact with a bulk material consisting either of water or oil. We evaluate the diffusion coefficient of radon in both media as well as the equilibrium concentration. The crucial point here is to understand the hydrophobic interaction between water and radon as compared to the dispersive interaction between radon and oil. Therefore, we artificially vary the water charges (i.e., the hydrophobicity) as well as the parameters of the van-der-Waals interaction.

  3. Model simulations of the drift and spread of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, S.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the drift and spread of the Exxon-Valdez oil spill that occurred on March 24, 1989 are simulated using a modified version of the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service oil spill behavior model. The model simulations show that the movement of the oil out of Prince William Sound and beyond is sensitive to the wind/ocean currents taken into account is three to four times that with either wind or ocean currents only. While 12-day drift of the spill containing the higher concentrations of oil parcels is in very good agreement with observations, model simulations show the presence of oil further to the south, albeit in lower concentrations. The lateral spread of the oil is also very well simulated by the model

  4. Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) protein concentrates: functional and rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, F; Tunç, M T; Kahyaoglu, T

    2015-02-01

    Turkish Tombul hazelnut consumed as natural or processed forms were evaluated to obtain protein concentrate. Defatted hazelnut flour protein (DHFP) and defatted hazelnut cake protein (DHCP) were produced from defatted hazelnut flour (DHF) and defatted hazelnut cake (DHC), respectively. The functional properties (protein solubility, emulsifying properties, foaming capacity, and colour), and dynamic rheological characteristics of protein concentrates were measured. The protein contents of samples varied in the range of 35-48 % (w/w, db) and 91-92 % (w/w, db) for DHF/DHC and DHFP/DHCP samples, respectively. The significant difference for water/fat absorption capacity, emulsion stability between DHF and DHC were determined. On the other hand, the solubility and emulsion activity of DHF and DHC were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Emulsion stability of DHFP (%46) was higher than that of DHCP (%35) but other functional properties were found similar. According to these results, the DHCP could be used as DHFP in food product formulations. The DHFP and DHCP samples showed different apparent viscosity at the same temperature and concentration, the elastic modulus (G' value) of DHPC was also found higher than that of DHFP samples.

  5. Lead sorption by waste biomass of hazelnut and almond shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Erol; Altun, Türkan; Cetin, Serpil; Iqbal Bhanger, M

    2009-08-15

    The potential to remove Pb(2+) ion from aqueous solutions using the shells of hazelnut (HNS) (Corylus avellana) and almond (AS) (Prunus dulcis) through biosorption was investigated in batch experiments. The main parameters influencing Pb(2+) ion sorption on HNS and AS were: initial metal ion concentration, amount of adsorbent, contact time and pH value of solution. The influences of initial Pb(2+) ion concentration (0.1-1.0mM), pH (2-9), contact time (10-240 min) and adsorbent amount (0.1-1.0 g) have been investigated. Equilibrium isotherms have been measured and modelled. Adsorption of Pb(2+) ions was in all cases pH-dependent showing a maximum at equilibrium pH values between 6.0 and 7.0, depending on the biomaterial, that corresponded to equilibrium pH values of 6.0 for HNS and 7.0 for AS. The equilibrium sorption capacities of HNS and AS were 28.18 and 8.08 mg/g for lead, respectively after equilibrium time of 2h. The adsorption data fit well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the experimental result inferred that adsorption, chelation and ion exchange are major adsorption mechanisms for binding Pb(2+) ion to the sorbents.

  6. Detection of hidden hazelnut protein in food by IgY-based indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Kemmers - Voncken, A.E.M.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Banks, J.; Reece, P.; Danks, C.; Tomkies, V.; Immer, U.; Schmitt, K.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    The development of an indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay for the detection of hidden hazelnut protein in complex food matrices is described. A sensitive and selective polyclonal antibody was raised by immunisation of laying hens with protein extracts from roasted hazelnuts. In contrast to

  7. Identification of hazelnut major allergens in sensitive patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Vieths, Stefan; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    The hazelnut major allergens identified to date are an 18-kd protein homologous to Bet v 1 and a 14-kd allergen homologous to Bet v 2. No studies have reported hazelnut allergens recognized in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) results or in patients...

  8. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD).

  9. Allergen sanitation in the food industry: a systematic industrial scale approach to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Ibach, Anja; Mücke, Ingo; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Recently, we investigated the impact of shared equipment on cross-contamination of cookies at a pilot plant scale. Based on those findings, this study investigated the extent and subsequent sanitation of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) of cookies at the industrial scale. Similarly, a product change from cookies with hazelnut ingredient to cookies without hazelnut was performed on standard equipment. HNCC in the hazelnut-free follow-up product was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for each production device and the applied cleaning procedure. All experiments were repeated in duplicate. The highest HNCC was found in concordance with previous studies after mere mechanical scraping: more than 1,000 mg of hazelnut protein per kg was quantified in the follow-up product after processing by a cookie machine. Additional cleaning with hot water decreased the HNCC irrespective of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg of hazelnut protein per kg. Furthermore, raw materials for cookie production were monitored over a period of 24 months for unwanted preloads of hazelnut and peanut: hazelnut was quantified in 16% of the investigated raw materials as being between 0.26 and 90 mg/kg. Further critical control points at the industrial scale, where cross-contamination might occur, were identified but did not display noteworthy sources of cross-contamination. In conclusion, the quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency at the industrial scale confirmed the procedure of manual scraping plus wet cleaning as a qualified sanitation procedure to effectively reduce the hazelnut protein cross-contamination down to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  10. Cor a 14 is the superior serological marker for hazelnut allergy in children, independent of concomitant peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, E; Mortz, C G; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2016-04-01

    Hazelnut is the most frequent cause of tree nut allergy, but up to half of all children with hazelnut allergy additionally suffer from peanut allergy. Our aim was to identify diagnostic values of the most promising serological markers (Cor a 9 and Cor a 14) and to address the influence of concomitant peanut allergy and PR10 sensitization. We included 155 children suspected of hazelnut allergy and challenged according to the guidelines. Concomitant allergy to peanuts was verified or ruled out by challenge. Skin prick test, s-IgE and CRD to hazelnut, peanut, PR10 and LPT protein families were measured using ImmunoCAP. Sixty-five children had a positive hazelnut challenge, and 60% of these also had a concomitant peanut allergy. Children allergic to hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 9 and Cor a 14; peanut-allergic children were sensitized to Ara h 2. Sensitization to PR10 protein components was seen in 45% of all included children, irrelevant to allergy to peanut or hazelnut. A cut-off >0.72 kU/L of IgE towards Cor a 14 diagnosed 87% correctly, making Cor a 14 the superior serology marker. However, nine hazelnut-allergic children were primarily sensitized to Cor a 9. Concomitant peanut allergy is common in hazelnut-allergic children, but decision points as well as diagnostic values for Cor a 14 are not affected. We found three independent and well-characterized serotypes; hazelnut-allergic children were sensitized to Cor a 14, peanut-allergic children were sensitized to Ara h 2, and independently of this were children sensitized to birch pollen (Bet v 1). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Simulation study of huff-n-puff air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first attempt to evaluate huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir using a simulation approach. Recovery mechanisms and physical processes of huff-n-puff air injection in a shale oil reservoir are investigated through investigating production performance, thermal behavior, reservoir pressure and fluid saturation features. Air flooding is used as the basic case for a comparative study. The simulation study suggests that thermal drive is the main recovery mechanism for huff-n-puff air injection in the shale oil reservoir, but not for simple air flooding. The synergic recovery mechanism of air flooding in conventional light oil reservoirs can be replicated in shale oil reservoirs by using air huff-n-puff injection strategy. Reducing huff-n-puff time is better for performing the synergic recovery mechanism of air injection. O2 diffusion plays an important role in huff-n-puff air injection in shale oil reservoirs. Pressure transmissibility as well as reservoir pressure maintenance ability in huff-n-puff air injection is more pronounced than the simple air flooding after primary depletion stage. No obvious gas override is exhibited in both air flooding and air huff-n-puff injection scenarios in shale reservoirs. Huff-n-puff air injection has great potential to develop shale oil reservoirs. The results from this work may stimulate further investigations.

  12. Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Nettle Filled Hybrid Composites of Nettle Fiber-Hazelnut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Kenan BÜYÜKKAYA

    2017-01-01

    Polymer beam specimens produced with reinforcement of nettle fiber and fixed nut hazelnut flour at different volume ratios were opened initial notches with a / W = 0.2, 0.3 ratios after thermal curing. The volume percentage of nettle fiber in the composite is 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 percent. The grain size of hazelnut shell flour is 0-50μ and the volume ratio in the composite is 15% in all samples. Mode I fracture behaviors of compacted specimens from single sides, compact tensile and mechanical ...

  13. Multigrid Methods for Fully Implicit Oil Reservoir Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider the simultaneous flow of oil and water in reservoir rock. This displacement process is modeled by two basic equations: the material balance or continuity equations and the equation of motion (Darcy's law). For the numerical solution of this system of nonlinear partial differential equations there are two approaches: the fully implicit or simultaneous solution method and the sequential solution method. In the sequential solution method the system of partial differential equations is manipulated to give an elliptic pressure equation and a hyperbolic (or parabolic) saturation equation. In the IMPES approach the pressure equation is first solved, using values for the saturation from the previous time level. Next the saturations are updated by some explicit time stepping method; this implies that the method is only conditionally stable. For the numerical solution of the linear, elliptic pressure equation multigrid methods have become an accepted technique. On the other hand, the fully implicit method is unconditionally stable, but it has the disadvantage that in every time step a large system of nonlinear algebraic equations has to be solved. The most time-consuming part of any fully implicit reservoir simulator is the solution of this large system of equations. Usually this is done by Newton's method. The resulting systems of linear equations are then either solved by a direct method or by some conjugate gradient type method. In this paper we consider the possibility of applying multigrid methods for the iterative solution of the systems of nonlinear equations. There are two ways of using multigrid for this job: either we use a nonlinear multigrid method or we use a linear multigrid method to deal with the linear systems that arise in Newton's method. So far only a few authors have reported on the use of multigrid methods for fully implicit simulations. Two-level FAS algorithm is presented for the black-oil equations, and linear multigrid for

  14. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  15. Molecular Theory and Simulation of Water-Oil Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang

    The statistical mechanical theory of hydrophobic interactions was initiated decades ago for purely repulsive hydrophobic species, in fact, originally for hard-sphere solutes in liquid water. Systems which treat only repulsive solute-water interactions obviously differ from the real world situation. The issue of the changes to be expected from inclusion of realistic attractive solute-water interactions has been of specific interest also for decades. We consider the local molecular field (LMF) theory for the effects of solute attractive forces on hydrophobic interactions. The principal result of LMF theory is outlined, then tested by obtaining radial distribution functions (rdfs) for Ar atoms in water, with and without attractive interactions distinguished by the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) separation. Change from purely repulsive atomic solute interactions to include realistic attractive interactions substantially diminishes the strength of hydrophobic bonds. Since attractions make a big contribution to hydrophobic interactions, Pratt-Chandler theory, which did not include attractions, should not be naively compared to computer simulation results with general physical interactions, including attractions. Lack of general appreciation of this point has lead to mistaken comparisons throughout the history of this subject. The rdfs permit evaluation of osmotic second virial coefficients B2. Those B 2 are consistent with the conclusion that incorporation of attractive interactions leads to more positive (repulsive) values. In all cases here, B2 becomes more attractive with increasing temperature below T = 360K, the so-call inverse temperature behavior. In 2010, the Gulf of Mexico Macondo well (Deepwater Horizon) oil spill focused the attention of the world on water-oil phase equilibrium. In response to the disaster, chemical dispersants were applied to break oil slicks into droplets and thus to avoid large-scale fouling of beaches and to speed up biodegradation

  16. Application of ¹H NMR for the characterisation and authentication of ''Tonda Gentile Trilobata" hazelnuts from Piedmont (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Acquotti, Domenico; Palla, Gerardo; Palla, Luigi; Arlorio, Marco

    2014-04-01

    The Italian hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivar "Tonda Gentile Trilobata" (TGT) is covered by protected geographical indication "Nocciola Piemonte" and is well-known as the best-suited hazelnut for the industrial transformation into roasted kernel. The hazelnut cultivar identification is primarily based on morphological characteristics, so there is the need for more objective analytical methods for high quality hazelnut authentication. This study reports the (1)H NMR fingerprinting of raw and roasted hazelnut, with the aim of obtaining hazelnut classification based on their spectroscopic pattern. (1)H NMR analyses were carried out on polar extracts of TGT and other cultivars: the data were analysed with multivariate statistical methods. Results showed that (1)H NMR combined with chemometrics is useful to characterise the hazelnuts as a function of the cultivars, both on raw and roasted form. The classification models allowed identifying molecular markers useful to distinguish TGT from other types, among these trigonelline, amino acids and an unidentified orto-disubstituted aromatic compound. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L; Aalberse, Rob C; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-12-15

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and detecting rabbit antibodies were raised against pepsin-digested hazelnut and untreated hazelnut protein, respectively. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.7 ng/mL hazelnut protein or food matrix and a maximum of 0.034% cross-reactivity (peanut). Chocolate samples spiked with 0.5-100 microg hazelnut/g chocolate showed a mean recovery of 97.3%. In 9/12 food products labeled "may contain nuts", hazelnut was detected between 1.2 and 417 microg hazelnut/g food. It can be concluded that the application of antibodies directed to pepsin-digested food extracts in ELISA can facilitate specific detection of stable proteins that have the highest potential of inducing severe food anaphylaxis.

  18. Determination of the oil distribution in a hermetic compressor using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, S.; Hopfgartner, J.; Berger, E.; Zuber, B.; Almbauer, R.; Schöllauf, P.

    2017-08-01

    In addition to the reduction of friction the oil in a hermetic compressor is very important for the transfer of heat from hot parts to the compressor shell. The simulation of the oil distribution in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for refrigeration application is shown in the present work. Using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS Fluent, the oil flow inside the compressor shell from the oil pump outlet to the oil sump is calculated. A comprehensive overview of the used models and the boundary conditions is given. After reaching steady-state conditions the oil covered surfaces are analysed concerning heat transfer coefficients. The gained heat transfer coefficients are used as input parameters for a thermal model of a hermetic compressor. An increase in accuracy of the thermal model with the simulated heat transfer coefficients compared to values from literature is shown by model validation with experimental data.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulation: The Behavior of Asphaltene in Crude Oil and at the Oil/Water Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Fengfeng

    2014-12-18

    Carboxyl asphaltene is commonly discussed in the petroleum industry. In most conditions, electroneutral carboxyl asphaltene molecules can be deprotonated to become carboxylate asphaltenes. Both in crude oil and at the oil/water interface, the characteristics of anionic carboxylate asphaltenes are different than those of the carboxyl asphaltenes. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are utilized to study the structural features of different asphaltene molecules, namely, C5 Pe and anionic C5 Pe, at the molecular level. In crude oil, the electroneutral C5 Pe molecules prefer to form a steady face-to-face stacking, while the anionic C5 Pe molecules are inclined to form face-to-face stacking and T-shaped II stacking because of the repulsion of the anionic headgroups. Anionic C5 Pe has a distinct affinity to the oil/water interface during the simulation, while the C5 Pe molecules persist in the crude oil domain. A three-stage model of anionic C5 Pe molecules adsorbed at the oil/water interface is finally developed.

  20. Effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexis, S.F.; Kontominas, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the quality of hazelnuts as a function of irradiation dose to determine dose levels causing minimal undesirable changes to hazelnuts. Physicochemical (color, peroxide value (PV), hexanal content, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds) and sensory (color, texture, odor and taste) properties were determined. Results showed a twenty fold increase in peroxide value and twenty-eight fold increase in hexanal content after irradiation at a dose of 7 kGy. An increase was also observed in saturated fatty acids (10%-23%) with a parallel decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (90-77%). Volatile compounds such as ketones, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, furans, aromatic hydrocarbons, bicyclic monoterpenes and acids were produced mostly comprising secondary oxidation products of hazelnut lipids after irradiation. Color parameter b* increased (p<0.05) after irradiation at a dose of ≥5 kGy, while color parameters L* and a* remained unchanged by irradiation. Sensory evaluation showed that texture and color were not affected by irradiation. Taste, the most sensitive sensory attribute showed that hazelnuts retain acceptable sensory quality when irradiated up to a dose of 1.5 kGy.

  1. Effect of solvent on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of hazelnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Chiara; Tripodo, Giusy; Russo, Marina; Della Posta, Susanna; Pasqualetti, Valentina; De Gara, Laura

    2018-03-22

    Hazelnut kernel phenolic compounds were recovered applying two different extraction approaches, namely ultrasound-assisted solid/liquid extraction (UA-SLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE). Different solvents were tested evaluating total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids contents together to antioxidant activity. The optimum extraction conditions, in terms of the highest value of total phenolic compounds extracted together to other parameters like simplicity and cost were selected for method validation and individual phenolic compounds analysis. The UA-SLE protocol performed using 0.1 g of defatted sample and 15 mL of extraction solvent (1 mL methanol/1 mL water/8 mL methanol 0.1% formic acid/5 mL acetonitrile) was selected. The analysis of hazelnut kernel individual phenolic compounds was obtained by HPLC coupled with DAD and MS detections. Quantitative analysis was performed using a mixture of six phenolic compounds belonging to phenolic classes' representative of hazelnut. Then, the method was fully validated and the resulting RSD% values for retention time repeatability were below 1%. A good linearity was obtained giving R 2 no lower than 0.997.The accuracy of the extraction method was also assessed. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of phenolic compounds in three different hazelnut kernel varieties observing a similar qualitative profile with differences in the quantity of detected compounds. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. European Survey for Hidden Allergens in Food: A Case Study with Peanut and Hazelnut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgertner, S.; Furtler-Leitzenberger, L.; Molinelli, E.; Krska, R.; Immer, U.; Schmitt, K.; Bremer, M.; Haasnoot, W.; Danks, C.; Romkies, V.; Reece, P.; Wilson, P.; Kiening, M.; Weller, M.; Niessner, R.; Corsini, E.; Mendonca, S.

    2008-01-01

    During the EU-funded project Allergentest (QLK1-CT-2001-01151) a survey for the presence of hidden proteins of hazelnut and peanut in suspected pre-packed foodstuffs within EC member states was carried out to check the usefulness of the developed rapid test-kits. There were 11 participating

  3. Roasted hazelnuts-allergenic activity evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Luttkopf, D.

    2003-01-01

    Allergy to hazelnuts is a common example of birch pollen related food allergy. Symptoms upon ingestion are often confined to the mouth and throat, but severe systemic reactions have been described in some patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction in allergenicity by roasting...

  4. Near infrared spectroscopy is suitable for the classification of hazelnuts according to Protected Designation of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Roberto; Radicetti, Emanuele; Monarca, Danilo; Cecchini, Massimo; Massantini, Riccardo

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy for the authentication of the 'Nocciola Romana' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cvs Tonda Gentile Romana and Nocchione) as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) hazelnut from central Italy. Algorithms for the selection of the optimal pretreatments were tested in combination with the following discriminant routines: k-nearest neighbour, soft independent modelling of class analogy, partial least squares discriminant analysis and support vector machine discriminant analysis. The best results were obtained using a support vector machine discriminant analysis routine. Thus, classification performance rates with specificities, sensitivities and accuracies as high as 96.0%, 95.0% and 95.5%, respectively, were achieved. Various pretreatments, such as standard normal variate, mean centring and a Savitzky-Golay filter with seven smoothing points, were used. The optimal wavelengths for classification were mainly correlated with lipids, although some contribution from minor constituents, such as proteins and carbohydrates, was also observed. Near infrared spectroscopy could classify hazelnut according to the PDO 'Nocciola Romana' designation. Thus, the experimentation lays the foundations for a rapid, online, authentication system for hazelnut. However, model robustness should be improved taking into account agro-pedo-climatic growing conditions. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Simulation of Heating of an Oil-Cooled Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors Converter Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ovrebo, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    I used SolidWorks a three-dimensional modeling software, and FloWorks, a fluid dynamics analysis tool, to simulate oil flow and heat transfer in a heat sink structure attached to three insulated gate bipolar transistors...

  6. Hubbert's Oil Peak Revisited by a Simulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Sutter, A.; Denis, T.; Leonard, C.

    2010-01-01

    As conventional oil reserves are declining, the debate on the oil production peak has become a burning issue. An increasing number of papers refer to Hubbert's peak oil theory to forecast the date of the production peak, both at regional and world levels. However, in our views, this theory lacks micro-economic foundations. Notably, it does not assume that exploration and production decisions in the oil industry depend on market prices. In an attempt to overcome these shortcomings, we have built an adaptative model, accounting for the behavior of one agent, standing for the competitive exploration-production industry, subjected to incomplete but improving information on the remaining reserves. Our work yields challenging results on the reasons for an Hubbert type peak oil, lying mainly 'above the ground', both at regional and world levels, and on the shape of the production and marginal cost trajectories. (authors)

  7. A Review of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery with a Simulated Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandadige Samintha Anne Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comprehensive study of the CO2-EOR (Enhanced oil recovery process, a detailed literature review and a numerical modelling study. According to past studies, CO2 injection can recover additional oil from reservoirs by reservoir pressure increment, oil swelling, the reduction of oil viscosity and density and the vaporization of oil hydrocarbons. Therefore, CO2-EOR can be used to enhance the two major oil recovery mechanisms in the field: miscible and immiscible oil recovery, which can be further increased by increasing the amount of CO2 injected, applying innovative flood design and well placement, improving the mobility ratio, extending miscibility, and controlling reservoir depth and temperature. A 3-D numerical model was developed using the CO2-Prophet simulator to examine the effective factors in the CO2-EOR process. According to that, in pure CO2 injection, oil production generally exhibits increasing trends with increasing CO2 injection rate and volume (in HCPV (Hydrocarbon pore volume and reservoir temperature. In the WAG (Water alternating gas process, oil production generally increases with increasing CO2 and water injection rates, the total amount of flood injected in HCPV and the distance between the injection wells, and reduces with WAG flood ratio and initial reservoir pressure. Compared to other factors, the water injection rate creates the minimum influence on oil production, and the CO2 injection rate, flood volume and distance between the flood wells have almost equally important influence on oil production.

  8. The effect of hazelnut roasted skin from different cultivars on the quality attributes, polyphenol content and texture of fresh egg pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Giuseppe; Belviso, Simona; Bertolino, Marta; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Dal Bello, Barbara; Ghirardello, Daniela; Giordano, Manuela; Giorgis, Marta; Grosso, Arianna; Rolle, Luca; Gerbi, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Hazelnut skin is the perisperm of the hazelnut kernel. It is separated from the kernel during the roasting process and is normally discarded. Recent studies have reported that hazelnut skin is a rich source of dietary fibre as well as of natural antioxidants owing to the presence of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the use of hazelnut skins obtained from different cultivars for enhancing the nutritional value of fresh egg pasta. Skins obtained from roasted hazelnuts of four different varieties were used at three concentrations as a flour replacement in fresh egg pasta. Hazelnut skin concentration significantly influenced all evaluated physicochemical parameters as well as consumers' appreciation for the pasta, but significant differences were also observed between the four varieties. Although pasta produced with 10 and 15% hazelnut skin displayed the highest content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in vitro, pasta containing 5% Tombul hazelnut skin showed maximum consumer preference. The results obtained in the present study highlighted that it is possible to use hazelnut skin in fresh pasta production to obtain a fortified food with high fibre content and antioxidant activity. The characteristics of the resulting pasta were strictly correlated with the hazelnut variety used for skin production and, of course, with the percentage of skin that was added. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Simulation of stevedoring work in the Klaipėda oil terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Makackas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the approach of developing simulation models of stevedoring work in oil terminal using aggregate approach and simulation system ARENA. Aggregate approach permits to develop formal specification of simulated systems. Aggregate specification of the system is presented as a set of interacting piece-linear aggregates. Controlling sequences are used for formal description of each piece-linear aggregate. Transformation of aggregate formal specification to ARENA system operators permits to develop a simulation model. The developed model permits to evaluate characteristics of the Klaipėda oil terminal which are used both in queuing theory and analysing timing properties of real-time systems.

  10. Microbial growth in Acrocomia aculeata pulp oil, Jatropha curcas oil, and their respective biodiesels under simulated storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciana Clarice Cazarolli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing demands for biodiesel in Brazil, diverse oil feedstocks have been investigated for their potentials for biodiesel production. Due to the high biodegradability of natural oils and their respective biodiesels, microbial growths and consequent deterioration of final product quality are generally observed during storage. This study was aimed at evaluating the susceptibility of Acrocomia aculeata pulp oil and Jatropha curcas oil as well as their respective biodiesels to biodeterioration during a simulated storage period. The experiment was conducted in microcosms containing oil/biodiesel and an aqueous phase over 30 d. The levels of microbial contamination included biodiesel and oil as received, inoculated with fungi, and sterile. Samples were collected every 7 d to measure pH, surface tension, acidity index, and microbial biomass. The initial and final ester contents of the biodiesels were also determined by gas chromatography. The major microbial biomass was detected in A. aculeata pulp and J. curcas biodiesels. Significant reductions in pH values were observed for treatments with A. aculeata pulp biodiesel as a carbon source (p

  11. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabedo, J.D.; Moya, I.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose using Value at Risk (VaR) for oil price risk quantification. VaR provides an estimation for the maximum oil price change associated with a likelihood level, and can be used for designing risk management strategies. We analyse three VaR calculation methods: the historical simulation standard approach, the historical simulation with ARMA forecasts (HSAF) approach. developed in this paper, and the variance-covariance method based on autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models forecasts. The results obtained indicate that HSAF methodology provides a flexible VaR quantification, which fits the continuous oil price movements well and provides an efficient risk quantification. (author)

  12. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Cabedo, J.; Moya, Ismael

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose using Value at Risk (VaR) for oil price risk quantification. VaR provides an estimation for the maximum oil price change associated with a likelihood level, and can be used for designing risk management strategies. We analyse three VaR calculation methods: the historical simulation standard approach, the historical simulation with ARMA forecasts (HSAF) approach, developed in this paper, and the variance-covariance method based on autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models forecasts. The results obtained indicate that HSAF methodology provides a flexible VaR quantification, which fits the continuous oil price movements well and provides an efficient risk quantification

  13. Experimental and simulated displacement of oil in sand berea cores using aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Hernandez, F.; Hernandez, H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a mathematical algorithm to simulate the displacement of a resident fluid using a displacing one in a saturated anisotropic porous media is shown in this work. The algorithm was included in the simulator developed by the present authors in previous works to represent the anisotropic distribution of the porous media properties and the fluid injection [Ramirez A et al. Mathematical simulation of oil reservoir properties. Chaos, solitons and Fractals 2008;38:778-88, Ramirez A et al. Simulation of uncompressible fluid flow through a porous media. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2009;39:1753-63] in a nested loop to analyze the participant nodes in the transport process and calculate the volumes of the resident and new fluids. The new routine developed takes in count the mobility of both fluids. Additionally experimental fluid displacement tests were done using heavy oil from Mexican reservoirs as a resident fluid in sand berea cores. The injection of new fluids in natural oil reservoirs is a part of the Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods used to improve the oil displacement and increase production after the primary stage of the oil recovery has been finished. Water is an available and economical resource to be used as a displacing fluid due to many of the producers (off-shores) of the oil industries are placed in the sea near the coast.

  14. Influence of physical and chemical dispersion on the biodegradation of oil under simulated marine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannell, R. P. J.; Daniel, F.; Croft, B. C.; Engelhardt, M. A.; Wilson, S.; Mitchell, D. J.; Lunel, T.

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion and biodegradation of oil was studied in marine microcosms designed to simulate oil dispersion at sea. Dispersion was studied using both Phase Doppler Particle Analyser and a Chamber Slide technique. In both natural and artificial seawater, oil addition was observed to encourage the growth of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the presence of sufficient nitrogen and phosphorus. Results showed that microorganisms enhanced oil dispersion by colonizing physically-dispersed oil droplets and preventing re-coalescence with the surface slick. The addition of dispersants increased the rate of colonization as well as the number of degraded droplets. These results suggest that stimulation of physical dispersion by chemical means increase the rate of oil biodegradation under natural conditions. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs

  15. Simulation of Fog Oil Deposition During Military Training Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haehnel, Robert B

    2008-01-01

    ...) obscurant on the ground using the SCIPuff aerosol transport model. Model results are compared to actual deposition of fog oil measure on the ground during two military training exercises in Alaska...

  16. Simulation of an oil film at the sea surface and its radiometric properties in the SWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Van Eijk, Alexander M. J.

    2017-10-01

    The knowledge of the optical contrast of an oil layer on the sea under various surface roughness conditions is of great interest for oil slick monitoring techniques. This paper presents a 3D simulation of a dynamic sea surface contaminated by a floating oil film. The simulation considers the damping influence of oil on the ocean waves and its physical properties. It calculates the radiance contrast of the sea surface polluted by the oil film in relation to a clean sea surface for the SWIR spectral band. Our computer simulation combines the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open clear sea/clear sky) with an oil film at the sea surface. The basic geometry of a clean sea surface is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. Oil on the sea surface attenuates the capillary and short gravity waves modulating the wave power density spectrum of these waves. The radiance of the maritime scene is calculated in the SWIR spectral band with the emitted sea surface radiance and the specularly reflected sky radiance as components. Wave hiding and shadowing, especially occurring at low viewing angles, are considered. The specular reflection of the sky radiance at the clean sea surface is modeled by an analytical statistical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the sea surface. For oil at the sea surface, a specific BRDF is used influenced by the reduced surface roughness, i.e., the modulated wave density spectrum. The radiance contrast of an oil film in relation to the clean sea surface is calculated for different viewing angles, wind speeds, and oil types characterized by their specific physical properties.

  17. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques

  18. The design and simulation of new downhole vibration device about acoustic oil recovery technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Hou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available More and more oilfields are using acoustic technology to enhance oil recovery. In order to know the mechanism of acoustic oil recovery technology, the sound radiator of a new downhole vibration device is modeled and analyzed. Based on the theoretical background, this paper firstly analyzes the acoustic mechanism for the oil reservoir and then makes a acoustic response analysis on the sound radiator model for frequency and time-domain investigation by using professional acoustic simulation software–LMS Virtual.lab Acoustics, finally calculates the acoustic transmission loss in the downhole oil reservoir. The research reveals that firstly, acoustic waves have influences on the oil & water fluidity in the oil reservoir, the oil pressure gradient and the interfacial tension of capillary; secondly, the acoustic radiation power and sound pressure of field point attain a peak on the natural frequency of the sound radiator; thirdly, with the acoustic impact, the sound pressure of oil reservoir would fluctuate so as to improve the oil recovery ratio; the last but not the least one is both the sound pressure of oil reservoir point and the transmission loss of rock have a positive correlation with the vibration frequency. Therefore, it is of great importance for the research of vibration frequency and structure optimization of sound radiator.

  19. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Latif, N.A.; Azhar Mohd Sinin; Mohamad Daud; Abd Nasir Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  20. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions and contributing factors (Pav. Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD.

  1. SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OPERATION IN A HEAVY OIL RESERVOIR IN SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZA MASOOMI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of oil from some Iranian reservoirs due to high viscosity of their oil or reducing the formation permeability due to asphaltene precipitation or other problems is not satisfactory. Hydraulic fracturing method increases production in the viscous oil reservoirs that the production rate is low. So this is very important for some Iranian reservoirs that contain these characteristics. In this study, hydraulic fracturing method has been compositionally simulated in a heavy oil reservoir in southern Iran. In this study, the parameters of the fracture half length, the propagation direction of the cracks and the depth of fracturing have been considered in this oil reservoir. The aim of this study is to find the best scenario which has the highest recovery factor in this oil reservoir. For this purpose the parameters of the length, propagation direction and depth of fracturing have been optimized in this reservoir. Through this study the cumulative oil production has been evaluated with the compositional simulation for the next 10 years in this reservoir. Also at the end of this paper, increasing the final production of this oil reservoir caused by optimized hydraulic fracturing has been evaluated.

  2. Calibration of modified parallel-plate rheometer through calibrated oil and lattice Boltzmann simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraris, Chiara F; Geiker, Mette Rica; Martys, Nicos S

    2007-01-01

    inapplicable here. This paper presents the analysis of a modified parallel plate rheometer for measuring cement mortar and propose a methodology for calibration using standard oils and numerical simulation of the flow. A lattice Boltzmann method was used to simulate the flow in the modified rheometer, thus...

  3. Parallel-plate rheometer calibration using oil and lattice Boltzmann simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraris, Chiara F; Geiker, Mette Rica; Martys, Nicos S.

    2007-01-01

    compute the viscosity. This paper presents a modified parallel plate rheometer, and proposes means of calibration using standard oils and numerical simulation of the flow. A lattice Boltzmann method was used to simulate the flow in the modified rheometer, thus using an accurate numerical solution in place...

  4. Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of oil pollution problems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Written by outstanding experts in the fields of marine engineering, atmospheric physics and chemistry, fluid dynamics and applied mathematics, the contributions in this book cover a wide range of subjects, from pure mathematics to real-world applications in the oil spill engineering business. Offering a truly interdisciplinary approach, the authors present both mathematical models and state-of-the-art numerical methods for adequately solving the partial differential equations involved, as well as highly practical experiments involving actual cases of ocean oil pollution. It is indispensable that different disciplines of mathematics, like analysis and numerics,  together with physics, biology, fluid dynamics, environmental engineering and marine science, join forces to solve today’s oil pollution problems.   The book will be of great interest to researchers and graduate students in the environmental sciences, mathematics and physics, showing the broad range of techniques needed in order to solve these poll...

  5. High-order simulation of foam enhanced oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, J.M.; Van Odyck, D.E.A.; Wirnsberger, P.; Jansen, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    If secondary hydrocarbon recovery methods fail because of the occurrence of gravity override or viscous fingering one can turn to an enhanced oil recovery method like the injection of foam. The generation of foam can be described by a set of partial differential equations with strongly nonlinear

  6. Oil bioremediation processes in Brazilian marine environments : laboratory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.S.; Triguis, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bioremediation methods have been used in Brazil to remediate contaminated soils from refinery residues. In particular, bioremediation is a process that can reduce the amount of oil that reaches shorelines, by enhancing natural biodegradation. This presentation presents the results of a laboratory study in which seawater contaminated with light crude oil was bioremediated in a period of 28 days using NPK fertilizer. Whole oil gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the hydrocarbon fractions were used to determine the extent of oil biodegradation. It was determined that natural degradation occurred in the first 4 days, and mostly through the evaporation of light end n-alkanes. Biodegradation of n-alkanes was found to be most effective after 7 days, and no changes were observed in the relative abundance of steranes and triterpanes. It appears that the addition of NPK nutrient reduces the biodegradation potential of polyaromatic compounds. Seawater samples were also measured to determine the efficiency of bioremediation. The use of NPK fertilizer resulted in higher toxicity after 14 days probably due to the creation of metabolites as polyaromatic compounds biodegrade. Non toxic levels were found to be reestablished after 28 days of bioremediation. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Design and numerical simulation on an auto-cumulative flowmeter in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Beibei; Kong, Lingfu; Kong, Deming; Kong, Weihang; Li, Lei; Liu, Xingbin; Chen, Jiliang

    2017-11-01

    In order to accurately measure the flow rate under the low yield horizontal well conditions, an auto-cumulative flowmeter (ACF) was proposed. Using the proposed flowmeter, the oil flow rate in horizontal oil-water two-phase segregated flow can be finely extracted. The computational fluid dynamics software Fluent was used to simulate the fluid of the ACF in oil-water two-phase flow. In order to calibrate the simulation measurement of the ACF, a novel oil flow rate measurement method was further proposed. The models of the ACF were simulated to obtain and calibrate the oil flow rate under different total flow rates and oil cuts. Using the finite-element method, the structure of the seven conductance probes in the ACF was simulated. The response values for the probes of the ACF under the conditions of oil-water segregated flow were obtained. The experiments for oil-water segregated flow under different heights of the oil accumulation in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow were carried out to calibrate the ACF. The validity of the oil flow rate measurement in horizontal oil-water two-phase flow was verified by simulation and experimental results.

  8. A simplified approach for the simulation of water-in-oil emulsions in gravity separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakehal, D.; Narayanan, C. [ASCOMP GmbH, Zurich (Switzerland); Vilagines, R.; Akhras, A.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research and Development Center

    2009-07-01

    A new method of simulating 3-phase flow separation processes in a crude oil product was presented. The aim of the study was to increase the liquid capacity of the vessels and develop methods of testing variable flow entry procedures. The simulated system was based on gravity separation. Oil well streams were injected into large tanks where gas, oil and water were separated under the action of inertia and gravity. An interface tracking technique was combined with a Euler-Euler model developed as part of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Emulsion physics were modelled by interface tracking between the gas and oil-in-water liquid mixture. Additional scalar transport equations were solved in order to account for the diffusive process between the oil and water. Various settling velocity models were used to consider the settling of the dispersed water phase in oil. Changes in viscosity and non-Newtonian emulsion behaviour were also considered. The study showed that the interface tracking technique accurately predicted flow when combined with an emulsion model designed to account for the settling of water in the oil phase. Further research is now being conducted to validate computational results against in situ measurements. 13 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  9. Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012. The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1% to very high (almost 75% across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease.

  10. Mycoflora and mycotoxin of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and walnut (Juglans regia L.) seeds in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; Saber, S M

    1993-03-01

    Fifty-one species and 3 varieties appertaining to 20 genera were collected from 20 samples of each of hazelnut and walnut seeds on glucose- and 40% (W/V) sucrose-Czapek's agar at 25 degrees C and 45 degrees C with the most common mesophiles were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. oxalicum. Fusarium (represented by F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. oxysporum) was recovered from walnut seeds in moderate frequency (on glucose-Czapek's agar). Eurotium (E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. repens and E. rubrum) was completely absent on glucose agar, but it was isolated in high frequency from the two types of seeds on 40% sucrose-Czapek's agar. Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizomucor pusillus were the most common thermophilic fungi in hazelnut and walnut seeds on glucose agar at 45 degrees C. Humicola grisea var. themoidae and Thermoascus aurantiacus were encountered rarely from walnuts. The nuts samples were assayed for natural occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol by thin layer chromatography analysis. Aflatoxin was detected in 90% of hazelnut samples (25-175 micrograms/kg) and 75% of walnut samples (15-25 micrograms/kg). Zearalenone was detected in one sample of walnut (125 micrograms/kg). This is the first report for the presence of zearalenone in walnut. The other mycotoxins were not detected.

