WorldWideScience

Sample records for hazardous waste landfill

  1. Hazardous waste landfill research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1983-05-01

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical area of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the Permit Writers Guidance Manuals. These manuals will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of work in the various categorical areas.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ON WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    Earthquake hazards may arise as a result of: (a) transient ground deformation, which is induced due to seismic wave propagation, and (b) permanent ground deformation, which is caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Since the adequate performance of waste landfills after an earthquake is of outmost...... importance, the current study examines the impact of both types of earthquake hazards by performing efficient finite-element analyses. These took also into account the potential slip displacement development along the geosynthetic interfaces of the composite base liner. At first, the development of permanent...

  3. Design and construction of hazardous waste landfill components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frano, A.J.; Numes, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses design and construction of two sections of a hazardous waste landfill at Peoria Disposal Company's hazardous waste management facilities in central Illinois. One section, an existing disposal facility, was retrofitted with leachate control and containment features for additional security. The second section, a new facility which had been previously permitted for development with a single clay liner, was modified to include a double liner and revised leachate collection system for additional security, and an all-weather construction and operation access ramp. The two sections of the landfill were granted a development permit allowing construction. An operating permit was granted after construction and certification by the designer allowing waste disposal operations. The sections will be accepting waste material at publication. Design and construction included: planning studies, design analyses, permitting, preparation of construction contract documents, construction assistance, monitoring construction, and certification

  4. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, R.J.; Gronow, J.R.; Voulvoulis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge

  5. Remote sensing investigations at a hazardous-waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohr, C.; Su, W.-J.; DuMontelle, P.B.; Griffin, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches. These features can be more effectively identified by photointerpretation than by conventional field reconnaissance. A ground-based, post-sunset survey of the trench covers that showed that a distinction between depressions which hold moisture at the surface from freely-draining depressions which permit rapid recharge to the burial trenches could be made using thermal infrared imagery.In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches.

  6. Treatment of hazardous waste landfill leachate using Fenton oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singa, Pradeep Kumar; Hasnain Isa, Mohamed; Ho, Yeek-Chia; Lim, Jun-Wei

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of Fenton's oxidation was assessed in this study for hazardous waste landfill leachate treatment. The two major reagents, which are generally employed in Fenton's process are H2O2 as oxidizing agent and Fe2+ as catalyst. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of experimental conditions viz., reaction time, molar ratio, and Fenton reagent dosages, which are significant parameters that influence the degradation efficiencies of Fenton process were examined. It was found that under the favorable experimental conditions, maximum COD removal was 56.49%. The optimum experimental conditions were pH=3, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio = 3 and reaction time = 150 minutes. The optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide and iron were 0.12 mol/L and 0.04 mol/L respectively. High dosages of H2O2 and iron resulted in scavenging effects on OH• radicals and lowered degradation efficiency of organic compounds in the hazardous waste landfill leachate.

  7. LANDFILLS FOR NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE AND INERT WASTE AND THEIR OPERATION CYCLE IN NEW SYSTEM OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kunc

    2017-01-01

    Until 2012, the chief method of disposing of municipal waste in Poland was by storing it on non-hazardous and inert waste landfills. The introduction of a new waste management system as well as new formal and legal requirements have forced changes in key documents related to landfill installations such as processing permits, landfill operation instructions and management instructions. The operation cycle has been disturbed, reducing considerably their operation time and leading to a premature...

  8. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Juan C., E-mail: jc.mora@ciemat.es [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain); Baeza, Antonio [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Cáceres (Spain); Robles, Beatriz [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier [Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Before 2010 NORM waste is managed as non-radioactive, disposed in landfills. • After 2010 radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes must be assessed. • Quantities that can be disposed in hazardous or non-hazardous landfills are given. • Uncertainty analysis is included to provide consistency to the calculations. - Abstract: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.

  9. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Juan C.; Baeza, Antonio; Robles, Beatriz; Sanz, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Before 2010 NORM waste is managed as non-radioactive, disposed in landfills. • After 2010 radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes must be assessed. • Quantities that can be disposed in hazardous or non-hazardous landfills are given. • Uncertainty analysis is included to provide consistency to the calculations. - Abstract: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.

  10. Hazardous-waste landfill research, US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid- and hazardous-waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill the responsibility, the LPCD is developing concepts and is documenting the environmental effects of various waste-disposal practices; and is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). This paper presents an overview of the land-disposal research associated with the LPCD hazardous waste program plan and will report the current status of work in the following categorical areas: Hazardous-waste facilities - landfills and surface impoundments; Non-Hazardous waste facilities; and Technology transfer.

  11. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method

  12. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  13. Evaluation of Landfill Site Candidate for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Norm) and Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta; Hadi Suntoko; Bunawas

    2007-01-01

    Refers to co-location concept, Kabil site, where located at the southeast end of low hills in Batam Island, will be sited as an integrated industrial waste management center including landfill. So that, it is necessary an evaluation of the landfill site candidate for NORM and hazardous waste. The evaluation includes geological and non-geological aspects, to determine the suitability or capability in supporting the function as landfill facility. The site candidate was evaluated by serial sreps as follows: 1) criteria formulation; 2) selecting the parameter for evaluation; 3) Positive screening or evaluation of the land having potentiality for landfill site by descriptive method: and 4) determine the land suitability or capability for landfill site. The evaluation of geological and non- geological aspects include topography, litology, seismicity, groundwater and surface water, climate, hydro-oceanography, flora and fauna, spatial pattern and transportation system. The most of the parameters evaluated show the fulfilling to the site criteria, and can be mentioned that the land is suitable for landfill site. Some parameters are not so suitable for that purpose, especially on permeability and homogeneity of the rocks/soils, distance to surface water body, depth of groundwater, the flow rate of groundwater, precipitation, and humidity of the air. The lack of suitability showed by some parameters can be compensated by improving the appropriate engineered barrier in order to fulfill the landfill performance in providing the supporting capacity, long live stability and waste containment. (author)

  14. Household hazardous waste disposal to landfill: using LandSim to model leachate migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Rebecca J; Gronow, Jan R; Hall, David H; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate contains a number of aquatic pollutants. A specific MSW stream often referred to as household hazardous waste (HHW) can be considered to contribute a large proportion of these pollutants. This paper describes the use of the LandSim (Landfill Performance Simulation) modelling program to assess the environmental consequences of leachate release from a generic MSW landfill in receipt of co-disposed HHW. Heavy metals and organic pollutants were found to migrate into the zones beneath a model landfill site over a 20,000-year period. Arsenic and chromium were found to exceed European Union and US-EPA drinking water standards at the unsaturated zone/aquifer interface, with levels of mercury and cadmium exceeding minimum reporting values (MRVs). The findings demonstrate the pollution potential arising from HHW disposal with MSW.

  15. LANDFILLS FOR NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE AND INERT WASTE AND THEIR OPERATION CYCLE IN NEW SYSTEM OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kunc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 2012, the chief method of disposing of municipal waste in Poland was by storing it on non-hazardous and inert waste landfills. The introduction of a new waste management system as well as new formal and legal requirements have forced changes in key documents related to landfill installations such as processing permits, landfill operation instructions and management instructions. The operation cycle has been disturbed, reducing considerably their operation time and leading to a premature discontinuation of waste receipt, closure, and rehabilitation. These processes result in many irregularities in land rehabilitation which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment. The article identifies the fundamental changes which can interrupt the landfill operation cycle, and discusses the threats to the process of rehabilitation, highlighting both administrative and technical problems discovered based on processes that have been already completed. The description has been drawn up based on the study of literature, analyses and the reports of public administration bodies as well as on own research into the number of landfills faced with this problem.

  16. Household hazardous waste disposal to landfill: Using LandSim to model leachate migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, Rebecca J.; Gronow, Jan R.; Hall, David H.; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate contains a number of aquatic pollutants. A specific MSW stream often referred to as household hazardous waste (HHW) can be considered to contribute a large proportion of these pollutants. This paper describes the use of the LandSim (Landfill Performance Simulation) modelling program to assess the environmental consequences of leachate release from a generic MSW landfill in receipt of co-disposed HHW. Heavy metals and organic pollutants were found to migrate into the zones beneath a model landfill site over a 20,000-year period. Arsenic and chromium were found to exceed European Union and US-EPA drinking water standards at the unsaturated zone/aquifer interface, with levels of mercury and cadmium exceeding minimum reporting values (MRVs). The findings demonstrate the pollution potential arising from HHW disposal with MSW. - Aquatic pollutants linked to the disposal of household hazardous waste in municipal landfills have the potential to exist in soil and groundwater for many years

  17. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. REQUIREMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND CLOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication contains edited versions of the material presented at ten Technology Transfer seminars conducted in 1988 on this subject. Sections are included on design of clay and flexible membrane liners, leachate collector systems, and landfill covers. Construction quality a...

  19. Hazardous Waste Landfill Siting using GIS Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozeair Abessi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of large amount of generated hazardous waste in power plants, has always received communities' and authori¬ties attentions. In this paper using site screening method and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP a sophisticated approach for siting hazardous waste landfill in large areas is presented. This approach demonstrates how the evaluation criteria such as physical, socio-economical, technical, environmental and their regulatory sub criteria can be introduced into an over layer technique to screen some limited appropriate zones in the area. Then, in order to find the optimal site amongst the primary screened site utilizing a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method for hierarchy computations of the process is recommended. Using the introduced method an accurate siting procedure for environmental planning of the landfills in an area would be enabled. In the study this approach was utilized for disposal of hazardous wastes of Shahid Rajaee thermal power plant located in Qazvin province west central part of Iran. As a result of this study 10 suitable zones were screened in the area at first, then using analytical hierarchy process a site near the power plant were chosen as the optimal site for landfilling of the hazardous wastes in Qazvin province.

