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Sample records for hazards assessment document

  1. Building 894 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, Z.; Williams, M.

    1996-07-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  2. Building 6630 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Banda, Z.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  3. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  4. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swihart, A

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility`s chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the {open_quotes}Main Complex{close_quotes} is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility`s site boundary.

  5. Kauai Test Facility hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swihart, A.

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55003A requires facility-specific hazards assessment be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Kauai Test Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The Kauai Test Facility's chemical and radiological inventories were screened according to potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance to the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 4.2 kilometers. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency at the open-quotes Main Complexclose quotes and a Site Area Emergency at the Kokole Point Launch Site. The Emergency Planning Zone for the open-quotes Main Complexclose quotes is 5 kilometers. The Emergency Planning Zone for the Kokole Point Launch Site is the Pacific Missile Range Facility's site boundary

  6. Assessment of LANL hazardous waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ''Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria Receipt at TA-54, Area L'' to determine if it meets applicable DOE requirements. The guidelines and requirements for the establishment of a Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria (HW-WAC) are found in 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. Neither set of requirements specifically require a WAC for the management of hazardous waste; however, the use of such documentation is logical and is consistent with the approach required for the management of radioactive waste. The primary purpose of a HW-WAC is to provide generators and waste management with established criteria that must be met before hazardous waste can be acceptable for treatment, storage and/or disposal. An annotated outline for a generic waste acceptance criteria was developed based on the requirements of 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. The outline contains only requirements for hazardous waste, it does not address the radiological components of low-level mixed waste. The outline generated from the regulations was used for comparison to the LANL WAC For Chemical and Low-level Mixed Waste Receipt at TA-54, Area L. The major elements that should be addressed by a hazardous waste WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Package/Container Requirements, Waste Forms, Land Disposal Restrictions, and Data Package-Certification ampersand Documentation

  7. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  9. Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802: Hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swihart, A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 33 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 75 meters

  10. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.L.; Starr, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters

  11. Glass Formulation and Fabrication Laboratory, Building 864, Hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banda, Z.; Wood, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Glass Formulation and Fabrication Laboratory, Building 864. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 threshold is 96 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

  12. Employing high resolution satellite imagery to document a rapid glacier surge in the Karakoram - risks and opportunities for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J. F.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Jiduc, S. G.; Immerzeel, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier surges occur regularly in the Karakoram but their driving mechanisms, recurrence and its relation to climatic change remain unclear. Since many glacier tongues in the region reach to very low elevations, local populations are often exposed to glacial hazards. While the scientific interpretation of hazard is one challenge, adequately communicating results to possibly affected stakeholders poses a different set of hurdles. Using DEMs as well as Landsat imagery in combination with high-resolution Planet imagery we quantify surface elevation changes and flow velocities to document a glacier surge of the Khurdopin glacier, located in a remote valley in Pakistan, in the first half of 2017. Results reveal that an accumulation of ice mass leads to a rapid surge in peaking with velocities above 5000 m a-1 or 0.5 m h-1 during a few days. Velocities increase steadily during a four-year build-up phase prior to the actual surge, while the remaining 15 years of the recurring cycle the glacier is quiescent. It is hypothesized that the surge is mainly initiated as a result of increased pressure melting caused by ice accumulation. However, surface observations show increased crevassing and disappearance of supra glacial ponds, which could have led to increased lubrication of the glacier bed. As a consequence of the surging tongue blocking the main valley a lake has formed and grown continuously in size over two months at a rate of up to 3000 m2 per day. Using satellite imagery with a frequent overpass rate we are able to (a) characterize the nature of glacier surges in the region with greater detail and (b) monitor the surge as well as the formation of the lake as it develops. Having developed a connection to local stakeholders we were able to provide rapid hazard assessments to affected communities, which can be employed to define possible actions. We show the potential of satellite imagery - freely available Landsat in combination with commercial Planet imagery -, which

  13. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  14. Integrating electromagnetic radiation hazard info the unique occupational risk assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaret, P.; Donati, P.

    2011-01-01

    The number of industrial applications involving electromagnetic waves has significantly increased in recent years. These applications are likely to expose operators to electromagnetic fields exceeding the limits laid down by European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/40/CE of 29 April 2004. A survey has identified the equipment emitting the most radiation and this has been classified into 8 families: resistance welding, magnetization, induction heating, magneto-scopy, dielectric loss welding, electrolysis, magnetic resonance imagery, microwaves. The equipment numbers per family was estimated by a market surveys, which specifically identified several tens of thousands of resistance welding- or magnetization-type machines. This survey enabled us to deduce that at least 100,000 operators in France would be at risk of exposure to electromagnetic fields. An assessment of exposure levels for operators at their workstations was undertaken for each equipment family. A group comprising specialists from INRS and the 9 CARSAT/CRAM Physical Measurement Centres measured electromagnetic fields at 635 workstations fitted with radiation emitting machinery. For each measurement, a severity index corresponding to the ratio of the measured value to the action-triggering value (ATV) recommended by European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/40/CE of 29 April 2004 was calculated. The results show that, for 7 equipment families out of the 8 retained, 25 - 50% of measurements gave electromagnetic field values exceeding the corresponding ATV. These results demonstrate the need for prevention means. In most cases, exposure reduction is achieved by moving the workstation away from the radiation source. Technical solutions do exist for certain equipments, such as shielding for microwave ovens and high-frequency presses, a grounding pad for tarpaulin welding, etc. (authors)

  15. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  16. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  17. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  18. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  19. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  20. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility

  1. Technical basis document for natural event hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARSON, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    This technical basis document was developed to support the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazards (NEH)-initiated representative accident and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', as described in this report

  2. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls

  3. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities

  4. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  5. 283-E and 283-W hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the 200 area water treatment plants 283-E and 283-W located on the US DOE Hanford Site. Operation of the water treatment plants is the responsibility of ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide emergency planning technical basis for the water treatment plants. This document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A which requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  6. 222 S Laboratory complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the 222-S Analytical Laboratory located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of the laboratory is the responsibility of Waste Management Federal Services, Inc. (WMFS). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the 222-S Facility. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  7. Assessing storm erosion hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Callaghan, D.; Ciavola, Paolo; Coco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The storm erosion hazard on coasts is usually expressed as an erosion volume and/or associated episodic coastline retreat. The accurate assessment of present-day and future storm erosion volumes is a key task for coastal zone managers, planners and engineers. There are four main approaches that can

  8. Hazard waste risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

  9. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

  10. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  11. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment

  12. Risk assessment. Basic documents for the preparation of the report 'Energy, Health, environment, and safety hazards' by the Swedish Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report contains several essays on the rational ways of assessing the hazards, and choosing, the future energy production systems. Theories of decision analysis are touched upon by a number of authors and the fault tree statistical method is described. The Rasmussen report (WASH-1400) and a few related papers are discussed. As an example of the risks of advanced technological systems, the air traffic safety is accounted for. (L.E.)

  13. B Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  14. T Plant hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  15. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for WESF. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  16. Implementing DOE guidance for hazards assessments at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hazards Assessments are performed for a variety of activities and facilities at Rocky Flats Plant. Prior to 1991, there was no guidance for performing Hazards Assessments. Each organization that performed Hazards Assessments used its own methodology with no attempt at standardization. In 1991, DOE published guidelines for the performance of Hazards Assessments for Emergency Planning (DOE-EPG-5500.1, ''Guidance for a Hazards Assessment Methodology''). Subsequently, in 1992, DOE published a standard for the performance of Hazards Assessments (DOE-STD-1027-92, ''Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis, Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''). Although these documents are a step in the direction of standardization, there remains a great deal of interpretation and subjective implementation in the performance of Hazards Assessments. Rocky Flats Plant has initiated efforts to develop a uniform and standard process to be used for Hazards Assessments

  17. Supplemental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment - Hydrotreater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.

  18. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility. Questions concerning the currency of this information should be directed to the building administrator (as listed in BHI-FS-01, Field Support Administration, Section 1.1, ''Access Control for ERC Surplus Facilities'')

  19. Hanford B Reactor Building Hazard Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P. W.

    1999-01-01

    The 105-B Reactor (hereinafter referred to as B Reactor) is located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The B Reactor is one of nine plutonium production reactors that were constructed in the 1940s during the Cold War Era. Construction of the B Reactor began June 7, 1943, and operation began on September 26, 1944. The Environmental Restoration Contractor was requested by RL to provide an assessment/characterization of the B Reactor building to determine and document the hazards that are present and could pose a threat to the environment and/or to individuals touring the building. This report documents the potential hazards, determines the feasibility of mitigating the hazards, and makes recommendations regarding areas where public tour access should not be permitted

  20. Approaches to the assessment of injuries to soil arising from discharges of hazardous substances and oil: Type B, Technical information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voris, P.; Dawson, G.W.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Cataldo, D.A.; Rogers, L.E.; Novich, C.M.; Meuser, J.

    1987-06-01

    Methods for determining the nature and magnitude of injury to the following natural resources are described for: soil chemical characteristics (acidity or pH, cation exchange capacity, percent base saturation, salinity); soil physical characteristics (porosity, water holding capacity, aggregate stability); biological characteristics (microbial activities, invertebrate activities, vegetation); and contaminant transport potential (leaching, food chain). In addition, this document explains how injuries to the soil resource can be translated into a reduction in service provided by that soil and how to determine soil recovery potential. That portion of 43 CFR Part 11 that pertains to the soils portion of the geologic resource is explained.

  1. Risk-assessments Environmental Impact Statement. NESHAPs (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) for radionuclides. Background information document. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The publication contains a chapter on each radionuclide source category studied. The chapters include an introduction, category description, process description, control technology, health impact assessment, supplemental control technology, and cost. It has an appendix which contains the inputs to all the computer runs used to generate the risk assessment

  2. Urban Heat Wave Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Crane, D. L.; Meyer, P. J.; LaFontaine, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heat waves are one of the largest causes of environmentally-related deaths globally and are likely to become more numerous as a result of climate change. The intensification of heat waves by the urban heat island effect and elevated humidity, combined with urban demographics, are key elements leading to these disasters. Better warning of the potential hazards may help lower risks associated with heat waves. Moderate resolution thermal data from NASA satellites is used to derive high spatial resolution estimates of apparent temperature (heat index) over urban regions. These data, combined with demographic data, are used to produce a daily heat hazard/risk map for selected cities. MODIS data are used to derive daily composite maximum and minimum land surface temperature (LST) fields to represent the amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle and identify extreme heat days. Compositing routines are used to generate representative daily maximum and minimum LSTs for the urban environment. The limited effect of relative humidity on the apparent temperature (typically 10-15%) allows for the use of modeled moisture fields to convert LST to apparent temperature without loss of spatial variability. The daily max/min apparent temperature fields are used to identify abnormally extreme heat days relative to climatological values in order to produce a heat wave hazard map. Reference to climatological values normalizes the hazard for a particular region (e.g., the impact of an extreme heat day). A heat wave hazard map has been produced for several case study periods and then computed on a quasi-operational basis during the summer of 2016 for Atlanta, GA, Chicago, IL, St. Louis, MO, and Huntsville, AL. A hazard does not become a risk until someone or something is exposed to that hazard at a level that might do harm. Demographic information is used to assess the urban risk associated with the heat wave hazard. Collectively, the heat wave hazard product can warn people in urban

  3. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

    1994-09-19

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high.

  4. Hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calley, M.B.; Jones, J.L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment describes the WERF, the area surrounding WERF, associated buildings and structures at WERF, and the processes performed at WERF. All radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials stored, used, or produced at WERF were identified and screened. Even though the screening process indicated that the hazardous materials could be screened from further analysis because the inventory of radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials were below the screening thresholds specified by DOE and DOE-ID guidance for DOE Order 5500.3A, the nonradiological hazardous materials were analyzed further because it was felt that the nonradiological hazardous material screening thresholds were too high

  5. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.

  6. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included

  7. Identification of Potential Hazard using Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Rizkya, I.; Siregar, I.

    2017-03-01

    This research was conducted in the paper production’s company. These Paper products will be used as a cigarette paper. Along in the production’s process, Company provides the machines and equipment that operated by workers. During the operations, all workers may potentially injured. It known as a potential hazard. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of a safety and health program in the stage of risk management. This is very important as part of efforts to prevent occupational injuries and diseases resulting from work. This research is experiencing a problem that is not the identification of potential hazards and risks that would be faced by workers during the running production process. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential hazards by using hazard identification and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using severity criteria and the probability of an accident. According to the research there are 23 potential hazard that occurs with varying severity and probability. Then made the determination Risk Assessment Code (RAC) for each potential hazard, and gained 3 extreme risks, 10 high risks, 6 medium risks and 3 low risks. We have successfully identified potential hazard using RAC.

  8. Documentation design for probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, W.J.; von Herrmann, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for documentation design of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and is based on the EPRI document NP-3470 ''Documentation Design for Probabilistic Risk Assessment''. The goals for PRA documentation are stated. Four audiences are identified which PRA documentation must satisfy, and the documentation consistent with the needs of the various audiences are discussed, i.e., the Summary Report, the Executive Summary, the Main Report, and Appendices. The authors recommend the documentation specifications discussed herein as guides rather than rigid definitions

  9. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  10. [Critical aspects of the management of "hazardous" health care workers. Consensus document].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Cicerone, Marina; Cirese, Vania; De Lorenzo, G; Di Giannantonios, M; Fileni, A; Goggiamani, Angela; Magnavita, Giulia; Marchi, Edda; Mazzullo, D; Monami, F; Monami, S; Puro, V; Ranalletta, Dalila; Ricciardi, G; Sacco, A; Spagnolo, A; Spagnolo, A G; Squarcione, S; Zavota, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    A worker is considered to be hazardous to others when, in the course of performing a specific work task, his/her health problems (e.g., substance dependence, emotional disorders, physical disability, transmissible diseases) pose a risk for other workers' or the public's health and safety, or begins to interfere with ability to function in profession life. The presence of certain illnesses or the fact that a health care worker is impaired because of them do not necessarily imply that he, or she, is hazardous for others. Working in health care increases the probability that an impaired worker being hazardous for others. Management of hazardous workers requires new techniques and procedures, and specific policies. An interdisciplinary group of experts from medical, bioethical, legal and administrative disciplines, together with trade union and employers' representatives, is currently attempting to define a way to put prevention measures into practice in accordance with state laws and individual rights. A consensus document is presented, covering critical aspects such as: social responsibility of the employer, risk management, informed consent, non compliance, confidentiality, responsibility of workers, disclosure of risk to patients, non-discrimination, counselling and recovery of impaired workers, effectiveness of international guidelines. Occupational health professionals are obliged to adhere to ethical principles in the management of "hazardous" workers; the assessment of ethical costs and benefits for the stakeholders is the basis for appropriate decisions.

  11. Y-12 National Security Complex Emergency Management Hazards Assessment (EMHA) Process; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailiff, E.F.; Bolling, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    This document establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Management Hazards Assessment (EMHA) process used by the lead and all event contractors at the Y-12 Complex for emergency planning and preparedness. The EMHA process provides the technical basis for the Y-12 emergency management program. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for performing the following emergency management activities at Y-12: (1) hazards identification; (2) hazards survey, and (3) hazards assessment

  12. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...

  13. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  14. 77 FR 38297 - Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... removed 15 drugs from the 2012 list because they did not meet the NIOSH definition, were no longer... NIOSH-033-A] Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in... of the following document entitled ``NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in...

  15. Documentation for the Southeast Asia seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Haller, Kathleen; Dewey, James; Luco, Nicolas; Crone, Anthony; Lidke, David; Rukstales, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project originated in response to the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M9.2) and the resulting tsunami that caused significant casualties and economic losses in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. During the course of this project, several great earthquakes ruptured subduction zones along the southern coast of Indonesia (fig. 1) causing additional structural damage and casualties in nearby communities. Future structural damage and societal losses from large earthquakes can be mitigated by providing an advance warning of tsunamis and introducing seismic hazard provisions in building codes that allow buildings and structures to withstand strong ground shaking associated with anticipated earthquakes. The Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project was funded through a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)—Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System to develop seismic hazard maps that would assist engineers in designing buildings that will resist earthquake strong ground shaking. An important objective of this project was to discuss regional hazard issues with building code officials, scientists, and engineers in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The code communities have been receptive to these discussions and are considering updating the Thailand and Indonesia building codes to incorporate new information (for example, see notes from Professor Panitan Lukkunaprasit, Chulalongkorn University in Appendix A).

  16. Documentation for Initial Seismic Hazard Maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In response to the urgent need for earthquake-hazard information after the tragic disaster caused by the moment magnitude (M) 7.0 January 12, 2010, earthquake, we have constructed initial probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Haiti. These maps are based on the current information we have on fault slip rates and historical and instrumental seismicity. These initial maps will be revised and improved as more data become available. In the short term, more extensive logic trees will be developed to better capture the uncertainty in key parameters. In the longer term, we will incorporate new information on fault parameters and previous large earthquakes obtained from geologic fieldwork. These seismic hazard maps are important for the management of the current crisis and the development of building codes and standards for the rebuilding effort. The boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates in the Hispaniola region is a complex zone of deformation. The highly oblique ~20 mm/yr convergence between the two plates (DeMets and others, 2000) is partitioned between subduction zones off of the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola and strike-slip faults that transect the northern and southern portions of the island. There are also thrust faults within the island that reflect the compressional component of motion caused by the geometry of the plate boundary. We follow the general methodology developed for the 1996 U.S. national seismic hazard maps and also as implemented in the 2002 and 2008 updates. This procedure consists of adding the seismic hazard calculated from crustal faults, subduction zones, and spatially smoothed seismicity for shallow earthquakes and Wadati-Benioff-zone earthquakes. Each one of these source classes will be described below. The lack of information on faults in Haiti requires many assumptions to be made. These assumptions will need to be revisited and reevaluated as more fieldwork and research are accomplished. We made two sets of

  17. KSC VAB Aeroacoustic Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justin M.; Yedo, Sabrina; Campbell, Michael D.; Atkinson, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) carried out an analysis of the effects of aeroacoustics produced by stationary solid rocket motors in processing areas at KSC. In the current paper, attention is directed toward the acoustic effects of a motor burning within the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The analysis was carried out with support from ASRC Aerospace who modeled transmission effects into surrounding facilities. Calculations were done using semi-analytical models for both aeroacoustics and transmission. From the results it was concluded that acoustic hazards in proximity to the source of ignition and plume can be severe; acoustic hazards in the far-field are significantly lower.

  18. 242-A evaporator hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 242-A Evaporator, on the Hanford Site. Through this document the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated. The evaporator sues a conventional, forced-circulation, vacuum evaporation system to concentrate radioactive waste solutions. This concentration results in the reduction in waste volume and reduces the number of double-shelled tanks required to store the waste

  19. Quality assurance when documenting chemical hazards to health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, R.; Modahl, S.I.; Tufto, P.A.; Buset, H.

    1991-01-01

    In a joint project between The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD), the State Pollution Control Agency (SFT) and Conoco Norway Inc. (CNI) we have evaluated the use of quality assurance principles in connection with development and distribution of information about chemicals. Assuring quality of the documentation is first of all depending on: the work in international organizations; the content of national and international guidelines and criteria documents; the use of product registers; activities in manufacturers' organizations; the role of importers and agents. These are aspects which have been evaluated. Recommendations are given in this paper concerning: definition of responsibilities in regulations, standards and guidelines; feedback of experience and coordination through international work; application of quality assurance principles in the use of information technology in international organizations and in manufacturers' organizations; use of quality assurance principles in validation of data

  20. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  1. Advanced Photon Source experimental beamline Safety Assessment Document: Addendum to the Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Safety Assessment Document (APS-3.2.2.1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Assessment Document (SAD) addresses commissioning and operation of the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Purpose of this document is to identify and describe the hazards associated with commissioning and operation of these beamlines and to document the measures taken to minimize these hazards and mitigate the hazard consequences. The potential hazards associated with the commissioning and operation of the APS facility have been identified and analyzed. Physical and administrative controls mitigate identified hazards. No hazard exists in this facility that has not been previously encountered and successfully mitigated in other accelerator and synchrotron radiation research facilities. This document is an updated version of the APS Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). During the review of the PSAR in February 1990, the APS was determined to be a Low Hazard Facility. On June 14, 1993, the Acting Director of the Office of Energy Research endorsed the designation of the APS as a Low Hazard Facility, and this Safety Assessment Document supports that designation

  2. Hazard categorization and baseline documentation for the Sodium Storage Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Hazard Categorization evaluation has been performed in accordance with DOE-STD-1027 for the Sodium Storage Facility at FFTF and a determination of less than Category 3 or non-nuclear has been made. Hazard Baseline Documentation has been performed in accordance with DOE-EM-STD-5502 and a determination of ''Radiological Facility'' has been made

  3. Rockfall Hazard Process Assessment : Implementation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) commissioned a new research program to improve assessment and management of its rock slope assets. The Department implemented a Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) program in 2005 and wished to add valu...

  4. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Gentilly 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Results of this probabilistic seismic hazard assessment were determined using a suite of conservative assumptions. The intent of this study was to perform a limited hazard assessment that incorporated a range of technically defensible input parameters. To best achieve this goal, input selected for the hazard assessment tended to be conservative with respect to selection of attenuation modes, and seismicity parameters. Seismic hazard estimates at Gentilly 2 were most affected by selection of the attenuation model. Alternative definitions of seismic source zones had a relatively small impact on seismic hazard. A St. Lawrence Rift model including a maximum magnitude of 7.2 m b in the zone containing the site had little effect on the hazard estimate relative to other seismic source zonation models. Mean annual probabilities of exceeding the design peak ground acceleration, and the design response spectrum for the Gentilly 2 site were computed to lie in the range of 0.001 to 0.0001. This hazard result falls well within the range determined to be acceptable for nuclear reactor sites located throughout the eastern United States. (author) 34 refs., 6 tabs., 28 figs

  5. Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for solid waste management facilities in E-area not previously evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Solid Waste Management Department (SWMD) activities located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) within E Area that are not described in the EPHAs for Mixed Hazardous Waste storage, the TRU Waste Storage Pads or the E-Area Vaults. The hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the SWMD operational emergency management program

  6. Multi scenario seismic hazard assessment for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Shaimaa Ismail; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; El-Eraki, Mohamed Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa within a sensitive seismotectonic location. Earthquakes are concentrated along the active tectonic boundaries of African, Eurasian, and Arabian plates. The study area is characterized by northward increasing sediment thickness leading to more damage to structures in the north due to multiple reflections of seismic waves. Unfortunately, man-made constructions in Egypt were not designed to resist earthquake ground motions. So, it is important to evaluate the seismic hazard to reduce social and economic losses and preserve lives. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is used to evaluate the hazard using alternative seismotectonic models within a logic tree framework. Alternate seismotectonic models, magnitude-frequency relations, and various indigenous attenuation relationships were amended within a logic tree formulation to compute and develop the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. Hazard contour maps are constructed for peak ground acceleration as well as 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.5-, 1-, and 2-s spectral periods for 100 and 475 years return periods for ground motion on rock. The results illustrate that Egypt is characterized by very low to high seismic activity grading from the west to the eastern part of the country. The uniform hazard spectra are estimated at some important cities distributed allover Egypt. The deaggregation of seismic hazard is estimated at some cities to identify the scenario events that contribute to a selected seismic hazard level. The results of this study can be used in seismic microzonation, risk mitigation, and earthquake engineering purposes.

  7. Report 6: Guidance document. Man-made hazards and Accidental Aircraft Crash hazards modelling and implementation in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahia, S.; Brinkman, H.; Bareith, A.; Siklossy, T.; Vinot, T.; Mateescu, T.; Espargilliere, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Ivanov, I.; Bogdanov, D.; Groudev, P.; Ostapchuk, S.; Zhabin, O.; Stojka, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Kumar, M.; Nitoi, M.; Farcasiu, M.; Borysiewicz, M.; Kowal, K.; Potempski, S.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide guidance on practices to model man-made hazards (mainly external fires and explosions) and accidental aircraft crash hazards and implement them in extended Level 1 PSA. This report is a joint deliverable of work package 21 (WP21) and work package 22 (WP22). The general objective of WP21 is to provide guidance on all of the individual hazards selected at the first ASAMPSA-E End Users Workshop (May 2014, Uppsala, Sweden). The objective of WP22 is to provide the solutions for purposes of different parts of man-made hazards Level 1 PSA fulfilment. This guidance is focusing on man-made hazards, namely: external fires and explosions, and accidental aircraft crash hazards. Guidance developed refers to existing guidance whenever possible. The initial part of guidance (WP21 part) reflects current practices to assess the frequencies for each type of hazards or combination of hazards (including correlated hazards) as initiating event for PSAs. The sources and quality of hazard data, the elements of hazard assessment methodologies and relevant examples are discussed. Classification and criteria to properly assess hazard combinations as well as examples and methods for assessment of these combinations are included in this guidance. In appendixes additional material is presented with the examples of practical approaches to aircraft crash and man-made hazard. The following issues are addressed: 1) Hazard assessment methodologies, including issues related to hazard combinations. 2) Modelling equipment of safety related SSC, 3) HRA, 4) Emergency response, 5) Multi-unit issues. Recommendations and also limitations, gaps identified in the existing methodologies and a list of open issues are included. At all stages of this guidance and especially from an industrial end-user perspective, one must keep in mind that the development of man-made hazards probabilistic analysis must be conditioned to the ability to ultimately obtain a representative risk

  8. Landslides Hazard Assessment Using Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coman Cristina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Romania represents one of Europe’s countries with high landslides occurrence frequency. Landslide hazard maps are designed by considering the interaction of several factors which, by their joint action may affect the equilibrium state of the natural slopes. The aim of this paper is landslides hazard assessment using the methodology provided by the Romanian national legislation and a very largely used statistical method. The final results of these two analyses are quantitative or semi-quantitative landslides hazard maps, created in geographic information system environment. The data base used for this purpose includes: geological and hydrogeological data, digital terrain model, hydrological data, land use, seismic action, anthropic action and an inventory of active landslides. The GIS landslides hazard models were built for the geographical area of the Iasi city, located in the north-east side of Romania.

  9. Waste receiving and processing (WRAP) module 1 hazards assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Receiving and Processing Module I (WRAP 1) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of the WRAP 1 is the responsibility of Rust Federal Services Hanford (RFSH). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the WRAP 1. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  10. Exploration of resilience assessments for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Jacomo, Anna; Han, Dawei; Champneys, Alan

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of extreme events due to natural hazards is difficult to predict. Extreme events are stochastic in nature, there is a lack of long term data on their occurrence, and there are still gaps in our understanding of their physical processes. This difficulty in prediction will be exacerbated by climate change and human activities. Yet traditional risk assessments measure risk as the probability of occurrence of a hazard, multiplied by the consequences of the hazard occurring, which ignores the recovery process. In light of the increasing concerns on disaster risks and the related system recovery, resilience assessments are being used as an approach which complements and builds on traditional risk assessments and management. In mechanical terms, resilience refers to the amount of energy per unit volume that a material can absorb while maintaining its ability to return to its original shape. Resilience was first applied in the fields of psychology and ecology, and more recently has been used in areas such as social sciences, economics, and engineering. A common metaphor for understanding resilience is the stability landscape. The landscape consists of a surface of interconnected basins, where each basin represents different states of a system, which is a point on the stability landscape. The resilience of the system is its capacity and tendency to remain within a particular basin. This depends on the topology of the landscape, on the system's current position, and on its reaction to different shocks and stresses. In practical terms, resilience assessments have been conducted for various purposes in different sectors. These assessments vary in their required inputs, the methodologies applied, and the output they produce. Some measures used for resilience assessments are hazard independent. These focus on the intrinsic capabilities of a system, for example the insurance coverage of a community, or the buffer capacity of a water storage reservoir. Other

  11. Earthquake hazard assessment and small earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.

    1987-01-01

    The significance of small earthquakes and their treatment in nuclear power plant seismic hazard assessment is an issue which has received increased attention over the past few years. In probabilistic studies, sensitivity studies showed that the choice of the lower bound magnitude used in hazard calculations can have a larger than expected effect on the calculated hazard. Of particular interest is the fact that some of the difference in seismic hazard calculations between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies can be attributed to this choice. The LLNL study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 3.75 while the EPRI study assumed a lower bound magnitude of 5.0. The magnitudes used were assumed to be body wave magnitudes or their equivalents. In deterministic studies recent ground motion recordings of small to moderate earthquakes at or near nuclear power plants have shown that the high frequencies of design response spectra may be exceeded. These exceedances became important issues in the licensing of the Summer and Perry nuclear power plants. At various times in the past particular concerns have been raised with respect to the hazard and damage potential of small to moderate earthquakes occurring at very shallow depths. In this paper a closer look is taken at these issues. Emphasis is given to the impact of lower bound magnitude on probabilistic hazard calculations and the historical record of damage from small to moderate earthquakes. Limited recommendations are made as to how these issues should be viewed

  12. READS: the rapid electronic assessment documentation system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Ann

    2012-12-13

    Patient documentation is time consuming and can detract from care. The authors report a novel computer programme that manipulates routinely collected information to quantify nursing workload, along with the reason for admission, functional status, estimates of in-hospital mortality and life expectancy. The programme stores information in a database, and produces a print-out in a situation\\/background\\/assessment\\/recommendation (SBAR) format. The average time taken to enter 629 patient encounters was 6.6 minutes. Pain was the most common presentation for low workload patients, while high workload patients often presented with altered mental status and reduced mobility. There was only a modest correlation between the risk of death and nursing workload. The programme measures nursing workload without further paperwork, and improves routine documentation with a legible brief report that is automatically generated. This report can be shared and provides data that is immediately available for day-to-day care, audit, quality control and service planning.

  13. Assessment of LANL beryllium waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danna, J.G.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to determine present status of the preparation and implementation of the various high priority documents required to properly manage the beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory. The documents being assessed are: Waste Acceptance Criteria, Waste Characterization Plan, Waste Certification Plan, Waste Acceptance Procedures, Waste Characterization Procedures, Waste Certification Procedures, Waste Training Procedures and Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Beryllium is regulated (as a dust) under 40 CFR 261.33 as ''Discarded commercial chemical products, off specification species, container residues and spill residues thereof.'' Beryllium is also identified in the 3rd thirds ruling of June 1, 1990 as being restricted from land disposal (as a dust). The beryllium waste generated at the Laboratory is handled separately because beryllium has been identified as a highly toxic carcinogenic material

  14. Seismic hazard assessment; Valutazione della pericolosita` sismica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paciello, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a brief summary of the most commonly used methodologies for seismic hazard assessment. The interest is focused on the probabilistic approach, which can take into account the uncertainties of input data and provides results better comparable with those obtained from hazard analyses of other natural phenomena. Calculation methods, input data and treatment of variability are examined. Some examples of probabilistic seismic hazard maps are moreover presented. [Italiano] Questo lavoro presenta un breve sommario delle piu` comuni metodologie utilizzate per la valutazione della pericolosita` sismica di un sito. Una particolare attenzione e` rivolta all`approccio probabilistico, che permette di tener conto delle incertezze legate ai dati iniziali e fornisce risultati piu` facilmente confrontabili con quelli ottenuti da analisi di pericolosita` di altri fenomeni naturali. Vengono presi in esame i metodi di calcolo, i dati di base e il trattamento delle incertezze. Vengono inoltre presentati alcuni esempi di carte di pericolosita` sismica di tipo probabilistico.

  15. 77 FR 41190 - Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH-190] Revised Document Posted: NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2012, Correction AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the...

  16. Report 5: Guidance document. Implementation of biological infestation hazards in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnaoui, C.; Georgescu, G.; Joel, P.; Sperbeck, S.; Kollasko, H.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the assessment of biological hazards with PSA. It provides an overview of the available data and available practices in modelling this type of hazard. First researches in the national and international literature regarding PSA for external and internal hazards shows that probabilistic analyses were very rarely carried out in order to quantify the risk induced by biological hazards. Nevertheless, Section 3 provides some data from some countries. History has shown that this hazard can happened and can be highly safety significant. Screening out this event must be done with great care. The overall analysis approach for Level 1 PSA for internal events can be used for the biological hazards with some care to take into impact the nature of the hazard as it impacts many systems at different times and duration. A proposed detailed methodology is described in Section 4. Still some open issues remain: the methodology must also consider event combination of biological infestation with other external hazards wind or flooding or rainfall and multi-units impact. These aspects present still a lot of challenges to PSA developers. The ASAMPSA-E report recommends that further emphasis shall be put on these two aspects of PSA modelling: multi-units site impact and hazards combinations. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of a Parchment Document, the 13th Century Incorporation Charter for the City of Krakow, Poland, for Microbial Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The literature of environmental microbiology broadly discusses issues associated with microbial hazards in archives, but these publications are mainly devoted to paper documents. There are few articles on historical parchment documents, which used to be very important for the development of literature and the art of writing. These studies present a broad spectrum of methods for the assessment of biodeterioration hazards of the parchment document in question. They are based on both conventional microbiological methods and advanced techniques of molecular biology. Here, a qualitative analysis was conducted, based on genetic identification of bacteria and fungi present on the document as well as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling and examining the destructive potential of isolated microbes. Moreover, the study involved a quantitative and qualitative microbiological assessment of the indoor air in the room where the parchment was kept. The microbes with the highest destructive potential that were isolated from the investigated item were Bacillus cereus and Acinetobacter lwoffii bacteria and Penicillium chrysogenum,Chaetomium globosum, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum fungi. The presence of the B. cereuss train was particularly interesting since, under appropriate conditions, it leads to complete parchment degradation within several days. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility's response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences

  19. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  20. The practical implementation of integrated safety management for nuclear safety analysis and fire hazards analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLOPY, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    the integrated safety management system approach for having a uniform and consistent process: a method has been suggested by the U S . Department of Energy at Richland and the Project Hanford Procedures when fire hazard analyses and safety analyses are required. This process provides for a common basis approach in the development of the fire hazard analysis and the safety analysis. This process permits the preparers of both documents to jointly participate in the development of the hazard analysis process. This paper presents this method to implement the integrated safety management approach in the development of the fire hazard analysis and safety analysis that provides consistency of assumptions. consequences, design considerations, and other controls necessarily to protect workers, the public. and the environment

  1. Bayesian network learning for natural hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Kristin

    2016-04-01

    Even though quite different in occurrence and consequences, from a modelling perspective many natural hazards share similar properties and challenges. Their complex nature as well as lacking knowledge about their driving forces and potential effects make their analysis demanding. On top of the uncertainty about the modelling framework, inaccurate or incomplete event observations and the intrinsic randomness of the natural phenomenon add up to different interacting layers of uncertainty, which require a careful handling. Thus, for reliable natural hazard assessments it is crucial not only to capture and quantify involved uncertainties, but also to express and communicate uncertainties in an intuitive way. Decision-makers, who often find it difficult to deal with uncertainties, might otherwise return to familiar (mostly deterministic) proceedings. In the scope of the DFG research training group „NatRiskChange" we apply the probabilistic framework of Bayesian networks for diverse natural hazard and vulnerability studies. The great potential of Bayesian networks was already shown in previous natural hazard assessments. Treating each model component as random variable, Bayesian networks aim at capturing the joint distribution of all considered variables. Hence, each conditional distribution of interest (e.g. the effect of precautionary measures on damage reduction) can be inferred. The (in-)dependencies between the considered variables can be learned purely data driven or be given by experts. Even a combination of both is possible. By translating the (in-)dependences into a graph structure, Bayesian networks provide direct insights into the workings of the system and allow to learn about the underlying processes. Besides numerous studies on the topic, learning Bayesian networks from real-world data remains challenging. In previous studies, e.g. on earthquake induced ground motion and flood damage assessments, we tackled the problems arising with continuous variables

  2. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  3. Debris flows: behavior and hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Debris flows are water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock that rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form lobate deposits when they spill onto valley floors. Because they have volumetric sediment concentrations that exceed 40 percent, maximum speeds that surpass 10 m/s, and sizes that can range up to ~109 m3, debris flows can denude slopes, bury floodplains, and devastate people and property. Computational models can accurately represent the physics of debris-flow initiation, motion and deposition by simulating evolution of flow mass and momentum while accounting for interactions of debris' solid and fluid constituents. The use of physically based models for hazard forecasting can be limited by imprecise knowledge of initial and boundary conditions and material properties, however. Therefore, empirical methods continue to play an important role in debris-flow hazard assessment.

  4. Hazard assessment for small torrent catchments - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisl, Julia; Huebl, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    The documentation of extreme events as a part of the integral risk management cycle is an important basis for the analysis and assessment of natural hazards. In July 2011 a flood event occurred in the Wölzer-valley in the province of Styria, Austria. For this event at the "Wölzerbach" a detailed event documentation was carried out, gathering data about rainfall, runoff and sediment transport as well as information on damaged objects, infrastructure or crops using various sources. The flood was triggered by heavy rainfalls in two tributaries of the Wölzer-river. Though a rain as well as a discharge gaging station exists for the Wölzer-river, the torrents affected by the high intensity rainfalls are ungaged. For these ungaged torrent catchments the common methods for hazard assessment were evaluated. The back-calculation of the rainfall event was done using a new approach for precipitation analysis. In torrent catchments especially small-scale and high-intensity rainfall events are mainly responsible for extreme events. Austria's weather surveillance radar is operated by the air traffic service "AustroControl". The usually available dataset is interpreted and shows divergences especially when it comes to high intensity rainfalls. For this study the raw data of the radar were requested and analysed. Further on the event was back-calculated with different rainfall-runoff models, hydraulic models and sediment transport models to obtain calibration parameters for future use in hazard assessment for this region. Since there are often problems with woody debris different scenarios were simulated. The calibrated and plausible results from the runoff models were used for the comparison with empirical approaches used in the practical sector. For the planning of mitigation measures of the Schöttl-torrent, which is one of the affected tributaries of the Wölzer-river, a physical scale model was used in addition to the insights of the event analysis to design a check dam

  5. SHC, Seismic Hazard Assessment for Eastern US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.; Davis, B.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SHC was developed as part of the Eastern United States (EUS) Seismic Hazard Characterization (SHC) Project to design an SHC methodology for the region east of the Rocky Mountains in a form suitable for probabilistic risk assessment and to apply that methodology to 69 site locations, some of them with local soil conditions. The method developed uses expert opinions to obtain the input to the analysis. SHC contains four modules which calculate the seismic hazard at a site located in a region of diffuse seismicity, where the seismicity is modeled by area sources. SHC integrates the opinions of 11 seismicity and five ground-motion experts. The PRDS model generates the discrete probability density function of the distances to the site for the various seismic source zones. These probability distributions are used by the COMAP module to generate the set of all alternative maps and the discrete probability density of the seismic zonation maps for each expert. The third module, ALEAS, uses these maps and their weights to calculate the best estimate and constant percentile hazard distribution resulting from the choice of a given seismicity expert for all ground-motion experts. This module can be used alone to perform a seismic hazard analysis as well as in conjunction with the other modules. The fourth module, COMB, combines the best- estimate and constant-percentile hazard over all seismicity experts, using the set of weights calculated by ALEAS, to produce the final probability distribution of the hazard for the site under consideration so that the hazard analysis can be performed for any location in the EUS. Local geological-site characteristics are incorporated in a generic fashion, and the data are developed in a generic manner. 2 - Method of solution: SHC uses a seismic-source approach utilizing statistical and geological evidence to define geographical regions with homogeneous Poisson activity throughout the zone, described by a

  6. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Boyd D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schafer, Annette L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  7. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  8. Methodology for environmental assessments of oil and hazardous substance spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. P.; Scott, G. I.; Getter, C. D.; Hayes, M. O.; Gundlach, E. R.

    1980-03-01

    Scientific assessment of the complex environmental consequences of large spills of oil or other hazardous substances has stimulated development of improved strategies for rapid and valid collection and processing of ecological data. The combination of coastal processes and geological measurements developed by Hayes & Gundlach (1978), together with selected field biological and chemical observations/measurements, provide an ecosystem impact assessment approach which is termed “integrated zonal method of ecological impact assessment.” Ecological assessment of oil and hazardous material spills has been divided into three distinct phases: (1) first-order response studies — conducted at the time of the initial spill event, which gather data to document acute impacts and assist decision-makers in prioritization of cleanup efforts and protection of ecologically sensitive habitats, (2) second-order response studies — conducted two months to one year post-spill, which document any delayed mortality and attempt to identify potential sublethal impacts in sensitive species, and (3) third-order response studies — conducted one to three years post-spill, to document chronic impacts (both lethal and sublethal) to specific indicator species. Data collected during first-order response studies are gathered in a quantitative manner so that the initial assessment may become a baseline for later, more detailed, post-spill scientific efforts. First- and second-order response studies of the “Peck Slip” oil spill in Puerto Rico illustrate the usefulness of this method. The need for contingency planning before a spill has been discussed along with the use of the Vulnerability Index, a method in which coastal environments are classified on a scale of 1 10, based upon their potential susceptibility to oiling. A study of the lower Cook Inlet section of the Alaskan coast illustrates the practical application of this method.

  9. Guidance document on practices to model and implement Earthquake hazards in extended PSA (final version). Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, K.; Hirata, K.; Groudev, P.

    2016-01-01

    The current report provides guidance for the assessment of seismo-tectonic hazards in level 1 and 2 PSA. The objective is to review existing guidance, identify methodological challenges, and to propose novel guidance on key issues. Guidance for the assessment of vibratory ground motion and fault capability comprises the following: - listings of data required for the hazard assessment and methods to estimate data quality and completeness; - in-depth discussion of key input parameters required for hazard models; - discussions on commonly applied hazard assessment methodologies; - references to recent advances of science and technology. Guidance on the assessment of correlated or coincident hazards comprises of chapters on: - screening of correlated hazards; - assessment of correlated hazards (natural and man-made); - assessment of coincident hazards. (authors)

  10. Assessment model validity document FARF31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, Mark; Gylling Bjoern; Lindgren, Maria

    2004-08-01

    -fractures with flowing water and rock with porosity accessible only by diffusion. The approach furthermore assumes that the properties within the two porosity domains are averaged and also the transfer between the two domains is averaged.It is an important validation issue to verify that effective averaging of parameters can be performed and that suitable values can be derived. It can be shown that matrix interaction properties along a flow path can be integrated to an effective value and if the matrix depth can be considered as infinite, effective values may be derived also for the diffusion and sorption parameters. Thus, it is possible to derive effective parameters for sorbing radionuclides incorporating the total matrix effects along a flow path. This is strictly valid only for cases with no dispersion, but gives a good approximation as long as dispersion does not dominate the transport. FARF31 has been tested and compared with analytical solutions and other models and was found to correspond well within a wide range of input parameters. Support and documentation on how to use FARF31 are two important components to avoid calculation mistakes and obtain trustworthy results. The documentation describes handling and updates of the code. Test cases have been constructed which can be used to check updates and be used as templates. The development of the code is kept under source code control to fulfil quality assurance. The model is deemed to be well suited for performance assessments within the SKB framework

  11. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, Tuna [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gok, Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abdulnaby, Wathiq [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shakir, Ammar M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahdi, Hanan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Numan, Nazar M.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Shukri, Haydar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chlaib, Hussein K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ameen, Taher H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abd, Najah A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

  12. The Coastal Hazard Wheel system for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the complete Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) system, developed for multi-hazard-assessment and multi-hazard-management of coastal areas worldwide under a changing climate. The system is designed as a low-tech tool that can be used in areas with limited data availability...... screening and management. The system is developed to assess the main coastal hazards in a single process and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The system was initially presented in 2012 and based on a range of test......-applications and feedback from coastal experts, the system has been further refined and developed into a complete hazard management tool. This paper therefore covers the coastal classification system used by the CHW, a standardized assessment procedure for implementation of multi-hazard-assessments, technical guidance...