  11. Simultaneous detection of peanut and hazelnut allergens in food matrices using multiplex PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Renčová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplex PCR analysis for the detection of two targeting segments of genes coding major food protein allergens as peanut (Arachis hypogaea Ara h 1 gene and hazelnut (Corylus avellana Cor a 1 gene was developed. Two sets of primers were designed and tested to their specificity on a broad range of ingredients. The identity of amplicons (Ara h 1- 180 bp, Cor a 1 – 258 bp by sequencing and alignment of sequences with sequences deposited in Genbank was confirmed. When testing the specificity of designed primer pairs on a spectrum of food ingredients, no cross reactions were detected. A potential inhibition of PCR reaction was eliminated using the universal plant primers of chloroplast gene 124 bp for the plant matrices confirmation. The intrinsic detection limit was 10 pg·ml-1 and the practical detection limit was 0.001% w/w (10 mg·kg-1 for both peanuts and hazelnuts. The method was applied to the investigation of 60 commercial food samples. The developed multiplex PCR method is cheap, specific and sensitive enough and can be used as a simple, one day procedure for the checking of undeclared peanut and hazelnut major allergens in food.

  12. Soil management system in hazelnut groves (Corylus sp. versus the presence of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nietupski Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustaining biodiversity as well as taking advantage of the natural environment’s resistance are the key elements which should be considered when designing integrated plans for the protection of hazelnut groves. An effort has been made in this study to analyse the impact of different soil cultivation methods in hazelnut groves, on the species composition and number of individuals in carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae. Another aim was to determine which method of inter-row soil management had the least negative effect on assemblages of these beetles. Because of the type of habitat, the xerothermic species characteristic for southeastern Europe, i.e. Calathus ambiguus, Poecilus lepidus, Harpalus calceatus, and H. griseus, were the most numerous. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the captured individuals implied that the optimal soil tillage system in young hazelnut groves is when soil is kept fallow with machines or chemicals, or when soil is covered with manure. The least favourable practice for the appearance of ground beetles of the Carabidae family is the use of polypropylene fabric, bark or sawdust, to cover soil

  13. Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Nettle Filled Hybrid Composites of Nettle Fiber-Hazelnut Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan BÜYÜKKAYA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer beam specimens produced with reinforcement of nettle fiber and fixed nut hazelnut flour at different volume ratios were opened initial notches with a / W = 0.2, 0.3 ratios after thermal curing. The volume percentage of nettle fiber in the composite is 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 percent. The grain size of hazelnut shell flour is 0-50μ and the volume ratio in the composite is 15% in all samples. Mode I fracture behaviors of compacted specimens from single sides, compact tensile and mechanical behavior were determined by three point bending test and impact test. The amount of crack opening was determined by the high-speed camera recorder. The bending test determined bending modulus and bending stresses. The morphological structure of the fractured surfaces obtained from the impulse test was revealed by sem views. It has been observed that the added hazelnut flour enhances the flexural modulus while reducing bending stress, fracture strength and impact resistance

  14. Oil Spill Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon Tablets from Corncobs in Simulated Oil-Water Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonalyn V. Maulion

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill in bodies of water is one of severe environmental problems that is facing all over the country and in the world. Since oil is an integral part of the economy, increasing trend for its demand and transport of has led to a great treat in the surface water. One of the promising techniques in the removal of the oil spills in water bodies is adsorption using activated carbon form waste material such as corn cobs. The purpose of this study is to determine the adsorption capacity of activated carbon tablets derived from corncobs in the removal of oil. The properties of activated carbon produced have a pH of 7.0, bulk density of 0.26 g//cm3 , average pore size of 45nm, particle size of 18% at 60 mesh and 39% at 80 mesh, iodine number of 1370 mg/g and surface area of 1205 g/m2. The amount of bentonite clay as binder (15%,20%,30%, number of ACT (1,2,3 and time of contact(30,60,90 mins has been varied to determine the optimum condition where the activated carbon will have the best adsorption capacity in the removal of oil. Results showed that at 15% binder, 60 mins contact time and 3 tablets of activated carbon is the optimum condition which give a percentage adsorption of 22.82% of oil. Experimental data also showed that a Langmuir isotherm was the best fit isotherm for adsorption of ACT.

  15. Flow behavior of Daqing waxy crude oil under simulated pipelining conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Jianlin [China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China); PetroChina Company Ltd. (China); Zhang, Jinjun; Li, Hongying; Zhang, Fan; Yang, Xiaojing [China University of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2005-07-01

    Daqing oil field is the largest oil field in China. This crude oil is a typical waxy crude oil, with a wax content of 26% and a gel point of 32 deg C. Flow behaviors of waxy crude oils at temperatures near the gel point/pour point are vital for both pipeline hydraulic calculation and evaluation on restartability of a shutdown pipeline. In this study, experimental simulation was conducted by using a stirred vessel with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter. The viscosity, gel point, yield stress and thixotropy were measured by sampling from the simulation vessel. The viscosity under simulated pipelining condition was found less than that measured under quiescent cooling condition. The gel point decreased with decreasing temperature of sampling, i.e. the end temperature of the dynamic cooling process. At sampling temperatures above 35 deg C, that is 3 deg C above the gel point measured under quiescent cooling condition, both the yield stresses and the thixotropic parameters showed little dependence on the shear history. However, at lower sampling temperatures, remarkable shear history dependence was found. Empirical correlations were developed between the yield stress and the sampling temperature as well as the measurement temperature, and between the thixotropic parameters and the sampling temperature. (author)

  16. Validation of a FBC model for co-firing of hazelnut shell with lignite against experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulah, Gorkem [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Performance of a comprehensive system model extended for modelling of co-firing of lignite and biomass was assessed by applying it to METU 0.3 MW{sub t} Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor co-firing lignite with hazelnut shell and validating its predictions against on-line temperature and concentration measurements of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and NO along the same test rig fired with lignite only, lignite with limestone addition and lignite with biomass and limestone addition. The system model accounts for hydrodynamics; volatiles release and combustion, char combustion, particle size distribution for lignite and biomass; entrainment; elutriation; sulfur retention and NO formation and reduction, and is based on conservation equations for energy and chemical species. Special attention was paid to different devolatilization characteristics of lignite and biomass. A volatiles release model based on a particle movement model and a devolatilization kinetic model were incorporated into the system model separately for both fuels. Kinetic parameters for devolatilization were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. Predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations of gaseous species along the combustor were found to be in good agreement. Introduction of biomass to lignite was found to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions but did not affect NO emissions significantly. The system model proposed in this study proves to be a useful tool in qualitatively and quantitatively simulating the processes taking place in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor burning lignite with biomass. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional Virtual Simulation of Oil Spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing Area Based on Emergency Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhe; Huang, Liwen

    the river of Yangtze River in Chongqing area is continuous curved. Hydrology and channel situation is complex, and the transportation is busy. With the increasing of shipments of hazardous chemicals year by year, oil spill accident risk is rising. So establishment of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and its application in decision-making has become an urgent task. This paper detailed the process of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and established a system of three-dimensional virtual Simulation of oil spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing area by establishing an oil spill model of the Chongqing area based on oil particles model, and the system has been used in emergency decision to provide assistance for the oil spill response.

  18. Multigrid methods for fully implicit oil reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenaar, J.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the authors consider the simultaneous flow of oil and water in reservoir rock. This displacement process is modeled by two basic equations the material balance or continuity equations, and the equation of motion (Darcy`s law). For the numerical solution of this system of nonlinear partial differential equations, there are two approaches: the fully implicit or simultaneous solution method, and the sequential solution method. In this paper, the authors consider the possibility of applying multigrid methods for the iterative solution of the systems of nonlinear equations.

  19. Simulating oil droplet dispersal from the Deepwater Horizon spill with a Lagrangian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Elizabeth W.; Schlag, Zachary; Adams, E. Eric; Sherwood, Christopher R.; He, Ruoying; Hyun, Hoon; Socolofsky, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical multiphase plume model, combined with time-varying flow and hydrographic fields generated by the 3-D South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico model (SABGOM) hydrodynamic model, were used as input to a Lagrangian transport model (LTRANS), to simulate transport of oil droplets dispersed at depth from the recent Deepwater Horizon MC 252 oil spill. The plume model predicts a stratification-dominated near field, in which small oil droplets detrain from the central plume containing faster rising large oil droplets and gas bubbles and become trapped by density stratification. Simulated intrusion (trap) heights of ∼ 310–370 m agree well with the midrange of conductivity-temperature-depth observations, though the simulated variation in trap height was lower than observed, presumably in part due to unresolved variability in source composition (percentage oil versus gas) and location (multiple leaks during first half of spill). Simulated droplet trajectories by the SABGOM-LTRANS modeling system showed that droplets with diameters between 10 and 50 μm formed a distinct subsurface plume, which was transported horizontally and remained in the subsurface for >1 month. In contrast, droplets with diameters ≥90 μm rose rapidly to the surface. Simulated trajectories of droplets ≤50 μm in diameter were found to be consistent with field observations of a southwest-tending subsurface plume in late June 2010 reported by Camilli et al. [2010]. Model results suggest that the subsurface plume looped around to the east, with potential subsurface oil transport to the northeast and southeast. Ongoing work is focusing on adding degradation processes to the model to constrain droplet dispersal.

  20. Transient Simulations of Gas-Oil-Water Separation Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor S. Schei

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of mathematical models for the dynamic simulation of offshore processing plants is developed. Each process unit is modeled separately, and the various models are integrated into a system for the simulation of an entire plant. The purpose of the simulation system is to study the effects of various disturbances and investigate appropriate control strategies. Important variables subject to control are pressure, flow rate, temperature, vessel liquid level and compressor speed. In separators the rate of interfacial mass transfer between the liquid and vapour phases at non-equilibrium is modeled as a first order time lag. The vapour liquid equilibrium ratio is linearized with respect to variations in pressure and temperature for each separator stage. A realistic scenario is chosen in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the simulation system.

  1. Numerical simulation and structural optimization of the inclined oil/water separator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Chen

    Full Text Available Improving the separation efficiency of the inclined oil/water separator, a new type of gravity separation equipment, is of great importance. In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the internal flow field of the separation process of oil and water within this separator, a numerical simulation based on Euler multiphase flow analysis and the realizable k-ε two equation turbulence model was executed using Fluent software. The optimal value ranges of the separator's various structural parameters used in the numerical simulation were selected through orthogonal array experiments. A field experiment on the separator was conducted with optimized structural parameters in order to validate the reliability of the numerical simulation results. The research results indicated that the horizontal position of the dispenser, the hole number, and the diameter had significant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency, and that the longitudinal position of the dispenser and the position of the weir plate had insignificant effects on the oil/water separation efficiency. The optimal structural parameters obtained through the orthogonal array experiments resulted in an oil/water separation efficiency of up to 95%, which was 4.996% greater than that realized by the original structural parameters.

  2. A framework to quantify uncertainty in simulations of oil transport in the ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Gonçalves, Rafael C.

    2016-03-02

    An uncertainty quantification framework is developed for the DeepC Oil Model based on a nonintrusive polynomial chaos method. This allows the model\\'s output to be presented in a probabilistic framework so that the model\\'s predictions reflect the uncertainty in the model\\'s input data. The new capability is illustrated by simulating the far-field dispersal of oil in a Deepwater Horizon blowout scenario. The uncertain input consisted of ocean current and oil droplet size data and the main model output analyzed is the ensuing oil concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. A 1331 member ensemble was used to construct a surrogate for the model which was then mined for statistical information. The mean and standard deviations in the oil concentration were calculated for up to 30 days, and the total contribution of each input parameter to the model\\'s uncertainty was quantified at different depths. Also, probability density functions of oil concentration were constructed by sampling the surrogate and used to elaborate probabilistic hazard maps of oil impact. The performance of the surrogate was constantly monitored in order to demarcate the space-time zones where its estimates are reliable. © 2016. American Geophysical Union.

  3. A framework to quantify uncertainty in simulations of oil transport in the ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Gonç alves, Rafael C.; Iskandarani, Mohamed; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Thacker, W. Carlisle; Chassignet, Eric; Knio, Omar

    2016-01-01

    An uncertainty quantification framework is developed for the DeepC Oil Model based on a nonintrusive polynomial chaos method. This allows the model's output to be presented in a probabilistic framework so that the model's predictions reflect the uncertainty in the model's input data. The new capability is illustrated by simulating the far-field dispersal of oil in a Deepwater Horizon blowout scenario. The uncertain input consisted of ocean current and oil droplet size data and the main model output analyzed is the ensuing oil concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. A 1331 member ensemble was used to construct a surrogate for the model which was then mined for statistical information. The mean and standard deviations in the oil concentration were calculated for up to 30 days, and the total contribution of each input parameter to the model's uncertainty was quantified at different depths. Also, probability density functions of oil concentration were constructed by sampling the surrogate and used to elaborate probabilistic hazard maps of oil impact. The performance of the surrogate was constantly monitored in order to demarcate the space-time zones where its estimates are reliable. © 2016. American Geophysical Union.

  4. Nonlinear dynamic simulation of optimal depletion of crude oil in the lower 48 United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, M.; Cleveland, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study combines the economic theory of optimal resource use with econometric estimates of demand and supply parameters to develop a nonlinear dynamic model of crude oil exploration, development, and production in the lower 48 United States. The model is simulated with the graphical programming language STELLA, for the years 1985 to 2020. The procedure encourages use of economic theory and econometrics in combination with nonlinear dynamic simulation to enhance our understanding of complex interactions present in models of optimal resource use. (author)

  5. Simulating an oil shock with sticky prices. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giavazzi, F; Odekon, M; Wyplosz, C

    1981-01-01

    The authors extend recent work by J. Sachs on the response of a two-country-plus-OPEC neo-classical model to an oil shock with full inter-temporal optimization and perfect foresight. The role of imperfectly flexible prices is studied under the assumption that firms are constrained in output. The presence of expected inflation is shown to be pervasive. It affects the real interest-rate term structure and the valuation of all components of wealth, as well as the exchange rate and the attending distribution of world expenditures. Inflation also enters the wage-adjustment mechanism and, therefore, the path of unemployment and capital accumulation. 23 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  6. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations of the Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent...

  7. Pore-scale simulation of wettability and interfacial tension effects on flooding process for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-08-27

    For enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications, the oil/water flow characteristics during the flooding process was numerically investigated with the volume-of-fluid method at the pore scale. A two-dimensional pore throat-body connecting structure was established, and four scenarios were simulated in this paper. For oil-saturated pores, the wettability effect on the flooding process was studied; for oil-unsaturated pores, three effects were modelled to investigate the oil/water phase flow behaviors, namely the wettability effect, the interfacial tension (IFT) effect, and the combined wettability/IFT effect. The results show that oil saturated pores with the water-wet state can lead to 25-40% more oil recovery than with the oil-wet state, and the remaining oil mainly stays in the near wall region of the pore bodies for oil-wet saturated pores. For oil-unsaturated pores, the wettability effects on the flooding process can help oil to detach from the pore walls. By decreasing the oil/water interfacial tension and altering the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet state, the remaining oil recovery rate can be enhanced successfully. The wettability-IFT combined effect shows better EOR potential compared with decreasing the interfacial tension alone under the oil-wet condition. The simulation results in this work are consistent with previous experimental and molecular dynamics simulation conclusions. The combination effect of the IFT reducation and wettability alteration can become an important recovery mechanism in future studies for nanoparticles, surfactant, and nanoparticle-surfactant hybrid flooding process.

  8. Profiling of the Contents of Amino Acids, Water-Soluble Vitamins, Minerals, Sugars and Organic Acids in Turkish Hazelnut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taş Neslihan Göncüoğlu

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition, profiles of amino acids, sugars, organic acids, vitamins and minerals of fourteen Turkish hazelnut varieties harvested in 2013 and 2014 were investigated. Glutamic acid, arginine and aspartic acid were the most predominant amino acids, representing of about 50% of hazelnut protein. Individual amino acid profiles showed significant differences depending upon the harvest year (p<0.05. Concentration of sucrose was the highest followed by fructose, glucose, stachyose, raffinose and myo-inositol, respectively. Phytic acid was predominant organic acid in all varieties, followed by malic acid. Independent of the variety, hazelnuts were rich in pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, pyridoxal, biotin, thiamine, nicotinamide. Pantothenic and nicotinic acid were significantly higher in most of the varieties in harvest year 2014. Potassium was the most predominant mineral, followed by magnesium, calcium, sodium, manganese, zinc, iron and copper, respectively.

  9. Assessment of hazelnut husk as a lignocellulosic feedstock for the production of fermentable sugars and lignocellulolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Orkun; Karaosmanoğlu, Kübra; Sayar, Nihat Alpagu; Kula, Ceyda; Kazan, Dilek; Sayar, Ahmet Alp

    2017-12-01

    The present work focuses firstly on the evaluation of the effect of laccase on enzymatic hydrolysis of hazelnut husk which is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic agricultural residues generated in Turkey. In this respect, the co-enzymatic treatment of hazelnut husk by cellulase and laccase, without a conventional pretreatment step is evaluated. Using 2.75 FPU/g substrate (40 g/L substrate) and a ratio of 131 laccase U/FPU achieved the highest reducing sugars concentration. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry confirmed that the hydrolysate was composed of glucose, xylose, mannose, arabinose and galactose. The inclusion of laccase in the enzyme mixture [carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and β-glucosidase] increased the final glucose content of the reducing sugars from 20 to 50%. Therefore, a very significant increase in glucose content of the final reducing sugars concentration was obtained by laccase addition. Furthermore, the production of cellulases and laccase by Pycnoporus sanguineus DSM 3024 using hazelnut husk as substrate was also investigated. Among the hazelnut husk concentrations tested (1.5, 6, 12, 18 g/L), the highest CMCase concentration was obtained using 12 g/L husk concentration on the 10th day of fermentation. Besides CMCase, P. sanguineus DSM 3024 produced β-glucosidase and laccase using hazelnut husk as carbon source. In addition to CMCase and β-glucosidase, the highest laccase activity measured was 2240 ± 98 U/L (8.89 ± 0.39 U/mg). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report hazelnut husk hydrolysis in the absence of pretreatment procedures.

  10. Morphological and molecular analysis of Fusarium lateritium, the cause of gray necrosis of hazelnut fruit in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, S; Santori, A; Wajnberg, E; Castagnone-Sereno, P; Luongo, L; Belisario, A

    2011-06-01

    Fusarium lateritium is a globally distributed plant pathogen. It was recently reported as the causal agent of nut gray necrosis (NGN) on hazelnut. Isolate characterization within F. lateritium was undertaken to investigate how morphological and molecular diversity was associated with host and geographic origin. Morphological studies combined with inter-simple-sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, and phylogenetic analyses using translation elongation factor 1α (TEF-1α), β-tubulin genes, and nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were conducted to resolve relationships among 32 F. lateritium isolates from NGN-affected hazelnut fruit, and 14 from other substrates or 8 from other hosts than hazelnut. Colonies of F. lateritium from hazelnut showed dark grayish-olive differing from the orange-yellow color of all other isolates from other hosts. Generally, isolates from NGN-affected fruit failed to produce sporodochia on carnation leaf agar. The influence of host and substrate on the genetic structure of F. lateritium was supported by ISSR and analyzed with principal coordinates analysis. A relationship between hazelnut and genetic variation was inferred. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS provided limited resolution while TEF-1α and β-tubulin analyses allowed a clear separation between the European and non-European F. lateritium isolates retrieved from GenBank, regardless of host. Though morphological traits of F. lateritium isolates from hazelnut were generally uniform in defining a typical morphogroup, they were not yet phylogenetically defined. In contrast, the typology related to slimy deep orange cultures, due to spore mass, grouped clearly separated from the other F. lateritium isolates and revealed a congruence between morphology and phylogeny.

  11. Physical simulation technique on the behaviour of oil spills in grease ice under wave actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Light or medium oil spilled on ice tends to rise and remain the surface in unconsolidated frazil or grease ice. This study looked for a new system for studying the oil emulsion in grease ice under experimental conditions. A physical simulation technique was designed to test the effect of wave energy on the spilled oil grease ice emulsion. The newly developed test system has the ability to perform simulation tests in wave, wave-ice, wave-oil and wave-ice-oil. This paper presented the design concept of the developed test system and introduced the experimental certifications of its capability in terms of temperature control, wave-making and grease ice-making. The key feature of the technique is a mini wave flume which derives its wave making power from an oscillator in a chemical laboratory. Video cameras record the wave action in the flume in order to obtain wave parameters. The wave making capability tests in this study were used to determine the relation of wave height, length and frequency with oscillator power transfer, oscillator frequency and the depth of the water flume. 16 refs., 10 figs

  12. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of oil recovery by macro-emulsion floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamharatana, F. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Thomas, S.; Farouq Ali, S. M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    The process of emulsion flooding as an enhanced oil recovery method was described. The process involves several mechanisms that occur at the same time during displacement, therefore, simulation by emulsion flooding requires a good understanding of flow mechanics of emulsions in porous media. This paper provides a description of the process and its mathematical representation. Emulsion rheology, droplet capture and surfactant adsorption are represented mathematically and incorporated into a one-dimensional, three-phase mathematical model to account for interactions of surfactant, oil, water and the rock matrix. The simulator was validated by comparing simulation results with the results from linear core floods performed in the laboratory. Best match was achieved by a multi-phase non-Newtonian rheological model of an emulsion with interfacial tension-dependent relative permeabilities and time-dependent capture. 13 refs., 1 tab., 42 figs.

  13. Computational Flow Dynamic Simulation of Micro Flow Field Characteristics Drainage Device Used in the Process of Oil-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous crude oil often contains large amounts of produced water and heavy sediment, which seriously threats the safety of crude oil storage and transportation. Therefore, the proper design of crude oil tank drainage device is prerequisite for efficient purification of aqueous crude oil. In this work, the composition and physicochemical properties of crude oil samples were tested under the actual conditions encountered. Based on these data, an appropriate crude oil tank drainage device was developed using the principle of floating ball and multiphase flow. In addition, the flow field characteristics in the device were simulated and the contours and streamtraces of velocity magnitude at different nine moments were obtained. Meanwhile, the improvement of flow field characteristics after the addition of grids in crude oil tank drainage device was validated. These findings provide insights into the development of effective selection methods and serve as important references for oil-water separation process.

  14. Effect of dietary oils and conjugated linoleic acid on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % hazelnut oil (Group E) for five weeks. Diets contained 230 g crude protein/kg and 12.97 MJ metabolisable energy (ME)/kg (starter diet); 220 g crude protein/kg and 12.97 MJ ME/kg (grower diet) or 200 crude protein/kg and 12.97 MJ ME/kg ...

  15. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Miyata, D.; Varlamov, S.M.; Kim, S.-W.

    2001-01-01

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  16. Accurate numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion processes for heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, P.A.; Srinivasan, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This study evaluated a reaction-diffusion simulation tool designed to analyze the displacement of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a simultaneous injection of carbon dioxide and elemental sodium in a heavy oil reservoir. Sodium was used due to the exothermic reaction of sodium with in situ that occurs when heat is used to reduce oil viscosity. The process also results in the formation of sodium hydroxide that reduces interfacial tension at the bitumen interface. A commercial simulation tool was used to model the sodium transport mechanism to the reaction interface through diffusion as well as the reaction zone's subsequent displacement. The aim of the study was to verify if the in situ reaction was able to generate sufficient heat to reduce oil viscosity and improve the displacement of the heavy oil. The study also assessed the accuracy of the reaction front simulation tool, in which an alternate method was used to model the propagation front as a moving heat source. The sensitivity of the simulation results were then evaluated in relation to the diffusion coefficient in order to understand the scaling characteristics of the reaction-diffusion zone. A pore-scale simulation was then up-scaled to grid blocks. Results of the study showed that when sodium suspended in liquid CO{sub 2} is injected into reservoirs, it diffuses through the carrier phase and interacts with water. A random walk diffusion algorithm with reactive dissipation was implemented to more accurately characterize reaction and diffusion processes. It was concluded that the algorithm modelled physical dispersion while neglecting the effect of numerical dispersion. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 24 figs.

  17. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhman, Yuanita Budiman; Putra, Zulfan Adi; Bilad, Muhammad Roil

    2017-10-01

    Pollution and shortage of clean energy supply are among major problems that are caused by rapid population growth. Due to this growth, waste cooking oil is one of the pollution sources. On the other hand, biodiesel appears to be one of the most promising and feasible energy sources as it emits less toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases than petroleum diesel. Thus, biodiesel production using waste cooking oil offers a two-in-one solution to cater pollution and energy issues. However, the conventional biodiesel production process using homogeneous base catalyst and stirred tank reactor is unable to produce high purity of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. It is due its sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) content in waste cooking oil and purification difficulties. Therefore, biodiesel production using heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor is suggested. The product of this process is fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel with glycerol as by-product. This project is aimed to study techno-economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor. Aspen HYSYS is used to accomplish this aim. Several cases, such as considering different residence times and the production of pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol, are evaluated and compared. Economic potential of these cases is calculated by considering capital expenditure, utilities cost, product and by-product sales, as well as raw material costs. Waste cooking oil, inorganic pressure-driven membrane and WAl is used as raw material, type of membrane and heterogeneous acid catalyst respectively. Based on literature data, FAME yield formulation is developed and used in the reactor simulation. Simulation results shows that economic potential increases by 30% if pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol is produced regardless the residence time of the reactor. In addition, there is no significant effect of residence time on the economic potential.

  18. Neuro-Simulation Tool for Enhanced Oil Recovery Screening and Reservoir Performance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Bahrekazemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the suitable enhanced oil recovery method in an oilfield is one of the decisions which are made prior to the natural drive production mechanism. In some cases, having in-depth knowledge about reservoir’s rock, fluid properties, and equipment is needed as well as economic evaluation. Both putting such data into simulation and its related consequent processes are generally very time consuming and costly.  In order to reduce study cases, an appropriate tool is required for primary screening prior to any operations being performed, to which leads reduction of time in design of ether pilot section or production under field condition. In this research, two different and useful screening tools are presented through a graphical user interface. The output of just over 900 simulations and verified screening criteria tables were employed to design the mentioned tools. Moreover, by means of gathered data and development of artificial neural networks, two dissimilar screening tools for proper assessment of suitable enhanced oil recovery method were finally introduced. The first tool is about the screening of enhanced oil recovery process based on published tables/charts and the second one which is Neuro-Simulation tool, concerns economical evaluation of miscible and immiscible injection of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and natural gas into the reservoir. Both of designed tools are provided in the form of a graphical user interface by which the user, can perceive suitable method through plot of oil recovery graph during 20 years of production, costs of gas injection per produced barrel, cumulative oil production, and finally, design the most efficient scenario.

  19. Wave tank to simulate the movement of oil under breaking waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botrus, D.; Wickley-Olsen, E.; Boufadel, M.C.; Weaver, J.W.; Weggle, R.; Lee, K.; Venosa, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Methods to mitigate offshore oil spills before they reach the shoreline have been investigated in order to reduce environmental impacts. Artificial dispersants are commonly used on offshore oil spills to decrease the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The wave action helps break the slick into droplets that penetrate into the sea. This paper presented the results of wave tank tests in which the effectiveness of dispersants was evaluated. The focus was on the transport of oil during the breakup of a wave. In this study, the energy dissipation rate per unit mass was evaluated at various depths in the tank for regular and breaking waves. It was shown that breaking waves play an important role in the dispersion of oil at sea. Contrary to previous studies which suggested that the plume moves forward following the breaker, the results of this study showed that the plume splits into two parts, with one part going upstream. Understanding how the plume travels will provide insight as to where to add the dispersant with respect to the location of the breaker. The addition of the dispersant should take place before the location of the breaker. It was concluded that future work should include computational fluid dynamics simulation, as well as the use of a higher resolution camera. 9 refs., 17 figs

  20. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Covi, Mauro; Nolasco, Susana M.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard

  1. Assessing impacts of simulated oil spills on the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, JoLynn; Vikebø, Frode; Howell, Daniel; Broch, Ole Jacob; Nepstad, Raymond; Augustine, Starrlight; Skeie, Geir Morten; Bast, Radovan; Juselius, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    We simulate oil spills of 1500 and 4500m 3 /day lasting 14, 45, and 90days in the spawning grounds of the commercial fish species, Northeast Arctic cod. Modeling the life history of individual fish eggs and larvae, we predict deviations from the historical pattern of recruitment to the adult population due to toxic oil exposures. Reductions in survival for pelagic stages of cod were 0-10%, up to a maximum of 43%. These reductions resulted in a decrease in adult cod biomass of <3% for most scenarios, up to a maximum of 12%. In all simulations, the adult population remained at full reproductive potential with a sufficient number of juveniles surviving to replenish the population. The diverse age distribution helps protect the adult cod population from reductions in a single year's recruitment after a major oil spill. These results provide insights to assist in managing oil spill impacts on fisheries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The financial feasibility of hazelnut husk and sewage sludge based vermicompost production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Ceyhan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recycling the waste such as hazelnut husk, sewage sludge etc. has been one of the issues into the agenda of many countries. Therefore the purpose of the study was to examine the economic feasibility of the vermicompost production. Technical data about composting hazelnut husk and sewage sludge were gathered from past research. The time series data such as production, export, import and price of vermicompost collected from TURKSTAT, FAO and related institutions. Autoregressive integrating moving average model (ARIMA and smoothing methods such as double exponential model and winter model were used in forecasting process. We followed net present value and internal rate of return procedures when evaluating the financial feasibility of the facility having one ton vermicompost production capacity per day. Research results showed that the profitability of vermicompost production facility was high, while the likelihood of loss was less. Vermicompost production facility with approximately 130 thousands of US dollars initial investment provided net present value of 1.28 million of US dollars during the economic life. The internal rate of vermicompost production facility was 23%. Research results also revealed that production cost of vermicompost was $0.2 per kilogram. Since vermicompost production facility investment with high profitability and low level of risk was good investment alternatives facing with low level of competitive in market, the study suggest to investors who has good back grounding about sector that they should pay attention to marketing system and market observation about organic input market.

  3. High-throughput authentication of edible oils with benchtop Ultrafast 2D NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouilleux, B; Marchand, J; Charrier, B; Remaud, G S; Giraudeau, P

    2018-04-01

    We report the use of an Ultrafast 2D NMR approach applied on a benchtop NMR system (43 MHz) for the authentication of edible oils. Our results demonstrate that a profiling strategy based on fast 2D NMR spectra recorded in 2.4 min is more efficient than the standard 1D experiments to classify oils from different botanical origins, since 1D spectra on the same samples suffer from strong peak overlaps. Six edible oils with different botanical origins (olive, hazelnut, sesame, rapeseed, corn and sunflower) have been clearly discriminated by PCA analysis. Furthermore, we show how this approach combined with a PLS model can detect adulteration processes such as the addition of hazelnut oil into olive oil, a common fraud in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vethamony, P. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India)]. E-mail: mony@nio.org; Sudheesh, K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Babu, M.T. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Jayakumar, S. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Manimurali, R. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Saran, A.K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Sharma, L.H. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Rajan, B. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Srivastava, M. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India)

    2007-07-15

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur. - This is the first time model results have been compared with real oil spill observations along an Indian Coast.

  5. A novel approach for the detection of potentially hazardous pepsin stable hazelnut proteins as contaminants in chocolate-based food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Stephan, Oliver; Hefle, Susan L.; Aalberse, Rob C.; van Ree, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of food products with pepsin resistant allergens is generally believed to be a serious threat to patients with severe food allergy. A sandwich type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure pepsin resistant hazelnut protein in food products. Capturing and

  6. How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, S. de; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van

    2003-01-01

    Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions.

  7. How accurate and safe is diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, de S.C.; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, van R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions.

  8. How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Krebitz, Monika; Breiteneder, Heimo; de Vries, Sacco; Penninks, André H.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Hefle, Sue L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions.

  9. An investigation of the possible immunological relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H

    1978-01-01

    identity between birch pollen and hazelnut. By the same method no partial immunological identity between birch pollen and extracts and fresh peel from apples and potatoes was found. However, both apples and potatoes gave rise to non-immunological affinity precipitates. On this basis it is discussed...

  10. Compositional simulations of producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in low permeable gas condensate reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Pål Lee

    2013-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Gas condensate flow behaviour below the dew point in low permeable formations can make accurate fluid sampling a difficult challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in the infinite-acting period for a low permeable gas condensate reservoir. Compositional isothermal flow simulations were performed using a single-layer, radial and two-dimensional, gas condensate reservoir model with low permeabili...

  11. Experiment and Simulation Study of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Performance, Using Soybean Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizqi Ariefianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— The most common fuel uses in the world is made from fossil. Fossil fuel is categorized as a non-renewable energy source. For that reason, there should be an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel by using biodiesel and one of the stock comes from soybean bean. Before using the biodiesel made from soybean bean oil, there should be a research to find out the properties and the effect of biodiesel from soybean bean oil regarding the performance of the engine. The research can be conducted in experiment and simulation. The properties result of soybean oil biodiesel should be tested to confirm whether this biodiesel have meet the standard requirement of biodieselor not. This biodiesel sproperties are Flash Point value is 182 o C , Pour Point value is -7 o C, Density at 15 o C is 890 Kg/m3, Kinematic Viscosity at 40 o C is 5.58 (cSt, and Lower Heating Value is 42.27686 MJ/kg. The result from this research is the highest power from simulation is 9% higher than the experiment. The highest torque from the experiment is 37% lower than the simulation’s torque. Lowest SFOC from experiment is  28% lower than the simulation’s SFOC. Highest BMEP from simulation is 20% higher than the highest BMEP from experiment. The  highest thermal efficiency from experiment is 6% higher than the highest thermal efficiency from simulation. The engine performance result using soybean oil biodiesel is not better than the Pertamina Dex. For that reason, the use of this biodiesel is not suggested to substitute Pertamina Dex.

  12. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.; Castaneda Vera, A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and

  13. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, Alexandra; Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  14. Identifying oil/marine snow associations in mesocosm simulations of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event using solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Patrick G; Obeid, Wassim; Wozniak, Andrew S; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Saijin; Santschi, Peter H; Quigg, Antonietta

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill stimulated the release of marine snow made up of dead/living plankton/bacteria and their exopolymeric polysaccharide substances (EPS), termed marine oil snow (MOS), promoting rapid removal of oil from the water column into sediments near the well site. Mesocosm simulations showed that Macondo surrogate oil readily associates with the marine snow. Quantitative solid-state 13 C NMR readily distinguishes this oil from naturally formed marine snow and reveals that adding the dispersant Corexit enhances the amount of oil associated with the MOS, thus contributing to rapid removal from the water column. Solvent extraction of MOS removes the oil-derived compounds for analysis by one and two-dimensional GC/MS and evaluation of potential transformations they undergo when associated with the EPS. The results reveal that the oil associated with EPS is subjected to rapid transformation, in a matter of days, presumably by bacteria and fungi associated with EPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar-generated steam for oil recovery: Reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Joel; Fowler, Garrett; Cheng, Kris; Kovscek, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated assessment of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). • Analyses of reservoir performance, economics, and life cycle factors. • High solar fraction scenarios show economic viability for TEOR. • Continuous variable-rate steam injection meets the benchmarks set by conventional steam flood. - Abstract: The viability of solar thermal steam generation for thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) in heavy-oil sands was evaluated using San Joaquin Valley, CA data. The effectiveness of solar TEOR was quantified through reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life-cycle assessment. Reservoir simulations with continuous but variable rate steam injection were compared with a base-case Tulare Sand steamflood project. For equivalent average injection rates, comparable breakthrough times and recovery factors of 65% of the original oil in place were predicted, in agreement with simulations in the literature. Daily cyclic fluctuations in steam injection rate do not greatly impact recovery. Oil production rates do, however, show seasonal variation. Economic viability was established using historical prices and injection/production volumes from the Kern River oil field. For comparison, this model assumes that present day steam generation technologies were implemented at TEOR startup in 1980. All natural gas cogeneration and 100% solar fraction scenarios had the largest and nearly equal net present values (NPV) of $12.54 B and $12.55 B, respectively. Solar fraction refers to the steam provided by solar steam generation. Given its large capital cost, the 100% solar case shows the greatest sensitivity to discount rate and no sensitivity to natural gas price. Because there are very little emissions associated with day-to-day operations from the solar thermal system, life-cycle emissions are significantly lower than conventional systems even when the embodied energy of the structure is considered. We estimate that less than 1 g of CO 2 /MJ of refined

  16. A new perspective of particle adsorption: Dispersed oil and granular materials interactions in simulated coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long; Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan

    2017-09-15

    This study, adsorption behaviors of dispersed oil in seawaters by granular materials were explored in simulation environment. We quantitatively demonstrated the dispersed oil adsorbed by granular materials were both dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPHs) and oil droplets. Furthermore, DPHs were accounted for 42.5%, 63.4%, and 85.2% (35.5% was emulsion adsorption) in the adsorption of dispersed oil by coastal rocks, sediments, and bacterial strain particles respectively. Effects of controlling parameters, such as temperature, particle size and concentration on adsorption of petroleum hydrocarbons were described in detail. Most strikingly, adsorption concentration was followed a decreasing order of bacterial strain (0.5-2μm)>sediments (0.005-0.625mm)>coastal rocks (0.2-1cm). With particle concentration or temperature increased, adsorption concentration increased for coastal rocks particle but decreased for sediments particle. Besides, particle adsorption rate of petroleum hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and PAHs) was different among granular materials during 60 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Moisture Adsorption Isotherm and Storability of Hazelnut Inshells and Kernels Produced in Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Wang, Wenjie; McGorrin, Robert J; Zhao, Yanyun

    2018-02-01

    Moisture adsorption isotherms and storability of dried hazelnut inshells and kernels produced in Oregon were evaluated and compared among cultivars, including Barcelona, Yamhill, and Jefferson. Experimental moisture adsorption data fitted to Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model, showing less hygroscopic properties in Yamhill than other cultivars of inshells and kernels due to lower content of carbohydrate and protein, but higher content of fat. The safe levels of moisture content (MC, dry basis) of dried inshells and kernels for reaching kernel water activity (a w ) ≤0.65 were estimated using the GAB model as 11.3% and 5.0% for Barcelona, 9.4% and 4.2% for Yamhill, and 10.7% and 4.9% for Jefferson, respectively. Storage conditions (2 °C at 85% to 95% relative humidity [RH], 10 °C at 65% to 75% RH, and 27 °C at 35% to 45% RH), times (0, 4, 8, or 12 mo), and packaging methods (atmosphere vs. vacuum) affected MC, a w , bioactive compounds, lipid oxidation, and enzyme activity of dried hazelnut inshells or kernels. For inshells packaged at woven polypropylene bag, MC and a w of inshells and kernels (inside shells) increased at 2 and 10 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage. For kernels, lipid oxidation and polyphenol oxidase activity also increased with extended storage time (P adsorption and physicochemical and enzymatic stability during storage. Moisture adsorption isotherm of hazelnut inshells and kernels is useful for predicting the storability of nuts. This study found that water adsorption and storability varied among the different cultivars of nuts, in which Yamhill was less hygroscopic than Barcelona and Jefferson, thus more stable during storage. For ensuring food safety and quality of nuts during storage, each cultivar of kernels should be dried to a certain level of MC. Lipid oxidation and enzyme activity of kernel could be increased with extended storage time. Vacuum packaging was recommended to kernels for reducing moisture adsorption

  18. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 x 3.0 x 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models

  19. Simulation of the landfall of the Deepwater Horizon oil on the shorelines of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C; Abdollahi-Nasab, Ali; Geng, Xiaolong; Galt, Jerry; Torlapati, Jagadish

    2014-08-19

    We conducted simulations of oil transport from the footprint of the Macondo Well on the water surface throughout the Gulf of Mexico, including deposition on the shorelines. We used the U.S. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME) and the same parameter values and input adopted by NOAA following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout. We found that the disappearance rate of oil off the water surface was most likely around 20% per day based on satellite-based observations of the disappearance rate of oil detected on the sea surface after the DWH wellhead was capped. The simulations and oil mass estimates suggest that the mass of oil that reached the shorelines was between 10,000 and 30,000 tons, with an expected value of 22,000 tons. More than 90% of the oil deposition occurred on the Louisiana shorelines, and it occurred in two batches. Simulations revealed that capping the well after 2 weeks would have resulted in only 30% of the total oil depositing on the shorelines, while capping after 3 weeks would have resulted in 60% deposition. Additional delay in capping after 3 weeks would have averted little additional shoreline oiling over the ensuing 4 weeks.