  20. Establishing indices for groundwater contamination risk assessment in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfills in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Li Jinhui; Chen Shusheng; Diao Weihua

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by leachate is the most damaging environmental impact over the entire life of a hazardous waste landfill (HWL). With the number of HWL facilities in China rapidly increasing, and considering the poor status of environmental risk management, it is imperative that effective environmental risk management methods be implemented. A risk assessment indices system for HWL groundwater contamination is here proposed, which can simplify the risk assessment procedure and make it more user-friendly. The assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: source term, underground media, leachate properties, risk receptors and landfill management quality, and a risk assessment indices system consisting of 38 cardinal indicators was established. Comparison with multimedia models revealed that the proposed indices system was integrated and quantitative, that input data for it could be easily collected, and that it could be widely used for environmental risk assessment (ERA) in China. - Highlights: ► No comprehensive environmental risk assessment method for hazardous waste management is proposed in China. ► An assessment indices system is established for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfill. ► All indicators are quantitative and applicable in China. - Capsule: This research identified critical indices and established a system for environmental risk assessment for groundwater contamination in the vicinity of HWLs in China.

  1. Toxicant emissions from hazardous wastes in landfills - implications for disposal risk management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmuth, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental impacts and risks of hazardous wastes disposed in Finnish landfills were assessed in a 5-yr field study. By systematic analysis of the acquired information, the toxicological impacts and risks of landfills seem as a whole small when compared with those caused by other kinds of environmental toxicants. Locally more significant risks arise, and may be difficult to manage. Scientific information on risk factors and their development is as yet insufficient, and additional research and monitoring are needed. Since uncertainties will remain, the prevention and control of risks, e.g. by improved hazardous waste management and disposal, are advocated by safety principles, but are made difficult by many technical and societal factors. Control strategies and remedial actions should thus be based on more comprehensive, comparative risk assessments and improved decision methods. Ethical, political and methodological issues in the management of hazardous waste disposal are discussed, with special reference to the interaction of science with regulatory decision-making related to the risks of old chemical waste sites. (44 refs.) (au)

  2. Establishing indices for groundwater contamination risk assessment in the vicinity of hazardous waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Shusheng; Diao, Weihua

    2012-06-01

    Groundwater contamination by leachate is the most damaging environmental impact over the entire life of a hazardous waste landfill (HWL). With the number of HWL facilities in China rapidly increasing, and considering the poor status of environmental risk management, it is imperative that effective environmental risk management methods be implemented. A risk assessment indices system for HWL groundwater contamination is here proposed, which can simplify the risk assessment procedure and make it more user-friendly. The assessment framework and indices were drawn from five aspects: source term, underground media, leachate properties, risk receptors and landfill management quality, and a risk assessment indices system consisting of 38 cardinal indicators was established. Comparison with multimedia models revealed that the proposed indices system was integrated and quantitative, that input data for it could be easily collected, and that it could be widely used for environmental risk assessment (ERA) in China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on landfills, including laws/regulations, and technical guidance on municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, industrial, PCBs, and construction and debris landfills. To provide resources for owners and operators of landfills.

  4. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section are met: (1) The waste meets the definition of CAMU-eligible waste in § 264.552(a)(1) and... remediation. (d) Applicable hazardous waste management requirements in this part, including recordkeeping... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in...

  5. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID's success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories' Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque's and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ''dry'' soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater

  6. FLORIDA HAZARDOUS WASTE AND SANITARY LANDFILL REPORT, COUNTY DATA. GENERATOR DATA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS. PART 2. COUNTIES: BROWARD, CALHOUN, CHARLOTTE, CITRUS, CLAY, COLLIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides data on the use of sanitary landfills (Subtitle D facilities) for hazardous waste disposal in Florida by small quantity generators. It consists of eleven parts including a part called Study Area Data which contains the data aggregated across the counties cover...

  7. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  8. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed

  9. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Mozafar; Hadidi, Mosslem; Vessali, Elahe; Mosstafakhani, Parasto; Taheri, Kamal; Shahoie, Saber; Khodamoradpour, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined.

  10. Hazardous waste landfill research: U. S. E. P. A. (United States Environmental Protection Agency) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1984-06-01

    The hazardous waste land disposal research program is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA) PL 94-580. This program relating to the categorical areas of landfills, surface impoundments, and underground mines encompasses state-of-the-art documents, laboratory analysis, economic assessment, bench and pilot studies, and full-scale field verification studies. Over the next five years the research will be reported as Technical Resource Documents in support of the RCRA Guidance Documents. These documents will be used to provide guidance for conducting the review and evaluation of land disposal permit applications. This paper will present an overview of this program and will report the current status of the work.

  11. [Simulation on contamination forecast and control of groundwater in a certain hazardous waste landfill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Fei; An, Da; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; Li, Ding-Long; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of site investigation and data collection of a certain hazardous waste landfill, the groundwater flow and solute transport coupled models were established by applying Visual Modflow software, which was used to conduct a numerical simulation that forecast the transport process of Cr6+ in groundwater and the effects of three control measures (ground-harden, leakage-proof barriers and drainage ditches) of contaminants transport after leachate leakage happened in impermeable layer of the landfill. The results show that the contamination plume of Cr6+ transports with groundwater flow direction, the contamination rang would reach the pool's boundary in 10 years, and the distance of contamination transport is 1 450 m. But the diffusion range of contamination plume would not be obviously expanded between 10 and 20 years. While the ground is hardened, the contamination plume would not reach the pool's boundary in 20 years. When the leakage-proof barrier is set in the bottom of water table aquifer, the concentration of Cr6+ is higher than that the leakage-proof barrier is unset, but the result is just opposite when setting the leakage-proof barrier in the bottom of underlying aquifer. The range of contamination plume is effectively controlled by setting drainage ditches that water discharge is 2 642 m3 x d(-1), which makes the monitoring wells would not be contaminated in 20 years. Moreover, combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches can get the best effect in controlling contaminants diffusion, and meanwhile, the drainage ditches' daily discharge is reduced to 1 878 m3 x d(-1). Therefore, it is suggested that the control measure combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches should apply to prevent contamination diffusion in groundwater when leachate leakage have happened in impermeable layer of the landfill.

  12. Using boolean and fuzzy logic combined with analytic hierarchy process for hazardous waste landfill site selection: A case study from Hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Saadat Foomani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous wastes include numerous kinds of discarded chemicals and other wastes generated from industrial, commercial, and institutional activities. These types of waste present immediate or long-term risks to humans, animals, plants, or the environment and therefore require special handling for safe disposal. Landfills that can accept hazardous wastes are excavated or engineered sites where these special types of waste can be disposed of securely. Since landfills are permanent sites, special attention must be afforded in selecting the location. This paper investigated the use of the Boolean theory and Fuzzy logic in combination with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methods by applying GIS and IDRISI software for the selection of a hazardous waste landfill site in the Iranian province of Hormozgan. The best location was determined via the Fuzzy and the Boolean methodologies. By collating the area selected for the hazardous waste landfill, this study found that Fuzzy logic with an AND operator had the best options for this purpose. In the end, the most suitable area for a hazardous waste landfill was about 1.6 km2 which was obtained by employing Fuzzy in combination with AHP and by using an AND operator. In addition, all the fundamental criteria affecting the landfill location were considered.

  13. Biostabilization of landfill waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.L. [Landfill Service Corp., Apalachin, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In November 1991, the city of Albany, N.Y., together with the principals of Landfill Service Corp. (Apalachin, N.Y.), proposed to demonstrate the successful practice of biostabilized solid waste placement in the newly constructed, double-composite-lined Interim Landfill located in the city of Albany. The small landfill covers just 12 acres and is immediately adjacent to residential neighbors. The benefits of this biostabilization practice include a dramatic improvement in the orderliness of waste placement, with significant reduction of windblown dust and litter. The process also reduces the presence of typical landfill vectors such as flies, crows, seagulls, and rodents. The physically and biologically uniform character of the stabilized waste mass can result in more uniform future landfill settlement and gas production properties. This can allow for more accurate prediction of post-closure conditions and reduction or elimination of remedial costs attendant to post-closure gross differential settlement.

  14. Hazardous landfill management, control options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, M.H.; Lederman, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    The land disposal of hazardous wastes has been a common practice over the last half century. The industrial and environmental communities, as well as the public, have an immediate challenge to control the contaminants that may be released from waste land disposal facilities. At the same time, land disposal continues to be, in many cases, the only available disposal technique that can be utilized in the next five years. Thus, it is extremely important that environmentally sound landfill management and control techniques be utilized, both for inactive and active sites. There are a number of key steps in developing a sound management and control plan. These include problem definition, personnel safety, characterization, evaluation of control options, cost-effectiveness analysis and development of an integrated control plan. A number of control options, including diversion, regrading, sealing, and leachate treatment are available and more cost effective in most cases than waste removal. These and other options, as well as the methodology to develop an integrated control plan, are discussed, together with examples. (Auth.)

  15. Landfills and the waste act implementation - what has changed?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available have been exhausted, including waste minimisation, re- use, reduce, recycling or treatment to reduce the volumes and risk associated with waste going to landfill. Implementation of the waste management hierarchy should therefore translate into smaller... volumes of low hazard, non-recyclable waste being disposed of at landfills. 3. Waste Regulations Section 69 of the Waste Act (RSA, 2008) lists a number of regulations that could have an impact on landfilling in South Africa, if developed...