  13. Microneedle Manufacture: Assessing Hazards and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal microneedles have captured the attention of researchers in relation to a variety of applications, and silicone-based moulds required to produce these systems are now widely available and can be readily manufactured on the lab bench. There is however some concern over the potential for accidental needlestick injuries and, as with any sharp hazard, the potential for blood-borne pathogen transmission must be considered. This follows from recent governmental concerns over the use of microneedle systems in dermabrasion. Despite the piercing nature of the microneedle patch sharing many similarities with conventional hypodermic needles, there are notable factors that mitigate the risk of contamination. A range of microneedle systems has been prepared using micromoulding techniques, and their puncture capability assessed. A critical assessment of the potential for accidental puncture and the control measures needed to ensure safe utilisation of the patch systems is presented.

  14. Earthquake Hazard Assessment: an Independent Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Seismic hazard assessment (SHA), from term-less (probabilistic PSHA or deterministic DSHA) to time-dependent (t-DASH) including short-term earthquake forecast/prediction (StEF), is not an easy task that implies a delicate application of statistics to data of limited size and different accuracy. Regretfully, in many cases of SHA, t-DASH, and StEF, the claims of a high potential and efficiency of the methodology are based on a flawed application of statistics and hardly suitable for communication to decision makers. The necessity and possibility of applying the modified tools of Earthquake Prediction Strategies, in particular, the Error Diagram, introduced by G.M. Molchan in early 1990ies for evaluation of SHA, and the Seismic Roulette null-hypothesis as a measure of the alerted space, is evident, and such a testing must be done in advance claiming hazardous areas and/or times. The set of errors, i.e. the rates of failure and of the alerted space-time volume, compared to those obtained in the same number of random guess trials permits evaluating the SHA method effectiveness and determining the optimal choice of the parameters in regard to specified cost-benefit functions. These and other information obtained in such a testing may supply us with a realistic estimate of confidence in SHA results and related recommendations on the level of risks for decision making in regard to engineering design, insurance, and emergency management. These basics of SHA evaluation are exemplified with a few cases of misleading "seismic hazard maps", "precursors", and "forecast/prediction methods".

  15. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, D., E-mail: dmullin@nbpower.com [New Brunswick Power Corporation, Point Lepreau Generating Station, Point Lepreau (Canada); Alcinov, T.; Roussel, P.; Lavine, A.; Arcos, M.E.M.; Hanson, K.; Youngs, R., E-mail: trajce.alcinov@amecfw.com, E-mail: patrick.roussel@amecfw.com [AMEC Foster Wheeler Environment & Infrastructure, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 the Geological Survey of Canada published a preliminary probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment in Open File 7201 that presents the most up-to-date information on all potential tsunami sources in a probabilistic framework on a national level, thus providing the underlying basis for conducting site-specific tsunami hazard assessments. However, the assessment identified a poorly constrained hazard for the Atlantic Coastline and recommended further evaluation. As a result, NB Power has embarked on performing a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Point Lepreau Generating Station. This paper provides the methodology and progress or hazard evaluation results for Point Lepreau G.S. (author)

  16. Hazard Assessment in a Big Data World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir; Nekrasova, Anastasia

    2017-04-01

    Open data in a Big Data World provides unprecedented opportunities for enhancing scientific studies and better understanding of the Earth System. At the same time, it opens wide avenues for deceptive associations in inter- and transdisciplinary data misleading to erroneous predictions, which are unacceptable for implementation. Even the advanced tools of data analysis may lead to wrong assessments when inappropriately used to describe the phenomenon under consideration. A (self-) deceptive conclusion could be avoided by verification of candidate models in experiments on empirical data and in no other way. Seismology is not an exception. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when subjected to objective hypothesis testing. In many cases of seismic hazard assessment (SHA), either probabilistic or deterministic, term-less or short-term, the claims of a high potential of a model forecasts are based on a flawed application of statistics and, therefore, are hardly suitable for communication to decision makers, which situation creates numerous deception points and resulted controversies. So far, most, if not all, the standard probabilistic methods to assess seismic hazard and associated risks are based on subjective, commonly unrealistic, and even erroneous assumptions about seismic recurrence and none of the proposed short-term precursory signals showed sufficient evidence to be used as a reliable precursor of catastrophic earthquakes. Accurate testing against real observations must be done in advance claiming seismically hazardous areas and/or times. The set of errors of the first and second kind in such a comparison permits evaluating the SHA method effectiveness and determining the optimal choice of parameters in regard to a user-defined cost-benefit function. The information obtained in testing experiments may supply

  17. Rockfall Hazard Process Assessment : [Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) implemented its Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) between 2003 and 2005, obtaining information on the state's rock slopes and their associated hazards. The RHRS data facilitated decision-making in an ...

  18. Rockfall Hazard Process Assessment : Final Project Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    After a decade of using the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS), the Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) sought a reassessment of their rockfall hazard evaluation process. Their prior system was a slightly modified version of the RHRS and was...

  19. Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Eskijian, M.; Miller, K.; Wilson, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase tsunami hazard preparedness and mitigation in maritime communities (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The initial goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine 'safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. We will present details of a new initiative to evaluate the future likelihood of failure for different structural components of a harbor, leading to the identification of high priority areas for mitigation. This presentation will focus on the results from California ports and harbors across the State, and will include feedback we have received from discussions with local harbor masters and port authorities. To help promote accurate and consistent products, the authors are also working through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to organize a tsunami current model benchmark workshop.

  20. Transparent Global Seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Anselm; Schneider, John; Pinho, Rui; Crowley, Helen

    2013-04-01

    Vulnerability to earthquakes is increasing, yet advanced reliable risk assessment tools and data are inaccessible to most, despite being a critical basis for managing risk. Also, there are few, if any, global standards that allow us to compare risk between various locations. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) is a unique collaborative effort that aims to provide organizations and individuals with tools and resources for transparent assessment of earthquake risk anywhere in the world. By pooling data, knowledge and people, GEM acts as an international forum for collaboration and exchange, and leverages the knowledge of leading experts for the benefit of society. Sharing of data and risk information, best practices, and approaches across the globe is key to assessing risk more effectively. Through global projects, open-source IT development and collaborations with more than 10 regions, leading experts are collaboratively developing unique global datasets, best practice, open tools and models for seismic hazard and risk assessment. Guided by the needs and experiences of governments, companies and citizens at large, they work in continuous interaction with the wider community. A continuously expanding public-private partnership constitutes the GEM Foundation, which drives the collaborative GEM effort. An integrated and holistic approach to risk is key to GEM's risk assessment platform, OpenQuake, that integrates all above-mentioned contributions and will become available towards the end of 2014. Stakeholders worldwide will be able to calculate, visualise and investigate earthquake risk, capture new data and to share their findings for joint learning. Homogenized information on hazard can be combined with data on exposure (buildings, population) and data on their vulnerability, for loss assessment around the globe. Furthermore, for a true integrated view of seismic risk, users can add social vulnerability and resilience indices to maps and estimate the costs and benefits

  1. Process of technical document quality assessment | Djebabra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most used instrument in training and scientific research is obviously the book which occupies since always a place of choice. Indeed, the book and more particularly the technical book are is used as a support, as well in the basic training as in the document is of good quality in order to have confidence in the services ...

  2. Impact Hazard Assessment for 2011 AG5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Bhaskaran, S.; Chodas, P. W.; Grebow, D.; Landau, D.; Petropoulos, A. E.; Sims, J. A.; Yeomans, D. K.

    2012-10-01

    2011 AG5 is a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid roughly 140 m in diameter. The current orbit determination, based on 213 optical measurements from 2010-Nov-08.6 to 2011-Sep-21.4, allows for the possibility of an Earth impact on 2040-Feb-05.2 with probability 0.2%. The 2040 potential impact is a 17:10 resonant return from a 2023 Earth encounter, where if the asteroid passes through a 365 km keyhole, it will go on to impact in 2040. We discuss the critical points on the decision tree for averting this potential impact. The decision to proceed with a deflection mission should not be made prematurely, when there is still a chance for eliminating the impact hazard through observations rather than intervention, and yet the decision must not be delayed past the point where it is no longer feasible to achieve a deflection. Thus the decision tree is informed by the evolution of the asteroid’s orbital uncertainty and by the available mission scenarios. We approach the orbital prediction problem by assessing the expected future evolution of the orbital uncertainty at the 2040 encounter based on various observational scenarios. We find that observations made at the next favorable apparition in 2013 are 95% likely to eliminate the possibility of a 2040 impact altogether. With the addition of 2015-16 observations, this likelihood increases to about 99%. Conversely, if the asteroid turns out to really be on an Earth impacting trajectory, the 2013 observations could raise the chance of impact to 10-15%, and observations in 2015-2016 could raise the chance of impact to 70%. On the deflection side, we describe a range of viable kinetic deflection mission scenarios. Mission timelines allow detailed planning to be delayed until after the 2013 observations and spacecraft fabrication to be delayed until after the 2015-16 observations. The full report is available at http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news175.html.

  3. Seismic hazard assessment in the Ibero-Maghreb region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Garcia fernandez, M. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientifcas, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. of Earth Sciences; GSAHP Ibero-Maghreb Working Group

    1999-12-01

    The paper illustrates the contribution of the Ibero-Maghreb region to the global GSHAP (Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program) map: for the first time, a map of regional hazard source zones is presented and agreement on a common procedure for hazard computation in the region has been achieved.

  4. Fast flux test facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for the Fast Flux Test Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  5. Vocational Assessment. Policy Paper Series: Document 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A., Ed.

    This collection of four policy papers on vocational assessment for the handicapped deals with personnel development, interagency coordination, current research and development, and providing individualized assessment services. Discussed in the initial paper on program improvement in vocational assessment for the handicapped are federal legislation…

  6. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of NW and central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Himalayan region has undergone significant development and to ensure safe and secure progress in such a seismically vulnerable region there is a need for hazard assessment. For seismic hazard assessment, it is important to assess the quality, consistency, and homogeneity of the seismicity data collected from ...

  7. Assessment of LANL asbestos waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The intent of this effort is to evaluate the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for asbestos to determine if it meets applicable DOE, EPA, and OSHA requirements. There are numerous regulations that provide specific guidelines on the management of asbestos waste. An annotated outline for a generic asbestos WAC was developed using the type of information specified by 5820.2A. The outline itself is included in Appendix A. The major elements that should be addressed by the WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Forms; Waste Content/Concentration; Waste Packaging; and Waste Documentation/Certification

  8. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  9. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, [June 1992--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report, the Environment Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) Annual Report, is the second of three reports that document activities under the EHAP grant and details progress made during the first year of the grant. The first year was devoted to the development of a working program implementation plan. During the developmental process some key objectives were achieved such as developing a Doctor of Philosophy degree program in Environmental Studies at MUSC (Medical University of South Carolina) and conducting the first Crossroads of Humanity series Round Table Forum. The PIP (Program Implementation Program) details the objectives, management and budgetary basis for the overall management and control of the grant over the next four years, the yearly program plans provide the monthly and day-to-day programmatic and budgetary control by which the PIP was developed.

  10. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, [June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This report, the Environment Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) Annual Report, is the second of three reports that document activities under the EHAP grant and details progress made during the first year of the grant. The first year was devoted to the development of a working program implementation plan. During the developmental process some key objectives were achieved such as developing a Doctor of Philosophy degree program in Environmental Studies at MUSC (Medical University of South Carolina) and conducting the first Crossroads of Humanity series Round Table Forum. The PIP (Program Implementation Program) details the objectives, management and budgetary basis for the overall management and control of the grant over the next four years, the yearly program plans provide the monthly and day-to-day programmatic and budgetary control by which the PIP was developed

  11. Wind hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, D.; Moland, M.; Sciaudone, J.C.; Twisdale, L.A.; Vickery, P.J.; Mizzen, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the CNSC Fukushima Action Plan, NB Power has embarked on a wind hazard assessment for the Point Lepreau Generating Station site that incorporates the latest up to date wind information and modeling. The objective was to provide characterization of the wind hazard from all potential sources and estimate wind-driven missile fragilities and wind pressure fragilities for various structures, systems and components that would provide input to a possible high wind Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The paper will discuss the overall methodology used to assess hazards related to tornadoes, hurricanes and straight-line winds, and site walk-down and hazard/fragility results. (author)

  12. A methodology for physically based rockfall hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rockfall hazard assessment is not simple to achieve in practice and sound, physically based assessment methodologies are still missing. The mobility of rockfalls implies a more difficult hazard definition with respect to other slope instabilities with minimal runout. Rockfall hazard assessment involves complex definitions for "occurrence probability" and "intensity". This paper is an attempt to evaluate rockfall hazard using the results of 3-D numerical modelling on a topography described by a DEM. Maps portraying the maximum frequency of passages, velocity and height of blocks at each model cell, are easily combined in a GIS in order to produce physically based rockfall hazard maps. Different methods are suggested and discussed for rockfall hazard mapping at a regional and local scale both along linear features or within exposed areas. An objective approach based on three-dimensional matrixes providing both a positional "Rockfall Hazard Index" and a "Rockfall Hazard Vector" is presented. The opportunity of combining different parameters in the 3-D matrixes has been evaluated to better express the relative increase in hazard. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the hazard index with respect to the included variables and their combinations is preliminarily discussed in order to constrain as objective as possible assessment criteria.

  13. Towards web documents quality assessment for digital humanities scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceolin, D.; Noordegraaf, Julia; Aroyo, L.M.; van Son, C.M.; Nejdl, Wolfgang; Hall, Wendy; Parigi, Paolo; Staab, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework for assessing the quality of Web documents, and a baseline of three quality dimensions: trustworthiness, objectivity and basic scholarly quality. Assessing Web document quality is a "deep data" problem necessitating approaches to handle both data size and complexity.

  14. Assessment of LANL transuranic waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; McCance, C.H.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the findings that resulted from the evaluation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRU Waste Characterization Procedures, conducted to determine their compliance with applicable DOE requirements. The driving requirements for the procedures appear to be contained in DOE Order 5820.2A; specific reference is made to Chapter II of that document. In addition, the WIPP-WAC sets forth specific waste forms and establishes the basis for LANL's TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria; any characterization plan must utilize procedures that address the requirements of the WIPP-WAC in order to ensure compliance with it. The purpose of the characterization procedures is to provide details to waste generators and/or waste certifiers regarding how the characterization plan is implemented for the gathering of analytical and/or knowledge-of-process information to allow certification of the waste. An annotated outline was developed from those criteria found in Sections 4.0 and 5.0 of the WIPP-WAC. The annotated outline of elements that should be addressed in characterization procedures is provided

  15. Assessing Landslide Hazard Using Artificial Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, Farzad; Choobbasti, Asskar Janalizadeh; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    failure" which is main concentration of the current research and "liquefaction failure". Shear failures along shear planes occur when the shear stress along the sliding surfaces exceed the effective shear strength. These slides have been referred to as landslide. An expert system based on artificial...... and factor of safety. It can be stated that the trained neural networks are capable of predicting the stability of slopes and safety factor of landslide hazard in study area with an acceptable level of confidence. Landslide hazard analysis and mapping can provide useful information for catastrophic loss...... reduction, and assist in the development of guidelines for sustainable land use planning. The analysis is used to identify the factors that are related to landslides and to predict the landslide hazard in the future based on such a relationship....

  16. 222-S Laboratory complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1996-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 222-S Laboratory Complex on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  17. 340 Facility emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 340 Facility on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone, is demonstrated

  18. ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ON WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    Earthquake hazards may arise as a result of: (a) transient ground deformation, which is induced due to seismic wave propagation, and (b) permanent ground deformation, which is caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Since the adequate performance of waste landfills after an earthquake is of outmost...... importance, the current study examines the impact of both types of earthquake hazards by performing efficient finite-element analyses. These took also into account the potential slip displacement development along the geosynthetic interfaces of the composite base liner. At first, the development of permanent...

  19. The Volcanic Hazards Assessment Support System for the Online Hazard Assessment and Risk Mitigation of Quaternary Volcanoes in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Takarada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic hazards assessment tools are essential for risk mitigation of volcanic activities. A number of offline volcanic hazard assessment tools have been provided, but in most cases, they require relatively complex installation procedure and usage. This situation causes limited usage of volcanic hazard assessment tools among volcanologists and volcanic hazards communities. In addition, volcanic eruption chronology and detailed database of each volcano in the world are essential key information for volcanic hazard assessment, but most of them are isolated and not connected to and with each other. The Volcanic Hazard Assessment Support System aims to implement a user-friendly, WebGIS-based, open-access online system for potential hazards assessment and risk-mitigation of Quaternary volcanoes in the world. The users can get up-to-date information such as eruption chronology and geophysical monitoring data of a specific volcano using the direct link system to major volcano databases on the system. Currently, the system provides 3 simple, powerful and notable deterministic modeling simulation codes of volcanic processes, such as Energy Cone, Titan2D and Tephra2. The system provides deterministic tools because probabilistic assessment tools are normally much more computationally demanding. By using the volcano hazard assessment system, the area that would be affected by volcanic eruptions in any location near the volcano can be estimated using numerical simulations. The system is being implemented using the ASTER Global DEM covering 2790 Quaternary volcanoes in the world. The system can be used to evaluate volcanic hazards and move this toward risk-potential by overlaying the estimated distribution of volcanic gravity flows or tephra falls on major roads, houses and evacuation areas using the GIS-enabled systems. The system is developed for all users in the world who need volcanic hazards assessment tools.

  20. Assessment and classification of hazardous street trees in University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to assessed and classified hazardous trees within the University of Ibadan (UI) campus, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study population was 25 municipal tree species comprising of 420 individual trees located along the major roads of the study area, which were considered hazardous to the community.

  1. Developing emergency exercises for hazardous material transportation: process, documents and templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Margaret; Kelly, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Multi-agency emergency exercises establish and reinforce relationships, and bring people from different areas together to work as a team, realise clear goals, understand roles and responsibilities, and get to know and respect each agency's strengths and weaknesses. However, despite the long-held belief in and respect for exercises in their provision of benefits to the individual and the organisation, there is little evidence of a consistent and clear process for exercise design, especially identifying the documents that may need to be completed to ensure efficient exercise preparation and performance. This paper reports the results of a project undertaken on behalf of the organisations that form the radioactive material transportation mutual-aid agreement, RADSAFE, to develop a standardised process to design emergency exercises. Three stages, from identifying the requirement for an exercise (Stage I), through to obtaining approval for operational orders (Stage II), then conducting a management review as part of the continuous improvement cycle (Stage III), were developed. Although designed for radioactive material transportation events, it is suggested that many of the factors within these three stages can be generalised for the design of exercises in other high-hazard industries.

  2. Applications of UAV Photogrammetric Surveys to Natural Hazard Detection and Cultural Heritage Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizzino, Rosamaria; Caprioli, Mauro; Mazzone, Francesco; Scarano, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems are increasingly seen as an attractive low-cost alternative or supplement to aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry due to their low cost, flexibility, availability and readiness for duty. In addition, UAVs can be operated in hazardous or temporarily inaccessible locations. The combination of photogrammetric aerial and terrestrial recording methods using a mini UAV (also known as "drone") opens a broad range of applications, such as surveillance and monitoring of the environment and infrastructural assets. In particular, these methods and techniques are of paramount interest for the documentation of cultural heritage sites and areas of natural importance, facing threats from natural deterioration and hazards. In order to verify the reliability of these technologies an UAV survey and a LIDAR survey have been carried out along about 1 km of coast in the Salento peninsula, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell' Orso and SantAndrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). This area is affected by serious environmental hazards due to the presence of dangerous rocky cliffs named "falesie". The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The point clouds obtained from both the UAV and LIDAR surveys have been processed using Cloud Compare software, with the aim of testing the UAV results with respect to the LIDAR ones. The analysis were done using the C2C algorithm which provides good results in terms of Euclidian distances, highlighting differences between the 3D models obtained from both the survey techiques. The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. In the the 2nd study area, the opportunities of obtaining more detailed documentation of cultural goods throughout UAV survey have been investigated. The study

  3. Documentation of torture victims, assessment of the start procedure for medico-legal documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Lene; Worm, Lise

    2007-01-01

    A Pilot Study was performed at the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (RCT) in Copenhagen in order to explore the possibilities for adding a medico-legal documentation component to the rehabilitation of torture victims already taking place. It describes the process and results on implementing medico-legal documentation in a rehabilitative setting. A modified version of the Guidelines in the Istanbul Protocol was developed on the basis of the review of literature and current practices described in "Documentation of torture victims, implementation of medico-legal protocols". The modified guidelines were tested on five clients. The aim was twofold: 1) To assess the client's attitude towards the idea of adding a documentation component to the rehabilitation process and: 2) To assess the practical circumstances of implementing the Istanbul Protocol in the everyday life of a rehabilitation centre. Results show that all five clients were positive towards the project and found comfort in being able to contribute to the fight against impunity. Also, the Pilot Study demonstrated that a large part of the medico-legal documentation was already obtained in the rehabilitation process. It was however not accessible due to lack of systematization and a data registering system. There are thus important synergies in collecting data for rehabilitation and documentation but a joint database system is necessary to realize these synergies.

  4. Laboratory Biosafety and Biosecurity Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this document is threefold: 1) to describe the laboratory bio safety and biosecurity risk assessment process and its conceptual framework; 2) provide detailed guidance and suggested methodologies on how to conduct a risk assessment; and 3) present some practical risk assessment process strategies using realistic laboratory scenarios.

  5. A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  6. Seismic hazard assessment of the Hanford region, Eastern Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, R.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Power, M.S.; Swan, F.H. III

    1985-01-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment was made for a site within the Hanford region of eastern Washington state, which is characterized as an intraplate region having a relatively low rate of seismic activity. Probabilistic procedures, such as logic trees, were utilized to account for the uncertainties in identifying and characterizing the potential seismic sources in the region. Logic trees provide a convenient, flexible means of assessing the values and relative likelihoods of input parameters to the hazard model that may be dependent upon each other. Uncertainties accounted for in this way include the tectonic model, segmentation, capability, fault geometry, maximum earthquake magnitude, and earthquake recurrence rate. The computed hazard results are expressed as a distribution from which confidence levels are assessed. Analysis of the results show the contributions to the total hazard from various seismic sources and due to various earthquake magnitudes. In addition, the contributions of uncertainties in the various source parameters to the uncertainty in the computed hazard are assessed. For this study, the major contribution to uncertainty in the computed hazard are due to uncertainties in the applicable tectonic model and the earthquake recurrence rate. This analysis serves to illustrate some of the probabilistic tools that are available for conducting seismic hazard assessments and for analyzing the results of these studies. 5 references, 7 figures

  7. Development of guidance and methodical documents for providing the decommissioning of radiation-hazardous objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Federal Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (JSC FCNRS) developed and approbated guidance and methodical documents for providing the facility to radiologically safe status in the course of Building B decommissioning activity at JSC VNIINM (A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials). The scope of application of the documents developed is as follows: - preliminary segregation of radwaste into streams during its collection and preparation for removal from facilities/sites under decommissioning; - express assessment of specific activity (activity) of radwaste generated in the course of dismantling and decontamination activities; - radiological survey of premises and building structures following completion of dismantling and decontamination activities; - SRW processing (compaction, reduction in size), packaging, characterisation and containerisation in order to reduce risks of spread of radioactive contamination. Documents that have been developed can be used both at nuclear facilities/ sites similar to the JSC VNIINM Building B in terms of work stages and types of waste to be generated, and other facilities/ sites taking into consideration their peculiarities. (author)

  8. assessment of radiological hazard indices from surface soil to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samples in Eagle, Atlas and rock cement companies in Port Harcourt was carried out by ... and external hazard indices in order to assess the radiological implication to the people .... Sciences & Environmental Management, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp.

  9. Mine aftershocks and implications for seismic hazard assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgarume, T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A methodology of assessing the seismic hazard associated with aftershocks is developed by performing statistical and deterministic analysis of seismic data from two South African deep-level gold mines. A method employing stacking of aftershocks...

  10. Benefits Assessment of Two California Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities (1983)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the benefits of RCRA regulations, comparing the results before and after new regulations at two existing hazardous waste sites previously regulated under California state law

  11. The assessment of tornado missile hazard to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.; Koch, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical methods and computer codes for assessing tornado missile hazards to nuclear power plants are developed. Due to the uncertainty and randomness of tornado and tornado-generated missiles' characteristics, the damage probability of targets has a highly spread distribution. The proposed method is useful for assessing the risk of not providing protection to some nonsafety-related targets whose failure can create a hazard to the safe operation of nuclear power plants

  12. Hazard assessment for Romania–Bulgaria crossborder region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Alexandrova, Irena; Trifonova, Petya; Ardeleanu, Luminita; Cioflan, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanisation and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. The main objective of this study is to assess the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets

  13. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, D. [New Brunswick Power Corp., Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada); Lavine, A. [AMEC Foster Wheeler Environment and Infrastructure Americas, Oakland, California (United States); Egan, J. [SAGE Engineers, Oakland, California (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The objective is to provide characterization of the earthquake ground shaking that will be used to evaluate seismic safety. The assessment is based on the current state of knowledge of the informed scientific and engineering community regarding earthquake hazards in the site region, and includes two primary components-a seismic source model and a ground motion model. This paper provides the methodology and results of the PLGS PSHA. The implications of the updated hazard information for site safety are discussed in a separate paper. (author)

  14. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, D., E-mail: dmullin@nbpower.com [New Brunswick Power Corporation, Point Lepreau Generating Station, Point Lepreau, NB (Canada); Lavine, A., E-mail: alexis.lavine@amecfw.com [AMEC Foster Wheeler Environment & Infrastructure Americas, Oakland, CA (United States); Egan, J., E-mail: jegan@sageengineers.com [SAGE Engineers, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    A Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The objective is to provide characterization of the earthquake ground shaking that will be used to evaluate seismic safety. The assessment is based on the current state of knowledge of the informed scientific and engineering community regarding earthquake hazards in the site region, and includes two primary components--a seismic source model and a ground motion model. This paper provides the methodology and results of the PLGS PSHA. The implications of the updated hazard information for site safety are discussed in a separate paper. (author)

  15. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of southern part of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahulu, Sylvanus T.; Danuor, Sylvester Kojo; Asiedu, Daniel K.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a seismic hazard map for the southern part of Ghana prepared using the probabilistic approach, and seismic hazard assessment results for six cities. The seismic hazard map was prepared for 10% probability of exceedance for peak ground acceleration in 50 years. The input parameters used for the computations of hazard were obtained using data from a catalogue that was compiled and homogenised to moment magnitude (Mw). The catalogue covered a period of over a century (1615-2009). The hazard assessment is based on the Poisson model for earthquake occurrence, and hence, dependent events were identified and removed from the catalogue. The following attenuation relations were adopted and used in this study—Allen (for south and eastern Australia), Silva et al. (for Central and eastern North America), Campbell and Bozorgnia (for worldwide active-shallow-crust regions) and Chiou and Youngs (for worldwide active-shallow-crust regions). Logic-tree formalism was used to account for possible uncertainties associated with the attenuation relationships. OpenQuake software package was used for the hazard calculation. The highest level of seismic hazard is found in the Accra and Tema seismic zones, with estimated peak ground acceleration close to 0.2 g. The level of the seismic hazard in the southern part of Ghana diminishes with distance away from the Accra/Tema region to a value of 0.05 g at a distance of about 140 km.

  16. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of southern part of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahulu, Sylvanus T.; Danuor, Sylvester Kojo; Asiedu, Daniel K.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a seismic hazard map for the southern part of Ghana prepared using the probabilistic approach, and seismic hazard assessment results for six cities. The seismic hazard map was prepared for 10% probability of exceedance for peak ground acceleration in 50 years. The input parameters used for the computations of hazard were obtained using data from a catalogue that was compiled and homogenised to moment magnitude (Mw). The catalogue covered a period of over a century (1615-2009). The hazard assessment is based on the Poisson model for earthquake occurrence, and hence, dependent events were identified and removed from the catalogue. The following attenuation relations were adopted and used in this study—Allen (for south and eastern Australia), Silva et al. (for Central and eastern North America), Campbell and Bozorgnia (for worldwide active-shallow-crust regions) and Chiou and Youngs (for worldwide active-shallow-crust regions). Logic-tree formalism was used to account for possible uncertainties associated with the attenuation relationships. OpenQuake software package was used for the hazard calculation. The highest level of seismic hazard is found in the Accra and Tema seismic zones, with estimated peak ground acceleration close to 0.2 g. The level of the seismic hazard in the southern part of Ghana diminishes with distance away from the Accra/Tema region to a value of 0.05 g at a distance of about 140 km.

  17. Environmental information document: New hazardous and mixed waste storage/disposal facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Grant, M.W.; Towler, O.O.

    1987-04-01

    Site selection, alternative facilities and alternative operations are described for new hazardous and mixed waste storage/disposal facilities at the Savannah River Plant. Performance assessments and cost estimates for the alternatives are presented

  18. Assessing Ultraviolet Hazards Using Portable Measuring Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridyard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Erythemal Action Spectrum' shows an increase of 10 3 in human skin sensitivity to UV radiation over only 30 nm of change of wavelength, from 328 nm to 298 nm. This represents a severe challenge to the manufacturing and calibration of a portable instrument which can measure the vanishingly small amounts of short wavelength UV from solarium tanning lamps, and to apply accurately an action spectra to be able to quantify the hazard presented by such lamps to skin. The classification of UV lamp types from their 'effective irradiance' requires very sharp discrimination between UV power contained in the short wavelength and the long wavelength parts of the UV spectra, so radiometers give misleading results. The only instrument suitable for making these measurements is the spectroradiometer. The development of such an instrument in a hand held portable form is described, with the difficulties associated with its calibration and such factors as stray light rejection. (author)

  19. Computational Approaches to Chemical Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Summary Computational prediction of toxicity has reached new heights as a result of decades of growth in the magnitude and diversity of biological data. Public packages for statistics and machine learning make model creation faster. New theory in machine learning and cheminformatics enables integration of chemical structure, toxicogenomics, simulated and physical data in the prediction of chemical health hazards, and other toxicological information. Our earlier publications have characterized a toxicological dataset of unprecedented scale resulting from the European REACH legislation (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals). These publications dove into potential use cases for regulatory data and some models for exploiting this data. This article analyzes the options for the identification and categorization of chemicals, moves on to the derivation of descriptive features for chemicals, discusses different kinds of targets modeled in computational toxicology, and ends with a high-level perspective of the algorithms used to create computational toxicology models. PMID:29101769

  20. Detailed debris flow hazard assessment in Andorra: A multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Copons, Ramon; Altimir, Joan

    2006-08-01

    In many mountainous areas, the rapid development of urbanisation and the limited space in the valley floors have created a need to construct buildings in zones potentially exposed to debris flow hazard. In these zones, a detailed and coherent hazard assessment is necessary to provide an adequate urban planning. This article presents a multidisciplinary procedure to evaluate the debris flow hazard at a local scale. Our four-step approach was successfully applied to five torrent catchments in the Principality of Andorra, located in the Pyrenees. The first step consisted of a comprehensive geomorphologic and geologic analysis providing an inventory map of the past debris flows, a magnitude-frequency relationship, and a geomorphologic-geologic map. These data were necessary to determine the potential initiation zones and volumes of future debris flows for each catchment. A susceptibility map and different scenarios were the principal outcome of the first step, as well as essential input data for the second step, the runout analysis. A one-dimensional numerical code was applied to analyse the scenarios previously defined. First, the critical channel sections in the fan area were evaluated, then the maximum runout of the debris flows on the fan was studied, and finally simplified intensity maps for each defined scenario were established. The third step of our hazard assessment was the hazard zonation and the compilation of all the results from the two previous steps in a final hazard map. The base of this hazard map was the hazard matrix, which combined the intensity of the debris flow with its probability of occurrence and determined a certain hazard degree. The fourth step referred to the hazard mitigation and included some recommendations for hazard reduction. In Andorra, this four-step approach is actually being applied to assess the debris flow hazard. The final hazard maps, at 1 : 2000 scale, provide an obligatory tool for local land use planning. Experience

  1. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  2. Assessment of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste sites at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.J.; Cramer, K.H.; Lamar, D.A.; Sherwood, D.R.; Stenner, R.D.; Schulze, W.B.

    1987-10-01

    The US Department of Energy and Pacific Northwest Laboratory recently completed a preliminary assessment of 685 inactive hazardous waste sites located on the Hanford Site. The preliminary assessment involved collecting historical data and individual site information, conducting site inspections, and establishing an environmental impact priority, using the Hazard Ranking System, for each of these 685 sites. This preliminary assessment was the first step in the remediation process required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. This paper presents the results of that preliminary assessment. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT FOR PLANNING FUTURE DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed

  4. Conceptual geoinformation model of natural hazards risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulygin, Valerii

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards are the major threat to safe interactions between nature and society. The assessment of the natural hazards impacts and their consequences is important in spatial planning and resource management. Today there is a challenge to advance our understanding of how socio-economical and climate changes will affect the frequency and magnitude of hydro-meteorological hazards and associated risks. However, the impacts from different types of natural hazards on various marine and coastal economic activities are not of the same type. In this study, the conceptual geomodel of risk assessment is presented to highlight the differentiation by the type of economic activities in extreme events risk assessment. The marine and coastal ecosystems are considered as the objects of management, on the one hand, and as the place of natural hazards' origin, on the other hand. One of the key elements in describing of such systems is the spatial characterization of their components. Assessment of ecosystem state is based on ecosystem indicators (indexes). They are used to identify the changes in time. The scenario approach is utilized to account for the spatio-temporal dynamics and uncertainty factors. Two types of scenarios are considered: scenarios of using ecosystem services by economic activities and scenarios of extreme events and related hazards. The reported study was funded by RFBR, according to the research project No. 16-35-60043 mol_a_dk.

  5. Assessing Ultraviolet Hazards Using Portable Measuring Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridyard, A

    2000-07-01

    The 'Erythemal Action Spectrum' shows an increase of 10{sup 3} in human skin sensitivity to UV radiation over only 30 nm of change of wavelength, from 328 nm to 298 nm. This represents a severe challenge to the manufacturing and calibration of a portable instrument which can measure the vanishingly small amounts of short wavelength UV from solarium tanning lamps, and to apply accurately an action spectra to be able to quantify the hazard presented by such lamps to skin. The classification of UV lamp types from their 'effective irradiance' requires very sharp discrimination between UV power contained in the short wavelength and the long wavelength parts of the UV spectra, so radiometers give misleading results. The only instrument suitable for making these measurements is the spectroradiometer. The development of such an instrument in a hand held portable form is described, with the difficulties associated with its calibration and such factors as stray light rejection. (author)

  6. Report 3: Guidance document on practices to model and implement Extreme Weather hazards in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzbutas, R.; Ostapchuk, S.; Borysiewicz, M.; Decker, K.; Kumar, Manorma; Haeggstroem, A.; Nitoi, M.; Groudev, P.; Parey, S.; Potempski, S.; Raimond, E.; Siklossy, T.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide guidance on practices to model Extreme Weather hazards and implement them in extended level 1 PSA. This report is a joint deliverable of work package 21 (WP21) and work package 22 (WP22). The general objective of WP21 is to provide guidance on all of the individual hazards selected at the End Users Workshop. This guidance is focusing on extreme weather hazards, namely: extreme wind, extreme temperature and snow pack. Other hazards, however, are considered in cases where they are correlated/ associated with the hazard under discussion. Guidance developed refers to existing guidance whenever possible. As it was recommended by end users this guidance covers questions of developing integrated and/or separated extreme weathers PSA models. (authors)

  7. Recent developments in the external hazard risk assessment in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Ukrainian legislation prescribes safety analysis reports for all operating and future NPPs. Apart from main report they must include: safety analysis supplement; design basis accident analysis; beyond design basis accident analysis; probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); technical; substantiation of safety. Regulatory requirements to PSA contents cover the criteria for core damage frequency and large radioactive release frequency. Initiating events taken into account are internal events; internal hazards and external hazards. External hazards to be considered are seismic events, external fires, external floods, extreme ambient temperatures, aircraft crashes, etc. Current status of PSA development is related to operating WWER-440 and WWER-1000 NPPs and NPPs under construction. This presentation describes in detail the external hazard risk assessment for South Ukraine including methodology applied and expected future activities

  8. Seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia (SE Spain): analysis of source contribution to hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mayordomo, J.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2007-10-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Province of Murcia in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations [SA( T)] is presented in this paper. In contrast to most of the previous studies in the region, which were performed for PGA making use of intensity-to-PGA relationships, hazard is here calculated in terms of magnitude and using European spectral ground-motion models. Moreover, we have considered the most important faults in the region as specific seismic sources, and also comprehensively reviewed the earthquake catalogue. Hazard calculations are performed following the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology using a logic tree, which accounts for three different seismic source zonings and three different ground-motion models. Hazard maps in terms of PGA and SA(0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 s) and coefficient of variation (COV) for the 475-year return period are shown. Subsequent analysis is focused on three sites of the province, namely, the cities of Murcia, Lorca and Cartagena, which are important industrial and tourism centres. Results at these sites have been analysed to evaluate the influence of the different input options. The most important factor affecting the results is the choice of the attenuation relationship, whereas the influence of the selected seismic source zonings appears strongly site dependant. Finally, we have performed an analysis of source contribution to hazard at each of these cities to provide preliminary guidance in devising specific risk scenarios. We have found that local source zones control the hazard for PGA and SA( T ≤ 1.0 s), although contribution from specific fault sources and long-distance north Algerian sources becomes significant from SA(0.5 s) onwards.

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) reference document. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.A.

    1984-09-01

    This document describes the current status of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) as practiced in the nuclear reactor regulatory process. The PRA studies that have been completed or are under way are reviewed. The levels of maturity of the methodologies used in a PRA are discussed. Insights derived from PRAs are listed. The potential uses of PRA results for regulatory purposes are discussed. This document was issued for comment in February 1984 entitled Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA): Status Report and Guidance for Regulatory Application. The comments received on the draft have been considered for this final version of the report

  10. Uncertainty on shallow landslide hazard assessment: from field data to hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefolini, Emanuele; Tolo, Silvia; Patelli, Eduardo; Broggi, Matteo; Disperati, Leonardo; Le Tuan, Hai

    2015-04-01

    Shallow landsliding that involve Hillslope Deposits (HD), the surficial soil that cover the bedrock, is an important process of erosion, transport and deposition of sediment along hillslopes. Despite Shallow landslides generally mobilize relatively small volume of material, they represent the most hazardous factor in mountain regions due to their high velocity and the common absence of warning signs. Moreover, increasing urbanization and likely climate change make shallow landslides a source of widespread risk, therefore the interest of scientific community about this process grown in the last three decades. One of the main aims of research projects involved on this topic, is to perform robust shallow landslides hazard assessment for wide areas (regional assessment), in order to support sustainable spatial planning. Currently, three main methodologies may be implemented to assess regional shallow landslides hazard: expert evaluation, probabilistic (or data mining) methods and physical models based methods. The aim of this work is evaluate the uncertainty of shallow landslides hazard assessment based on physical models taking into account spatial variables such as: geotechnical and hydrogeologic parameters as well as hillslope morphometry. To achieve this goal a wide dataset of geotechnical properties (shear strength, permeability, depth and unit weight) of HD was gathered by integrating field survey, in situ and laboratory tests. This spatial database was collected from a study area of about 350 km2 including different bedrock lithotypes and geomorphological features. The uncertainty associated to each step of the hazard assessment process (e.g. field data collection, regionalization of site specific information and numerical modelling of hillslope stability) was carefully characterized. The most appropriate probability density function (PDF) was chosen for each numerical variable and we assessed the uncertainty propagation on HD strength parameters obtained by

  11. Emergency preparedness hazards assessment for the Concentrate, Storage and Transfer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents this facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Concentrate, Storage and Transfer Facility (CSTF) located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The CSTF encompasses the F-Area and the H-Area Tank Farms including the Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator (RHLWE) (3H evaporator) as a segment of the H-Area Tank Farm. This EPHA is intended to identify and analyze those hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in the tank farm operational emergency management programs

  12. Accumulation risk assessment for the flooding hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Rudari, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    One of the main consequences of the demographic and economic development and of markets and trades globalization is represented by risks cumulus. In most cases, the cumulus of risks intuitively arises from the geographic concentration of a number of vulnerable elements in a single place. For natural events, risks cumulus can be associated, in addition to intensity, also to event's extension. In this case, the magnitude can be such that large areas, that may include many regions or even large portions of different countries, are stroked by single, catastrophic, events. Among natural risks, the impact of the flooding hazard cannot be understated. To cope with, a variety of mitigation actions can be put in place: from the improvement of monitoring and alert systems to the development of hydraulic structures, throughout land use restrictions, civil protection, financial and insurance plans. All of those viable options present social and economic impacts, either positive or negative, whose proper estimate should rely on the assumption of appropriate - present and future - flood risk scenarios. It is therefore necessary to identify proper statistical methodologies, able to describe the multivariate aspects of the involved physical processes and their spatial dependence. In hydrology and meteorology, but also in finance and insurance practice, it has early been recognized that classical statistical theory distributions (e.g., the normal and gamma families) are of restricted use for modeling multivariate spatial data. Recent research efforts have been therefore directed towards developing statistical models capable of describing the forms of asymmetry manifest in data sets. This, in particular, for the quite frequent case of phenomena whose empirical outcome behaves in a non-normal fashion, but still maintains some broad similarity with the multivariate normal distribution. Fruitful approaches were recognized in the use of flexible models, which include the normal

  13. Integration of Probabilistic Exposure Assessment and Probabilistic Hazard Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Slob, W.