  20. A combination of streamtube and geostatical simulation methodologies for the study of large oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, A.; Emanuel, A.S.; Bernath, J.A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, LaHabra, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The application of streamtube models for reservoir simulation has an extensive history in the oil industry. Although these models are strictly applicable only to fields under voidage balance, they have proved to be useful in a large number of fields provided that there is no solution gas evolution and production. These models combine the benefit of very fast computational time with the practical ability to model a large reservoir over the course of its history. These models do not, however, directly incorporate the detailed geological information that recent experience has taught is important. This paper presents a technique for mapping the saturation information contained in a history matched streamtube model onto a detailed geostatistically derived finite difference grid. With this technique, the saturation information in a streamtube model, data that is actually statistical in nature, can be identified with actual physical locations in a field and a picture of the remaining oil saturation can be determined. Alternatively, the streamtube model can be used to simulate the early development history of a field and the saturation data then used to initialize detailed late time finite difference models. The proposed method is presented through an example application to the Ninian reservoir. This reservoir, located in the North Sea (UK), is a heterogeneous sandstone characterized by a line drive waterflood, with about 160 wells, and a 16 year history. The reservoir was satisfactorily history matched and mapped for remaining oil saturation. A comparison to 3-D seismic survey and recently drilled wells have provided preliminary verification.

  1. Large-eddy simulation study of oil/gas plumes in stratified fluid with cross current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Xiao, Shuolin; Chen, Bicheng; Chamecki, Marcelo; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-11-01

    Dynamics of the oil/gas plume from a subsea blowout are strongly affected by the seawater stratification and cross current. The buoyant plume entrains ambient seawater and lifts it up to higher elevations. During the rising process, the continuously increasing density difference between the entrained and ambient seawater caused by the stable stratification eventually results in a detrainment of the entrained seawater and small oil droplets at a height of maximum rise (peel height), forming a downward plume outside the rising inner plume. The presence of a cross current breaks the plume's axisymmetry and causes the outer plume to fall along the downstream side of the inner plume. The detrained seawater and oil eventually fall to a neutral buoyancy level (trap height), and disperse horizontally to form an intrusion layer. In this study, the complex plume dynamics is investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES). Various laboratory and field scale cases are simulated to explore the effect of cross current and stratification on the plume dynamics. Based on the LES data, various turbulence statistics of the plume are systematically quantified, leading to some useful insights for modeling the mean plume dynamics using integral plume models. This research is made possible by a RFP-V Grant from The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  2. Evolution of the Macondo well blowout: simulating the effects of the circulation and synthetic dispersants on the subsea oil transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B; Hénaff, Matthieu Le; Aman, Zachary M; Subramaniam, Ajit; Helgers, Judith; Wang, Dong-Ping; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H; Srinivasan, Ashwanth

    2012-12-18

    During the Deepwater Horizon incident, crude oil flowed into the Gulf of Mexico from 1522 m underwater. In an effort to prevent the oil from rising to the surface, synthetic dispersants were applied at the wellhead. However, uncertainties in the formation of oil droplets and difficulties in measuring their size in the water column, complicated further assessment of the potential effect of the dispersant on the subsea-to-surface oil partition. We adapted a coupled hydrodynamic and stochastic buoyant particle-tracking model to the transport and fate of hydrocarbon fractions and simulated the far-field transport of the oil from the intrusion depth. The evaluated model represented a baseline for numerical experiments where we varied the distributions of particle sizes and thus oil mass. The experiments allowed to quantify the relative effects of chemical dispersion, vertical currents, and inertial buoyancy motion on oil rise velocities. We present a plausible model scenario, where some oil is trapped at depth through shear emulsification due to the particular conditions of the Macondo blowout. Assuming effective mixing of the synthetic dispersants at the wellhead, the model indicates that the submerged oil mass is shifted deeper, decreasing only marginally the amount of oil surfacing. In this scenario, the oil rises slowly to the surface or stays immersed. This suggests that other mechanisms may have contributed to the rapid surfacing of oil-gas mixture observed initially. The study also reveals local topographic and hydrodynamic processes that influence the oil transport in eddies and multiple layers. This numerical approach provides novel insights on oil transport mechanisms from deep blowouts and on gauging the subsea use of synthetic dispersant in mitigating coastal damage.

  3. Global simulations of smoke from Kuwaiti oil fires and possible effects on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C.; Kao, C.Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Los Alamos Global Climate Model has bee used to simulate the global evolution of the Kuwaiti oil fire smoke and its potential effects on the climate. The initial simulations were done shortly before the fires were lit in January 1991. They indicated that such an event would not result in a Mini Nuclear Winter'' as some people were suggesting. Further simulations during the year suggested that the smoke could be responsible for subtle regional climate changes in the spring such as a 5 degree centigrade decrease in the surface temperature in Kuwait, a 10% decrease in precipitation in Saudi Arabia and a 10% increase in precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau region. These results are in qualitative agreement with the observations this year.

  4. Global simulations of smoke from Kuwaiti oil fires and possible effects on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C.; Kao, C.Y.J.

    1991-12-31

    The Los Alamos Global Climate Model has bee used to simulate the global evolution of the Kuwaiti oil fire smoke and its potential effects on the climate. The initial simulations were done shortly before the fires were lit in January 1991. They indicated that such an event would not result in a ``Mini Nuclear Winter`` as some people were suggesting. Further simulations during the year suggested that the smoke could be responsible for subtle regional climate changes in the spring such as a 5 degree centigrade decrease in the surface temperature in Kuwait, a 10% decrease in precipitation in Saudi Arabia and a 10% increase in precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau region. These results are in qualitative agreement with the observations this year.

  5. Activated carbons prepared from hazelnut shells, walnut shells and peanut shells for high CO2 adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewicka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research treats about producing activated carbons for CO2 capture from hazelnut shells (HN, walnut shells (WN and peanut shells (PN. Saturated solution of KOH was used as an activating agent in ratio 1:1. Samples were carbonized in the furnace in the range of temperatures 600°C–900°C. Properties of carbons were tested by N2 adsorption method, using BET equation, DFT method and volumetric CO2 adsorption method. With the increase of carbonization temperature specific surface area of studied samples increased. The largest surface area was calculated for samples carbonized at 900°C and the highest values of CO2 adsorption had samples: PN900 at 0°C (5.5 mmol/g and WN900 at 25°C (4.34 mmol/g. All of the samples had a well-developed microporous structure.

  6. Simulation study of the VAPEX process in fractured heavy oil system at reservoir conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azin, Reza; Ghotbi, Cyrus [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif Univ. Tech., Tehran (Iran); Kharrat, Riyaz; Rostami, Behzad [Petroleum University of Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran); Vossoughi, Shapour [4132C Learned Hall, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Kansas University, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The Vapor Extraction (VAPEX) process, a newly developed Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) process to recover heavy oil and bitumen, has been studied theoretically and experimentally and is found a promising EOR method for certain heavy oil reservoirs. In this work, a simulation study of the VAPEX process was made on a fractured model, which consists of a matrix surrounded by horizontal and vertical fractures. The results show a very interesting difference in the pattern of solvent flow in fractured model compared with the conventional model. Also, in the fractured system, due to differences in matrix and fracture permeabilities, the solvent first spreads through the fractures and then starts diffusing into matrix from all parts of the matrix. Thus, the solvent surrounds the oil bank, and an oil rather than the solvent chamber forms and shrinks as the process proceeds. In addition, the recovery factor is higher at lower solvent injection rates for a constant pore volume of the solvent injected into the model. Also, the diffusion process becomes important and higher recoveries are obtained at low injection rates, provided sufficient time is given to the process. The effect of inter-connectivity of the surrounding fractures was studied by making the side vertical fractures shorter than the side length of the model. It was observed that inter-connectivity of the fractures affects the pattern of solvent distribution. Even for the case of side fractures being far apart from the bottom fracture, the solvent distribution in the matrix was significantly different than that in the model without fractures. Combination of diffusion phenomenon and gravity segregation was observed to be controlling factors in all VAPEX processes simulated in fractured systems. The early breakthrough of the solvent for the case of matrix surrounded by the fracture partially inhibited diffusion of the solvent into the oil and consequently the VAPEX process became the least effective. It is concluded

  7. An overview of uncertainty quantification techniques with application to oceanic and oil-spill simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Iskandarani, Mohamed; Wang, Shitao; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Carlisle Thacker, W.; Winokur, Justin; Knio, Omar

    2016-01-01

    We give an overview of four different ensemble-based techniques for uncertainty quantification and illustrate their application in the context of oil plume simulations. These techniques share the common paradigm of constructing a model proxy that efficiently captures the functional dependence of the model output on uncertain model inputs. This proxy is then used to explore the space of uncertain inputs using a large number of samples, so that reliable estimates of the model's output statistics can be calculated. Three of these techniques use polynomial chaos (PC) expansions to construct the model proxy, but they differ in their approach to determining the expansions' coefficients; the fourth technique uses Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). An integral plume model for simulating the Deepwater Horizon oil-gas blowout provides examples for illustrating the different techniques. A Monte Carlo ensemble of 50,000 model simulations is used for gauging the performance of the different proxies. The examples illustrate how regression-based techniques can outperform projection-based techniques when the model output is noisy. They also demonstrate that robust uncertainty analysis can be performed at a fraction of the cost of the Monte Carlo calculation.

  8. An overview of uncertainty quantification techniques with application to oceanic and oil-spill simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Iskandarani, Mohamed

    2016-04-22

    We give an overview of four different ensemble-based techniques for uncertainty quantification and illustrate their application in the context of oil plume simulations. These techniques share the common paradigm of constructing a model proxy that efficiently captures the functional dependence of the model output on uncertain model inputs. This proxy is then used to explore the space of uncertain inputs using a large number of samples, so that reliable estimates of the model\\'s output statistics can be calculated. Three of these techniques use polynomial chaos (PC) expansions to construct the model proxy, but they differ in their approach to determining the expansions\\' coefficients; the fourth technique uses Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). An integral plume model for simulating the Deepwater Horizon oil-gas blowout provides examples for illustrating the different techniques. A Monte Carlo ensemble of 50,000 model simulations is used for gauging the performance of the different proxies. The examples illustrate how regression-based techniques can outperform projection-based techniques when the model output is noisy. They also demonstrate that robust uncertainty analysis can be performed at a fraction of the cost of the Monte Carlo calculation.

  9. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaganova, N. A., E-mail: vna@imm.uran.ru [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Filimonov, M. Yu., E-mail: fmy@imm.uran.ru [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia and Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  11. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulators and thermal cracking of heavy oil and ultraheavy residues using microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardini, Andre L.; Bineli, Aulus R.R.; Viadana, Adriana M.; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering; Medina, Lilian C.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Barros, Ricardo S. [University Foundation Jose Bonifacio (FUJB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the design of microreactor with microfluidics channels has been carried out in Computer Aided Design Software (CAD) and constructed in rapid prototyping system to be used in chemical reaction processing of the heavy oil fractions. The flow pattern properties of microreactor (fluid dynamics, mixing behavior) have been considered through CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations. CFD calculations are also used to study the design and specification of new microreactor developments. The potential advantages of using a microreactor include better control of reaction conditions, improved safety and portability. A more detailed crude assay of the raw national oil, whose importance was evidenced by PETROBRAS/CENPES allows establishing the optimum strategies and processing conditions, aiming at a maximum utilization of the heavy oil fractions, towards valuable products. These residues are able to be processed in microreactor, in which conventional process like as hydrotreating, catalytic and thermal cracking may be carried out in a much more intensified fashion. The whole process development involves a prior thermal study to define the possible operating conditions for a particular task, the microreactor design through computational fluid dynamics and construction using rapid prototyping. This gives high flexibility for process development, shorter time, and costumer/task oriented process/product development. (author)

  12. Dynamic simulation of cable shovel specific energy in oil sands excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awuah-Offei, K. [Missouri-Rolla Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). School of Materials, Energy and Earth Resources; Frimpong, S. [Missouri-Rolla Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering, Mining and Nuclear Engineering; Askari-Nasab, H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Oil sand excavation requires the use cable shovels which constitute one of the major costs in surface mining operations. Random occurrences of shales and limestones within the Athabasca oil sands formation result in varying shovel diggability and stress loading of the boom-crowd-dipper-teeth assembly which reduces digging efficiency. This inefficient use of cable shovels negatively affects the return on capital investment in these otherwise effective machines. In the Athabasca oil sands, varying stress loading has the potential to increase shovel downtime and increase maintenance costs. This paper presented a newly developed cable shovel simulator that uses shovel kinematics and dynamics, dynamic cutting resistance and payload models. It can model the specific energy needed to overcome the resistance to machine motion and material digging. The comprehensive model considers both machine motion and machine-formation interaction forces. It also provides a comprehensive theoretical assessment of shovel performance. The model is useful to mining engineers when examining both the machine operating parameters and material parameters that influence shovel performance. The study showed that bulk density is the most important material property influencing diggability. Operator preferences also influence the specific energy of excavation. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  14. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  15. A Computation Fluid Dynamic Model for Gas Lift Process Simulation in a Vertical Oil Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadivar Arash

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous gas-lift in a typical oil well was simulated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD technique. A multi fluid model based on the momentum transfer between liquid and gas bubbles was employed to simulate two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. The accuracy of the model was investigated through comparison of numerical predictions with experimental data. The model then was used to study the dynamic behaviour of the two-phase flow around injection point in details. The predictions by the model were compared with other empirical correlations, as well. To obtain an optimum condition of gas-lift, the influence of the effective parameters including the quantity of injected gas, tubing diameter and bubble size distribution were investigated. The results revealed that increasing tubing diameter, the injected gas rate and decreasing bubble diameter improve gas-lift performance.

  16. CFD simulation of transient stage of continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-08-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling of a continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process was performed using ANSYS-CFX. The liquid properties and flow behavior such as density, specific heats, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansivity as well as water solubility of the hydrolysis components triglyceride, diglyceride, monoglyceride, free fatty acid, and glycerol were calculated. Chemical kinetics for the hydrolysis reactions were simulated in this model by applying Arrhenius parameters. The simulation was based on actual experimental reaction conditions including temperature and water-to-oil ratio. The results not only have good agreement with experimental data but also show instantaneous distributions of concentrations of every component in hydrolysis reaction. This model provided visible insight into the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. CFD simulation of transient stage of continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Natelson, Robert H.; Stikeleather, Larry F.; Roberts, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling of a continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process was performed using ANSYS-CFX. The liquid properties and flow behavior such as density, specific heats, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansivity as well as water solubility of the hydrolysis components triglyceride, diglyceride, monoglyceride, free fatty acid, and glycerol were calculated. Chemical kinetics for the hydrolysis reactions were simulated in this model by applying Arrhenius parameters. The simulation was based on actual experimental reaction conditions including temperature and water-to-oil ratio. The results not only have good agreement with experimental data but also show instantaneous distributions of concentrations of every component in hydrolysis reaction. This model provided visible insight into the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Reburning and burnout simulations of natural gas for heavy oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celso A. Bertran; Carla S.T. Marques; Renato V. Filho [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2004-01-01

    Reburning and burnout simulations were carried out through PLUG code of CHEMKIN-III using a reduced mechanism, in order to determine preliminary experimental parameters for achieving maximum NOx reduction to implement the reburning technology for heavy oil combustion in pilot scale equipments in Brazil. Gas compositions at the entrance of the reburning zone were estimated by the AComb program. Simulations were performed for eight conditions in the usual range of operational parameters for natural gas reburning. The maximum NO reduction (ca. 50%) was reached with 10 and 17.5% of power via natural gas and 1.5 and 3.0% O{sub 2} excess, respectively, at 1273 K. The model predicts 250 ppm of NO, 50 ppm of CO and air mass flows in the range of about 50 130 kg/h for burnout. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Prior-knowledge-based feedforward network simulation of true boiling point curve of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C W; Chen, D Z

    2001-11-01

    Theoretical results and practical experience indicate that feedforward networks can approximate a wide class of functional relationships very well. This property is exploited in modeling chemical processes. Given finite and noisy training data, it is important to encode the prior knowledge in neural networks to improve the fit precision and the prediction ability of the model. In this paper, as to the three-layer feedforward networks and the monotonic constraint, the unconstrained method, Joerding's penalty function method, the interpolation method, and the constrained optimization method are analyzed first. Then two novel methods, the exponential weight method and the adaptive method, are proposed. These methods are applied in simulating the true boiling point curve of a crude oil with the condition of increasing monotonicity. The simulation experimental results show that the network models trained by the novel methods are good at approximating the actual process. Finally, all these methods are discussed and compared with each other.

  20. Numerical Simulation Study on Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Performance in a Heavy Oil Reservoir with a Bottom Water Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Pikes Peak oil field near Lloydminster, Canada, a significant amount of heavy oil reserves is located in reservoirs with a bottom water zone. The properties of the bottom water zone and the operation parameters significantly affect oil production performance via the steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD process. Thus, in order to develop this type of heavy oil resource, a full understanding of the effects of these properties is necessary. In this study, the numerical simulation approach was applied to study the effects of properties in the bottom water zone in the SAGD process, such as the initial gas oil ratio, the thickness of the reservoir, and oil saturation of the bottom water zone. In addition, some operation parameters were studied including the injection pressure, the SAGD well pair location, and five different well patterns: (1 two corner wells, (2 triple wells, (3 downhole water sink well, (4 vertical injectors with a horizontal producer, and (5 fishbone well. The numerical simulation results suggest that the properties of the bottom water zone affect production performance extremely. First, both positive and negative effects were observed when solution gas exists in the heavy oil. Second, a logarithmical relationship was investigated between the bottom water production ratio and the thickness of the bottom water zone. Third, a non-linear relation was obtained between the oil recovery factor and oil saturation in the bottom water zone, and a peak oil recovery was achieved at the oil saturation rate of 30% in the bottom water zone. Furthermore, the operation parameters affected the heavy oil production performance. Comparison of the well patterns showed that the two corner wells and the triple wells patterns obtained the highest oil recovery factors of 74.71% and 77.19%, respectively, which are almost twice the oil recovery factors gained in the conventional SAGD process (47.84%. This indicates that the optimized SAGD process

  1. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  2. Gas chromatographic simulated distillation-mass spectrometry for the determination of the boiling point distributions of crude oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussis; Fitzgerald

    2000-04-01

    The coupling of gas chromatographic simulated distillation with mass spectrometry for the determination of the distillation profiles of crude oils is reported. The method provides the boiling point distributions of both weight and volume percent amounts. The weight percent distribution is obtained from the measured total ion current signal. The total ion current signal is converted to weight percent amount by calibration with a reference crude oil of a known distillation profile. Knowledge of the chemical composition of the crude oil across the boiling range permits the determination of the volume percent distribution. The long-term repeatability is equivalent to or better than the short-term repeatability of the currently available American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) gas chromatographic method for simulated distillation. Results obtained by the mass spectrometric method are in very good agreement with results obtained by conventional methods of physical distillation. The compositional information supplied by the method can be used to extensively characterize crude oils.

  3. An analysis on Public Service Announcements (PSA) within the scope of Elaboration Likelihood Model: Orange and Hazelnut Consumption Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Bical, Adil; Yılmaz, R. Ayhan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to reveal that how persuasion works in public service announcements on hazelnut and orange consumption ones broadcasted in Turkey. According to Petty and Cacioppo, Elaboration Likelihood Model explains the process of persuasion on two routes: central and peripheral. In-depth interviews were conducted to obtain the goal of the study. Respondents were asked whether they process the message of the PSA centrally or peripherally. Advertisements on consumption of hazelnu...

  4. Hazelnut meal in diets for seawater farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss: effects on growth performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Bilen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-day feeding trial was designed in order to assess the effect of partial or total replacement of soybean meal by hazelnut meal (HNM on feed intake, growth performance, nutrient utilization and body composition of rainbow trout (initial mean body weight: 80.0±3.5 g in seawater conditions. A control and three experimental diets were formulated in which soybean meal level (25.5% in the control diet was replaced by hazelnut meal at 39.2 (HN 39, 78.4 (HN 78 and 100% (HN 100 to provide 44% crude protein and 20% crude lipid diets. Diets were fed to 125 rainbow trout to apparent satiation by hand twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours under natural photoperiod conditions. At the end of the feeding trial, fish of all groups almost tripled their body weight and no significant difference (P>0.05 was revealed in final weight or specific growth rate between treatments. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR of the HN100 group was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05. There was a slightly decreasing trend in protein efficiency ratio (PER and net protein utilization (NPU with increasing level of dietary hazelnut meal, but it was only significant in groups of fish fed HN100. All groups of fish displayed similar carcass and muscle compositions. According to the results of the present study, it can be stated that hazelnut meal can replace soybean meal at up to 200 g kg-1 in grow-out diets of rainbow trout without any detrimental effects on growth performance.

  5. Cor a 14, the allergenic 2S albumin from hazelnut, is highly thermostable and resistant to gastrointestinal digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Sabine; Bublin, Merima; Dubiela, Pawel; Hummel, Karin; Wortmann, Judith; Hofer, Gerhard; Keller, Walter; Radauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Scope Allergens from nuts frequently induce severe allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physicochemical characteristics of natural Cor a 14, the 2S albumin from hazelnut. Methods and results Cor a 14 was purified from raw hazelnuts using a combination of precipitation and chromatographic techniques. The protein was analyzed using gel electrophoresis, MS, and far‐UV circular dichroism (CD) analyses. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding of native, heat‐treated, and in vitro digested Cor a 14 was studied. We identified two different Cor a 14 isoforms and showed microclipping at the C‐terminus. CD spectra at room temperature showed the typical characteristics of 2S albumins, and temperatures of more than 80°C were required to start unfolding of Cor a 14 demonstrating its high stability to heat treatment. In vitro digestion experiments revealed that Cor a 14 is resistant to proteolytic degradation. Native and heat‐treated protein was recognized by sera from hazelnut allergic patients. However, denaturation of the allergen led to significantly reduced IgE binding. Conclusion We identified two different isoforms of Cor a 14 displaying high stability under heating and gastric and duodenal conditions. Data from IgE‐binding experiments revealed the existence of both, linear and conformational epitopes. PMID:26178695

  6. A DANREF certified reference plastic for measurement of overall migration into the food simulant olive oil by single sided testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K. H.; Lillemark, L.; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2000-01-01

    A reference material for the determination of overall migration from a plastic coextrudate into the fatty food simulant olive oil was produced and certified in an interlaboratory study. The analyses were carried out according to the ENV 1186 standard from the European Committee for Standardization...... (CEN) [1, 2, 3] with exposure of the coextrudate to olive oil for 10 days at 40 degrees C. After an initial preliminary interlaboratory study eight laboratories participated in the certification round, and two different methods were used to obtain single sided exposure of the plastic to the oil...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  8. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Alexandra [Seminole Canada Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon [Faculty of Management, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  9. Simulation of erosion in drilling tools for oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefi, B.; Settari, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Angman, P. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Erosion in oil well drilling tools is a form of wear which occurs when fluid containing solid particles impacts a solid surface. The intensity of erosion is generally measured as the rate of material removal from the surface, and is expressed as E{sub r}, the weight of material removed by unit weight of impacting particles. Erosion can also be reduced by tool improvement and modification, thereby extending the life of drilling tools. To date, no attempt has been made to model the erosion phenomenon in drilling tools. This paper presents a newly developed erosion simulator which is the first design tool for the drilling industry. This work demonstrates that erosion can be simulated. A model was developed to calibrate the erosion coefficients for drilling tool conditions. The mechanism of erosion can be controlled by the impact velocity and angle. Algorithms were developed for transient simulation of the erosion of any surface in 2-dimensional geometry. The Erosion Simulator has been validated and calibrated against data provided by TESCO Corporation's casing drilling tools. The model has been shown to successfully predict and minimize erosion by modifying the tool geometry and metallurgy. 21 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  10. A technique for evaluating the oil/heavy-oil viscosity changes under ultrasound in a simulated porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Hossein; Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rafati, Roozbeh; Manan, Mohammad; Azdarpour, Amin; Junid, Mundzir

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, Ultrasound method is an economical and environmentally friendly or "green" technology, which has been of interest for more than six decades for the purpose of enhancement of oil/heavy-oil production. However, in spite of many studies, questions about the effective mechanisms causing increase in oil recovery still existed. In addition, the majority of the mechanisms mentioned in the previous studies are theoretical or speculative. One of the changes that could be recognized in the fluid properties is viscosity reduction due to radiation of ultrasound waves. In this study, a technique was developed to investigate directly the effect of ultrasonic waves (different frequencies of 25, 40, 68 kHz and powers of 100, 250, 500 W) on viscosity changes of three types of oil (Paraffin oil, Synthetic oil, and Kerosene) and a Brine sample. The viscosity calculations in the smooth capillary tube were based on the mathematical models developed from the Poiseuille's equation. The experiments were carried out for uncontrolled and controlled temperature conditions. It was observed that the viscosity of all the liquids was decreased under ultrasound in all the experiments. This reduction was more significant for uncontrolled temperature condition cases. However, the reduction in viscosity under ultrasound was higher for lighter liquids compare to heavier ones. Pressure difference was diminished by decreasing in the fluid viscosity in all the cases which increases fluid flow ability, which in turn aids to higher oil recovery in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Higher ultrasound power showed higher liquid viscosity reduction in all the cases. Higher ultrasound frequency revealed higher and lower viscosity reduction for uncontrolled and controlled temperature condition experiments, respectively. In other words, the reduction in viscosity was inversely proportional to increasing the frequency in temperature controlled experiments. It was concluded that cavitation

  11. Finger Thickening during Extra-Heavy Oil Waterflooding: Simulation and Interpretation Using Pore-Scale Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Regaieg

    Full Text Available Although thermal methods have been popular and successfully applied in heavy oil recovery, they are often found to be uneconomic or impractical. Therefore, alternative production protocols are being actively pursued and interesting options include water injection and polymer flooding. Indeed, such techniques have been successfully tested in recent laboratory investigations, where X-ray scans performed on homogeneous rock slabs during water flooding experiments have shown evidence of an interesting new phenomenon-post-breakthrough, highly dendritic water fingers have been observed to thicken and coalesce, forming braided water channels that improve sweep efficiency. However, these experimental studies involve displacement mechanisms that are still poorly understood, and so the optimization of this process for eventual field application is still somewhat problematic. Ideally, a combination of two-phase flow experiments and simulations should be put in place to help understand this process more fully. To this end, a fully dynamic network model is described and used to investigate finger thickening during water flooding of extra-heavy oils. The displacement physics has been implemented at the pore scale and this is followed by a successful benchmarking exercise of the numerical simulations against the groundbreaking micromodel experiments reported by Lenormand and co-workers in the 1980s. A range of slab-scale simulations has also been carried out and compared with the corresponding experimental observations. We show that the model is able to replicate finger architectures similar to those observed in the experiments and go on to reproduce and interpret, for the first time to our knowledge, finger thickening following water breakthrough. We note that this phenomenon has been observed here in homogeneous (i.e. un-fractured media: the presence of fractures could be expected to exacerbate such fingering still further. Finally, we examine the impact of

  12. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  13. Non-Newtonian Flow Characteristics of Heavy Oil in the Bohai Bay Oilfield: Experimental and Simulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankang Xin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, physical experiments and numerical simulations were applied to systematically investigate the non-Newtonian flow characteristics of heavy oil in porous media. Rheological experiments were carried out to determine the rheology of heavy oil. Threshold pressure gradient (TPG measurement experiments performed by a new micro-flow method and flow experiments were conducted to study the effect of viscosity, permeability and mobility on the flow characteristics of heavy oil. An in-house developed novel simulator considering the non-Newtonian flow was designed based on the experimental investigations. The results from the physical experiments indicated that heavy oil was a Bingham fluid with non-Newtonian flow characteristics, and its viscosity-temperature relationship conformed to the Arrhenius equation. Its viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature and a decrease in asphaltene content. The TPG measurement experiments was impacted by the flow rate, and its critical flow rate was 0.003 mL/min. The TPG decreased as the viscosity decreased or the permeability increased and had a power-law relationship with mobility. In addition, the critical viscosity had a range of 42–54 mPa∙s, above which the TPG existed for a given permeability. The validation of the designed simulator was positive and acceptable when compared to the simulation results run in ECLIPSE V2013.1 and Computer Modelling Group (CMG V2012 software as well as when compared to the results obtained during physical experiments. The difference between 0.0005 and 0.0750 MPa/m in the TPG showed a decrease of 11.55% in the oil recovery based on the simulation results, which demonstrated the largely adverse impact the TPG had on heavy oil production.

  14. Antioxidant properties and UPLC-MS/MS profiling of phenolics in jacquemont's hazelnut kernels (Corylus jacquemontii) and its byproducts from western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Kumar, Pawan; Koundal, Rajkesh; Agnihotri, Vijai K

    2016-09-01

    A rapid and selective analytical method was developed to simultaneously quantify seven polyphenolic compounds (gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, kaempferol, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid). 15 phenolics of diverse groups in 80 % ethanolic extracts of jacquemont's hazelnut ( Corylus jacquemontii ) kernels and its byproducts from western Himalaya using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) were identified. The developed analytical method showed excellent linearity, repeatability and accuracy. Total phenols concentrations were found to be 4446, 1199 and 105 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/Kg of dried extract for jacquemont's hazelnut skin, hard shell and kernels respectively. Antioxidant potential of defatted, raw jacquemont's hazelnut skin, hard shell and kernel extracts assessed by 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods were increased in a dose-dependent manner. The IC 50 values were observed as 23.12, 51.32, 136.46 and 45.73, 63.65, 169.30 μg/ml for jacquemont's hazelnut skin, hard shell, kernels by DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively. The high phenolic contents in jacquemont's hazelnut skin contributed towards their free radical scavenging capacities.

  15. Currency risk and prices of oil and petroleum products: a simulation with a quantitative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniasi, L.; Ottavi, D.; Rubino, E.; Saracino, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the exchange rates of the US Dollar against the four major European currencies and the prices of oil and its main products in those countries. In fact, the sensitivity of the prices to the exchange rate movements is of fundamental importance for the refining and distribution industries of importing countries. The result of the analysis shows that in neither free market conditions, as those present in Great Britain, France and Germany, nor in regulated markets, i.e. the italian one, do the variations of petroleum product prices fully absorb the variation of the exchange rates. In order to assess the above relationship, we first tested the order of co-integration of the time series of exchange rates of EMS currencies with those of international prices of oil and its derivative products; then we used a transfer-function model to reproduce the quantitative relationships between those variables. Using these results, we then reproduced domestic price functions with partial adjustment mechanisms. Finally, we used the above model to run a simulation of the deviation from the steady-state pattern caused by exchange-rate exogenous shocks. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Simulation for estimation of hydrogen sulfide scavenger injection dose rate for treatment of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elshiekh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of hydrogen sulfide in the hydrocarbon fluids is a well known problem in many oil and gas fields. Hydrogen sulfide is an undesirable contaminant which presents many environmental and safety hazards. It is corrosive, malodorous, and toxic. Accordingly, a need has been long left in the industry to develop a process which can successfully remove hydrogen sulfide from the hydrocarbons or at least reduce its level during the production, storage or processing to a level that satisfies safety and product specification requirements. The common method used to remove or reduce the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the hydrocarbon production fluids is to inject the hydrogen sulfide scavenger into the hydrocarbon stream. One of the chemicals produced by the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI is EPRI H2S scavenger. It is used in some of the Egyptian petroleum producing companies. The injection dose rate of H2S scavenger is usually determined by experimental lab tests and field trials. In this work, this injection dose rate is mathematically estimated by modeling and simulation of an oil producing field belonging to Petrobel Company in Egypt which uses EPRI H2S scavenger. Comparison between the calculated and practical values of injection dose rate emphasizes the real ability of the proposed equation.

  17. The numerical simulation on swelling factor and extraction rate of a tight crude oil and SC-CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hongjun; Gong, Houjian; Li, Yajun; Dong, Mingzhe

    2018-03-01

    A method was established to study swelling and extraction between CO2 and crude oil, and the influences of pressure, temperature and molecular weight were investigated. Firstly, laboratory analysis was conducted to determine the pseudo-component and other parameters of the crude oil. Then swelling and extraction of the crude oil and SC-CO2 system were calculated by computer simulation. The results show that the pressure and temperature have little influence on the swelling and extraction between CO2 and crude oil when the mole fraction of CO2 is lower. A higher pressure and temperature is more beneficial to the interaction of CO2 and crude oil, while the swelling and extraction will not be obvious when the system is miscible. And the smaller the molecular weight of the oil is, the larger the maximum value of the swelling factor of CO2 and crude oil changes. The study of swelling and extraction plays an important role in the oilfield stimulation.

  18. Eos modeling and reservoir simulation study of bakken gas injection improved oil recovery in the elm coulee field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wanli

    The Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the most productive liquid-rich unconventional plays. The Bakken Formation is divided into three members, and the Middle Bakken Member is the primary target for horizontal wellbore landing and hydraulic fracturing because of its better rock properties. Even with this new technology, the primary recovery factor is believed to be only around 10%. This study is to evaluate various gas injection EOR methods to try to improve on that low recovery factor of 10%. In this study, the Elm Coulee Oil Field in the Williston Basin was selected as the area of interest. Static reservoir models featuring the rock property heterogeneity of the Middle Bakken Member were built, and fluid property models were built based on Bakken reservoir fluid sample PVT data. By employing both compositional model simulation and Todd-Longstaff solvent model simulation methods, miscible gas injections were simulated and the simulations speculated that oil recovery increased by 10% to 20% of OOIP in 30 years. The compositional simulations yielded lower oil recovery compared to the solvent model simulations. Compared to the homogeneous model, the reservoir model featuring rock property heterogeneity in the vertical direction resulted in slightly better oil recovery, but with earlier CO2 break-through and larger CO2 production, suggesting that rock property heterogeneity is an important property for modeling because it has a big effect on the simulation results. Long hydraulic fractures shortened CO2 break-through time greatly and increased CO 2 production. Water-alternating-gas injection schemes and injection-alternating-shut-in schemes can provide more options for gas injection EOR projects, especially for gas production management. Compared to CO2 injection, separator gas injection yielded slightly better oil recovery, meaning separator gas could be a good candidate for gas injection EOR; lean gas generated the worst results. Reservoir

  19. Research Capabilities for Oil-Free Turbomachinery Expanded by New Rotordynamic Simulator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2004-01-01

    A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery shafting using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air journal bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings with a flexible inner sleeve surface using air as the lubricant. These bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. More recently, interest has been growing in applying foil bearings to aircraft gas turbine engines. They offer potential improvements in efficiency and power density, decreased maintenance costs, and other secondary benefits. The goal of applying foil air bearings to aircraft gas turbine engines prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility enables bearing designers to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target engine without the high cost of building actual flight hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. The rest of this article describes the new test rig and demonstrates some of its capabilities with an initial simulated shaft system. The test rig has two support structures, each housing a foil air journal bearing. The structures are designed to accept any size foil journal bearing smaller than 63 mm (2.5 in.) in diameter. The bearing support structures are mounted to a 91- by 152-cm (3- by 5-ft) table and can be separated by as much as 122 cm (4 ft) and as little as 20 cm (8 in.) to accommodate a wide range of shaft sizes. In the initial configuration, a 9.5-cm (3.75-in.) impulse air turbine drives the test shaft. The impulse turbine, as well as virtually any number of "dummy" compressor and turbine disks, can be mounted on the shaft inboard or outboard of the bearings. This flexibility allows researchers to simulate various engine shaft configurations. The bearing support structures include a unique bearing mounting

  20. A specific PFT and sub-canopy structure for simulating oil palm in the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Knohl, A.; Roupsard, O.; Bernoux, M.; LE Maire, G.; Panferov, O.; Kotowska, M.; Meijide, A.