  16. The mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, T.D.; Williams, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in arid environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies and systems. The comparison will include the cost, efficiency, risk, and feasibility of using these innovative technologies at other sites

  17. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  18. Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Brian Christopher

    This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

  19. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.J.; Larson, A.R.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides the hazard categorizations and classifications for the activities associated with the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) remediation. Categories and classifications presented are applicable only to the 300-FF-1 OU waste sites specifically listed in the inventory. The purpose of this remedial action is to remove contaminated soil, debris, and solid waste from liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4 within the 300-FF-1 OU. Resulting waste from this project will be sent to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) in the 200 West Area. The 300-FF-1 OU is part of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and is next to the Columbia River. The objective of this remedial action is to reduce contamination at these waste sites to levels that are acceptable for industrial purposes. Specific remedial objectives (cleanup goals) for each contaminant of concern (COC) are provided in a table, along with the maximum soil concentration detected

  20. Asbestos Utilization Costs on the Example of Functioning Landfill of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polek, Daria

    2017-12-01

    Asbestos is a trademark of mineral fibres, which are the natural minerals found in nature. Products containing asbestos fibres, in accordance with the national and EU legislation, are covered by the production prohibition and forced to be removed. In Poland, the asbestos removal process started with the adaptation of the EU law by the Council of Ministers Treatment Program of the National Asbestos for the years 2009-2032. The purpose of the dissertation was to analyse the costs associated with the disposal of the costs of collection, transport and disposal of waste. Methodology consisted in obtaining information on the raw materials needed to produce asbestos sheets. The analysis allowed us to determine the asbestos removal cost and include state subsidies in the calculations.

  1. Landfills as sinks for (hazardous) substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of waste regulations is to protect human health and the environment. This requires the removal from the material cycle of those materials that cannot be processed without harm. Policies to promote recycling hold a risk that pollutants are dispersed. Materials have an environmental impact during their entire life cycle from extraction through production, consumption and recycling to disposal. Essentially there are only two routes for pollutants that cannot be rendered harmless: storage in sinks or dispersion into the environment. Many sinks do not contain substances absolutely, but result in slow dispersion. Dispersion leads to exposure and impact to human health and the environment. It is therefore important to assess the impact of the release to the environment. Based on various sources this paper discusses important material flows and their potential impact. This is compared with the intentions and achievements of European environmental and resource policy. The polluter pays principle is being implemented in Europe, but lags behind implementation of waste management regulations. As long as producers are allowed to add hazardous substances to their products and don't take their products back, it is in society's best interest to carefully consider whether recycling or storage in a sink is the better solution. This requires further development of life-cycle assessment tools and harmonization of regulations. In many cases the sink is unavoidable. Landfills as sinks will be needed in the future. Fail-safe design and construction as well as sustainable management of landfills must be further developed.

  2. Ground waters quality assessment near solid municipal wastes and hazardous landfills; Valutazione della qualita' delle acque profonde in prossimita' di impianti di discarica per rifiuti solidi urbani e per rifiuti pericolosi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellino, M.; Falleni, F.; Forte, T.; Musmeci, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses the impact on ground waters quality in relation to municipal and similar waste landfills and hazardous waste landfills, examined in three landfills of first category and one landfill of second category type C. Analytical results from sampling of ground and leaching waters are reported; from these results it can be deduced that environmental impact is minimum or non-existent, where law criteria for construction and management of landfills are respected. [Italian] Il rapporto esamina l'impatto sulla qualita' delle acque profonde dovuto agli impianti di discarica per rifiuti solidi urbani e assimilabili e per rifiuti pericolosi, rispettivamente di tre discariche controllate di prima categoria ed una di seconda di tipo C. Vengono riportate le risultanze analitiche relative ai campionamenti per la costruzione e gestione delle discariche. L'impatto ambientale e' minimo se non assente.

  3. Validation of an in situ solidification/stabilization technique for hazardous barium and cyanide waste for safe disposal into a secured landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Rucha; Kodam, Kisan; Ghole, Vikram; Surya Mohan Rao, K

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to devise and validate an appropriate treatment process for disposal of hazardous barium and cyanide waste into a landfill at a Common Hazardous Waste Treatment Storage Disposal Facility (CHWTSDF). The waste was generated during the process of hardening of steel components and contains cyanide (reactive) and barium (toxic) as major contaminants. In the present study chemical fixation of the contaminants was carried out. The cyanide was treated by alkali chlorination with calcium hypochlorite and barium by precipitation with sodium sulfate as barium sulfate. The pretreated mixture was then solidified and stabilized by binding with a combination of slag cement, ordinary Portland cement and fly ash, molded into blocks (5 x 5 x 5 cm) and cured for a period of 3, 7 and 28 days. The final experiments were conducted with 18 recipe mixtures of waste + additive:binder (W:B) ratios. The W:B ratios were taken as 80:20, 70:30 and 50:50. The optimum proportions of additives and binders were finalized on the basis of the criteria of unconfined compressive strength and leachability. The leachability studies were conducted using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. The blocks were analyzed for various physical and leachable chemical parameters at the end of each curing period. Based on the results of the analysis, two recipe mixtures, with compositions - 50% of [waste + (120 g Ca(OCl)(2) + 290 g Na(2)SO(4)) kg(-1) of waste] + 50% of binders, were validated for in situ stabilization into a secured landfill of CHWTSDF. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Location analysis of the landfill of waste in Loznica

    OpenAIRE

    Božović Dejan

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this paper regards the landfill of municipal and industrial waste in Loznica, actually its location and environmental hazards. The research was carried out in order to show the consequences of careless and incomplete evaluation of the conditions for a locating of a landfill in the example of Loznica. Besides the fact that it is located at the floodplain of the Drina River, the landfill is normally located to the direction of predominant wind, which has a significant influence o...

  5. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Warren Stamps

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its built environments. Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2 and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of landfill microbiomes and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  7. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  8. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ''in-situ'' characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates

  9. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs

  10. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  11. 75 FR 67919 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Proposed Exclusion for Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... treatment sludge from the lists of hazardous waste set forth in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations... treatment sludges generated at its facility located in Owosso, Michigan from the list of hazardous wastes... disposed in a Subtitle D landfill and we considered transport of waste constituents through ground water...

  12. Analyses of Environmental Impacts of Non Hazardous Regional Landfills in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Donevska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of potential environmental impacts for eight planned non-hazardous regional landfills in Macedonia. Waste quantities for each waste management region and landfill capacities are estimated. Expected leachate quantities are calculated using Water Balance Method. Analyses and comparison of the likely landfill leachate per capita are presented, demonstrating that higher rates of leachate are generated per capita in waste management regions with higher annual sums of rainfall. An assessment of the potential landfill impacts on the water environment taking into consideration local geology and hydrogeology conditions is presented. Some general measures for leachate treatment that are in compliance with the modern EU standards are indicated. The goal of the study is to facilitate a better understanding about the sustainable waste management practices in cases of landfilling of municipal solid waste.

  13. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  14. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment

  15. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  16. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal

  17. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.S.; Hartman, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters

  18. Location analysis of the landfill of waste in Loznica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper regards the landfill of municipal and industrial waste in Loznica, actually its location and environmental hazards. The research was carried out in order to show the consequences of careless and incomplete evaluation of the conditions for a locating of a landfill in the example of Loznica. Besides the fact that it is located at the floodplain of the Drina River, the landfill is normally located to the direction of predominant wind, which has a significant influence on environmental dispersion processes. The landscape where the landfill is located has been impacted by flooded and groundwater and predominant wind, but on the other side, the environment has also been impacted by pollutants which come from the new system landscape-landfill. The results of the laboratory analysis help to target a gradual process of the soil contamination by heavy metals from the landfill, and to detect the general direction of contaminant migration, from southwest to northeast. Therefore, it is necessary to start working on recultivation and rehabilitation of the landfill and to begin with regional waste disposal. .

  19. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  20. Effects of Moisture Content in Solid Waste Landfills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eck, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Solid waste landfills are an extremely complex and heterogeneous environment. Modeling the biodegradation processes within a landfill must involve an understanding of how environmental factors affect these processes...

  1. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  3. Modern technology for landfill waste placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.L. [Landfill Service Corp., Apalachin, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The City of Albany, New York, together with the principals of Landfill Service Corporation, proposed in November 1991 to demonstrate the successful practice of biostabilized solid waste placement in the newly constructed, double composite lined Interim Landfill located at Rapp Road in the City of Albany. This is a small facility, only 12 acres in area, which is immediately adjacent to residential neighbors. Significant advancements have been made for the control of environmental factors (odors, vectors, litter) while successfully achieving waste stabilization and air space conservations goals. Also, the procedure consumes a significant quantity of landfill leachate. The benefits of this practice include a dramatic improvement in the orderlines of waste placement with significant reduction of windblown dust and litter. The biostabilization process also reduces the presence of typical landfill vectors such as flies, crows, seagulls and rodents. All of these factors can pose serious problems for nearby residents to the City of Albany`s Interim landfill site. The physically and biologically uniform character of the stabilized waste mass can result in more uniform future landfill settlement and gas production properties. This can allow for more accurate prediction of postclosure conditions and reduction or elimination of remedial costs attendant to post closure gross differential settlement. Recent research in Europe indicates that aerobic pretreatment of waste also reduces contaminant loading of leachate.

  4. Annual report, RCRA post-closure monitoring and inspections for the mercury landfill hazardous waste trenches for the period October 1995--October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emer, D.F.; Smith, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches were closed in-place in September 1993. Post-closure monitoring of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches began in October 1993. The post-closure monitoring program is used to verify that the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trench covers are performing properly, and that there is no water infiltrating into the waste trenches. The performance of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches is currently monitored using 30 neutron access tubes positioned on and along the margins of the covers. Soil moisture measurements are obtained in the soils directly beneath the trenches and compared to baseline conditions from the first year of post-closure operation. This report documents the post-closure activities between October 1995 and October 1996.