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for integrated probabilistic risk assessment where exposure assessment and hazard characterization are both included in a probabilistic way. The aim is to specify the probability that a random individual from a defined (sub)population will have an exposure high enough to cause a

  14. The methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Adamenko, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the methodology of environmental impacts assessment of environmentally hazardous facilities and activities. The stages of evaluation of environmental impacts are proved. The algorithm and technology of decision-making in the system of environmental impact assessments based on a multi-criteria utility theory are proposed.

  15. Toward uniform probabilistic seismic hazard assessments for Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. H.; Wang, Y.; Shi, X.; Ornthammarath, T.; Warnitchai, P.; Kosuwan, S.; Thant, M.; Nguyen, P. H.; Nguyen, L. M.; Solidum, R., Jr.; Irsyam, M.; Hidayati, S.; Sieh, K.

    2017-12-01

    Although most Southeast Asian countries have seismic hazard maps, various methodologies and quality result in appreciable mismatches at national boundaries. We aim to conduct a uniform assessment across the region by through standardized earthquake and fault databases, ground-shaking scenarios, and regional hazard maps. Our earthquake database contains earthquake parameters obtained from global and national seismic networks, harmonized by removal of duplicate events and the use of moment magnitude. Our active-fault database includes fault parameters from previous studies and from the databases implemented for national seismic hazard maps. Another crucial input for seismic hazard assessment is proper evaluation of ground-shaking attenuation. Since few ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) have used local observations from this region, we evaluated attenuation by comparison of instrumental observations and felt intensities for recent earthquakes with predicted ground shaking from published GMPEs. We then utilize the best-fitting GMPEs and site conditions into our seismic hazard assessments. Based on the database and proper GMPEs, we have constructed regional probabilistic seismic hazard maps. The assessment shows highest seismic hazard levels near those faults with high slip rates, including the Sagaing Fault in central Myanmar, the Sumatran Fault in Sumatra, the Palu-Koro, Matano and Lawanopo Faults in Sulawesi, and the Philippine Fault across several islands of the Philippines. In addition, our assessment demonstrates the important fact that regions with low earthquake probability may well have a higher aggregate probability of future earthquakes, since they encompass much larger areas than the areas of high probability. The significant irony then is that in areas of low to moderate probability, where building codes are usually to provide less seismic resilience, seismic risk is likely to be greater. Infrastructural damage in East Malaysia during the 2015

  16. Quantitative rock-fall hazard and risk assessment for Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, G. M.; Luco, N.; Collins, B. D.; Harp, E.; Reichenbach, P.; Frankel, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    Rock falls are a considerable hazard in Yosemite Valley, California with more than 835 rock falls and other slope movements documented since 1857. Thus, rock falls pose potentially significant risk to the nearly four million annual visitors to Yosemite National Park. Building on earlier hazard assessment work by the U.S. Geological Survey, we performed a quantitative rock-fall hazard and risk assessment for Yosemite Valley. This work was aided by several new data sets, including precise Geographic Information System (GIS) maps of rock-fall deposits, airborne and terrestrial LiDAR-based point cloud data and digital elevation models, and numerical ages of talus deposits. Using Global Position Systems (GPS), we mapped the positions of over 500 boulders on the valley floor and measured their distance relative to the mapped base of talus. Statistical analyses of these data yielded an initial hazard zone that is based on the 90th percentile distance of rock-fall boulders beyond the talus edge. This distance was subsequently scaled (either inward or outward from the 90th percentile line) based on rock-fall frequency information derived from a combination of cosmogenic beryllium-10 exposure dating of boulders beyond the edge of the talus, and computer model simulations of rock-fall runout. The scaled distances provide the basis for a new hazard zone on the floor of Yosemite Valley. Once this zone was delineated, we assembled visitor, employee, and resident use data for each structure within the hazard zone to quantitatively assess risk exposure. Our results identify areas within the new hazard zone that may warrant more detailed study, for example rock-fall susceptibility, which can be assessed through examination of high-resolution photographs, structural measurements on the cliffs, and empirical calculations derived from LiDAR point cloud data. This hazard and risk information is used to inform placement of existing and potential future infrastructure in Yosemite Valley.

  17. Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobben, H.P.M.; Scholten, M.C.T.; Vik, E.A.; Bakke, S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

  18. Pedagogical Voyeurism: Dialogic Critique of Documentation and Assessment of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusov, Eugene; Marjanovic-Shane, Ana; Meacham, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    We challenge a common emphasis on documentation and assessment of learning for providing good education: from the mainstream of neoliberal accountability movement to the progressive Reggio Emilia schools. We develop these arguments through discussing: 1) immeasurableness of education and learning, 2) students' ownership/authorship of education and…

  19. Geomorphological hazards and environmental impact: Assessment and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    In five sections the author develops the methods for the integration of geomorphological concepts into Environmental Impact and Mapping. The first section introduces the concepts of Impact and Risk through the relationships between Geomorphological Environment and Anthropical Element. The second section proposes a methodology for the determination of Geomorphological Hazard and the identification of Geomorphological Risk. The third section synthesizes the procedure for the compilation of a Geomorphological Hazards Map. The fourth section outlines the concepts of Geomorphological Resource Assessment for the analysis of the Environmental Impact. The fifth section considers the contribution of geomorphological studies and mapping in the procedure for Environmental Impact Assessment.

  20. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  1. Assessing natural hazard risk using images and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccullough, H. L.; Dunbar, P. K.; Varner, J. D.; Mungov, G.

    2012-12-01

    Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazard assessment. Scientific research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for risk analysis, inundation mapping and historic records. Instrumental data only reveal a portion of the whole story; photographs explicitly illustrate the physical and societal impacts from the event. Visual data is rapidly increasing as the availability of portable high resolution cameras and video recorders becomes more attainable. Incorporating these data into archives ensures a more complete historical account of events. Integrating natural hazards data, such as tsunami, earthquake and volcanic eruption events, socio-economic information, and tsunami deposits and runups along with images and photographs enhances event comprehension. Global historic databases at NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) consolidate these data, providing the user with easy access to a network of information. NGDC's Natural Hazards Image Database (ngdc.noaa.gov/hazardimages) was recently improved to provide a more efficient and dynamic user interface. It uses the Google Maps API and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) to provide geographic context to the images and events. Descriptive tags, or keywords, have been applied to each image, enabling easier navigation and discovery. In addition, the Natural Hazards Map Viewer (maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/hazards) provides the ability to search and browse data layers on a Mercator-projection globe with a variety of map backgrounds. This combination of features creates a simple and effective way to enhance our understanding of hazard events and risks using imagery.

  2. Harmonizing seismic hazard assessments for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallard, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Even a cursory comparison between maps of global seismicity and NPP earthquake design levels reveals many inconsistencies. While, in part, this situation reflects the evolution in understanding of seismic hazards, mismatches can also be due to ongoing differences in the way the hazards are assessed and in local regulatory requirements. So far, formal international consensus has only been able to encompass broad principles, such as those recently recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and even these can raise many technical issues, particularly relating to zones of diffuse seismicity. In the future, greater harmonisation in hazard assessments and, to some extent, in earthquake design levels could emerge through the more widespread use of probabilistic methods. International collaborative ventures and joint projects will be important for resolving anomalies in the existing databases and their interpretations, and for acquiring new data, but to achieve their ideal objectives, they will need to proceed in clearly defined stages. (author)

  3. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  4. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjin Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes. The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards.

  5. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjin; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Jaewoo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Seo, Jungkwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2018-01-01

    The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes). The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards. PMID:29652814

  6. Report 5: Guidance document Implementation of lightning hazards in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.; Simurka, P.; Prochaska, J.; Brac, P.; Vasseur, D.; Duquerroy, P.; Trouilloud, C.; Kumar, M.; Potempski, S.; Vinot, T.

    2016-01-01

    The lightning (including the electromagnetic interference) is indicated with no. 39 in the exhaustive list of external hazards posing potential threats to nuclear installations, in particular in the list of the Meteorological events considered in ASAMPSA-E. The survey performed in the framework of ASAMPSA-E (WP10) to collect interests of the PSA the end users showed that the lightning is amongst the ten external hazards most often considered by the respondents. Thence the attention to the lightning hazard is within the scope of the extended PSA and its role in the safety of the nuclear power plant is underlined in this report. This report is a joint deliverable of ASAMPSA-E WP21 (Initiating events modelling) and WP22 (How to introduce hazards in L1 PSA and all possibilities of events combinations), which are intended: - to examine characteristics and modelling of lightning in PSA, - to identify and promote exchanges of some good practices on the implementation of lightning in L1 PSA. This report includes the End-Users recommendations given in WP10 and results from discussions at the first End- Users Workshop, Uppsala, Sweden, May 2014, questionnaire survey and discussions at the Final End-Users Workshop, Vienna, Austria- September 2016. (authors)

  7. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire

  8. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-11-24

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

  9. Assessment of volcanic hazards, vulnerability, risk and uncertainty (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    A volcanic hazard is any phenomenon that threatens communities . These hazards include volcanic events like pyroclastic flows, explosions, ash fall and lavas, and secondary effects such as lahars and landslides. Volcanic hazards are described by the physical characteristics of the phenomena, by the assessment of the areas that they are likely to affect and by the magnitude-dependent return period of events. Volcanic hazard maps are generated by mapping past volcanic events and by modelling the hazardous processes. Both these methods have their strengths and limitations and a robust map should use both approaches in combination. Past records, studied through stratigraphy, the distribution of deposits and age dating, are typically incomplete and may be biased. Very significant volcanic hazards, such as surge clouds and volcanic blasts, are not well-preserved in the geological record for example. Models of volcanic processes are very useful to help identify hazardous areas that do not have any geological evidence. They are, however, limited by simplifications and incomplete understanding of the physics. Many practical volcanic hazards mapping tools are also very empirical. Hazards maps are typically abstracted into hazards zones maps, which are some times called threat or risk maps. Their aim is to identify areas at high levels of threat and the boundaries between zones may take account of other factors such as roads, escape routes during evacuation, infrastructure. These boundaries may change with time due to new knowledge on the hazards or changes in volcanic activity levels. Alternatively they may remain static but implications of the zones may change as volcanic activity changes. Zone maps are used for planning purposes and for management of volcanic crises. Volcanic hazards maps are depictions of the likelihood of future volcanic phenomena affecting places and people. Volcanic phenomena are naturally variable, often complex and not fully understood. There are

  10. Seismic hazard assessment for the Caucasus test area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balassanian, S.; Ashirov, T.; Chelidze, T.; Gassanov, A.; Kondorskaya, N.; Molchan, G.; Pustovitenko, B.; Trifonov, V.; Ulomov, V.; Giardini, D.; Erdik, M.; Ghafory-Ashtiany, M.; Grunthal, G.; Mayer-Rosa, D.; Schenk, Vladimír; Stucchi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (1999), s. 1139-1151 ISSN 0365-2556 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) - project of the UN International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction and International Litosphere Program. Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  11. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Recorded proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A workshop on seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario was conducted on June 19-21, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources; Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information. Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources. Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents transcripts from recordings made of the presentations and discussion from the workshop. It will be noted, in some sections of the document, that the record is incomplete. This is due in part to recording equipment malfunction and in part due to the poor quality of recording obtained for certain periods.

  12. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Recorded proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario was conducted on June 19-21, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources; Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information. Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources. Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents transcripts from recordings made of the presentations and discussion from the workshop. It will be noted, in some sections of the document, that the record is incomplete. This is due in part to recording equipment malfunction and in part due to the poor quality of recording obtained for certain periods

  13. Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Ferguson, B.W.; Bray, C.A.; Patch, S.; Mielke, H.; Blaylock, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards

  14. LAV@HAZARD: a web-GIS interface for volcanic hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Gallo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite data, radiative power of hot spots as measured with remote sensing, historical records, on site geological surveys, digital elevation model data, and simulation results together provide a massive data source to investigate the behavior of active volcanoes like Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy over recent times. The integration of these heterogeneous data into a coherent visualization framework is important for their practical exploitation. It is crucial to fill in the gap between experimental and numerical data, and the direct human perception of their meaning. Indeed, the people in charge of safety planning of an area need to be able to quickly assess hazards and other relevant issues even during critical situations. With this in mind, we developed LAV@HAZARD, a web-based geographic information system that provides an interface for the collection of all of the products coming from the LAVA project research activities. LAV@HAZARD is based on Google Maps application programming interface, a choice motivated by its ease of use and the user-friendly interactive environment it provides. In particular, the web structure consists of four modules for satellite applications (time-space evolution of hot spots, radiant flux and effusion rate, hazard map visualization, a database of ca. 30,000 lava-flow simulations, and real-time scenario forecasting by MAGFLOW on Compute Unified Device Architecture.

  15. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rosendahl Appelquist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used to support management decisions at local, regional and national level, in areas with limited access to geophysical data. The assessment for Djibouti applies a geographic information system (GIS to develop a range of national hazard maps along with relevant hazard statistics and is showcasing the procedure for applying the CHW methodology for national hazard assessments. The assessment shows that the coastline of Djibouti is characterized by extensive stretches with high or very high hazards of ecosystem disruption, mainly related to coral reefs and mangrove forests, while large sections along the coastlines of especially northern and southern Djibouti have high hazard levels for gradual inundation. The hazard of salt water intrusion is moderate along most of Djibouti’s coastline, although groundwater availability is considered to be very sensitive to human ground water extraction. High or very high erosion hazards are associated with Djibouti’s sedimentary plains, estuaries and river mouths, while very high flooding hazards are associated with the dry river mouths.

  16. Assessment of fire hazards in buildings housing fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.; Lipska, A.

    1978-01-01

    A number of materials in and within the proximity of buildings housing fusion energy experiments (FEE) were analyzed for their potential fire hazard. The materials used in this study were mostly: electrical and thermal insulations. The fire hazard of these materials was assessed in terms of their ease of ignition, heat release rate, generation of smoke, and the effect of thermal environment on the combustion behavior. Several fire protection measures for buildings housing the (FEE) projects are analyzed and as a result of this study are found to be adequate for the near term

  17. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northeast India Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit; Sharma, M. L.; Wason, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    Northeast India bounded by latitudes 20°-30°N and longitudes 87°-98°E is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. This region has experienced several moderate-to-large-sized earthquakes, including the 12 June, 1897 Shillong earthquake ( M w 8.1) and the 15 August, 1950 Assam earthquake ( M w 8.7) which caused loss of human lives and significant damages to buildings highlighting the importance of seismic hazard assessment for the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the region has been carried out using a unified moment magnitude catalog prepared by an improved General Orthogonal Regression methodology (Geophys J Int, 190:1091-1096, 2012; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Northeast India region, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 2013) with events compiled from various databases (ISC, NEIC,GCMT, IMD) and other available catalogs. The study area has been subdivided into nine seismogenic source zones to account for local variation in tectonics and seismicity characteristics. The seismicity parameters are estimated for each of these source zones, which are input variables into seismic hazard estimation of a region. The seismic hazard analysis of the study region has been performed by dividing the area into grids of size 0.1° × 0.1°. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration ( S a) values (for periods of 0.2 and 1 s) have been evaluated at bedrock level corresponding to probability of exceedance (PE) of 50, 20, 10, 2 and 0.5 % in 50 years. These exceedance values correspond to return periods of 100, 225, 475, 2475, and 10,000 years, respectively. The seismic hazard maps have been prepared at the bedrock level, and it is observed that the seismic hazard estimates show a significant local variation in contrast to the uniform hazard value suggested by the Indian standard seismic code [Indian standard, criteria for earthquake-resistant design of structures, fifth edition, Part

  18. Bioburden assessment and gamma radiation inactivation patterns in parchment documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Carolino, Maria Manuela; Portugal, António; Botelho, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    Parchment documents are part of our cultural heritage and, as historical artifacts that they are, should be preserved. The aim of this study was to validate an appropriate methodology to characterize the bioburden of parchment documents, and to assess the growth and gamma radiation inactivation patterns of the microbiota present in that material. Another goal was to estimate the minimum gamma radiation dose (D min ) to be applied for the decontamination of parchment as an alternative treatment to the current toxic chemical and non-chemical decontamination methods. Two bioburden assessment methodologies were evaluated: the Swab Method (SM) and the Destructive Method (DM). The recovery efficiency of each method was estimated by artificial contamination, using a Cladosporium cladosporioides spore suspension. The parchment samples' microbiota was typified using morphological methods and the fungal isolates were identified by ITS-DNA sequencing. The inactivation pattern was assessed using the DM after exposure to different gamma radiation doses, and using C. cladosporioides as reference. Based on the applied methodology, parchment samples presented bioburden values lower than 5×10 3 CFU/cm 2 for total microbiota, and lower than 10 CFU/cm 2 for fungal propagules. The results suggest no evident inactivation trend for the natural parchment microbiota, especially regarding the fungal community. A minimum gamma radiation dose (D min ) of 5 kGy is proposed for the decontamination treatment of parchment. Determining the minimal decontamination dose in parchment is essential for a correct application of gamma radiation as an alternative decontamination treatment for this type of documents avoiding the toxicity and the degradation promoted by the traditional chemical and non-chemical treatments. - Highlights: • Characterization of the microbial population of parchment documents. • Study the inactivation pattern of parchment microbiota by gamma radiation. • Assessment of

  19. CP-50 calibration facility radiological safety assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, M.W.; Hill, R.L.; Eubank, B.F.

    1980-03-01

    The CP-50 Calibration Facility Radiological Safety Assessment document, prepared at the request of the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy to satisfy provisions of ERDA Manual Chapter 0531, presents design features, systems controls, and procedures used in the operation of the calibration facility. Site and facility characteristics and routine and non-routine operations, including hypothetical incidents or accidents are discussed and design factors, source control systems, and radiation monitoring considerations are described

  20. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  1. Report 2: Guidance document on practices to model and implement external flooding hazards in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebour, V.; Georgescu, G.; Leteinturier, D.; Raimond, E.; La Rovere, S.; Bernadara, P.; Vasseur, D.; Brinkman, H.; Groudev, P.; Ivanov, I.; Turschmann, M.; Sperbeck, S.; Potempski, S.; Hirata, K.; Kumar, Manorma

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a review of existing practices to model and implement external flooding hazards in existing level 1 PSA. The objective is to identify good practices on the modelling of initiating events (internal and external hazards) with a perspective of development of extended PSA and implementation of external events modelling in extended L1 PSA, its limitations/difficulties as far as possible. The views presented in this report are based on the ASAMPSA-E partners' experience and available publications. The report includes discussions on the following issues: - how to structure a L1 PSA for external flooding events, - information needed from geosciences in terms of hazards modelling and to build relevant modelling for PSA, - how to define and model the impact of each flooding event on SSCs with distinction between the flooding protective structures and devices and the effect of protection failures on other SSCs, - how to identify and model the common cause failures in one reactor or between several reactors, - how to apply HRA methodology for external flooding events, - how to credit additional emergency response (post-Fukushima measures like mobile equipment), - how to address the specific issues of L2 PSA, - how to perform and present risk quantification. (authors)

  2. Daily Encounter Cards—Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J.; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J.; Frank, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background  Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. Objective  The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Methods  Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Results  Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups (P < .001). A generalizability analysis demonstrated the majority of score variation was due to differences in DECs. The reliability with a single rater was 0.95. Conclusions  The CCERR is a reliable and valid tool to evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs. PMID:27777675

  3. Daily Encounter Cards-Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J; Frank, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups ( P  evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs.

  4. Intranet-based safety documentation in management of major hazards and occupational health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Antti

    2002-01-01

    In the European Union, Council Directive 96/82/EC requires operators producing, using, or handling significant amounts of dangerous substances to improve their safety management systems in order to better manage the major accident potentials deriving from human error. A new safety management system for the Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant in Helsinki, Finland, was implemented in this study. The system was designed to comply with both the new safety liabilities and the requirements of OHSAS 18001 (British Standards Institute, 1999). During the implementation phase experiences were gathered from the development processes in this small organisation. The complete documentation was placed in the intranet of the plant. Hyperlinks between documents were created to ensure convenience of use. Documentation was made accessible for all workers from every workstation.

  5. Comparison of landslide hazard and risk assessment practices in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, J.; Mavrouli, O.

    2012-04-01

    An overview is made of the landslide hazard and risk assessment practices that are officially promoted or applied in Europe by administration offices, geological surveys, and decision makers (recommendations, regulations and codes). The reported countries are: Andorra, Austria, France, Italy (selected river basins), Romania, Spain (Catalonia), Switzerland and United Kingdom. The objective here was to compare the different practices for hazard and risk evaluation with respect to the official policies, the methodologies used (qualitative and quantitative), the provided outputs and their contents, and the terminology and map symbols used. The main observations made are illustrated with examples and the possibility of harmonization of the policies and the application of common practices to bridge the existing gaps is discussed. Some of the conclusions reached include the following: zoning maps are legally binding for public administrators and land owners only in some cases and generally when referring to site-specific or local scales rather than regional or national ones; so far, information is mainly provided on landslide susceptibility and hazard and risk assessment is performed only in a few countries; there is a variation in the use of scales between countries; the classification criteria for landslide types and mechanisms present large diversity even within the same country (in some cases no landslide mechanisms are specified while in others there is an exhaustive list); the techniques to obtain input data for the landslide inventory and susceptibility maps vary from basic to sophisticated, resulting in various levels of data quality and quantity; the procedures followed for hazard and risk assessment include analytical procedures supported by computer simulation, weighted-indicators, expert judgment and field survey-based, or a combination of all; there is an important variation between hazard and risk matrices with respect to the used parameters, the thresholds

  6. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  7. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, J.C.; Price, R.A.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Klimkiewicz, G.C.; McGuire, R.K.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. The format of each session involved invited presentations of relevant data followed by open presentations by participants, a general discussion focusing on the relevance of the presented information for seismic hazard assessment in southern Ontario, then development of conclusions and recommendations. In the final session, the conclusions and recommendations were summarized and an open discussion was held to develop consensus. This report presents perspective summaries of the workshop technical sessions together with conclusions and recommendations prepared by the session chairs and the general chairman. 2 refs

  8. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-12

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for.

  9. Combining heuristic and statistical techniques in landslide hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Jose; Schwendtner, Barbara; Quan, Byron; Nadim, Farrokh; Diaz, Manuel; Molina, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    As a contribution to the Global Assessment Report 2013 - GAR2013, coordinated by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction - UNISDR, a drill-down exercise for landslide hazard assessment was carried out by entering the results of both heuristic and statistical techniques into a new but simple combination rule. The data available for this evaluation included landslide inventories, both historical and event-based. In addition to the application of a heuristic method used in the previous editions of GAR, the availability of inventories motivated the use of statistical methods. The heuristic technique is largely based on the Mora & Vahrson method, which estimates hazard as the product of susceptibility and triggering factors, where classes are weighted based on expert judgment and experience. Two statistical methods were also applied: the landslide index method, which estimates weights of the classes for the susceptibility and triggering factors based on the evidence provided by the density of landslides in each class of the factors; and the weights of evidence method, which extends the previous technique to include both positive and negative evidence of landslide occurrence in the estimation of weights for the classes. One key aspect during the hazard evaluation was the decision on the methodology to be chosen for the final assessment. Instead of opting for a single methodology, it was decided to combine the results of the three implemented techniques using a combination rule based on a normalization of the results of each method. The hazard evaluation was performed for both earthquake- and rainfall-induced landslides. The country chosen for the drill-down exercise was El Salvador. The results indicate that highest hazard levels are concentrated along the central volcanic chain and at the centre of the northern mountains.

  10. Wicked Problems in Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Steckler, M. S.; Rundle, J. B.; Dixon, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Social scientists have defined "wicked" problems that are "messy, ill-defined, more complex than we fully grasp, and open to multiple interpretations based on one's point of view... No solution to a wicked problem is permanent or wholly satisfying, which leaves every solution open to easy polemical attack." These contrast with "tame" problems in which necessary information is available and solutions - even if difficult and expensive - are straightforward to identify and execute. Updating the U.S.'s aging infrastructure is a tame problem, because what is wrong and how to fix it are clear. In contrast, addressing climate change is a wicked problem because its effects are uncertain and the best strategies to address them are unclear. An analogous approach can be taken to natural hazard problems. In tame problems, we have a good model of the process, good information about past events, and data implying that the model should predict future events. In such cases, we can make a reasonable assessment of the hazard that can be used to develop mitigation strategies. Earthquake hazard mitigation for San Francisco is a relatively tame problem. We understand how the earthquakes result from known plate motions, have information about past earthquakes, and have geodetic data implying that future similar earthquakes will occur. As a result, it is straightforward to develop and implement mitigation strategies. However, in many cases, hazard assessment and mitigation is a wicked problem. How should we prepare for a great earthquake on plate boundaries where tectonics favor such events but we have no evidence that they have occurred and hence how large they may be or how often to expect them? How should we assess the hazard within plates, for example in the New Madrid seismic zone, where large earthquakes have occurred but we do not understand their causes and geodetic data show no strain accumulating? How can we assess the hazard and make sensible policy when the recurrence of

  11. Afghanistan Multi-Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diermanse, Ferdinand; Daniell, James; Pollino, Maurizio; Glover, James; Bouwer, Laurens; de Bel, Mark; Schaefer, Andreas; Puglisi, Claudio; Winsemius, Hessel; Burzel, Andreas; Ammann, Walter; Aliparast, Mojtaba; Jongman, Brenden; Ranghieri, Federica; Fallesen, Ditte

    2017-04-01

    The geographical location of Afghanistan and years of environmental degradation in the country make Afghanistan highly prone to intense and recurring natural hazards such as flooding, earthquakes, snow avalanches, landslides, and droughts. These occur in addition to man-made disasters resulting in the frequent loss of live, livelihoods, and property. Since 1980, disasters caused by natural hazards have affected 9 million people and caused over 20,000 fatalities in Afghanistan. The creation, understanding and accessibility of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk information is key for effective management of disaster risk. This is especially true in Afghanistan, where reconstruction after recent natural disasters and military conflicts is on-going and will continue over the coming years. So far, there has been limited disaster risk information produced in Afghanistan, and information that does exist typically lacks standard methodology and does not have uniform geo-spatial coverage. There are currently no available risk assessment studies that cover all major natural hazards in Afghanistan, which can be used to assess the costs and benefits of different resilient reconstruction and disaster risk reduction strategies. As a result, the Government of Afghanistan has limited information regarding current and future disaster risk and the effectiveness of policy options on which to base their reconstruction and risk reduction decisions. To better understand natural hazard and disaster risk, the World Bank and Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) are supporting the development of new fluvial flood, flash flood, drought, landslide, avalanche and seismic risk information in Afghanistan, as well as a first-order analysis of the costs and benefits of resilient reconstruction and risk reduction strategies undertaken by the authors. The hazard component is the combination of probability and magnitude of natural hazards. Hazard analyses were carried out

  12. Cost assessment of natural hazards in Europe - state-of-the-art, knowledge gaps and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Thieken, A. H.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Viavattenne, C.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.

    2012-04-01

    is poor, leading to highly uncertain results. However, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses as well as validations are hardly undertaken. Important recommendations are that cost assessment can be made more comprehensive by including indirect and intangible effects. Furthermore, the importance is highlighted of identifying sources of uncertainties, of reducing them effectively and of documenting remaining ones. One source of uncertainty concerns data sources. A framework for supporting data collection on the European level ensuring minimum data quality standards would facilitate the development and consistency of European and national databases. Furthermore, an improvement of methods is needed with regard to a better understanding and modelling of the damaging processes. In particular, there is a need for a better understanding of the economic response to external shocks and to improve models for indirect cost assessment based on this. Also models to estimate direct economic damage need to be based on more knowledge about the complex processes leading to damages. Moreover, the dynamics of risk due to climate and socio-economic change have to be better considered in the models in order to unveil uncertainties about future developments in the costs of natural hazards. Finally, there is a need for appropriate and transparent tools and guidance to support decision makers in the integration of uncertain cost assessment figures into decision making.

  13. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.

    2004-12-01

    A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for its time, this approach is now superseded by modern methods that reflect substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades. In particular, post-1990 technical advances include: improvements in tsunami source specification; improved tsunami inundation models; better computational grids by virtue of improved bathymetric and topographic databases; a larger database of long-term paleoseismic and paleotsunami records and short-term, historical earthquake and tsunami records that can be exploited to develop improved probabilistic methodologies; better understanding of earthquake recurrence and probability models. The NOAA-led U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), in partnership with FEMA, USGS, NSF and Emergency Management and Geotechnical agencies of the five Pacific States, incorporates these advances into site-specific tsunami hazard assessments for coastal communities in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. NTHMP hazard assessment efforts currently focus on developing deterministic, "credible worst-case" scenarios that provide valuable guidance for hazard mitigation and emergency management. The NFIP focus, on the other hand, is on actuarial needs that require probabilistic hazard assessments such as those that characterize 100- and 500-year flooding events. There are clearly overlaps in NFIP and NTHMP objectives. NTHMP worst-case scenario assessments that include an estimated probability of occurrence could benefit the NFIP; NFIP probabilistic assessments of 100- and 500-yr

  14. A global probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment from earthquake sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gareth; Griffin, Jonathan; Lovholt, Finn; Glimsdal, Sylfest; Harbitz, Carl; Thio, Hong Kie; Lorito, Stefano; Basili, Roberto; Selva, Jacopo; Geist, Eric L.; Baptista, Maria Ana

    2017-01-01

    Large tsunamis occur infrequently but have the capacity to cause enormous numbers of casualties, damage to the built environment and critical infrastructure, and economic losses. A sound understanding of tsunami hazard is required to underpin management of these risks, and while tsunami hazard assessments are typically conducted at regional or local scales, globally consistent assessments are required to support international disaster risk reduction efforts, and can serve as a reference for local and regional studies. This study presents a global-scale probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA), extending previous global-scale assessments based largely on scenario analysis. Only earthquake sources are considered, as they represent about 80% of the recorded damaging tsunami events. Globally extensive estimates of tsunami run-up height are derived at various exceedance rates, and the associated uncertainties are quantified. Epistemic uncertainties in the exceedance rates of large earthquakes often lead to large uncertainties in tsunami run-up. Deviations between modelled tsunami run-up and event observations are quantified, and found to be larger than suggested in previous studies. Accounting for these deviations in PTHA is important, as it leads to a pronounced increase in predicted tsunami run-up for a given exceedance rate.

  15. Document Level Assessment of Document Retrieval Systems in a Pairwise System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Prabha; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of averaged topic-level scores can result in the loss of valuable data and can cause misinterpretation of the effectiveness of system performance. This study aims to use the scores of each document to evaluate document retrieval systems in a pairwise system evaluation. Method: The chosen evaluation metrics are document-level…

  16. Technical resource documents and technical handbooks for hazardous-wastes management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.; Bliss, T.M.

    1986-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is preparing a series of Technical Resource Documents (TRD's) and Technical Handbooks to provide best engineering control technology to meet the needs of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) respectively. These documents and handbooks are basically compilation of research efforts of the Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD) to date. The specific areas of research being conducted under the RCRA land disposal program relate to laboratory, pilot and field validation studies in cover systems, waste leaching and solidification, liner systems and disposal facility evaluation. The technical handbooks provide the EPA Program Offices and Regions, as well as the states and other interested parties, with the latest information relevant to remedial actions.

  17. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) stated in the proposal to DOE are as follows: Development of a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all; development of a pool of talented scientist and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; identification of needs and development of programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This is a progress report of the first quarter of the third year of the grant. It reports progress against these grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan (published at the end of the first year of the grant)

  18. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-31

    This report describes activities and reports on progress for the first quarter (July--September) of the fourth year of the grant to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) at the Medical University of South Carolina. It reports progress against the grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant. The objectives of EHAP stated in the proposal to DOE are to: (1) develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all; (2) develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health-oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management.

  19. Assessing the Readability of Medical Documents: A Ranking Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaping; Yu, Hong

    2018-03-23

    The use of electronic health record (EHR) systems with patient engagement capabilities, including viewing, downloading, and transmitting health information, has recently grown tremendously. However, using these resources to engage patients in managing their own health remains challenging due to the complex and technical nature of the EHR narratives. Our objective was to develop a machine learning-based system to assess readability levels of complex documents such as EHR notes. We collected difficulty ratings of EHR notes and Wikipedia articles using crowdsourcing from 90 readers. We built a supervised model to assess readability based on relative orders of text difficulty using both surface text features and word embeddings. We evaluated system performance using the Kendall coefficient of concordance against human ratings. Our system achieved significantly higher concordance (.734) with human annotators than did a baseline using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, a widely adopted readability formula (.531). The improvement was also consistent across different disease topics. This method's concordance with an individual human user's ratings was also higher than the concordance between different human annotators (.658). We explored methods to automatically assess the readability levels of clinical narratives. Our ranking-based system using simple textual features and easy-to-learn word embeddings outperformed a widely used readability formula. Our ranking-based method can predict relative difficulties of medical documents. It is not constrained to a predefined set of readability levels, a common design in many machine learning-based systems. Furthermore, the feature set does not rely on complex processing of the documents. One potential application of our readability ranking is personalization, allowing patients to better accommodate their own background knowledge. ©Jiaping Zheng, Hong Yu. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 23.03.2018.

  20. Meteorological Hazard Assessment and Risk Mitigation in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwayezu, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Bugnon, Pierre-Charles; Nsengiyumva, Jean-Baptiste; Horton, Pascal; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2015-04-01

    Between 10 and 13 April 2012, heavy rains hit sectors adjacent to the Vulcanoes National Park (Musanze District in the Northern Province and Nyabihu and Rubavu Districts in the Western Province of RWANDA), causing floods that affected about 11,000 persons. Flooding caused deaths and injuries among the affected population, and extensive damage to houses and properties. 348 houses were destroyed and 446 were partially damaged or have been underwater for several days. Families were forced to leave their flooded homes and seek temporal accommodation with their neighbors, often in overcrowded places. Along the West-northern border of RWANDA, Virunga mountain range consists of 6 major volcanoes. Mount Karisimbi is the highest volcano at 4507m. The oldest mountain is mount Sabyinyo which rises 3634m. The hydraulic network in Musanze District is formed by temporary torrents and permanent watercourses. Torrents surge during strong storms, and are provoked by water coming downhill from the volcanoes, some 20 km away. This area is periodically affected by flooding and landslides because of heavy rain (Rwanda has 2 rainy seasons from February to April and from September to November each year in general and 2 dry seasons) striking the Volcano National Park. Rain water creates big water channels (in already known torrents or new ones) that impact communities, agricultural soils and crop yields. This project aims at identifying hazardous and risky areas by producing susceptibility maps for floods, debris flow and landslides over this sector. Susceptibility maps are being drawn using field observations, during and after the 2012 events, and an empirical model of propagation for regional susceptibility assessments of debris flows (Flow-R). Input data are 10m and 30m resolution DEMs, satellite images, hydrographic network, and some information on geological substratum and soil occupation. Combining susceptibility maps with infrastructures, houses and population density maps will be

  1. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos

    2016-04-01

    The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos case was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential impact information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk assessment was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the assessment of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the assessment of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall

  2. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Case histories of environmental assessment documents for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear power programs and policies in the United States have been subject to environmental assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) since 1971. NEPA documentation prepared for programmatic policy decision-making fuel cycle and concurrent federal policy are examined as they relate to radioactive waste management in this paper. Key programmatic environmental impact statements that address radioactive waste management include: the Atomic Energy Commission document on management of commercial high level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive waste, which focussed on development of engineered retrievable surface storage facilities (RSSF); the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) document on use of recycled plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors, which focussed on plutonium recycle and RSSF; the NRC statement on handling of spent light water power reactor fuel, which focussed on spent fuel storage; and the Department of Energy (DOE) statement on management of commercially generated radioactive wastes, which focussed on development of deep geologic repositories. DOE is currently pursuing the deep geologic repository option, with monitored retrievable storage as a secondary option

  4. The Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP - 1992/1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Giardini

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations, recognizing natural disasters as a major threat to human life and development, designed the 1990-1999 period as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (UN/IDNDR; UN Res. 42/169/ 1987. Among the IDNDR Demonstration Projects is the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP, launched in 1992 by the International Lithosphere Program (ILP and implemented in the 1992-1999 period. In order to mitigate the risk associated to the recurrence of earthquakes, the GSHAP promoted a regionally coordinated, homogeneous approach to seismic hazard evaluation. To achieve a global dimension, the GSHAP established initially a mosaic of regions and multinational test areas, then expanded to cover whole continents and finally the globe. The GSHAP Global Map of Seismic Hazard integrates the results obtained in the regional areas and depicts Peak-Ground-Acceleration (PGA with 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to a return period of 475 years. All regional results and the Global Map of Seismic Hazard are published in 1999 and available on the GSHAP homepage on http://seismo.ethz.ch/GSHAP/.

  5. Slope Hazard and Risk Assessment in the Tropics: Malaysia' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Zakaria; Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Ahmad, Ferdaus; Manap, Mohamad Abdul; Ramli, Zamri; Ahmad, Azhari; Mohamed, Zainab

    2015-04-01

    The increasing number of geological hazards in Malaysia has often resulted in casualties and extensive devastation with high mitigation cost. Given the destructive capacity and high frequency of disaster, Malaysia has taken a step forward to address the multi-scale landslide risk reduction emphasizing pre-disaster action rather than post-disaster reaction. Slope hazard and risk assessment in a quantitative manner at regional and national scales remains challenging in Malaysia. This paper presents the comprehensive methodology framework and operational needs driven by modern and advanced geospatial technology to address the aforementioned issues in the tropics. The Slope Hazard and Risk Mapping, the first national project in Malaysia utilizing the multi-sensor LIDAR has been critically implemented with the support of multi- and trans-disciplinary partners. The methodological model has been formulated and evaluated given the complexity of risk scenarios in this knowledge driven project. Instability slope problems in the urban, mountainous and tectonic landscape are amongst them, and their spatial information is of crucial for regional landslide assessment. We develop standard procedures with optimal parameterization for susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment in the selected regions. Remarkably, we are aiming at producing an utmost complete landslide inventory in both space and time. With the updated reliable terrain and landscape models, the landslide conditioning factor maps can be accurately derived depending on the landslide types and failure mechanisms which crucial for hazard and risk assessment. We also aim to improve the generation of elements at risk for landslide and promote integrated approaches for a better disaster risk analysis. As a result, a new tool, notably multi-sensor LIDAR technology is a very promising tool for an old geological problem and its derivative data for hazard and risk analysis is an effective preventive measure in Malaysia

  6. Probabilistic versus deterministic hazard assessment in liquefaction susceptible zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Gerosa, Daniele; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), usually adopted in the framework of seismic codes redaction, is based on Poissonian description of the temporal occurrence, negative exponential distribution of magnitude and attenuation relationship with log-normal distribution of PGA or response spectrum. The main positive aspect of this approach stems into the fact that is presently a standard for the majority of countries, but there are weak points in particular regarding the physical description of the earthquake phenomenon. Factors like site effects, source characteristics like duration of the strong motion and directivity that could significantly influence the expected motion at the site are not taken into account by PSHA. Deterministic models can better evaluate the ground motion at a site from a physical point of view, but its prediction reliability depends on the degree of knowledge of the source, wave propagation and soil parameters. We compare these two approaches in selected sites affected by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, that caused widespread liquefaction phenomena unusually for magnitude less than 6. We focus on sites liquefiable because of their soil mechanical parameters and water table level. Our analysis shows that the choice between deterministic and probabilistic hazard analysis is strongly dependent on site conditions. The looser the soil and the higher the liquefaction potential, the more suitable is the deterministic approach. Source characteristics, in particular the duration of strong ground motion, have long since recognized as relevant to induce liquefaction; unfortunately a quantitative prediction of these parameters appears very unlikely, dramatically reducing the possibility of their adoption in hazard assessment. Last but not least, the economic factors are relevant in the choice of the approach. The case history of 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, with an officially estimated cost of 6 billions

  7. Identification and assessment of hazardous compounds in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawell, J K; Fielding, M

    1985-12-01

    The identification of organic chemicals in drinking water and their assessment in terms of potential hazardous effects are two very different but closely associated tasks. In relation to both continuous low-level background contamination and specific, often high-level, contamination due to pollution incidents, the identification of contaminants is a pre-requisite to evaluation of significant hazards. Even in the case of the rapidly developing short-term bio-assays which are applied to water to indicate a potential genotoxic hazard (for example Ames tests), identification of the active chemicals is becoming a major factor in the further assessment of the response. Techniques for the identification of low concentrations of organic chemicals in drinking water have developed remarkably since the early 1970s and methods based upon gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have revolutionised qualitative analysis of water. Such techniques are limited to "volatile" chemicals and these usually constitute a small fraction of the total organic material in water. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in techniques for "non-volatile" chemicals in water. Such techniques include combined high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and a variety of MS methods, involving, for example, field desorption, fast atom bombardment and thermospray ionisation techniques. In the paper identification techniques in general are reviewed and likely future developments outlined. The assessment of hazards associated with chemicals identified in drinking and related waters usually centres upon toxicology - an applied science which involves numerous disciplines. The paper examines the toxicological information needed, the quality and deployment of such information and discusses future research needs. Application of short-term bio-assays to drinking water is a developing area and one which is closely involved with, and to some extent dependent on

  8. GEOSPATIAL DATA INTEGRATION FOR ASSESSING LANDSLIDE HAZARD ON ENGINEERED SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Miller

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Road and rail networks are essential components of national infrastructures, underpinning the economy, and facilitating the mobility of goods and the human workforce. Earthwork slopes such as cuttings and embankments are primary components, and their reliability is of fundamental importance. However, instability and failure can occur, through processes such as landslides. Monitoring the condition of earthworks is a costly and continuous process for network operators, and currently, geospatial data is largely underutilised. The research presented here addresses this by combining airborne laser scanning and multispectral aerial imagery to develop a methodology for assessing landslide hazard. This is based on the extraction of key slope stability variables from the remotely sensed data. The methodology is implemented through numerical modelling, which is parameterised with the slope stability information, simulated climate conditions, and geotechnical properties. This allows determination of slope stability (expressed through the factor of safety for a range of simulated scenarios. Regression analysis is then performed in order to develop a functional model relating slope stability to the input variables. The remotely sensed raster datasets are robustly re-sampled to two-dimensional cross-sections to facilitate meaningful interpretation of slope behaviour and mapping of landslide hazard. Results are stored in a geodatabase for spatial analysis within a GIS environment. For a test site located in England, UK, results have shown the utility of the approach in deriving practical hazard assessment information. Outcomes were compared to the network operator’s hazard grading data, and show general agreement. The utility of the slope information was also assessed with respect to auto-population of slope geometry, and found to deliver significant improvements over the network operator’s existing field-based approaches.