    2015-12-01

    Towards an effort to quantify the effects of rainforests to oil palm conversion on land-atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes, a specific plant functional type (PFT) and sub-canopy structure are developed for simulating oil palm within the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). Current global land surface models only simulate annual crops beside natural vegetation. In this study, a multilayer oil palm subroutine is developed in CLM4.5 for simulating oil palm's phenology and carbon and nitrogen allocation. The oil palm has monopodial morphology and sequential phenology of around 40 stacked phytomers, each carrying a large leaf and a fruit bunch, forming a natural multilayer canopy. A sub-canopy phenological and physiological parameterization is thus introduced, so that multiple phytomer components develop simultaneously but according to their different phenological steps (growth, yield and senescence) at different canopy layers. This specific multilayer structure was proved useful for simulating canopy development in terms of leaf area index (LAI) and fruit yield in terms of carbon and nitrogen outputs in Jambi, Sumatra (Fan et al. 2015). The study supports that species-specific traits, such as palm's monopodial morphology and sequential phenology, are necessary representations in terrestrial biosphere models in order to accurately simulate vegetation dynamics and feedbacks to climate. Further, oil palm's multilayer structure allows adding all canopy-level calculations of radiation, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and respiration, beside phenology, also to the sub-canopy level, so as to eliminate scale mismatch problem among different processes. A series of adaptations are made to the CLM model. Initial results show that the adapted multilayer radiative transfer scheme and the explicit represention of oil palm's canopy structure improve on simulating photosynthesis-light response curve. The explicit photosynthesis and dynamic leaf nitrogen calculations per canopy

  1. A Fast Algorithm to Simulate Droplet Motions in Oil/Water Two Phase Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2017-06-09

    To improve the research methods in petroleum industry, we develop a fast algorithm to simulate droplet motions in oil and water two phase flow, using phase field model to describe the phase distribution in the flow process. An efficient partial difference equation solver—Shift-Matrix method is applied here, to speed up the calculation coding in high-level language, i.e. Matlab and R. An analytical solution of order parameter is derived, to define the initial condition of phase distribution. The upwind scheme is applied in our algorithm, to make it energy decay stable, which results in the fast speed of calculation. To make it more clear and understandable, we provide the specific code for forming the coefficient matrix used in Shift-Matrix Method. Our algorithm is compared with other methods in different scales, including Front Tracking and VOSET method in macroscopic and LBM method using RK model in mesoscopic scale. In addition, we compare the result of droplet motion under gravity using our algorithm with the empirical formula common used in industry. The result proves the high efficiency and robustness of our algorithm and it’s then used to simulate the motions of multiple droplets under gravity and cross-direction forces, which is more practical in industry and can be extended to wider application.

  2. Hazelnut factory workers in working in the evaluation of the frequency of obesity and healthy life habits

    OpenAIRE

    ilknur Aydin Avci; Tugba Kavalali Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    Aim:In this study, hazelnuts healthy lifestyle habits of workers in the factories and to evaluate the obesity situation is made in accordance with the principles of descriptive study. Method:This research was carried out between 01.06.2014-13.06.2014 nuts in a factory in Ordu. The scope of research targeted to participate in all but 19 of the 139 workers in this factory workers did not accept the research and the research was conducted with 120 people due to lack of work (86.33% of the popula...

  3. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms vs fatty acid profiling for adulteration detection in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a DNA-barcode assay with fatty acid profile analysis to authenticate the botanical origin of olive oil. To achieve this aim, we performed a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on olive oil: seed oil blends using the plastid trnL (UAA) intron barcode. In parallel to genomic analysis, we subjected the samples to gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid composition. While the PCR-CE assay proved equally efficient as gas chromatography analysis in detecting adulteration with soybean, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed and peanut oils, it was superior to the widely utilized analytical chemistry approach in revealing the adulterant species and detecting small quantities of corn and safflower oils in olive oil. Moreover, the DNA-based test correctly identified all tested olive oil: hazelnut oil blends whereas it was not feasible to detect hazelnut oil adulteration through fatty acid profile analysis. Thus, the present research has shown the feasibility of a PCR-CE barcode assay to detect adulteration in olive oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of Cosmetic Argan Oil Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction from Argania spinosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaa Taribak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Argan oil has been extracted using supercritical CO2. The influence of the variables pressure (100, 200, 300, and 400 bar and temperature (35, 45, 55°C was investigated. The best extraction yields were achieved at a temperature of 45°C and a pressure of 400 bar. The argan oil extracts were characterized in terms of acid, peroxide and iodine values, total tocopherol, carotene, and fatty acids content. Significant compositional differences were not observed between the oil samples obtained using different pressures and temperatures. The antioxidant capacity of the argan oil samples was high in comparison to those of walnut, almond, hazelnut, and peanut oils and comparable to that of pistachio oil. The physicochemical parameters of the extracted oils obtained by SFE, Soxhlet, and traditional methods are comparable. The technique used for oil processing does not therefore markedly alter the quality of argan oil.

  5. Simulating the effect of hydrate dissociation on wellhead stability during oil and gas development in deepwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingchao; Cheng, Yuanfang; Zhang, Huaiwen; Yan, Chuanliang; Liu, Yuwen

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that methane hydrate has been identified as an alternative resource due to its massive reserves and clean property. However, hydrate dissociation during oil and gas development (OGD) process in deep water can affect the stability of subsea equipment and formation. Currently, there is a serious lack of studies over quantitative assessment on the effects of hydrate dissociation on wellhead stability. In order to solve this problem, ABAQUS finite element software was used to develop a model and to evaluate the behavior of wellhead caused by hydrate dissociation. The factors that affect the wellhead stability include dissociation range, depth of hydrate formation and mechanical properties of dissociated hydrate region. Based on these, series of simulations were carried out to determine the wellhead displacement. The results revealed that, continuous dissociation of hydrate in homogeneous and isotropic formations can causes the non-linear increment in vertical displacement of wellhead. The displacement of wellhead showed good agreement with the settlement of overlying formations under the same conditions. In addition, the shallower and thicker hydrate formation can aggravate the influence of hydrate dissociation on the wellhead stability. Further, it was observed that with the declining elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio, the wellhead displacement increases. Hence, these findings not only confirm the effect of hydrate dissociation on the wellhead stability, but also lend support to the actions, such as cooling the drilling fluid, which can reduce the hydrate dissociation range and further make deepwater operations safer and more efficient.

  6. Shear-induced aggregation or disaggregation in edible oils: Models, computer simulation, and USAXS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, B.; Peyronel, F.; Callaghan-Patrachar, N.; Quinn, B.; Marangoni, A. G.; Pink, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of shear upon the aggregation of solid objects formed from solid triacylglycerols (TAGs) immersed in liquid TAG oils were modeled using Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) and the predictions compared to experimental data using Ultra-Small Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The solid components were represented by spheres interacting via attractive van der Waals forces and short range repulsive forces. A velocity was applied to the liquid particles nearest to the boundary, and Lees-Edwards boundary conditions were used to transmit this motion to non-boundary layers via dissipative interactions. The shear was created through the dissipative forces acting between liquid particles. Translational diffusion was simulated, and the Stokes-Einstein equation was used to relate DPD length and time scales to SI units for comparison with USAXS results. The SI values depended on how large the spherical particles were (250 nm vs. 25 nm). Aggregation was studied by (a) computing the Structure Function and (b) quantifying the number of pairs of solid spheres formed. Solid aggregation was found to be enhanced by low shear rates. As the shear rate was increased, a transition shear region was manifested in which aggregation was inhibited and shear banding was observed. Aggregation was inhibited, and eventually eliminated, by further increases in the shear rate. The magnitude of the transition region shear, γ˙ t, depended on the size of the solid particles, which was confirmed experimentally.

  7. Enhanced oil recovery methods studied by gamma tracer scanning at simulated reservoir conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, D.O.; Haugen, O.B.; Bjornstad, T.

    2009-01-01

    During recovery (production) of hydrocarbons pressure is maintained by injecting prepared sea water and recycled gas (lean gas) into dedicated injection wells. In one well at the Snorre field in the North Sea the injected gas was recycled too fast to enable support of pressure and squeezing of oil. To plug this high-permeable area the operator wanted to inject foam as a test of its possibilities to decrease gas permeability. As part of the project laboratory tests were included. In these tests we could for the first time map the foam inside the sandstone sample at simulated reservoir conditions. The tracers used were 22 Na + for the γ-scanning of the aqueous brine, tritiated water for permeability measurements, and 35 S-labeled organic sulfonic acid of the same compound as the surfactant. This method resulted in a 'negative' mapping of the foam, i.e. measurements of the absence or exclusion of the aqueous phase by the foam. This method was new and showed that radiotracer-based γ-scanning could give much more accurate measurements of the position of the foam than the standard method using measurements of pressure drops over parts of the core. (author)

  8. Dose-response effects of dietary pequi oil on fermentation characteristics and microbial population using a rumen simulation technique (Rusitec).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Andrea Camacho; Durmic, Zoey; Vercoe, Philip E; Chaves, Alexandre V

    2017-12-01

    The effect of increasing the concentration of commercial pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) oil on fermentation characteristics and abundance of methanogens and fibrolityc bacteria was evaluated using the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In vitro incubation was performed over 15 days using a basal diet consisting of ryegrass, maize silage and concentrate in equal proportions. Treatments consisted of control diet (no pequi oil inclusion, 0 g/kg DM), pequi dose 1 (45 g/kg DM), and pequi dose 2 (91 g/kg DM). After a 7 day adaptation period, samples for fermentation parameters (total gas, methane, and VFA production) were taken on a daily basis. Quantitative real time PCR (q-PCR) was used to evaluate the abundance of the main rumen cellulolytic bacteria, as well as abundance of methanogens. Supplementation with pequi oil did not reduce overall methane production (P = 0.97), however a tendency (P = 0.06) to decrease proportion of methane in overall microbial gas was observed. Increasing addition of pequi oil was associated with a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in dry matter disappearance of maize silage. The abundance of total methanogens was unchanged by the addition of pequi oil, but numbers of those belonging to Methanomassiliicoccaceae decreased in liquid-associated microbes (LAM) samples (P < 0.01) and solid-associated microbes (SAM) samples (P = 0.09) respectively, while Methanobrevibacter spp. increased (P < 0.01) only in SAM samples. Fibrobacter succinogenes decreased (P < 0.01) in both LAM and SAM samples when substrates were supplemented with pequi oil. In conclusion, pequi oil was ineffective in mitigating methane emissions and had some adverse effects on digestibility and selected fibrolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Active Carbon, Sawdust, Almond Shell and Hazelnut Shell Absorbent in Removal of Nickel from Aqueous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Mohammadi Galehzan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental pollutants are heavy metals in industrial wastewater effluents. Nickel is one of the toxic heavy metals which its high concentration causes skin allergy, heart disease and various cancers. So removal of this element from industrial effluent is of prime concern and necessary. The main purpose of this study is to compare kinetics and isotherms of nickel uptake by activated carbon (AC, sawdust (SD, hazelnut shell (SH and almond shells (AH. Adsorbents are initially prepared to remove nickel from solutions with concentrations 2.5 to 125 mg/l. pH test results showed that maximum absorption using AC, SH, SD and AH obtained at pH 6, 6, 6 and 7 respectively. Kinetics experiments showed that maximum absorption equilibrium time at concentration of 5 mg/l of AC, SH, SD and AH occur at 60, 75, 120 and 150 minutes respectively. Kinetic models fitting results showed that for sawdust and hazelnut shells, Lagergern model and for activated carbon and peanut shell Ho et al. model are suitable and have the lowest error and highest correlation coefficient at 95 percent confidence level. The results also revealed that rate of Nickel adsorption follows this order: AH

  10. An Innovative Agro-Forestry Supply Chain for Residual Biomass: Physicochemical Characterisation of Biochar from Olive and Hazelnut Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and food productivity have spurred interest in biochar, a form of charred organic material typically used in agriculture to improve soil productivity and as a means of carbon sequestration. An innovative approach in agriculture is the use of agro-forestry waste for the production of soil fertilisers for agricultural purposes and as a source of energy. A common agricultural practice is to burn crop residues in the field to produce ashes that can be used as soil fertilisers. This approach is able to supply plants with certain nutrients, such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, B, S, and Mo. However, the low concentration of N and P in the ashes, together with the occasional presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Al, etc., has a negative effect on soil and, therefore, crop productivity. This work describes the opportunity to create an innovative supply chain from agricultural waste biomass. Olive (Olea europaea and hazelnut (Corylus avellana pruning residues represent a major component of biomass waste in the area of Viterbo (Italy. In this study, we evaluated the production of biochar from these residues. Furthermore, a physicochemical characterisation of the produced biochar was performed to assess the quality of the two biochars according to the standards of the European Biochar Certificate (EBC. The results of this study indicate the cost-effective production of high-quality biochar from olive and hazelnut biomass residues.

  11. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 x 3.0 x 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells

  12. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.P.; Reeves, T.L.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-11-01

    The scope of the original research program and of its continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large-scale testing sufficient to describe commercial-scale embankment behavior. The large-scale testing was accomplished by constructing five lysimeters, each 7.3x3.0x3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process (Schmalfield 1975). Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was placed in the lysimeter cells. This report discusses and summarizes results from scientific efforts conducted between October 1991 and September 1992 for Fiscal Year 1992

  13. Development and production prospects for oil and gas from the UK continental shelf after the Gulf crisis: a financial simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.; Rose, David; Dandie, Russell

    1991-01-01

    A large computerized financial model has been developed to simulate the future exploitation of oil and gas in the UK north sea. Primary inputs into the model include all the publicity available information on currently producing fields relating to their historic and expected production rates, investment, operating and abandonment costs. Information has also been gathered on all new discoveries which have not yet been developed and estimates made of the timing of their development, the commencement of production and costs. Three oil price scenarios base, low and high, have been used in the analysis which extends to the year 2015. The results are presented for two major regions, the central and northern waters and the Southern Gas Basin, including the Irish Sea. Very large numbers of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields exist in the UK continental shelf substantial numbers of which could be developed in the event of a very modest real growth in oil and gas prices. The considerable sensitivity of development to movements in oil prices is brought out by the analysis of the three scenarios. (UK)

  14. Fatty acid composition of commercial vegetable oils from the French market analysed using a long highly polar column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingering Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern for consumed fat by western populations has raised the question of the level and the quality of fat intake, especially the composition of fatty acids (FA and their impact on human health. As a consequence, consumers and nutritionists have requested updated publications on FA composition of food containing fat. In the present study, fourteen different kinds of edible oils (rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, argan, groundnut, grape seed, sesame, sunflower, walnut and organic walnut, avocado, wheat germ, and two combined oils were analysed for FA determination using a BPX-70 60 m highly polar GC column. Oils were classified according to the classification of Dubois et al. (2007, 2008. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA group oils, including rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, and avocado oils, contained mainly oleic acid (OA. Groundnut and argan oils, also rich in MUFA, showed in addition high linoleic acid (LA contents. In the polyunsaturated (PUFA group, grape seed oil presented the highest LA content while sunflower, sesame, and wheat germ oils showed noticeable MUFA amounts in addition to high PUFA contents. Walnut oils, also rich in LA, showed the highest linolenic acid (ALA content. The n-6/n-3 ratio of each oil was calculated. Trans-FA (TFA was also detected and quantified. Results were compared with the data published during the past decade, and the slight discrepancies were attributed to differences in origin and variety of seed-cultivars, and in seed and oil processes.

  15. Dynamic pore network simulator for modelling buoyancy-driven migration during depressurisation of heavy-oil systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeuko, C.C.; McDougall, S.R. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bondino, I. [Total E and P UK Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Hamon, G. [Total S.A., Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of gravitational forces on gas evolution during solution gas drive, a number of vertically-oriented heavy oil depletion experiments have been conducted. Some of the results of these studies suggest the occurrence of gas migration during these tests. However, a major limitation of these experiments is the difficulty in visualizing the process in reservoir rock samples. Experimental observations using transparent glass models have been useful in this context and provide a sound physical basis for modelling gravitational gas migration in gas-oil systems. This paper presented a new pore network simulator that was capable of modelling the time-dependent migration of growing gas structures. Multiple pore filling events were dynamically modelled with interface tracking allowing the full range of migratory behaviours to be reproduced, including braided migration and discontinuous dispersed flow. Simulation results were compared with experiments and were found to be in excellent agreement. The paper presented the model and discussed the implication of evolution regime on recovery from heavy oil systems undergoing depressurization. The simulation results demonstrated the complex interaction of a number of network and fluid parameters. It was concluded that the concomitant effect on the competition between capillarity and buoyancy produced different gas evolution patterns during pressure depletion. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs.

  16. Modelling and simulation of compressible fluid flow in oil reservoir: a case study of the Jubilee Field, Tano Basin (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawusu, S.

    2015-07-01

    Oil extraction represents an important investment and the control of a rational exploitation of a field means mastering various scientific techniques including the understanding of the dynamics of fluids in place. This thesis presents a theoretical investigation of the dynamic behaviour of an oil reservoir during its exploitation. The study investigated the dynamics of fluid flow patterns in a homogeneous oil reservoir using the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) as well as two phase oil-water flow equations. The RDE model was solved analytically and numerically for pressure using the Constant Terminal Rate Solution (CTRS) and the fully implicit Finite Difference Method (FDM) respectively. The mathematical derivations of the models and their solution procedures were presented to allow for easy utilization of the techniques for reservoir and engineering applications. The study predicted that the initial oil reservoir pressure will be able to do the extraction for a very long time before any other recovery method will be used to aid in the extraction process depending on the rate of production. Reservoir simulation describing a one dimensional radial flow of a compressible fluid in porous media may be adequately performed using ordinary laptop computers as revealed by the study. For the simulation of MATLAB, the case of the Jubilee Fields, Tano Basin was studied, an algorithm was developed for the simulation of pressure in the reservoir. It ensues from the analysis of the plots of pressure vrs time and space that the Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) was duly followed. The approximate solutions of the analytical and numerical solutions to the Radial Diffusivity Equation (RDE) were in excellent agreement, thus the reservoir simulation model developed can be used to describe typical pressure-time relationships that are used in conventional Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA). The study was extended to two phase oil-water flow in reservoirs. The flow of fluids in multi

  17. Simulation studies of steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, G.J.; Mamora, D.D. [Texas A and M Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Laboratory experiments have been conducted at Texas A and M University to examine the use of steam additives such as propane, methane and nitrogen to improve the production of heavy oils and increase steam recovery efficiency. In particular, the use of steam-propane injection for heavy Hamaca crude oil with API gravity of 9.3 and viscosity of 25,000 cp at 50 degrees C was examined. Experimental runs involved the injection of steam or propane into injection cells at a constant rate, temperature and cell outlet pressure. The experimental results suggest that the use of steam-propane injection may translate to reduction of fuel costs for field injections. Initially, propane-steam injection resulted in a two-month oil production acceleration compared to pure steam injection. A significant gain in discounted revenue and savings in steam injection costs could be realized. The study also showed the oil product rate peak with steam-propane injection was much higher than that with pure steam injection. The oil production acceleration increases with increasing propane content. Oil recovery at the end of a five-year forecast period increases by 6.7 per cent of original oil in place (OOIP) compared to 2.3 per cent OOIP with pure steam injection. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 28 figs.

  18. Need For Coastal Water Management Tool For Oil Spill Simulation In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghanaian water bodies have been under threats recently ranging from illegal mining sand winning reclamation of water bodies for the purposes of human settlement pollution etc. Civil and mechanical installations on the coastal waters have increase due to the discovery of oil recently and such situations are not spared by oil spills. Oil spills are an inevitable consequence of the need to produce store and transport oil. The commercialization of oil production has placed Ghana among High-Risk Zones which are characterised by high traffic density and the presence of navigational hazards. Despite Ghanas awareness about oil spill accidents in both preparedness and response it is likely it will be compromised when any accident occurs as it has more pressing demands on finite funds and resources. This situation might place Ghana among ill-prepared countries against oil spill combat. An important part of contingency plan is the prediction of locations that are susceptible to oil after spillage. This can be done by the use of satellite information reviewing and comparing previous incidents laboratory work or by fine tuning models which as of now the country is not having despite all the precautions to prevent oil spills. When spill models are used properly they provide ecological economic and social benefits. Hence the need for such decision-making tool for Ghana to create an environment for the contingency plans to be tested validated and upgraded. Such exercises not only maintain and increase the skills of the response personnel but also lead to improvements and fine tuning of the plan as weaknesses and gaps are identified.

  19. North Sea oil, the UK economy and macroeconomic adjustment -an overview, theoretical and simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The discovery and production of oil from the UK sector of the North Sea has had, and will continue to have for some time yet, an important impact upon developments in that economy. This paper is concerned with identifying the major characteristics of this oil production, and the macroeconomic developments which have arisen in the UK during its period of production. A theoretical framework, incorporating these characteristics, is developed, to identify the contribution of oil production and price changes to these as well as future developments. (author)

  20. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  1. 1D Simulations for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery with Metabolite Partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model describing the process of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The one-dimensional isothermal model comprises displacement of oil bywater containing bacteria and substrate for their feeding. The bacterial products are both bacteria andmetabolites....... The characteristics for the water phase saturation profiles and the oil recovery curves are elucidated. However, the effect from the surfactant is not necessarily restricted to influence only interfacial tension, but it can also be an approach for changing, e.g., wettability. The distribution coefficient determines...... the time lag, until residual oil mobilization is initialized. It has also been found that the final recovery depends on the distance from the inlet before the surfactant effect takes place. The surfactant effect position is sensitive to changes in maximum growth rate, and injection concentrations...

  2. Simulation of polymer flooding in one of the Iranian oil fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad Salehi

    2017-06-01

    This study shows the optimum concentration of Nano clay could improve polymer properties. Results also show that the polymer flooding scenario has higher oil recovery in comparison to other displacement methods such as natural depletion and water flooding.

  3. Simulation of Deepwater Horizon oil plume reveals substrate specialization within a complex community of hydrocarbon degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Dubinsky, Eric A; Probst, Alexander J; Wang, Jian; Sieber, Christian M K; Tom, Lauren M; Gardinali, Piero R; Banfield, Jillian F; Atlas, Ronald M; Andersen, Gary L

    2017-07-11

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident released an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 10 10 mol of natural gas into the Gulf of Mexico, forming deep-sea plumes of dispersed oil droplets and dissolved gases that were largely degraded by bacteria. During the course of this 3-mo disaster a series of different bacterial taxa were enriched in succession within deep plumes, but the metabolic capabilities of the different populations that controlled degradation rates of crude oil components are poorly understood. We experimentally reproduced dispersed plumes of fine oil droplets in Gulf of Mexico seawater and successfully replicated the enrichment and succession of the principal oil-degrading bacteria observed during the DWH event. We recovered near-complete genomes, whose phylogeny matched those of the principal biodegrading taxa observed in the field, including the DWH Oceanospirillales (now identified as a Bermanella species), multiple species of Colwellia , Cycloclasticus , and other members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Rhodobacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis, combined with hydrocarbon compositional analysis and species abundance data, revealed substrate specialization that explained the successional pattern of oil-degrading bacteria. The fastest-growing bacteria used short-chain alkanes. The analyses also uncovered potential cooperative and competitive relationships, even among close relatives. We conclude that patterns of microbial succession following deep ocean hydrocarbon blowouts are predictable and primarily driven by the availability of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons rather than natural gases.

  4. simulation effect of gamma radiation on growth and essential oil production of lemongrass cymbopogon citratus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elseoud, M.A.; Deaf, M.N.; Afifi, R.A; Abo-Etia, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on growth and volatile oil production of lemongrass, C ymbopogon citratus L. i n this consideration, lemongrass segments were exposed to irradiation doses of 0.5,10,20 and 40 gray and cultivated in the experimental field of atomic energy authority, Inshas. three consequent harvest were taken at flowering stage as the fresh weights were recorded . volatile oil contents, volatile oil constituents and sugars content were determined in the plants herb. results showed that irradiation doses up to 20 gray induced a stimulation effect on plant growth as it increased the fresh weight of plant herb. data of total oil content (cc/plant ) showed noticeable enhancement up to irradiation dose of 20 gray, however, a slight decline was recorded with the higher irradiation dose of 40 gray. GLC of lemongrass volatile oil revealed that 19 components are resulted as citral aa nd citral bw ere the most predominant components . the impact of the studied irradiation treatments on the constituents of lemongrass oil was discussed. in addition, sugars content were determined and some increases were resulted in response to the studied gamma irradiation treatments

  5. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation of permafrost changes due to technogenic influences of different ingeneering constructions used in nothern oil and gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, M. Yu; Vaganova, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    Significant amount of oil and gas is producted in Russian Federation on the territories with permafrost soils. Ice-saturated rocks thawing due to global warming or effects of various human activity will be accompanied by termocarst and others dangerous geological processes in permafrost. Design and construction of well pads in permafrost zones have some special features. The main objective is to minimize the influence of different heat sources (engineering objects) inserted into permafrost and accounting long-term forecast of development of permafrost degradation due to different factors in particular generated by human activity. In this work on the basis a mathematical model and numerical algorithms approved on 11 northern oil and gas fields some effects obtained by carrying out numerical simulations for various engineering systems are discussed.

  7. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendil, Durali; Uluoezlue, Ozguer Dogan; Tuezen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 μg/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 μg/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  8. The risk of musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive movements of upper limbs for workers employed in hazelnut sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Colantoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the agro-industrial sector there are many activities whose urgent rhythms can cause a considerable exposure to bio-mechanical risk factors. In the hazelnut sorting, the workers are subject to several biomechanical risks, with repetitive movements, and operations that require a remarkable degree of strength. A thorough study of the workers’ exposure to repetitive manual movements has been carried out, with the aim of setting up the necessary measures to reduce the risk factors. The aim of the research is to assess the risk of work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs due to repetitive work, for workers employed to hazelnut shells sorting. The research was carried out in an agricultural cooperative in the Viterbo’s area. For risk assessment authors used a method (Occupational Repetitive Actions “OCRA” index according to ISO 11228- 3:2009, Ergonomics - Manual handling - Part 3: Handling of low loads at high frequency which keeps into consideration several risk factors (such as repetitiveness, prehension force, posture. The risk was assessed for 16 female workers (in eight workplaces and in two different shifts through this classification: workers with experience less than 1 year, from 1 to 10 years and more than 10 years. This classification is very important for knowing if the professional experience could be considered a “prevention measure” for the risk reduction. The results show a high risk level for the right and left limb. The factors which more have contributed to reach such risk level are the great number of movements and the lack of recovering time.

  9. Development of a higher-order finite volume method for simulation of thermal oil recovery process using moving mesh strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, M. [Heriot Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a project in which a higher order up-winding scheme was used to solve mass/energy conservation equations for simulating steam flood processes in an oil reservoir. Thermal recovery processes are among the most complex because they require a detailed accounting of thermal energy and chemical reaction kinetics. The numerical simulation of thermal recovery processes involves localized phenomena such as saturation and temperatures fronts due to hyperbolic features of governing conservation laws. A second order accurate FV method that was improved by a moving mesh strategy was used to adjust for moving coordinates on a finely gridded domain. The Finite volume method was used and the problem of steam injection was then tested using derived solution frameworks on both mixed and moving coordinates. The benefits of using a higher-order Godunov solver instead of lower-order ones were qualified. This second order correction resulted in better resolution on moving features. Preferences of higher-order solvers over lower-order ones in terms of shock capturing is under further investigation. It was concluded that although this simulation study was limited to steam flooding processes, the newly presented approach may be suitable to other enhanced oil recovery processes such as VAPEX, SAGD and in situ combustion processes. 23 refs., 28 figs.

  10. Design and dynamic simulation of a novel polygeneration system fed by vegetable oil and by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Palombo, Adolfo; Vanoli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel polygeneration system based on engines (RE) fed by rapeseed oil is investigated. ► RE are integrated with high temperature solar heating and cooling systems. ► The polygeneration system is dynamically investigated for a Mediterranean Climate. ► System performance is excellent from the energetic point of view. ► The system is economically profitable only in case of feed-in tariffs. - Abstract: In this paper the integration of vegetable oil-fed reciprocating engines with solar thermal collector is investigated, seeking to design a novel polygeneration system producing: electricity, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water, for a university building located in Naples (Italy), assumed as case study. The polygeneration system is based on the following main components: concentrating parabolic trough solar collector, double-stage LiBr–H 2 O absorption chiller and a reciprocating engine fed by vegetable oil. The engine operates at full load producing electrical energy which is in part consumed by the building lights and equipments, in part used by the system passive loads and the rest is eventually sold to the grid. In fact, the engine is grid connected in order to perform a convenient net metering. The system was designed and then simulated by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed using the TRNSYS software. The simulation tool developed by the authors allows one to analyze the results for different time basis (minutes, days, weeks, months and years), from both energetic and economic points of view. The economic results show that the system under investigation is profitable, especially if properly funded.

  11. A simulation method for the rapid screening of potential depleted oil reservoirs for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Le Gallo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases emission is a growing concern of many industries. The oil and gas industry has a long commercial practice of gas injection, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and gas storage. Using a depleted oil or gas reservoir for CO 2 storage has several interesting advantages. The long-term risk analysis of the CO 2 behavior and its impact on the environment is a major concern. That is why the selection of an appropriate reservoir is crucial to the success of a sequestration operation. Our modeling study, based on a synthetic reservoir, quantifies uncertainties due to reservoir parameters in order to establish a set of guidelines to select the most appropriate depleted reservoirs. Several production and sequestration scenarios are investigated in order to quantify key parameter for CO 2 storage. The influence of parameters such as API gravity, heterogeneity (Dykstra-Parson coefficient), pressure support (water injection) and cap rock integrity are analyzed. Estimation of sequestration capacity is proposed through a sequestration factor (SF) estimated for different reservoir production drives. Multiple regression relationships were developed, allowing SF estimation. CO 2 sequestration optimization highlights the best clean oil recovery strategy (CO 2 injection and/or oil production)

  12. Unstructured grids and an element based conservative approach for a black-oil reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Regis Lopes; Fernandes, Bruno Ramon Batista [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Araujo, Andre Luiz de Souza [Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara - IFCE, Fortaleza (Brazil). Industry Department], e-mail: andre@ifce.edu.br; Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail: marcondes@ufc.br

    2010-07-01

    Unstructured meshes presented one upgrade in modeling the main important features of the reservoir such as discrete fractures, faults, and irregular boundaries. From several methodologies available, the Element based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM), in conjunction with unstructured meshes, is one methodology that deserves large attention. In this approach, the reservoir, for 2D domains, is discretized using a mixed two-dimensional mesh using quadrilateral and triangle elements. After the initial step of discretization, each element is divided into sub-elements and the mass balance for each component is developed for each sub-element. The equations for each control-volume using a cell vertex construction are formulated through the contribution of different neighboured elements. This paper presents an investigation of an element-based approach using the black-oil model based on pressure and global mass fractions. In this approach, even when all gas phase is dissolved in oil phase the global mass fraction of gas will be different from zero. Therefore, no additional numerical procedure is necessary in order to treat the gas phase appear/disappearance. In this paper the above mentioned approach is applied to multiphase flows involving oil, gas, and water. The mass balance equations in terms of global mass fraction of oil, gas and water are discretized through the EbFVM and linearized by the Newton's method. The results are presented in terms of volumetric rates of oil, gas, and water and phase saturations. (author)

  13. Application of MODFLOW for oil reservoir simulation during the Deepwater Horizon Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Macondo well was shut in on July 15, 2010, the shut-in pressure recovered to a level that indicated the possibility of oil leakage out of the well casing into the surrounding formation. Such a leak could initiate a hydraulic fracture that might eventually breach the seafloor, resulting in renewed and uncontrolled oil flow into the Gulf of Mexico. To help evaluate whether or not to reopen the well, a MODFLOW model was constructed within 24 h after shut in to analyze the shut-in pressure. The model showed that the shut-in pressure can be explained by a reasonable scenario in which the well did not leak after shut in. The rapid response provided a scientific analysis for the decision to keep the well shut, thus ending the oil spill resulting from the Deepwater Horizon blow out.

  14. Simulation of demand (or consumption) of fuel and lubricating oils in countries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzelbaev, B.I.; Khisarov, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    Demand on fuel and lubricating oils mixtures is estimated in transport sector of the Asia countries. Model of demand is constructed with help of co-integration structures and error correction model for definition of fuel and lubricating oils mixtures elasticity. Researches have been conducted with use of program complex in operational medium of the Windows-95. Co-integrating vectors for demand on gasoline were defined by all of considered countries (beside Thailand), for demand on diesel fuel - for Indonesia and South Korea

  15. Stochastic Plume Simulations for the Fukushima Accident and the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, E.; Peggion, G.; Rowley, C.; Hogan, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant suffered damage leading to radioactive contamination of coastal waters. Major issues in characterizing the extent of the affected waters were a poor knowledge of the radiation released to the coastal waters and the rather complex coastal dynamics of the region, not deterministically captured by the available prediction systems. Equivalently, during the Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Horizon oil platform accident in April 2010, significant amounts of oil and gas were released from the ocean floor. For this case, issues in mapping and predicting the extent of the affected waters in real-time were a poor knowledge of the actual amounts of oil reaching the surface and the fact that coastal dynamics over the region were not deterministically captured by the available prediction systems. To assess the ocean regions and times that were most likely affected by these accidents while capturing the above sources of uncertainty, ensembles of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) were configured over the two regions (NE Japan and Northern Gulf of Mexico). For the Fukushima case tracers were released on each ensemble member; their locations at each instant provided reference positions of water volumes where the signature of water released from the plant could be found. For the Deep Water Horizon oil spill case each ensemble member was coupled with a diffusion-advection solution to estimate possible scenarios of oil concentrations using perturbed estimates of the released amounts as the source terms at the surface. Stochastic plumes were then defined using a Risk Assessment Code (RAC) analysis that associates a number from 1 to 5 to each grid point, determined by the likelihood of having tracer particle within short ranges (for the Fukushima case), hence defining the high risk areas and those recommended for monitoring. For the Oil Spill case the RAC codes were determined by the likelihood of reaching oil concentrations as defined in the Bonn Agreement

  16. Sensitization with 7S Globulins from Peanut, Hazelnut, Soy or Pea Induces IgE with Different Biological Activities Which Are Modified by Soy Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Rigby, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    , such as stability to digestion, have also been suggested. 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy, and pea were studied to determine whether related proteins would induce a similar sensitization when removed from their ‘normal’ matrix. Methods: Brown Norway rats (soy tolerant or nontolerant) were immunized i.p. 3......Background: It is not known why some foods sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract are prevalent allergenic foods and others are not. Eating habits, processing, and the food matrix have been suggested to influence the allergenicity of a given food. Factors related to protein structure...... times with 100 μg purified peanut, hazelnut, soy, or pea 7S without adjuvant. Sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by different ELISAs (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE), inhibition ELISA, and rat basophilic leukemia cell assay. Results: The 4 related 7S globulins induced a response with an almost identical...

  17. Solid-phase microextraction method for the determination of hexanal in hazelnuts as an indicator of the interaction of active packaging materials with food aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, S; Valzacchi, S; Rodriguez, A; Simoneau, C

    2006-11-01

    Fatty foods are susceptible to lipid oxidation resulting in deterioration of product quality due to the generation of off-flavours. Hexanal is a good indicator of rancidity. Therefore, a method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection was developed to determine hexanal formation in hazelnuts during storage. Optimum conditions were as follows: carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane 75 microm fibre, extraction time 10 min, equilibrium time 10 min and equilibrium temperature 60 degrees C. The effect of oxygen scavengers on the oxidation process was also evaluated by measuring hexanal formation in hazelnuts stored with/without oxygen absorber sachets. Oxygen scavengers were shown to reduce oxidation; however, analysis of the sachet revealed that other volatile compounds from the headspace were also absorbed.

  18. Effective bioremediation strategy for rapid in situ cleanup of anoxic marine sediments in mesocosm oil spill simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGenovese

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was the simulation of an oil spill accompanied by burial of significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs in coastal sediments. Approximately 1,000 kg of sediments collected in Messina harbor were spiked with Bunker C furnace fuel oil (6,500 ppm. The rapid consumption of oxygen by aerobic heterotrophs created highly reduced conditions in the sediments with subsequent recession of biodegradation rates. As follows, after three months of ageing, the anaerobic sediments did not exhibit any significant levels of biodegradation and more than 80% of added Bunker C fuel oil remained buried. Anaerobic microbial community exhibited a strong enrichment in sulfate-reducing PHs-degrading and PHs-associated Deltaproteobacteria. As an effective bioremediation strategy to clean up these contaminated sediments, we applied a Modular Slurry System (MSS allowing the containment of sediments and their physical-chemical treatment, e.g. aeration. Aeration for three months has increased the removal of main PHs contaminants up to 98%. As revealed by CARD-FISH, qPCR and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses, addition of Bunker C fuel oil initially affected the activity of autochthonous aerobic obligate marine hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OMHCB, and after one month more than the third of microbial population was represented by Alcanivorax-, Cycloclasticus- and Marinobacter-related organisms. In the end of the experiment, the microbial community composition has returned to a status typically observed in pristine marine ecosystems with no detectable OMHCB present. Eco-toxicological bioassay revealed that the toxicity of sediments after treatment was substantially decreased. Thus, our studies demonstrated that petroleum-contaminated anaerobic marine sediments could efficiently be cleaned through an in situ oxygenation which stimulates their self-cleaning potential due to reawakening of allochtonous aerobic OMHCB.

  19. Leak Detection Modeling and Simulation for Oil Pipeline with Artificial Intelligence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjo Sukarno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leak detection is always interesting research topic, where leak location and leak rate are two pipeline leaking parameters that should be determined accurately to overcome pipe leaking problems. In this research those two parameters are investigated by developing transmission pipeline model and the leak detection model which is developed using Artificial Neural Network. The mathematical approach needs actual leak data to train the leak detection model, however such data could not be obtained from oil fields. Therefore, for training purposes hypothetical data are developed using the transmission pipeline model, by applying various physical configuration of pipeline and applying oil properties correlations to estimate the value of oil density and viscosity. The various leak locations and leak rates are also represented in this model. The prediction of those two leak parameters will be completed until the total error is less than certain value of tolerance, or until iterations level is reached. To recognize the pattern, forward procedure is conducted. The application of this approach produces conclusion that for certain pipeline network configuration, the higher number of iterations will produce accurate result. The number of iterations depend on the leakage rate, the smaller leakage rate, the higher number of iterations are required. The accuracy of this approach is clearly determined by the quality of training data. Therefore, in the preparation of training data the results of pressure drop calculations should be validated by the real measurement of pressure drop along the pipeline. For the accuracy purposes, there are possibility to change the pressure drop and fluid properties correlations, to get the better results. The results of this research are expected to give real contribution for giving an early detection of oil-spill in oil fields.

  20. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madawala, S. R. P.; Kochhar, S. P.; Dutta, P. C.

    2012-11-01

    Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O{sub 2}/kg) but AV and Rancimat values at 100 degree centigrade (except for rapeseed oils) varied considerably at (0.5-15.5) and (4.2-37.0 h) respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4%) and walnut oil had the highest (71%) level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27%) compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%). In all the samples, {alpha}- and {gamma}- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 {mu}g/g oil. The major sterols were {beta}-sitosterol (61-85%) and campesterol (6-20%). Argan oil contained schottenol (35%) and spinasterol (32%). Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study. (Author) 33 refs.