  5. Annual report, RCRA post-closure monitoring and inspections for the mercury landfill hazardous waste trenches for the period October 1995--October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emer, D.F.; Smith, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches were closed in-place in September 1993. Post-closure monitoring of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches began in October 1993. The post-closure monitoring program is used to verify that the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trench covers are performing properly, and that there is no water infiltrating into the waste trenches. The performance of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches is currently monitored using 30 neutron access tubes positioned on and along the margins of the covers. Soil moisture measurements are obtained in the soils directly beneath the trenches and compared to baseline conditions from the first year of post-closure operation. This report documents the post-closure activities between October 1995 and October 1996

  6. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  7. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... section 307 of the Clean Water Act (CWA)); A municipal solid waste landfill that is regulated under 40 CFR... laundries and dry cleaners could dispose of sludge from cleaning solvent-contaminated wipes in solid waste landfills if the sludge does not exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic. \\8\\ The Agency stated in the...

  8. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  9. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  10. Nitrogen removal in the bioreactor landfill system with intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ruo; Shen Dongsheng

    2006-01-01

    High ammonia concentration of recycled landfill leachate makes it very difficult to treat. In this work, a vertical aerobic/anoxic/anaerobic lab-scale bioreactor landfill system, which was constructed by intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled waste, as a bioreactor for in situ nitrogen removal was investigated during waste stabilization. Intermittent aeration at the top of landfilled waste might stimulate the growth of nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria in the top and middle layers of waste. The nitrifying bacteria population for the landfill bioreactor with intermittent aeration system reached between10 6 and 10 8 cells/dry g waste, although it decreased 2 orders of magnitude on day 30, due to the inhibitory effect of the acid environment and high organic matter in the landfilled waste. The denitrifying bacteria population increased by between 4 and 13 orders of magnitude compared with conventional anaerobic landfilled waste layers. Leachate NO 3 - -N concentration was very low in both two experimental landfill reactors. After 105 days operation, leachate NH 4 + -N and TN concentrations for the landfill reactor with intermittent aeration system dropped to 186 and 289 mg/l, respectively, while they were still kept above 1000 mg/l for the landfill reactor without intermittent aerobic system. In addition, there is an increase in the rate of waste stabilization as well as an increase of 12% in the total waste settlement for the landfill reactor with intermittent aeration system

  11. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of page replacements for the Y-12 industrial waste landfill. The cover page is to replace the old page, and a new set of text pages are to replace the old ones. A replacement design drawing is also included

  12. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  13. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water quality at ring road, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... parameters showed increased concentrations over those from control sites. ... Keywords: Landfill, groundwater, surface-water, pollution.

  15. In situ vitrification applications to hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, S.

    1989-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification is a new hazardous waste remediation alternative that should be considered for contaminated soil matrices. According to the authors the advantages of using ISV include: technology demonstrated at field scale; applicable to a wide variety of soils and contaminants; pyrolyzer organics and encapsulates inorganics; product durable over geologic time period; no threat of harm to the public from exposure; and applications available for barrier walls and structural support. The use of ISV on a large scale basis has thus far been limited to the nuclear industry but has tremendous potential for widespread applications to the hazardous waste field. With the ever changing regulations for the disposal of hazardous waste in landfills, and the increasing positive analytical data of ISV, the process will become a powerful source for on-site treatment and hazardous waste management needs in the very near future

  16. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  17. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE's Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit

  18. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  19. Hazardous industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Hilda; Salas, Juan Carlos; Romero, Luis Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author) [es

  20. Hazardous waste management plan, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1984-06-01

    All SRP waste storage, disposal, and recycling facilities that have received hazardous waste, low-level radioactive hazardous waste (mixed waste) or process waste since 1980 have been evaluated by EPA standards. Generally the waste storage areas meet all applicable standards. However, additional storage facilities currently estimated at $2 million and waste disposal facilities currently estimated at $20 million will be required for proper management of stored waste. The majority of the disposal facilities are unlined earthen basins that receive hazardous or process wastes and have or have the potential to contaminate groundwater. To come into compliance with the groundwater standards the influents to the basins will be treated or discontinued, the basins will be decommissioned, groundwater monitoring will be conducted, and remedial actions will be taken as necessary. The costs associated with these basin actions are not completely defined and will increase from present estimates. A major cost which has not been resolved is associated with the disposal of the sludge produced from the treatment plants and basin decommissioning. The Low-Level Radioactive Burial Ground which is also a disposal facility has received mixed waste; however, it does not meet the standards for hazardous waste landfills. In order to properly handle mixed wastes additional storage facilities currently estimated at $500,000 will be provided and options for permanent disposal will be investigated

  1. The industrial waste landfill of Bonfol (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, C.G.; Bentz, R. [Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc., Basel (Switzerland); Fischer, M.; Huerzeler, R.A.; Matter, B.; Munz, C.D.

    2003-07-01

    The landfill for industrial waste in Bonfol (Switzerland) was installed in 1961 in an waterproof clay pit and was run until 1976 by the bci, the Basel chemical industry, to dispose off their industrial waste originating from chemical production. For the first time in Europe chemical wastes were deposited in a special area selected according to geological criteria. Groundwater and surface waters have been continuously supervised since the beginning of the activities in Bonfol in 1961. After the landfill was totally filled up, it was covered by a clay layer. In the years 1980/81 the monitoring program discovered that the cover of the landfill was leaking and that the pit was slowly filled up with water. Some exfiltrations resulted. It was important to overcome the critical situation by the implementation of immediate measures, e.g. pumping and removal of leachate. Different remediation options were studied at that time, among other the excavation and final disposal of the contents of the landfill. On October 17, 2000 a voluntary agreement between the authorities and bci ws signed. On May 15, 2001, bci presented the result of the study of remedial options. Excavation / incineration in European incinerators or in-situ vitrification, with a suboption excavation/on-site vitrification, were seen as the most promising ones. At the end of 2001 the option of the in-situ vitrification was dropped because of the resulting public and political resistance towards this technology. The remaining options are being evaluated thoroughly at the moment to prepare the basis for a decision on the clean-up project. (orig.)

  2. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Both nonhazardous and nonradioactive sanitary solid waste are generated at the Hanford Site. This permit application describes the manner in which the Solid Waste Landfill will be operated. A description is provided of the landfill, including applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. The characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of are discussed. The regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill are reviewed. A plan is included of operation, closure, and postclosure. This report addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill is discussed

  3. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  4. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  5. Immobilisation of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste, e.g. radioactive waste, particularly that containing caesium-137, is immobilised by mixing with cement and solidifiable organic polymeric material. When first mixed, the organic material is preferably liquid and at this time can be polymerisable or already polymerised. The hardening can result from cooling or further polymerisation e.g. cross-linking. The organic material may be wax, or a polyester which may be unsaturated and cross-linkable by reaction with styrene. (author)

  6. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  7. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.316 Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment...

  8. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.316 Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment...

  9. Metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers leaching from electronic waste in simulated landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiddee, Peeranart [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: • Simulated landfill columns provided realistic results than lab based column study. • Column leachates showed significant seasonal effect on toxic substances. • Toxic substances in the landfill leachates pose environmental and health hazards. • A better management of e-waste is urgently needed. -- Abstract: Landfills established prior to the recognition of potential impacts from the leaching of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds often lack appropriate barriers and pose significant risks of contamination of groundwater. In this study, bioavailable metal(oids) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from landfill columns that contained intact or broken e-waste were studied under conditions that simulate landfills in terms of waste components and methods of disposal of e-wastes, and with realistic rainfall. Fourteen elements and PBDEs were analysed in leachates over a period of 21 months. The results demonstrate that the average concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and V in leachates from the column that contained broken e-waste items were significantly higher than the column without e-waste. BDE-153 was the highest average PBDEs congener in all columns but the average of ∑PBDEs levels in columns that contained intact e-waste were (3.7 ng/l) and were not significantly higher than that in the leachates from the control column.

  10. Landfill life expectancy with waste reduction/minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klan, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Although some minimally acceptable practices are presently undertaken at most landfills to protect human health and safety and the environment, a key question remains. How much effort and resources should be expended to slow the fill-rate of a landfill? The answer depends on the performance and costs of the technical options available, the difficulty and cost of acquiring additional landfill space, and the consequences for remaining landfill lifetime of current and future actions. Toward this end, the paper (1) presents a method for projecting the remaining life of a landfill, including the alternative lifetimes associated with life extension measures; (2) presents a case study of the low-level waste landfill at Los Alamos National Lab.; and (3) illustrates a procedure for determining which measures become cost-effective to adopt as a landfill's space declines

  11. Capping as an alternative for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes some of the regulatory and technical issues concerning the use of capping as a containment strategy for radioactive and hazardous waste. Capping alternatives for closure of landfills is not just an engineering problem, but rather involves complex physical, biological, and chemical processes requiring a multidisciplinary approach to develop designs that will work over the long haul and are cost-effective. Much of the information has been distilled from regulatory and guidance documents and a compilation of research activities on waste disposal, contaminant transport processes, and technology development for landfills that has been conducted over the last 21 years

  12. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane content was found to be more than 45% and the leachate produced reached 15.7 l after 200 days. However, after 260 days the gas and leachate production rate became negligible. A significant amount of heavy metal traces was found in the leachate due to mixed waste disposal. Changes in biogas and leachate quality parameters in the lysimeter revealed typical landfill behaviour trends, the only difference being that they developed much more quickly. In view of current landfill practices in Jordan and the effect of climate change, the results suggest that landfill design and operational modes need to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainability. For this reason, optimized design parameters and operational scenarios for sustainable landfill based on the country’s climatic conditions and financial as well as technical potential are recommended as a primary reference for future landfills in Jordan as well as in similar regions and climates.