  9. Integrated Risk Assessment to Natural Hazards in Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    An integrated risk assessment includes the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such as baseline study, hazard identification and categorization, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. Vulnerability refers to the inability of people, organizations, and societies to withstand adverse impacts from multiple stressors to which they are exposed. These impacts are due to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions, and systems of cultural values. Thus, social vulnerability is a pre-existing condition that affects a society's ability to prepare for and recover from a disruptive event. Risk is the probability of a loss, and this loss depends on three elements: hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. Thus, risk is the estimated impact that a hazard event would have on people, services, facilities, structures and assets in a community. In this work we assess the risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37N, 92.25W) with a population of about 20 000 habitants. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed to many different natural hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and floods). To determine the level of exposure of the community to natural hazards, we developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic microzonation, landslide and flood susceptibility as well as volcanic impact using standard methodologies. Social vulnerability was quantified from data obtained from local families interviews. Five variables were considered: household structure quality and design, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing family plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception.The number of families surveyed was determined considering a sample statistically significant. The families that were interviewed were selected using the simple random sampling technique with replacement. With these

  10. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph; Pages, P

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago.

  11. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Pages, P.

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago

  12. Deterministic Earthquake Hazard Assessment by Public Agencies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualchin, L.

    2005-12-01

    Even in its short recorded history, California has experienced a number of damaging earthquakes that have resulted in new codes and other legislation for public safety. In particular, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake produced some of the most lasting results such as the Hospital Safety Act, the Strong Motion Instrumentation Program, the Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Zone Act, and the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans') fault-based deterministic seismic hazard (DSH) map. The latter product provides values for earthquake ground motions based on Maximum Credible Earthquakes (MCEs), defined as the largest earthquakes that can reasonably be expected on faults in the current tectonic regime. For surface fault rupture displacement hazards, detailed study of the same faults apply. Originally, hospital, dam, and other critical facilities used seismic design criteria based on deterministic seismic hazard analyses (DSHA). However, probabilistic methods grew and took hold by introducing earthquake design criteria based on time factors and quantifying "uncertainties", by procedures such as logic trees. These probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) ignored the DSH approach. Some agencies were influenced to adopt only the PSHA method. However, deficiencies in the PSHA method are becoming recognized, and the use of the method is now becoming a focus of strong debate. Caltrans is in the process of producing the fourth edition of its DSH map. The reason for preferring the DSH method is that Caltrans believes it is more realistic than the probabilistic method for assessing earthquake hazards that may affect critical facilities, and is the best available method for insuring public safety. Its time-invariant values help to produce robust design criteria that are soundly based on physical evidence. And it is the method for which there is the least opportunity for unwelcome surprises.

  13. Multi-hazard risk assessment applied to hydraulic fracturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Gasparini, Paolo; Russo, Raffaella; Capuano, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Without exception, the exploitation of any energy resource produces impacts and intrinsically bears risks. Therefore, to make sound decisions about future energy resource exploitation, it is important to clearly understand the potential environmental impacts in the full life-cycle of an energy development project, distinguishing between the specific impacts intrinsically related to exploiting a given energy resource and those shared with the exploitation of other energy resources. Technological advances as directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have led to a rapid expansion of unconventional resources (UR) exploration and exploitation; as a consequence, both public health and environmental concerns have risen. The main objective of a multi-hazard risk assessment applied to the development of UR is to assess the rate (or the likelihood) of occurrence of incidents and the relative potential impacts on surrounding environment, considering different hazards and their interactions. Such analyses have to be performed considering the different stages of development of a project; however, the discussion in this paper is mainly focused on the analysis applied to the hydraulic fracturing stage of a UR development project. The multi-hazard risk assessment applied to the development of UR poses a number of challenges, making of this one a particularly complex problem. First, a number of external hazards might be considered as potential triggering mechanisms. Such hazards can be either of natural origin or anthropogenic events caused by the same industrial activities. Second, failures might propagate through the industrial elements, leading to complex scenarios according to the layout of the industrial site. Third, there is a number of potential risk receptors, ranging from environmental elements (as the air, soil, surface water, or groundwater) to local communities and ecosystems. The multi-hazard risk approach for this problem is set by considering multiple hazards

  14. Documentation for the 2014 update of the United States national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Powers, Peter M.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Field, Edward; Chen, Rui; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Luco, Nico; Wheeler, Russell L.; Williams, Robert A.; Olsen, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    The national seismic hazard maps for the conterminous United States have been updated to account for new methods, models, and data that have been obtained since the 2008 maps were released (Petersen and others, 2008). The input models are improved from those implemented in 2008 by using new ground motion models that have incorporated about twice as many earthquake strong ground shaking data and by incorporating many additional scientific studies that indicate broader ranges of earthquake source and ground motion models. These time-independent maps are shown for 2-percent and 10-percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for peak horizontal ground acceleration as well as 5-hertz and 1-hertz spectral accelerations with 5-percent damping on a uniform firm rock site condition (760 meters per second shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m, VS30). In this report, the 2014 updated maps are compared with the 2008 version of the maps and indicate changes of plus or minus 20 percent over wide areas, with larger changes locally, caused by the modifications to the seismic source and ground motion inputs.

  15. Risk assessment of hazardous waste transport - perspectives of GIS application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, R.E.; Dumitrescu, M.; Stefanescu, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increasing public awareness of the potential risks associated with waste transport, the environmental impact assessment of this activity has become an issue of major importance. This paper presents a project proposal, which can establish a national action plan for waste transport evaluation. Such a programme is sustained by the necessity to obtain an adequate method for the rapid and efficient estimation of individual and social risks due to the transport of hazardous substances in Romania. The main objective is to develop regional strategies for risk assessment in comprising: establishing the areas that must be investigated and their particular characteristics; identifying the transport activities in the areas; determining hazards; establishing the analysis criteria and prioritizing the study areas; evaluating continuous emissions; studying major accidents; studying population health; classifying the risks; establishing regional strategies; implementing political and regulatory measures. The project expectation is to provide a decision tool for risk managers and authorities in order to control or limit transportation and the storage of hazardous substances.(author)

  16. Bioassay-based risk assessment of hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Brown, K.W.; He, L.Y. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Microbial bioassays have been used to assess the genotoxic hazard at more than 30 different hazardous waste sites. Environmental samples were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol, and the resulting residue tested using GC/MS analysis as well as the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. At a munitions wastewater contaminated site, there was no correlation between mutagenicity in bacteria, and the risk as estimated from chemical analysis data of trinitrotoluene. Samples 202 and 204 from a coal gasification site contained 72 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene, whereas the mutagenic responses of these samples were 231 net revertants/mg and 902 revertants/mg, respectively. The data suggest that microbial bioassays provide a valuable tool for monitoring the interactions of the components of a complex mixture.

  17. Developing International Guidelines on Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide, tremendous progress has been made in recent decades in forecasting volcanic events, such as episodes of volcanic unrest, eruptions, and the potential impacts of eruptions. Generally these forecasts are divided into two categories. Short-term forecasts are prepared in response to unrest at volcanoes, rely on geophysical monitoring and related observations, and have the goal of forecasting events on timescales of hours to weeks to provide time for evacuation of people, shutdown of facilities, and implementation of related safety measures. Long-term forecasts are prepared to better understand the potential impacts of volcanism in the future and to plan for potential volcanic activity. Long-term forecasts are particularly useful to better understand and communicate the potential consequences of volcanic events for populated areas around volcanoes and for siting critical infrastructure, such as nuclear facilities. Recent work by an international team, through the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, has focused on developing guidelines for long-term volcanic hazard assessments. These guidelines have now been implemented for hazard assessment for nuclear facilities in nations including Indonesia, the Philippines, Armenia, Chile, and the United States. One any time scale, all volcanic hazard assessments rely on a geologically reasonable conceptual model of volcanism. Such conceptual models are usually built upon years or decades of geological studies of specific volcanic systems, analogous systems, and development of a process-level understanding of volcanic activity. Conceptual models are used to bound potential rates of volcanic activity, potential magnitudes of eruptions, and to understand temporal and spatial trends in volcanic activity. It is these conceptual models that provide essential justification for assumptions made in statistical model development and the application of numerical models to generate quantitative forecasts. It is a

  18. Emergency preparedness hazards assessment for selected 100 Area Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The emergency preparedness hazards assessment for Bechtel Hanford Inc. (BHI) facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of a hazards assessment is to identify the hazardous material at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. The hazards assessment is the technical basis for the facility emergency plans and procedures. There are many other buildings and past- practice burial grounds, trenches, cribs, etc., in the 100 Areas that may contain hazardous materials. Undisturbed buried waste sites that are not near the Columbia River are outside the scope of emergency preparedness hazards assessments because there is no mechanism for acute release to the air or ground water. The sites near the Columbia River are considered in a separate flood hazards assessment. This hazards assessment includes only the near-term soil remediation projects that involve intrusive activities

  19. Multi-hazard risk assessment of the Republic of Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Galli, Alberto; Amadio, Mattia; Teatini, Chiara

    2013-04-01

    The Republic of Mauritius (ROM) is a small island developing state (SIDS), part of the Mascarene Islands in West Indian Ocean, comprised by Mauritius, Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon islands and several islets. ROM is exposed to many natural hazards notably cyclones, tsunamis, torrential precipitation, landslides, and droughts; and highly vulnerable sea level rise (SLR) driven by human induced climate change. The multihazard risk assessment presented in this paper is aimed at identifying the areas prone to flood, inundation and landslide hazard, and inform the development of strategy for disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA). Climate risk analysis - a central component of the analysis - is one of the first comprehensive climate modelling studies conducted for the country. Climate change may lift the temperature by 1-2 degree Celsius by 2060-2070, and increase sizably the intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events. According to the IPCC Forth Assessment Report (AR4), the expected Sea Level Rise (SLR) ranges between 16 and 49 cm. Individually or in combination, the inland flood, coastal inundation and landslide hazards affect large proportion of the country. Sea level rise and the changes in precipitation regimes will amplified existing vulnerabilities and create new ones. The paper outlines an Action plan for Disaster Risk Reduction that takes into account the likely effects of climate change. The Action Plan calls on the government to establish a National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction as recommended by the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015. It consists of nine recommendations which, if put in practice, will significantly reduce the annual damage to natural hazard and produce additional (ancillary) benefits in economic, social and environmental terms.

  20. Landslides in Nicaragua - Mapping, Inventory, Hazard Assessment, Vulnerability Reduction, and Forecasting Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévoli, G.; Strauch, W.; Álvarez, A.; Muñoz, A.; Kjekstad, O.

    2009-04-01

    A successful landslide hazard and risk assessment requires awareness and good understanding of the potential landslide problems within the geographic area involved. However, this requirement is not always met in developing countries where population, scientific community, and the government may not be aware of the landslide threat. The landslide hazard assessment is often neglected or is based on sparse and not well documented technical information. In Nicaragua (Central America), the basic conditions for landslide hazard and risk assessment were first created after the catastrophic landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in October 1998. A single landslide took the life of thousands of people at Casita volcano forcing entire communities to be evacuated or relocated and, furthermore, thousands of smaller landslides caused loss of fertile soils and pasture lands, and made serious damages to the infrastructure. Since those events occurred, the public awareness has increased and the country relies now on new local and national governmental laws and policies, on a number of landslide investigations, and on educational and training programs. Dozens of geologists have been capacitated to investigate landslide prone areas, The Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), governmental geo-scientific institution, has assumed the responsibility to help land-use planners and public officials to reduce geological hazard losses. They are committed to work cooperatively with national, international, and local agencies, universities and the private sector to provide scientific information and improve public safety through forecasting and warnings. However, in order to provide successful long-term landslide hazard assessment, the institutions must face challenges related to the scarcity and varied quality of available landslide information; collection and access to dispersed data and documents; organization of landslide information in a form that can be easy to

  1. Landslide hazard assessment of the Black sea coastline (Caucasus, Russia) via drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeev, Andrey; Postoev, German; Fedotova, Ksenia

    2017-04-01

    Landslide hazard assessment of slopes of Sochi was performed along the railway between the cities Tuapse and Adler (total length 103 km). The railway passes through the territory with active development of hazardous geological processes such as landslides, rock falls and debris-flows. By the beginning of 2016, 36 landslide sites were discovered along the railway (total length 34 km), 48 rock-fall sites (length 31 km), and 5 debris-flow sites (length 0.14 km). In recent years the intensification of deformations was observed. For instance, during previous 10 years (1996¬¬-2005) 28 sudden deformations occurred due to slope processes, which caused interruptions in traffic. And in the present decade (2006-2015), 72 deformations were recorded. High landslide activity and economic loss determined the necessity of complex investigations of engineering geological conditions of landslides development and causes of its intensification. The protection strategy development was needed to minimize negative consequences. Thus, the investigations of landslide situation along the railway "Tuapse - Adler" included the categorization of landslide sites by level of hazard, with risk assessment based on numerical criteria. Preliminary evaluation of landslide hazard for the railway was conducted via the analysis of archived engineering-geological documents. 13 of 36 landslide sites (total length 13 km) were selected, reflecting the variety and peculiarities of landslide displacements on slopes (both active and inactive sites). Visual field observations of landslide slopes using drone "DJI Phantom 4" were completed during the second stage of this investigation. High-resolution photographs of landslide cirques, cracks, scarp walls, vegetation features were obtained via drone, which would have been impossible to obtain from the ground in conditions of dense subtropical vegetation cover. Possible approaches to the landslide activity and hazard assessment were evaluated: slope stability

  2. Assessment of Occupational Hazards, Health Problems and Safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Background: Petrol station attendants encounter several hazards and health problems while working. This study was conducted to determine the occupational hazards, health ..... engineering conference on sustainable ... Industrial Health.

  3. In situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, S S; Lower, W R

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of the environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by the laboratory analysis of the environmental samples or by the measurement of the biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. A canary in a cage, used by 19th century miners as a biological indicator for rising levels of toxic gases, is a classical example of in situ hazard identification. The induced toxic effects are often the result of synergistic and antagonistic interactions among various physical and chemical factors that are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Therefore, conceivably the biological effects measured on or near the impacted site have greater relevancy for hazard assessment to man than from the data derived from the environmental samples analyzed in the lab. The organisms most commonly employed for the assessment of mutagenicity under real-world conditions are: (1) flowering plants, (2) wild and captive mammals, and (3) aquatic vertebrates. Plant species such as Tradescantia paludosa, Zea mays, and Osmunda regalis have been used for monitoring ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the U.S.A., nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also for the assessment of potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals such as dogs can be used as sentinels to provide information on the effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate the environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed for assessing the health hazards and prioritizing the clean-up efforts at hazardous waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution. Since 1970, a number of studies has been reported on the

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Requirement Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This revision of the LLNL Fire Protection Baseline Needs Assessment (BNA) was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by Martin Gresho, Sandia/CA Fire Marshal. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only address emergency response. The original LLNL BNA was created on April 23, 1997 as a means of collecting all requirements concerning emergency response capabilities at LLNL (including response to emergencies at Sandia/CA) into one BNA document. The original BNA documented the basis for emergency response, emergency personnel staffing, and emergency response equipment over the years. The BNA has been updated and reissued five times since in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. A significant format change was performed in the 2004 update of the BNA in that it was 'zero based.' Starting with the requirement documents, the 2004 BNA evaluated the requirements, and determined minimum needs without regard to previous evaluations. This 2010 update maintains the same basic format and requirements as the 2004 BNA. In this 2010 BNA, as in the previous BNA, the document has been intentionally divided into two separate documents - the needs assessment (1) and the compliance assessment (2). The needs assessment will be referred to as the BNA and the compliance assessment will be referred to as the BNA Compliance Assessment. The primary driver for separation is that the needs assessment identifies the detailed applicable regulations (primarily NFPA Standards) for emergency response capabilities based on the hazards present at LLNL and Sandia/CA and the geographical location of the facilities. The needs assessment also identifies areas where the modification of the requirements in the applicable NFPA standards is appropriate, due to the improved fire protection

  5. Mercury Hazard Assessment for Piscivorous Wildlife in Glacier National Park

    KAUST Repository

    Stafford, Craig P.

    2016-12-14

    We examined the mercury hazard posed to selected piscivorous wildlife in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. Logging Lake was our focal site where we estimated the dietary mercury concentrations of wildlife (common loon [Gavia immer], American mink [Neovison vison], river otter [Lontra canadensis], and belted kingfisher [Megaceryle alcyon]) by assuming that fishes were consumed in proportion to their relative abundances. To evaluate if Logging Lake provided a suitable baseline for our study, we made geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels and investigated the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP. We complimented our assessment by examining selenium:mercury molar ratios in fishes from Logging Lake and Saint Mary Lake. Our results suggest fish consumption does not imperil wildlife from Logging Lake based on published thresholds for adverse mercury effects, but some hazard may exist particularly if there is strong feeding selectivity for the most contaminated species, northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). The geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels, together with the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP, suggest that Logging Lake provided a relatively protective baseline among our study lakes. Risk may be further reduced by the molar excess of selenium relative to mercury, particularly in the smaller fishes typically consumed by GNP wildlife. Our findings contrast with studies from northeastern US and southeastern Canada where greater mercury hazard to wildlife exists. An emergent finding from our research is that waterborne concentrations of methylmercury may provide limited insight into regional differences in fish mercury levels.

  6. Mercury Hazard Assessment for Piscivorous Wildlife in Glacier National Park

    KAUST Repository

    Stafford, Craig P.; Downs, Christopher C.; Langner, Heiko W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the mercury hazard posed to selected piscivorous wildlife in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana. Logging Lake was our focal site where we estimated the dietary mercury concentrations of wildlife (common loon [Gavia immer], American mink [Neovison vison], river otter [Lontra canadensis], and belted kingfisher [Megaceryle alcyon]) by assuming that fishes were consumed in proportion to their relative abundances. To evaluate if Logging Lake provided a suitable baseline for our study, we made geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels and investigated the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP. We complimented our assessment by examining selenium:mercury molar ratios in fishes from Logging Lake and Saint Mary Lake. Our results suggest fish consumption does not imperil wildlife from Logging Lake based on published thresholds for adverse mercury effects, but some hazard may exist particularly if there is strong feeding selectivity for the most contaminated species, northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). The geographic comparisons of fish mercury levels, together with the distribution and abundance of high mercury fishes within GNP, suggest that Logging Lake provided a relatively protective baseline among our study lakes. Risk may be further reduced by the molar excess of selenium relative to mercury, particularly in the smaller fishes typically consumed by GNP wildlife. Our findings contrast with studies from northeastern US and southeastern Canada where greater mercury hazard to wildlife exists. An emergent finding from our research is that waterborne concentrations of methylmercury may provide limited insight into regional differences in fish mercury levels.

  7. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization

  8. Mission hazard assessment for STARS Mission 1 (M1) in the Marshall Islands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outka, D.E.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    A mission hazard assessment has been performed for the Strategic Target System Mission 1 (known as STARS M1) for hazards due to potential debris impact in the Marshall Islands area. The work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as a result of discussion with Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) safety officers. The STARS M1 rocket will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), Hawaii, and deliver two payloads to within the viewing range of sensors located on the Kwajalein Atoll. The purpose of this work has been to estimate upper bounds for expected casualty rates and impact probability or the Marshall Islands areas which adjoin the STARS M1 instantaneous impact point (IIP) trace. This report documents the methodology and results of the analysis.

  9. National-Level Multi-Hazard Risk Assessments in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, R. J.; Balog, S.; Fraser, S. A.; Jongman, B.; Van Ledden, M.; Phillips, E.; Simpson, A.

    2017-12-01

    National-level risk assessments can provide important baseline information for decision-making on risk management and risk financing strategies. In this study, multi-hazard risk assessments were undertaken for 9 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Kenya, Niger, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal and Uganda. The assessment was part of the Building Disaster Resilience in Sub-Saharan Africa Program and aimed at supporting the development of multi-risk financing strategies to help African countries make informed decisions to mitigate the socio-economic, fiscal and financial impacts of disasters. The assessments considered hazards and exposures consistent with the years 2010 and 2050. We worked with multiple firms to develop the hazard, exposure and vulnerability data and the risk results. The hazards include: coastal flood, drought, earthquake, landslide, riverine flood, tropical cyclone wind and storm surge, and volcanoes. For hazards expected to vary with climate, the 2050 hazard is based on the IPCC RCP 6.0. Geolocated exposure data for 2010 and 2050 at a 15 arc second ( 0.5 km) resolution includes: structures as a function of seven development patterns; transportation networks including roads, bridges, tunnels and rail; critical facilities such as schools, hospitals, energy facilities and government buildings; crops; population; and, gross domestic product (GDP). The 2050 exposure values for population are based on the IPCC SSP 2. Values for other exposure data are a function of population change. Vulnerability was based on openly available vulnerability functions. Losses were based on replacement values (e.g., cost/m2 or cost/km). Risk results are provided in terms of annual average loss and a variety of return periods at the national and Admin 1 levels. Assessments of recent historical events are used to validate the model results. In the future, it would be useful to use hazard footprints of historical events for validation purposes. The

  10. Wind turbine environmental assessment -- Vol 1: Screening document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    The environmental effects of the proposed construction and operation of up to three wind turbines on the Toronto waterfront are evaluated in accordance with the requirements of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) and Regulations. The nine sections of the report provide background on the environmental assessment and the wind turbine project; provide justification for the project and describes alternative sites and wind turbine technologies; outlines the scope of the project; sketches the biophysical and socio-economic environment; presents an evaluation of the environmental impacts and proposed mitigating measures; describes the public consultation program that was carried out; summarizes the comments received from interested parties; presents the conclusion of the environmental impact assessment; and responds to the public comments received on the draft screening document. Most of the concerns raised involved avoidance reactions by birds, disruption or fragmentation of wildlife, the potential for high kill rate of small nocturnal migrants and young birds, and the effect of noise on breeding birds. The overall recommendation of the consultants is that the project is not likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects and its construction and operations should be authorized. 115 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs. (14 appendices are in volume 2)

  11. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used...... to support management decisions at local, regional and national level, in areas with limited access to geophysical data. The assessment for Djibouti applies a geographic information system (GIS) to develop a range of national hazard maps along with relevant hazard statistics and is showcasing the procedure......This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed...

  12. Documenting Matured Science: The BACC-Type Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckermann, M.; Omstedt, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    The BACC-type reports (BALTEX and Baltic Earth Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea region, BACC 2008 and BACC II 2015) represent an approach to assessing and making available current knowledge on regional climate change and its regional impacts on the physical, biogeochemical and biological environment (ecosystems, socio-economic sphere). The BACC assessments have originated in the BALTEX scientific research community (now Baltic Earth) and are coordinated by the International Baltic Earth Secretariat. The assessments are produced by teams of scientists from the region, led by lead authors who recruit experts from relevant topics to contribute. The report of 2015 was compiled by a different group of authors as 2008 to warrant independence of personal opinions and bias. The process is not externally funded and completely based on published scientific evidence, and not biased by political or economic interest groups. The BACC-type reports aim to bring together consolidated knowledge that has broad consensus in the scientific community, but also acknowledging issues for which contradicting opinions are found in the literature, so that no consensus can be reached ("consensus on dissensus"). An international steering committee is responsible for overlooking the process, and all manuscripts are anonymously peer-reviewed by independent international experts. Outreach to stakeholders and the public is an inherent aspect of this approach to document mature science. For the Baltic Sea, there is a close collaboration with HELCOM, the intergovernmental Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission and the major regional science-policy interface in the Baltic Sea region. A summary for non-scientists was produced for the first BACC report and is in preparation for the second. Other BACC-type reports published are the climate report for the greater Hamburg area (published in 2011), and the NOSCCA report (North Sea Climate Change Assessment), published in 2016.

  13. Radiological hazard assessment at the Monte Bello Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Martin, L.J.; Wilks, M.J.; Wiliams, G.A.

    1990-12-01

    Field and laboratory measurements are described and data presented which enabled dose assessments for exposure to artificial radionuclides at the Monte Bello Islands, the sites of U.K. atomic weapons tests in 1952 and 1956. The report focuses on quantifying the inhalation hazard as exposure via the ingestion and wound contamination pathways is considered inconsequential. Surface soil concentrations of radionuclides and particle size analyses are presented for various sampling sites. Analyses of the distribution with depth indicated that, in general, the activity is more or less uniformly mixed through the top 40 mm, although in a few cases the top 10 mm contains the bulk of the activity. The 239 Pu/ 241 Am activity ratios were measured for selected samples. The only potential hazards to health from residual radioactive contamination on the Monte Bello Islands are due to the inhalation of actinides (specifically plutonium and americium) and from the external gamma-radiation field. Only one area, in the fallout plume of HURRICANE to the north-west of Main Beach, is a potential inhalation hazard. For an average inhalable dust loading of 0.1 mg/m 3 , three days occupancy of the most contaminated site will result in a committed effective dose equivalent of 1 mSv. The two ground zeros could not be considered inhalation hazards, considering the small areas concerned and the habits of visitors (full-time occupancy, over a period of one year or more, of the most contaminated sites at either of the G1 or G2 ground zeros would be required to reach 1 mSv). 25 refs., 23 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, Unni Marie K.; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures, with a focus on the indirect losses and loss of stability for the population relying on the infrastructure. The model prescribes a three-level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. The focus is on a methodology for semi-quantitative analyses to be performed at the second level. The purpose of this type of analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures, identifying the most critical scenarios and investigating the need for further analyses (third level). The proposed semi-quantitative methodology considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability, including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself, and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale according to pre-defined ranking criteria. The proposed indicators, which characterise conditions that influence the probability of an infrastructure malfunctioning caused by a natural event, are defined as (1) robustness and buffer capacity, (2) level of protection, (3) quality/level of maintenance and renewal, (4) adaptability and quality of operational procedures and (5) transparency/complexity/degree of coupling. Further indicators describe conditions influencing the socio-economic consequences of the infrastructure malfunctioning, such as (1) redundancy and/or substitution, (2) cascading effects and dependencies, (3) preparedness and (4) early warning, emergency response and measures. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard, the potential duration of the infrastructure malfunctioning (e.g. depending on the required restoration effort) and the number of users of

  15. Determination of lead and radioactivity in cosmetics products: Hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat Moustafa E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative analysis of cosmetic samples showed that lead is the most toxic element found in eyebrow paint samples.

  16. Internal dosimetry hazard and risk assessments: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Routine internal dose exposures are typically (in the UK nuclear industry) less than external dose exposures: however, the costs of internal dosimetry monitoring programmes can be significantly greater than those for external dosimetry. For this reason decisions on when to apply routine monitoring programmes, and the nature of these programmes, can be more critical than for external dosimetry programmes. This paper describes various methods for performing hazard and risk assessments which are being developed by RWE NUKEM Limited Approved Dosimetry Services to provide an indication when routine internal dosimetry monitoring should be considered. (author)

  17. Ecotoxicological hazard assessment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Y.; Pauwels, S.J.; Chasse, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecotoxicological Hazard Assessment (EHA) developed by the Quebec Ministry of Environment and Wildlife was used as part of the management scheme of contaminated soils from a former refinery. The study consists of assessing five types of soils (reference, heavily contaminated, slightly contaminated, thermally-treated, and biotreated) to determine their relative intrinsic hazard. During the exploratory activities a series of ten assessment endpoints where identified to support this typical EHA. During SOURCE characterization, the physicochemical make-up of the soils is described and the presence and concentrations of priority pollutants is determined. During FATE characterization, the potential for bioconcentration, mobility, and persistence of pollutants is determined. During EFFECTS characterization, the soils and their leachates are tested using standard terrestrial and aquatic bioassays. The data from the toxicological and analytical testing program are evaluated semi-quantitatively on the basis of a scoring system developed by consensus. The discussion will highlight how data are used within an EHA to streamline the decision-making process regarding the follow-up cleanup and disposal of contaminated soils

  18. Hazard assessments of double-shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, G.L.; Stepnewski, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of hazard assessments performed on the double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks. This report focuses on hazards associated with the double-shell watch list tanks (101-AW, 103-AN, 104-AN, and 105-AN). While a similar assessment has already been performed for tank 103-SY, it is also included here to incorporate a more representative slurry gas mixture and provide a consistent basis for comparing results for all the flammable gas tanks. This report is intended to provide an in-depth assessment by considering the details of the gas release event and slurry gas mixing as the gas is released from the waste. The consequences of postulated gas ignition are evaluated using a plume burn model and updated ignition frequency predictions. Tank pressurization which results from a gas burn, along with the structural response, is also considered. The report is intended to support the safety basis for work activities in flammable gas tanks by showing margins to safety limits that are available in the design and procedures

  19. Role of beach morphology in wave overtopping hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Benjamin; Brown, Jennifer; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Plater, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the role of beach morphology in controlling wave overtopping volume will further minimise uncertainties in flood risk assessments at coastal locations defended by engineered structures worldwide. XBeach is used to model wave overtopping volume for a 1:200 yr joint probability distribution of waves and water levels with measured, pre- and post-storm beach profiles. The simulation with measured bathymetry is repeated with and without morphological evolution enabled during the modelled storm event. This research assesses the role of morphology in controlling wave overtopping volumes for hazardous events that meet the typical design level of coastal defence structures. Results show disabling storm-driven morphology under-represents modelled wave overtopping volumes by up to 39% under high Hs conditions, and has a greater impact on the wave overtopping rate than the variability applied within the boundary conditions due to the range of wave-water level combinations that meet the 1:200 yr joint probability criterion. Accounting for morphology in flood modelling is therefore critical for accurately predicting wave overtopping volumes and the resulting flood hazard and to assess economic losses.

  20. Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates three Hazardous Waste Management Facilities with 24 associated waste management units for the treatment and storage of hazardous and mixed wastes. These wastes are generated by research programs and support operations. The storage and treatment units are presently operated under interim status in accordance with the requirements of the US Envirorunental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), a division of the California Envirorunental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA). As required by the California Hazardous Waste Control Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), LLNL ha s applied for a Part B permit to continue operating the storage and waste treatment facilities. As part of this permitting process, LLNL is required to conduct a health risk assessment (HRA) to examine the potential health impacts to the surrounding community from continued storage and treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. analysis document presents the results of this risk assessment. An analysis of maximum credible chemical accidents is also included in Section 7.0. This HRA was prepared in accordance with procedures set forth by the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA) ''Air Toxics Assessment Manual,'' CAPCOA guidelines for preparing risk assessments under the Air Toxic ''Hot Spots'' Act (AB 2588) and requirements of the US EPA. By following these procedures, this risk assessment presents a conservative analysis of a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) using many worst-case assumptions that will not apply to an actual individual. As such, the risk estimates presented should be regarded as a worst-case estimate of any actual risk that may be present

  1. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina's (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine

  2. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine.

  3. Tsunami hazard and risk assessment in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; González-Riancho, P.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; García-Aguilar, O.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Aguirre, I.; Alvarez, J. A.; Gavidia, F.; Jaimes, I.; Larreynaga, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructure around the world. Several works have attempted to study these phenomena in order to understand their origin, causes, evolution, consequences, and magnitude of their damages, to finally propose mechanisms to protect coastal societies. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce risk on coastal areas. This work -Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador-, funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, examines the state of the art and presents a comprehensive methodology for assessing the risk of tsunamis at any coastal area worldwide and applying it to the coast of El Salvador. The conceptual framework is based on the definition of Risk as the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from a given hazard to a given element at danger or peril, over a specified time period (European Commission, Schneiderbauer et al., 2004). The HAZARD assessment (Phase I of the project) is based on propagation models for earthquake-generated tsunamis, developed through the characterization of tsunamigenic sources -sismotectonic faults- and other dynamics under study -tsunami waves, sea level, etc.-. The study area is located in a high seismic activity area and has been hit by 11 tsunamis between 1859 and 1997, nine of them recorded in the twentieth century and all generated by earthquakes. Simulations of historical and potential tsunamis with greater or lesser affection to the country's coast have been performed, including distant sources, intermediate and close. Deterministic analyses of the threats under study -coastal flooding- have been carried out, resulting in different hazard maps (maximum wave height elevation, maximum water depth, minimum tsunami

  4. Rockfall hazard and risk assessment in the Yosemite Valley, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guzzetti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent types of slope movements in Yosemite National Park, California. In historical time (1857–2002 392 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the results of an attempt to assess rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley. Spatial and temporal aspects of rock falls hazard are considered. A detailed inventory of slope movements covering the 145-year period from 1857 to 2002 is used to determine the frequency-volume statistics of rock falls and to estimate the annual frequency of rock falls, providing the temporal component of rock fall hazard. The extent of the areas potentially subject to rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley were obtained using STONE, a physically-based rock fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock fall trajectories starting from a digital elevation model (DEM, the location of rock fall release points, and maps of the dynamic rolling friction coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tangential energy restitution. For each DEM cell the software calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock fall velocity and the maximum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DEM with a ground resolution of 10 × 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from the U.S. Geological Survey 1:24 000-scale maps. Rock fall release points were identified as DEM cells having a slope steeper than 60°, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the normal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to calibrate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls

  5. Rockfall hazard and risk assessment in the Yosemite Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent types of slope movements in Yosemite National Park, California. In historical time (1857-2002) 392 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the results of an attempt to assess rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley. Spatial and temporal aspects of rock falls hazard are considered. A detailed inventory of slope movements covering the 145-year period from 1857 to 2002 is used to determine the frequency-volume statistics of rock falls and to estimate the annual frequency of rock falls, providing the temporal component of rock fall hazard. The extent of the areas potentially subject to rock fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley were obtained using STONE, a physically-based rock fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock fall trajectories starting from a digital elevation model (DEM), the location of rock fall release points, and maps of the dynamic rolling friction coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tangential energy restitution. For each DEM cell the software calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock fall velocity and the maximum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DEM with a ground resolution of 10 × 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from the U.S. Geological Survey 1:24 000-scale maps. Rock fall release points were identified as DEM cells having a slope steeper than 60°, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the normal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to calibrate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of

  6. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program quarterly report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-30

    The objectives of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) stated in the proposal to DOE are to: develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards on the health and well-being of all; develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes activities and reports on progress for the third quarter (January--March) of the third year of the grant. It reports progress against these grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant. Questions, comments, or requests for further information concerning the activities under this grant can be forwarded to Jack Davis in the EHAP office of the Medical University of South Carolina at (803) 727-6450.

  7. Input for seismic hazard assessment using Vrancea seismic source region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, Iren-Adelina; Enescu, B.D.; Pantea, A.

    1998-01-01

    We use an extended and combined data base including historical and modern, qualitative and quantitative data, i.e., more than 25 events during the period 1790 - 1990 with epicentral/maximum intensities ranging from X to V degree (MSK scale), the variation interval of isoseismal curves ranging from IX th to III rd degree. The data set was analysed using both the sum phasor techniques of Ridelek and Sacks (1984) for different magnitudes and depth intervals and the Stepp's method. For the assessment of seismic hazard we need a pattern of seismic source regions including an estimation for the maximum expected magnitude and the return period for the studied regions. Another necessary step in seismic hazard assessment is to develop attenuation relationships specific to a seismogenic zone, particularly to sub-crustal earthquakes of Vrancea region. The conceptual frame involves the use of appropriate decay models and consideration of the randomness in the attenuation, taking into account the azimuthal variation of the isoseist shapes. (authors)

  8. Health literacy, self-efficacy, and patients' assessment of medical disclosure and consent documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Mackert, Michael; Guinn, Trey D; Tollison, Andrew C; Breckinridge, Barbara; Pont, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Informed consent documents are designed to convey the risks of medical procedures to patients, yet they are often difficult to understand; this is especially true for individuals with limited health literacy. An important opportunity for advancing knowledge about health literacy and informed consent involves examining the theoretical pathways that help to explain how health literacy relates to information processing when patients read consent forms. In this study, we proposed and tested a model that positioned self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between health literacy and patients' comprehension and assessment of informed consent documentation. Findings from structured interviews with patients (n = 254) indicated that lower health literacy predicted lower self-efficacy, which predicted feeling less well informed and less prepared, being more confused about the procedure and its hazards, and wanting more information about risks. Incorporating awareness of self-efficacy into disclosure documents and consent conversations may be a useful means of prompting patients to ask questions that can help them make informed decisions about care.

  9. Ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of endocrine active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Annegaaike; Roberts, Mike; Matthiessen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This collection of papers provides state-of-the-art science on a complex topic that has been challenging for scientists and regulators for a long time. The papers emanated from the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Pellston Workshop ® Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA). Forty-eight international experts met in early February 2016 to discuss whether the environmental risks posed by endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) can be reliably assessed. The primary conclusion of the workshop was that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk assessment of EDS is scientifically sound and reliable. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:264-266. © 2016 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2016 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  10. Establishing a comprehensive risk assessment document for Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, K.A.; Janke, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    While in active operation from 1952 until 1989, the Feed Material Production Center (FMPC),currently referred to as the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), produced highly purified uranium metal for ultimate use in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. In 1986 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the DOE entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. In response to the FFCA, a sitewide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated. Production was permanently suspended at the facility in 1989, and the focus has since shifted to environmental restoration and waste management activities. The original RI/FS work plan identified 39 units, but these were later categorized and grouped into 5 larger, more manageable units as follows: (1) operable unit 1 - waste pit area; (2) operable unit 2 - other solid waste units; (3) operable unit 3 - former production area; (4) operable unit 4- silos I through 4; and (5) operable unit 5 - environmental media. On June 29, 1990, a consent agreement (under Sec. 120 and 106[a] of CERCLA) between the DOE and EPA became effective. The purpose of this agreement was to achieve consistency between the operable units and ensure commitments to the RI/FS program without altering the underlying objectives. The consent agreement was amended the following year to revise the schedules for completing the remediation of the five operable units and to direct operable unit integration to ensure compliance with the residual risk requirements of the National Hazardous Substances and Oil Contingency Plan. This Amended Consent Agreement (ACA) was signed on September 20, 1991, and became effective on December 19, 1991. In accordance with provisions of the ACA, a methodology has been prepared for performing risk assessments and establishing risk-based remedial action goals at the FEMP

  11. Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls

  12. Risk Assessment of Healthcare Waste by Preliminary Hazard Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouran Morovati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Improper management of healthcare waste (HCW can pose considerable risks to human health and the environment and cause serious problems in developing countries such as Iran. In this study, we sought to determine the hazards of HCW in the public hospitals affiliated to Abadan School of Medicine using the preliminary hazard analysis (PHA method. Methods: In this descriptive and analytic study, health risk assessment of HCW in government hospitals affiliated to Abadan School of Medicine (4 public hospitals was carried out by using PHA in the summer of  2016. Results: We noted the high risk of sharps and infectious wastes. Considering the dual risk of injury and disease transmission, sharps were classified in the very high-risk group, and pharmaceutical and chemical and radioactive wastes were classified in the medium-risk group. Sharps posed the highest risk, while pharmaceutical and chemical wastes had the lowest risk. Among the various stages of waste management, the waste treatment stage was the most hazardous in all the studied hospitals. Conclusion: To diminish the risks associated with healthcare waste management in the studied hospitals, adequate training of healthcare workers and care providers, provision of suitable personal protective and transportation equipment, and supervision of the environmental health manager of hospitals should be considered by the authorities.  

  13. Thermal hazard assessment of TMCH mixed with inorganic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Chi-Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,1-Bis(tert-butylperoxy-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (TMCH is a typical peroxide with two peroxy groups that may runaway and/or explode due to mixing with inorganic acids, such as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, or H3PO4. In this study, reactivities of TMCH mixed with the above inorganic acids were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Furthermore, data obtained by DSC, such as exothermic onset temperature (T0, maximum temperature (Tmax, and heat of decomposition (ΔHd could be employed to acquire thermal safety parameters. Moreover, thermal activity monitor III (TAM III was employed to investigate the thermal hazards while storing or transporting TMCH and TMCH mixed with four types of commonly used inorganic acids, here as HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, or H3PO4 under isothermal conditions. Mixing TMCH with those inorganic acids resulted in higherΔHd except H3PO4, and mixing TMCH with HCl clearly decreased T0. Therefore, the phenomena of mixing those incompatible materials with TMCH can be concluded as the worst cases in terms of contamination hazards during storage and transportation of TMCH.

  14. Initial emission assessment of hazardous-waste-incineration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, E.S.; Holton, G.A.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Health and Safety Research Division, sponsored by EPA, conducted a study to quantify emission factors from stacks, spills, fugitives, storage, and treatment for a typical hazardous waste incinerator facility. Engineering participated in preparing flowsheets and providing calculations for fugitive emissions. Typical block-flow diagrams were developed two types of hazardous waste incinerators (rotary kiln and liquid-injector) and for three capacities (small: 1 MM Btu/hr, median: 10 MM Btu/hr, and large: 150 MM Btu/hr). Storage reqirements and support services were determined in more detail. Using the properties of a typical waste, fugitive emissions were determined, including emissions from pump leaks, valve leaks, flange leaks, and tank vents. An atmospheric dispersion model was then employed to calculate atmospheric concentration and population exposure estimates. With these estimates, an assessment was performed to determine the percentage of concentrations and exposure associated with selected emissions from each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source both in terms of public health and pollution control requirements

  15. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  16. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam(trademark) (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam(trademark) system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas

  17. Assessment of Meteorological Drought Hazard Area using GIS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    The purpose of this study was to make a model of the meteorological drought hazard area using GIS. ... overlaying different hazard indicator maps in the GIS, deploying the new model. The final ..... Northeast Thailand Project Bangkok. Min. of.

  18. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 5: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirement of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine; environmental hazards assessment and education program in pharmacy graduate education in risk assessment; and graduate education risk assessment.