  1. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery. I. Uncertainty quantification employing a streamline based proxy for reservoir flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Wang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is already injected into a limited class of reservoirs for oil recovery purposes; however, the engineering design question for simultaneous oil recovery and storage of anthropogenic CO 2 is significantly different from that of oil recovery alone. Currently, the volumes of CO 2 injected solely for oil recovery are minimized due to the purchase cost of CO 2 . If and when CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere are managed, it will be necessary to maximize simultaneously both economic oil recovery and the volumes of CO 2 emplaced in oil reservoirs. This process is coined 'cooptimization'. This paper proposes a work flow for cooptimization of oil recovery and geologic CO 2 storage. An important component of the work flow is the assessment of uncertainty in predictions of performance. Typical methods for quantifying uncertainty employ exhaustive flow simulation of multiple stochastic realizations of the geologic architecture of a reservoir. Such approaches are computationally intensive and thereby time consuming. An analytic streamline based proxy for full reservoir simulation is proposed and tested. Streamline trajectories represent the three-dimensional velocity field during multiphase flow in porous media and so are useful for quantifying the similarity and differences among various reservoir models. The proxy allows rational selection of a representative subset of equi-probable reservoir models that encompass uncertainty with respect to true reservoir geology. The streamline approach is demonstrated to be thorough and rapid

  2. Simulation of the evaporation of drops from palm and castor oil biodiesels based on physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Botero, Maria Luisa; Molina, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    A reduction of oil reserves and an augmented production of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels have increased the use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines. Although physical and chemical properties of biodiesel and diesel are similar enough that allow the use of pure biodiesel in a traditional engine without considerable adjustments, differences in chemical structure of diesel and biodiesel change vaporization and combustion rates and can affect engine performance. In this study a model...

  3. Monte Carlo molecular simulation of phase-coexistence for oil production and processing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The Gibbs-NVT ensemble Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the liquid-vapor coexistence diagram and the simulation results of methane agree well with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures. For systems with two components, the Gibbs-NPT ensemble Monte Carlo method is employed in the simulation while the mole fraction of each component in each phase is modeled as a Leonard-Jones fluid. As the results of Monte Carlo simulations usually contain huge statistical error, the blocking method is used to estimate the variance of the simulation results. Additionally, in order to improve the simulation efficiency, the step sizes of different trial moves is adjusted automatically so that their acceptance probabilities can approach to the preset values.

  4. Studies on the lipophilicity of vehicles (or co-vehicles) and botanical oils used in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, C J

    2007-05-01

    The lipophilic character of five vehicles (or co-vehicles): diethylhexylmaleate, dimethicone, light mineral oil, octyldodecanol and oleyl alcohol and eight botanical oils: Aloe vera oil, coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil, grape leaf oil, grape seed oil, hazelnut oil, jojoba oil and safflower oil was determined by partitioning esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) between them and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The results were compared to those obtained with 1-octanol. The most lipophilic effects were observed with octyldodecanol and oleyl alcohol for the vehicles (or co-vehicles), coconut oil, jojoba oil and safflower oil for botanical oils. Light mineral oil showed the least lipophilic effect. With butylparaben, it was observed that oleyl alcohol, octyldodecanol, coconut oil and jojoba oil were 0.94, 0.91, 0.74 and 0.68 times as lipophilic as 1-octanol respectively. The study indicates that octyldodecanol and oleyl alcohol could be good substitutes for 1-octanol in partition coefficient determination. The estimated permeability coefficients of the parabens suggest that octyldodecanol, oleyl alcohol, coconut oil and jojoba oil could be potential dermal permeation enhancers.

  5. Terahertz-dependent identification of simulated hole shapes in oil-gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ri-Ma; Zhan, Hong-Lei; Miao, Xin-Yang; Zhao, Kun; Feng, Cheng-Jing; Dong, Chen; Li, Yi-Zhang; Xiao, Li-Zhi

    2016-10-01

    Detecting holes in oil-gas reservoirs is vital to the evaluation of reservoir potential. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of identifying general micro-hole shapes, including triangular, circular, and square shapes, in oil-gas reservoirs by adopting terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). We evaluate the THz absorption responses of punched silicon (Si) wafers having micro-holes with sizes of 20 μm-500 μm. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to establish a model between THz absorbance and hole shapes. The positions of samples in three-dimensional spaces for three principal components are used to determine the differences among diverse hole shapes and the homogeneity of similar shapes. In addition, a new Si wafer with the unknown hole shapes, including triangular, circular, and square, can be qualitatively identified by combining THz-TDS and PCA. Therefore, the combination of THz-TDS with mathematical statistical methods can serve as an effective approach to the rapid identification of micro-hole shapes in oil-gas reservoirs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405259), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB744302), and the Specially Founded Program on National Key Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development, China (Grant No. 2012YQ140005).

  6. Evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation and biostimulation during microcosm-simulated oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-07-15

    Oil spills are treated as a widespread problem that poses a great threat to any ecosystem. Following first response actions, bioremediation has emerged as the best strategy for combating oil spills and can be enhanced by the following two complementary approaches: bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation. Studies that compare the relative performance of bioaugmentation and biostimulation suggest that nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products because the survival and degradation ability of microbes introduced to a contaminated site are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Microbial populations grown in rich media under laboratory conditions become stressed when exposed to field conditions in which nutrient concentrations are substantially lower. There is increasing evidence that the best approach to overcoming these barriers is the use of microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as a bioaugmentation technology that exclusively uses microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) slated for decontamination. In this work, we examined the effectiveness of strategies combining autochthonous bioaugmentation with biostimulation for successful remediation of polluted marine environments. Seawater was collected from a pristine area (Agios Onoufrios Beach, Chania) and was placed in a bioreactor with 1% v/v crude oil to facilitate the adaptation of the indigenous microorganism population. The pre-adapted consortium and the indigenous population were tested in combination with inorganic or lipophilic nutrients in the presence (or absence) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) during 90-day long experiments. Chemical analysis (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of petroleum hydrocarbons confirmed the results of previous work demonstrating that the

  7. Monte Carlo molecular simulation of phase-coexistence for oil production and processing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun; Sun, Shuyu; Calo, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    The Gibbs-NVT ensemble Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the liquid-vapor coexistence diagram and the simulation results of methane agree well with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures. For systems with two components

  8. Reacting flow simulations of supercritical water oxidation of PCB-contaminated transformer oil in a pilot plant reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marulanda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The scale-up of a supercritical water oxidation process, based on recent advancements in kinetic aspects, reactor configuration and optimal operational conditions, depends on the research and development of simulation tools, which allow the designer not only to understand the complex multiphysics phenomena that describe the system, but also to optimize the operational parameters to attain the best profit for the process and guarantee its safe operation. Accordingly, this paper reports a multiphysics simulation with the CFD software Comsol Multiphysics 3.3 of a pilot plant reactor for the supercritical water oxidation of a heavily PCB-contaminated mineral transformer oil. The proposed model was based on available information for the kinetic aspects of the complex mixture and the optimal operational conditions obtained in a lab-scale continuous supercritical water oxidation unit. The pilot plant simulation results indicate that it is not feasible to scale-up directly the optimal operational conditions obtained in the isothermal lab-scale experiments, due to the excess heat released by the exothermic oxidation reactions that result in outlet temperatures higher than 600°C, even at reactor inlet temperatures as low as 400°C. Consequently, different alternatives such as decreasing organic flowrates or a new reactor set-up with multiple oxidant injections should be considered to guarantee a safe operation.

  9. Study on the thermal ignition of gasoline-air mixture in underground oil depots based on experiment and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yihong; Du, Yang; Jiang, Xingsheng; Wang, Dong; Liang, Jianjun

    2010-04-01

    The study on the special phenomenon, occurrence process and control mechanism of gasoline-air mixture thermal ignition in underground oil depots is of important academic and applied value for enriching scientific theories of explosion safety, developing protective technology against fire and decreasing the number of fire accidents. In this paper, the research on thermal ignition process of gasoline-air mixture in model underground oil depots tunnel has been carried out by using experiment and numerical simulation methods. The calculation result has been demonstrated by the experiment data. The five stages of thermal ignition course, which are slow oxidation stage, rapid oxidation stage, fire stage, flameout stage and quench stage, have been firstly defined and accurately descried. According to the magnitude order of concentration, the species have been divided into six categories, which lay the foundation for explosion-proof design based on the role of different species. The influence of space scale on thermal ignition in small-scale space has been found, and the mechanism for not easy to fire is that the wall reflection causes the reflux of fluids and changes the distribution of heat and mass, so that the progress of chemical reactions in the whole space are also changed. The novel mathematical model on the basis of unification chemical kinetics and thermodynamics established in this paper provides supplementary means for the analysis of process and mechanism of thermal ignition.

  10. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil ( Curculio nucum ) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum , the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT 50 , and LT 90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  11. Hazelnut shell activated carbon. A potential adsorbent material for the decontamination of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijia Zhu; Hankui Chai; Jun Yao; China University of Geosciences; Yunpeng Chen; Zhengji Yi

    2016-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to study the ability of hazelnut shell activated carbon (HSAC) to remove uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of various operational parameters, such as contact time (0-200 min), pH (2.0-7.0), initial U(VI) concentration (20-240 mg/L) and adsorbent dosage (4.0-50 g/L) were examined. Results showed that the adsorption process was rapid within the first 100 min and then achieved equilibrium at 140 min. The kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation, and the adsorption process was well fit with the Langmuir model. HSAC exhibited good uranium adsorption capacity (16.3 mg/g) at pH 6.0, 140 min contact time and 8.0 g/L adsorbent dosage. Furthermore, the regeneration efficiency was 96.3 % over five cycles under the optimum operational conditions. These properties revealed that HSAC can be a suitable adsorbent for the fast and convenient removal of U(VI) from contaminated water. (author)

  12. Effects of simulated oil exposure on two intertidal macrozoo benthos: Tympanotonus fuscata (L.) and Uca tangeri (Eydoux, 1935) in a tropical estuarine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewa-Oboho, I O; Abby-Kalio, N J

    1994-08-01

    The impacts of simulated Nigerian light crude oil on mud flat periwinkles, Tympanotonus fuscata (L.), and fiddler crabs, Uca tangeri (Eydoux, 1935) was examined through field experiments conducted in the Bonny estuary of the Niger Delta (southern Nigeria). The purpose was to assess the fate and effects of a known quantity of the Nigerian light crude oil on this environment. Drastic changes in the densities of T. fuscata and U. tangeri observed immediately after spills was attributed to the effects of the oil. A large increase in Uca biomass occurred in the affected area. Salinity and temperature in the study area showed little fluctuations throughout the survey. Sediment characteristics were similar for all sites (stations). Grain-size analysis revealed that sediments at the study area were 70% silt. Migration of oil via tidal percolation was observed as much as 11 cm beneath the sediment surface.

  13. Effects of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures on rheology of gum tragacanth - possible application for surfactant action on mucus gel simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, R; Puniyani, R R

    2000-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of specialised biomaterials consisting of clove oil- phospholipid mixtures as possible substitute surfactants in diseases of altered mucus viscosity by studying their effect on the viscosity of mucus gel simulants in vitro. Test surfactants consisting of phospholipid-clove oil mixtures in the ratio of 1 part of oil to 9 parts of phospholipid were prepared. The phospholipids used were dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and binary mixtures of PC: PE and PC: PG in the ratio of 2 parts of PC to 3 parts of PE or PG. The effects of the phospholipid-clove oil mixtures on the viscosity of mucus gel simulant (MGS: a polymeric gel consisting predominantly of gum tragacanth and simulating respiratory mucus), was studied by application of steady shear rates ranging from 0.512 to 51.2/s in a concentric cylinder viscometer at 37 degrees C. The change in MGS viscosity, after incubation with surfactants, was found to have a non-Newtonian character and to follow the power law model with R2 values >0.8. The addition of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures caused a decrease in the MGS viscosity when compared with the effect of the phospholipid alone at low shear rates in case of PC, PG and PCPG. The combination of PC : PG with clove oil caused ratios of change in MGS viscosity < 1 i.e., caused a decrease in the MGS viscosity. PC: PG with clove oil was capable of lowering MGS viscosity and should be further researched as possible therapies for diseases of altered mucus rheology.

  14. Assessing methane emission estimation methods based on atmospheric measurements from oil and gas production using LES simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saide, P. E.; Steinhoff, D.; Kosovic, B.; Weil, J.; Smith, N.; Blewitt, D.; Delle Monache, L.

    2017-12-01

    There are a wide variety of methods that have been proposed and used to estimate methane emissions from oil and gas production by using air composition and meteorology observations in conjunction with dispersion models. Although there has been some verification of these methodologies using controlled releases and concurrent atmospheric measurements, it is difficult to assess the accuracy of these methods for more realistic scenarios considering factors such as terrain, emissions from multiple components within a well pad, and time-varying emissions representative of typical operations. In this work we use a large-eddy simulation (LES) to generate controlled but realistic synthetic observations, which can be used to test multiple source term estimation methods, also known as an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE). The LES is based on idealized simulations of the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 m horizontal grid-spacing covering an 8 km by 7 km domain with terrain representative of a region located in the Barnett shale. Well pads are setup in the domain following a realistic distribution and emissions are prescribed every second for the components of each well pad (e.g., chemical injection pump, pneumatics, compressor, tanks, and dehydrator) using a simulator driven by oil and gas production volume, composition and realistic operational conditions. The system is setup to allow assessments under different scenarios such as normal operations, during liquids unloading events, or during other prescribed operational upset events. Methane and meteorology model output are sampled following the specifications of the emission estimation methodologies and considering typical instrument uncertainties, resulting in realistic observations (see Figure 1). We will show the evaluation of several emission estimation methods including the EPA Other Test Method 33A and estimates using the EPA AERMOD regulatory model. We will also show source estimation

  15. Simulation study using 3-D wavefield modeling for oil and gas exploration; Sanjigen hadoba modeling wo mochiita sekiyu tanko no simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Saeki, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-05-27

    As the surroundings of objects of oil exploration grow more complicated, seismic survey methods have turned 3-dimensional and, in this report, several models are examined using the 3-dimensional simulation technology. The result obtained by the conventional wave tracking method is different from actual wavefields, and is unrealistic. The difference method among the fullwave modelling methods demands an exorbitantly long computation time and high cost. A pseudospectral method has been developed which is superior to the difference method, and has been put to practical use thanks to the advent of parallel computers. It is found that a 3-dimensional survey is mandatory in describing faults. After examining the SEG/EAGE Salt model, it is learned that the salt is well-developed and that 3-dimensional depth migration is required for sub-salt exploration. It is also found through simulation of the EAGE/S Overthrust model, which is an elastic model, that no quality records are available on thrust zones in complicated terrains. The records are poor in quality since the actually measured wavefield is regarded as an acoustic wavefield when it is an elastic wavefield. 1 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Edible oil structures at low and intermediate concentrations. I. Modeling, computer simulation, and predictions for X ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, David A.; Quinn, Bonnie; Peyronel, Fernanda; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2013-12-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are biologically important molecules which form the recently discovered highly anisotropic crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) and, ultimately, the large-scale fat crystal networks in edible oils. Identifying the hierarchies of these networks and how they spontaneously self-assemble is important to understanding their functionality and oil binding capacity. We have modelled CNPs and studied how they aggregate under the assumption that all CNPs are present before aggregation begins and that their solubility in the liquid oil is very low. We represented CNPs as rigid planar arrays of spheres with diameter ≈50 nm and defined the interaction between spheres in terms of a Hamaker coefficient, A, and a binding energy, VB. We studied three cases: weak binding, |VB|/kBT ≪ 1, physically realistic binding, VB = Vd(R, Δ), so that |VB|/kBT ≈ 1, and Strong binding with |VB|/kBT ≫ 1. We divided the concentration of CNPs, ϕ, with 0≤ϕ= 10-2 (solid fat content) ≤1, into two regions: Low and intermediate concentrations with 0<ϕ<0.25 and high concentrations with 0.25 < ϕ and considered only the first case. We employed Monte Carlo computer simulation to model CNP aggregation and analyzed them using static structure functions, S(q). We found that strong binding cases formed aggregates with fractal dimension, D, 1.7≤D ≤1.8, in accord with diffusion limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA) and weak binding formed aggregates with D =3, indicating a random distribution of CNPs. We found that models with physically realistic intermediate binding energies formed linear multilayer stacks of CNPs (TAGwoods) with fractal dimension D =1 for ϕ =0.06,0.13, and 0.22. TAGwood lengths were greater at lower ϕ than at higher ϕ, where some of the aggregates appeared as thick CNPs. We increased the spatial scale and modelled the TAGwoods as rigid linear arrays of spheres of diameter ≈500 nm, interacting via the attractive van der Waals interaction. We

  17. Foundations for computer simulation of a low pressure oil flooded single screw air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, T. W.

    1981-12-01

    The necessary logic to construct a computer model to predict the performance of an oil flooded, single screw air compressor is developed. The geometric variables and relationships used to describe the general single screw mechanism are developed. The governing equations to describe the processes are developed from their primary relationships. The assumptions used in the development are also defined and justified. The computer model predicts the internal pressure, temperature, and flowrates through the leakage paths throughout the compression cycle of the single screw compressor. The model uses empirical external values as the basis for the internal predictions. The computer values are compared to the empirical values, and conclusions are drawn based on the results. Recommendations are made for future efforts to improve the computer model and to verify some of the conclusions that are drawn.

  18. Control of Microbial Sulfide Production with Biocides and Nitrate in Oil Reservoir Simulating Bioreactors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eXue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoir souring by the microbial reduction of sulfate to sulfide is unwanted, because it enhances corrosion of metal infrastructure used for oil production and processing. Reservoir souring can be prevented or remediated by the injection of nitrate or biocides, although injection of biocides into reservoirs is not commonly done. Whether combined application of these agents may give synergistic reservoir souring control is unknown. In order to address this we have used up-flow sand-packed bioreactors injected with 2 mM sulfate and volatile fatty acids (VFA, 3 mM each of acetate, propionate and butyrate at a flow rate of 3 or 6 pore volumes per day. Pulsed injection of the biocides glutaraldehyde (Glut, benzalkonium chloride (BAC and cocodiamine was used to control souring. Souring control was determined as the recovery time (RT needed to re-establish an aqueous sulfide concentration of 0.8-1 mM (of the 1.7-2 mM before the pulse. Pulses were either for a long time (120 h at low concentration (long-low or for a short time (1 h at high concentration (short-high. The short-high strategy gave better souring control with Glut, whereas the long-low strategy was better with cocodiamine. Continuous injection of 2 mM nitrate alone was not effective, because 3 mM VFA can fully reduce both 2 mM nitrate to nitrite and N2 and, subsequently, 2 mM sulfate to sulfide. No synergy was observed for short-high pulsed biocides and continuously injected nitrate. However, use of continuous nitrate and long-low pulsed biocide gave synergistic souring control with BAC and Glut, as indicated by increased RTs in the presence, as compared to the absence of nitrate. Increased production of nitrite, which increases the effectiveness of souring control by biocides, is the most likely cause for this synergy.

  19. Use of black oil simulator for coal bed methane reservoir model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwa, R.; Enachescu, C.; Rohs, S. [Golder Associates GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    This paper starts from the work done by Seidle et al. (1990) and other authors on the topic of coal degasification and develops a more accurate representative naturally fractured CBM-reservoir by using a Discrete Fracture Network modeling approach. For this issue we firstly calibrate the reservoir simulator tNAVIGATOR by showing his ability to reproduce the work done by Seidle et al. and secondly generate a DFN model using FracMan in accordance with the distribution and orientation of the cleats. tNavigator was then used to simulate multiphase flow through the DFN- Model. (orig.)

  20. Large Eddy Simulation of Flows Associated with Offshore Oil and Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamani Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid structure interaction (FSI applications are of wide range from offshore fixed and floating structures to offshore pipelines. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stoke (RANS solution has limitation for unsteady and turbulent flow modelling. A possible approach is Large Eddy Simulation (LES and it is applied to flows past a circular cylinder located far above, near and on a flat seabed. The Reynolds number considered is based on the real situation off Malaysia Coast and is sub-critical around 105. Hydrodynamic quantities in terms of mean pressure are predicted and vortex shedding mechanism is evaluated. The results are validated by comparing the simulation and experimental previous studies.

  1. Prediction method for the lubricating oil temperature of manual transaxle; Manual transaxle no yuon yosoku simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iritani, M; Kaneda, K; Ibaraki, K [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Suzuki, K; Morita, Y [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Heat transfer and flow characteristics in manual transaxle (MT) are not clear. The measurement of the heat flux and the heat generations and the flow visualization were conducted for quantitative analysis of the heat transfer phenomena in the MT. A simulating technique for the lubricant temperature was developed with these experimental data and the prediction accuracy was within 3degC under the various operating conditions. The simulation was verified to be useful for estimating the lubricant temperature reduction by the lubricant volume reduction, air flow improvement around MT, etc. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Assessing the bioavailability of polyphenols and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil by simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell assays. Comparative study with extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiquer, Isabel; Rueda, Ascensión; Olalla, Manuel; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Argan oil is becoming increasingly popular in the edible-oil market as a luxury food with healthy properties. This paper analyzes (i) the bioavailability of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil (EVA) by the combination of in vitro digestion and absorption across Caco-2 cells and (ii) the protective role of the oil bioaccessible fraction (BF) against induced oxidative stress. Results were compared with those obtained with extra virgin olive oil (EVO). Higher values of polyphenols and antioxidant activity were observed in the BF obtained after the in vitro digestion of oils compared with the initial chemical extracts; the increase was higher for EVA but absolute BF values were lower than EVO. Bioaccessible polyphenols from EVA were absorbed by Caco-2 cells in higher proportions than from EVO, and minor differences were observed for antioxidant activity. Preincubation of cell cultures with BF from both oils significantly protected against oxidation, limiting cell damage and reducing reactive oxygen species generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ECMOR 4. 4th European conference on the mathematics of oil recovery. Topic D: Simulation of fluid flow. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The report with collected proceedings from a conference, deals with mathematics of oil recovery with the focus on simulation of fluid flow. Topics of proceedings are as follow: Validity of macroscopic viscous fingering models for 2D and 3D-flows; pressure equation for fluid flow in a stochastic medium; predicting multicomponent, multiphase flow in heterogeneous systems using streamtubes; analytic techniques in pressure transient testing; global triangular structure in four-component conservation laws; exact solution of the problem on hydrodynamic interaction between noncommunicating layers under conditions of their joint development; fluid rate in flowing granular medium with moving boundary; complex variable boundary element method for tracking streamlines across fractures; transport equations for miscible displacements in heterogeneous porous media - a streamtube approach; mathematical modelling of condensate film flow by gravity drainage; effect of capillary forces on immiscible two-phase flow in strongly heterogeneous porous media; multidomain direct method and local time steps in reservoir simulation; adaptive methods for chemical flooding; flux continuous for the full tensor equation; discretization on non-orthogonal, curvilinear grids for multi-phase flow; blending finite elements and finite volumes for the solution of miscible incompressible flow. 16 papers are prepared. 240 refs., 122 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Dynamic simulation of a pilot scale vacuum gas oil hydrocracking unit by the space-time CE/SE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadighi, S.; Ahmad, A. [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Shirvani, M. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    This work introduces a modified space-time conservation element/solution element (CE/SE) method for the simulation of the dynamic behavior of a pilot-scale hydrocracking reactor. With this approach, a four-lump dynamic model including vacuum gas oil (VGO), middle distillate, naphtha and gas is solved. The proposed method is capable of handling the stiffness of the partial differential equations resulting from the hydrocracking reactions. To have a better judgment, the model is also solved by the finite difference method (FDM), and the results from both approaches are compared. Initially, the absolute average deviation of the cold dynamic simulation using the CE/SE approach is 8.98 %, which is better than that obtained using the FDM. Then, the stability analysis proves that for achieving an appropriate response from the dynamic model, the Courant number, which is a function of the time step size, mesh size and volume flow rate through the catalytic bed, should be less than 1. Finally, it is found that, following a careful selection of these parameters, the CE/SE solutions to the hydrocracking model can produce higher accuracy than the FDM results. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Observations of Gas-Saturated Rising Oil droplets: Simulation with Decane as an Oil-Equivalent Substitute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Brewer, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    Oil droplets rising from the sea floor, whether from seeps or well leakage, contain very large quantities of dissolved gas that profoundly affects their density and critical oil-water interfacial characteristics. The primary dissolved gas is methane which may be up to 30% of the molar volume. This can create a hydrate skin as the methane gas is shed from the oil as it rises through the water column, thus decreasing in pressure and increasing in temperature, and steadily changing the rising droplet buoyancy. We have explored this phenomenon by executing controlled ROV based experiments with a "bubble cup" technique in which a small volume of gas saturated decane (saturated with pure methane, a mix of methane and nitrogen , or a mix of methane and CO2) is interrogated by laser Raman spectroscopy. The use of decane as an oil "substitute" is required since natural oil samples are highly fluorescent due to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We have devised Matlab techniques for extracting the spectroscopic dissolved methane signal from the thicket of decane peaks that surround it. We have directly observed the rate at which gases are lost from the "oil" per unit area at depths in the water column that are both within and outside the hydrate forming phase boundary. We have compared the behavior of both a non-hydrate forming dissolved gas (nitrogen) with CO2 where the hydrate phase boundary is at significantly shallower depth. The results indicate complex interfacial behavior and physical chemistry. We did not observe direct gas bubble formation on the decane outer surface but did observe gas bubble formation within the oil droplets as they rose through the water column. Because there are significant energy barriers for homogeneous bubble formation within the decane phase, we took this as evidence of significant gas super-saturation within the oil droplet. The gas loss rates increased significantly in all cases when the hydrate phase boundary was crossed.

  6. Simulation of the effect of an oil refining project on the water environment using the MIKE 21 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Wang, Qinggai; Lu, Xuchuan; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Chen; Li, Sa; Li, Shibei; Wang, Yaping

    2018-02-01

    A case study of the Caofeidian oil refining project is conducted. A two-dimensional convective dispersion mathematical model is established to simulate the increase in the concentration of pollutants resulting from the wastewater discharge from the Caofeidian oil refining project and to analyze the characteristics of the dispersion of pollutants after wastewater is discharged and the effect of the wastewater discharge on the surrounding sea areas. The results demonstrate the following: (1) The Caofeidian sea area has strong tidal currents, which are significantly affected by the terrain. There are significant differences in the tidal current velocity and the direction between the deep-water areas and the shoals. The direction of the tidal currents in the deep-water areas is essentially parallel to the contour lines of the sea areas. Onshore currents and rip currents submerging the shoals are the dominant currents in the shoals. (2) The pollutant concentration field in the offshore areas changes periodically with the movement of the tidal current. The dilution and dispersion of pollutants are affected by the ocean currents in different tidal periods. The turbulent dispersion of pollutants is the most intense when a neap tide ebbs, followed by when a neap tide rises, when a spring tide ebbs and when a spring tide rises. (3) There are relatively good hydrodynamic conditions near the project's wastewater discharge outlet. Wastewater is well diluted after being discharged. Areas with high concentrations of pollutants are concentrated near the wastewater discharge outlet and the offshore areas. These pollutants migrate southwestward with the flood tidal current and northeastward with the ebb tidal current and have no significant impact on the protection targets in the open sea areas and nearby sea areas.

  7. ANALYSIS, EVALUATION STRUCTURE AND SIMULATION OF OIL CONSUMPTION IN JAPAN FROM THE POSITION OF INTERESTS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Gulakova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Russia to strengthen the economic position in the world arena is necessary to increase its presence in the Asia-Pacific region. To further assess the prospects for Russian oil exports to the east it is advisable to determine the main factors which determine the demand for oil in major Asian oil consumers. In this paper analyzes the oil consumption in Japan - both in the country which is one of the leading in the region on oil imports and the level of GDP. In this paper performed analytical review of the oil market, as well as identified and analyzed using econometric methods main factors which determine the demand for oil in this country. Concluded that Japan's economy is dependent on oil imports due to increased electricity production, as well as with the growth of national transport needs for energy. This state can be regarded as a stable strategic partner of Russia in the oil market. But the significant growth in oil consumption in Japan in the next decade is not expected.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  8. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  9. Microscopic mechanism of amino silicone oil modification and modification effect with different amino group contents based on molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liping; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Dachuan; Yuan, Jianmin; Lu, Gang; Zhou, Dianwu

    2018-05-01

    The microscopic mechanism of amino silicone oil (ASO) modification of natural fiber was investigated for the first time using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at the atomic and molecular levels. The MD simulation results indicated that the ASO molecular interacted with the cellulose molecular within the natural fiber, mainly by intermolecular forces of Nsbnd Hsbnd O and Osbnd Hsbnd N hydrogen bonds and the molecular chain of ASO absorbed onto the natural fiber in a selective orientation, i.e., the hydrophobic alkyl groups (sbnd CnH2n+1) project outward and the polar amino groups (sbnd NH2) point to the surface of natural fiber. Consequently, the ASO modification changed the surface characteristic of natural fiber from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Furthermore, the modification effects of the ASO modification layer with different amino group contents (m:n ratio) were also evaluated in this study by calculating the binding energy between the ASO modifier and natural fiber, and the cohesive energy density and free volume of the ASO modification layer. The results showed that the binding energy reached a maximum when the m:n ratio of ASO was of 8:4, suggesting that a good bonding strength was achieved at this m:n ratio. It was also found that the cohesive energy density enhanced with the increase in the amino group content, and the higher the cohesive energy density, the easier the formation of the ASO modification layer. However, the fraction free volume decreased with the increase in the amino group content. This is good for improving the water-proof property of natural fiber. The present work can provide an effective method for predicting the modification effects and designing the optimized m:n ratio of ASO modification.

  10. Post-prandial effects of hazelnut-enriched high fat meal on LDL oxidative status, oxidative and inflammatory gene expression of healthy subjects: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, L; Merra, G; Botta, R; Gualtieri, P; Manzo, A; Perrone, M A; Mazza, M; Cascapera, S; De Lorenzo, A

    2017-04-01

    Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. Micronutrients modulate the immune system and exert a protective action by reducing low-density lipoproteins oxidation (ox-LDL) via induction of antioxidant enzymes. The clinical study was a randomized and cross-over trial, conducted through the CONSORT flowchart. We evaluated the gene expression of 103 genes related to oxidative stress (HOSp) and human inflammasome pathways (HIp), and ox-LDL level at fasting and after 40 g raw "Tonda Gentile delle Langhe" hazelnut consumption, in association with a McDonald's® Meal (McDM) in 22 healthy human volunteers. Ox-LDL levels significantly increased comparing no dietary treatment (NDT) vs. McDM, and decreased comparing McDM vs. McDM + H (p<0.05). Percentage of significant genes expressed after each dietary treatment were the follows: (A) NDT vs. McDM: 3.88% HIp and 17.48% HOSp; (B) NDT vs. McDM + H: 17.48% HIp and 23.30% HOSp; (C) McDM vs. McDM + H: 17.48% HIp and 33.98% HOSp. Hazelnut consumption reduced post prandial risk factors of atherosclerosis, such as ox-LDL, and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress related genes. Chronic studies on larger population are necessary before definitive conclusions.

  11. Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Katherine R; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2017-04-01

    Regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease risk, partly from improvements to dietary quality. Examining how individuals make dietary changes when consuming nuts may reveal key behavioural eating patterns beneficial for the development of dietary interventions. We examined the effects of nuts in comparison with other energy-dense snacks on energy compensation, nutrient displacement, and food group patterns. This was a 12-week randomised, controlled, parallel study with four arms: ~1100 kJ/day for each of hazelnuts (42 g), chocolate (50 g), potato crisps (50 g), or no added snack food. Diet records, body composition, and physical activity were measured at baseline and week 12, in 102 non-obese participants. Significant improvements in diet quality were observed in the hazelnut group, particularly when consumed as snacks. Intakes of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and vitamin E were significantly higher (all P snacks in this non-obese population. Regular nut consumption significantly improves nutrient profiles compared to other snacks with changes occurring at the snack level.

  12. Influence of oil composition on the formation of fatty acid esters of 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) under conditions simulating oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermacora, Alessia; Hrncirik, Karel

    2014-10-15

    The toxicological relevance and widespread occurrence of fatty acid esters of 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in refined oils and fats have recently triggered an interest in the mechanism of formation and decomposition of these contaminants during oil processing. In this work, the effect of the main precursors, namely acylglycerols and chlorinated compounds, on the formation yield of MCPD esters was investigated in model systems simulating oil deodorization. The composition of the oils was modified by enzymatic hydrolysis, silica gel purification and application of various refining steps prior to deodorization (namely degumming, neutralization, bleaching). Partial acylglycerols showed greater ability, than did triacylglycerols, to form MCPD esters. However, no direct correlation was found between these two parameters, since the availability of chloride ions was the main limiting factor in the formation reaction. Polar chlorinated compounds were found to be the main chloride donors, although the presence of reactive non-polar chloride-donating species was also observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical Simulation and Optimization of Enhanced Oil Recovery by the In Situ Generated CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process with Compound Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical investigation and optimization of the operating parameters of the in situ generated CO2 Huff-n-Puff method with compound surfactant on the performance of enhanced oil recovery. First, we conducted experiments of in situ generated CO2 and surfactant flooding. Next, we constructed a single-well radial 3D numerical model using a thermal recovery chemical flooding simulator to simulate the process of CO2 Huff-n-Puff. The activation energy and reaction enthalpy were calculated based on the reaction kinetics and thermodynamic models. The interpolation parameters were determined through history matching a series of surfactant core flooding results with the simulation model. The effect of compound surfactant on the Huff-n-Puff CO2 process was demonstrated via a series of sensitivity studies to quantify the effects of a number of operation parameters including the injection volume and mole concentration of the reagent, the injection rate, the well shut-in time, and the oil withdrawal rate. Based on the daily production rate during the period of Huff-n-Puff, a desirable agreement was shown between the field applications and simulated results.

  14. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  15. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  16. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Final report, November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    A study is described on the hydrological and geotechnical behavior of an oil shale solid waste. The objective was to obtain information which can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil shale solid waste disposal in the Green River Basin. The spent shale used in this study was combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. Laboratory bench-scale testing included index properties, such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits, and tests for engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Large-scale tests were conducted on model spent shale waste embankments to evaluate hydrological response, including infiltration, runoff, and seepage. Large-scale tests were conducted at a field site in western Colorado and in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL)at the University of Wyoming. The ESL tests allowed the investigators to control rainfall and temperature, providing information on the hydrological response of spent shale under simulated severe climatic conditions. All experimental methods, materials, facilities, and instrumentation are described in detail, and results are given and discussed. 34 refs.

  17. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  18. Simulated aging of lubricant oils by chemometric treatment of infrared spectra: potential antioxidant properties of sulfur structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Sandrine; Braham, Zeineb; Le Dréau, Yveline; Kister, Jacky; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2013-03-30

    Lubricant oils are complex mixtures of base oils and additives. The evolution of their performance over time strongly depends on its resistance to thermal oxidation. Sulfur compounds revealed interesting antioxidant properties. This study presents a method to evaluate the lubricant oil oxidation. Two samples, a synthetic and a paraffinic base oils, were tested pure and supplemented with seven different sulfur compounds. An aging cell adapted to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrometer allows the continuous and direct analysis of the oxidative aging of base oils. Two approaches were applied to study the oxidation/anti-oxidation phenomena. The first one leads to define a new oxidative spectroscopic index based on a reduced spectral range where the modifications have been noticed (from 3050 to 2750 cm(-1)). The second method is based on chemometric treatments of whole spectra (from 4000 to 400 cm(-1)) to extract underlying information. A SIMPLe-to-use Interactive Self Modeling Analysis (SIMPLISMA) method has been used to identify more precisely the chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment and to follow their evolution. Pure spectra of different species present in oil were obtained without prior information of their existence. The interest of this tool is to supply relative quantitative information reflecting evolution of the relative abundance of the different products over thermal aging. Results obtained by these two ways have been compared to estimate their concordance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation based analysis and an application to an offshore oil and gas production system of the Natvig measures of component importance in repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natvig, Bent; Eide, Kristina A.; Gasemyr, Jorund; Huseby, Arne B.; Isaksen, Stefan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper the Natvig measures of component importance for repairable systems, and its extended version are analyzed for two three-component systems and a bridge system. The measures are also applied to an offshore oil and gas production system. According to the extended version of the Natvig measure a component is important if both by failing it strongly reduces the expected system uptime and by being repaired it strongly reduces the expected system downtime. The results include a study of how different distributions affect the ranking of the components. All numerical results are computed using discrete event simulation. In a companion paper [Huseby AB, Eide KA, Isaksen SL, Natvig B, Gasemyr, J. Advanced discrete event simulation methods with application to importance measure estimation. 2009, submitted for publication] the advanced simulation methods needed in these calculations are described.

  20. The hierarchical porous structure bio-char assessments produced by co-pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge and hazelnut shell and Cu(II) adsorption kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Xu, Xinyang; Zeng, Fanqiang; Li, Haibo; Chen, Xi

    2018-05-04

    The co-pyrolysis technology was applied to municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and hazelnut shell with alkaline activating agent K 2 CO 3 under N 2 atmosphere. The innovative bio-char produced by co-pyrolysis had significant physical and chemical characteristics. The specific surface area reached 1990.23 m 2 /g, and the iodine absorption number was 1068.22 mg/g after co-pyrolysis at 850 °C. Although hazelnut shell was a kind of solid waste, it also had abundant cellulose resource, which could contribute to porous structure of bio-char during co-pyrolysis with MSS and decrease total heavy metals contents of raw material to increase security of bio-chars. Meanwhile, the residual fractions of heavy metals in bio-char were above 92.95% after co-pyrolysis at 900 °C except Cd to prevent heavy metals digestion, and the bio-char presented significant immobilization behavior from co-pyrolysis technology. Moreover, the yield and the iodine absorption number of bio-chars under different process variables were analyzed, and it was confirmed that appropriate process variables could contribute the yield and the iodine absorption number of bio-char and prevent to etch pore structure excessively to collapse. The changes of surface functional groups and crystallographic structure before and after co-pyrolysis were analyzed by FTIR and XRD, respectively. The hierarchical porous structure of bio-char was presented by SEM and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The Cu(II) adsorption capacity of the bio-char was 42.28 mg/g after 24 h, and surface functional groups acted as active binding sites for Cu(II) adsorption. Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order model can describe process of Cu(II) adsorption well.