  13. Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and is intended to be used as a supplement to DOE/RL-93-75, 'Hanford Facility Contingency Plan.' This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303 for certain Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 waste management units. The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (located approximately 3.5 miles southeast of the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site) was used for disposal of nonradioactive dangerous waste from January 1975 to May 1985. Currently, there are no dangerous waste streams disposed in the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. Dangerous waste management activities are no longer required at the landfill. The landfill does not present a significant hazard to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. It is unlikely that incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

  14. Analysis of Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method of Landfill Site Selection for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Habiba Ibrahim; Majid, Zulkepli; Yusof, Norhakim Bin; Bello Yamusa, Yamusa

    2018-03-01

    Landfilling remains the most common systematic technique of solid waste disposal in most of the developed and developing countries. Finding a suitable site for landfill is a very challenging task. Landfill site selection process aims to provide suitable areas that will protect the environment and public health from pollution and hazards. Therefore, various factors such as environmental, physical, socio-economic, and geological criteria must be considered before siting any landfill. This makes the site selection process vigorous and tedious because it involves the processing of large amount of spatial data, rules and regulations from different agencies and also policy from decision makers. This allows the incorporation of conflicting objectives and decision maker preferences into spatial decision models. This paper particularly analyzes the multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method of landfill site selection for solid waste management by means of literature reviews and surveys. The study will help the decision makers and waste management authorities to choose the most effective method when considering landfill site selection.

  15. Analysis of Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method of Landfill Site Selection for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohammed Habiba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfilling remains the most common systematic technique of solid waste disposal in most of the developed and developing countries. Finding a suitable site for landfill is a very challenging task. Landfill site selection process aims to provide suitable areas that will protect the environment and public health from pollution and hazards. Therefore, various factors such as environmental, physical, socio-economic, and geological criteria must be considered before siting any landfill. This makes the site selection process vigorous and tedious because it involves the processing of large amount of spatial data, rules and regulations from different agencies and also policy from decision makers. This allows the incorporation of conflicting objectives and decision maker preferences into spatial decision models. This paper particularly analyzes the multi-criteria evaluation (MCE method of landfill site selection for solid waste management by means of literature reviews and surveys. The study will help the decision makers and waste management authorities to choose the most effective method when considering landfill site selection.

  16. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less...

  17. Syntaxonomy of vegetation of Kalush hexachlorobenzene toxic waste landfill (Ivano-Frankivsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Parpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of a landfill of hexachlorobenzene toxic waste was studied. It is situated in the neighborhood of Kalush (Ivano-Frankivsk region and has an area of 4.5 ha. As a result of damage to the containers, hazardous waste has contaminated the air, soil and aquifers at the test site and adjacent areas. During the period 2010–2012 measures were taken to recover and remove the mixture of toxic waste and contaminated soil from the landfill. In its place, unpolluted soil was brought to the landfill. Work was carried out to recultivate the territory. Nowadays natural succession of vegetation cover is observed. There is closed herbaceous cover in the western part of the landfill. The total projective herbaceous cover in the central and eastern parts varies from 10% to 60%. Vegetation composition of the landfill contains eight syntaxa of association rank that belong to seven alliances, six orders and five classes. Communities of the Phragmito-Magnocaricetea and Bolboschoenetea maritimi classes (ass. Typhetum laxmanii grow in areas with excessive humidification. The central and eastern parts of the waste landfill are primarily occupied by halophytic communities of the Puccinellio distanti-Tripolietum vulgare association of the Asteretea tripolium class. Ruderal communities belong to three associations of the Artemisietea vulgaris class. These communities mainly occur in the periphery zone of Kalush landfill. Areas with a moderate moisture regime are occupied by ruderal communities of the Calamagrostietum epigeios association of the Agropyretea repentis class. The total number of vascular herbaceous plant species at the landfill is 119. The dominating groups are meadow, synanthropic and wetland species. The differentiation of vegetation cover is caused by heterogeneity of edaphic and hydrological conditions, also by different activity of succession processes.

  18. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  19. Auditing hazardous waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Allen, J.M.; Sokol, C.K.; von Lehmden, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that audit standards consisting of volatile and semivoltile organics have been established by the EPA to be provided to federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors for use in performance audits to assess the accuracy of measurement methods used during hazardous waste trial burns. The volatile organic audit standards currently total 29 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, 9, and 18-component mixtures at part-per-billion (ppb) levels (1 to 10 000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The semivoltile organic audit standards currently total six organics which are spiked onto XAD-2 cartridges for auditing analysis procedures. Studies of all organic standards have been performed to determine the stability of the compounds and the feasibility of using them as performance audit materials. Results as of July 1987 indicate that all of the selected organic compounds are adequately stabile for use as reliable audit materials. Performance audits have been conducted with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the measurement methods. To date, 160 performance audits have been initiated with the ppb-level audit gases. The audit results obtained with audit gases during hazardous waste trial burn tests were generally within ±50% of the audit concentrations. A limited number of audit results have been obtained with spiked XAD-2 cartridges, and the results have generally been within ±35% of the audit concentrations

  20. Waste management in Ukraine: Municipal solid waste landfills and their impact on rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Makarenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of the influence of Myronivka municipal solid waste landfill in the surrounding rural areas. It is established that environmentally hazardous situation has generated in the locations of the landfills causes dissatisfaction among the local population. It is shown that incorrect use may be the cause of the deterioration of quality of drinking water, atmospheric air, sanitary and hygienic condition of agricultural soils. It is established that the effect of the landfill extends beyond the sanitary protection zone, therefore there is a need to improve its monitoring system with obligatory consideration of impacts on adjacent rural areas. The size of the normative sanitary-protective zone was specified under the actual level of air pollution and natural factors. It is shown that such a scientific and methodical approach can provide a more objective establishment of the sanitary protection zone. In turn, this will provide an opportunity to take appropriate organizational and managerial decisions on the placement of different objects and prevent the negative impact of landfills on rural areas.

  1. Hazard waste risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

  2. Greenhouse effect reduction and energy recovery from waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lidia.lombardi@pin.unifi.it; Carnevale, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Waste management systems are a non-negligible source of greenhouse gases. In particular, methane and carbon dioxide emissions occur in landfills due to the breakdown of biodegradable carbon compounds operated on by anaerobic bacteria. The conventional possibilities of reducing the greenhouse effect (GHE) from waste landfilling consists in landfill gas (LFG) flaring or combustion with energy recovery in reciprocating engines. These conventional treatments are compared with three innovative possibilities: the direct LFG feeding to a fuel cell (FC); the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a stationary FC; the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a vehicle FC. The comparison is carried out from an environmental point of view, calculating the specific production of GHE per unit mass of waste disposed in landfill equipped with the different considered technologies.

  3. THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE LANDFILL ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Janas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the environmental impact of a shut down industrial waste landfill. A detailed analysis of the quality of groundwater around the landfill in the years 1995-2016 was conducted. Assessment of the status of groundwater in the landfill area was made based on the results of monitoring tests. It includes the measurement of pH, specific electrical conductivity (SEC and the content of chlorides, sulfates, phosphates, heavy metals: copper (Cu, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr and a number of other pollution indicators. The analysis confirms that the landfill during the operation did not constitute a threat because of a number of employed security measures and sealing layers. Only in recent years, the industrial waste landfill which is already out of operation has become an extremely serious environmental threat. The results of water analyses from the piezometers clearly indicate that there is a problem of groundwater contamination. There was a significant increase in the value of some of the analyzed indicators (such as chlorides and sulfates, mainly in the piezometers located on the flow line of groundwater in the landfill area. The observed situation is probably a result of damage to the sealing layers and leaching of pollutants from waste deposited in the landfill by rain water.

  4. Liners and Leak Detection Systems for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Units - Federal Register Notice, January 29, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is amending its current regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) concerning liner and leachate collection and removal systems for hazardous waste surface impoundments, landfills, and waste piles.

  5. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...

  6. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...

  7. Hazardous waste. Annual report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Activities in the Hazardous Waste Program area in 1984 ranged from preparing management and long-range plans to arranging training seminars. Past and present generation of hazardous wastes were the key concerns. This report provides a summary of the significant events which took place in 1984. 6 tabs

  8. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make the...

  9. Avoiding the Hazards of Hazardous Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Under a 1980 law, colleges and universities can be liable for cleanup of hazardous waste on properties, in companies, and related to stocks they invest in or are given. College planners should establish clear policy concerning gifts, investigate gifts, distance university from business purposes, sell real estate gifts quickly, consult a risk…

  10. The management of household hazardous waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2009-01-01

    Waste legislation in the United Kingdom (UK) implements European Union (EU) Directives and Regulations. However, the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in household or municipal situations, household hazardous waste (HHW), does not occur in UK, or EU, legislation. The EU's Hazardous Waste Directive and European Waste Catalogue are the principal legislation influencing HHW, although the waste categories described are difficult to interpret. Other legislation also have impacts on HHW definition and disposal, some of which will alter current HHW disposal practices, leading to a variety of potential consequences. This paper discusses the issues affecting the management of HHW in the UK, including the apparent absence of a HHW-specific regulatory structure. Policy and regulatory measures that influence HHW management before disposal and after disposal are considered, with particular emphasis placed on disposal to landfill.