  19. Assessment and Documentation Considerations for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will

    2011-01-01

    In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…

  20. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Management Hazards Assessment (EMHA) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Management Hazards Assessment (EMHA) process used by the lead and all event contractors at the Y-12 Plant for emergency planning and preparedness. The EMHA process provides the technical basis for the Y-12 emergency management program. The instructions provides in this report include methods and requirements for performing the following emergency management activities at Y-12: hazards identification; hazards survey, and hazards assessment

  1. Environmental hazards assessment program. Quarterly report, July 1996--September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    On June 23, 1992, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FG01-92EW50625 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). Dr. James B. Edwards, President of the Medical University of South Carolina, suggested, open-quotes Good health is not the result of good doctoring but the result of a healthy society in a healthy, economic, political and biological environment.close quotes To further good health, it is appropriate that an educational institution such as MUSC utilize grant funds to help people from all walks of life understand better what truly does affect human health, what does not, and why

  2. Quantified risk assessment for hazardous industry: The Australian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the key conceptual and methodological aspects of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) and Hazard Analysis techniques as applied in the process industry, mostly in New South Wales, Australia. Variations in the range of applications of the techniques between the nuclear and non-nuclear industries are highlighted. The opportunity is taken to discuss cur-rent and future issues and trends concerning QRA, including: uncertainties and limitations; acceptability of risk criteria; toxicity and chronic health effects; new technology; modelling topics; and, environmental risk. The paper concludes by indicating that the next generation QRA, as applicable to Australian conditions in particular, will benefit from are think in two areas: a multi-level approach to QRA, and a range of not fully explored applications

  3. Quantified risk assessment for hazardous industry: the Australian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the key conceptual and methodological aspects of Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) and Hazard Analysis techniques as applied in the process industry, mostly in New South Wales, Australia. Variations in the range of applications of the techniques between the nuclear and non-nuclear industries are highlighted. The opportunity is taken to discuss current and future issues and trends concerning QRA, including: uncertainties and limitations; acceptability of risk criteria; toxicity and chronic health effects; new technology; modelling topics; and environmental risk. The paper concludes by indicating that the next generation QRA, as applicable to Australian conditions in particular, will benefit from a rethink in two areas: a multi-level approach to QRA, and a range of not fully explored applications. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  4. TSUNAMI HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN THE NORTHERN AEGEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency planning for the assessment of tsunami hazard inundation and of secondary effects of erosion and landslides, requires mapping that can help identify coastal areas that are potentially vulnerable. The present study reviews tsunami susceptibility mapping for coastal areas of Turkey and Greece in the Aegean Sea. Potential tsunami vulnerable locations were identified from LANDSAT ETM imageries, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 data and QuickBird imageries and from a GIS integrated spatial database. LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the SRTM-Mission were investigated to help detect traces of past flooding events. LANDSAT ETM imageries, merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data, clearly indicate the areas that may be prone to flooding if catastrophic tsunami events or storm surges occur.

  5. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-31

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop a holistic, national basis for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication that recognizes the direct impact of environmental hazards, both chemical and radiation, on the health and well-being of all; (2) develop a pool of talented scientists and experts in cleanup activities, especially in human health aspects; and (3) identify needs and develop programs addressing the critical shortage of well-educated, highly-skilled technical and scientific personnel to address the health oriented aspects of environmental restoration and waste management. This report describes the progress made this quarter in the following areas: public and professional outreach; science programs; clinical programs; and information support and access systems.

  6. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on

  7. A simple tool for preliminary hazard identification and quick assessment in craftwork and small/medium enterprises (SME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, E; Di Leone, G

    2012-01-01

    During the last Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), Beijing, August 2009, an international group was founded aimed at developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" within IEA and in collaboration with World Health Organization (WHO). Possible users of toolkits are: members of health and safety committees, health and safety representatives, line supervisors; labor inspectors; health workers implementing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists.According to ISO standard 11228 series and the new Draft CD ISO 12259-2009: Application document guides for the potential user, a computer software ( in Excel®) was create dealing with hazard "mapping" in handicraft The proposed methodology, using specific key enters and quick assessment criteria, allows a simple ergonomics hazard identification and risk estimation. Thus it makes possible to decide for which professional hazards a more exhaustive risk assessment will be necessary and which professional consultant should be involved (occupational physician, safety engineer, industrial hygienist, etc.).

  8. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Program, list of participants and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents a copy of the workshop program, the list of participants and extended abstracts received from speakers. It was distributed to the participants prior to the workshop. The abstracts were intended to provide advance information and to afford some basis for meaningful discussion and exchange of information

  9. AECB workshop on seismic hazard assessment in Southern Ontario. Program, list of participants and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop was to review available geological and seismological data which could affect earthquake occurrence in southern Ontario and to develop a consensus on approaches that should be adopted for characterization of seismic hazard. The workshop was structured in technical sessions to focus presentations and discussions on four technical issues relevant to seismic hazard in southern Ontario, as follows: (1) The importance of geological and geophysical observations for the determination of seismic sources, (2) Methods and approaches which may be adopted for determining seismic sources based on integrated interpretations of geological and seismological information, (3) Methods and data which should be used for characterizing the seismicity parameters of seismic sources, and (4) Methods for assessment of vibratory ground motion hazard. This document presents a copy of the workshop program, the list of participants and extended abstracts received from speakers. It was distributed to the participants prior to the workshop. The abstracts were intended to provide advance information and to afford some basis for meaningful discussion and exchange of information.

  10. Assessment of seismic hazards along the northern Gulf of Aqaba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abueladas, Abdel-Rahman Aqel

    Aqaba and Elat are very important port and recreation cities for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Israel, respectively. The two cities are the most susceptible to damage from a destructive future earthquake because they are located over the tectonically active Dead Sea transform fault (DST) that is the source of most of the major historical earthquakes in the region. The largest twentieth century earthquake on the DST, the magnitude Mw 7.2 Nuweiba earthquake of November 22, 1995, caused damage to structures in both cities. The integration of geological, geophysical, and earthquake engineering studies will help to assess the seismic hazards by determining the location and slip potential of active faults and by mapping areas of high liquefaction susceptibility. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a high resolution shallow geophysical tool was used to map the shallow active faults in Aqaba, Taba Sabkha area, and Elat. The GPR data revealed the onshore continuation of the Evrona, West Aqaba, Aqaba fault zones, and several transverse faults. The integration of offshore and onshore data confirm the extension of these faults along both sides of the Gulf of Aqaba. A 3D model of GPR data at one site in Aqaba indicates that the NW-trending transverse faults right laterally offset older than NE-trending faults. The most hazardous fault is the Evrona fault which extends north to the Tabs Sabkha. A geographic information system (GIS) database of the seismic hazard was created in order to facilitate the analyzing, manipulation, and updating of the input parameters. Liquefaction potential maps were created for the region based on analysis of borehole data. The liquefaction map shows high and moderate liquefaction susceptibility zones along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aqaba. In Aqaba several hotels are located within a high and moderate liquefaction zones. The Yacht Club, Aqaba, Ayla archaeological site, and a part of commercial area are also situated in a risk area. A part

  11. Landslide Hazard Assessment In Mountaneous Area of Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyazov, R. A.; Nurtaev, B. S.

    Because of the growth of population and caretaking of the flat areas under agricul- ture, mountain areas have been intensively mastered, producing increase of natural and technogenic processes in Uzbekistan last years. The landslides are the most dan- gerous phenomena and 7240 of them happened during last 40 years. More than 50 % has taken place in the term of 1991 - 2000 years. The situation is aggravated be- cause these regions are situated in zones, where disastrous earthquakes with M> 7 occurred in past and are expected in the future. Continuing seismic gap in Uzbek- istan during last 15-20 years and last disastrous earthquakes occurred in Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Greece, Taiwan and India worry us. On the basis of long-term observa- tions the criteria of landslide hazard assessment (suddenness, displacement interval, straight-line directivity, kind of residential buildings destruction) are proposed. This methodology was developed on two geographic levels: local (town scale) and regional (region scale). Detailed risk analysis performed on a local scale and extrapolated to the regional scale. Engineering-geologic parameters content of hazard estimation of landslides and mud flows also is divided into regional and local levels. Four degrees of danger of sliding processes are distinguished for compiling of small-scale, medium- and large-scale maps. Angren industrial area in Tien-Shan mountain is characterized by initial seismic intensity of 8-9 (MSC scale). Here the human technological activity (open-cast mining) has initiated the forming of the large landslide that covers more- over 8 square kilometers and corresponds to a volume of 800 billion cubic meters. In turn the landslide influence can become the source of industrial emergencies. On an example of Angren industrial mining region, the different scenarios on safety control of residing of the people and motion of transport, regulating technologies definition of field improvement and exploitation of mountain

  12. Seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Luco, Nicholas; Petersen, Mark D.; Frankel, Arthur D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. The Mariana island arc has formed in response to northwestward subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate, and this process controls seismic activity in the region. Historical seismicity, the Mariana megathrust, and two crustal faults on Guam were modeled as seismic sources, and ground motions were estimated by using published relations for a firm-rock site condition. Maps of peak ground acceleration, 0.2-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping were computed for exceedance probabilities of 2 percent and 10 percent in 50 years. For 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.94 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.57 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 2.86 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 1.75 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.61 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.37 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. For 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.49 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.29 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 1.43 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.83 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.30 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.18 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. The dominant hazard source at the islands is upper Benioff-zone seismicity (depth 40–160 kilometers). The large probabilistic ground motions reflect the strong concentrations of this activity below the arc, especially near Guam.

  13. Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the

  14. Final Report: Seismic Hazard Assessment at the PGDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhinmeng [KY Geological Survey, Univ of KY

    2007-06-01

    Selecting a level of seismic hazard at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant for policy considerations and engineering design is not an easy task because it not only depends on seismic hazard, but also on seismic risk and other related environmental, social, and economic issues. Seismic hazard is the main focus. There is no question that there are seismic hazards at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant because of its proximity to several known seismic zones, particularly the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The issues in estimating seismic hazard are (1) the methods being used and (2) difficulty in characterizing the uncertainties of seismic sources, earthquake occurrence frequencies, and ground-motion attenuation relationships. This report summarizes how input data were derived, which methodologies were used, and what the hazard estimates at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant are.

  15. Probabilistic Multi-Hazard Assessment of Dry Cask Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencturk, Bora [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Padgett, Jamie [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Uddin, Rizwan [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States).

    2017-01-10

    systems the concrete shall not only provide shielding but insures stability of the upright canister, facilitates anchoring, allows ventilation, and provides physical protection against theft, severe weather and natural (seismic) as well as man-made events (blast incidences). Given the need to remain functional for 40 years or even longer in case of interim storage, the concrete outerpack and the internal canister components need to be evaluated with regard to their long-term ability to perform their intended design functions. Just as evidenced by deteriorating concrete bridges, there are reported visible degradation mechanisms of dry storage systems especially when high corrosive environments are considered in maritime locations. The degradation of reinforced concrete is caused by multiple physical and chemical mechanisms, which may be summarized under the heading of environmental aging. The underlying hygro-thermal transport processes are accelerated by irradiation effects, hence creep and shrinkage need to include the effect of chloride penetration, alkali aggregate reaction as well as corrosion of the reinforcing steel. In light of the above, the two main objectives of this project are to (1) develop a probabilistic multi-hazard assessment framework, and (2) through experimental and numerical research perform a comprehensive assessment under combined earthquake loads and aging induced deterioration, which will also provide data for the development and validation of the probabilistic framework.

  16. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented

  17. Multi-hazard national-level risk assessment in Africa using global approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart; Jongman, Brenden; Simpson, Alanna; Murnane, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In recent years Sub-Saharan Africa has been characterized by unprecedented opportunity for transformation and sustained growth. However, natural disasters such as droughts, floods, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and extreme temperatures cause significant economic and human losses, and major development challenges. Quantitative disaster risk assessments are an important basis for governments to understand disaster risk in their country, and to develop effective risk management and risk financing solutions. However, the data-scarce nature of many Sub-Saharan African countries as well as a lack of financing for risk assessments has long prevented detailed analytics. Recent advances in globally applicable disaster risk modelling practices and data availability offer new opportunities. In December 2013 the European Union approved a € 60 million contribution to support the development of an analytical basis for risk financing and to accelerate the effective implementation of a comprehensive disaster risk reduction. The World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) was selected as the implementing partner of the Program for Result Area 5: the "Africa Disaster Risk Assessment and Financing Program." As part of this effort, the GFDRR is overseeing the production of national-level multi-hazard risk profiles for a range of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a combination of national and global datasets and state-of-the-art hazard and risk assessment methodologies. In this presentation, we will highlight the analytical approach behind these assessments, and show results for the first five countries for which the assessment has been completed (Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, Niger and Ethiopia). The presentation will also demonstrate the visualization of the risk assessments into understandable and visually attractive risk profile documents.

  18. Documenting Evidence of Practice: The Power of Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefl-Mabry, Joette

    2018-01-01

    The field of school librarianship has long called for stronger evidence related to school libraries and student achievement (Stefl-Mabry and Raddick 2017; Stefl-Mabry et al. 2016; Morris and Cahill 2017). This article outlines a systematic method for school librarians to document student learning and provide tangible confirmation of their…

  19. Debris flood hazard documentation and mitigation on the Tilcara alluvial fan (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy province, North-West Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marcato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For some decades, mass wasting processes such as landslides and debris floods have been threatening villages and transportation routes in the Rio Grande Valley, named Quebrada de Humauhuaca. One of the most significant examples is the urban area of Tilcara, built on a large alluvial fan. In recent years, debris flood phenomena have been triggered in the tributary valley of the Huasamayo Stream and reached the alluvial fan on a decadal basis.

    In view of proper development of the area, hazard and risk assessment together with risk mitigation strategies are of paramount importance. The need is urgent also because the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Therefore, the growing tourism industry may lead to uncontrolled exploitation and urbanization of the valley, with a consequent increase of the vulnerability of the elements exposed to risk. In this context, structural and non structural mitigation measures not only have to be based on the understanding of natural processes, but also have to consider environmental and sociological factors that could hinder the effectiveness of the countermeasure works.

    The hydrogeological processes are described with reference to present-day hazard and risk conditions. Considering the socio-economic context, some possible interventions are outlined, which encompass budget constraints and local practices. One viable solution would be to build a protecting dam upstream of the fan apex and an artificial channel, in order to divert the floodwaters in a gully that would then convey water and sediments into the Rio Grande, some kilometers downstream of Tilcara. The proposed remedial measures should employ easily available and relatively cheap technologies and local workers, incorporating low environmental and visual impacts issues, in order to ensure both the future conservation of the site and its safe exploitation for inhabitants and tourists.

  20. Debris flood hazard documentation and mitigation on the Tilcara alluvial fan (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy province, North-West Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, G.; Bossi, G.; Rivelli, F.; Borgatti, L.

    2012-06-01

    For some decades, mass wasting processes such as landslides and debris floods have been threatening villages and transportation routes in the Rio Grande Valley, named Quebrada de Humauhuaca. One of the most significant examples is the urban area of Tilcara, built on a large alluvial fan. In recent years, debris flood phenomena have been triggered in the tributary valley of the Huasamayo Stream and reached the alluvial fan on a decadal basis. In view of proper development of the area, hazard and risk assessment together with risk mitigation strategies are of paramount importance. The need is urgent also because the Quebrada de Humahuaca was recently included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Therefore, the growing tourism industry may lead to uncontrolled exploitation and urbanization of the valley, with a consequent increase of the vulnerability of the elements exposed to risk. In this context, structural and non structural mitigation measures not only have to be based on the understanding of natural processes, but also have to consider environmental and sociological factors that could hinder the effectiveness of the countermeasure works. The hydrogeological processes are described with reference to present-day hazard and risk conditions. Considering the socio-economic context, some possible interventions are outlined, which encompass budget constraints and local practices. One viable solution would be to build a protecting dam upstream of the fan apex and an artificial channel, in order to divert the floodwaters in a gully that would then convey water and sediments into the Rio Grande, some kilometers downstream of Tilcara. The proposed remedial measures should employ easily available and relatively cheap technologies and local workers, incorporating low environmental and visual impacts issues, in order to ensure both the future conservation of the site and its safe exploitation for inhabitants and tourists.

  1. Assessment of occupational hazards, health problems and safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Petrol station attendants encounter several hazards and health problems while working. This study was conducted to determine the ... Hazards reported included inhalation of petrol fumes 145 (67.4%), confrontation from customers 112 (52.1%) and noise 98 (45.6%). Health problems reported included ...

  2. Track 2 sites: Guidance for assessing low probability hazard sites at the INEL. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document presents guidance for assessment of Track 2 low probability hazard sites (LPHS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Track 2 classification was developed specifically for the INEL to streamline the implementation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Track 2 LPHSs are described as sites where insufficient data are available to make a decision concerning the risk level or to select or design a remedy. As such, these types of sites are not described in the National Contingency Plan or existing regulatory guidance. The goal of the Track 2 process is to evaluate LPHSs using existing qualitative and quantitative data to minimize the collection of new environmental data. To this end, this document presents a structured format consisting of a series of questions and tables. A qualitative risk assessment is used. The process is iterative, and addresses an LPHS from multiple perspectives (i.e., historical, empirical, process) in an effort to generate a reproducible and defensible method. This rigorous approach follows the data quality objective process and establishes a well organized, logical approach to consolidate and assess existing data, and set decision criteria. If necessary, the process allows for the design of a sampling and analysis strategy to obtain new environmental data of appropriate quality to support decisions for each LPHS. Finally, the guidance expedites consensus between regulatory parties by emphasizing a team approach to Track 2 investigations.

  3. Track 2 sites: Guidance for assessing low probability hazard sites at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document presents guidance for assessment of Track 2 low probability hazard sites (LPHS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Track 2 classification was developed specifically for the INEL to streamline the implementation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Track 2 LPHSs are described as sites where insufficient data are available to make a decision concerning the risk level or to select or design a remedy. As such, these types of sites are not described in the National Contingency Plan or existing regulatory guidance. The goal of the Track 2 process is to evaluate LPHSs using existing qualitative and quantitative data to minimize the collection of new environmental data. To this end, this document presents a structured format consisting of a series of questions and tables. A qualitative risk assessment is used. The process is iterative, and addresses an LPHS from multiple perspectives (i.e., historical, empirical, process) in an effort to generate a reproducible and defensible method. This rigorous approach follows the data quality objective process and establishes a well organized, logical approach to consolidate and assess existing data, and set decision criteria. If necessary, the process allows for the design of a sampling and analysis strategy to obtain new environmental data of appropriate quality to support decisions for each LPHS. Finally, the guidance expedites consensus between regulatory parties by emphasizing a team approach to Track 2 investigations

  4. Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Installations: Methods and Examples in Site Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    To provide guidance on the protection of nuclear installations against the effects of volcanoes, the IAEA published in 2012 IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-21, Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. SSG-21 addresses hazards relating to volcanic phenomena, and provides recommendations and general guidance for evaluation of these hazards. Unlike seismic hazard assessments, models for volcanic hazard assessment have not undergone decades of review, evaluation and testing for suitability in evaluating hazards at proposed nuclear installations. Currently in volcanology, scientific developments and detailed methodologies to model volcanic phenomena are evolving rapidly.This publication provides information on detailed methodologies and examples in the application of volcanic hazard assessment to site evaluation for nuclear installations, thereby addressing the recommendations in SSG-21. Although SSG-21 develops a logical framework for conducting a volcanic hazard assessment, this publication demonstrates the practicability of evaluating the recommendations in SSG-21 through a systematic volcanic hazard assessment and examples from Member States. The results of this hazard assessment can be used to derive the appropriate design bases and operational considerations for specific nuclear installations

  5. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Due to the topographical conditions in Switzerland, the highways and the railway lines are frequently exposed to natural hazards as rockfalls, debris flows, landslides, avalanches and others. With the rising incidence of those natural hazards, protection measures become an important political issue. However, they are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. Furthermore risks are distributed in space and time. Consequently, important decision problems to the public sector decision makers are derived. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Efficient protection alternatives can be obtained consequently considering the concept of integral risk management. Risk analysis, as the central part of risk management, has become gradually a generally accepted approach for the assessment of current and future scenarios (Loat & Zimmermann 2004). The procedure aims at risk reduction which can be reached by conventional mitigation on one hand and the implementation of land-use planning on the other hand: a combination of active and passive mitigation measures is applied to prevent damage to buildings, people and infrastructures. With a Geographical Information System adapted to run with a tool developed to manage Risk analysis it is possible to survey the data in time and space, obtaining an important system for managing natural risks. As a framework, we adopt the Swiss system for risk analysis of gravitational natural hazards (BUWAL 1999). It offers a complete framework for the analysis and assessment of risks due to natural hazards, ranging from hazard assessment for gravitational natural hazards, such as landslides, collapses, rockfalls, floodings, debris flows and avalanches, to vulnerability assessment and risk analysis, and the integration into land use planning at the cantonal and municipality level. The scheme is limited to the direct consequences of natural hazards. Thus, we develop a

  6. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 6: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. This report addresses the Department of Environmental Health Science, education and training initiative.

  7. Development of a prototype GIS for risk-hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devonport, C.

    1992-01-01

    A collaborative research agreement between the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region (OSS) and the Northern Territory University (NTU) aims to develop and assess a computer-based Geographic Information System (GIS) to integrate terrain and geological data for risk-hazard analysis and modelling. This paper outlines initial design and development of the prototype GIS including the input of trial data of various types. It is recognised that the GIS must be flexible enough to accommodate change and provide a base for a variety of research needs. Such functionality is likely to be provided best by an initially small, generic prototype GIS to which functions and data are added as required. Properties of the prototype identified as critical to its usefulness include integration of different types of data into the system, understanding and accommodating inconsistencies between data sets and the recognition and recording of error. Various types of data (elevation data, maps and images) available at the outset of the project are outlined together with a brief discussion on their source, integration into the database, derivative products and the potential usefulness of, and problems associated with, the different data formats. The analytical possibilities offered by the trial data will be explored next and the results of the first development cycle presented by the end of 1992. Subsequently, additional data will be incorporated into the database, analytical techniques will be used to build models, and user-driven development will enable the GIS to begin to support a decision research process. 20 refs

  8. Damage assessment of bridge infrastructure subjected to flood-related hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Panagiotis; Cahill, Paul; Bekić, Damir; Kerin, Igor; Pakrashi, Vikram; Lapthorne, John; Morais, João Gonçalo Martins Paulo; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    Transportation assets represent a critical component of society's infrastructure systems. Flood-related hazards are considered one of the main climate change impacts on highway and railway infrastructure, threatening the security and functionality of transportation systems. Of such hazards, flood-induced scour is a primarily cause of bridge collapses worldwide and one of the most complex and challenging water flow and erosion phenomena, leading to structural instability and ultimately catastrophic failures. Evaluation of scour risk under severe flood events is a particularly challenging issue considering that depth of foundations is very difficult to evaluate in water environment. The continual inspection, assessment and maintenance of bridges and other hydraulic structures under extreme flood events requires a multidisciplinary approach, including knowledge and expertise of hydraulics, hydrology, structural engineering, geotechnics and infrastructure management. The large number of bridges under a single management unit also highlights the need for efficient management, information sharing and self-informing systems to provide reliable, cost-effective flood and scour risk management. The "Intelligent Bridge Assessment Maintenance and Management System" (BRIDGE SMS) is an EU/FP7 funded project which aims to couple state-of-the art scientific expertise in multidisciplinary engineering sectors with industrial knowledge in infrastructure management. This involves the application of integrated low-cost structural health monitoring systems to provide real-time information towards the development of an intelligent decision support tool and a web-based platform to assess and efficiently manage bridge assets. This study documents the technological experience and presents results obtained from the application of sensing systems focusing on the damage assessment of water-hazards at bridges over watercourses in Ireland. The applied instrumentation is interfaced with an open

  9. Scout: orbit analysis and hazard assessment for NEOCP objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnocchia, Davide; Chesley, Steven R.; Chamberlin, Alan B.

    2016-10-01

    It typically takes a few days for a newly discovered asteroid to be officially recognized as a real object. During this time, the tentative discovery is published on the Minor Planet Center's Near-Earth Object Confirmation Page (NEOCP) until additional observations confirm that the object is a real asteroid rather than an observational artifact or an artificial object. Also, NEOCP objects could have a limited observability window and yet be scientifically interesting, e.g., radar and lightcurve targets, mini-moons (temporary Earth captures), mission accessible targets, close approachers or even impactors. For instance, the only two asteroids discovered before an impact, 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA, both reached the Earth less than a day after discovery. For these reasons we developed Scout, an automated system that provides an orbital and hazard assessment for NEOCP objects within minutes after the observations are available. Scout's rapid analysis increases the chances of securing the trajectory of interesting NEOCP objects before the ephemeris uncertainty grows too large or the observing geometry becomes unfavorable. The generally short observation arcs, perhaps only a few hours or even less, lead severe degeneracies in the orbit estimation process. To overcome these degeneracies Scout relies on systematic ranging, a technique that derives possible orbits by scanning a grid in the poorly constrained space of topocentric range and range rate, while the plane-of-sky position and motion are directly tied to the recorded observations. This scan allows us to derive a distribution of the possible orbits and in turn identify the NEOCP objects of most interest to prioritize followup efforts. In particular, Scout ranks objects according to the likelihood of an impact, estimates the close approach distance, the Earth-relative minimum orbit intersection distance and v-infinity, and computes scores to identify objects more likely to be an NEO, a km-sized NEO, a Potentially

  10. Preliminary Hazard Assessment for Tectonic Tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, B.; Bayazitoglu, O.; Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.

    2017-12-01

    There are many critical industrial facilities such as energy production units and energy transmission lines along the southeast coast of Turkey. This region is also active on tourism, and agriculture and aquaculture production. There are active faults in the region, i.e. the Cyprus Fault, which extends along the Mediterranean basin in the east-west direction and connects to the Hellenic Arc. Both the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc are seismologically active and are capable of generating earthquakes with tsunamigenic potential. Even a small tsunami in the region could cause confusion as shown by the recent 21 July 2017 earthquake of Mw 6.6, which occurred in the Aegean Sea, between Bodrum, Turkey and Kos Island, Greece since region is not prepared for such an event. Moreover, the Mediterranean Sea is one of the most vulnerable regions against sea level rise due to global warming, according to the 5th Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. For these reasons, a marine hazard such as a tsunami can cause much worse damage than expected in the region (Kanoglu et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 2015). Hence, tsunami hazard assessment is required for the region. In this study, we first characterize earthquakes which have potential to generate a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean. Such study is a prerequisite for regional tsunami mitigation studies. For fast and timely predictions, tsunami warning systems usually employ databases that store pre-computed tsunami propagation resulting from hypothetical earthquakes with pre-defined parameters. These pre-defined sources are called tsunami unit sources and they are linearly superposed to mimic a real event, since wave propagation is linear offshore. After investigating historical earthquakes along the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc, we identified tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean and proposed tsunami unit sources for the region. We used the tsunami numerical model MOST (Titov et al

  11. Assessing the ecotoxicologic hazards of a pandemic influenza medical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Andrew C; Colizza, Vittoria; Schmitt, Heike; Andrews, Johanna; Balcan, Duygu; Huang, Wei E; Keller, Virginie D J; Vespignani, Alessandro; Williams, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    The global public health community has closely monitored the unfolding of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic to best mitigate its impact on society. However, little attention has been given to the impact of this response on the environment. Antivirals and antibiotics prescribed to treat influenza are excreted into wastewater in a biologically active form, which presents a new and potentially significant ecotoxicologic challenge to microorganisms responsible for wastewater nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and receiving rivers. We assessed the ecotoxicologic risks of a pandemic influenza medical response. To evaluate this risk, we coupled a global spatially structured epidemic model that simulates the quantities of antivirals and antibiotics used during an influenza pandemic of varying severity and a water quality model applied to the Thames catchment to determine predicted environmental concentrations. An additional model was then used to assess the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms in WWTPs and rivers. Consistent with expectations, our model projected a mild pandemic to exhibit a negligible ecotoxicologic hazard. In a moderate and severe pandemic, we projected WWTP toxicity to vary between 0-14% and 5-32% potentially affected fraction (PAF), respectively, and river toxicity to vary between 0-14% and 0-30% PAF, respectively, where PAF is the fraction of microbial species predicted to be growth inhibited (lower and upper 95% reference range). The current medical response to pandemic influenza might result in the discharge of insufficiently treated wastewater into receiving rivers, thereby increasing the risk of eutrophication and contamination of drinking water abstraction points. Widespread drugs in the environment could hasten the generation of drug resistance. Our results highlight the need for empirical data on the effects of antibiotics and antiviral medications on WWTPs and freshwater ecotoxicity.

  12. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  13. Assessing Natural Hazard Vulnerability Through Marmara Region Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, A.; Garagon Dogru, A.; Ozener, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural hazards are natural phenomenon occured in the Earth's system that include geological and meteorological events such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, droughts, fires and tsunamis. The metropolitan cities are vulnerable to natural hazards due to their population densities, industrial facilities and proporties. The urban layout of the megacities are complex since industrial facilities are interference with residential area. The Marmara region is placed in North-western Turkey suffered from natural hazards (earthquakes, floods etc.) for years. After 1999 Kocaeli and Duzce earthquakes and 2009 Istanbul flash floods, dramatic number of casualities and economic losses were reported by the authorities. Geographic information systems (GIS) have substantial capacity in order to develop natural disaster management. As these systems provide more efficient and reliable analysis and evaluation of the data in the management, and also convenient and better solutions for the decision making before during and after the natural hazards. The Earth science data and socio-economic data can be integrated into a GIS as different layers. Additionally, satellite data are used to understand the changes pre and post the natural hazards. GIS is a powerful software for the combination of different type of digital data. A natural hazard database for the Marmara region provides all different types of digital data to the users. All proper data collection processing and analysing are critical to evaluate and identify hazards. The natural hazard database allows users to monitor, analyze and query past and recent disasters in the Marmara Region. The long term aim of this study is to develop geodatabase and identify the natural hazard vulnerabilities of the metropolitan cities.

  14. Advancing the citizen scientist's contributions to documenting and understanding natural hazards: a proof of concept for linking crowdsourced and remotely sensed data on landslide hazards in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Markert, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists, practitioners, policymakers, and citizen groups, share a role in ensuring "that all sectors have access to, understand and can use scientific information for better informed decision-making" (Sendai Framework 2015-2030). When it comes to understanding hazards and exposure, inventories on disaster events are often limited. Thus, there are many opportunities for citizen scientists to engage in improving the collective understanding—and ultimately reduction—of disaster risk. Landslides are very difficult to forecast on spatial and temporal scales meaningful for early warning and evacuation. Heuristic hazard mapping methods are very common in regional hazard zonation and rely on expert knowledge of previous events and local conditions, but they often lack a temporal component. As new data analysis packages are becoming more open and accessible, probabilistic approaches that consider high resolution spatial and temporal dimensions are becoming more common, but this is only possible when rich inventories of landslide events exist. The work presented offers a proof of concept on incorporating crowd-sourced data to improve landslide hazard model performance. Starting with a national inventory of 90 catalogued landslides in El Salvador for a study period of 1998 to 2011, we simulate the addition of over 600 additional crowd-sourced landslide events that would have been identified through human interpretation of high resolution imagery in the Google Earth time slider feature. There is a noticeable improvement in performance statistics between static heuristic hazard models and probabilistic models that incorporate the events identified by the "crowd." Such a dynamic incorporation of crowd-sourced data on hazard events is not so far-fetched. Given the engagement of "local observers" in El Salvador who augment in situ hydro-meteorological measurements, the growing access to Earth observation data to the lay person, and immense interest behind connecting citizen

  15. Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP in continental Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Bhatia

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The regional hazard mapping for the whole Eastern Asia was coordinated by the SSB Regional Centre in Beijing, originating from the expansion of the test area initially established in the border region of China-India-Nepal-Myanmar- Bangla Dash, in coordination with the other Regional Centres (JIPE, Moscow, and AGSO, Canberra and with the direct assistance of the USGS. All Eastern Asian countries have participated directly in this regional effort, with the addition of Japan, for which an existing national hazard map was incorporated. The regional hazard depicts the expected peak ground acceleration with 10% exceedance probability in 50 years.

  16. application of geospatial tools for landslide hazard assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immax

    datasets used in this study included digital elevation model, soils, precipitation ... was generated that showed risk levels of various areas in Uganda. .... There is acknowledged difficulty in quantifying the nature of hazards caused by a landslide.

  17. Hydrometeorological Hazards: Monitoring, Forecasting, Risk Assessment, and Socioeconomic Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huan [University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA; Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Tang, Qiuhong [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Kirschbaum, Dalia B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA; Ward, Philip [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands

    2016-01-01

    Hydrometeorological hazards are caused by extreme meteorological and climate events, such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, tornadoes, or landslides. They account for a dominant fraction of natural hazards and occur in all regions of the world, although the frequency and intensity of certain hazards, and society’s vulnerability to them, differs between regions. Severe storms, strong winds, floods and droughts develop at different spatial and temporal scales, but all can become disasters that cause significant infrastructure damage and claim hundreds of thousands of lives annually worldwide. Oftentimes, multiple hazards can occur simultaneously or trigger cascading impacts from one extreme weather event. For example, in addition to causing injuries, deaths and material damage, a tropical storm can also result in flooding and mudslides, which can disrupt water purification and sewage disposal systems, cause overflow of toxic wastes, and increase propagation of mosquito-borne diseases.

  18. Flood Hazard Assessment for the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    'A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curves for certain Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. This paper presents the method used to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curve for F-Area due to runoff from the Upper Three Runs basin. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this paper is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines as a function of water elevation the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. Based on facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves and the nature of facility operations (e.g., involving hazardous or radioactive materials), facility managers can design permanent or temporary devices to prevent the propagation of flood on site, and develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods.'

  19. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  20. Documentation of in-training assessment for radiology trainees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Gillian

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine if the assessment of radiology trainees can be improved by modifying the in-training assessment form issued by the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study comparing the RCR assessment form with other alternative forms in use in the U.K. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with trainees (21) and trainers (18) in Sheffield to collect their views on the RCR form and an alternative form introduced on the North Trent Training Scheme. A postal questionnaire was sent to Heads of Training (24) to find out what assessment forms were in use at other centres and collect their views on the different forms. RESULTS: Trainees and trainers in Sheffield were virtually unanimous in their support of the new North Trent assessment form. The main advantages perceived were the encouragement of appraisal, setting of objectives and feedback from the trainees. Six other radiology training centres were using alternative assessment forms and all believed their forms had advantages over the RCR in-training assessment form. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the assessment process for radiology trainees can be improved by modifications to the RCR in-training assessment form and allows various recommendations to be made. Long, G. (2001)

  1. The Spatial Assessment of the Current Seismic Hazard State for Hard Rock Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseloo, Johan

    2018-06-01

    Mining-induced seismic hazard assessment is an important component in the management of safety and financial risk in mines. As the seismic hazard is a response to the mining activity, it is non-stationary and variable both in space and time. This paper presents an approach for implementing a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment to assess the current hazard state of a mine. Each of the components of the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is considered within the context of hard rock underground mines. The focus of this paper is the assessment of the in-mine hazard distribution and does not consider the hazard to nearby public or structures. A rating system and methodologies to present hazard maps, for the purpose of communicating to different stakeholders in the mine, i.e. mine managers, technical personnel and the work force, are developed. The approach allows one to update the assessment with relative ease and within short time periods as new data become available, enabling the monitoring of the spatial and temporal change in the seismic hazard.

  2. Risk assessment on hazards for decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lim, Hyeon-Kyo

    2010-01-01

    A decommissioning plan should be followed by a qualitative and quantitative safety assessment of it. The safety assessment of a decommissioning plan is applied to identify the potential (radiological and non-radiological) hazards and risks. Radiological and non-radiological hazards arise during decommissioning activities. The non-radiological or industrial hazards to which workers are subjected during a decommissioning and dismantling process may be greater than those experienced during an operational lifetime of a facility. Workers need to be protected by eliminating or reducing the radiological and non-radiological hazards that may arise during routine decommissioning activities and as well as during accidents. The risk assessment method was developed by using risk matrix and fuzzy inference logic, on the basis of the radiological and non-radiological hazards for a decommissioning safety of a nuclear facility. Fuzzy inference of radiological and non-radiological hazards performs a mapping from radiological and non-radiological hazards to risk matrix. Defuzzification of radiological and non-radiological hazards is the conversion of risk matrix and priorities to the maximum criterion method and the mean criterion method. In the end, a composite risk assessment methodology, to rank the risk level on radiological and non-radiological hazards of the decommissioning tasks and to prioritize on the risk level of the decommissioning tasks, by simultaneously combining radiological and non-radiological hazards, was developed.

  3. Flood Hazard Assessment for the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curves for certain Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. This paper presents the method used to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curve for F-Area due to runoff from the Upper Three Runs basin. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this paper is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines as a function of water elevation the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. Based on facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves and the nature of facility operations (e.g., involving hazardous or radioactive materials), facility managers can design permanent or temporary devices to prevent the propagation of flood on site, and develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood hazard curves for SRS facilities. The flood hazard curves for the SRS F-Area due to flooding in the Upper Three Runs basin are presented in this paper

  4. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... chemicals and fumes caused by open burn pits. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed... to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.... Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. OMB...

  5. The effect of scale in daily precipitation hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Egozcue

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily precipitation is recorded as the total amount of water collected by a rain-gauge in 24 h. Events are modelled as a Poisson process and the 24 h precipitation by a Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPD of excesses. Hazard assessment is complete when estimates of the Poisson rate and the distribution parameters, together with a measure of their uncertainty, are obtained. The shape parameter of the GPD determines the support of the variable: Weibull domain of attraction (DA corresponds to finite support variables as should be for natural phenomena. However, Fréchet DA has been reported for daily precipitation, which implies an infinite support and a heavy-tailed distribution. Bayesian techniques are used to estimate the parameters. The approach is illustrated with precipitation data from the Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula affected by severe convective precipitation. The estimated GPD is mainly in the Fréchet DA, something incompatible with the common sense assumption of that precipitation is a bounded phenomenon. The bounded character of precipitation is then taken as a priori hypothesis. Consistency of this hypothesis with the data is checked in two cases: using the raw-data (in mm and using log-transformed data. As expected, a Bayesian model checking clearly rejects the model in the raw-data case. However, log-transformed data seem to be consistent with the model. This fact may be due to the adequacy of the log-scale to represent positive measurements for which differences are better relative than absolute.

  6. A structured hazard analysis and risk assessment method for automotive systems—A descriptive study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Kristian; Holling, Dominik; Côté, Isabelle; Hatebur, Denis

    2017-01-01

    The 2011 release of the first version of the ISO 26262 standard for automotive systems demand the elicitation of safety goals following a rigorous method for hazard and risk analysis. Companies are struggling with the adoption of the standard due to ambiguities, documentation demands and the alignment of the standards demands to existing processes. We previously proposed a structured engineering method to deal with these problems developed in applying action research together with an OEM. In this work, we evaluate how applicable the method is for junior automotive software engineers by a descriptive study. We provided the method to 8 members of the master course Automotive Software Engineering (ASE) at the Technical University Munich. The participants have each been working in the automotive industry for 1–4 years in parallel to their studies. We investigated their application of our method to an electronic steering column lock system. The participants applied our method in a first round alone and afterwards discussed their results in groups. Our data analysis revealed that the participants could apply the method successfully and the hazard analysis and risk assessment achieved a high precision and productivity. Moreover, the precision could be improved significantly during group discussions.

  7. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  8. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  9. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ''produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium

  10. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  11. Flood hazard assessment for the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curves for certain Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. This paper presents the method used to determine the probabilistic flood elevation curve for F-Area due to runoff from the Upper Three Runs basin. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. The NPH considered in this paper is flooding. The facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curve defines as a function of water elevation the annual probability of occurrence or the return period in years. Based on facility-specific probabilistic flood hazard curves and the nature of facility operations (e.g., involving hazardous or radioactive materials), facility managers can design permanent or temporary devices to prevent the propagation of flood on site, and develop emergency preparedness plans to mitigate the consequences of floods. The flood hazard curves for the SRS F-Area due to flooding in the Upper Three Runs basin are presented in this paper

  12. Analysis and Assessment of Parameters Shaping Methane Hazard in Longwall Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Krause

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing coal production concentration and mining in coal seams of high methane content contribute to its growing emission to longwall areas. In this paper, analysis of survey data concerning the assessment of parameters that influence the level of methane hazard in mining areas is presented. The survey was conducted with experts on ventilation and methane hazard in coal mines. The parameters which influence methane hazard in longwall areas were assigned specific weights (numerical values. The summary will show which of the assessed parameters have a strong, or weak, influence on methane hazard in longwall areas close to coal seams of high methane content.

  13. Lessons learned from the EG ampersand G consolidated hazardous waste subcontract and ESH ampersand Q liability assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, N.J.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and disposal contracts were first consolidated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1992 by EG and G Idaho, Inc. At that time, disposition of Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste, Toxic Substance Control Act waste, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act hazardous substances and contaminated media, and recyclable hazardous materials was consolidated under five subcontracts. The wastes were generated by five different INEL M and O contractors, under the direction of three different Department of Energy field offices. The consolidated contract reduced the number of facilities handling INEL waste from 27 to 8 qualified treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, with brokers specifically prohibited. This reduced associated transportation costs, amount and cost of contractual paperwork, and environmental liability exposure. EG and G reviewed this approach and proposed a consolidated hazardous waste subcontract be formed for the major EG and G managed DOE sites: INEL, Mound, Rocky Flats, Nevada Test Site, and 10 satellite facilities. After obtaining concurrence from DOE Headquarters, this effort began in March 1992 and was completed with the award of two master task subcontracts in October and November 1993. In addition, the effort included a team to evaluate the apparent awardee's facilities for environment, safety, health, and quality (ESH and Q) and financial liability status. This report documents the evaluation of the process used to prepare, bid, and award the EG and G consolidated hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and/or disposal subcontracts and associated ESH and Q and financial liability assessments; document the strengths and weaknesses of the process; and propose improvements that would expedite and enhance the process for other DOE installations that used the process and for the re-bid of the consolidated subcontract

  14. Lessons learned from the EG&G consolidated hazardous waste subcontract and ESH&Q liability assessment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N.J.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and disposal contracts were first consolidated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1992 by EG&G Idaho, Inc. At that time, disposition of Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste, Toxic Substance Control Act waste, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act hazardous substances and contaminated media, and recyclable hazardous materials was consolidated under five subcontracts. The wastes were generated by five different INEL M&O contractors, under the direction of three different Department of Energy field offices. The consolidated contract reduced the number of facilities handling INEL waste from 27 to 8 qualified treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, with brokers specifically prohibited. This reduced associated transportation costs, amount and cost of contractual paperwork, and environmental liability exposure. EG&G reviewed this approach and proposed a consolidated hazardous waste subcontract be formed for the major EG&G managed DOE sites: INEL, Mound, Rocky Flats, Nevada Test Site, and 10 satellite facilities. After obtaining concurrence from DOE Headquarters, this effort began in March 1992 and was completed with the award of two master task subcontracts in October and November 1993. In addition, the effort included a team to evaluate the apparent awardee`s facilities for environment, safety, health, and quality (ESH&Q) and financial liability status. This report documents the evaluation of the process used to prepare, bid, and award the EG&G consolidated hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and/or disposal subcontracts and associated ESH&Q and financial liability assessments; document the strengths and weaknesses of the process; and propose improvements that would expedite and enhance the process for other DOE installations that used the process and for the re-bid of the consolidated subcontract, scheduled for 1997.