  1. Incubation Temperature, But Not Pequi Oil Supplementation, Affects Methane Production, and the Ruminal Microbiota in a Rumen Simulation Technique (Rusitec System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Duarte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid supplementation is a promising strategy for methane mitigation in cattle and has been evaluated using several different lipid sources. However, limited studies have assessed the effect of temperature on methane emissions from cattle and changes in incubation temperature have also not been extensively evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of pequi oil (high in unsaturated fatty acids and incubation temperature on fermentation characteristics and microbial communities using the rumen simulation technique. A completely randomized experiment was conducted over a 28-day period using a Rusitec system. The experiment was divided into four periods of 7 days each, the first of which was a 7-day adaptation period followed by three experimental periods. The two treatments consisted of a control diet (no pequi oil inclusion and a diet supplemented with pequi oil (1.5 mL/day which increased the dietary fat content to 6% (dry matter, DM-basis. Three fermenter vessels (i.e., replicates were allocated to each treatment. In the first experimental period, the incubation temperature was maintained at 39°C, decreased to 35°C in the second experimental period and then increased again to 39°C in the third. Pequi oil was continuously supplemented during the experiment. Microbial communities were assessed using high-throughput sequencing of the archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Methane production was reduced by 57% following a 4°C decrease in incubation temperature. Supplementation with pequi oil increased the dietary fat content to 6% (DM-basis but did not affect methane production. Analysis of the microbiota revealed that decreasing incubation temperature to 35°C affected the archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness of liquid-associated microbes, but lipid supplementation did not change microbial diversity.

  2. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  3. Hazelnut factory workers in working in the evaluation of the frequency of obesity and healthy life habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim:In this study, hazelnuts healthy lifestyle habits of workers in the factories and to evaluate the obesity situation is made in accordance with the principles of descriptive study. Method:This research was carried out between 01.06.2014-13.06.2014 nuts in a factory in Ordu. The scope of research targeted to participate in all but 19 of the 139 workers in this factory workers did not accept the research and the research was conducted with 120 people due to lack of work (86.33% of the population.Has been adopted in this study is completely voluntary, workers who want to participate were excluded from the scope.The demographic characteristics of the data workers in the study, the questionnaire consists of questions including healthy lifestyle habits and by the Spring and friends adapted into Turkish in 2008, Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale II was collected through. Scale is also based on body mass index to assess obesity in the WHO classification of obesity (BMI is used. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software package. To evaluate the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analysis was used by Mann Whitney U tests. Results:120 individuals participated in the study 16.7% male and 83.3% female.Their age is between the ages of 19-61, it was found that the average age was of 37.3 +/- 11.1. The average size of the individual 163.3 +/- 5.4 and the average weight was found to be 75.6 +/- 14.1. Considering the 24.2% of individuals of normal weight and body mass index, 42.5% overweight and 29.2% obese and morbidly obese has been found to be 4.2%. Responsibility of female health workers, nutrition, the scores obtained in the stress management and HPLP be higher than male workers and found the results to be statistically significant difference(p>0.01, p>0.05, p>0.05, p=0.01. When workers BMI According to a healthy lifestyle behaviors are examined, it was found as a result of all the dimensions of the scale of workers with normal

  4. A review of characterization of tocotrienols from plant oils and foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Haseeb; Ahad, Amjid; Siddiqui, Waseem A

    2015-04-01

    Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, are natural compounds found in a number of vegetable oils, wheat germ, barley and certain types of nuts and grains. Vegetable oils provide the best sources of these vitamin E forms, particularly palm oil and rice bran oil contain higher amounts of tocotrienols. Other sources of tocotrienols include grape fruit seed oil, oats, hazelnuts, maize, olive oil, buckthorn berry, rye, flax seed oil, poppy seed oil and sunflower oil. Tocotrienols are of four types, viz. alpha (α), beta (β), gamma (γ) and delta (δ). Unlike tocopherols, tocotrienols are unsaturated and possess an isoprenoid side chain. A number of researchers have developed methods for the extraction, analysis, identification and quantification of different types of vitamin E compounds. This article constitutes an in-depth review of the chemistry and extraction of the unsaturated vitamin E derivatives, tocotrienols, from various sources using different methods. This review article lists the different techniques that are used in the characterization and purification of tocotrienols such as soxhlet and solid-liquid extractions, saponification method, chromatography (thin layer, column chromatography, gas chromatography, supercritical fluid, high performance), capillary electrochromatography and mass spectrometry. Some of the methods described were able to identify one form or type while others could analyse all the analogues of tocotrienol molecules. Hence, this article will be helpful in understanding the various methods used in the characterization of this lesser known vitamin E variant.

  5. Deep Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene in Simulated Oil and Real Diesel Using Heteropolyanion-Substituted Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds as Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Fengli; Wang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Three heteropolyanion substituted hydrotalcite-like compounds (HPA-HTLcs) including Mg9Al3(OH)24[PW12O40](MgAl-PW12), Mg9Al3(OH)24[PMo12O40] (MgAl-PMo12) and Mg12Al4(OH)32[SiW12O40] (MgAl-SiW12), were synthesized, characterized and used as catalysts for the oxidative desulfurization of simulated oil (dibenzothiophene, DBT, in n-octane). MgAl-PMo12 was identified as an effective catalyst for the oxidative removal of DBT under very mild conditions of atmospheric pressure and 60 °C in a biphasic...

  6. An energy-saving opportunity in producing lubricating oil using mixed-solventin simulated Rotary Disc Contacting (RDC) extraction tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamipour, M.S.; Fakhr Hoseini, S.M.; Tavakkoli, T.; Mehrkesh, A.H. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2010-05-15

    Industrial processes are the most energy consuming processes in the world. Modification of these processes helps us with controlling the consumption of energy and minimizing energy loss. Changing raw materials is one of the ways through which we can optimize industrial processes. In this paper, a new solvent mixture (furfural + a co-solvent) was used for the extraction of lubricating base oil from lube-oil cut. It was found that the energy consumption of the new solvent mixture for obtaining a product with the same quality was much lower than the original solvent. By using this new solvent mixture, the operating temperature of the top of tower was reduced by 30 K. This leads to a high reduction in energy consumption in extraction of aromatics from lube oil. At our new extraction process by means of using new solvent mixture, the maximum energy saving was 38% per cubic meter of produced raffinate. (author)

  7. Modeling and simulation of multiphase multicomponent multiphysics porous media flows in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir; Fluids Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important methods of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) involves the use of complex flooding schemes comprising of various layers of fluids mixed with suitable amounts of polymer or surfactant or both. The fluid flow is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns which is considered detrimental to oil recovery. Here we numerically study the physics of such EOR processes using a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics. We investigate the effect of different types of heterogeneity on the fingering mechanism of these complex multiphase flows and determine the impact on oil recovery. We also study the effect of surfactants on the dynamics of the flow via reduction of capillary forces and increase in relative permeabilities. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  8. Public health risks associated with oil and chemical spills in cold freshwater environments: a simulation exercise involving a phenol and diesel spill in the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaivre, D.; Jarry, V.; Guerrier, P.; Paul, M.; Colliou, M.

    1997-01-01

    The St. Lawrence River is the source of drinking water for some 45 per cent of the population in the Province of Quebec, hence contamination of the river by oil or chemical spills is a matter of great public health importance. Project SHORES was developed by the Quebec Environmental Health Committee through the St. Lawrence 'Vision 2000' Action Plan. As part of this project, a simulation exercise involving phenol and diesel fuel was carried out. The exercise included development of a computerized dispersion model which was then used to evaluate the migration of phenol in critical areas of the St. Lawrence River. Main public health risks to nearby populations, with emphasis on drinking water contamination, were assessed based on the simulation results. 18 refs., 2 tabs. 1 fig

  9. Simulating of single phase flow in typical centrifugal pumps oil industry; Simulacao do escoamento monofasico em bombas centrifugas tipicas da industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Ana Carla Costa; Silva, Aldrey Luis Morais da; Maitelli, Carla Wilza Souza de Paula [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    With the various techniques applied in production processes and oil exploration, has been using the artificial lift equipment with the aim of promoting an increase in flow in oil wells and gas. Choosing the most appropriate method of elevation depends on certain factors, among them the initial costs of installation, maintenance and conditions in the producing field, resulting in a more precise analysis of the project. Although there are other methods that represent a low cost and easy maintenance, the BCS method (Electrical Submersible Pumping), appears to be quite effective when it is intended to pump more flow of liquids from both terrestrial and marine environments, in conditions adverse temperature, presence of free gas in the mixture and viscous fluids. This method is based in most cases where the vessel pressure was low, and the fluid does not reach the surface without intervention of an artificial means which can lift them. Similar happens at the end of productive life of a resurgence for the well, or even when the flow of it is far below what is expected to produce, requiring a complement of natural energy through artificial lift. By definition, the BCS is a method of artificial lift in which a subsurface electric motor turns electrical energy into mechanical centrifugal pump and a multistage overlapping converts mechanical energy into kinetic energy of the engine bringing the fluid surface. In this study we performed computer simulations using a commercial program ANSYS #Registered Sign# CFX #Registered Sign# dimensions previously obtained by the 3D geometry in CAD format, with the objective of evaluating the single-phase flow inside typical centrifugal pump submerged in the oil industry. The variable measured was the height of elevation and drilling fluids are oil and water.(author)

  10. Deep oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene in simulated oil and real diesel using heteropolyanion-substituted hydrotalcite-like compounds as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengli; Wang, Rui

    2013-11-05

    Three heteropolyanion substituted hydrotalcite-like compounds (HPA-HTLcs) including Mg₉Al₃(OH)₂₄[PW₁₂O₄₀](MgAl-PW₁₂), Mg₉Al₃(OH)₂₄[PMo₁₂O₄₀] (MgAl-PMo₁₂) and Mg₁₂Al₄(OH)₃₂[SiW₁₂O₄₀] (MgAl-SiW₁₂), were synthesized, characterized and used as catalysts for the oxidative desulfurization of simulated oil (dibenzothiophene, DBT, in n-octane). MgAl-PMo₁₂ was identified as an effective catalyst for the oxidative removal of DBT under very mild conditions of atmospheric pressure and 60 °C in a biphasic system using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. The conversion of DBT was nearly 100%. As a result, because of the influence of the electron density and the space steric hindrance, the oxidation reactivity of the different sulfur compounds in simulated oil followed the order DBT > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) > benzothiophene (BT) > thiophene (TH). When the reaction is finished, the catalysts can be recovered from the acetonitrile phase by filtration. The recovered MgAl-PMo₁₂ retains nearly the same catalytic activity as the fresh material. Moreover, MgAl-PMo₁₂ was found to exhibit an ideal catalytic activity in the oxidative desulfurization of real diesel resulting in a total remaining sulfur content of 9.12 ppm(w).

  11. Deep Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene in Simulated Oil and Real Diesel Using Heteropolyanion-Substituted Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds as Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Three heteropolyanion substituted hydrotalcite-like compounds (HPA-HTLcs including Mg9Al3(OH24[PW12O40](MgAl-PW12, Mg9Al3(OH24[PMo12O40] (MgAl-PMo12 and Mg12Al4(OH32[SiW12O40] (MgAl-SiW12, were synthesized, characterized and used as catalysts for the oxidative desulfurization of simulated oil (dibenzothiophene, DBT, in n-octane. MgAl-PMo12 was identified as an effective catalyst for the oxidative removal of DBT under very mild conditions of atmospheric pressure and 60 °C in a biphasic system using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. The conversion of DBT was nearly 100%. As a result, because of the influence of the electron density and the space steric hindrance, the oxidation reactivity of the different sulfur compounds in simulated oil followed the order DBT > 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT > benzothiophene (BT > thiophene (TH. When the reaction is finished, the catalysts can be recovered from the acetonitrile phase by filtration. The recovered MgAl-PMo12 retains nearly the same catalytic activity as the fresh material. Moreover, MgAl-PMo12 was found to exhibit an ideal catalytic activity in the oxidative desulfurization of real diesel resulting in a total remaining sulfur content of 9.12 ppm(w.

  12. Simulation of distillation in structured packing column to o obtain lube oils; Simulacao de uma coluna de destilacao com recheio estruturado para a obtencao de oleos lubrificantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Rodrigo S.; Nicolaiewsky, Elioni M.A.; Mendes, Marisa F. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work aims for the simulation of a laboratorial distillation column, operating continuously at vacuum conditions, in order to obtain basic lubricating oils. The feed is a mixture of light neutral, medium distillate and bright stock, aiming to produce light neutral as the top product, the medium distillate in the side stream and bright stock in the bottom. The simulation was performed using PRO II software in order to establish the best operating conditions. This work was based in a previous simulation using the same column with 20 theoretical trays, in order to obtain the medium distillate and bright stock at the top and bottom respectively, without the side stream. The simulations were performed varying the feed flow of 1 and 3 Kg/h, entering in the middle or at the bottom of the column, the operational pressure of 7 and 10mbar and the reflux ratio of 3 and 5, using the true boiling point curve - TBP of the feed, with an initial boiling point of 378.9 deg C and end boiling point of 598.3 deg C. (author)

  13. Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction Simulation Experiments on the Formation and Distribution of Organic Sulfur Compounds in the Tuha Crude Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Changtao; Li, Shuyuan [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Song, He [Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2014-07-15

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) was conducted in autoclave on the system of crude oil and MgSO{sub 4} at different temperatures. Gas chromatography pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) was used to detected the composition of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products. The results of the analysis indicate that with increased temperature, the contents of organic sulfur compounds with high molecular weight and thermal stability, such as benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes, gradually became dominated. In order to gain greater insight into the formation and distribution of organic sulphur compounds from TSR, positive ion electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used in detecting the detailed elemental composition and distribution of them. The mass spectra showed that the mass range of sulfur compounds was 200-550 Da. Four sulfur class species, S{sub 1}, N{sub 1}S{sub 1}, O{sub 1}S{sub 1} and O{sub 2}S{sub 1}, were assigned in the positive-ion spectrum. Among the identified sulfur compounds, the S{sub 1} class species was dominant. The most abundant S{sub 1} class species increase associated with the DBE value and carbon number increasing which also indicates the evolution of organic sulfur compounds in TSR is from the labile series to the stable one. In pure blank pyrolysis experiments with crude oil cracking without TSR, different composition and distribution of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products were seen from mass spectra in order to evaluate their pyrolysis behaviors without MgSO{sub 4}. FT-IR and XRD were used in analyzing the products of solid phases. Two distinct crystallographic phases MgO and MgSO{sub 4} are found to coexist in the products which demonstrated the transformation of inorganic sulfur compounds into organosulfur compounds exist in TSR.

  14. Evolution of potent odorants within the volatile metabolome of high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.): evaluation by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Marta Cialiè; Liberto, Erica; Spigolon, Nicola; Fontana, Mauro; Somenzi, Marco; Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara

    2018-01-09

    Within the pattern of volatiles released by food products (volatilome), potent odorants are bio-active compounds that trigger aroma perception by activating a complex array of odor receptors (ORs) in the regio olfactoria. Their informative role is fundamental to select optimal post-harvest and storage conditions and preserve food sensory quality. This study addresses the volatile metabolome from high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from the Ordu region (Turkey) and Tonda Romana from Italy, and investigates its evolution throughout the production chain (post-harvest, industrial storage, roasting) to find functional correlations between technological strategies and product quality. The volatile metabolome is analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextration combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dedicated pattern recognition, based on 2D data (targeted fingerprinting), is used to mine analytical outputs, while principal component analysis (PCA), Fisher ratio, hierarchical clustering, and analysis of variance are used to find decision makers among the most informative chemicals. Low-temperature drying (18-20 °C) has a decisive effect on quality; it correlates negatively with bacteria and mold metabolic activity, nut viability, and lipid oxidation products (2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, octanal and (E)-2-heptanal). Protective atmosphere storage (99% N 2 -1% O 2 ) effectively limits lipid oxidation for 9-12 months after nut harvest. The combination of optimal drying and storage preserves the aroma potential; after roasting at different shelf-lives, key odorants responsible for malty and buttery (2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione and 2,3-pentanedione), earthy (methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine) and caramel-like and musty notes (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone - furaneol and acetyl pyrrole) show no

  15. Analysis of Chemical Compositions of 15 Different Cold-Pressed Oils Produced in Turkey: A Case Study of Tocopherol and Fatty Acid Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel U. Celenk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many people tend to prefer natural foods and supplements nowadays. Considering this tendency, this study assessed the most significant in quality and purity parameters tocopherol and fatty acid compositions of cold-pressed oils, namely black cumin, sesame, sunflower, poppy, pomegranate, nettle, pumpkin, grape, safflower, flax, canola seed, wheat germ, peanut, hazelnut, and walnut. This study deals with the sample preparation and validation of tocopherols using an HPLC-FLD method for simultaneous determination of α-β-γ-, and δ-tocopherols, and analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME with using GC-FID. The validated HPLC method was applied for the tocopherols’ analysis and measurement uncertainty was calculated for tocopherols and some fatty acids. The obtained data were evaluated by using principal component analysis to show the relationship between quality parameters and seed oils. Wheat germ, hazelnut, safflower, and sunflower oils have the highest tocopherol contents respectively with a predominance of α-tocopherol. Seed oils’ fatty acid compositions were classified according to proportions of oleic, linoleic, and other fatty acids. This study shows that the evaluated seeds are valuable sources of natural antioxidants and some specific and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The applied method can also be helpful for the industry to obtain quality analysis approach.

  16. Üretim İşletmelerine Ait Fındık Bahçelerine İlişkin Mali İşlemlerin Türkiye Muhasebe Standartları (TMS Çerçevesinde Muhasebeleştirilmesi: Durak Fındık A.Ş. Örneği(The Accounting of Financial Transactions about Hazelnut Groves That Belong To The Manufacturing Companies in Terms of Turkish Accounting Standards (TAS: The Sample of Durak Hazelnut Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan YAZARKAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Once the TAS 41 “Agriculture” standard which mentions the regulation of accounting transactions about agricultural activities became valid for the first time in 2006 in Turkey, biological assets and the living assets that are used to grow those assets began to be accounted within the scope of this law. The legal practice was valid until 2014 but after a revision of the TAS 41, the concept of “bearer plant” was added to the standard in 2014.Bearer plants, unlike the living * Yrd. Doç. Dr., Ordu Üniversitesi Ünye İİBF, İşletme Bölümü, hayazarkan@gmail.com H.Yazarkan / Üretim İşletmelerine Ait Fındık Bahçelerine İlişkin Mali İşlemlerin Türkiye Muhasebe Standartları (TMS Çerçevesinde Muhasebeleştirilmesi: Durak Fındık A.Ş. Örneği 410 assets, are the plants or the plant communities which has remote possibility of being sold as agricultural produce, except for incidental scrap sales. The bearer plants which have this property came under the TAS 16 “Tangible” standards with the amendment. The study bring out the hazelnut farming which is a type of herbal production. As a biological asset hazelnut fruit is derived from the filbert and filberts fully comply with the all properties of the bearer plants which are defined in TAS 41. So filberts are described as bearer plants in the study. The aim of the study is to offer suggestions about which accounting transactions should be done coherently to the TAS from capitalization the multi-stemmed shrubs to end of term assessment and evaluation for manufacturing companies dealing with hazelnut cultivation. For this reason, it is carried out the case study method in the research and submitted samples for the practice based on real data of a hazelnut grove whose owner is Durak Hazelnut Corporation, one of the important companies in hazelnut industry in Turkey. In the study results, in general it is found that the filberts classified as bearer plants have a separate value

  17. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  18. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  19. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  20. Oil-soluble and water-soluble BTPhens and their europium complexes in octanol/water solutions: interface crossing studied by MD and PMF simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benay, G; Wipff, G

    2013-01-31

    Bistriazinyl-phenantroline "BTPhen" ligands L display the remarkable feature to complex trivalent lanthanide and actinide ions, with a marked selectivity for the latter. We report on molecular dynamics studies of tetrasubstituted X(4)BTPhens: L(4+) (X = (+)Et(3)NCH(2)-), L(4-) (X = (-)SO(3)Ph-), and L(0) (X = CyMe(4)) and their complexes with Eu(III) in binary octanol/water solutions. Changes in free energies upon interface crossing are also calculated for typical solutes by potential of mean force PMF simulations. The ligands and their complexes partition, as expected, to either the aqueous or the oil phase, depending on the "solubilizing" group X. Furthermore, most of them are found to be surface active. The water-soluble L(4+) and L(4-) ligands and their (L)Eu(NO(3))(3) complexes adsorb at the aqueous side of the interface, more with L(4-) than with L(4+). The oil soluble ligand L(0) is not surface active in its endo-endo form but adsorbs on the oil side of the interface in its most polar endo-exo form, as well as in its protonated L(0)H(+) and complexed (L(0))Eu(NO(3))(3) states. Furthermore, comparing PMFs of the Eu(III) complexes with and without nitric acid shows that acidifying the aqueous phase has different effects, depending on the ligand charge. In particular, acid promotes the Eu(III) extraction by L(0) via the (L(0))(2)Eu(NO(3))(2+) complex, as observed experimentally. Overall, the results point to the importance of interfacial adsorption for the liquid-liquid extraction of trivalent lanthanide and actinide cations by BTPhens and analogues.

  1. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  3. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  4. Study on the thermal degradation of 3-MCPD esters in model systems simulating deodorization of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermacora, Alessia; Hrncirik, Karel

    2014-05-01

    The establishment of effective strategies for the mitigation of 3-MCPD esters in refined vegetable oils is restricted by limited knowledge of their mechanisms of formation and decomposition. In order to gain better understanding on the thermal stability of these compounds, a model system for mimicking oil refining conditions was developed. Pure 3-MCPD esters (3-MCPD dipalmitate and 3-MCPD dilaurate) were subjected to thermal treatment (180-260°C) and the degradation products where monitored over time (0-24h). After 24h of treatment, both 3-MCPD esters showed a significant degradation (ranging from 30% to 70%), correlating with the temperature applied. The degradation pathway, similar for both compounds, was found to involve isomerisation (very rapid, equilibrium was reached within 2h at 260°C), dechlorination and deacylation reactions. The higher relative abundance of non-chlorinated compounds, namely acylglycerols, in the first stages of the treatment suggested that dechlorination is preferred over deacylation with the conditions applied in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable p...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  6. Numerical modeling of the simulated gas hydrate production test at Mallik 2L-38 in the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS - Applying the "foamy oil" model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Sven; Thaler, Jan; Klump, Jens; Schicks, Judith; Uddin, Mafiz

    2014-05-01

    In the context of the German joint project SUGAR (Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: exploration, extraction and transport) we conducted a series of experiments in the LArge Reservoir Simulator (LARS) at the German Research Centre of Geosciences Potsdam. These experiments allow us to investigate the formation and dissociation of hydrates at large scale laboratory conditions. We performed an experiment similar to the field-test conditions of the production test in the Mallik gas hydrate field (Mallik 2L-38) in the Beaufort Mackenzie Delta of the Canadian Arctic. The aim of this experiment was to study the transport behavior of fluids in gas hydrate reservoirs during depressurization (see also Heeschen et al. and Priegnitz et al., this volume). The experimental results from LARS are used to provide details about processes inside the pressure vessel, to validate the models through history matching, and to feed back into the design of future experiments. In experiments in LARS the amount of methane produced from gas hydrates was much lower than expected. Previously published models predict a methane production rate higher than the one observed in experiments and field studies (Uddin et al. 2010; Wright et al. 2011). The authors of the aforementioned studies point out that the current modeling approach overestimates the gas production rate when modeling gas production by depressurization. They suggest that trapping of gas bubbles inside the porous medium is responsible for the reduced gas production rate. They point out that this behavior of multi-phase flow is not well explained by a "residual oil" model, but rather resembles a "foamy oil" model. Our study applies Uddin's (2010) "foamy oil" model and combines it with history matches of our experiments in LARS. Our results indicate a better agreement between experimental and model results when using the "foamy oil" model instead of conventional models of gas flow in water. References Uddin M., Wright J.F. and Coombe D

  7. Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Ross's Simulation, Fourth Edition introduces aspiring and practicing actuaries, engineers, computer scientists and others to the practical aspects of constructing computerized simulation studies to analyze and interpret real phenomena. Readers learn to apply results of these analyses to problems in a wide variety of fields to obtain effective, accurate solutions and make predictions about future outcomes. This text explains how a computer can be used to generate random numbers, and how to use these random numbers to generate the behavior of a stochastic model over time. It presents the statist

  8. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  9. Consolidation and atmospheric drying of fine oil sand tailings : Comparison of blind simulations and field scale results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardon, P.J.; Yao, Y.; van Paassen, L.A.; van Tol, A.F.; Sego, D.C.; Wilson, G.W.; Beier, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between blind predictions of field tests of atmospheric drying of mature fine tailings (MFT) presented in IOSTC 2014 and field results. The numerical simulation of the consolidation and atmospheric drying of selfweight consolidating fine material is challenging and

  10. Purification and characterization of the bacteriocin Thuricin Bn1 produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Bn1 isolated from a hazelnut pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugras, Serpil; Sezen, Kazim; Kati, Hatice; Demirbag, Zihni

    2013-02-01

    A novel bioactive molecule produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Bn1 (Bt-Bn1), isolated from a common pest of hazelnut, Balaninus nucum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was determined, purified, and characterized in this study. The Bt-Bn1 strain was investigated for antibacterial activity with an agar spot assay and well diffusion assay against B. cereus, B. weinhenstephenensis, L. monocytogenes, P. savastanoi, P. syringae, P. lemoignei, and many other B. thuringiensis strains. The production of bioactive molecule was determined at the early logarithmic phase in the growth cycle of strain Bt-Bn1 and its production continued until the beginning of the stationary phase. The mode of action of this molecule displayed bacteriocidal or bacteriolytic effect depending on the concentration. The bioactive molecule was purified 78-fold from the bacteria supernatant with ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and HPLC, respectively. The molecular mass of this molecule was estimated via SDS-PAGE and confirmed by the ESI-TOFMS as 3,139 Da. The bioactive molecule was also determined to be a heat-stable, pH-stable (range 6-8), and proteinase K sensitive antibacterial peptide, similar to bacteriocins. Based on all characteristics determined in this study, the purified bacteriocin was named as thuricin Bn1 because of the similarities to the previously identified thuricin-like bacteriocin produced by the various B. thuringiensis strains. Plasmid elution studies showed that gene responsible for the production of thuricin Bn1 is located on the chromosome of Bt-Bn1. Therefore, it is a novel bacteriocin and the first recorded one produced by an insect originated bacterium. It has potential usage for the control of many different pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in the food industry, agriculture, and various other areas.

  11. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  12. Comparison of geometrical isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids in selected commercially refined oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasan, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different commercially refined vegetable oils were analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography for their trans fatty acid contents. The results obtained showed that the total trans FA contents in refined sunflower, corn, soybean, and hazelnut oils were 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, and 0.26 ± 0.07% of total FA, respectively. The total trans FA comprised isomers of the C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Meanwhile, five brands of the refined sunflower oil and two brands of hazelnut oil contained no measurable amounts of total trans C18:3 acids. The total trans C18:2 acid was the predominant trans FA found in the refined sunflower and corn oils, while trans polyunsaturated FAs for the refined soybean oils were found at high levels. However, total trans C18:1 acid was the major trans FA for refined hazelnut oils. The commercially refined vegetable oils with a relatively high total polyunsaturated FA contained considerable amounts of trans polyunsaturated isomers. This study indicates that it is necessary to optimize industrial deodorization, especially the time and temperature, for each different FA composition of oil used.

    Cuatro aceites vegetales refinados comerciales diferentes fueron analizados por cromatografía de gases para determinar el contenido en ácidos grasos trans. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el contenido total de los FA trans de aceites refinados de girasol, maíz, soja y avellana fueron 0.68 ± 0.41, 0.51 ± 0.24, 1.27 ± 0.57, y 0.26 ± 0.07% de FA totales, respetivamente. Los ácidos grasos totales trans comprenden a isómeros de FA C18:1, C18:2 y C18:3. Cinco marcas de aceites de girasol refinado y dos marcas de aceite de avellana contenían cantidades no medibles de ácidos trans C18:3 totales. Los ácidos C18:2 trans totales fueron los FA trans predominantes en el aceite de girasol y ma

  13. The resistance of hazel (Corylus avellana to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L.- Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Part II. The physicochemical characteristics of the pericarp and dynamics of nut development and cultivar resistance to the pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Piskornik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant differences were found among the 22 studied hazel cultivars (Corylus avellana L. in their resistance to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L. which is the main pest of this crop in Europe. The study investigated the relationships between the resistance of the cultivars to the pest and the physicochemical properties of the pericarp, i.e. the lignification dynamics, changes in thickness and hardness during nut development and the rate of nutlet development. Correlation analysis showed that there was no dependence between the physicochemical properties of the pericarp and the resistance of the hazel cultivars to the hazelnut weevil. Nut development dynamics were also found to be unrelated to resistance to the pest. Laboratory feeding experiments showed that during the initial feeding phase and at the time the insect searches for an oviposition site, it seems to prefer cultivars with the largest nutlets. However, in the period of intensive oviposition, traits other than nutlet size seem to be decisive for the beetles choice of cultivar.

  14. Straw export in continuous winter wheat and the ability of oil radish catch crops and early sowing of wheat to offset soil C and N losses: A simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nielsen, M; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2016-01-01

    The export of winter wheat straw for bioenergy may reduce soil C stocks and affect N losses. Establishing fast-growing catch crops between successive wheat crops could potentially offset some of the C and N losses. Another option is to sow wheat earlier, increasing biomass production during...... the autumn. The effects of straw export, oil radish catch crop and early sowing of wheat on soil C storage, N leaching losses and N2O emissions were simulated by applying the Daisy model to winter wheat grown continuously for a period of 100 years on a sandy loam soil in a Danish climate. The simulations....... Inclusion of the oil radish catch crop could offset this loss by 2–3 percentage points. Earlier sowing of wheat increased straw production by 18% and reduced loss of soil C by 3–5 percentage points compared to normal sowing time with full straw export. Catch crops and early sowing also reduced N...

  15. Sesamin and sesamolin as unexpected contaminants in various cold-pressed plant oils: NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnaś, Paweł; Siger, Aleksander; Pugajeva, Iveta; Segliņa, Dalija

    2014-04-01

    Thirteen cold-pressed oils (Japanese quince seed, black caraway, flaxseed, rapeseed, hemp, peanut, sunflower, pumpkin, hazelnut, poppy, walnut, almond and sesame oil) manufactured by the same company over a 2-year period (2011-12) were assessed for lipophilic compounds. The presence of sesamin and sesamolin, two characteristic lignans of sesame oil, were detected in all tested plant oils. Both lignans were identified by NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and confirmed by a RP-UPLC-ESI/MS(n) method. The lowest amount of sesamin and sesamolin was found for Japanese quince seed oil (0.10 and 0.27 mg/100 g), and the highest, excluding sesame oil, for almond oil (36.21 and 105.42 mg/100 g, respectively). The highly significant correlation between sesamolin and sesamin concentrations was found in all samples tested (r = 0.9999; p products manufactured by the same company can contribute to a lesser regard for the quality of the final product. Moreover, less attention paid to the quality of final product can be related to the health risks of consumers especially sensitive to allergens. Therefore, proper cleaning of processing equipment is needed to prevent cross-contact of cold-pressed oils.

  16. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  17. Influence of oil and mineral characteristics on oil-mineral interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.A.; Lunel, T.; Daniel, F.; Swannell, R.; Lee, K.; Stoffyn-Egli, P.

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to simulate the process of oil-mineral interaction in seawater. Thirteen different crudes, emulsions and oil products were used in the study. The objective was to improve the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of oils and minerals that influence the process. The findings of an initial phase of studies based on the swirling flask and marine simulation procedures were also described. Oil content associated with flocs to oil and mineral characteristics were discussed. Emulsions were prepared at 10 degrees C by vigorously mixing the oil with excess artificial seawater in a Kilner jar using a high shear homogenizer. Topped oils were prepared by distillation to 250 degrees C. The biodegraded oil was prepared from the topped crude oil. Biodegradation was achieved over a 28 day period using natural seawater and naturally occurring hydrocarbon degraders. The relationships between oil concentration, oil density and mineral exchange capacity were determined. The study showed that greater oil concentrations in the water column could be expected with (1) the presence of mineral fines, (2) minerals with greater cation exchange rates, (3) minerals with finer sizes, and (4) oils of lower viscosity and density. It was determined that in coastal waters the viscosity of the oil/emulsion will likely be the main factor affecting oil-mineral interactions. The viscosity limit for allowing oil fines interaction is likely to be dependent on the energy in the coastal zone affected by the oil pollution. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  18. Hydrocarbon Degradation in Caspian Sea Sediment Cores Subjected to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in a Newly Designed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Treude

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial community response to petroleum seepage was investigated in a whole round sediment core (16 cm length collected nearby natural hydrocarbon seepage structures in the Caspian Sea, using a newly developed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through (SOFT system. Distinct redox zones established and migrated vertically in the core during the 190 days-long simulated petroleum seepage. Methanogenic petroleum degradation was indicated by an increase in methane concentration from 8 μM in an untreated core compared to 2300 μM in the lower sulfate-free zone of the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective decrease in the δ13C signal of methane from -33.7 to -49.5‰. The involvement of methanogens in petroleum degradation was further confirmed by methane production in enrichment cultures from SOFT sediment after the addition of hexadecane, methylnapthalene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. Petroleum degradation coupled to sulfate reduction was indicated by the increase of integrated sulfate reduction rates from 2.8 SO42-m-2 day-1 in untreated cores to 5.7 mmol SO42-m-2 day-1 in the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective accumulation of sulfide from 30 to 447 μM. Volatile hydrocarbons (C2–C6 n-alkanes passed through the methanogenic zone mostly unchanged and were depleted within the sulfate-reducing zone. The amount of heavier n-alkanes (C10–C38 decreased step-wise toward the top of the sediment core and a preferential degradation of shorter (C30 was seen during the seepage. This study illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time the development of methanogenic petroleum degradation and the succession of benthic microbial processes during petroleum passage in a whole round sediment core.

  19. Hydrocarbon Degradation in Caspian Sea Sediment Cores Subjected to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in a Newly Designed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sonakshi; Wefers, Peggy; Schmidt, Mark; Knittel, Katrin; Krüger, Martin; Stagars, Marion H; Treude, Tina

    2017-01-01

    The microbial community response to petroleum seepage was investigated in a whole round sediment core (16 cm length) collected nearby natural hydrocarbon seepage structures in the Caspian Sea, using a newly developed Sediment-Oil-Flow-Through (SOFT) system. Distinct redox zones established and migrated vertically in the core during the 190 days-long simulated petroleum seepage. Methanogenic petroleum degradation was indicated by an increase in methane concentration from 8 μM in an untreated core compared to 2300 μM in the lower sulfate-free zone of the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective decrease in the δ 13 C signal of methane from -33.7 to -49.5‰. The involvement of methanogens in petroleum degradation was further confirmed by methane production in enrichment cultures from SOFT sediment after the addition of hexadecane, methylnapthalene, toluene, and ethylbenzene. Petroleum degradation coupled to sulfate reduction was indicated by the increase of integrated sulfate reduction rates from 2.8 SO 4 2- m -2 day -1 in untreated cores to 5.7 mmol SO 4 2- m -2 day -1 in the SOFT core at the end of the experiment, accompanied by a respective accumulation of sulfide from 30 to 447 μM. Volatile hydrocarbons (C2-C6 n -alkanes) passed through the methanogenic zone mostly unchanged and were depleted within the sulfate-reducing zone. The amount of heavier n -alkanes (C10-C38) decreased step-wise toward the top of the sediment core and a preferential degradation of shorter (C30) was seen during the seepage. This study illustrates, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time the development of methanogenic petroleum degradation and the succession of benthic microbial processes during petroleum passage in a whole round sediment core.

  20. Architecture of a multipurpose simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, Jamal H.; Osman, Mohammed E.; Zaid, Alforgi M. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    1996-12-06

    This paper presents the development of a multipurpose simulator with the general model describing a four-component, three-phase (oil, aqua, gas), multi-dimensional, finite-difference polymer injection simulator. The model uses a block-centered grid and a seven-point finite-difference scheme. Fluid saturations and pressure distributions are obtained from a fully implicit formulation using Newton`s method, whereas polymer concentration is obtained, in a subsequent step, explicitly using the method of cascade. Practical features of the present simulator include: (1) a truly multipurpose simulation; and (2) ease of preparing a batch data file required for the simulator. A novel and simple procedure is implemented to reduce the general model of the polymer injection simulator (polymer, oil, aqua, and gas) to: (1) three-phase black-oil simulator (oil, water, and gas); (2) two-phase black-oil simulators (oil and water, oil and gas, or water and gas); (3) two-phase polymer injection simulator (polymer, oil, and aqua); and (4) one-phase simulators (oil, water, or gas) with only the relevant equations being solved at the matrix level for each simulator. Guidelines for other practical features are also presented. The simulator was tested and verified using a polymer injection test problem and a gas injection bench mark test problem both reported in the literature. The simulator was also used to model a field case and some results are highlighted

  1. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  2. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  3. North Sea oil and Britain's balance of payments. An investigation with the aid of a simulation model. Das Nordseeoel und die britische Zahlungsbilanz. Eine Untersuchung mit Hilfe eines Simulationsmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensen, H [ed.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction outlining the complex of problems and discussing the chosen method is followed by the development of a computerized simulation model. Starting from oil exploration, the whole process of opening, financing, production, and taxation of discovered North Sea oil fields is analysed and modelled up to the effects they have on the balance of payments. The statements are characterized by the opinion that even formalized, complex model relations can be delivered in a way which is intelligible to all. In the final part, predicted results are presented and discussed in detail, which were achieved under conditions alternatively assumed for the future on the basis of the model calculations. Furthermore, in the annexes flowcharts and the FORTRAN program of the model as well as comprehensive tables of results are shown. With this work, the author breaks through the narrow concept of a pure simulation model. For the first time he shows opportunities and limit, the set to the restoration of Britain's balance of payments by means of North Sea oil.

  4. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  5. Ambient mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source for olive oil quality and authenticity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Cajka, Tomas; Hrbek, Vojtech; Hajslova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach for the authentication of olive oil samples representing different quality grades has been developed. A new type of ion source, direct analysis in real time (DART), coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was employed for the comprehensive profiling of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and/or polar compounds extracted with a methanol-water mixture. The main parameters influencing the ionization efficiency of TAGs were the type of sample solvent, degree of sample dilution, ion beam temperature, and presence of a dopant (ammonia vapors). The ionization yield of polar compounds depended mainly on a content of water in the extract and ion beam temperature. Using DART-TOFMS, not only differentiation among extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive pomace oil (OPO) and olive oil (OO) could be easily achieved, but also EVOO adulteration with commonly used adulterant, hazelnut oil (HO), was feasible. Based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the introduced method allowed detection of HO addition of 6 and 15% (v/v) when assessing DART-TOFMS mass profiles of polar compounds and TAGs, respectively.