  11. Attenuation of heavy metal leaching from hazardous wastes by co-disposal of wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Wookeun; Shin, Eung Bai [Hanyang Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kil Chul; Kim, Jae Hyung [National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The potential hazard of landfill wastes was previously evaluated by examining the extraction procedures for individual waste, although various wastes were co-disposed of in actual landfills. This paper investigates the reduction of extraction-procedure toxicity by co-disposing various combinations of two wastes. When two wastes are mixed homogeneously, the extraction of heavy metals from the waste mixture is critically affected by the extract pH. Thus, co-disposal wastes will have a resultant pH between the pH values of its constituent. The lower the resultant pH, the lower the concentrations of heavy metals in the extract. When these wastes are extracted sequentially, the latter extracted waste has a stronger influence on the final concentration of heavy metals in the extract. Small-scale lysimeter experiments confirm that when heavy-metal-bearing leachates Generated from hazardous-waste lysimeters are passed through a nonhazardous-waste lysimeter filled with compost, briquette ash, or refuse-incineration ashes, the heavy-metal concentration in the final leachates decreases significantly. Thus, the heavy-metal leaching could be attenuated if a less extraction-procedure-toxic waste were placed at the bottom of a landfill. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  13. Power generation potential using landfill gas from Ontario municipal solid waste landfills. Appendix B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-six landfill sites have been identified in Ontario with potential gas production rates suitable for recovery and use in power plant applications. If 70% of the gas naturally generated from these sites was collected and utilized, ca 88 MW could be produced in 1991 (declining to 74 MW by 2001) from the gas generated. Assuming the current average generation rate of one tonne per capita, an estimated nine million tonnes of municipal refuse is produced annually in Ontario, and landfilling is expected to continue to play a major role. It is suggested that the level of gas generation identified for the year 1991 will be sustainable given that as old landfills are spent, new ones are built. The accuracy of the prediction depends largely on future government policies regarding incineration, the effects of present waste reduction programs, and approval of new landfill sites. Due to the combined costs of the gas collection system, auxiliary equipment, and gas processing system, installed cost of a landfill-gas fired power plant is high relative to that of conventional natural gas-fired plants. For landfills presently without a gas collection system, the high initial capital investment for gas field test programs and for the installation of a collection system is a barrier that deters municipalities from tapping this energy potential. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. An overview of the mixed waste landfill integrated demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prior to May 1992, field demonstrations of characterization technologies were performed at an uncontaminated site near the Chemical Waste Landfill. In mid-1992 through summer 1993, both non-intrusive and intrusive characterization techniques were demonstrated at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Subsurface and dry barrier demonstrations were started in summer 1993 and will continue into 1995. Future plans include demonstrations of innovative drilling, characterization and long-term monitoring, and remediation techniques. Demonstrations were also scheduled in summer 1993 at the Kirtland Air Force HSWA site and will continue in 1994. The first phase of the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) project occurred in April 1992 when two holes were drilled and vapor extraction wells were installed at the Chemical Waste Landfill. Obtaining the engineering design and environmental permits necessary to implement this field demonstration will take until early 1994. Field demonstration of the vapor extraction system will occur in 1994

  15. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Need More Information on Hazardous Waste? The RCRA Orientation Manual provides introductory information on the solid and ... and Security Notice Connect. Data.gov Inspector General Jobs Newsroom Open Government Regulations.gov Subscribe USA.gov ...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, L.D.; Phelan, J.M.; Prindle, N.K.; Purvis, S.T.; Stormont, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) has been assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. The mission of the MWLID is to assess, implement and transfer technologies and systems that lead to quicker, safer, and more efficient remediation of buried chemical and mixed-waste sites. The MWLID focus is on two landfills at SNL in Albuquerque, New Mexico: The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed-Waste Landfill (MWL). These landfills received chemical, radioactive and mixed wastes from various SNL nuclear research programs. A characterization system has been designed for the definition of the extent and concentration of contamination. This system includes historical records, directional drilling, and emplacement membrane, sensors, geophysics, sampling strategy, and on site sample analysis. In the remediation task, in-situ remediation systems are being designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and heavy metals from soils. The VOC remediation includes vacuum extraction with electrical and radio-frequency heating. For heavy metal contamination, electrokinetic processes are being considered. The MWLID utilizes a phased, parallel approach. Initial testing is performed at an uncontaminated site adjacent to the CWL. Once characterization is underway at the CWL, lessons learned can be directly transferred to the more challenging problem of radioactive waste in the MWL. The MWL characterization can proceed in parallel with the remediation work at CWL. The technologies and systems demonstrated in the MWLID are to be evaluated based on their performance and cost in the real remediation environment of the landfills

  17. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković Goran B.; Josijević Mladen M.; Jovičić Nebojša M.; Babić Milun J.

    2016-01-01

    Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55%) and carbon dioxide (40-45%) (both GHGs), has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine econo...

  18. Environmental Planning Strategies for Optimum Solid Waste Landfill Siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiani, Y.; Onn, C.C.; Mohd, M.A.D.; Wan, W.Z.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of environmental planning tools for optimum solid waste landfill siting taking into account all environmental implications was carried out by applying Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to enhance the research information obtained from initial analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The objective of this study is to identify the most eco-friendly landfill site by conducting a LCA analysis upon 5 potential GIS generated sites which incorporated eleven important criteria related to the social, environmental, and economical factors. The LCA analysis utilized the daily distance covered by collection trucks among the 5 selected landfill sites to generate inventory data on total energy usage for each landfill sites. The planning and selection of the potential sites were facilitated after conducting environmental impact analysis upon the inventory data which showed the least environmental impact. (author)

  19. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Region IX is proposing to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF... final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for RD&D...

  20. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...] Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA issued final... solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7, 2012 Massachusetts submitted an application to...

  1. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research, Development...

  2. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...] Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA issued final regulations... waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted an application to EPA Region 10...

  3. 75 FR 53220 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...] Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved modification allows the State to..., and demonstration (RD&D) permits to be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved...

  4. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of MSW...

  5. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved modification allows the State..., EPA issued a final rule (69 FR 13242) amending the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) criteria in...

  6. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...] Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA issued final... solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010 New Hampshire submitted an application to EPA...

  7. Effects of the silica nanoparticles (NPSiO2 on the stabilization and transport of hazardous nanoparticle suspensions into landfill soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluates the stability and transport behaviors of hazardous nanoparticles into soil landfills using experimental procedures to simulate the effects of natural silica nanoparticle suspensions during their percolation into the soil layers of municipal waste landfills. For this, we prepared stabilized suspensions of nanoparticle oxides containing silicon (NPSiO2, titanium (NPTiO2, copper (NPCuO and zinc (NPZnO, which are recognized as hazardous to the environment, and we conducted leaching experiments within the soil column by simulating landfills layers and simulating the capture and attenuation of nanomaterials into municipal waste landfills. The results demonstrated that the presence of NPSiO2 in suspensions increases the stable concentrations of copper, zinc and titanium oxides and strongly decreases soil layer effectiveness. In contrast, NPZnO improves effectiveness due to its ability to promote agglomeration and setting conditions, allowing further complexation.

  8. Landfill operation and waste management procedures in the reduction of methane and leachate pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, J.

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to find ways of minimising emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills by means of laboratory experiments. During anaerobic incubation for 237 days, the grey waste components produced between 120 and 320 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} tTS{sup -1} and between 0.32 and 3.5 kg NH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1} and the first-order rate constant of degradation ranged from 0.021 and 0.058 d{sup -1}. High amounts of COD and NH{sub 4}-N were observed in the leachate of grey waste in all the procedures tested during lysimeter experiments lasting 573 days. In the 10- year-old landfilled MSW, a high rate of methanisation was achieved with rainwater addition and leachate recirculation over 538 days, whereas initially pre-wetted grey waste and landfilled MSW were rapidly acidified, thus releasing a high amount of COD into the leachate. In batch assays, the grey waste produced a methane potential amounting to 70-85 % of the total methane potential of the grey waste plus putrescibles. In low moisture conditions, i.e. below 55%, methane production was delayed in the old landfill waste and prevented in the grey waste. In the emission potential study with five waste types, putrescibles produced 410 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} tTS{sup -1} and 3.6 kgNH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1}, whereas composted putrescibles produced 41 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} tVS{sup -1}, and 2.0 kgNH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1}. The remains of putrescibles probably caused the leaching potential of 2.1 kgNH{sub 4}-N tTS{sup -1} in the grey waste. Aeration for 51 days in lysimeters reduced the CH{sub 4} potential of putrescibles by more than 68 % and of the lysimeter landfilled grey waste by 50 %, indicating the potential of aeration for CH4 emission reduction. Nitrogen removal of landfill leachate was studied in the laboratory as well as on-site. Over 90 % nitrification of leachate was obtained with loading rates between 100 and 130 mgNH{sub 4}-N l{sup -1} d-1 at 25 deg C. Nitrified leachate was denitrified with a

  9. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps

  10. Power from waste. [Power plant at landfill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1991-01-01

    Base Load Systems Ltd, a company in the United Kingdom, has just commissioned a power plant in Leicestershire which uses waste gases from a landfill site. The gases power two specially modified turbo charged engine and generator packages. The plant will use approximately 100 cu meters of landfill gas per hour and is expected to feed 1.5MW of electrical power into the supply network of East Midlands Electricity. Once the landfill site has been completely filled and capped with clay, it is estimated that the electrical power output will be 4 MW. At present, since their are no customers for heat in the vicinity, 100 KW of the electricity produced are used to run fans to dissipate the 2.5 MW of waste heat. Base load is also involved elsewhere in combined heat and power projects. (UK).

  11. Hazardous waste minimization tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railan, R.

    1994-01-01

    Under RCRA section 3002 9(b) and 3005f(h), hazardous waste generators and owners/operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are required to certify that they have a program in place to reduce the volume or quantity and toxicity of hazardous waste to the degree determined to be economically practicable. In many cases, there are environmental, as well as, economic benefits, for agencies that pursue pollution prevention options. Several state governments have already enacted waste minimization legislation (e.g., Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act of 1989, and Oregon Toxic Use Reduction Act and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act, July 2, 1989). About twenty six other states have established legislation that will mandate some type of waste minimization program and/or facility planning. The need to address the HAZMIN (Hazardous Waste Minimization) Program at government agencies and private industries has prompted us to identify the importance of managing The HAZMIN Program, and tracking various aspects of the program, as well as the progress made in this area. The open-quotes WASTEclose quotes is a tracking system, which can be used and modified in maintaining the information related to Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, in a manageable fashion. This program maintains, modifies, and retrieves information related to hazardous waste minimization and recycling, and provides automated report generating capabilities. It has a built-in menu, which can be printed either in part or in full. There are instructions on preparing The Annual Waste Report, and The Annual Recycling Report. The program is very user friendly. This program is available in 3.5 inch or 5 1/4 inch floppy disks. A computer with 640K memory is required

  12. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than 1×10−7; (iii) Percent soil passing No. 200 Sieve, >30; (iv) Liquid Limit, >30; and (v) Plasticity... volume of liquid initially contained in the well before obtaining a sample for analysis. The discharge... waste landfill. (iii) Water analysis. As a minimum, all samples shall be analyzed for the following...