  15. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the WRAP Module 1 Facility on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  16. 300 Area fuel supply shutdown facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 300 Area Fuel Supply Shutdown Facilities on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone, is demonstrated

  17. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the WRAP Module 1 Facility on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  18. Assessment of LANL transuranic mixed waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; McCance, C.H.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from the evaluation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria to determine its compliance with applicable DOE requirements. The driving requirements for s TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria are essentially those contained in the ''TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' or WIPP WAC (DOE Report WIPP-DOE-069), 40 CFR 261-270, and DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management), specifically Chapter II which is entitled ''Management of Transuranic Waste''. The primary purpose of the LANL WAC is the establishment of those criteria that must be met by generators of TRU mixed waste before such waste can be accepted by the Waste Management Group. An annotated outline of a genetic TRU mixed waste acceptance criteria document was prepared from those requirements contained in the WIPP WAC, 40 CFR 261-270, and 5820.2A, and is based solely upon those requirements

  19. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center

  20. Technology needs assessment (TNA) resource document for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available TNA(Technology needs assessment) is a requirement of Article 4.5 of the UNFCCC ‘Technology Transfer’ is a broad set of processes covering the flows of know-how, experience and equipment for mitigating or adapting to climate change amongst different...

  1. Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Robert L.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-09-15

    The purpose of this review is to assess the need for updating Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) assessments for the DOE's Hanford Site, as required by DOE Order 420.1B Chapter IV, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, based on significant changes in state-of-the-art NPH assessment methodology or site-specific information. This review is an update and expansion to the September 2010 review of PNNL-19751, Review of Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) Assessments for the Hanford 200 Areas (Non-Seismic).

  2. Flood hazard assessment using 1D and 2D approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaccia, Gabriella; Costabile, Pierfranco; Macchione, Francesco; Natale, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The EU flood risk Directive (Directive 2007/60/EC) prescribes risk assessment and mapping to develop flood risk management plans. Flood hazard mapping may be carried out with mathematical models able to determine flood-prone areas once realistic conditions (in terms of discharge or water levels) are imposed at the boundaries of the case study. The deterministic models are mainly based on shallow water equations expressed in their 1D or 2D formulation. The 1D approach is widely used, especially in technical studies, due to its relative simplicity, its computational efficiency and also because it requires topographical data not as expensive as the ones needed by 2D models. Even if in a great number of practical situations, such as modeling in-channel flows and not too wide floodplains, the 1D approach may provide results close to the prediction of a more sophisticated 2D model, it must be pointed out that the correct use of a 1D model in practical situations is more complex than it may seem. The main issues to be correctly modeled in a 1D approach are the definition of hydraulic structures such as bridges and buildings interacting with the flow and the treatment of the tributaries. Clearly all these aspects have to be taken into account also in the 2D modeling, but with fewer difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to show how the above cited issues can be described using a 1D or 2D unsteady flow modeling. In particular the Authors will show the devices that have to be implemented in 1D modeling to get reliable predictions of water levels and discharges comparable to the ones obtained using a 2D model. Attention will be focused on an actual river (Crati river) located in the South of Italy. This case study is quite complicated since it deals with the simulation of channeled flows, overbank flows, interactions with buildings, bridges and tributaries. Accurate techniques, intentionally developed by the Authors to take into account all these peculiarities in 1D and 2

  3. Probabilistic disaggregation model with application to natural hazard risk assessment of portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    In natural hazard risk assessment, a resolution mismatch between hazard data and aggregated exposure data is often observed. A possible solution to this issue is the disaggregation of exposure data to match the spatial resolution of hazard data. Disaggregation models available in literature are usually deterministic and make use of auxiliary indicator, such as land cover, to spatially distribute exposures. As the dependence between auxiliary indicator and disaggregated number of exposures is ...

  4. an assessment of knowledge of farming-related hazards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    knowledge and practices of farm related occupational hazards in the study area. ... JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENT VOLUME 7, No.2 SEPTEMBER, ... the farmers will increase efficiency by 21 percent. ... knowledge acquisition is that people are born ..... Operational Habits and.

  5. Assessment of major technical hazards in the insurance business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Major technical hazards are covered by means of demand premium rates and subjective corrections according to the degree of innovation and different environmental impacts. The insurer compensates remaining risks by compensatory payments or he moderates them at least in their effects. (DG) [de

  6. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Water Treatment Plant considering Environmental Health and Safety Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falakh, Fajrul; Setiani, Onny

    2018-02-01

    Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is an important infrastructure to ensure human health and the environment. In its development, aspects of environmental safety and health are of concern. This paper case study was conducted at the Water Treatment Plant Company in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of the occupational safety and health program at the risk management stage. The purpose of this study was to identify potential hazards using hazard identification methods and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using criteria of severity and probability of accident. The results obtained from this risk assessment are 22 potential hazards present in the water purification process. Extreme categories that exist in the risk assessment are leakage of chlorine and industrial fires. Chlorine and fire leakage gets the highest value because its impact threatens many things, such as industrial disasters that could endanger human life and the environment. Control measures undertaken to avoid potential hazards are to apply the use of personal protective equipment, but management will also be better managed in accordance with hazard control hazards, occupational safety and health programs such as issuing work permits, emergency response training is required, Very useful in overcoming potential hazards that have been determined.

  7. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Water Treatment Plant considering Environmental Health and Safety Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falakh Fajrul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Treatment Plant (WTP is an important infrastructure to ensure human health and the environment. In its development, aspects of environmental safety and health are of concern. This paper case study was conducted at the Water Treatment Plant Company in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of the occupational safety and health program at the risk management stage. The purpose of this study was to identify potential hazards using hazard identification methods and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using criteria of severity and probability of accident. The results obtained from this risk assessment are 22 potential hazards present in the water purification process. Extreme categories that exist in the risk assessment are leakage of chlorine and industrial fires. Chlorine and fire leakage gets the highest value because its impact threatens many things, such as industrial disasters that could endanger human life and the environment. Control measures undertaken to avoid potential hazards are to apply the use of personal protective equipment, but management will also be better managed in accordance with hazard control hazards, occupational safety and health programs such as issuing work permits, emergency response training is required, Very useful in overcoming potential hazards that have been determined.

  8. Exorcising spent fuel transportation using comparative hazard assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, Charles W.

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuel transportation has achieved an exemplary safety record over more than three decades within both the United States (U.S.) and the global community at large. Today, many groups are attempting to precipitate fear of spent fuel transportation within the general public by 'demonizing' this proven technology and by creating a highly charged environment of radiation phobia. The actions of these groups within the U.S. result from the confluence of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and the acceptance by the President and Congress of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) recommendation of Yucca Mountain as the repository site for the disposal of the nation's spent fuel. This paper offers a comparative hazard assessment demonstrating the relative safety of spent fuel transportation in the context of currently accepted practices within society to show that there are no 'demons' associated with spent fuel transportation. The paper provides an assessment of potential population exposures based on more than 25 years of transport cask analysis and testing under beyond-design-basis (BDB) event conditions, including missile attacks, with those from current accepted activities within society that produce high dose exposures to the general public. Over the last quarter of a century, several spent fuel cask test programs have produced data that allow calculation of potential releases and population doses resulting from a terrorist attack. The DOE has used this information to develop projected worst-case population exposures as part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The paper discusses these potential releases and population exposures. Additionally, the paper identifies current unregulated activities and practices within societies yielding population exposures that exceed significantly those that would result from such highly hypothetical and improbable events as a terrorist missile attack on a spent fuel

  9. Exorcising spent fuel transportation using comparative hazard assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Charles W. [NAC international, Norcross (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Spent fuel transportation has achieved an exemplary safety record over more than three decades within both the United States (U.S.) and the global community at large. Today, many groups are attempting to precipitate fear of spent fuel transportation within the general public by 'demonizing' this proven technology and by creating a highly charged environment of radiation phobia. The actions of these groups within the U.S. result from the confluence of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and the acceptance by the President and Congress of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) recommendation of Yucca Mountain as the repository site for the disposal of the nation's spent fuel. This paper offers a comparative hazard assessment demonstrating the relative safety of spent fuel transportation in the context of currently accepted practices within society to show that there are no 'demons' associated with spent fuel transportation. The paper provides an assessment of potential population exposures based on more than 25 years of transport cask analysis and testing under beyond-design-basis (BDB) event conditions, including missile attacks, with those from current accepted activities within society that produce high dose exposures to the general public. Over the last quarter of a century, several spent fuel cask test programs have produced data that allow calculation of potential releases and population doses resulting from a terrorist attack. The DOE has used this information to develop projected worst-case population exposures as part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The paper discusses these potential releases and population exposures. Additionally, the paper identifies current unregulated activities and practices within societies yielding population exposures that exceed significantly those that would result from such highly hypothetical and improbable events as a terrorist missile

  10. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  11. Toxicovigilance: A new approach for the hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descotes, Jacques; Testud, Francois

    2005-01-01

    The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings

  12. Toxicovigilance: a new approach for the hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, Jacques; Testud, François

    2005-09-01

    The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings.

  13. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment Method for Nonlinear Soil Sites based on the Hazard Spectrum of Bedrock Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2011-01-01

    For the probabilistic safety assessment of the nuclear power plants (NPP) under seismic events, the rational probabilistic seismic hazard estimation should be performed. Generally, the probabilistic seismic hazard of NPP site is represented by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) for the specific annual frequency. In most case, since that the attenuation equations were defined for the bedrock sites, the standard attenuation laws cannot be applied to the general soft soil sites. Hence, for the probabilistic estimation of the seismic hazard of soft soil sites, a methodology of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) coupled with nonlinear dynamic analyses of the soil column are required. Two methods are commonly used for the site response analysis considering the nonlinearity of sites. The one is the deterministic method and another is the probabilistic method. In the analysis of site response, there exist many uncertainty factors such as the variation of the magnitude and frequency contents of input ground motion, and material properties of soil deposits. Hence, nowadays, it is recommended that the adoption of the probabilistic method for the PSHA of soft soil deposits considering such uncertainty factors. In this study, we estimated the amplification factor of the surface of the soft soil deposits with considering the uncertainties of the input ground motions and the soil material properties. Then, we proposed the probabilistic methodology to evaluate the UHS of the soft soil site by multiplying the amplification factor to that of the bedrock site. The proposed method was applied to four typical target sites of KNGR and APR1400 NPP site categories

  14. Application of risk assessment techniques to 'major hazard' pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, R A

    1982-12-01

    A risk analysis for a hazardous-material pipeline (carrying LPG, ammonia, or high-pressure gas) is presented. The analysis gives results in a form that will assist the decisionmaker in pipeline planning and route selection. The large inventory of hazardous materials in such pipelines means that risks exist even though the accident record of pipeline transportation compares favorably with that for competing modes of transport. Risk analysis techniques - commonly used in the civil aviation, nuclear, and process industries - can be equally well applied to pipelines and can produce results that not only give a measure of the risk but also indicate the principal sources of risk and possible areas for improvement. A number of pipeline risk analyses have demonstrated the viability of the technique and its usefulness as an aid to practical engineering in design, planning, and maintenance/repair phases.

  15. THE METHOD OF ASSESSING ROCK BURSTING HAZARD IN MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna MANOWSKA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a concept of forecasting accident risk during longwall extraction in crump-risk conditions. In Polish mines rock burst hazard can be described as high compared to other mines around the world. It's related to increase of depth of longwall field operation, preparation works, including drilling of mine face pavements which leads to systematic deterioration of geological and mining conditions. Depletion of coal is also the reason why mines operate in high mining tremor risk conditions. Mines more and more often operate in decks, where there is large number of edges and remains of older decks. Rocks bursts still remain one of the most dangerous natural hazards and therefore are fundamental prob-lem and have the greatest impact on safety in mining industry. The proposed method for forecasting accidents and loss-es in people and goods can contribute to improvement of work organization methods and mine safety management system.

  16. Quantitative rock-fall hazard and risk assessment for Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Greg M.; Luco, Nicolas; Collins, Brian D.; Harp, Edwin L.; Reichenbach, Paola; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2014-01-01

    Rock falls are common in Yosemite Valley, California, posing substantial hazard and risk to the approximately four million annual visitors to Yosemite National Park. Rock falls in Yosemite Valley over the past few decades have damaged structures and caused injuries within developed regions located on or adjacent to talus slopes highlighting the need for additional investigations into rock-fall hazard and risk. This assessment builds upon previous investigations of rock-fall hazard and risk in Yosemite Valley and focuses on hazard and risk to structures posed by relatively frequent fragmental-type rock falls as large as approximately 100,000 (cubic meters) in volume.

  17. Future management of hazardous wastes generated at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document assesses the potential environmental impacts of a variety of alternatives which could provide a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted waste packaging and storage facility that would handle all hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes generated at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and would operate in full compliance with all federal, state, and local laws and regulations. Location of the existing Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) with respect to ground water and the site boundary, technical and capacity limitations, inadequate utilities, and required remediation of the area make the existing facility environmentally unacceptable for long term continued use. This Environmental Assessment (EA) describes the need for action by the Department of Energy (DOE). It evaluates the alternatives for fulfilling that need, including the alternative preferred by DOE, a no-action alternative, and other reasonable alternatives. The EA provides a general description of BNL and the existing environment at the current HWMF and alternative locations considered for a new Waste Management Facility (WMF). Finally, the EA describes the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives considered. The preferred alternative, also identified as Alternative D, would be to construct and operate a new WMF on land formerly occupied by barracks during Camp Upton operations, in an area north of Building 830 and the High Flux Beam Reactor/Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) recharge basins, east of North Railroad Street, and south of East Fifth Avenue. The purpose of this new facility would be to move all storage and transfer activities inside buildings and on paved and curbed areas, consolidate facilities to improve operations management, and provide improved protection of the environment

  18. Regional Landslide Hazard Assessment Considering Potential Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, S.; Holcombe, E.; Pianosi, F.; Wagener, T.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. These risks are likely to be exacerbated in the future by a combination of climatic and socio-economic factors. Climate change, for example, is expected to increase the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides, because a warmer atmosphere tends to produce more high intensity rainfall events. Prediction of future changes in rainfall, however, is subject to high levels of uncertainty, making it challenging for decision-makers to identify the areas and populations that are most vulnerable to landslide hazards. In this study, we demonstrate how a physically-based model - the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM) - can be used together with Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) to explore the underlying factors controlling the spatial distribution of landslide risks across a regional landscape, while also accounting for deep uncertainty around potential future rainfall triggers. We demonstrate how GSA can be used to analyse CHASM which in turn represents the spatial variability of hillslope characteristics in the study region, while accounting for other uncertainties. Results are presented in the form of landslide hazard maps, utilising high-resolution digital elevation datasets for a case study in St Lucia in the Caribbean. Our findings about spatial landslide hazard drivers have important implications for data collection approaches and for long-term decision-making about land management practices.

  19. Regional landslide hazard assessment in a deep uncertain future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Liz; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. These risks are likely to be exacerbated in the future by a combination of climatic and socio-economic factors. Climate change, for example, is expected to increase the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides, because a warmer atmosphere tends to produce more high intensity rainfall events. Prediction of future changes in rainfall, however, is subject to high levels of uncertainty, making it challenging for decision-makers to identify the areas and populations that are most vulnerable to landslide hazards. In this study, we demonstrate how a physically-based model - the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM) - can be used together with Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) to explore the underlying factors controlling the spatial distribution of landslide risks across a regional landscape, while also accounting for deep uncertainty around future rainfall conditions. We demonstrate how GSA can used to analyse CHASM which in turn represents the spatial variability of hillslope characteristics in the study region, while accounting for other uncertainties. Results are presented in the form of landslide hazard maps, utilising high-resolution digital elevation datasets for a case study in St Lucia in the Caribbean. Our findings about spatial landslide hazard drivers have important implications for data collection approaches and for long-term decision-making about land management practices.

  20. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  1. Modeling exposure to persistent chemicals in hazard and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E; McLachlan, Michael S; Arnot, Jon A; Macleod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E; Wania, Frank

    2009-10-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not, thus far, been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared for evaluating the significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals in the environment. The goal of this publication is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include 1) benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk; 2) directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota, and humans to provide information to complement measurements or where measurements are not available or are limited; 3) to identify the key processes and chemical or environmental parameters that determine the exposure, thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile; and 4) forecasting future time trends, including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and

  2. Neo-Deterministic and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments: a Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2016-04-01

    Objective testing is the key issue towards any reliable seismic hazard assessment (SHA). Different earthquake hazard maps must demonstrate their capability in anticipating ground shaking from future strong earthquakes before an appropriate use for different purposes - such as engineering design, insurance, and emergency management. Quantitative assessment of maps performances is an essential step also in scientific process of their revision and possible improvement. Cross-checking of probabilistic models with available observations and independent physics based models is recognized as major validation procedure. The existing maps from the classical probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), as well as those from the neo-deterministic analysis (NDSHA), which have been already developed for several regions worldwide (including Italy, India and North Africa), are considered to exemplify the possibilities of the cross-comparative analysis in spotting out limits and advantages of different methods. Where the data permit, a comparative analysis versus the documented seismic activity observed in reality is carried out, showing how available observations about past earthquakes can contribute to assess performances of the different methods. Neo-deterministic refers to a scenario-based approach, which allows for consideration of a wide range of possible earthquake sources as the starting point for scenarios constructed via full waveforms modeling. The method does not make use of empirical attenuation models (i.e. Ground Motion Prediction Equations, GMPE) and naturally supplies realistic time series of ground shaking (i.e. complete synthetic seismograms), readily applicable to complete engineering analysis and other mitigation actions. The standard NDSHA maps provide reliable envelope estimates of maximum seismic ground motion from a wide set of possible scenario earthquakes, including the largest deterministically or historically defined credible earthquake. In addition

  3. Quantitative physical models of volcanic phenomena for hazards assessment of critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic hazards may have destructive effects on economy, transport, and natural environments at both local and regional scale. Hazardous phenomena include pyroclastic density currents, tephra fall, gas emissions, lava flows, debris flows and avalanches, and lahars. Volcanic hazards assessment is based on available information to characterize potential volcanic sources in the region of interest and to determine whether specific volcanic phenomena might reach a given site. Volcanic hazards assessment is focussed on estimating the distances that volcanic phenomena could travel from potential sources and their intensity at the considered site. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties strongly affect the resulting hazards assessment. Within the context of critical infrastructures, volcanic eruptions are rare natural events that can create severe hazards. In addition to being rare events, evidence of many past volcanic eruptions is poorly preserved in the geologic record. The models used for describing the impact of volcanic phenomena generally represent a range of model complexities, from simplified physics based conceptual models to highly coupled thermo fluid dynamical approaches. Modelling approaches represent a hierarchy of complexity, which reflects increasing requirements for well characterized data in order to produce a broader range of output information. In selecting models for the hazard analysis related to a specific phenomenon, questions that need to be answered by the models must be carefully considered. Independently of the model, the final hazards assessment strongly depends on input derived from detailed volcanological investigations, such as mapping and stratigraphic correlations. For each phenomenon, an overview of currently available approaches for the evaluation of future hazards will be presented with the aim to provide a foundation for future work in developing an international consensus on volcanic hazards assessment methods.

  4. Assessing qualitative long-term volcanic hazards at Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Martí, Joan; Bartolini, Stefania; Geyer, Adelina

    2017-07-01

    Conducting long-term hazard assessment in active volcanic areas is of primary importance for land-use planning and defining emergency plans able to be applied in case of a crisis. A definition of scenario hazard maps helps to mitigate the consequences of future eruptions by anticipating the events that may occur. Lanzarote is an active volcanic island that has hosted the largest (> 1.5 km3 DRE) and longest (6 years) eruption, the Timanfaya eruption (1730-1736), on the Canary Islands in historical times (last 600 years). This eruption brought severe economic losses and forced local people to migrate. In spite of all these facts, no comprehensive hazard assessment or hazard maps have been developed for the island. In this work, we present an integrated long-term volcanic hazard evaluation using a systematic methodology that includes spatial analysis and simulations of the most probable eruptive scenarios.

  5. Assessing qualitative long-term volcanic hazards at Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Becerril

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conducting long-term hazard assessment in active volcanic areas is of primary importance for land-use planning and defining emergency plans able to be applied in case of a crisis. A definition of scenario hazard maps helps to mitigate the consequences of future eruptions by anticipating the events that may occur. Lanzarote is an active volcanic island that has hosted the largest (>  1.5 km3 DRE and longest (6 years eruption, the Timanfaya eruption (1730–1736, on the Canary Islands in historical times (last 600 years. This eruption brought severe economic losses and forced local people to migrate. In spite of all these facts, no comprehensive hazard assessment or hazard maps have been developed for the island. In this work, we present an integrated long-term volcanic hazard evaluation using a systematic methodology that includes spatial analysis and simulations of the most probable eruptive scenarios.

  6. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Global Tropics Hazards and Benefits Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Tropics Hazards and Benefits Assessment (GTH) is an outlook product for the areas in the Tropics. Forecasts for the Week-1 and Week-2 period are given for...

  7. Autonomous Soil Assessment System: A Data-Driven Approach to Planetary Mobility Hazard Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimalwala, K.; Faragalli, M.; Reid, E.

    2018-04-01

    The Autonomous Soil Assessment System predicts mobility hazards for rovers. Its development and performance are presented, with focus on its data-driven models, machine learning algorithms, and real-time sensor data fusion for predictive analytics.

  8. Ionizing radiation - an unknown factor?. Assessment of health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    For a large part of the population, radioactivity is a strange thing they know nothing about, except that it may be dangerous, and this of course is disquieting. This is why the subject of nuclear energy raises emotions, if not fear among people, also because they are not aware that radioactivity is a natural phenomenon just like the sunlight or the weather. The author explains radioactivity in the light of other risks of life and shows that the application of ionizing radiation, or the peaceful uses of atomic energy, involve risks ranking rather at the bottom of the list of man-made hazards. (orig.) [de

  9. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the script from a videotaped dialogue concerning a hypothetical hazardous waste/community health risk scenario presented as a Round Table Forum. Various issues are explored, ranging from the scientific and technical aspects of environmental studies and remedial action, to public information and community involvement, to the economic impact on local communities. The roles of the media, local government and federal and state agencies are examined as well as sources for funding. In an attempt to gauge audience response and reaction, evaluation cards were distributed, and the comments and recommendations are included here

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment framework for structural systems under multiple hazards using Bayesian statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwag, Shinyoung; Gupta, Abhinav

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This study presents the development of Bayesian framework for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of structural systems under multiple hazards. • The concepts of Bayesian network and Bayesian inference are combined by mapping the traditionally used fault trees into a Bayesian network. • The proposed mapping allows for consideration of dependencies as well as correlations between events. • Incorporation of Bayesian inference permits a novel way for exploration of a scenario that is likely to result in a system level “vulnerability.” - Abstract: Conventional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies (USNRC, 1983; IAEA, 1992; EPRI, 1994; Ellingwood, 2001) conduct risk assessment for different external hazards by considering each hazard separately and independent of each other. The risk metric for a specific hazard is evaluated by a convolution of the fragility and the hazard curves. The fragility curve for basic event is obtained by using empirical, experimental, and/or numerical simulation data for a particular hazard. Treating each hazard as an independently can be inappropriate in some cases as certain hazards are statistically correlated or dependent. Examples of such correlated events include but are not limited to flooding induced fire, seismically induced internal or external flooding, or even seismically induced fire. In the current practice, system level risk and consequence sequences are typically calculated using logic trees to express the causative relationship between events. In this paper, we present the results from a study on multi-hazard risk assessment that is conducted using a Bayesian network (BN) with Bayesian inference. The framework can consider statistical dependencies among risks from multiple hazards, allows updating by considering the newly available data/information at any level, and provide a novel way to explore alternative failure scenarios that may exist due to vulnerabilities.

  11. Probabilistic risk assessment framework for structural systems under multiple hazards using Bayesian statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Shinyoung [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: agupta1@ncsu.edu [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • This study presents the development of Bayesian framework for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of structural systems under multiple hazards. • The concepts of Bayesian network and Bayesian inference are combined by mapping the traditionally used fault trees into a Bayesian network. • The proposed mapping allows for consideration of dependencies as well as correlations between events. • Incorporation of Bayesian inference permits a novel way for exploration of a scenario that is likely to result in a system level “vulnerability.” - Abstract: Conventional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies (USNRC, 1983; IAEA, 1992; EPRI, 1994; Ellingwood, 2001) conduct risk assessment for different external hazards by considering each hazard separately and independent of each other. The risk metric for a specific hazard is evaluated by a convolution of the fragility and the hazard curves. The fragility curve for basic event is obtained by using empirical, experimental, and/or numerical simulation data for a particular hazard. Treating each hazard as an independently can be inappropriate in some cases as certain hazards are statistically correlated or dependent. Examples of such correlated events include but are not limited to flooding induced fire, seismically induced internal or external flooding, or even seismically induced fire. In the current practice, system level risk and consequence sequences are typically calculated using logic trees to express the causative relationship between events. In this paper, we present the results from a study on multi-hazard risk assessment that is conducted using a Bayesian network (BN) with Bayesian inference. The framework can consider statistical dependencies among risks from multiple hazards, allows updating by considering the newly available data/information at any level, and provide a novel way to explore alternative failure scenarios that may exist due to vulnerabilities.

  12. Multi-hazard Assessment and Scenario Toolbox (MhAST): A Framework for Analyzing Compounding Effects of Multiple Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, M.; Moftakhari, H.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Many natural hazards are driven by multiple forcing variables, and concurrence/consecutive extreme events significantly increases risk of infrastructure/system failure. It is a common practice to use univariate analysis based upon a perceived ruling driver to estimate design quantiles and/or return periods of extreme events. A multivariate analysis, however, permits modeling simultaneous occurrence of multiple forcing variables. In this presentation, we introduce the Multi-hazard Assessment and Scenario Toolbox (MhAST) that comprehensively analyzes marginal and joint probability distributions of natural hazards. MhAST also offers a wide range of scenarios of return period and design levels and their likelihoods. Contribution of this study is four-fold: 1. comprehensive analysis of marginal and joint probability of multiple drivers through 17 continuous distributions and 26 copulas, 2. multiple scenario analysis of concurrent extremes based upon the most likely joint occurrence, one ruling variable, and weighted random sampling of joint occurrences with similar exceedance probabilities, 3. weighted average scenario analysis based on a expected event, and 4. uncertainty analysis of the most likely joint occurrence scenario using a Bayesian framework.

  13. Assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards using Bayesian networks based on standard penetration test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Wei; Bai, Xu; Hu, Ji-Lei; Qiu, Jiang-Nan

    2018-05-01

    Liquefaction-induced hazards such as sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading are responsible for considerable damage to engineering structures during major earthquakes. Presently, there is no effective empirical approach that can assess different liquefaction-induced hazards in one model. This is because of the uncertainties and complexity of the factors related to seismic liquefaction and liquefaction-induced hazards. In this study, Bayesian networks (BNs) are used to integrate multiple factors related to seismic liquefaction, sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading into a model based on standard penetration test data. The constructed BN model can assess four different liquefaction-induced hazards together. In a case study, the BN method outperforms an artificial neural network and Ishihara and Yoshimine's simplified method in terms of accuracy, Brier score, recall, precision, and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). This demonstrates that the BN method is a good alternative tool for the risk assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards. Furthermore, the performance of the BN model in estimating liquefaction-induced hazards in Japan's 2011 Tōhoku earthquake confirms its correctness and reliability compared with the liquefaction potential index approach. The proposed BN model can also predict whether the soil becomes liquefied after an earthquake and can deduce the chain reaction process of liquefaction-induced hazards and perform backward reasoning. The assessment results from the proposed model provide informative guidelines for decision-makers to detect the damage state of a field following liquefaction.

  14. Landslide hazard assessment in the Collazzone area, Umbria, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guzzetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the application of a recently proposed model to determine landslide hazard. The model predicts where landslides will occur, how frequently they will occur, and how large they will be in a given area. For the Collazzone area, in the central Italian Apennines, we prepared a multi-temporal inventory map through the interpretation of multiple sets of aerial photographs taken between 1941 and 1997 and field surveys conducted in the period between 1998 and 2004. We then partitioned the 79 square kilometres study area into 894 slope units, and obtained the probability of spatial occurrence of landslides by discriminant analysis of thematic variables, including morphology, lithology, structure and land use. For each slope unit, we computed the expected landslide recurrence by dividing the total number of landslide events inventoried in the terrain unit by the time span of the investigated period. Assuming landslide recurrence was constant, and adopting a Poisson probability model, we determined the exceedance probability of having one or more landslides in each slope unit, for different periods. We obtained the probability of landslide size, a proxy for landslide magnitude, by analysing the frequency-area statistics of landslides, obtained from the multi-temporal inventory map. Lastly, assuming independence, we determined landslide hazard for each slope unit as the joint probability of landslide size, of landslide temporal occurrence, and of landslide spatial occurrence.

  15. Assessment of the fire hazard in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liemersdorf, H.

    1986-01-01

    The fire protection for conventional buildings and in the industrial area is essentially an empirical discipline. But, for nuclear facilities, the objectives of fire protection are higher than those used in the conventional field. Consequently, it is necessary to develop methods to strengthen or to supplement the empirical evaluation methods on a scientific basis. This paper describes the method for fire hazard analysis developed for this purpose and presents some important results of its application to nuclear power plants. The analysis has the objective, on the one hand, of quantifying the risk contribution of a fire to the overall risk of a nuclear power plant and, on the other, to gain a balanced concept of individual fire protection measures. The results show that the fire risk contribution is relatively small in comparison with the contribution of other events and does not dominate the overall risk of the plant. This justifies the fire protection concepts of the facilities which have been examined. Additionally, it can be shown that further optimization is possible. The analysis method, which has been developed to evaluate the fire hazards of nuclear power plants is also expected to be applied to other nuclear facilities in future. In principal, though, the method may also be applied to the conventional field. (orig.) [de

  16. Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect

  17. A critical analysis of hazard resilience measures within sustainability assessment frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Elizabeth C.; Sattler, Meredith; Friedland, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    Today, numerous sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) exist to guide designers in achieving sustainable performance in the design of structures and communities. SAFs are beneficial in educating users and are useful tools for incorporating sustainability strategies into planning, design, and construction; however, there is currently a substantial gap in the ability of existing SAFs to incorporate hazard resistance and hazard mitigation in the broader context of sustainable design. This paper analyzes the incorporation of hazard resistant design and hazard mitigation strategies within SAFs via a multi-level analysis of eleven SAFs. The SAFs analyzed range in scale of application (i.e. building, site, community). Three levels of analysis are presented: (1) macro-level analysis comparing the number of measures strictly addressing resilience versus sustainability, (2) meso-level analysis of the coverage of types of hazards within SAFs (e.g. flood, fire), and (3) micro-level analysis of SAF measures connected to flood-related hazard resilience. The results demonstrate that hazard resistance and hazard mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs and that weaknesses in resilience coverage exist that have the potential to lead to the design of structures and communities that are still highly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme events. - Highlights: • Sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) were analyzed for resilience coverage • Hazard resistance and mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs • Approximately 75% of SAFs analyzed address three or fewer hazards • Lack of economic measures within SAFs could impact resilience and sustainability • Resilience measures for flood hazards are not consistently included in SAFs

  18. A critical analysis of hazard resilience measures within sustainability assessment frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Elizabeth C., E-mail: echiso1@lsu.edu [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Sattler, Meredith, E-mail: msattler@lsu.edu [School of Architecture, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Friedland, Carol J., E-mail: friedland@lsu.edu [Bert S. Turner Department of Construction Management, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Today, numerous sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) exist to guide designers in achieving sustainable performance in the design of structures and communities. SAFs are beneficial in educating users and are useful tools for incorporating sustainability strategies into planning, design, and construction; however, there is currently a substantial gap in the ability of existing SAFs to incorporate hazard resistance and hazard mitigation in the broader context of sustainable design. This paper analyzes the incorporation of hazard resistant design and hazard mitigation strategies within SAFs via a multi-level analysis of eleven SAFs. The SAFs analyzed range in scale of application (i.e. building, site, community). Three levels of analysis are presented: (1) macro-level analysis comparing the number of measures strictly addressing resilience versus sustainability, (2) meso-level analysis of the coverage of types of hazards within SAFs (e.g. flood, fire), and (3) micro-level analysis of SAF measures connected to flood-related hazard resilience. The results demonstrate that hazard resistance and hazard mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs and that weaknesses in resilience coverage exist that have the potential to lead to the design of structures and communities that are still highly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme events. - Highlights: • Sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) were analyzed for resilience coverage • Hazard resistance and mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs • Approximately 75% of SAFs analyzed address three or fewer hazards • Lack of economic measures within SAFs could impact resilience and sustainability • Resilience measures for flood hazards are not consistently included in SAFs.

  19. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VIII - Risk Assessment Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  20. Seismic hazard assessment in intra-plate areas and backfitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Eng, P.

    2001-01-01

    Typically, fuel cycle facilities have been constructed over a 40 year time period incorporating various ages of seismic design provisions ranging from no specific seismic requirements to the life safety provisions normally incorporated in national building codes through to the latest seismic nuclear codes that provide not only for structural robustness but also include operational requirements for continued operation of essential safety functions. The task is to ensure uniform seismic risk in all facilities. Since the majority of the fuel cycle infrastructure has been built the emphasis is on re-evaluation and backfitting. The wide range of facilities included in the fuel cycle and the vastly varying hazard to safety, health and the environment suggest a performance based approach. This paper presents such an approach, placed in an intra-plate setting of a Stable Continental Region (SCR) typical to that found in Eastern Canada. (author)

  1. DNA repair, human cancer and assessment of radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, M.C.; Myers, D.K.

    1979-09-01

    Cancers, like genetic defects, are thought to be caused primarily by changes in DNA. Part of the evidence in support of this hypothesis derives from the study of certain rare hereditary disorders in man associated with high risk of cancer. Cells derived from patients suffering from at least one of these disorders, ataxia telangiectasia, appear to be defective in their ability to repair the damage caused by radiation and/or certain other environmental agents. Studies of the consequences of DNA repair suggest that currently accepted estimates of the carcinogenic hazards of low level radiation are substantially correct. There would appear to be some margin of safety involved in these risk estimates for the majority of the population, but any major reduction in the currently accepted risk estimates appears inadvisable in view of the existence of potentially radiosensitive subgroups forming a minority in the general population. (author)

  2. Assessment of vulnerability to storm induced flood hazard along diverse coastline settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchev Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European coasts suffer notably from hazards caused by low-probability and high-impact hydrometeorological events. The aim of the study is to assess in probabilistic terms the magnitude of storm‐induced flooding hazard along Varna regional coast (Bulgaria, western Black Sea and to identify susceptible coastal sectors (hotspots. The study is performed employing the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF developed within EU FP7 RISC-KIT project. It constitutes a screening process that allows estimation of relevant hazard intensities, extents and potential receptors’ exposure vulnerability within predefined sectors. Total water level was the chief property considered for calculation of coastal flooding hazard. It was estimated using Holman model (for sandy beaches and EurOtop formulation (for artificial or rocky slopes. Resulting values were subjected to Extreme Value Analysis to establish that the best fitting distribution corresponds to Generalized Extreme Value distribution. Furthermore, hazard extents were modelled by means of bathtubbing or overwash estimation in order to form the flooding hazard indicator. Land use, social vulnerability, transport systems, utilities and business settings were considered as exposure indicators. Finally, potential risk was assessed by coastal indices following an index-based methodology, which combines hazard and exposure indicators into a single index, thereby providing base for comparison of coastal sectors’ vulnerability. The study found that the concentration of hotspots is highest in Varna Bay.

  3. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem......This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  4. Probabilistic disaggregation of a spatial portfolio of exposure for natural hazard risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    In natural hazard risk assessment situations are encountered where information on the portfolio of exposure is only available in a spatially aggregated form, hindering a precise risk assessment. Recourse might be found in the spatial disaggregation of the portfolio of exposure to the resolution...... of a portfolio of buildings in two communes in Switzerland and the results are compared to sample observations. The relevance of probabilistic disaggregation uncertainty in natural hazard risk assessment is illustrated with the example of a simple flood risk assessment....

  5. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  6. The Contribution of Palaeoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations, published in 2010, covers all aspects of site evaluation relating to seismic hazards and recommends the use of prehistoric, historical and instrumental earthquake data in seismic hazard assessments. Prehistoric data on earthquakes cover a much longer period than do historical and instrumental data. However, gathering such data is generally difficult in most regions of the world, owing to an absence of human records. Prehistoric data on earthquakes can be obtained through the use of palaeoseismic techniques. This publication describes the current status and practices of palaeoseismology, in order to support Member States in meeting the recommendations of SSG-9 and in establishing the necessary earthquake related database for seismic hazard assessment and reassessment. At a donors’ meeting of the International Seismic Safety Centre Extrabudgetary Project in January 2011, it was suggested to develop detailed guidelines on seismic hazards. Soon after the meeting, the disastrous Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 11 March 2011 and the consequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant occurred. The importance of palaeoseismology for seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation was highlighted by the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. However, no methodology for performing investigations using palaeoseismic techniques has so far been available in an IAEA publication. The detailed guidelines and practical tools provided here will be of value to nuclear power plant operating organizations, regulatory bodies, vendors, technical support organizations and researchers in the area of seismic hazard assessment in site evaluation for nuclear installations, and the information will be of importance in support of hazard assessments in the future

  7. Probabilistic assessment of wildfire hazard and municipal watershed exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Scott; Don Helmbrecht; Matthew P. Thompson; David E. Calkin; Kate Marcille

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of wildfires within municipal watersheds can result in significant impacts to water quality and ultimately human health and safety. In this paper, we illustrate the application of geospatial analysis and burn probability modeling to assess the exposure of municipal watersheds to wildfire. Our assessment of wildfire exposure consists of two primary...

  8. Volcanic hazard assessment for the Canary Islands (Spain using extreme value theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sobradelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Canary Islands are an active volcanic region densely populated and visited by several millions of tourists every year. Nearly twenty eruptions have been reported through written chronicles in the last 600 yr, suggesting that the probability of a new eruption in the near future is far from zero. This shows the importance of assessing and monitoring the volcanic hazard of the region in order to reduce and manage its potential volcanic risk, and ultimately contribute to the design of appropriate preparedness plans. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of the volcanic eruption time series for the Canary Islands is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk in the area. Such a series describes complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. Here we propose a statistical method for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions which is most appropriate given the nature of the documented historical eruptive data. We first characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes, and then carry out a preliminary analysis of the data to establish the requirements for the statistical method. Past studies in eruptive time series used conventional statistics and treated the series as an homogeneous process. In this paper, we will use a method that accounts for the time-dependence of the series and includes rare or extreme events, in the form of few data of large eruptions, since these data require special methods of analysis. Hence, we will use a statistical method from extreme value theory. In particular, we will apply a non-homogeneous Poisson process to the historical eruptive data of the Canary Islands to estimate the probability of having at least one volcanic event of a magnitude greater than one in the upcoming years. This is done in three steps: First, we analyze the historical eruptive series to assess independence and homogeneity of the process. Second, we perform a Weibull analysis of the

  9. A life cycle hazard assessment (LCHA) framework to address fire hazards at the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric; Pierce, Jen; Wuerzer, Thomas; Glenn, Nancy; Dialani, Jijay; Gibble, Katie; Frazier, Tim; Strand, Eva

    2015-04-01

    up with an assessment of the impact of the product on the environment over time and is being considered beyond the business and logistics communities in such areas as biodiversity and ecosystem impacts. From our perspective, we consider wildfire as the "product" and want to understand how it impacts the environment (spatially, temporally, across the bio-physical and social domains). Through development of this LCHA we adapt the LCA approach with a focus on the inputs (from fire and pre-fire efforts) outputs (from post fire conditions) and how they evolve and are responded to by the responsible agencies and stakeholders responsible. A Life Cycle Hazard Assessment (LCHA) approach extends and integrates the understanding of hazards over much longer periods of time than previously considered. The LCHA also provides an integrated platform for the necessary interdisciplinary approach to understanding decision and environmental change across the life cycle of the fire event. This presentation will discuss our theoretical and empirical framework for developing a longitudinal LCHA and contribute to the overall goals of the NH7.1 session.

  10. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC Accidents at Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Asmalia Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power plant had a reputation of being one of the most hazardous workplace environments. Workers in the power plant face many safety risks due to the nature of the job. Although power plants are safer nowadays since the industry has urged the employer to improve their employees’ safety, the employees still stumble upon many hazards thus accidents at workplace. The aim of the present study is to investigate work related accidents at power plants based on HIRARC (Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control process. The data were collected at two coal-fired power plant located in Malaysia. The finding of the study identified hazards and assess risk relate to accidents occurred at the power plants. The finding of the study suggested the possible control measures and corrective actions to reduce or eliminate the risk that can be used by power plant in preventing accidents from occurred

  11. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations: Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures

  12. Seismic Hazard Assessment at Esfaraen‒Bojnurd Railway, North‒East of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerifard, S.; Jarahi, H.; Pourkermani, M.; Almasian, M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic hazard at the Esfarayen-Bojnurd railway using the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) method. This method was carried out based on a recent data set to take into account the historic seismicity and updated instrumental seismicity. A homogenous earthquake catalogue was compiled and a proposed seismic sources model was presented. Attenuation equations that recently recommended by experts and developed based upon earthquake data obtained from tectonic environments similar to those in and around the studied area were weighted and used for assessment of seismic hazard in the frame of logic tree approach. Considering a grid of 1.2 × 1.2 km covering the study area, ground acceleration for every node was calculated. Hazard maps at bedrock conditions were produced for peak ground acceleration, in addition to return periods of 74, 475 and 2475 years.

  13. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...... at a scale relevant for regional planning purposes. It uses a GIS approach to develop regional and sub-regional hazard maps as well as to produce relevant hazard risk data, and includes a discussion of uncertainties, limitations and management perspectives. The hazard assessment shows that 61 percent...

  14. BASINs 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting Documentation and User's Manual (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the report, BASINS 4.0 Climate Assessment Tool (CAT): Supporting Documentation and User's Manual. This report was prepared by the EPA's Global Change Research Program (GCRP), an assessment-oriented program, that sits within the Office of R...