  6. Ambient mass spectrometry employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source for olive oil quality and authenticity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Cajka, Tomas; Hrbek, Vojtech [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hajslova, Jana, E-mail: jana.hajslova@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Chemistry and Analysis, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-10

    A novel approach for the authentication of olive oil samples representing different quality grades has been developed. A new type of ion source, direct analysis in real time (DART), coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was employed for the comprehensive profiling of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and/or polar compounds extracted with a methanol-water mixture. The main parameters influencing the ionization efficiency of TAGs were the type of sample solvent, degree of sample dilution, ion beam temperature, and presence of a dopant (ammonia vapors). The ionization yield of polar compounds depended mainly on a content of water in the extract and ion beam temperature. Using DART-TOFMS, not only differentiation among extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive pomace oil (OPO) and olive oil (OO) could be easily achieved, but also EVOO adulteration with commonly used adulterant, hazelnut oil (HO), was feasible. Based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the introduced method allowed detection of HO addition of 6 and 15% (v/v) when assessing DART-TOFMS mass profiles of polar compounds and TAGs, respectively.

  7. Enhancement of oxygen mass transfer and gas holdup using palm oil in stirred tank bioreactors with xanthan solutions as simulated viscous fermentation broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sauid, Suhaila; Krishnan, Jagannathan; Huey Ling, Tan; Veluri, Murthy V P S

    2013-01-01

    Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v) of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h(-1). It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.

  8. Enhancement of Oxygen Mass Transfer and Gas Holdup Using Palm Oil in Stirred Tank Bioreactors with Xanthan Solutions as Simulated Viscous Fermentation Broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaila Mohd Sauid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h−1. It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  11. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  12. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Spontaneous Imbibition in Nanopores and Recovery of Asphaltenic Crude Oils Using Surfactants for EOR Applications Simulations de dynamique moléculaire d’imbibition spontanée dans des nanopores et pour la récupération d’huiles brutes asphalténiques en utilisant des agents tensioactifs pour des applications d’EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stukan M.R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of the imbibition process in nanopores in case of two different mechanisms of the wettability modification. We compare the imbibition of an aqueous surfactant solution into an oil-wet pore driven by surfactant adsorption onto the oil-wet rock surface (coating mechanism and the imbibition of an aqueous surfactants solution driven by surfactants removing the contaminant molecules from the originally water-wet surface (cleaning mechanism. Our results show qualitative difference in the imbibition dynamics in these two cases and indicate that MD simulation is a useful tool to investigate details of the imbibition mechanisms at the pore scale with direct implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Nous presentons des simulations de Dynamique Moleculaire (DM du processus d’imbibition dans des nanopores dans le cas de deux mecanismes differents de modification de mouillabilite. Nous comparons l’imbibition d’une solution aqueuse d’agent tensioactif dans un pore mouille d’huile entrainee par une adsorption d’agent tensioactif sur la surface de roche mouillee d’huile (mecanisme de revetement et l’imbibition d’une solution aqueuse d’agent tensioactif entrainee par des agents tensioactifs eliminant les molecules contaminantes de la surface originellement mouillee d’eau (mecanisme de nettoyage. Nos resultats montrent une difference qualitative en matiere de dynamique d’imbibition dans ces deux cas et indiquent que la simulation de DM constitue un outil utile pour etudier les mecanismes d’imbibition a l’echelle des pores avec des implications directes pour des operations de recuperation renforcee d’huile (EOR, Enhanced Oil Recovery.

  14. Studies on the oil spillage near shorline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.; Panaitescu, V. F.; Panaitescu, M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a simulation of an oil spillage near shoreline in real conditions. The purpose of the paper is to determine the evolution of oil spill on sea water surface and in the same time to determine the total costs of depolluting operations organized by the authorities. The simulation is made on the PISCES II Simulator (Potential Incident Simulator Control and Evaluation System) which is designed to handle on real situations such as oil pollutions of the sea. The mathematical model used by the simulator is the dispersion oil-water model, taking account all external conditions such as air/sea water temperature, current/wind speed and direction, sea water density, petroleum physical properties. In the conclusions chapter is presented oil spill details with a financial report for total costs of depolluting operation.

  15. Estimation on oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Xie, Chunping

    2013-01-01

    China is currently in the stage of industrialization and urbanization, which is characterized by rigid energy demand and rapid growth of energy consumption. Therefore, energy conservation will become a major strategy for China in a transition to low-carbon economy. China's transport industry is of high energy consumption. In 2010, oil consumption in transport industry takes up 38.2% of the country's total oil demand, of which 23.6% is taken up by road transport sector. As a result, oil saving in China's road transport sector is vital to the whole nation. The co-integration method is developed to find a long-run relationship between oil consumption and affecting factors such as GDP, road condition, labor productivity and oil price, to estimate oil demand and to predict future oil saving potential in China's transport sector under different oil-saving scenarios. Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. Results show that under BAU condition, oil demand of China's road transport sector will reach 278.5 million ton of oil equivalents (MTOE) in 2020. Oil saving potential will be 86 MTOE and 131 MTOE under moderate oil-saving scenario and advanced oil-saving scenario, respectively. This paper provides a reference to establishing oil saving policy for China's road transport sector. - Highlights: • We adopt the co-integration model to estimate oil demand and oil saving potential of China's road transport sector. • Monte Carlo simulation is further used for risk analysis. • GDP, ratio of classified highway, labor productivity and oil price are main factors affecting oil consumption. • Scenario analysis approach is applied to calculate oil saving potential under different energy saving scenarios. • Future policy for oil conservation in China's road transport sector is suggested

  16. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  17. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  18. Evaluation of Cortaderia selloana (Capim-dos-pampas) blankets as sorbent materials for oil spills in simulated hydro equipment; Estudo do desempenho de tecidos e mantas para utilizacao como sorventes para petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, T.F.; Sydenstricker, T.H.D. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: thais@demec.ufpr.br; Amico, S.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Oil spills in aquatic environments may cause serious economy losses and severe environmental impact which both drive the development of commercial systems (e.g. sorbents) to control these accidents. One way of using sorbents is to encapsulate them with an involucre or cover, i.e. producing blankets. The focus of this research is to evaluate the key characteristics of interest (aerial density, water and oil sorption, mechanical strength and cost) of different materials to use as covers for blankets and to prepare blankets and compare their performance when made with various core materials, such as Cortaderia selloana fibers and different commercial sorbents. A simulated aqueous body with stream was used for the sorption experiments, where the oil and water phases were circulated and forced to pass under the blankets. On the sorption tests, the fibers of Cortaderia selloana reached a performance lower to that of commercial sorbents, mainly due to their low density and high volume (difficult packing), nevertheless a clear trend was noted, heavier blankets with higher sorption periods lead to higher sorption. (author)

  19. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  20. Process simulation and techno economic analysis of renewable diesel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil - A case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Kin Wai; Yusup, Suzana; Gurdeep Singh, Haswin Kaur; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Lam, Hon Loong

    2017-12-01

    This work describes the economic feasibility of hydroprocessed diesel fuel production via catalytic decarboxylation of rubber seed oil in Malaysia. A comprehensive techno-economic assessment is developed using Aspen HYSYS V8.0 software for process modelling and economic cost estimates. The profitability profile and minimum fuels selling price of this synthetic fuels production using rubber seed oil as biomass feedstock are assessed under a set of assumptions for what can be plausibly be achieved in 10-years framework. In this study, renewable diesel processing facility is modelled to be capable of processing 65,000 L of inedible oil per day and producing a total of 20 million litre of renewable diesel product per annual with assumed annual operational days of 347. With the forecasted renewable diesel retail price of 3.64 RM per kg, the pioneering renewable diesel project investment offers an assuring return of investment of 12.1% and net return as high as 1.35 million RM. Sensitivity analysis conducted showed that renewable diesel production cost is most sensitive to rubber seed oil price and hydrogen gas price, reflecting on the relative importance of feedstock prices in the overall profitability profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Geometric Parameters of the Hydrocyclone and Sand Concentration on the Water/Sand/Heavy-Oil Separation Process: Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Farias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the oil exploitation, produced fluids are composed of oil, gas, water and sand (depending on the reservoir location. The presence of sand in flow oil leads to several industrial problems for example: erosion and accumulation in valves and pipeline. Thus, it is necessary to stop production for manual cleaning of equipments and pipes. These facts have attracted attention of academic and industrial areas, enabling the appearing of new technologies or improvement of the water/oil/sand separation process. One equipment that has been used to promote phase separation is the hydrocyclone due to high performance of separation and required low cost to installation and maintenance. In this sense, the purpose of this work is to study numerically the effect of geometric parameters (vortex finder diameter of the hydrocyclone and sand concentration on the inlet fluid separation process. A numerical solution of the governing equations was obtained by the ANSYS CFX-11 commercial code. Results of the streamlines, pressure drop and separation efficiency on the hydrocyclone are presented and analyzed. It was observed that the particles concentration and geometry affect the separation efficiency of the hydrocyclone.

  2. Mutagenicity and oxidative damage induced by an organic extract of the particulate emissions from a simulation of the deepwater horizon surface oil burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarini, David M; Warren, Sarah H; Lavrich, Katelyn; Flen, Alexis; Aurell, Johanna; Mitchell, William; Greenwell, Dale; Preston, William; Schmid, Judith E; Linak, William P; Hays, Michael D; Samet, James M; Gullett, Brian K

    2017-04-01

    Emissions from oil fires associated with the "Deepwater Horizon" explosion and oil discharge that began on April 20, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed chemically to only a limited extent at the time but were shown to induce oxidative damage in vitro and in mice. To extend this work, we burned oil floating on sea water and performed extensive chemical analyses of the emissions (Gullett et al., Marine Pollut Bull, in press, ). Here, we examine the ability of a dichloromethane extract of the particulate material with an aerodynamic size ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) from those emissions to induce oxidative damage in human lung cells in vitro and mutagenicity in 6 strains of Salmonella. The extract had a percentage of extractable organic material (EOM) of 7.0% and increased expression of the heme oxygenase (HMOX1) gene in BEAS-2B cells after exposure for 4 hr at 20 µg of EOM/ml. However, the extract did not alter mitochondrial respiration rate as measured by extracellular flux analysis. The extract was most mutagenic in TA100 +S9, indicative of a role for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), reflective of the high concentrations of PAHs in the emissions (1 g/kg of oil consumed). The extract had a mutagenicity emission factor of 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10 5 revertants/megajoule thermal in TA98 +S9, which was greater than that of diesel exhaust and within an order of magnitude of open burning of wood and plastic. Thus, organics from PM 2.5 of burning oil can induce oxidative responses in human airway epithelial cells and are highly mutagenic. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:162-171, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. AGRIFIS - simulator prospecting scenarios and evaluation of projects for production of seeds, in nature oil and castor oil biodiesel; AGRIFIS - simulador de prospeccao de cenarios e avaliacao de projetos de producao de sementes, oleo in natura e biodiesel de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polizel, L.H.; Tahan, C.M.V.; Pelegrini, M. A.; Soares, B.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia], Email: cmvtahan@pea.usp.br; Takeno, H.K. [Companhia Energetica de Petrolina (CEP), PE (Brazil); Silva, O.C. da; Monteiro, B.; Velazquez, S.M.S.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Drumond, M.A.; Anjos, J.B. dos [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a model conceived for scenario prospection and project evaluation of small scale castor bean farming, oil extraction and bio diesel production (transesterification) integrated chain. To evaluate the performance of each project the model adopts financial, social and environmental index such as NPV, IRR, SPB, DPB, production costs, family income, number of settled families and employment. The model was implemented in a computational environment, allowing its use as a decision support tool for investments on the castor bean production chain; it calculates the cash flow of the entire project and of each family, including earnings, debts, taxes, interest and amortization. (author)

  4. Yield and characteristics of shale oil from the retorting of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Mengting; Wang, Sha; Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The whole formation process of shale oil might be divided into four stages. • Higher ash/shale mass ratio intensified the cracking and coking of shale oil. • Ash/shale ratio of 1:2 was recommended for oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as solid heat carrier. - Abstract: For exploring and optimizing the oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as a solid heat carrier, retorting experiments of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures were conducted in a lab-scale retorting reactor to investigate the effects of fine oil-shale ash on shale oil. Oil shale samples were obtained from Dachengzi Mine, China, and mixed with fine oil-shale ash in the ash/shale mass ratios of 0:1, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1. The experimental retorting temperature was enhanced from room temperature to 520 °C and the average heating rate was 12 °C min −1 . It was found that, with the increase of the oil-shale ash fraction, the shale oil yield first increased and then decreased obviously, whereas the gas yield appeared conversely. Shale oil was analyzed for the elemental analysis, presenting its atomic H/C ratio of 1.78–1.87. Further, extraction and simulated distillation of shale oil were also conducted to explore the quality of shale oil. As a result, the ash/shale mixing mass ratio of 1:2 was recommended only for the consideration of increasing the yield and quality of shale oil

  5. Army Energy Strategy for the End of Cheap Oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nygren, Kip P; Massie, Darrell D; Kern, Paul J

    2006-01-01

    ... from other critical mission elements and programs. The National Commission on Energy Policy conducted a simulation of oil supply disruptions in June 2005 and concluded that oil cost is highly sensitive to supply, U.S., foreign...

  6. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  7. Effectiveness of dispersants on thick oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Belore, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between dispersant effectiveness and oil slick thickness, and thereby determine the optimum time for applying dispersant onto spilled oil at sea. Tests were completed at a lab-scale level by varying the three parameters of oil type, dispersant application, and oil thickness. The tests were intended to be comparative only. The primary oils used were Alberta sweet mix blend and Hibernia B-27 crude. The dispersant, Corexit 9527, was applied either premixed with the oil, dropwise in one application, or dropwise in multiple applications to simulate a multi-hit aircraft operation. The apparatus used in the experiment was an oscillating hoop tank, with oil-containing rings used to obtain and maintain uniform slick thickness. The results indicate that the effectiveness potential of a chemical dispersant does not decrease as slick thickness increases. In fact, results of the tests involving Hibernia oil suggest that oils that tend to herd easily would be treated more effectively if dispersant were applied when the oil was relatively thick (1 mm or greater) to avoid herding problems. The oil slicks premixed with dispersant did not disperse well in the thick oil tests, not because of dispersant-oil interaction problems but because of reduced mixing energy. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Advances in operations research in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, M.; Zaccour, G.

    1991-01-01

    Various theories and examples of modelling, forecasting and optimization designing in the different parts of the petroleum and gas industries are presented, stochastic programming for long term planning in the refining industry, stochastic model for gasoline blending, feedstock optimization, location and sizing for offshore platforms, hydrocarbon exploration simulation rapid method, valuation of oil field development leases, economic models for petroleum allocation, models for oil supply market, trade embargo game theory, stochastic programming of gas contract portfolio management, scheduling transportation of oil and gas, strategic planning in an oil pipeline company, simulation of offshore oil terminal systems, hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

  9. Influence of pH on dynamics of microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas putida: Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, P; Suresh Kumar, G

    2017-01-01

    In present work, the influence of reservoir pH conditions on dynamics of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes using Pseudomonas putida was analysed numerically from the developed mathematical model for MEOR processes. Further, a new strategy to improve the MEOR performance has also been proposed. It is concluded from present study that by reversing the reservoir pH from highly acidic to low alkaline condition (pH 5-8), flow and mobility of displaced oil, displacement efficiency, and original oil in place (OOIP) recovered gets significantly enhanced, resulting from improved interfacial tension (IFT) reduction by biosurfactants. At pH 8, maximum of 26.1% of OOIP was recovered with higher displacement efficiency. The present study introduces a new strategy to increase the recovery efficiency of MEOR technique by characterizing the biosurfactants for IFT min /IFT max values for different pH conditions and subsequently, reversing the reservoir pH conditions at which the IFT min /IFT max value is minimum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency for C-14 measurement in the simulated hydraulic oil waste from a CANDU nuclear power plant as measured on a packard counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianu, Magdalena; Podina, Corneliu; Nita, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The paper mainly contains; - composition and data on liquid scintillation cocktail used; - characterization of radioactive waste - hydraulic oil waste contaminated with C-14; - detection limits; - sample loading; - the values of calculated and measured activities; - efficiency vs sample loading. Samples were counted in a Model 2100 TR Packard TRI-CARB liquid scintillation analyser. Sample preparation is a critical step in obtaining accurate results in scintillation counting. Standard (22 ml) plastic vials were used in these experiments. These vials have the advantage to reduce backgrounds and improve the counting rate. Hydraulic oil sample volumes were added to the vials in 0.5 ml increments from 1 ml to 2 ml. Then the liquid scintillation cocktail was added so that the sample - cocktail volume was 20 ml. Each vial was shaken vigorously for several seconds after each addition to ensure homogeneity and counting. Blank vials were prepared using C-14 - free hydraulic oil samples in the same sample-cocktail proportions. After at least two hours, the samples and blank vials were counted for ten minutes. (authors)

  11. Biostimulation proved to be the most efficient method in the comparison of in situ soil remediation treatments after a simulated oil spill accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Gerlach, Magdalena; Mikkonen, Anu; Malk, Vuokko; Mikola, Juha; Romantschuk, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The use of in situ techniques in soil remediation is still rare in Finland and most other European countries due to the uncertainty of the effectiveness of the techniques especially in cold regions and also due to their potential side effects on the environment. In this study, we compared the biostimulation, chemical oxidation, and natural attenuation treatments in natural conditions and pilot scale during a 16-month experiment. A real fuel spill accident was used as a model for experiment setup and soil contamination. We found that biostimulation significantly decreased the contaminant leachate into the water, including also the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). The total NAPL leachate was 19 % lower in the biostimulation treatment that in the untreated soil and 34 % lower in the biostimulation than oxidation treatment. Soil bacterial growth and community changes were first observed due to the increased carbon content via oil amendment and later due to the enhanced nutrient content via biostimulation. Overall, the most effective treatment for fresh contaminated soil was biostimulation, which enhanced the biodegradation of easily available oil in the mobile phase and consequently reduced contaminant leakage through the soil. The chemical oxidation did not enhance soil cleanup and resulted in the mobilization of contaminants. Our results suggest that biostimulation can decrease or even prevent oil migration in recently contaminated areas and can thus be considered as a potentially safe in situ treatment also in groundwater areas.

  12. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  13. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  14. Parallel reservoir simulator computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanth-Kumar, K.; Young, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    The adaptation of a reservoir simulator for parallel computations is described. The simulator was originally designed for vector processors. It performs approximately 99% of its calculations in vector/parallel mode and relative to scalar calculations it achieves speedups of 65 and 81 for black oil and EOS simulations, respectively on the CRAY C-90

  15. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  16. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  17. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  18. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  19. Simulation of biomass and/or coal gasification systems integrated with fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, A; Ozdogan, S; Caglayan, E; Olgun, H [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli (Turkey). Institute of Energy

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the results of a system simulation study. The HYSYS 3.1 - ASPEN code has been used for simulation. The system consists of a fixed bed gasifier followed by reforming and clean-up units. The produced hydrogen gas is fed to a PEM fuel cell. The gasified hydrocarbons are hazelnut shells, bark, rice straw, animal waste, and two lignites. Hydrocarbon properties, gasification, and reforming process parameters all affect the system efficiency. The effect of the moisture content and oxygen to carbon ratio of the hydrocarbon fees on the fuel processing and overall system efficiencies are presented. The overall efficiency of the system increases with increasing hydrocarbon fees oxygen to carbon ratio; this tendency is more evident at higher moisture levels.

  20. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  1. Experimental oil release on Haltenbanken 1982. Drifting and spreading of oil. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerstroem, S.E.; Johansen, Oe; Celius, K.K.; Audunson, T.; Steinbakke, P.

    1984-03-29

    In the experiment, 100 m/sup 3/ of Statfjord crude oil was released at Haltenbanken. The oil was followed for 7 days and projects concerning drifting and spreading of oil, microbiological decay and ecological effects, ecological studies of the impact on fish, zooplancton, fish eggs and larvae, training with equipment and control functions and experiment leading and coordination were carried out. In this project ''drifting and spreading of oil'' information on physical environment, decay of oil, mixing of oil in water, oil spill surveillance, warning and simulation and numerical modelling are collected. The results of these areas were compared to the mathematical simulation and warning models Oilsim and Sliktrak. New methods for in situ measurements for relative values of oil in water were used. It was found that most of the physical and chemical changes of oil spills occur during the first 24 hours. The drifting and alterations of the oil was recorded and a new simulation model for three-dimentional spreading of oil in water was made. 49 tables, 130 drawings, 32 references.

  2. Geohydrology, water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of a former waste-oil refinery near Westville, Indiana, 1997-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwelius, Richard F.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Wilson, John T.; Robinson, Bret A.

    2002-01-01

    Geohydrologic and water-quality data collected during 1997 through 2000 in the vicinity of a former waste-oil refinery near Westville, Indiana, define a plume of 1,4-dioxane in ground water that extends to the southwest approximately 0.8 miles from the refinery site. Concentrations of 1,4-dioxane in the plume ranged from 3 to 31,000 micrograms per liter. Ground water containing 1,4-dioxane is discharged to Crumpacker Ditch, approximately one-half mile west of the refinery site. Concentrations of 1,4-dioxane detected in surface water ranged from 8 to 140 micrograms per liter; 1,4-dioxane also is transported in ground water beneath the ditch.

  3. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  4. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  5. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  6. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  7. A study on the future of unconventional oil development under different oil price scenarios: A system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Shakouri, Hamed G.

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations in the oil global market has been a critical topic for the world economy so that analyzing and forecasting the conventional oil production rate has been examined by many researchers thoroughly. However, the dynamics of the market has not been studied systematically with regard to the new emerging competitors, namely unconventional oil. In this paper, the future trend of conventional and unconventional oil production and capacity expansion rates are analyzed using system dynamics approach. To do so, a supply-side modeling approach is utilized while main effective loops are modeled mathematically as follows: technological learning and progress, long and short-term profitability of oil capacity expansion and production, and oil proved reserve limitations. The proposed model is used to analyze conventional and unconventional oil production shares, up to 2025, under different oil price scenarios. The results show that conventional oil production rate ranges from 79.995 to 87.044 MB/day, which is 75–80 percent of total oil production rate, while unconventional oil production rate ranges from 19.615 to 28.584 MB/day. Simulation results reveal that unconventional oil can gain a considerable market share in the short run, although conventional oil will remain as the major source for the market in the long run. - Highlights: • Variables and loops affecting oil production are formulated mathematically. • Shares of conventional and unconventional oil in the global oil market is analyzed. • Oil production rate under different oil price scenarios up to 2025 is simulated. • Unconventional oil would obtain a considerable share in market in the short-term. • A late peak for the conventional oil resources would occur.

  8. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  9. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  10. Introducing COSS: A new and unique oil spill research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, R. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Autenrieth, R. L.; Donnelly, K. C.; Ernest, A. N. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new oil spill research facility in Corpus Christi, Texas began operation in April 1997 to address the appropriate use, application and effectiveness of chemical, physical and biological oil spill response agents. The Coastal Oil Spill Simulation (COSS) facility consists of nine meso scale wave tanks and will offer to science and industry a unique opportunity to spill oil in a controlled environment and to study fate, transport and remediation of oil releases in simulated coastal, intertidal, lagunal, channel and porous media. 1 ref

  11. thermic oil and molten salt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A

    1 mai 2016 ... [27] Zavoico, AB. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document. Tech. rep, Sandia National. Laboratories, SAND2001-2100, 2001. How to cite this article: Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A. Performance simulation of parabolic trough solar collector using two fluids (thermic oil and molten salt).

  12. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  13. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  14. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  15. Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

  16. Simulation of the hydrogeologic effects of oil-shale mining on the neighbouring wetland water balance: case study in north-eastern Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Andres; Karro, Enn; Polikarpus, Maile; Jõeleht, Argo; Kohv, Marko; Hang, Tiit; Hiiemaa, Helen

    2013-11-01

    The water balance of wetlands plays an integral role in their function. Developments adjacent to wetlands can affect their water balance through impacts on groundwater flow and increased discharge in the area, and they can cause lowering of the wetland water table. A 430 km2 area was selected for groundwater modelling to asses the effect of underground mining on the water balance of wetlands in north-eastern Estonia. A nature conservation area (encompassing Selisoo bog) is within 3 km of an underground oil-shale mine. Two future mining scenarios with different areal extents of mining were modeled and compared to the present situation. Results show that the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface is of critical importance to potential wetland dewatering as a result of mining. Significant impact on the Selisoo bog water balance will be caused by the approaching mine but there will be only minor additional impacts from mining directly below the bog. The major impact will arise before that stage, when the underground mine extension reaches the border of the nature conservation area; since the restriction of activities in this area relates to the ground surface, the conservation area’s border is not sufficiently protective in relation to underground development.

  17. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  18. Mitigating oil spills in the water column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.; Mane, Anil University; Avila, Jason R.; DeVitis, David

    2017-01-01

    The scale and scope of uncontrolled oil spills can be devastating. Diverse marine environments and fragile ecologies are some of the most susceptible to the many ill effects, while the economic costs can be crippling. A notoriously difficult challenge with no known technological solution is the successful removal of oil dispersed in the water column. Here, we address this problem through cheap and reusable oil sorbents based on the chemical modification of polymer foams. Interfacial chemistry was optimized and subsequently tested in a simulated marine environment at the National Oil Spill Response Research & Renewable Energy Test Facility, Ohmsett. We find favorable performance for surface oil mitigation and, for the first time, demonstrate the advanced sorbent's efficiency and efficacy at pilot scale in extraction of crude oil and refined petroleum products dispersed in the water column. As a result, this is a potentially disruptive technology, opening a new field of environmental science focused on sub-surface pollutant sequestration.

  19. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  20. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  1. Measuring energy security. Can the United States achieve oil independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future. (author)

  2. Natural Oils for Skin-Barrier Repair: Ancient Compounds Now Backed by Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Clark, Ashley K; Sivamani, Raja K; Shi, Vivian Y

    2018-02-01

    Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Unique characteristics of various oils are important when considering their use for topical skin care. Differing ratios of essential fatty acids are major determinants of the barrier repair benefits of natural oils. Oils with a higher linoleic acid to oleic acid ratio have better barrier repair potential, whereas oils with higher amounts of irritating oleic acid may be detrimental to skin-barrier function. Various extraction methods for oils exist, including cold pressing to make unrefined oils, heat and chemical distillation to make essential oils, and the addition of various chemicals to simulate a specific scent to make fragranced oils. The method of oil processing and refinement is an important component of selecting oil for skin care, and cold pressing is the preferred method of oil extraction as the heat- and chemical-free process preserves beneficial lipids and limits irritating byproducts. This review summarizes evidence on utility of natural plant-based oils in dermatology, particularly in repairing the natural skin-barrier function, with the focus on natural oils, including Olea europaea (olive oil), Helianthus annus (sunflower seed oil), Cocos nucifera (coconut oil), Simmondsia chinesis (jojoba oil), Avena sativa (oat oil), and Argania spinosa (argan oil).

  3. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour.

  4. Continuous statistical modelling for rapid detection of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil using mid infrared and Raman spectroscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgouli, Konstantia; Martinez Del Rincon, Jesus; Koidis, Anastasios

    2017-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to develop a novel dimensionality reduction technique as a part of an integrated pattern recognition solution capable of identifying adulterants such as hazelnut oil in extra virgin olive oil at low percentages based on spectroscopic chemical fingerprints. A novel Continuous Locality Preserving Projections (CLPP) technique is proposed which allows the modelling of the continuous nature of the produced in-house admixtures as data series instead of discrete points. The maintenance of the continuous structure of the data manifold enables the better visualisation of this examined classification problem and facilitates the more accurate utilisation of the manifold for detecting the adulterants. The performance of the proposed technique is validated with two different spectroscopic techniques (Raman and Fourier transform infrared, FT-IR). In all cases studied, CLPP accompanied by k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) algorithm was found to outperform any other state-of-the-art pattern recognition techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  6. Modelling the world oil market: Assessment of a quarterly econometric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dees, Stephane; Karadeloglou, Pavlos; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Sanchez, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structural econometric model of the world oil market that can be used to analyse oil market developments and risks. Oil demand depends on domestic economic activity and the real price of oil. Oil supply for non-OPEC producers, based on competitive behaviours, is constrained by geological and institutional conditions. Oil prices are determined by a 'price rule' that includes market conditions and OPEC behaviour. Policy simulations indicate that oil demand and non-OPEC supply are rather inelastic to changes in price, while OPEC decisions about quota and capacity utilisation have a significant, immediate impact on oil prices

  7. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Turner, Timothy L.; Stikeleather, Larry F.; Roberts, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Burial and thermal history simulation of the Abu Rudeis-Sidri oil field, Gulf of Suez-Egypt: A 1D basin modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Ahmed; Hegab, Omar A.; Ahmed, Mohammed A.; Hassan, Saad

    2018-02-01

    An integrated 1D model on seven wells has been performed to simulate the multi-tectonic phases and multiple thermal regimes in the Abu Rudeis-Sidri oilfield. Concordance between measured and calculated present-day temperatures is achieved with present-day heat flows in the range of 42-55 mW/m2. Reconstruction of the thermal and burial histories provides information on the paleotemperature profiles, the timing of thermal activation as well as the effect of the Oligo-Miocene rifting phases and its associated magmatic activity. The burial histories show the pre-rift subsidence was progressive but modest, whereas the syn-rift was more rapid (contemporaneous with the main rifting phases and basin formation). Finally, the early post-rift thermal subsidence was slow to moderate in contrast to the late post-rift thermal subsidence which was moderate to rapid. The simulated paleo heat flow illustrates a steady state for the pre-rift phase and non-steady state (transient) for syn-rift and postrift phases. Three geothermal regimes are recognized, each of which is associated with a specific geological domain. 1) A lower geothermal regime reflects the impact of stable tectonics (pre-rift). 2) The higher temperature distribution reflects the syn-rift high depositional rate as well as the impact of stretching and thinning (rifting phases) of the lithosphere. 3) A local higher geothermal pulse owing to the magmatic activity during the Oligo-Miocene time (ARM-1 and Sidri-7 wells). Paleoheat flow values of 100mW/m2 (Oligo-Miocene rifting phase) increased to 120mW/m2 (Miocene rifting phase) and lesser magnitude of 80mW/m2 (Mio- Pliocene reactivation phase) have been specified. These affected the thermal regime and temperature distribution by causing perturbations in subsurface temperatures. A decline in the background value of 60mW/m2 owing to conductive cooling has been assigned. The blanketing effect caused by low thermal conductivity of the basin-fill sediments has been simulated

  10. Economic Exposure to Oil Price Shocks and the Fragility of Oil-Exporting Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toon Vandyck

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available From a price range between 100 and 120 USD (U.S. dollars per barrel in 2011–2014, the crude oil price fell from mid-2014 onwards, reaching a level of 26 USD per barrel in January 2016. Here we assess the economic consequences of this strong decrease in the oil price. A retrospective analysis based on data of the past 25 years sheds light on the vulnerability of oil-producing regions to the oil price volatility. Gross domestic product (GDP and government revenues in many Gulf countries exhibit a strong dependence on oil, while more diversified economies improve resilience to oil price shocks. The lack of a sovereign wealth fund, in combination with limited oil reserves, makes parts of Sub-Saharan Africa particularly vulnerable to sustained periods of low oil prices. Next, we estimate the macroeconomic impacts of a 60% oil price drop for all regions in the world. A numerical simulation yields a global GDP increase of roughly 1% and illustrates how the regional impact on GDP relates to oil export dependence. Finally, we reflect on the broader implications (such as migration flows of macroeconomic responses to oil prices and look ahead to the challenge of structural change in a world committed to limiting global warming.

  11. Modelling and assessment of accidental oil release from damaged subsea pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhong; Chen, Guoming; Zhu, Hongwei

    2017-10-15

    This paper develops a 3D, transient, mathematical model to estimate the oil release rate and simulate the oil dispersion behavior. The Euler-Euler method is used to estimate the subsea oil release rate, while the Eulerian-Lagrangian method is employed to track the migration trajectory of oil droplets. This model accounts for the quantitative effect of backpressure and hole size on oil release rate, and the influence of oil release rate, oil density, current speed, water depth and leakage position on oil migration is also investigated in this paper. Eventually, the results, e.g. transient release rate of oil, the rise time of oil and dispersion distance are determined by above-mentioned model, and the oil release and dispersion behavior under different scenarios is revealed. Essentially, the assessment results could provide a useful guidance for detection of leakage positon and placement of oil containment boom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hybrid mesh generation for the new generation of oil reservoir simulators: 3D extension; Generation de maillage hybride pour les simulateurs de reservoir petrolier de nouvelle generation: extension 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandrin, N.

    2005-09-15

    During the exploitation of an oil reservoir, it is important to predict the recovery of hydrocarbons and to optimize its production. A better comprehension of the physical phenomena requires to simulate 3D multiphase flows in increasingly complex geological structures. In this thesis, we are interested in this spatial discretization and we propose to extend in 3D the 2D hybrid model proposed by IFP in 1998 that allows to take directly into account in the geometry the radial characteristics of the flows. In these hybrid meshes, the wells and their drainage areas are described by structured radial circular meshes and the reservoirs are represented by structured meshes that can be a non uniform Cartesian grid or a Corner Point Geometry grids. In order to generate a global conforming mesh, unstructured transition meshes based on power diagrams and satisfying finite volume properties are used to connect the structured meshes together. Two methods have been implemented to generate these transition meshes: the first one is based on a Delaunay triangulation, the other one uses a frontal approach. Finally, some criteria are introduced to measure the quality of the transition meshes and optimization procedures are proposed to increase this quality under finite volume properties constraints. (author)

  13. A numerical model for buoyant oil jets and smoke plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Yapa, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Development of a 3-D numerical model to simulate the behaviour of buoyant oil jets from underwater accidents and smoke plumes from oil burning was described. These jets/plumes can be oil-in-water, oil/gas mixture in water, gas in water, or gas in air. The ambient can have a 3-D flow structure, and spatially/temporally varying flow conditions. The model is based on the Lagrangian integral technique. The model formulation of oil jet includes the diffusion and dissolution of oil from the jet to the ambient environment. It is suitable to simulate well blowout accidents that can occur in deep waters, including that of the North Sea. The model has been thoroughly tested against a variety of data, including data from both laboratory and field experiments. In all cases the simulation data compared very well with experimental data. 26 refs., 10 figs

  14. Computer simulating for oil fields with artificial elevation method by electrical submersible pump; Simulacao computacional para pocos de petroleo com metodo de elevacao artificial por bombeio centrifugo submerso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Evellyne da Silva; Maitelli, Andre Laurindo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, Rutacio de Oliveira [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio RN/CE; Barbosa, Tiago de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Computacao

    2008-07-01

    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  15. Refining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1921-05-12

    The desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, ligroin, or shale oil, by treatment with alkaline hypochlorite, such as sodium hypochlorite with free alkali is preceded, followed or both preceded and followed by treatment with alkali. The treatment may be effected in a vessel in which brine is being electrolyzed for the production of sodium hypochlorite, and the temperature may be raised to say 120/sup 0/F. The product may be filtered through animal charcoal, fuller's earth, dehydrated alumina, or other adsorbent substance.

  16. Lipid components and oxidative status of selected specialty oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Madawala, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many vegetable oils are marketed as specialty oils because of their retained flavors, tastes and distinct characteristics. Specialty oil samples which were commercially produced and retailed were purchased from local superstores in Reading, UK, and Uppsala, Sweden and profiled for detailed lipid composition and oxidative status. These oil samples include: almond, hazelnut, walnut, macadamia nut, argan, avocado, grape seed, roasted sesame, rice bran, cold pressed, organic and cold pressed, warm pressed and refined rapeseed oils. The levels of PV were quite low (0.5-1.3mEq O₂/kg but AV and Rancimat values at 100 °C (except for rapeseed oils varied considerably at (0.5-15.5 and (4.2-37.0 h respectively. Macadamia nut oil was found to be the most stable oil followed by argan oil, while walnut oil was the least stable. Among the specialty oils, macadamia nut oil had the lowest (4% and walnut oil had the highest (71% level of total PUFA. The organic cold pressed rapeseed oil had considerably lower PUFA (27% compared with other rapeseed oils (28- 35%. In all the samples, α- and γ- tocopherols were the major tocopherols; nut oils had generally lower levels. Total sterols ranged from 889 to 15,106 μg/g oil. The major sterols were β-sitosterol (61-85% and campesterol (6-20%. Argan oil contained schottenol (35% and spinasterol (32%. Compared with literature values, no marked differences were observed among the differently processed, organically grown or cold pressed rapeseed oils and other specialty oils in this study.