  13. WASTE STABILIZATION FUNDAMENTALS FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste stabilization is the process where putrescible waste is biodegraded by microorganisms resulting in an end-product being a relatively inert substrate (e.g., like compost). When exposed to moisture, biologically stabilized waste should not produce substantial quantitie...

  14. Environment impact of a very low level waste specific landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun-Yaba, C.; Peres, J.M.; Besnus, F.

    1996-01-01

    Operating enrichment plants, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities will give rise to large volumes of waste material (concrete, steel and others metals, technological wastes heat insulators...) and most of them, in term of quantities, will be categorized as very low level wastes. This paper deals with the environmental impact of a specific landfill as a final destination for the very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) with the aim of providing technical elements for safer workers practices during the operational and the monitoring phases and for a public occupation after closure of the site. This study has been made on the basis of inventories in terms of estimated quantities and spectra of the French VLLW for a set of scenarios which are representative of practices in a landfill. (author)

  15. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J. [Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  16. 76 FR 16534 - Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion AGENCY...) on a one-time basis from the lists of hazardous waste, a certain solid waste generated at its Mt... waste is [[Page 16535

  17. Hazardous waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents an overview of waste minimization. Covers applications of technology to waste reduction, techniques for implementing programs, incorporation of programs into R and D, strategies for private industry and the public sector, and case studies of programs already in effect

  18. Forest products decomposition in municipal solid waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    2006-01-01

    Cellulose and hemicellulose are present in paper and wood products and are the dominant biodegradable polymers in municipal waste. While their conversion to methane in landfills is well documented, there is little information on the rate and extent of decomposition of individual waste components, particularly under field conditions. Such information is important for the landfill carbon balance as methane is a greenhouse gas that may be recovered and converted to a CO 2 -neutral source of energy, while non-degraded cellulose and hemicellulose are sequestered. This paper presents a critical review of research on the decomposition of cellulosic wastes in landfills and identifies additional work that is needed to quantify the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components. Cellulose to lignin ratios as low as 0.01-0.02 have been measured for well decomposed refuse, with corresponding lignin concentrations of over 80% due to the depletion of cellulose and resulting enrichment of lignin. Only a few studies have even tried to address the decomposition of specific waste components at field-scale. Long-term controlled field experiments with supporting laboratory work will be required to measure the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components

  19. Methane production from food waste leachate in laboratory-scale simulated landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Park, Jun Mo; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Park, Hung-Suck

    2010-01-01

    Due to the prohibition of food waste landfilling in Korea from 2005 and the subsequent ban on the marine disposal of organic sludge, including leachate generated from food waste recycling facilities from 2012, it is urgent to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy that is eco-friendly, yet economically beneficial. In this study, methane production from food waste leachate (FWL) in landfill sites with landfill gas recovery facilities was evaluated in simulated landfill reactors (lysimeters) for a period of 90 d with four different inoculum-substrate ratios (ISRs) on volatile solid (VS) basis. Simultaneous biochemical methane potential batch experiments were also conducted at the same ISRs for 30 d to compare CH(4) yield obtained from lysimeter studies. Under the experimental conditions, a maximum CH(4) yield of 0.272 and 0.294 L/g VS was obtained in the batch and lysimeter studies, respectively, at ISR of 1:1. The biodegradability of FWL in batch and lysimeter experiments at ISR of 1:1 was 64% and 69%, respectively. The calculated data using the modified Gompertz equation for the cumulative CH(4) production showed good agreement with the experimental result obtained from lysimeter study. Based on the results obtained from this study, field-scale pilot test is required to re-evaluate the existing sanitary landfills with efficient leachate collection and gas recovery facilities as engineered bioreactors to treat non-hazardous liquid organic wastes for energy recovery with optimum utilization of facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a design...

  1. Household Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waste collection" near your zip code in the Earth 911 database Exit for more information. Contact your ... lemon juice in one pint of mineral or vegetable oil and wipe furniture. Rug Deodorizer Liberally sprinkle ...

  2. Landfill gas from solid urban waste - an opportunity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatikov, Plamen; Kovachev, Vassil; Gramatikova, Marija

    2004-01-01

    The problems (technical, economic, social etc.) which have to be solved by municipal waste treatment, especially in Central/East European towns, are discussed in this work. Percentages of products and calorific values of the main solid organic wastes are estimated. Different urban waste utilisation methods - Landfills Anaerobic digestion, Incineration, Refuse-derived fuels, Pyrolysis and Gasification are comment in this paper. These methods are compared using the town of Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria) as an example. It is round that a well established landfill gas production technology offers simplicity of collection (such as is practised in most of low and moderately developed countries like Bulgaria), relatively simple operation and maintenance, improvement of the environmental protection and of the energy production (based on the local disposal and renewable energy sources) and is more feasible for the East European urban concentrations. (Author)

  3. Management of Conventional Wastes (Non Radioactive) in Spanish Landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, N.; Pena, J. M.; Ramos, J. L.; Millan, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report is the result of a collaboration agreement between CIEMAT and ENRESA. The goal of the report is to analyze the existing legislation on solid conventional waste, according to the European Community, the Spanish State and its Autonomous Communities, focusing on the latest regulation applicable to the final management in controlled landfills. In addition, information about the legal frame, production, composition and characteristics of conventional waste (i.e. urban, inert, dangerous industrial and non dangerous industrial) is given. Also, the final management that is carried out nowadays in Spain for each of the waste is analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the fulfilment of the in force regulation by the different types of Spanish controlled landfills is evaluated. (Author) 52 refs.

  4. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management.

  5. Design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for the management of hazardous waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an important technical requirement in managing hazardous waste disposal facilities. The purpose of monitoring is to assess whether and how a disposal facility is affecting the underlying groundwater system. This paper focuses on the regulatory and technical aspects of the design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for hazardous waste disposal facilities. Such facilities include surface impoundments, landfills, waste piles, and land treatment facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs

  6. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  7. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2010-01-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been...... used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste...... fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal...

  8. University program in hazardous chemical and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The three main functions of a university program are education, training, and research. At Vanderbilt University, there is a Solid and Hazardous Waste option in the Master of Science in Engineering Program. The two main foci are treatment of wastes and environmental transport and transformation of the wastes. Courses in Hazardous Waste Engineering and Radioactive Waste Disposal present a synoptic view of the field, including legal, economic, and institutional aspects as well as the requisite technical content. The training is accomplished for some of the students through the aegis of an internship program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. In the summer between the two academic years of the program, the study works at a facility where decontamination and/or decommissioning and/or remedial actions are taking place. Progress in understanding the movement, transformation, and fate of hazardous materials in the environment is so rapid that it will not be possible to be current in the field without participating in that discovery. Therefore, their students are studying these processes and contributing to new knowledge. Some recent examples are the study of safety factors implicit in assuming a saturated zone below a hazardous waste landfill when an unsaturated zone exists, application of probabilistic risk assessment to three National Priority List sites in Tennessee, and the explanation of why certain organics precede pH, conductivity and nitrates through a clay liner at a hazardous waste disposal site

  9. Hazardous waste policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This manual has been compiled as a resource document for trainers to help in the design of training workshops of hazardous waste management. Although principally oriented at groupwork, some part of this manual are also suitable for individual study, and as a resource book

  10. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains 21 various biodegradation techniques for hazardous waste treatment. Topics include: cyclic vertical water table movement for enhancement of in situ biodegradation of diesel fuel; enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons; and evaluation of aeration methods to bioremediate fuel-contaminated soils

  11. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Composition and Value of waste in landfills in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available in landfills in SA German Chamber of Business From Mining to Urban Mining 16 September 2015 IFAT Environmental Technology Forum Africa 2015 by Prof Suzan Oelofse Research Group Leader: Waste for Development Competency Area: Solutions for a Green... in collection infrastructure is required • Creation of entrepreneurial opportunities • Design for recycling • Creation of markets for recycled materials – Replacing virgin materials with recyclate – Develop new innovative high quality recycled products...

  13. 76 FR 4823 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Waste Management System; Identifying and Listing Hazardous Waste Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous wastes. The Agency has decided to grant the petition based on an evaluation of waste-specific... excludes the petitioned waste from the requirements of hazardous waste regulations under the Resource...

  14. Landfill disposal of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivities of very low level wastes are very low. VLLW can be disposed by simple and economic burial process. This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide. The disposal of VLLW in China is also briefly discussed and suggested here. (author)

  15. An overview of municipal solid waste management and landfill leachate treatment: Malaysia and Asian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Rui, Lo Ming; Isa, Awatif Md; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Alrozi, Rasyidah

    2017-12-01

    Currently, generation of solid waste per capita in Malaysia is about 1.1 kg/day. Over 26,500 t of solid waste is disposed almost solely through 166 operating landfills in the country every day. Despite the availability of other disposal methods, landfill is the most widely accepted and prevalent method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in developing countries, including Malaysia. This is mainly ascribed to its inherent forte in terms cost saving and simpler operational mechanism. However, there is a downside. Environmental pollution caused by the landfill leachate has been one of the typical dilemmas of landfilling method. Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through solid waste and contains dissolved or suspended materials from various disposed materials and biodecomposition processes. It is often a high-strength wastewater with extreme pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), inorganic salts and toxicity. Its composition differs over the time and space within a particular landfill, influenced by a broad spectrum of factors, namely waste composition, landfilling practice (solid waste contouring and compacting), local climatic conditions, landfill's physico-chemical conditions, biogeochemistry and landfill age. This paper summarises an overview of landfill operation and leachate treatment availability reported in literature: a broad spectrum of landfill management opportunity, leachate parameter discussions and the way forward of landfill leachate treatment applicability.