  15. High organic containing tanks: Assessing the hazard potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.C.P.; Babad, H.

    1991-09-01

    Eight Hanford Site tanks contain organic chemicals at concentrations believed to be greater than 10 mole percent sodium acetate equivalent mixed with the oxidizing salts sodium nitrate/sodium nitrite. Also, three of the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tanks appear on the organic tank list. Concentrations of organics that may be present in some tanks could cause an exothermic reaction given a sufficient driving force, such as high temperatures. However, the difference between ignition temperatures and actual tank temperatures measured is so large that the probability of such a reaction is considered very low. The consequences of the postulated reaction are about the same as the scenarios for an explosion in a ''burping'' hydrogen tank. Although work on this issue is just beginning, consideration of hazards associated with heating nitrate-nitrite mixtures containing organic materials is an integral part of both the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tank efforts. High concentrations of organic compounds have been inferred (from tank transfer, flow sheet records, and limited analytical data) in eight single-shell tanks. Many organic chemicals, if present in concentrations above 10 dry weight percent (sodium acetate equivalent), have the potential to react with nitrate-nitrites constituents at temperatures above 200 degree C (392 degree F) in an exothermic manner. The concentrations of organic materials in the listed single-shell tanks, and their chemical identity, is not accurately known at present. A tank sampling program has been planned to provide more information on the contents of these tanks and to serve as a basis for laboratory testing and safety evaluations. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Hemijski udesi i procena rizika / Chemical accidents and hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Biočanin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Brojni su udesi vezani za transport i upotrebu hemijskih materija. Ova činjenica je važna i zbog toga što se naša zemlja nalazi na raskrsnici značajnih svetskih komunikacija kojima se ovakvi tereti prevoze. Veliki broj vrsta hemijskih materija može znatno da naruši životnu sredinu za duži period. Ovaj rad, kroz različite parametre, nastoji da prouči takvu mogućnost i ukaže na načine za prevenciju sličnih događaja i zaštitu stanovništva u miru i tokom ratnih dejstava. Ostvarenje projekta jedinstvenog sistema ABHO daje mogućnost da se, korišćenjem savremene opreme za komunikaciju i efikasnih jedinica za brzo reagovanje u realnom vremenu, uspešno obavi monitoring opasnosti, uzbunjivanje, zaštita i dekontaminacija. / There is a growing number of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances during transportation. Serbia and Montenegro are at the crossroads of numerous important European transport links where a lot of such transports pass through. A great number of such substances can considerably damage environment for a very long period of time. This paper studies such events applying different parameters; it tries to point at successful prevention and protection from this threat at peace, as well as during war operations. The realization of the universal and united system of the NBCD of the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, together with modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units, enables on - time reaction and successful monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination.

  17. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the historical peninsula of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ç. Ince

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to design buildings that are resistant to earthquakes, first it is necessary to determine the parameters of ground motion. In this study, the earthquake seismic hazard analysis of the Old City Districts of Istanbul (Fatih and Eminonu was probabilistically defined. For the analysis, the study zone was divided into 307 cells of 250 × 250 m using geographical information systems, and these cells were used in the mapping of all the data obtained. Then, for a building lifetime of 50 yr, the acceleration parameters of earthquake ground motions, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and spectral acceleration values of 0.2 s and 1 s were obtained at the bedrock level according to 10% and 40% exceedances. Additionally, in order to produce the artificial acceleration-time records of the ground movement in accordance with the NEHRP acceleration spectrum, the TARSCHTS computer simulation program was utilized. The results of the analysis showed that for the 10% probability of exceedance, the peak bedrock acceleration values ranged from 0.30 g to 0.40 g, and for the 40% exceedance probability the acceleration values ranged from 0.22 g to 0.17 g. The Ss 10% exceedance probability, calculated according to the spectral acceleration parameter, ranged from 0.67 g to 0.85 g and the spectral acceleration parameter S1 varied between 0.22 g–0.28 g. The Ss 40% exceedance probability, calculated according to the spectral acceleration parameter, ranged from 0.46 g to 0.38 g and the spectral acceleration parameter S1 varied from 0.12 g to 0.14 g.

  18. A national seismographic network for assessing seismic hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.P.; Murphy, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    To access the seismic hazard of a region and to establish the design and construction criteria for critical facilities such as nuclear power plants, detailed information is required on the frequency of occurrence, geographical distribution, magnitude, and energy spectra of earthquakes. Also important is information on the frequency-dependent attenuation of seismic waves. This information can all be obtained from data recorded by networks of seismograph stations. A new seismograph network for the US which takes advantage of advances in technology is currently under development. This network is the US National Seismograph Network (USNSN). The USNSN is a cooperative effort between the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the US Geological survey and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The USNSN will be installed and operated by the NEIC. The network will consist of approximately 150 seismograph stations distributed across the lower 48 states and across Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The design goal for the network is the on-scale recording by at least five well-distributed stations of any event of magnitude 2.5 or larger in the continental US, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, and of any event of magnitude 3.5 or larger in Alaska. The rapid access to all USNSN data will be provided by the NEIC. This will be accomplished both via a dial-up capability to the event waveform data base and by satellite transmission in a broadcast mode. All earthquake data will also be distributed on compact disk with read only memory (CD-ROM) to all institutions having an interest in the seismic data

  19. Probabilistic Approaches for Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment of Structures and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwag, Shinyoung

    Performance assessment of structures, systems, and components for multi-hazard scenarios has received significant attention in recent years. However, the concept of multi-hazard analysis is quite broad in nature and the focus of existing literature varies across a wide range of problems. In some cases, such studies focus on hazards that either occur simultaneously or are closely correlated with each other. For example, seismically induced flooding or seismically induced fires. In other cases, multi-hazard studies relate to hazards that are not dependent or correlated but have strong likelihood of occurrence at different times during the lifetime of a structure. The current approaches for risk assessment need enhancement to account for multi-hazard risks. It must be able to account for uncertainty propagation in a systems-level analysis, consider correlation among events or failure modes, and allow integration of newly available information from continually evolving simulation models, experimental observations, and field measurements. This dissertation presents a detailed study that proposes enhancements by incorporating Bayesian networks and Bayesian updating within a performance-based probabilistic framework. The performance-based framework allows propagation of risk as well as uncertainties in the risk estimates within a systems analysis. Unlike conventional risk assessment techniques such as a fault-tree analysis, a Bayesian network can account for statistical dependencies and correlations among events/hazards. The proposed approach is extended to develop a risk-informed framework for quantitative validation and verification of high fidelity system-level simulation tools. Validation of such simulations can be quite formidable within the context of a multi-hazard risk assessment in nuclear power plants. The efficiency of this approach lies in identification of critical events, components, and systems that contribute to the overall risk. Validation of any event or

  20. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lithner, Delilah, E-mail: delilah.lithner@gmail.com; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Goeran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out

  1. Long Aftershock Sequences within Continents and Implications for Earthquake Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. A.; Liu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent seismicity in the Tangshan region in North China has prompted concern about a repetition of the 1976 M7.8 earthquake that destroyed the city, killing more than 242,000 people. However, the decay of seismicity there implies that the recent earthquakes are probably aftershocks of the 1976 event. This 37-year sequence is an example of the phenomenon that aftershock sequences within continents are often significantly longer than the typical 10 years at plate boundaries. The long sequence of aftershocks in continents is consistent with a simple friction-based model predicting that the length of aftershock sequences varies inversely with the rate at which faults are loaded. Hence the slowly-deforming continents tend to have aftershock sequences significantly longer than at rapidly-loaded plate boundaries. This effect has two consequences for hazard assessment. First, within the heavily populated continents that are typically within plate interiors, assessments of earthquake hazards rely significantly on the assumption that the locations of small earthquakes shown by the short historical record reflect continuing deformation that will cause future large earthquakes. This assumption would lead to overestimation of the hazard in presently active areas and underestimation elsewhere, if some of these small events are aftershocks. Second, successful attempts to remove aftershocks from catalogs used for hazard assessment would underestimate the hazard, because much of the hazard is due to the aftershocks, and the declustering algorithms implicitly assume short aftershock sequences and thus do not remove long-duration ones.

  2. Compilation of Quality Assurance Documentation for Analyses Performed for the Resumption of Transient Testing Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, Annette L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This is a companion document to the analyses performed in support of the environmental assessment for the Resumption of Transient Fuels and Materials Testing. It is provided to allow transparency of the supporting calculations. It provides computer code input and output. The basis for the calculations is documented separately in INL (2013) and is referenced, as appropriate. Spreadsheets used to manipulate the code output are not provided.

  3. Hazard assessment due to falling stones on a reach of the regional road in the Trenta valley, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Petje

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the new Slovenian methodology for determining hazard areas and the classification of land parcels into hazard classes due to land slides and rock falls, a pilot project was carried out on the regional road between Bovec and Vr{i~ pass in theTrenta valley. For this around 20 km long road in a typical alpine environment, a hazard assessment of falling rocks was carried out, even tough the road also passes through snow avalanches hazard areas. The performed hazard assessment of falling rocks is based onan expert knowledge taking into account the field mapping, and classifies the road into three hazard classes: 9811 m is classified into the low hazard class, 7233 m is classifiedinto the medium hazard class, and 1301 m is classified into high hazard class of falling rocks.

  4. Assessment of hazards and risks for landscape protection planning in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Landscape protection planning is a complex task that requires an integrated assessment and involves heterogeneous issues. These issues include not only the management of a considerable amount of data to describe landscape features but also the choice of appropriate tools to evaluate the hazards and risks. The landscape assessment phase can provide fundamental information for the definition of a Landscape Protection Plan, in which the selection of norms for protection or rehabilitation is strictly related to hazards, values and risks that are found. This paper describes a landscape assessment methodology conducted by using GIS, concerning landscape hazards, values and risk. Four hazard categories are introduced and assessed concerning urban sprawl and erosion: landscape transformations by new planned developments, intensification of urban sprawl patterns, loss of agriculture land and erosion. Landscape value is evaluated by using different thematic layers overlaid with GIS geoprocessing. The risk of loss of landscape value is evaluated, with reference to the potential occurrence of the previously assessed hazards. The case study is the Province of Enna (Sicily), where landscape protection is a relevant issue because of the importance of cultural and natural heritage. Results show that high value landscape features have a low risk of loss of landscape value. For this reason, landscape protection policies assume a relevant role in landscapes with low-medium values and they should be addressed to control the urban sprawl processes that are beginning in the area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) is conducting a survey of Risk Assessment and Risk Management. They are developing information on the existing level of risk associated with training and the perceived need for this training by both federal and private organizations. The purpose of the questionnaire is to determine the available training and the perception of the Risk Management process in the DOE. Of particular interest is the requirement for Risk Assessment/Management training in organizations that will be involved in the Decontamination and Decommissioning of DOE Facilities. The survey questions and instructions are included

  6. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the

  7. Site Suitability and Hazard Assessment Guide for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2013-10-01

    will be granted to construct and operate a nuclear facility. Examples of significant site-related concerns include area geotechnical and geological hazard properties, local climatology and meteorology, water resource availability, the vulnerability of surrounding populations and the environmental to adverse effects in the unlikely event of radionuclide release, the socioeconomic impacts of SMR plant installation and the effects it has on aesthetics, proximity to energy use customers, the topography and area infrastructure that affect plant constructability and security, and concerns related to the transport, installation, operation and decommissioning of major plant components.

  8. Continuous Release-Emergency Response Notification System and Priority Assessment Model: Model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the model documentation is to provide a detailed description of the modeling and risk analysis procedures used in CR-ERNS/PAM to assist OSCs and other Superfund decision-makers in interpreting the system results. PAM is a screening-level model; to properly interpret PAM's outputs, the user must understand the limitations and uncertainties in the equations and data used to generate these results. Chapter 2 presents the system's fate and transport models and describes the assumptions associated with these equations. Chapter 3 describes PAM's auxiliary data bases and provides the source(s) of each parameter and the methods by which values were selected. Chapter 4 explains the methods and exposure assumptions used to estimate exposures to hazardous substances and to evaluate the risks and hazards associated with these exposures. Chapter 5 presents examples of reports generated by PAM and explains the meaning of the 'flags' assigned to hazardous substances, media, and facilities. Appendix A contains versions of the fate and transport equations used for radionuclides. Appendix B contains copies of PAM's reports

  9. Assessing natural hazards in forestry for risk management: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Hanewinkel; Susan Hummel; Axel Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of how to integrate risk assessment into forest management and therefore provide a comprehensive review of recent and past literature on risk analysis and modeling and, moreover, an evaluation and summary on these papers. We provide a general scheme on how to integrate concepts of risk into forest management decisions. After an overview of the...

  10. Aiding alternatives assessment with an uncertainty-tolerant hazard scoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faludi, Jeremy; Hoang, Tina; Gorman, Patrick; Mulvihill, Martin

    2016-11-01

    This research developed a single-score system to simplify and clarify decision-making in chemical alternatives assessment, accounting for uncertainty. Today, assessing alternatives to hazardous constituent chemicals is a difficult task-rather than comparing alternatives by a single definitive score, many independent toxicological variables must be considered at once, and data gaps are rampant. Thus, most hazard assessments are only comprehensible to toxicologists, but business leaders and politicians need simple scores to make decisions. In addition, they must balance hazard against other considerations, such as product functionality, and they must be aware of the high degrees of uncertainty in chemical hazard data. This research proposes a transparent, reproducible method to translate eighteen hazard endpoints into a simple numeric score with quantified uncertainty, alongside a similar product functionality score, to aid decisions between alternative products. The scoring method uses Clean Production Action's GreenScreen as a guide, but with a different method of score aggregation. It provides finer differentiation between scores than GreenScreen's four-point scale, and it displays uncertainty quantitatively in the final score. Displaying uncertainty also illustrates which alternatives are early in product development versus well-defined commercial products. This paper tested the proposed assessment method through a case study in the building industry, assessing alternatives to spray polyurethane foam insulation containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The new hazard scoring method successfully identified trade-offs between different alternatives, showing finer resolution than GreenScreen Benchmarking. Sensitivity analysis showed that different weighting schemes in hazard scores had almost no effect on alternatives ranking, compared to uncertainty from data gaps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Setting the Stage for Harmonized Risk Assessment by Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe (SHARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Jochen; Giardini, Domenico; SHARE Consortium

    2010-05-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) is arguably one of the most useful products that seismology can offer to society. PSHA characterizes the best available knowledge on the seismic hazard of a study area, ideally taking into account all sources of uncertainty. Results form the baseline for informed decision making, such as building codes or insurance rates and provide essential input to each risk assessment application. Several large scale national and international projects have recently been launched aimed at improving and harmonizing PSHA standards around the globe. SHARE (www.share-eu.org) is the European Commission funded project in the Framework Programme 7 (FP-7) that will create an updated, living seismic hazard model for the Euro-Mediterranean region. SHARE is a regional component of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM, www.globalquakemodel.org), a public/private partnership initiated and approved by the Global Science Forum of the OECD-GSF. GEM aims to be the uniform, independent and open access standard to calculate and communicate earthquake hazard and risk worldwide. SHARE itself will deliver measurable progress in all steps leading to a harmonized assessment of seismic hazard - in the definition of engineering requirements, in the collection of input data, in procedures for hazard assessment, and in engineering applications. SHARE scientists will create a unified framework and computational infrastructure for seismic hazard assessment and produce an integrated European probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) model and specific scenario based modeling tools. The results will deliver long-lasting structural impact in areas of societal and economic relevance, they will serve as reference for the Eurocode 8 (EC8) application, and will provide homogeneous input for the correct seismic safety assessment for critical industry, such as the energy infrastructures and the re-insurance sector. SHARE will cover the whole European territory, the

  12. Application of statistical and dynamics models for snow avalanche hazard assessment in mountain regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchaninova, A.

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of extreme avalanche runout distances, flow velocities, impact pressures and volumes is an essential part of snow engineering in mountain regions of Russia. It implies the avalanche hazard assessment and mapping. Russian guidelines accept the application of different avalanche models as well as approaches for the estimation of model input parameters. Consequently different teams of engineers in Russia apply various dynamics and statistical models for engineering practice. However it gives more freedom to avalanche practitioners and experts but causes lots of uncertainties in case of serious limitations of avalanche models. We discuss these problems by presenting the application results of different well known and widely used statistical (developed in Russia) and avalanche dynamics models for several avalanche test sites in the Khibini Mountains (The Kola Peninsula) and the Caucasus. The most accurate and well-documented data from different powder and wet, big rare and small frequent snow avalanche events is collected from 1960th till today in the Khibini Mountains by the Avalanche Safety Center of "Apatit". This data was digitized and is available for use and analysis. Then the detailed digital avalanche database (GIS) was created for the first time. It contains contours of observed avalanches (ESRI shapes, more than 50 years of observations), DEMs, remote sensing data, description of snow pits, photos etc. Thus, the Russian avalanche data is a unique source of information for understanding of an avalanche flow rheology and the future development and calibration of the avalanche dynamics models. GIS database was used to analyze model input parameters and to calibrate and verify avalanche models. Regarding extreme dynamic parameters the outputs using different models can differ significantly. This is unacceptable for the engineering purposes in case of the absence of the well-defined guidelines in Russia. The frequency curves for the runout distance

  13. Seismic Hazard Assessment for a Characteristic Earthquake Scenario: Probabilistic-Deterministic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    mouloud, Hamidatou

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the seismic activity and the statistical treatment of seismicity catalog the Constantine region between 1357 and 2014 with 7007 seismic event. Our research is a contribution to improving the seismic risk management by evaluating the seismic hazard in the North-East Algeria. In the present study, Earthquake hazard maps for the Constantine region are calculated. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is classically performed through the Cornell approach by using a uniform earthquake distribution over the source area and a given magnitude range. This study aims at extending the PSHA approach to the case of a characteristic earthquake scenario associated with an active fault. The approach integrates PSHA with a high-frequency deterministic technique for the prediction of peak and spectral ground motion parameters in a characteristic earthquake. The method is based on the site-dependent evaluation of the probability of exceedance for the chosen strong-motion parameter. We proposed five sismotectonique zones. Four steps are necessary: (i) identification of potential sources of future earthquakes, (ii) assessment of their geological, geophysical and geometric, (iii) identification of the attenuation pattern of seismic motion, (iv) calculation of the hazard at a site and finally (v) hazard mapping for a region. In this study, the procedure of the earthquake hazard evaluation recently developed by Kijko and Sellevoll (1992) is used to estimate seismic hazard parameters in the northern part of Algeria.

  14. Multi-hazard assessment using GIS in the urban areas: Case study - Banja Luka municipality, B&H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Radislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presents a techniques for natural hazard assessment using GIS and cartographic approaches with multi-hazard mapping in urban communities, because natural hazards are a multi-dimensional phenomena which have a spatial component. Therefore the use of Remote Sensing and GIS has an important function and become essential in urban multi-hazard assessment. The first aim of this research was to determine the geographical distributions of the major types of natural hazards in the study area. Seismic hazards, landslides, rockfalls, floods, torrential floods, and excessive erosion are the most significant natural hazards within the territory of Banja Luka Municipality. Areas vulnerable to some of these natural hazards were singled out using analytical maps. Based on these analyses, an integral map of the natural hazards of the study area was created using multi-hazard assessment and the total vulnerability was determined by overlapping the results. The detailed analysis, through the focused research within the most vulnerable areas in the study area will highlight the administrative units (urban centres and communes that are vulnerable to various types of natural hazard. The results presented in this article are the first multi-hazard assessment and the first version of the integral map of natural hazards in the Republic of Srpska.

  15. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and the University of Charleston, South Carolina (UCSC) propose to offer the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Studies. The proposed starting date is August 1994. The purpose of this interdisciplinary program is to offer nationally and internationally recognized graduate level training in the areas of environmental policy, science, and health risk assessment. Special emphasis will be placed on human health. Included in this proposal are a needs assessment for environmental science professionals along with employment projections and salary expectations. The Environmental Science program is described and its relationship to other programs within MUSC and UCSC, as well as its relation to similar programs at other institutions are examined. Enrollment is discussed, admission requirements and standards outlined, and the curriculum is described. Academic and physical resources are examined and estimated costs are given

  16. Radiological hazard assessment of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, D.D.; Vermeere, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent introduction of ESWL to the clinical environment, a new health physics challenge has entered the medical consulting area. The x-ray imaging systems used in the devices are of a conventional design, but in an unusual configuration that is difficult to properly assess. The scope of this paper considers specific evaluation problems, and deals with methods developed during experience with 4 units in California. Pertinent regulations are also covered, along with a synopsis of data obtained and ALARA recommendations

  17. Assessment of the detectability of geo-hazards using Google Earth applied to the Three Parallel Rivers Area, Yunnan province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voermans, Michiel; Mao, Zhun; Baartman, Jantiene EM; Stokes, Alexia

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities such as hydropower, mining and road construction in mountainous areas can induce and intensify mass wasting geo-hazards (e.g. landslides, gullies, rockslides). This represses local safety and socio-economic development, and endangers biodiversity at larger scale. Until today, data and knowledge to construct geo-hazard databases for further assessments are lacking. This applies in particular to countries with a recently emerged rapid economic growth, where there are no previous hazard documentations and where means to gain data from e.g. intensive fieldwork or VHR satellite imagery and DEM processing are lacking. Google Earth (GE, https://www.google.com/earth/) is a freely available and relatively simple virtual globe, map and geographical information program, which is potentially useful in detecting geo-hazards. This research aimed at (i) testing the capability of Google Earth to detect locations of geo-hazards and (ii) identifying factors affecting the diagnosing quality of the detection, including effects of geo-hazard dimensions, environs setting and professional background and effort of GE users. This was tested on nine geo-hazard sites following road segments in the Three Parallel Rivers Area in the Yunnan province of China, where geo-hazards are frequently occurring. Along each road site, the position and size of each geo-hazard was measured in situ. Next, independent diagnosers with varying professional experience (students, researchers, engineers etc.) were invited to detect geo-hazard occurrence along each of the eight sites via GE. Finally, the inventory and diagnostic data were compared to validate the objectives. Rates of detected geo-hazards from 30 diagnosers ranged from 10% to 48%. No strong correlations were found between the type and size of the geo-hazards and their detection rates. Also the years of expertise of the diagnosers proved not to make a difference, opposite to what may be expected. Meanwhile the amount of time

  18. A Guide to the Application of Probability Risk Assessment Methodology and Hazard Risk Frequency Criteria as a Hazard Control for the Use of the Mobile Servicing System on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'silva, Oneil; Kerrison, Roger

    2013-09-01

    A key feature for the increased utilization of space robotics is to automate Extra-Vehicular manned space activities and thus significantly reduce the potential for catastrophic hazards while simultaneously minimizing the overall costs associated with manned space. The principal scope of the paper is to evaluate the use of industry standard accepted Probability risk/safety assessment (PRA/PSA) methodologies and Hazard Risk frequency Criteria as a hazard control. This paper illustrates the applicability of combining the selected Probability risk assessment methodology and hazard risk frequency criteria, in order to apply the necessary safety controls that allow for the increased use of the Mobile Servicing system (MSS) robotic system on the International Space Station. This document will consider factors such as component failure rate reliability, software reliability, and periods of operation and dormancy, fault tree analyses and their effects on the probability risk assessments. The paper concludes with suggestions for the incorporation of existing industry Risk/Safety plans to create an applicable safety process for future activities/programs

  19. Scenario for a Short-Term Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA in Chiayi, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Han Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using seismic activity and the Meishan earthquake sequence that occurred from 1904 to 1906, a scenario for short-term probabilistic seismic hazards in the Chiayi region of Taiwan is assessed. The long-term earthquake occurrence rate in Taiwan was evaluated using a smoothing kernel. The highest seismicity rate was calculated around the Chiayi region. To consider earthquake interactions, the rate-and-state friction model was introduced to estimate the seismicity rate evolution due to the Coulomb stress change. As imparted by the 1904 Touliu earthquake, stress changes near the 1906 Meishan and Yangshuigang epicenters was higher than the magnitude of tidal triggering. With regard to the impact of the Meishan earthquake, the region close to the Yangshuigang earthquake epicenter had a +0.75 bar stress increase. The results indicated significant interaction between the three damage events. Considering the path and site effect using ground motion prediction equations, a probabilistic seismic hazard in the form of a hazard evolution and a hazard map was assessed. A significant elevation in hazards following the three earthquakes in the sequence was determined. The results illustrate a possible scenario for seismic hazards in the Chiayi region which may take place repeatly in the future. Such scenario provides essential information on earthquake preparation, devastation estimations, emergency sheltering, utility restoration, and structure reconstruction.

  20. Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silvermines area, Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, David; Zhang Chaosheng; Carton, Owen T.

    2004-01-01

    Spatial distribution and hazard assessment of soil lead in the mining site of Silvermines, Ireland, were investigated using statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of Pb and other heavy metals were observed. Box-Cox transformation was applied in order to achieve normality in the data set and to reduce the effect of outliers. Geostatistical analyses were carried out, including calculation of experimental variograms and model fitting. The ordinary point kriging estimates of Pb concentration were mapped. Kriging standard deviations were regarded as the standard deviations of the interpolated pixel values, and a second map was produced, that quantified the probability of Pb concentration higher than a threshold value of 1000 mg/kg. These maps provide valuable information for hazard assessment and for decision support. - A probability map was produced that was useful for hazard assessment and decision support

  1. Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silvermines area, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, David; Zhang Chaosheng; Carton, Owen T

    2004-01-01

    Spatial distribution and hazard assessment of soil lead in the mining site of Silvermines, Ireland, were investigated using statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of Pb and other heavy metals were observed. Box-Cox transformation was applied in order to achieve normality in the data set and to reduce the effect of outliers. Geostatistical analyses were carried out, including calculation of experimental variograms and model fitting. The ordinary point kriging estimates of Pb concentration were mapped. Kriging standard deviations were regarded as the standard deviations of the interpolated pixel values, and a second map was produced, that quantified the probability of Pb concentration higher than a threshold value of 1000 mg/kg. These maps provide valuable information for hazard assessment and for decision support. - A probability map was produced that was useful for hazard assessment and decision support.

  2. Modelling human interactions in the assessment of man-made hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitoi, M.; Farcasiu, M.; Apostol, M.

    2016-01-01

    The human reliability assessment tools are not currently capable to model adequately the human ability to adapt, to innovate and to manage under extreme situations. The paper presents the results obtained by ICN PSA team in the frame of FP7 Advanced Safety Assessment Methodologies: extended PSA (ASAMPSA_E) project regarding the investigation of conducting HRA in human-made hazards. The paper proposes to use a 4-steps methodology for the assessment of human interactions in the external events (Definition and modelling of human interactions; Quantification of human failure events; Recovery analysis; Review). The most relevant factors with respect to HRA for man-made hazards (response execution complexity; existence of procedures with respect to the scenario in question; time available for action; timing of cues; accessibility of equipment; harsh environmental conditions) are presented and discussed thoroughly. The challenges identified in relation to man-made hazards HRA are highlighted. (authors)

  3. Assessment of tsunami hazard to the U.S. Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, Jason; Geist, Eric L.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Andrews, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Tsunami hazard is a very low-probability, but potentially high-risk natural hazard, posing unique challenges to scientists and policy makers trying to mitigate its impacts. These challenges are illustrated in this assessment of tsunami hazard to the U.S. Atlantic margin. Seismic activity along the U.S. Atlantic margin in general is low, and confirmed paleo-tsunami deposits have not yet been found, suggesting a very low rate of hazard. However, the devastating 1929 Grand Banks tsunami along the Atlantic margin of Canada shows that these events continue to occur. Densely populated areas, extensive industrial and port facilities, and the presence of ten nuclear power plants along the coast, make this region highly vulnerable to flooding by tsunamis and therefore even low-probability events need to be evaluated.

  4. Every document and picture tells a story: using internal corporate document reviews, semiotics, and content analysis to assess tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S J; Dewhirst, T; Ling, P M

    2006-06-01

    In this article we present communication theory as a conceptual framework for conducting documents research on tobacco advertising strategies, and we discuss two methods for analysing advertisements: semiotics and content analysis. We provide concrete examples of how we have used tobacco industry documents archives and tobacco advertisement collections iteratively in our research to yield a synergistic analysis of these two complementary data sources. Tobacco promotion researchers should consider adopting these theoretical and methodological approaches.

  5. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  6. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, E.O.

    1993-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that human health is intricately related to our chemical and physical surroundings. Recognizing the interdependence between health and environment, the Medical University of South Carolina has begun to implement a graduate program in Environmental Risk Assessment. While the infrastructure for such a program had been in place for quite a while, providing education in biostatistics, epidemiology, and mathematical modeling, specific courses in risk assessment were not available. To expedite the educational process in this area, the Department of Biometry and Epidemiology offered the course Special Topics in Risk Analysis in the Spring semester of 1993. This course was intended as an introduction for graduate students, but one faculty and one postdoctoral fellow also enrolled. The course was organized in the form of a seminar, with students or faculty presenting selected materials from the literature that covered some of the central issues in risk analysis. The presentations were subsequently written up as reports and revised according to suggestions by the instructor. This technical report comprises the presentations and reflects what has been learned in the course Special Topics in Risk Analysis. It also may serve as an easy to read introduction to the complex area of risk analysis. By the very nature of the course and this report, most of the presented material is not original. It does not necessarily reflect the authors' or the editor's opinion and is not intended for citation. Nonetheless, the students and the instructor have paid attention to citing relevant literature in order to enable the reader to trace ideas back to the original sources. As an Appendix, this volume contains the course syllabus as well as hand-out material that the students prepared independently and that has not been edited or revised

  7. Social Work Assessment Notes: A Comprehensive Outcomes-Based Hospice Documentation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Angela Gregory; Martin, Ellen; Jones, Barbara L; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the development of an integrated psychosocial patient and caregiver assessment and plan of care for hospice social work documentation. A team of hospice social workers developed the Social Work Assessment Notes as a quality improvement project in collaboration with the information technology department. Using the Social Work Assessment Tool as an organizing framework, this comprehensive hospice social work documentation system is designed to integrate assessment, planning, and outcomes measurement. The system was developed to guide the assessment of patients' and caregivers' needs related to end-of-life psychosocial issues, to facilitate collaborative care plan development, and to measure patient- and family-centered outcomes. Goals established with the patient and the caregiver are documented in the plan of care and become the foundation for patient-centered, strengths-based interventions. Likert scales are used to assign numerical severity levels for identified issues and progress made toward goals and to track the outcome of social work interventions across nine psychosocial constructs. The documentation system was developed for use in an electronic health record but can be used for paper charting. Future plans include automated aggregate outcomes measurement to identify the most effective interventions and best practices in end-of-life care.

  8. A pilot study on the evaluation of medical student documentation: assessment of SOAP notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Seo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was evaluation of the current status of medical students' documentation of patient medical records. Methods: We checked the completeness, appropriateness, and accuracy of 95 Subjective-Objective-Assessment-Plan (SOAP notes documented by third-year medical students who participated in clinical skill tests on December 1, 2014. Students were required to complete the SOAP note within 15 minutes of an standard patient (SP-encounter with a SP complaining rhinorrhea and warring about meningitis. Results: Of the 95 SOAP notes reviewed, 36.8% were not signed. Only 27.4% documented the patient’s symptoms under the Objective component, although all students completed the Subjective notes appropriately. A possible diagnosis was assessed by 94.7% students. Plans were described in 94.7% of the SOAP notes. Over half the students planned workups (56.7% for diagnosis and treatment (52.6%. Accurate documentation of the symptoms, physical findings, diagnoses, and plans were provided in 78.9%, 9.5%, 62.1%, and 38.0% notes, respectively. Conclusion: Our results showed that third-year medical students’ SOAP notes were not complete, appropriate, or accurate. The most significant problems with completeness were the omission of students’ signatures, and inappropriate documentation of the physical examinations conducted. An education and assessment program for complete and accurate medical recording has to be developed.

  9. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-07-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for land-use planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure quality and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterisation of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted on the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyse the past eruptive activity to determine the spatial and temporal probability, and likely style of a future eruption on the island, i.e. the where, when and how. By studying the past eruptive behaviour of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result, through the combination of the most probable scenarios (lava flows, pyroclastic density currents and ashfall), is the first qualitative integrated volcanic hazard map of the island.

  10. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here.

  11. Risk assessment of major hazards and its application in urban planning: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yafei; Liu, Mao

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid development of industry in China, the number of establishments that are proposed or under construction is increasing year by year, and many are industries that handle flammable, explosive, toxic, harmful, and dangerous substances. Accidents such as fire, explosion, and toxic diffusion inevitably happen. Accidents resulting from these major hazards in cities cause a large number of casualties and property losses. It is increasingly important to analyze the risk of major hazards in cities realistically and to suitably plan and utilize the surrounding land based on the risk analysis results, thereby reducing the hazards. A theoretical system for risk assessment of major hazards in cities is proposed in this article, and the major hazard risk for the entire city is analyzed quantitatively. Risks of various major accidents are considered together, superposition effect is analyzed, individual risk contours of the entire city are drawn out, and the level of risk in the city is assessed using "as low as reasonably practicable" guidelines. After the entire city's individual risk distribution is obtained, risk zones are divided according to corresponding individual risk value of HSE, and land-use planning suggestions are proposed. Finally, a city in China is used as an example to illustrate the risk assessment process of the city's major hazard and its application in urban land-use planning. The proposed method has a certain theoretical and practical significance in establishing and improving risk analysis of major hazard and urban land-use planning. On the one hand, major urban public risk is avoided; further, the land is utilized in the best possible way in order to obtain the maximum benefit from its use. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Landslide hazard in Bukavu (DR Congo): a geomorphological assessment in a data-poor context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Mugaruka Bibentyo, Toussaint; Kulimushi Matabaro, Sylvain; Balegamire, Clarisse; Basimike, Joseph; Delvaux, Damien; Dille, Antoine; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire; Jacobs, Liesbet; Michellier, Caroline; Monsieurs, Elise; Mugisho Birhenjira, Espoir; Nshokano, Jean-Robert; Nzolang, Charles; Kervyn, François

    2017-04-01

    Many cities in the Global South are known for facing an important increase in their population size. Many of them are then struggling with the sprawl of new settlements and very often urban planning and sustainable management policies are limited, if not non-existent. When those cities are set in landslide-prone environments, this situation is even more problematic. Despite these environmental constrains, landslide hazard assessments relevant for landscape planning remain rare. The objective of this research is to assess the landslide hazard in Bukavu, a city in DR Congo that is facing such a situation. We used a geomorphological approach (adapted from Cardinali et al., 2002) taking into account the data-poor context and the impact of anthropogenic activities. First, we built a multi-temporal historical inventory for a period of 60 years. A total of 151 landslides were mapped (largest landslide 1.5 km2). Their cumulative areas cover 29% of the urban territory and several types of processes are identified. Changes in the distribution and pattern of landslides allowed then to infer the possible evolution of the slopes, the most probable type of failures, and their expected frequency of occurrence and intensity. Despite this comprehensive inventory, hazard linked to the occurrence of new large deep-seated slides cannot be assessed due a scarcity of reliable data on the environmental factors controlling their occurrence. In addition, age estimation of the occurrence of some of the largest landslides refers to periods at the beginning of the Holocene where climatic and seismic conditions were probably different. Therefore, based on the inventory, we propose four hazard scenarios that coincide with today's environment. Hazard assessment was done for (1) reactivation of deep-seated slides, (2) occurrence of new small shallow slides, (3) rock falls, and (4) movements within existing landslides. Based on these assessments, we produced four hazard maps that indicate the

  13. Tsunami hazard assessments with consideration of uncertain earthquakes characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, I.; Liu, P. L. F.; Grigoriu, M. D.; Pritchard, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The uncertainty quantification of tsunami assessments due to uncertain earthquake characteristics faces important challenges. First, the generated earthquake samples must be consistent with the properties observed in past events. Second, it must adopt an uncertainty propagation method to determine tsunami uncertainties with a feasible computational cost. In this study we propose a new methodology, which improves the existing tsunami uncertainty assessment methods. The methodology considers two uncertain earthquake characteristics, the slip distribution and location. First, the methodology considers the generation of consistent earthquake slip samples by means of a Karhunen Loeve (K-L) expansion and a translation process (Grigoriu, 2012), applicable to any non-rectangular rupture area and marginal probability distribution. The K-L expansion was recently applied by Le Veque et al. (2016). We have extended the methodology by analyzing accuracy criteria in terms of the tsunami initial conditions. Furthermore, and unlike this reference, we preserve the original probability properties of the slip distribution, by avoiding post sampling treatments such as earthquake slip scaling. Our approach is analyzed and justified in the framework of the present study. Second, the methodology uses a Stochastic Reduced Order model (SROM) (Grigoriu, 2009) instead of a classic Monte Carlo simulation, which reduces the computational cost of the uncertainty propagation. The methodology is applied on a real case. We study tsunamis generated at the site of the 2014 Chilean earthquake. We generate earthquake samples with expected magnitude Mw 8. We first demonstrate that the stochastic approach of our study generates consistent earthquake samples with respect to the target probability laws. We also show that the results obtained from SROM are more accurate than classic Monte Carlo simulations. We finally validate the methodology by comparing the simulated tsunamis and the tsunami records for

  14. Automation of workplace lifting hazard assessment for musculoskeletal injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Lieblich, Max; Bao, Stephen; McQuade, Kevin; Hughes, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    such as task frequency in an automated fashion, although these findings should be confirmed in a larger study. Further work is needed to incorporate force assessments and address workplace feasibility challenges. We anticipate that this approach could ultimately be used to perform large-scale musculoskeletal exposure assessment not only for research but also to provide real-time feedback to workers and employers during work method improvement activities and employee training.

  15. Documentation assessment, Project C-018H, 200-E area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, M.W.; Connor, M.D.; Mertelendy, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Project C-018H is one of the fourteen subprojects to the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project. Project C-018H provides treatment and disposal for the 242-A Evaporator and PUREX plant process condensate waste streams. This project used the Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach proposed by RL. The IMT approach included all affected organizations on the project team to coordinate and execute all required project tasks, while striving to integrate and satisfy all technical, operational, functional, and organizational objectives. The HEC Projects were initiated in 1989. Project C-018H began in early 1990, with completion of construction currently targeted for mid-1995. This assessment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the management control on design documents and quality assurance records developed and submitted for processing, use, and retention for the Project. The assessment focused primarily on the overall adequacy and quality of the design documentation currently being submitted to the project document control function

  16. Assessing the long-term probabilistic volcanic hazard for tephra fallout in Reykjavik, Iceland: a preliminary multi-source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Barsotti, Sara; Sandri, Laura; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús

    2015-04-01

    from all the PVHAs can be combined at the end. This will allow to: 1) possibly add the contribution of new volcanic systems, 2) compare and hierarchically rank the tephra fallout risk among both all the considered volcanoes and, possibly, other kinds of risk, and 3) quantitatively assess the overall tephra fallout hazard over the target area. As practical application, we selected a first subset consisting of the five most hazardous volcanic systems for tephra fallout that could affect the selected target area. These are the ones with the highest number of eruptions in the last 1100 years (Katla, Hekla, Grímsvötn) and the ones located closest to the target area (Reykjanes and Snæfellsjökull). PVHA is computed using the PyBetVH tool (an improvement of the Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Hazard -BET_VH- model) and tephra dispersal is modelled by means of VOL-CALPUFF numerical code. Katla volcanic system is used as pilot case study because of its eruptive history and behaviour are well known and documented. We found that some considerations and results derived from the study of Katla could be general and applied to the other considered volcanoes and, more in general, to other Icelandic volcanic systems. The work was financially supported by the European Science Foundation (ESF), in the framework of the Research Networking Programme MeMoVolc.

  17. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  18. Current Knowledge on the Use of Computational Toxicology in Hazard Assessment of Metallic Engineered Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchao Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As listed by the European Chemicals Agency, the three elements in evaluating the hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs include the integration and evaluation of toxicity data, categorization and labeling of ENMs, and derivation of hazard threshold levels for human health and the environment. Assessing the hazards of ENMs solely based on laboratory tests is time-consuming, resource intensive, and constrained by ethical considerations. The adoption of computational toxicology into this task has recently become a priority. Alternative approaches such as (quantitative structure–activity relationships ((QSAR and read-across are of significant help in predicting nanotoxicity and filling data gaps, and in classifying the hazards of ENMs to individual species. Thereupon, the species sensitivity distribution (SSD approach is able to serve the establishment of ENM hazard thresholds sufficiently protecting the ecosystem. This article critically reviews the current knowledge on the development of in silico models in predicting and classifying the hazard of metallic ENMs, and the development of SSDs for metallic ENMs. Further discussion includes the significance of well-curated experimental datasets and the interpretation of toxicity mechanisms of metallic ENMs based on reported models. An outlook is also given on future directions of research in this frontier.

  19. Current Knowledge on the Use of Computational Toxicology in Hazard Assessment of Metallic Engineered Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangchao; Peijnenburg, Willie; Xiao, Yinlong; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-07-12

    As listed by the European Chemicals Agency, the three elements in evaluating the hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) include the integration and evaluation of toxicity data, categorization and labeling of ENMs, and derivation of hazard threshold levels for human health and the environment. Assessing the hazards of ENMs solely based on laboratory tests is time-consuming, resource intensive, and constrained by ethical considerations. The adoption of computational toxicology into this task has recently become a priority. Alternative approaches such as (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SAR) and read-across are of significant help in predicting nanotoxicity and filling data gaps, and in classifying the hazards of ENMs to individual species. Thereupon, the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach is able to serve the establishment of ENM hazard thresholds sufficiently protecting the ecosystem. This article critically reviews the current knowledge on the development of in silico models in predicting and classifying the hazard of metallic ENMs, and the development of SSDs for metallic ENMs. Further discussion includes the significance of well-curated experimental datasets and the interpretation of toxicity mechanisms of metallic ENMs based on reported models. An outlook is also given on future directions of research in this frontier.