    Muchos aceites vegetales se venden como aceites especiales debido a su flavor, gusto y características distintas. Muestras de aceites especiales de almendra, avellana, nuez, nuez de macadamia, argán, aguacate, semillas de uva, de sésamo tostadas, salvado de arroz, y aceites orgánico de semillas de colza prensado en frío y, prensado caliente, y refinados que se producen y comercializan al por menor, se obtuvieron en

  17. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, M.E.E.; Szklo, A.S.; Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.; Mariano, J.B.; Sala, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks. (author)

  18. Oil refining expansion criteria for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Machado, Giovani Vitoria; Schaeffer, Roberto; Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza; Sala, Janaina Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses different strategies for the expansion of Brazil's oil refining segment, using criteria that range from energy security (reducing imports and vulnerability for key products) through to maximizing the profitability of this sector (boosting the output of higher value oil products) and adding value to Brazil's oil production (reducing exports of heavy acid oil). The development prospects are analyzed for conventional fuel production technology routes, sketching out three possible refining schemes for Brazilian oil and a GTL plant for producing gasoil from natural gas. Market scenario simulations indicate that investments will be required in Brazil's oil refining segment over and above those allocated to planned modifications in its current facilities, reducing the nation's vulnerability in terms of gasoil and petrochemical naphtha imports. Although not economically attractive, oil refining is a key activity that is crucial to oil company strategies. The decision to invest in this segment depends on local infrastructure conditions, environmental constraints and fuel specifications, in addition to oil company strategies, steady growth in demand and the definition of a government policy that eases institutional risks

  19. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  20. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J; Mannila, P; Laukkanen, J [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  1. Thermal Evolution of Crude Oils in Sedimentary Basins: Experimental Simulation in a Confined System and Kinetic Modeling Evolution thermique des huiles dans les bassins sédimentaires : simulation expérimentale par pyrolyse en milieu confiné et modélisation cinétique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed knowledge of the cracking mechanisms of crude oils should highly improve the understanding of geochemical reactions involved in hydrocarbon degradation into lighter oil and gas and consequently the applicability of kinetic models currently used for prediction of gas formation. Although the mechanisms of cracking are well known for several model compounds or simple mixtures, there is, to date, no available method to model complex mixtures, especially when they contain heavy compounds, except by using empirical approaches. During thermal cracking, oil will produce both lighter and heavier molecules than those present in the initial sample. Thus, the pyrolysate will be a mixture of both new compounds and compounds not yet degraded. In order to discriminate between reactants and products, we have chosen to fractionate each oil into two classes : the first one (distillate 300- comprising light hydrocarbons ranging from C6 to C16 the second one (residue 300+ comprising both hydrocarbons and polar compounds. For simulation of thermal evolution of crude oils, about 100 experiments were carried out on two oils (Boscan and Pematang, in a closed pyrolysis system, over a wide range of heating times (few minutes to 1 month and temperatures (335 to 500°C. The pyrolysate is represented by 10 chemical fractions (C1, C2, C3-C5, C6-C13 saturates, benzene + toluene + xylenes + naphthalene, C9-C13 alkyl aromatics, C14+ saturates, C14+ condensed aromatics, C14+ alkyl and/or naphtheno aromatics + resins + asphaltenes and coke. For kinetic modeling, the degradation of each fraction, except for C1, C6-C13 aromatic mixture comprising benzene, toluene, xylenes and naphthalene, and coke considered as stable compounds, is described by a balanced elementary reaction governed by first order kinetics and obeying Arrhenius law. For a given oil, the kinetic parameters of the model (apparent activation energies Ei, preexponential factor A and stoichiometric

  2. Exploring oil market dynamics: a system dynamics model and microworld of the oil producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morecroft, J.D.W. [London Business School (United Kingdom); Marsh, B. [St Andrews Management Institute, Fife (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of a simulation model of global oil markets by Royal Dutch/Shell Planners in order to explore the implications of different scenarios. The model development process, mapping the decision making logic of the oil producers, the swing producer making enough to defend the intended price, the independents, quota setting, the opportunists, and market oil price and demand are examined. Use of the model to generate scenarios development of the model as a gaming simulator for training, design of the user interface, and the value of the model are considered in detail. (UK)

  3. Wash-oil problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlosta, J

    1941-01-01

    Meier-Grolman and others have deduced from experimental studies of the vapor pressure of solutions of benzene in paraffin oil and Solway oil-paraffin oil mixtures that the higher the proportion of aliphatic compounds in a wash oil, the less suitable it is for benzene scrubbing. This generalization is not supported. Paraffin oils from brown-coal tar and low viscous oils from the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis process are both being successfully used for benzene scrubbing.

  4. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  5. The effects of size, shape, and surface composition on the diffusive behaviors of nanoparticles at/across water–oil interfaces via molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Dai, Lenore L., E-mail: Lenore.Dai@asu.edu [Arizona State University, School of Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have employed molecular dynamics simulations to systematically investigate the effects of nanoparticles’ structural and chemical properties on their diffusive behaviors at/across the water–benzene interface. Four different nanoparticles were studied: modified hydrocarbon nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 1.2 nm (1.2HCPs), modified hydrocarbon nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 0.6 nm (0.6HCPs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and buckyballs. We found that the diffusion coefficients of 0.6 and 1.2HCP were larger than the corresponding values predicted using the Stokes–Einstein (SE) equation and attributed this deviation to the small particle size and the anisotropy of the interface system. In addition, the observed directional diffusive behaviors for various particles were well-correlated with the derivative of the potential of mean force (PMF), which might indicate an effective driving force for the particles along the direction perpendicular to the interface. We also found that nanoparticles with isotropic shape and uniform surface, e.g., buckyballs, tend to have smaller diffusion coefficients than those of nanoparticles with comparable dimensions but anisotropic shapes and non-uniform surface composition, e.g., SWCNT and 0.6HCP. One possible hypothesis for this behavior is that the “perfect” isotropic shape and uniform surface of buckyballs result in a better-defined “solvation shell” (i.e., a shell of solution molecules), which leads to a larger “effective radius” of the particle, and thus, a reduced diffusion coefficient.

  6. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  7. The oil market towards 2030 - can OPEC combine high oil price with high market share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Glomsroed, Solveig; Lindholt, Lars; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine within a partial equilibrium model for the oil market whether OPEC can combine high oil prices with a high market share. The oil market model explicitly accounts for reserves, development and production in 4 field categories across 13 regions. Oil companies may invest in new field development or alternatively on improved oil recovery in the decline phase of fields in production. Non-OPEC production is profit-driven, whereas OPEC meets the residual call for OPEC oil at a pre-specified oil price, while maintaining a surplus capacity. The model is run over a range of exogenous oil prices from 15 to 60 $ per barrel. Sustained high oil prices stimulate Non-OPEC production, but its remaining reserves gradually diminish despite new discoveries. Oil demand is only slightly affected by higher prices. Thus, OPEC is able to keep and eventually increase its current market share beyond 2010 even with oil prices around $30 per barrel. In fact, the model simulations indicate that an oil price around $40 is profitable for OPEC, even in the long term. Sensitivity analyses show that the most profitable price level for OPEC is generally above $35 per barrel. Even with several factors working jointly in OPEC's disfavour, the oil price seems to stick to the 30 $ level. Thus, for OPEC there is a trade-off between high prices and high market share in the short to medium term, but not in the long term. For OECD countries, on the other hand, there is a clear trade-off between low oil prices and low import dependence. (Author)

  8. Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from an optimist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li Jia

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of 'running out' of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources

  9. Converting heavy oils into light oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1915-12-22

    A process is described for transforming heavy oils obtained by the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, shales into light oils, and also the heavy oils of mineral and vegetable origin, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid substances or liquids suitably chosen to cause the distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature; solid and liquid substances which favor the production of light products under the influence of heat being added preferably to the oil to be treated before putting it in the retort and before heating, so that light oils are obtained by treatment of the heavy oils in a single operation.

  10. Evaluating oil/water separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Four commercially available oil/water separators were tested at an oil refinery test facility. The separators were the Alfa-Laval OFPX 413 disk-stack centrifuge, the Conoco Vortoil hydrocyclone system, International Separation Technology's Intr-Septor 250, and a modified Flo Trend gravity separator. Each machine was tested against mixtures of salt water and crude oil, and mixtures of salt water and a water-in-oil emulsion. The impact on separator performance from simulated sea motion, and from the addition of emulsion breakers and debris to the influent, were also evaluated. The test equipment, instrumentation, analysis facilities, test plans, and procedures to conduct the tests are described, but test results are not reported. Recommendations for improved test procedures are included. The inability to accurately monitor flow rates was found to have the greatest negative impact on test performance and results. Aspects of the test program that worked well included the use of flexible and semi-rigid hoses for customizing the test setups, the use of modular and leased tanks, and the sea motion simulator swing table design. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  14. Computer based training for oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Large oil spills are infrequent occurrences, which poses a particular problem for training oil spill response staff and for maintaining a high level of response readiness. Conventional training methods involve table-top simulations to develop tactical and strategic response skills and boom-deployment exercises to maintain operational readiness. Both forms of training are quite effective, but they are very time-consuming to organize, are expensive to conduct, and tend to become repetitious. To provide a variety of response experiences, a computer-based system of oil spill response training has been developed which can supplement a table-top training program. Using a graphic interface, a realistic and challenging computerized oil spill response simulation has been produced. Integral to the system is a program editing tool which allows the teacher to develop a custom training exercise for the area of interest to the student. 1 ref

  15. Simulating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C; Bruzzone, L [Techint Italimpianti, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Petacalco Marine terminal on the Pacific coast in the harbour of Lazaro Carclenas (Michoacan) in Mexico, provides coal to the thermoelectric power plant at Pdte Plutarco Elias Calles in the port area. The plant is being converted from oil to burn coal to generate 2100 MW of power. The article describes the layout of the terminal and equipment employed in the unloading, coal stacking, coal handling areas and the receiving area at the power plant. The contractor Techint Italimpianti has developed a software system, MHATIS, for marine terminal management which is nearly complete. The discrete event simulator with its graphic interface provides a real-type decision support system for simulating changes to the terminal operations and evaluating impacts. The article describes how MHATIS is used. 7 figs.

  16. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  17. Oil and influence: the oil weapon examined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maull, H

    1975-01-01

    The term ''oil weapon'' as used here signifies any manipulation of the price and/or supply of oil by exporting nations with the intention of changing the political behavior of the consumer nations. The political potential of the oil price is fairly restricted so, in effect, the supply interruptions are of prime concern. Manipulating price does, in principle, offer the possibilities of both conferring rewards and inflicting sanctions. Oil could be sold on preferential prices and terms. A precondition for using the oil weapon successfully would be the ability to cause real and serious damage to the consumer countries. Four damaging potentials for using the oil weapon could include its application by: (1) one producer against one consumer; (2) one producer against all consumers; (3) a group of producers against one consumer; and (4) by a group of producers against all consumers. It is concluded that the oil weapon will continue to be a force in the international system. (MCW)

  18. Numerical study on oil supply system of a rotary compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianhua; Wang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The oil supply system is a crucial reliability issue for rotary compressors. This paper provides a general method for analyzing the oil supply system of a rotary compressor by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The process includes establishing the physical model, dividing computational grid, setting boundary conditions, calculating leakage rates through the roller end clearances, translating the dynamic issue into the static issue and so on. Validation of the rationality of the oil supply system model has been made by the measurement of the main bearing oil flow rates. The effects of operating conditions of the compressor, the oil level height of the oil sump and the main design parameters of the oil supply system on the oil supply characteristics are analyzed by numerical simulation. It is found that the main bearing oil flow rate varies circularly along with the rotation of the shaft. The shape and inclination angle of the spiral groove also influence the main bearing oil flow rate. The oil leakage rates through the roller end clearances depend largely on the operating conditions. In addition, the oil level height of the oil sump has a huge effect on the total oil flow rate. -- Highlights: • A CFD method for analyzing the oil supply system of rotary compressor is presented. • Leakage through the roller end clearances depends on the operating condition. • Groove shape and inclination angle are the main design parameters of spiral grooves. • A parabolic interface of oil and gas can be formed in the gallery of the shaft. • Single-flow model and steady solver can be applied to the oil supply system

  19. Oil pipeline energy consumption and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of energy consumption and efficiency of oil pipelines in the US in 1978. It is based on a simulation of the actual movement of oil on a very detailed representation of the pipeline network, and it uses engineering equations to calculate the energy that pipeline pumps must have exerted on the oil to move it in this manner. The efficiencies of pumps and drivers are estimated so as to arrive at the amount of energy consumed at pumping stations. The throughput in each pipeline segment is estimated by distributing each pipeline company's reported oil movements over its segments in proportions predicted by regression equations that show typical throughput and throughput capacity as functions of pipe diameter. The form of the equations is justified by a generalized cost-engineering study of pipelining, and their parameters are estimated using new techniques developed for the purpose. A simplified model of flow scheduling is chosen on the basis of actual energy use data obtained from a few companies. The study yields energy consumption and intensiveness estimates for crude oil trunk lines, crude oil gathering lines and oil products lines, for the nation as well as by state and by pipe diameter. It characterizes the efficiency of typical pipelines of various diameters operating at capacity. Ancillary results include estimates of oil movements by state and by diameter and approximate pipeline capacity utilization nationwide.

  20. Oil companies make cutbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  1. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  2. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  3. Thermal Cracking of Jatropha Oil with Hydrogen to Produce Bio-Fuel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yu Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used thermal cracking with hydrogen (HTC to produce bio-fuel oil (BFO from jatropha oil (JO and to improve its quality. We conducted HTC with different hydrogen pressures (PH2; 0–2.07 MPa or 0–300 psig, retention times (tr; 40–780 min, and set temperatures (TC; 623–683 K. By applying HTC, the oil molecules can be hydrogenated and broken down into smaller molecules. The acid value (AV, iodine value, kinematic viscosity (KV, density, and heating value (HV of the BFO produced were measured and compared with the prevailing standards for oil to assess its suitability as a substitute for fossil fuels or biofuels. The results indicate that an increase in PH2 tends to increase the AV and KV while decreasing the HV of the BFO. The BFO yield (YBFO increases with PH2 and tr. The above properties decrease with increasing TC. Upon HTC at 0.69 MPa (100 psig H2 pressure, 60 min time, and 683 K temperature, the YBFO was found to be 86 wt%. The resulting BFO possesses simulated distillation characteristics superior to those of boat oil and heavy oil while being similar to those of diesel oil. The BFO contains 15.48% light naphtha, 35.73% heavy naphtha, 21.79% light gas oil, and 27% heavy gas oil and vacuum residue. These constituents can be further refined to produce gasoline, diesel, lubricants, and other fuel products.

  4. Oil Palm Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon (2006-2014): Effects of the 2010 Sustainable Oil Palm Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has the world's largest suitable land area for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) establishment, with estimates as high as 238 million ha. To promote oil palm development, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) in 2010 and delineated 30 million ha for its growth that excluded forested areas and indigenous reserves. Here we examine oil palm expansion (2006-2014) as well as the SPOPP's effectiveness in Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil. By combining analyses of satellite imagery, land registration data, and site based interviews, we found that oil palm area expanded 205%. Although >50% of oil palm parcels were located within 0.5 km of intact forests, lands. Direct intact forest conversion pre- and post-SPOPP declined from 4% to <1%; however, <1% of the 30 million ha promoted for oil palm was developed by 2014. To explore the major factors that may have constrained oil palm expansion under the SPOPP, we conducted microeconomic simulations of oil palm production, combined with interviews with actors/individuals from oil palm companies, civil society, researchers at universities and NGOs, and governmental agencies. Brazil's oil palm-deforestation dynamics, policies, and economic conditions will be discussed.

  5. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  6. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  7. Production of oil from Israeli oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil shale can be utilized in two-ways: direct combustion to generate steam and power or retorting to produce oil or gas. PAMA has been developing both direct combustion and retorting processes. Its main effort is in the combustion. An oil shale fired steam boiler was erected in the Rotem industrial complex for demonstration purposes. PAMA has also been looking into two alternative retorting concepts - slow heating of coarse particles and fast heating of fine particles. The present paper provides operating data of oil shale processing in the following scheme: (a) retorting in moving bed, pilot and bench scale units, and (b) retorting in a fluidized bed, bench scale units. (author)

  8. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  9. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  10. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  11. Comparative toxicology of four crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Fish that are chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exhibit dioxin-like toxicity characterized by blue sac disease and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Shelf, MESA, the synthetic Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend, and Alaskan North Slope Crude Oil), in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. The study confirmed the assumption that the Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend would be the most toxic due to its high PAH concentration. The results suggest that the main cause of toxicity in crude oil is due to the presence, concentration, and conformation of specific PAHs.

  12. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protocols were developed and evaluated to assess the efficacy and environmental safety of commercial oil spill bioremediation agents (CBAs). Test systems that simulate oil slicks on open water or oiled sandy beaches were used to test the effectiveness of CBAs. Gravimetric and gas...

  14. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  15. Biodegradation of lubricant oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... lubricating oil, showed high biodegradation efficiency for different used lubricating oils. Capability of ..... amount after biodegradation showed no difference in the .... products polluted sites in Elele, Rivers State, Ngeria.

  16. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  17. Eucalyptus oil poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S; Wiggins, J

    1980-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised.

  18. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  19. Distribution of dispersed oil phase in hydrocarbon fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C S; Erickson, L E

    1978-04-01

    Recent experimental results show that the spreading coefficient frequently becomes positive when Candida lipolytica is cultivated on n-hexadecane. The effects of oil spreading at the surface of air bubbles in an airlift fermentor are examined using a mathematical model. The distribution of the oil phase with position and among the phases is determined using computer simulation. The simulation results qualitatively explain some of the experimental observations which have been previously reported.

  20. A new oil crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, R.C.G.; Van Herpt, I.R.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in the oil market are discussed, focusing on the causes of recent price increase, expectations for the near future, why previous oil crises resulted into a recession, and the expected consequences of the oil price increase for the economic growth and inflation. The negative consequences of the high oil price for the European economy can be limited under the condition that claims for higher wages are moderate. 2 refs

  1. Oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, Philip

    1997-01-01

    The role of the International Energy Agency's (IEA) ''OiMarket Report'' is described in terms of its response to and support for oil companies seeking to monitor short-term global oil market developments. The document is increasingly used for reference both by industry and governments. Data is compiled from oil companies, consultants, and government, and OECD countries provide supply/demand oil balance data by product grade on a monthly basic. (UK)

  2. The oil distribution file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A series of articles addresses the recent evolutions of the French domestic fuel oil market, the development of the Argos oil company (a Dutch group) on this market, the situation and the recent evolution of the German oil product market in 2007 and 2008, the problem faced by the mandatory introduction of biofuels in Belgium and in Spain, the evolution of the Italian oil product market, and the mandatory introduction of biofuels in the United Kingdom in 2008

  3. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  4. Surface Effect on Oil Transportation in Nanochannel: a Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixia; Du, Yonggang; Xue, Qingzhong; Zhu, Lei; Li, Xiaofang; Lu, Shuangfang; Jin, Yakang

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics mechanism of oil transportation in nanochannel using molecular dynamics simulations. It is demonstrated that the interaction between oil molecules and nanochannel has a great effect on the transportation properties of oil in nanochannel. Because of different interactions between oil molecules and channel, the center of mass (COM) displacement of oil in a 6-nm channel is over 30 times larger than that in a 2-nm channel, and the diffusion coefficient of oil molecules at the center of a 6-nm channel is almost two times more than that near the channel surface. Besides, it is found that polarity of oil molecules has the effect on impeding oil transportation, because the electrostatic interaction between polar oil molecules and channel is far larger than that between nonpolar oil molecules and channel. In addition, channel component is found to play an important role in oil transportation in nanochannel, for example, the COM displacement of oil in gold channel is very few due to great interaction between oil and gold substrate. It is also found that nano-sized roughness of channel surface greatly influences the speed and flow pattern of oil. Our findings would contribute to revealing the mechanism of oil transportation in nanochannels and therefore are very important for design of oil extraction in nanochannels.

  5. Development of a practical methodology for integrating shoreline oil-holding capacity into modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt Etkin, D.; French-McCay, D.; Rowe, J.; Michel, J.; Boufadel, M.; Li, H.

    2008-01-01

    The factors that influence the behaviour of oil in the aftermath of an oil spill on water include oil type and characteristics; oil thickness on the shoreline; time until shoreline impact; timing with regards to tides; weathering during and after the spill; and nearshore wave energy. The oil behaviour also depends on the shoreline characteristics, particularly porosity and permeability. The interactions of spilled oil with sediments on beaches must be well understood in order to model the oil spill trajectory, fate and risk. The movement of oil can be most accurately simulated if the algorithm incorporates an estimate of shoreline oil retention. This paper presented a literature review of relevant shoreline oiling studies and considered the relevance of study findings for inclusion in modelling. Survey data from a detailed shoreline cleanup assessment team (SCAT) were analyzed for patterns in oil penetration and oil-holding capacity by shoreline sediment type and oil type for potential use in modelling algorithms. A theoretical beach hydraulics model was then developed for use in a stochastic spill model. Gaps in information were identified, including the manner in which wave action and other environmental variables have an impact on the dynamic processes involved in shoreline oiling. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to estimate the amount of oil held by a shoreline upon impact to allow a trajectory model to more accurately project the total spread of oil. 27 refs., 13 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Oil production, oil prices, and macroeconomic adjustment under different wage assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, C.; Maleka, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous paper one of the authors developed a simple model to try to identify the possible macroeconomic adjustment processes arising in an economy experiencing a temporary period of oil production, under alternative wage adjustment assumptions, namely nominal and real wage rigidity. Certain assumptions were made regarding the characteristics of actual production, the permanent revenues generated from that oil production, and the net exports/imports of oil. The role of the price of oil, and possible changes in that price was essentially ignored. Here we attempt to incorporate the price of oil, as well as changes in that price, in conjunction with the production of oil, the objective being to identify the contribution which the price of oil, and changes in it, make to the adjustment process itself. The emphasis in this paper is not given to a mathematical derivation and analysis of the model's dynamics of adjustment or its comparative statics, but rather to the derivation of simulation results from the model, for a specific assumed case, using a numerical algorithm program, conducive to the type of theoretical framework utilized here. The results presented suggest that although the adjustment profiles of the macroeconomic variables of interest, for either wage adjustment assumption, remain fundamentally the same, the magnitude of these adjustments is increased. Hence to derive a more accurate picture of the dimensions of adjustment of these macroeconomic variables, it is essential to include the price of oil as well as changes in that price. (Author)

  7. Sassafras oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than the ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  8. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  9. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  10. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  11. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  12. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  13. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  14. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  15. Gas pressure from a nuclear explosion in oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The quantity of gas and the gas pressure resulting from a nuclear explosion in oil shale is estimated. These estimates are based on the thermal history of the rock during and after the explosion and the amount of gas that oil shale releases when heated. It is estimated that for oil shale containing less than a few percent of kerogen the gas pressure will be lower than the hydrostatic pressure. A field program to determine the effects of nuclear explosions in rocks that simulate the unique features of oil shale is recommended. (U.S.)

  16. New round for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamarche, Myrtille

    2018-01-01

    After three years of crisis, oil companies are now strongly reinvesting, while oil prices are stabilizing at a reasonable long-term level, notably due to a rising demand from developing countries. Examples of new investments made by majors such as Total, Shell or Exxon but also by national companies and junior companies, are given. Oil price evolution as well as cost reductions (thanks notably to the digitalisation of the sector, leading to a decrease in exploration costs) are analyzed. The importance of the US oil production, and particularly shale oil production, is pinpointed

  17. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  18. On the use of magnetic separation for purification of aqueous radioactive solutions from oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchebetkovskij, V.N.; Vyatkin, V.E.; Gurevich, D.M.; Bochkov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Using model systems, simulating oiled condensate that is formed during evaporation of water radioactive wastes, a possibility is shown to use the method of magnetic separation for waste purification from oil. Introduction of a dispersed ferromagnetic powder in the system to stabilize oil drops and to impart ''quasiferromagnetic'' properties to them, is a necessary condition for the efficient oil separation. Using as an example 137 Cs absorption, the adsorbability of ferromagnetic powders relative to radionuclides in the system investigated is assessed

  19. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  20. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  1. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  2. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  3. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  4. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  5. Oil My Love

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

  6. Oil prices and the stock prices of alternative energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Energy security issues coupled with increased concern over the natural environment are driving factors behind oil price movements. While it is widely accepted that rising oil prices are good for the financial performance of alternative energy companies, there has been relatively little statistical work done to measure just how sensitive the financial performance of alternative energy companies are to changes in oil prices. In this paper, a four variable vector autoregression model is developed and estimated in order to investigate the empirical relationship between alternative energy stock prices, technology stock prices, oil prices, and interest rates. Our results show technology stock prices and oil prices each individually Granger cause the stock prices of alternative energy companies. Simulation results show that a shock to technology stock prices has a larger impact on alternative energy stock prices than does a shock to oil prices. These results should be of use to investors, managers and policy makers. (author)

  7. Models of the oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, J.; Salehi-Isfahani, D.

    1991-01-01

    Economists have proposed a large variety of models of the oil market which differ in their methodology and in the questions they answer. This book integrates them and emphasizes the relationships between the choice of economic tools and the practical consequences of the analysis. After history of the events of the last twenty years, the authors survey the informal descriptions written by policy oriented analysts. Chapters on quantitative models follow, one stressing simulations and the other the work of theorists. Finally, a discussion of econometric work precedes a survey of open questions

  8. A model of oil-generation in a waterlogged and closed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigao, He

    This paper presents a new model on synthetic effects on oil-generation in a waterlogged and closed system. It is suggested based on information about oil in high pressure layers (including gas dissolved in oil), marsh gas and its fermentative solution, fermentation processes and mechanisms, gaseous hydrocarbons of carbonate rocks by acid treatment, oil-field water, recent and ancient sediments, and simulation experiments of artificial marsh gas and biological action. The model differs completely from the theory of oil-generation by thermal degradation of kerogen but stresses the synthetic effects of oil-generation in special waterlogged and closed geological systems, the importance of pressure in oil-forming processes, and direct oil generation by micro-organisms. Oil generated directly by micro-organisms is a particular biochemical reaction. Another feature of this model is that generation, migration and accumulation of petroleum are considered as a whole.

  9. Superoleophillic electrospun polystrene/exofoliated graphite fibre for selective removal of crude oil from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, Enock O.; Olorundare, F. O. Grace; Nkosi, D.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, B. B.

    2016-04-01

    During oil spills, the aquatic environment is greatly endangered because oil floats on water making the penetration of sunlight difficult therefore primary productivity is compromised, birds and aquatic organisms are totally eliminated within a short period. It is therefore essential to remove the oil from the water bodies after the spillage. This work reports on the fabrication of oil loving electrospun polystyrene-exofoliated graphite fibre with hydrophobic and oleophillic surface properties. The fibre was applied for the selective adsorption of crude oil from simulated crude oil spillage on water. The maximum oil adsorption capacity of the EPS/EG was 1.15 kg/g in 20 min while the lowest oil adsorption capacity was 0.81 kg/g in 10 min. Cheap oil adsorbent was developed with superoleophillic and superhydrophobic properties.

  10. Artificial weathering of oils by rotary evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, B.; Hollebone, B.P.; Singh, N.R.; Tong, T.S.; Mullin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil weathering has a considerable affect on the behaviour, impact and ultimate fate of an oil spill. As such, efforts have been made to study weathering as a whole using bench-scale procedures. The studies are generally divided into individual processes where the effect of other major processes are introduce as an amended sample input rather than a concurrent process. The weathering process that has the greatest effect immediately following an oil spill is evaporation, particularly for lighter oils. The rotary evaporator apparatus offers a convenient means of producing artificially weathered oil for laboratory studies. This paper reported on a study that examined the representativeness of samples obtained by this method compared to pan evaporation and the impact of changes to the apparatus or method parameters on sample chemistry. Experiments were performed on Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend no. 5 in a rotary evaporator under varying conditions of temperature and air flow at ambient pressure using 2 apparatus. The rate of mass loss increased with temperature and air flow rate as expected, but the quantitative relationships could not be defined from the data due to contributions by other uncontrolled factors. It was concluded that the rotary evaporator is not suited for evaporation rate studies, but rather for producing samples suitable for use in other studies. Chemical analysis showed that the relative abundance distributions of target n-alkane hydrocarbons varied with the degree of weathering of an oil in a consistent manner at ambient pressure, regardless of the temperature, rate of air exchange or other factors related to the apparatus and procedure. The composition of the artificially weathered oil was also consistent with that from an open pan simulation of a weathered oil slick. Loss of water content varied with the conditions of evaporation because of the differential rates of evaporation due to relative humidity considerations. It was concluded that weathering

  11. Development of a Non-Intrusive Diagnosis Technique for Gas Lifted Oil Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidi, Tawfik; Guellouz, Mohamed Sadok; Harbaoui, Mohamed; Ellejmi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    In the present study a numerical model, representative of a real gas-lifted oil well, is used to perform flow simulations under different states of the oil reservoir. The simulations results helped to establish correlations between the well state and the measurable parameters at the well head. The uniqueness of these correlations, allows the reliable diagnosis of the state of the well by inferring the anomalies affecting it based on easily measurable parameters with no need to stop the oil production

  12. The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.L.; Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Reed, M.; Spaulding, M.; Kolluru, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM) is a standalone microcomputer-based state-of-the-art oil spill model system for use in oil spill response decision support, planning, research, training, and contingency planning. WOSM was developed under support provided by a consortium of oil companies and government agencies. WOSM represents the next generation of oil spill model beyond the OILMAP modelling system (Spaulding et al, 1992). WOSM is designed in a shell architecture in which the only parameters that change are those that describe the area in which the spill model is to be applied. A limited function geographic information system (GIS) is integrated within the model system, and the spill modelling shell has been extended to include interfaces to other GIS systems and digital data. WOSM contains all the databases, data manipulation and graphical display tools, and models to simulate any type of oil spill. The user has control over which weathering processes are to be modelled, and WOSM data input tools enable continual refinement of model predictions as more refined data is imported. Use of WOSM is described and illustrated, showing sample screens and applications. WOSM algorithms and file structure are also outlined. An example test case of a spill in the Juan de Fuca strait is included. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  13. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  14. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Eshita [The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, New Delhi 110 003 (India)

    2008-03-15

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  15. Oil flow in the oil well tube annulus of vertical bearing assemblies (leakage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Yinghu

    1997-01-01

    A numerical simulation and experimental flow visualization study was conducted to better understand oil well leakage, particularly in the annular clearance space surrounding the oil well tube. A test rig was developed to simulate the bearing's oil well tube annulus. A major feature of this rig was to allow visual access to the annular clearance space and to the region beneath the rotating runner where strong secondary flow effects are known to exist. The main method for tracing the secondary flow pathlines was a light sheet visualization technique using micro air bubbles as the tracer. The effect of runner speed on the pathlines was studied. The velocity of the oil flow was measured experimentally and the results were compared with numerical data. A numerical technique was developed to trace the micro air bubbles in the oil flow field using a three dimensional CFD code for laminar, axisymmetric flow with a free surface. The buoyancy effects of gravitational and centrifugal forces were considered when determining the pathline of air bubbles. Bubble size, oil viscosity and runner speed were some of the parameters that affect the path of the air bubbles

  16. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  17. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, P.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  18. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent alcohol...

  19. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  20. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Mathematical modelling of oil spill fate and transport in the marine environment incorporating biodegradation kinetics of oil droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Oil biodegradation by native bacteria is one of the most important natural processes that can attenuate the environmental impacts of marine oil spills. However, very few numerical models of oil spill fate and transport include biodegradation kinetics of spilled oil. Furthermore, in models where biodegradation is included amongst the oil transformation processes simulated, it is mostly represented as a first order decay process neglecting the effect of several important parameters that can limit biodegradation rate, such as oil composition and oil droplets-water interface. To this end, the open source numerical model MEDSKIL-II, which simulates oil spill fate and transport in the marine environment, has been modified to include biodegradation kinetics of oil droplets dispersed in the water column. MEDSLIK-II predicts the transport and weathering of oil spills following a Lagrangian approach for the solution of the advection-diffusion equation. Transport is governed by the 3D sea currents and wave field provided by ocean circulation models. In addition to advective and diffusive displacements, the model simulates several physical and chemical processes that transform the oil (evaporation, emulsification, dispersion in the water column, adhesion to coast). The fate algorithms employed in MEDSLIK-II consider the oil as a uniform substance whose properties change as the slick weathers, an approach that can lead to reduced accuracy, especially in the estimation of oil evaporation and biodegradation. Therefore MEDSLIK-II has been modified by adopting the "pseudo-component" approach for simulating weathering processes. Spilled oil is modelled as a relatively small number of discrete, non-interacting components (pseudo-components). Chemicals in the oil mixture are grouped by physical-chemical properties and the resulting pseudo-component behaves as if it were a single substance with characteristics typical of the chemical group. The fate (evaporation, dispersion

  2. MAN-IN-SIMULANT TEST (MIST) CHAMBER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MIST chamber uses methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) vapor as a simulant for HD agent to conduct system level evaluations of chemical protective ensembles....

  3. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan; Harbi, Badr M.

    2015-01-01

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A

  4. Maximize Liquid Oil Production from Shale Oil and Gas Condensate Reservoirs by Cyclic Gas Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Li, Lei [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Yu, Yang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Meng, Xingbang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Sharma, Sharanya [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Huang, Siyuan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Shen, Ziqi [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Zhang, Yao [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Wang, Xiukun [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Carey, Bill [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nguyen, Phong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mody, Fersheed [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Barnes, Warren [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Cook, Tim [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Griffith, Paul [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The current technology to produce shale oil reservoirs is the primary depletion using fractured wells (generally horizontal wells). The oil recovery is less than 10%. The prize to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is big. Based on our earlier simulation study, huff-n-puff gas injection has the highest EOR potential. This project was to explore the potential extensively and from broader aspects. The huff-n-puff gas injection was compared with gas flooding, water huff-n-puff and waterflooding. The potential to mitigate liquid blockage was also studied and the gas huff-n-puff method was compared with other solvent methods. Field pilot tests were initiated but terminated owing to the low oil price and the operator’s budget cut. To meet the original project objectives, efforts were made to review existing and relevant field projects in shale and tight reservoirs. The fundamental flow in nanopores was also studied.

  5. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amic, E.; Lautard, P.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  6. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  7. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Simulators of tray distillation columns as tools for interpreting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... at 0.05 m intervals were determined from top to the bottom of simulators of tray distillation columns exposed to 20 mCi of 137 Cs. Signals generated from the simulators were identical with the experimental signals obtained from the Stabilizer Column of the crude oil distillation unit at the Tema Oil Refinery Ghana Limited.

  9. Transformer oil maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. [A.F. White Ltd., Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    Proactive treatment is required in the case of transformer oil, since the oil degrades over time, which could result in the potential failure of the transformer or costly repairs. A mineral-based oil is used for transformers because of its chemical properties and dielectric strength. Water and particulate are the main contaminants found in transformer oil, affecting the quality of the oil through reduced insulation. Acid that forms in the oil when reacting with oxygen is called oxidization. It reduces the heat dissipation of the transformer as the acid forms sludge which settles on the windings of the transformer. The first step in the preventive maintenance program associated with transformer oil is the testing of the oil. The base line is established through initial testing, and subsequent annual testing identifies any changes. The minimal requirements are: (1) dielectric breakdown, a measure of the voltage conducted by the oil; (2) neutralization/acid number, which detects the level of acid present in the oil; (3) interfacial tension, which identifies the presence of polar compounds; (4) colour, which displays quality, aging and the presence of contaminants; and (5) water, which decreases the dielectric breakdown voltage. The analysis of the gases present in the oil is another useful tool in a maintenance program for the determination of a possible fault such as arcing, corona or overheated connections and is accomplished through Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). Remediation treatment includes upgrading the oil. Ideally, reclamation should be performed in the early stages of the acid buildup before sludging occurs. Onsite reclamation includes Fuller's earth processing and degasification, a process briefly described by the author.

  10. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscom, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  11. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  12. Dynamic characterization of oil fields, complex stratigraphically using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Santiago; Hidrobo, Eduardo A

    2004-01-01

    A novel methodology is presented in this paper for the characterization of highly heterogeneous oil fields by integration of the oil fields dynamic information to the static updated model. The objective of the oil field's characterization process is to build an oil field model, as realistic as possible, through the incorporation of all the available information. The classical approach consists in producing a model based in the oil field's static information, having as the process final stage the validation model with the dynamic information available. It is important to clarify that the term validation implies a punctual process by nature, generally intended to secure the required coherence between productive zones and petrophysical properties. The objective of the proposed methodology is to enhance the prediction capacity of the oil field's model by previously integrating, parameters inherent to the oil field's fluid dynamics by a process of dynamic data inversion through an optimization procedure based on evolutionary computation. The proposed methodology relies on the construction of the oil field's high-resolution static model, escalated by means of hybrid techniques while aiming to preserve the oil field's heterogeneity. Afterwards, using an analytic simulator as reference, the scaled model is methodically modified by means of an optimization process that uses genetic algorithms and production data as conditional information. The process's final product is a model that observes the static and dynamic conditions of the oil field with the capacity to minimize the economic impact that generates production historical adjustments to the simulation tasks. This final model features some petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability and water saturation), as modified to achieve a better adjustment of the simulated production's history versus the real one history matching. Additionally, the process involves a slight modification of relative permeability, which has

  13. Treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolbear, S H

    1921-01-04

    Oil shale is treated for the separation of the valuable organic compounds, with a view to economy in subsequent destructive distillation, by grinding to powder, mixing with water to form a pulp, adding a small quantity of an oil liquid and aerating the mixture to form a froth containing the organic compounds. If the powdered shale contains sufficient free oil, the addition of oil to the pulp may be dispensed with. In some cases an electrolyte such as sulfuric acid may be added to the pulp.

  14. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Voudouris, Vlasios; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Rigby, Robert; Di Maio, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ► We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ► The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ► The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ► The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ► These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  15. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  16. Preconditioning methods to improve SAGD performance in heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs with variable oil phase viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, I.D. [Gushor Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Larter, S.R.; Adams, J.J.; Snowdon, L.; Jiang, C. [Gushor Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience

    2008-10-15

    This study investigated preconditioning techniques for altering reservoir fluid properties prior to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) recovery processes. Viscosity-reducing agents were distributed in mobile reservoir water. Simulations were conducted to demonstrate the method's ability to modify oil viscosity prior to steam injection. The study simulated the action of water soluble organic solvents that preferentially partitioned in the oil phase. The solvent was injected with water into the reservoir in a slow waterflood that did not displace oil from the near wellbore region. A reservoir simulation model was used to investigate the technique. Shu's correlation was used to establish a viscosity correlation for the bitumen and solvent mixtures. Solvent injection was modelled by converting the oil phase viscosity through time. Over the first 2 years, oil rates of the preconditioned case were double that of the non-preconditioned case study. However, after 11 years, the preconditioned case's rates declined below rates observed in the non-preconditioned case. The model demonstrated that oil viscosity distributions were significantly altered using the preconditioners. The majority of the most viscous oil surrounding the production well was significantly reduced. It was concluded that accelerated steam chamber growth provided faster access to lower viscosity materials at the top of the reservoir. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eBerdugo-Clavijo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  18. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  19. New technologies of enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wojnarowski

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known from the literature that up to 27 % of oil in oilfields can be produced using primary and hydration methods. The efficiency of production can be increased by employing more advanced methods, i.e. EOR. The Polish Oil and Gas Company iwork with Polish oilfields, where currently primary methods are applied, but the Polish experiences with EOR date back to the years 1932-1987. In view of high oil prices, reconsidering EOR as a production method is economically justifiable. Therefore, it is purposeful to implement new pilot technologies, aimed at implementing new technologies, understanding accompanying phenomena, and calibrating of simulation models, including economical models for an optimal control of the oilfield exploitation. World’s new exploitation methods worked out in the last few years and suggestions for their implementation in Polish conditions are presented in the paper

  20. The outlook for US oil dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.; Jones, D.W.; Leiby, P.N.

    1995-05-11

    Market share OPEC lost in defending higher prices from 1979-1985 is being steadily regained and is projected to exceed 50% by 2000. World oil markets are likely to be as vulnerable to monopoly influence as they were 20 years ago, as OPEC regains lost market share. The U.S. economy appears to be as exposed as it was in the early 1970s to losses from monopoly oil pricing. A simulated 2-year supply reduction in 2005-6 boosts OPEC revenues by roughly half a trillion dollars and costs the U.S. economy an approximately equal amount. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve appears to be of little benefit against such a determined, multi-year supply curtailment either in reducing OPEC revenues or protecting the U.S. economy. Increasing the price elasticity of oil demand and supply in the U.S. and the rest of the world, however, would be an effective strategy.