  20. Changing tides: Adaptive monitoring, assessment, and management of pharmaceutical hazards in the environment through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Sally; Brooks, Bryan W

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Adaptive monitoring, assessment, and management programs will be required to reduce the environmental hazards of pharmaceuticals of concern. Potentially underappreciated factors that drive the environmental dose of pharmaceuticals include regulatory approvals, marketing campaigns, pharmaceutical subsidies and reimbursement schemes, and societal acceptance. Sales data for 5 common antidepressants (duloxetine [Cymbalta], escitalopram [Lexapro], venlafaxine [Effexor], bupropion [Wellbutrin], and sertraline [Zoloft]) in the United States from 2004 to 2008 were modeled to explore how environmental hazards in aquatic ecosystems changed after patents were obtained or expired. Therapeutic hazard ratios for Effexor and Lexapro did not exceed 1; however, the therapeutic hazard ratio for Zoloft declined whereas the therapeutic hazard ratio for Cymbalta increased as a function of patent protection and sale patterns. These changes in therapeutic hazard ratios highlight the importance of considering current and future drivers of pharmaceutical use when prioritizing pharmaceuticals for water quality monitoring programs. When urban systems receiving discharges of environmental contaminants are examined, water quality efforts should identify, prioritize, and select target analytes presently in commerce for effluent monitoring and surveillance. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. External hazards in reliability and risk assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    It is current practice in the design of nuclear power generating stations to protect against the effects of significant natural and man-made external hazards which can occur at the plant site in excess of those hazards normally considered for conventional facilities. This paper is meant to identify those postulated external hazards typically considered in nuclear facility design. The paper also attempts to fulfill the following four objectives: (1) Define the current state of the art in applying reliability and risk analysis to determine external hazard design requirements. (2) Provide a ready source of literature references applicable to probabilistic design for extreme loads. (3) Provide some quantitative probability assessment estimates of external hazards. (4) Develop exclusion criteria by which postulated external hazards can be eliminated as a design basis. Rigorous evaluation of the design requirements for nuclear power plant facilities based on principles of probability and risk analysis is just beginning. It is hoped these techniques will be used more extensively in the future to provide a more rational basis for developing design requirements. (orig.) [de

  2. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  3. Assessing global exposure and vulnerability towards natural hazards: the Disaster Risk Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of factors influencing levels of human losses from natural hazards at the global scale, for the period 1980–2000. This model was designed for the United Nations Development Programme as a building stone of the Disaster Risk Index (DRI, which aims at monitoring the evolution of risk. Assessing what countries are most at risk requires considering various types of hazards, such as droughts, floods, cyclones and earthquakes. Before assessing risk, these four hazards were modelled using GIS and overlaid with a model of population distribution in order to extract human exposure. Human vulnerability was measured by crossing exposure with selected socio-economic parameters. The model evaluates to what extent observed past losses are related to population exposure and vulnerability. Results reveal that human vulnerability is mostly linked with country development level and environmental quality. A classification of countries is provided, as well as recommendations on data improvement for future use of the model.

  4. Hazard Assessment of Debris Flows in the Reservoir Region of Wudongde Hydropower Station in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cencen Niu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of debris flows in a reservoir region can affect the stability of hydropower stations and threaten the lives of the people living downstream of dams. Therefore, determining the hazard degree of debris flows in a reservoir region is of great importance. SPOT5 remote sensing images and digital elevation models are introduced to determine the characteristics of debris-flow catchments. The information is acquired through comprehensive manual investigation and satellite image interpretation. Ten factors that influence debris flow are extracted for the hazard assessment. The weight of these factors is determined using the analytic hierarchy process method. As a multi-criterion decision analysis method, fuzzy synthetic evaluation is applied for hazard assessment.

  5. Application of Gumbel I and Monte Carlo methods to assess seismic hazard in and around Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2018-05-01

    A proper assessment of seismic hazard is of considerable importance in order to achieve suitable building construction criteria. This paper presents probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in and around Pakistan (23° N-39° N; 59° E-80° E) in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA). Ground motion is calculated in terms of PGA for a return period of 475 years using a seismogenic-free zone method of Gumbel's first asymptotic distribution of extreme values and Monte Carlo simulation. Appropriate attenuation relations of universal and local types have been used in this study. The results show that for many parts of Pakistan, the expected seismic hazard is relatively comparable with the level specified in the existing PGA maps.

  6. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Jangwon; Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or t...

  7. Wildlife resource trends in the United States: A technical document supporting the 2000 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Stephen J. Brady; Michael S. Knowles

    1999-01-01

    This report documents trends in wildlife resources for the nation as required by the Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974. The report focuses on recent historical trends in wildlife as one indicator of ecosystem health across the United States and updates wildlife trends presented in previous RPA Assessments. The report also shows short- and long-term...

  8. Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The 'International Principles for Social Impact Assessment' and the 'Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA', both developed under the auspices of the International Association for Impact Assessment and published in 2003, are compared. Major differences in the definition and approach to social impact assessment (SIA) are identified. The US Principles and Guidelines is shown to be positivist/technocratic while the International Principles is identified as being democratic, participatory and constructivist. Deficiencies in both documents are identified. The field of SIA is changing to go beyond the prevention of negative impacts, to include issues of building social capital, capacity building, good governance, community engagement and social inclusion

  9. Risk assessments for energy systems and role of preliminary degree-of-hazard evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habegger, L.J.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1985-11-01

    The appropriate approach to risk or hazard assessment can vary considerably, depending on various factors, including the intended application of the results and the time other resources available to conduct the assessment. This paper illustrates three types of interrelated assessments. Although they can be mutually supportive, they have fundamentally different objectives, which require major differences in approach. The example of the overall risk assessment of alternative major energy technologies illustrates the compilation of a wide range of available risk data applicable to these systems. However, major uncertainties exist in the assessments, and public perception of their importance could play an important role in final system evaluations. A more narrowly defined risk assessment, often focusing on an individual component of a larger system, is the most commonly used approach in regulatory applications. The narrow scope allows in-depth analysis of risks and associated uncertainties, but it may also contribute to a loss of perspective on the magnitude of the assessed risk relative to that of the unassessed risks. In some applications, it is useful to conduct semiquantitative degree-of-hazard evaluations as a means of setting priorities for detailed risk assessment. The MAHAS procedure described in this paper provides a means of rapidly ranking relative hazards from various sources using easily accessible data. However, these rankings should not be used as definitive input for selecting technology alternatives or developing regulations. 25 refs., 6 tabs

  10. Establishing indices for groundwater contamination risk assessment in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfills in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Li Jinhui; Chen Shusheng; Diao Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by leachate is the most damaging environmental impact over the entire life of a hazardous waste landfill (HWL). With the number of HWL facilities in China rapidly increasing, and considering the poor status of environmental risk management, it is imperative that effective environmental risk management methods be implemented. A risk assessment indices system for HWL groundwater contamination is here proposed, which can simplify the risk assessment procedure and make it more user-friendly. The assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: source term, underground media, leachate properties, risk receptors and landfill management quality, and a risk assessment indices system consisting of 38 cardinal indicators was established. Comparison with multimedia models revealed that the proposed indices system was integrated and quantitative, that input data for it could be easily collected, and that it could be widely used for environmental risk assessment (ERA) in China. - Highlights: ► No comprehensive environmental risk assessment method for hazardous waste management is proposed in China. ► An assessment indices system is established for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfill. ► All indicators are quantitative and applicable in China. - Capsule: This research identified critical indices and established a system for environmental risk assessment for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of HWLs in China.

  11. Risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet: Hazard identification by methods of animal-based toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, S. M.; Greig, J. B.; Bridges, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    the current state of the science of risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet, by consideration of the four stages of risk assessment, that is. hazard identification. hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. The contribution of animal-based methods in toxicology to hazard......, on hazard identification for food chemicals, such as new measurement techniques, the use of transgenic animals, assessment of hormone balance and the possibilities for conducting studies in which common human diseases have been modelled. is also considered. (C) 2002 ILSI. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....... All rights reserved....

  12. Some relevant parameters for assessing fire hazards of combustible mine materials using laboratory scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka E; Harteis, Samuel P; Teacoach, Kara A; DeRosa, Maria I; Thomas, Richard A; Smith, Alex C

    2018-04-15

    When combustible materials ignite and burn, the potential for fire growth and flame spread represents an obvious hazard, but during these processes of ignition and flaming, other life hazards present themselves and should be included to ensure an effective overall analysis of the relevant fire hazards. In particular, the gases and smoke produced both during the smoldering stages of fires leading to ignition and during the advanced flaming stages of a developing fire serve to contaminate the surrounding atmosphere, potentially producing elevated levels of toxicity and high levels of smoke obscuration that render the environment untenable. In underground mines, these hazards may be exacerbated by the existing forced ventilation that can carry the gases and smoke to locations far-removed from the fire location. Clearly, materials that require high temperatures (above 1400 K) and that exhibit low mass loss during thermal decomposition, or that require high heat fluxes or heat transfer rates to ignite represent less of a hazard than materials that decompose at low temperatures or ignite at low levels of heat flux. In order to define and quantify some possible parameters that can be used to assess these hazards, small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted in a number of configurations to measure: 1) the toxic gases and smoke produced both during non-flaming and flaming combustion; 2) mass loss rates as a function of temperature to determine ease of thermal decomposition; and 3) mass loss rates and times to ignition as a function of incident heat flux. This paper describes the experiments that were conducted, their results, and the development of a set of parameters that could possibly be used to assess the overall fire hazard of combustible materials using small scale laboratory experiments.

  13. Superfund Hazard Ranking System Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) training course is a four and ½ day, intermediate-level course designed for personnel who are required to compile, draft, and review preliminary assessments (PAs), site inspections (SIs), and HRS documentation records/packag

  14. Tsunami hazard assessment on nuclear power plant site evaluation accordance on DS 417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad Khusyairi

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant site evaluation should conduct the hazard evaluation on tsunami. Global climate changes and particularly extreme meteorology and hydrology phenomena have an impact on the structure, systems and important components related to safety. Therefore, IAEA makes efforts to revise the IAEA Safety Standard Series NS-G 3.4, Meteorological Events in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plants and IAEA safety standard series NS-G 3.5 Flood Hazard For Nuclear Power Plants On Coastal And River Sites, in order to provide protection against the public and the environment safety due to operation of nuclear power plants. There are two methods used in assessing tsunami hazard, probabilistic and deterministic methods. In the tsunami hazard assessment, some necessary information and data should be obtained to determine the basic design of tsunami hazard during designing nuclear power plants, especially the cooling system design. Flooding caused tsunami must be evaluated to determine the site protection system. Furthermore, There must be an evaluation on either coincident event or meteorological simultaneously tsunami event that caused the worst effect on the site. Therefore, the protection of the site from extreme tsunami can be planned. (author)

  15. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ...: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire, VA Form 10-10066. Type of Review... services to Open Burn Pit Registry participants and improve VA's ability to understand the health effects... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-NEW] Agency Information Collection (Open Burn...

  16. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne... to ``OMB Control No. 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire... health effects of service members' exposure to toxic airborne chemicals and fumes caused by open burn...

  17. A Mediterranean coastal database for assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and associated hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Claudia; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Muis, Sanne; Lincke, Daniel; Satta, Alessio; Lionello, Piero; Jimenez, Jose A.; Conte, Dario; Hinkel, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a new coastal database for the Mediterranean basin that is intended for coastal impact and adaptation assessment to sea-level rise and associated hazards on a regional scale. The data structure of the database relies on a linear representation of the coast with associated spatial

  18. Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish consumption from coastal area of Tanzania. ... The result shows that the concentration and THQ of As in all fish samples ranges from 1.173 – 2.325 which is > 1, hence signified that a daily exposure at this level are in risk of cancer during a person lifetime.

  19. Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-Hazards from Submarine Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ercilla

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The workshop ‘Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-hazards from Submarine Slides’ was held on 25–27 October 2006 in Barcelona (Spain. Fifty mainly European scientists and industry representatives attended from a wide spectrum of disciplines such as geophysics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, marinegeotechnology, geotechnical engineering, and tsunami modeling.

  20. Factors for assessment of human health risk associated with remedial action at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.E.; King, C.M.; Looney, B.B.; Holmes, W.G.; Gordon, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A risk assessment strategy that is cost effective and minimized human health risks was developed for closure of hazardous waste sites at the Savannah River Plant. The strategy consists of (1) site characterization, (2) contaminant transport modeling, and (3) determination of relative merits of alternative remedial actions according to the degree of health protection they provide

  1. Seismic hazard assessment for Central, North and Northwest Europe: GSHAP Region 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grunthal, G.; Bosse, Ch.; Camelbeeck, T.; de Crook, T.; Gariel, J. C.; Gregersen, S.; Guterch, B.; Halldorsson, P.; Labák, P.; Lindholm, C.; Lenhardt, W.; Mantyniemi, P.; Mayer-Rosa, D.; Musson, R. M. W.; Schenk, Vladimír; Schenková, Zdeňka; Slejko, D.; Verbeiren, R.; Wahlstrom, R.; Zabukovec, B.; Ziros, T.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (1999), s. 999-1011 ISSN 0365-2556 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) - project of the UN International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction and International Litosphere Program. Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  2. Level-Dependent Nonlinear Hearing Protector Model in the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    HPD model. In an article on measuring HPD attenuation, Berger (1986) points out that Real Ear Attenuation at Threshold (REAT) tests are...men. Audiology . 1991;30:345–356. Fedele P, Binseel M, Kalb J, Price GR. Using the auditory hazard assessment algorithm for humans (AHAAH) with

  3. Combining computational models for landslide hazard assessment of Guantánamo province, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Cuban system for landslide disaster management, a methodology was developed for regional scale landslide hazard assessment, which is a combination of different models. The method was applied in Guantánamo province at 1:100 000 scale. The analysis started with an extensive aerial

  4. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  5. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting in unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  6. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B. P.; Crandall, R. S.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin.

  7. Treatment of external hazards in probabilistic safety assessment for nuclear power plants. A Safety Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Practice provides guidance on conducting a PSA for external hazards in nuclear power plants. Emphasis is placed on the procedural steps of the PSA rather then on the details of corresponding methods. The publication is intended to assist technical persons managing or performing PSAs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for external hazards PSA so as to facilitate external review of the results of such studies. For those specialists who are already involved in related studies, such as a Level 1 PSA dealing only with internal events, this publication provides an indication of how additional external events could be integrated into an existing PSA. 16 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  8. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  9. New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsk Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX): A research program towards mitigating multiple hazards and risks in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, K. M.; Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.; Modaressi, H.; Matrix Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Scientists, engineers, civil protection and disaster managers typically treat natural hazards and risks individually. This leads to the situation where the frequent causal relationships between the different hazards and risks, e.g., earthquakes and volcanos, or floods and landslides, are ignored. Such an oversight may potentially lead to inefficient mitigation planning. As part of their efforts to confront this issue, the European Union, under its FP7 program, is supporting the New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe or MATRIX project. The focus of MATRIX is on natural hazards, in particular earthquakes, landslides, volcanos, wild fires, storms and fluvial and coastal flooding. MATRIX will endeavour to develop methods and tools to tackle multi-type natural hazards and risks within a common framework, focusing on methodologies that are suited to the European context. The work will involve an assessment of current single-type hazard and risk assessment methodologies, including a comparison and quantification of uncertainties and harmonization of single-type methods, examining the consequence of cascade effects within a multi-hazard environment, time-dependent vulnerability, decision making and support for multi-hazard mitigation and adaption, and a series of test cases. Three test sites are being used to assess the methods developed within the project (Naples, Cologne, and the French West Indies), as well as a "virtual city" based on a comprehensive IT platform that will allow scenarios not represented by the test cases to be examined. In addition, a comprehensive dissemination program that will involve national platforms for disaster management, as well as various outreach activities, will be undertaken. The MATRIX consortium consists of ten research institutions (nine European and one Canadian), an end-user (i.e., one of the European national platforms for disaster reduction) and a partner from industry.

  10. Assessment model validity document. NAMMU: A program for calculating groundwater flow and transport through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliffe, K.A.; Morris, S.T.; Porter, J.D.

    1998-05-01

    NAMMU is a computer program for modelling groundwater flow and transport through porous media. This document provides an overview of the use of the program for geosphere modelling in performance assessment calculations and gives a detailed description of the program itself. The aim of the document is to give an indication of the grounds for having confidence in NAMMU as a performance assessment tool. In order to achieve this the following topics are discussed. The basic premises of the assessment approach and the purpose of and nature of the calculations that can be undertaken using NAMMU are outlined. The concepts of the validation of models and the considerations that can lead to increased confidence in models are described. The physical processes that can be modelled using NAMMU and the mathematical models and numerical techniques that are used to represent them are discussed in some detail. Finally, the grounds that would lead one to have confidence that NAMMU is fit for purpose are summarised

  11. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Hideharu; Sakagami, Masaharu; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Korenaga, Mariko

    2011-01-01

    In the area in front of Nankai trough, tsunami wave height may increase if tsunamis attacking from some wave sources overlap because of time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough. To evaluation tsunami risk of the important facilities located in front of Nankai trough, we proposed the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering uncertainty on time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough and we evaluated the influence that the time-lag gave to tsunami hazard at the some representative points. (author)

  12. Globe of Natural Hazard - A new assessment tool for risk managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, A. C.

    2009-04-01

    A large number of tropical cyclones and the earthquake in Sichuan made 2008 one of the most devastating years on record. Throughout the world, more than 220,000 people died as a result of natural catastrophes this year. Overall losses totaled some US 200bn (2007: US 82bn). Insured losses in 2008 rose to US 45bn, about 50% higher than in the previous year. Mainly driven by high losses from weather-related natural catastrophes, 2008 was - on the basis of figures adjusted for inflation - even the third most expensive year on record for the insurance industry, exceeded only by the hurricane year of 2005 and by 1995, the year of the Kobe earthquake. Munich Re, a worldwide operating reinsurance company, is a world leader in terms of investigating risks from natural hazards of all kinds. 2008 has again shown the insurance industry how important it is to analyse risks like natural hazards and climate change in all their facets and to manage the insurance business accordingly. An excellent example of the wealth of knowledge Munich Re has developed in natural hazard assessment is the DVD "Globe of Natural Hazards". It combines the geoscientific data and findings Munich Re has accumulated over a period of 35 years. First devised as a wall-map in 1978, the product has established itself as a standard work for the identification, exposure assessment and risk management of natural hazards. Over 80,000 copies of the CD-ROM version of 2000 have been provided to clients - a mark achieved by no other service product in Munich Re's history. Since the beginning of 2009, the fully updated fourth-generation version has been available. The bilingual DVD (German and English) shows natural hazards and climate effects at a glance: the global maps are presented on a 3D globe, underlaid with satellite images. The hazard complexes of hail, tornado and winter storms have been completely revised and flood incorporated as a new hazard. Users can intuitively home in on and enlarge any location on

  13. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This...

  14. A spatiotemporal multi-hazard exposure assessment based on property data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth; Zischg, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a nation-wide spatially explicit object-based assessment of buildings and citizens exposed to natural hazards in Austria, including river flooding, torrential flooding, and snow avalanches. The assessment was based on two different datasets, (a) hazard information providing input to the exposure of elements at risk, and (b) information on the building stock combined from different spatial data available on the national level. Hazard information was compiled from two different sources. For torrential flooding and snow avalanches available local-scale hazard maps were used, and for river flooding the results of the countrywide flood modelling eHORA were available. Information on the building stock contained information on the location and size of each building, as well as on the building category and the construction period. Additional information related to the individual floors, such as their height and net area, main purpose and configuration, was included for each property. Moreover, this dataset has an interface to the population register and allowed therefore retrieving the number of primary residents for each building. With the exception of sacral buildings, an economic module was used to compute the monetary value of buildings using (a) the information of the building register such as building type, number of storeys and utilisation, and (b) regionally averaged construction costs. It is shown that the repeatedly-stated assumption of increasing exposure due to continued population growth and related increase in assets has to be carefully evaluated by the local development of building stock. While some regions have shown a clearly above-average increase in assets, other regions were characterised by a below-average development. This mirrors the topography of the country, but also the different economic activities. While hotels and hostels are extraordinary prone to torrential flooding, commercial buildings as well as buildings used for

  15. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory's hazardous waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an open-quotes As Low as Reasonably Achievableclose quotes (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report

  16. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  17. Geoethical and socio-political aspects of seismic and tsunami hazard assessment, quantification and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Seismic hazard and, more recently, tsunami hazard assessments have been undertaken in several countries of the world and globally for the whole Earth planet with the aim of providing a scientifically sound basis to the engineers, technicians, urban and industrial planners, politicians, civil protection operators and in general to the authorities for devising rational risk mitigation strategies and corresponding adequate policies. The main point of this presentation is that the chief-value of all seismic and tsunami hazard studies (including theory, concept, quantification and mapping) resides in the social and political values of the provided products, which is a standpoint entailing a number of relevant geoethical implications. The most relevant implication regards geoscientists who are the subjects mainly involved in carrying out hazard evaluations. Viewed from the classical perspective, the main ethical obligations of geoscientists are restricted to performing hazard estimations in the best possible way from a scientific point of view, which means selecting the "best" available data, adopting sound theoretical models, making use of rigorous methods… What is outlined here, is that this is an insufficient minimalistic position, since it overlooks the basic socio-political and therefore practical value of the hazard-analysis final products. In other words, if one views hazard assessment as a production process leading from data and theories (raw data and production means) to hazard maps (products), the criterion to judge whether it is good or bad needs also to include the usability factor. Seismic and tsunami hazard reports and maps are products that should be usable, which means that they should meet user needs and requirements, and therefore they should be evaluated according to how much they are clearly understandable to, and appropriate for, making-decision users. In the traditional view of a science serving the society, one could represent the interaction

  18. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment at Seaside, Oregon, for near-and far-field seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Geist, E.L.; Jaffe, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Mofjeld, H.; Synolakis, C.E.; Titov, V.V.; Areas, D.; Bellomo, D.; Carlton, D.; Horning, T.; Johnson, J.; Newman, J.; Parsons, T.; Peters, R.; Peterson, C.; Priest, G.; Venturato, A.; Weber, J.; Wong, F.; Yalciner, A.

    2009-01-01

    The first probabilistic tsunami flooding maps have been developed. The methodology, called probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA), integrates tsunami inundation modeling with methods of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Application of the methodology to Seaside, Oregon, has yielded estimates of the spatial distribution of 100- and 500-year maximum tsunami amplitudes, i.e., amplitudes with 1% and 0.2% annual probability of exceedance. The 100-year tsunami is generated most frequently by far-field sources in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes that do not exceed 4 m, with an inland extent of less than 500 m. In contrast, the 500-year tsunami is dominated by local sources in the Cascadia Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes in excess of 10 m and an inland extent of more than 1 km. The primary sources of uncertainty in these results include those associated with interevent time estimates, modeling of background sea level, and accounting for temporal changes in bathymetry and topography. Nonetheless, PTHA represents an important contribution to tsunami hazard assessment techniques; viewed in the broader context of risk analysis, PTHA provides a method for quantifying estimates of the likelihood and severity of the tsunami hazard, which can then be combined with vulnerability and exposure to yield estimates of tsunami risk. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Gon; Byun, Hun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks

  20. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  1. Probabilistic disaggregation model with application to natural hazard risk assessment of portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    In natural hazard risk assessment, a resolution mismatch between hazard data and aggregated exposure data is often observed. A possible solution to this issue is the disaggregation of exposure data to match the spatial resolution of hazard data. Disaggregation models available in literature...... disaggregation model that considers the uncertainty in the disaggregation, taking basis in the scaled Dirichlet distribution. The proposed probabilistic disaggregation model is applied to a portfolio of residential buildings in the Canton Bern, Switzerland, subject to flood risk. Thereby, the model is verified...... are usually deterministic and make use of auxiliary indicator, such as land cover, to spatially distribute exposures. As the dependence between auxiliary indicator and disaggregated number of exposures is generally imperfect, uncertainty arises in disaggregation. This paper therefore proposes a probabilistic...

  2. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jangwon; Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-11-27

    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further.

  3. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Yi, Huiuk; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further. PMID:29186922

  4. An Overview of GIS-Based Modeling and Assessment of Mining-Induced Hazards: Soil, Water, and Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, current geographic information system (GIS-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest. Because GIS is appropriated for the handling of geospatial data in relation to mining-induced hazards, the application and feasibility of exploiting GIS-based modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards within the mining industry could be expanded further.

  5. Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards and success stories in disaster prevention and mitigation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines, being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property in the country. In 2011, after tropical storm Washi devastated cities in southern Philippines, the Department of Science and Technology put in place a responsive program to warn and give communities hours-in-advance lead-time to prepare for imminent hazards and use advanced science and technology to enhance geohazard maps for more effective disaster prevention and mitigation. Since its launch, there have been many success stories on the use of Project NOAH, which after Typhoon Haiyan was integrated into the Pre-Disaster Risk Assessment (PDRA) system of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), the government agency tasked to prepare for, and respond to, natural calamities. Learning from past disasters, NDRRMC now issues warnings, through scientific advise from DOST-Project NOAH and PAGASA (Philippine Weather Bureau) that are hazards-specific, area-focused and time-bound. Severe weather events in 2015 generated dangerous hazard phenomena such as widespread floods and massive debris flows, which if not for timely, accessible and understandable warnings, could have turned into disasters. We call these events as "disasters that did not happen". The innovative warning system of the Philippine government has so far proven effective in addressing the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards and can be employed elsewhere in the world.

  6. Undersampling power-law size distributions: effect on the assessment of extreme natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of undersampling on estimating the size of extreme natural hazards from historical data is examined. Tests using synthetic catalogs indicate that the tail of an empirical size distribution sampled from a pure Pareto probability distribution can range from having one-to-several unusually large events to appearing depleted, relative to the parent distribution. Both of these effects are artifacts caused by limited catalog length. It is more difficult to diagnose the artificially depleted empirical distributions, since one expects that a pure Pareto distribution is physically limited in some way. Using maximum likelihood methods and the method of moments, we estimate the power-law exponent and the corner size parameter of tapered Pareto distributions for several natural hazard examples: tsunamis, floods, and earthquakes. Each of these examples has varying catalog lengths and measurement thresholds, relative to the largest event sizes. In many cases where there are only several orders of magnitude between the measurement threshold and the largest events, joint two-parameter estimation techniques are necessary to account for estimation dependence between the power-law scaling exponent and the corner size parameter. Results indicate that whereas the corner size parameter of a tapered Pareto distribution can be estimated, its upper confidence bound cannot be determined and the estimate itself is often unstable with time. Correspondingly, one cannot statistically reject a pure Pareto null hypothesis using natural hazard catalog data. Although physical limits to the hazard source size and by attenuation mechanisms from source to site constrain the maximum hazard size, historical data alone often cannot reliably determine the corner size parameter. Probabilistic assessments incorporating theoretical constraints on source size and propagation effects are preferred over deterministic assessments of extreme natural hazards based on historic data.

  7. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  8. Examination to assess the clinical examination and documentation of spine pathology among orthopedic residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglin, Jack M; Zeller, John L; Egol, Kenneth A; Phillips, Donna P

    2017-12-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) guidelines requires residency programs to teach and evaluate residents in six overarching "core competencies" and document progress through educational milestones. To assess the progress of orthopedic interns' skills in performing a history, physical examination, and documentation of the encounter for a standardized patient with spinal stenosis, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was conducted for 13 orthopedic intern residents, following a 1-month boot camp that included communications skills and curriculum in history and physical examination. Interns were objectively scored based on their performance of the physical examination, communication skills, completeness and accuracy of their electronic medical record (EMR), and their diagnostic conclusions gleaned from the patient encounter. The purpose of this study was to meaningfully assess the clinical skills of orthopedic post-graduate year (PGY)-1 interns. The findings can be used to develop a standardized curriculum for documenting patient encounters and highlight common areas of weakness among orthopedic interns with regard to the spine history and physical examination and conducting complete and accurate clinical documentation. A major orthopedic specialty hospital and academic medical center. Thirteen PGY-1 orthopedic residents participated in the OSCE with the same standardized patient presenting with symptoms and radiographs consistent with spinal stenosis. Videos of the encounters were independently viewed and objectively evaluated by one investigator in the study. This evaluation focused on the completeness of the history and the performance and completion of the physical examination. The standardized patient evaluated the communication skills of each intern with a separate objective evaluation. Interns completed these same scoring guides to evaluate their own performance in history, physical examination, and communications

  9. A systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.T.; Reed, B.E.; Gabr, M.

    1993-07-01

    West Virginia University (WVU) and the US DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) entered into a Cooperative Agreement on August 29, 1992 entitled ''Decontamination Systems Information and Research Programs.'' Stipulated within the Agreement is the requirement that WVU submit to METC a series of Technical Progress Report for Year 1 of the Agreement. This report reflects the progress and/or efforts performed on the following nine technical projects encompassed by the Year 1 Agreement for the period of April 1 through June 30, 1993: Systematic assessment of the state of hazardous waste clean-up technologies; site remediation technologies -- drain-enhanced soil flushing (DESF) for organic contaminants removal; site remediation technologies -- in situ bioremediation of organic contaminants; excavation systems for hazardous waste sites; chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls; development of organic sensors -- monolayer and multilayer self-assembled films for chemical sensors; Winfield lock and dam remediation; Assessments of Technologies for hazardous waste site remediation -- non-treatment technologies and pilot scale test facility implementation; and remediation of hazardous sites with stream reforming

  10. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  11. Natural radioactivity level and radiological hazard assessment of commonly used building material in Xining, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigang Chao; Xinwei Lu; Mengmeng Zhang; Long Pang

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of the commonly used building materials in Xining of China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometer system comprising a NaI(Tl) detector. Radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied samples range from 11.6 to 120.6, 10.2 to 107.1 and 228.0 to 1,036.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the mean value for soil. Radium equivalent activity, indoor air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwelling made of the building materials. The radiological hazard assessment results show that the studied building materials, except for some aerated concrete block samples, are safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard. (author)

  12. Landscape susceptibility, hazard and risk assessments along pipeline corridors in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Couture, R.; Page, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Koch, J.; Clague, J.J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Lipovsky, P.S. [Yukon Geological Survey, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This article discussed work that was carried out to inventory landslides and assess hazards along two proposed gas-pipeline routes in the North. Landslide inventories and hazard assessments are necessary to quantify and qualify the risk of environmental impacts from landslides on linear infrastructure. The Yukon Alaska Highway Pipeline and the Mackenzie Gas Project Pipeline, which will both be over 800 kilometres in length, will cross harsh landscapes characterized by permafrost terrain and will be at risk from geological hazards, including landslides with debris flows, earthquakes, subsidence, and permafrost degradation. The work involved inventorying and mapping landslides via aerial photography and field visits to identify the frequency-magnitude relationships for debris flow fans along the route and the creation of qualitative parametric landslide maps for both proposed pipeline corridors. A good correlation was found between actual landslide distribution and the landslide susceptibility maps. For the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Corridor, most landslides have occurred in fine unconsolidated sediments and shallow slopes. Landslides in the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor mostly happened in unconsolidated sediments, but a few took place in bedrock with high relief. The preliminary investigation revealed that a slope hazard exists in both corridors and must be taken into account during pipeline development. The results are intended to facilitate better decision-making for planning, constructing, and maintaining safe and economically viable pipeline routes in Northern Canada. The mapping methodology was outlined. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  13. Scenario-based earthquake hazard and risk assessment for Baku (Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babayev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid growth of population, intensive civil and industrial building, land and water instabilities (e.g. landslides, significant underground water level fluctuations, and the lack of public awareness regarding seismic hazard contribute to the increase of vulnerability of Baku (the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan to earthquakes. In this study, we assess an earthquake risk in the city determined as a convolution of seismic hazard (in terms of the surface peak ground acceleration, PGA, vulnerability (due to building construction fragility, population features, the gross domestic product per capita, and landslide's occurrence, and exposure of infrastructure and critical facilities. The earthquake risk assessment provides useful information to identify the factors influencing the risk. A deterministic seismic hazard for Baku is analysed for four earthquake scenarios: near, far, local, and extreme events. The seismic hazard models demonstrate the level of ground shaking in the city: PGA high values are predicted in the southern coastal and north-eastern parts of the city and in some parts of the downtown. The PGA attains its maximal values for the local and extreme earthquake scenarios. We show that the quality of buildings and the probability of their damage, the distribution of urban population, exposure, and the pattern of peak ground acceleration contribute to the seismic risk, meanwhile the vulnerability factors play a more prominent role for all earthquake scenarios. Our results can allow elaborating strategic countermeasure plans for the earthquake risk mitigation in the Baku city.

  14. Hazard risk and vulnerability assessment : Regional District of Nanaimo : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    A Hazard Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (HRVA) is a mandated regulatory requirement in British Columbia that requires local authorities to prepare emergency plans that reflect the local authority's assessment of the relative risk of occurrence and the potential impact on people and property of the hazards, emergencies or disasters that could affect the jurisdictional area for which the local authority has responsibility. This report constituted an HRVA for the Regional District of Nanaimo, British Columbia. It presented the study scope and methodology and provided an overview of the Regional District of Nanaimo. This included information on the setting, demographics, and economy. Next, it discussed social vulnerability; critical response and recovery facilities; and critical infrastructure such as water, energy, telecommunications and transportation. A summary of the Regional District of Nanaimo's response capabilities that were considered when assessing the Regional District's overall risk to the hazards was also presented. Response capabilities were discussed with reference to fire and rescue; police; ambulance; and search and rescue. Emergency support and preparedness organizations were also identified. These included the Emergency Coordination Centre, environmental services, emergency social services, amateur radio and health authorities. Last, 33 hazards that could affect the Regional District of Nanaimo were identified and discussed. The study identified the following hazards as high risk: flooding; forest fires and wildland urban interface fires; and human diseases and pandemic. It was recommended that the advancement of business continuity planning in the Regional District of Nanaimo would help to reduce the impact of a possible human disease and pandemic risk outbreak affecting the population. 75 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs., 2 appendices

  15. Seismic rupture modelling, strong motion prediction and seismic hazard assessment: fundamental and applied approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge-Thierry, C.

    2007-05-01

    The defence to obtain the 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches' is a synthesis of the research work performed since the end of my Ph D. thesis in 1997. This synthesis covers the two years as post doctoral researcher at the Bureau d'Evaluation des Risques Sismiques at the Institut de Protection (BERSSIN), and the seven consecutive years as seismologist and head of the BERSSIN team. This work and the research project are presented in the framework of the seismic risk topic, and particularly with respect to the seismic hazard assessment. Seismic risk combines seismic hazard and vulnerability. Vulnerability combines the strength of building structures and the human and economical consequences in case of structural failure. Seismic hazard is usually defined in terms of plausible seismic motion (soil acceleration or velocity) in a site for a given time period. Either for the regulatory context or the structural specificity (conventional structure or high risk construction), seismic hazard assessment needs: to identify and locate the seismic sources (zones or faults), to characterize their activity, to evaluate the seismic motion to which the structure has to resist (including the site effects). I specialized in the field of numerical strong-motion prediction using high frequency seismic sources modelling and forming part of the IRSN allowed me to rapidly working on the different tasks of seismic hazard assessment. Thanks to the expertise practice and the participation to the regulation evolution (nuclear power plants, conventional and chemical structures), I have been able to work on empirical strong-motion prediction, including site effects. Specific questions related to the interface between seismologists and structural engineers are also presented, especially the quantification of uncertainties. This is part of the research work initiated to improve the selection of the input ground motion in designing or verifying the stability of structures. (author)

  16. [Informatics support for risk assessment and identification of preventive measures in small and micro-enterprises: occupational hazard datasheets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Merich, D; Forte, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is the fundamental process of an enterprise's prevention system and is the principal mandatory provision contained in the Health and Safety Law (Legislative Decree 81/2008) amended by Legislative Decree 106/2009. In order to properly comply with this obligation also in small-sized enterprises, the appropriate regulatory bodies should provide the enterprises with standardized tools and methods for identifying, assessing and managing risks. To assist in particular small and micro-enterprises (SMEs) with risk assessment, by providing a flexible tool that can also be standardized in the form of a datasheet, that can be updated with more detailed information on the various work contexts in Italy. Official efforts to provide Italian SMEs with information may initially make use of the findings of research conducted by ISPESL over the past 20 years, thanks in part to cooperation with other institutions (Regions, INAIL-National Insurance Institute for Occupational Accidents and Diseases), which have led to the creation of an information system on prevention consisting of numerous databases, both statistical and documental ("National System of Surveillance on fatal and serious accidents", "National System of Surveillance on work-related diseases", "Sector hazard profiles" database, "Solutions and Best Practices" database, "Technical Guidelines" database, "Training packages for prevention professionals in enterprises" database). With regard to evaluation criteria applicable within the enterprise, the possibility of combining traditional and uniform areas of assessment (by sector or by risk factor) with assessments by job/occupation has become possible thanks to the cooperation agreement made in 2009 by ISPESL, the ILO (International Labour Organisation) of Geneva and IIOSH (Israel Institute for Occupational Health and Hygiene) regarding the creation of an international Database (HDODB) based on risk datasheets per occupation. The project sets out to assist in

  17. Use of the t-distribution to construct seismic hazard curves for seismic probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Dept. of Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessments are used to help understand the impact potential seismic events can have on the operation of a nuclear power plant. An important component to seismic probabilistic safety assessment is the seismic hazard curve which shows the frequency of seismic events. However, these hazard curves are estimated assuming a normal distribution of the seismic events. This may not be a strong assumption given the number of recorded events at each source-to-site distance. The use of a normal distribution makes the calculations significantly easier but may underestimate or overestimate the more rare events, which is of concern to nuclear power plants. This paper shows a preliminary exploration into the effect of using a distribution that perhaps more represents the distribution of events, such as the t-distribution to describe data. The integration of a probability distribution with potentially larger tails basically pushes the hazard curves outward, suggesting a different range of frequencies for use in seismic probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore the use of a more realistic distribution results in an increase in the frequency calculations suggesting rare events are less rare than thought in terms of seismic probabilistic safety assessment. However, the opposite was observed with the ground motion prediction equation considered.

  18. Use of the t-distribution to construct seismic hazard curves for seismic probabilistic safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessments are used to help understand the impact potential seismic events can have on the operation of a nuclear power plant. An important component to seismic probabilistic safety assessment is the seismic hazard curve which shows the frequency of seismic events. However, these hazard curves are estimated assuming a normal distribution of the seismic events. This may not be a strong assumption given the number of recorded events at each source-to-site distance. The use of a normal distribution makes the calculations significantly easier but may underestimate or overestimate the more rare events, which is of concern to nuclear power plants. This paper shows a preliminary exploration into the effect of using a distribution that perhaps more represents the distribution of events, such as the t-distribution to describe data. The integration of a probability distribution with potentially larger tails basically pushes the hazard curves outward, suggesting a different range of frequencies for use in seismic probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore the use of a more realistic distribution results in an increase in the frequency calculations suggesting rare events are less rare than thought in terms of seismic probabilistic safety assessment. However, the opposite was observed with the ground motion prediction equation considered

  19. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expert assessment of the resilience of drinking water and sanitation systems to climate-related hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Royster, Sarah; Sebastian, Daniel; Ojomo, Edema; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-08-15

    We conducted an expert assessment to obtain expert opinions on the relative global resilience of ten drinking water and five sanitation technologies to the following six climate-related hazards: drought, decreased inter-annual precipitation, flood, superstorm flood, wind damage, and saline intrusion. Resilience scores ranged from 1.7 to 9.9 out of a maximum resilience of 10, with high scores corresponding to high resilience. We find that for some climate-related hazards, such as drought, technologies demonstrated a large range in resilience, indicating that the choice of water and sanitation technologies is important for areas prone to drought. On the other hand, the range of resilience scores for superstorm flooding was much smaller, particularly for sanitation technologies, suggesting that the choice of technology is less of a determinant of functionality for superstorm flooding as compared to other climate-related hazards. For drinking water technologies, only treated piped utility-managed systems that use surface water had resilience scores >6.0 for all hazards, while protected dug wells were found to be one of the least resilient technologies, consistently scoring <5.0 for all hazards except wind damage. In general, sanitation technologies were found to have low to medium resilience, suggesting that sanitation systems need to be adapted to ensure functionality during and after climate-related hazards. The results of the study can be used to help communities decide which technologies are best suited for the climate-related challenges they face and help in future adaptation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distance education course on spatial multi-hazard risk assessment, using Open Source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, C. J.; Frigerio, S.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the capacity building activities of the United Nations University - ITC School on Disaster Geo-Information Management (UNU-ITC DGIM) the International Institute for Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation (ITC) has developed a distance education course on the application of Geographic Information Systems for multi-hazard risk assessment. This course is designed for academic staff, as well as for professionals working in (non-) governmental organizations where knowledge of disaster risk management is essential. The course guides the participants through the entire process of risk assessment, on the basis of a case study of a city exposed to multiple hazards, in a developing country. The courses consists of eight modules, each with a guide book explaining the theoretical background, and guiding the participants through spatial data requirements for risk assessment, hazard assessment procedures, generation of elements at risk databases, vulnerability assessment, qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods, risk evaluation and risk reduction. Linked to the theory is a large set of exercises, with exercise descriptions, answer sheets, demos and GIS data. The exercises deal with four different types of hazards: earthquakes, flooding, technological hazards, and landslides. One important consideration in designing the course is that people from developing countries should not be restricted in using it due to financial burdens for software acquisition. Therefore the aim was to use Open Source software as a basis. The GIS exercises are written for the ILWIS software. All exercises have also been integrated into a WebGIS, using the Open source software CartoWeb (based on GNU License). It is modular and customizable thanks to its object-oriented architecture and based on a hierarchical structure (to manage and organize every package of information of every step required in risk assessment). Different switches for every component of the risk assessment

  2. History of Modern Earthquake Hazard Mapping and Assessment in California Using a Deterministic or Scenario Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualchin, Lalliana

    2011-03-01

    Modern earthquake ground motion hazard mapping in California began following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of southern California. Earthquake hazard assessment followed a traditional approach, later called Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) in order to distinguish it from the newer Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). In DSHA, seismic hazard in the event of the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) magnitude from each of the known seismogenic faults within and near the state are assessed. The likely occurrence of the MCE has been assumed qualitatively by using late Quaternary and younger faults that are presumed to be seismogenic, but not when or within what time intervals MCE may occur. MCE is the largest or upper-bound potential earthquake in moment magnitude, and it supersedes and automatically considers all other possible earthquakes on that fault. That moment magnitude is used for estimating ground motions by applying it to empirical attenuation relationships, and for calculating ground motions as in neo-DSHA (Z uccolo et al., 2008). The first deterministic California earthquake hazard map was published in 1974 by the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) which has been called the California Geological Survey (CGS) since 2002, using the best available fault information and ground motion attenuation relationships at that time. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) later assumed responsibility for printing the refined and updated peak acceleration contour maps which were heavily utilized by geologists, seismologists, and engineers for many years. Some engineers involved in the siting process of large important projects, for example, dams and nuclear power plants, continued to challenge the map(s). The second edition map was completed in 1985