  16. VEGETATION OF TWO MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILLS OF MAZOVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz H. Dyguś

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research has been carried out on two municipal waste landfills: Lipiny Stare – for the city of Wołomin and Radiowo – for Warsaw. The results contain mainly the detailed floristic and phytosociological data as well as the succession trends of the vegetation cover of two examined landfills. The vegetative structure of both sites has been described. Ecological habitat adaptations of plants and their spatial structure have been evaluated. The inventoried flora has been subjected to taxonomic, syntaxonomic and ecological classification. On the area of both landfills 215 species of vascular plants, mainly from the following families: aster, grasses, cabbage, bean have been found. The prevailing life forms are hemicryptophytes and therophytes. The landfills have been dominated by communities of synantrophic segetal weed, by a nitrophyte community of ruderal habitats as well as by the vegetation of anthropogenic meadows. With the use of phytoindication method by Ellenberg typical features of fresh habitats, humus-mineral with moderate acid and neutral pH and the abundance of microelements in the soil have been shown. The valorization of flora along with the evaluation of succession trends and ecological state of habitats in these environments may in future help determine proper measures aimed at retarding the loss of biodiversity or seeking ecosystem services.

  17. Assessment on the leakage hazard of landfill leachate using three-dimensional excitation-emission fluorescence and parallel factor analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongwei; Lei, Hongjun; Liu, Xin; Wei, Huaibin; Liu, Shufang

    2017-09-01

    A large number of simple and informal landfills exist in developing countries, which pose as tremendous soil and groundwater pollution threats. Early warning and monitoring of landfill leachate pollution status is of great importance. However, there is a shortage of affordable and effective tools and methods. In this study, a soil column experiment was performed to simulate the pollution status of leachate using three-dimensional excitation-emission fluorescence (3D-EEMF) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) models. Sum of squared residuals (SSR) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the optimal components for PARAFAC. A one-way analysis of variance showed that the component scores of the soil column leachate were significant influenced by landfill leachate (plandfill to that of natural soil could be used to evaluate the leakage status of landfill leachate. Furthermore, a hazard index (HI) and a hazard evaluation standard were established. A case study of Kaifeng landfill indicated a low hazard (level 5) by the use of HI. In summation, HI is presented as a tool to evaluate landfill pollution status and for the guidance of municipal solid waste management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill Jennifer; Rausser, Gordon C

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic effect of a hazardous waste site is analyzed by investigating the causal relationship between housing appreciation rates and house location in relation to a hazardous waste site using resale data from individual sales transactions in Dallas County, Texas. The results indicate that in the period in which the hazardous waste site was identified and cleanup occurred, residential property owners in close proximity to the hazardous waste site experienced lower housing appreciation rate...

  19. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recove...

  20. A model used to derive hazardous waste concentration limits aiming at the reduction of toxic and hazardous wastes. Applications to illustrate the discharge of secondary categories types B and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.

    1989-11-01

    This report describes a model which may be used to derive hazardous waste concentration limits in order to prevent ground water pollution from a landfill disposal. First the leachate concentration limits are determined taking into account the attenuation capacity of the landfill-site as a whole; waste concentrations are then derived by an elution model which assumes a constant ratio between liquid-solid concentrations. In the example two types of landfill have been considered and in each case concentration limits have been calculated for some hazardous substances and compared with the corresponding regulatory limits. (author)

  1. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...... scale landfill reactors. The initial methane potential of solid wastes filled to the reactors was around 0.347 L/CH(4)/g dry waste, which decreased with operational time of landfill reactors to values of 0.117 and 0.154 L/CH(4)/g dry waste for leachate recirculated (R1) and non-recirculated (R2...

  2. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    By using life cycle assessment (LCA) modeling, this paper compares the environmental performance of six landfilling technologies (open dump, conventional landfill with flares, conventional landfill with energy recovery, standard bioreactor landfill, flushing bioreactor landfill and semi......-aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is “landfilling of 1 ton of wet household waste in a 10 m deep landfill...... that it is crucially important to ensure the highest collection efficiency of landfill gas and leachate since a poor capture compromises the overall environmental performance. Once gas and leachate are collected and treated, the potential impacts in the standard environmental categories and on spoiled groundwater...

  3. Landfills: Engineering Design for Waste Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Anita; Grubbs, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to consider the waste humans produce and options for reducing the impact it has on the environment. Allowing students the opportunities to research potential solutions and present their ideas results in an educated citizenry that considers consequences of technological advances. Throughout the course of a…

  4. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  5. Tritium distribution in leachates from domestic solid waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Dal; Kim, Jung Suk; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Jong Gu; Kim, Won Ho

    2004-01-01

    It is for the purpose of investigating the tritium distribution in the leachates, the raw and treated leachates and the condensates of the methane gas, which have occurred from domestic solid waste landfills. Also it aims to measure the tritium distribution level on the colloid size of the leachates, the raw and treated leachates. It was found that the major inorganic contaminants of the leachates were Na, K, Ca, Mg, NH 4 + -N and Cl - . The mean tritium level of the raw leachates of the investigated 13 landfill sites for 6 months was 17∼1196 TU. It corresponded to a several scores or hundreds of magnitude higher value than that of the normal environmental sample level except for two landfill sites. Also such a high concentration of the tritium was found in the treated leachates and methane gas condensates as well. Nevertheless it is important to emphasize that the tritium level which was found in this research is about 100 times lower than the tritium limit for the drinking water quality. And most of the tritium existed in the dissolved colloid of the leachate of which the colloid size is below 0.45 μm. Also, according to the tritium analysis results of the leachates after filtration with 0.45μm membrane filter for some landfills, it is likely that some tritium of the leachate would be distributed in a colloid size over 0.45μm. In general the relationship between the tritium and other contaminants in the raw leachate was low, but it was relatively high between the tritium and TOC. However, the tritium content in the leachate had no meaningful relationship with the scale, hydrological characteristics and age of the landfill

  6. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used to...

  7. Training for hazardous waste workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favel, K.

    1990-10-26

    This implementation plan describes the system and provides the information and schedules that are necessary to comply with the Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) Memorandum, Reference EPD dated September 11, 1990, Training for Hazardous Waste Workers. The memo establishes the need for identifying employees requiring environmental training, ensuring that the training is received, and meeting documentation and recordkeeping requirements for the training.

  8. Geophysical study in waste landfill localized above fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariveltom Cosme da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical survey is an important method for investigation of contaminated areas used in the characterization of contrasting physical properties in the presence of pollutants. This work applied the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential in waste landfill, located in Caçapava do Sul city, RS. The landfill is located over fractured metamorphic rocks. Eight lines of electrical profiling with 288 measures of self potential were done. In addition, 83 measurements of direction and dip of fractures were taken. The application of spontaneous potential method permitted to detect the direction of groundwater flow. The electrical resistivity measurements allowed the identification of low-intensity anomalies associated with the presence of leachate. There is a relationship between anomalous zones and the directions of fractures.

  9. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  10. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion

  11. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: Environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial...... waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has...... no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few...

  12. Hazardous waste management in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstrom, G.

    1989-01-01

    Hazardous waste management in research laboratories benefits from a fundamentally different approach to the hazardous waste determination from industry's. This paper introduces new, statue-based criteria for identifying hazardous wastes (such as radiological mixed wastes and waste oils) and links them to a forward-looking compliance of laboratories, the overall system integrates hazardous waste management activities with other environmental and hazard communication initiatives. It is generalizable to other waste generators, including industry. Although only the waste identification and classification aspects of the system are outlined in detail here, four other components are defined or supported, namely: routine and contingency practices; waste treatment/disposal option definition and selection; waste minimization, recycling, reuse, and substitution opportunities; and key interfaces with other systems, including pollution prevention

  13. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Chou, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes

  14. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Lindberg; CJ Chou

    2000-12-14

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes.

  15. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  16. Solid waste landfills under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document provides guidance for meeting: (1) Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste (40 CFR 241); (2) Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257); and (3) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) (40 CFR Part 258). Revisions to 40 CFR 257 and a new Part 258 were published in the Federal Register (56 FR 50978, 10/9/91). The Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste set requirements and recommended procedures to ensure that the design, construction, and operation of land disposal sites is done in a manner that will protect human health and the environment. These regulations are applicable to MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs (e.g., landfills used only for the disposal of demolition debris, commercial waste, and/or industrial waste). These guidelines are not applicable to the, land disposal of hazardous, agricultural, and/or mining wastes. These criteria are to be used under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in determining which solid waste disposal facilities pose a reasonable possibility of adversely affecting human health or the environment. Facilities failing to satisfy these criteria will be considered to be open dumps which are prohibited under Section 4005 of RCRA. The Criteria for MSWLFs are applicable only to MSWLFs, including those MSWLFs in which sewage sludge is co-disposed with household waste. Based on specific criteria, certain MSWLFs are exempt from some, or all, of the regulations of 40 CFR 258. MSWLFs that fail to satisfy the criteria specified in 40 CFR 258 are also considered open dumps for the purposes of Section 4005 of RCRA. Through the use of a series of interrelated flow diagrams, this guidance document directs the reader to each design, operation, maintenance, and closure activity that must be performed for MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs.

  17. IJER@2014 Page 57 Disposal Criteria of Bhanpur Solid Waste Landfill Site: Investigation and Suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Dasgpta

    2014-01-01

    The solid waste management and design assist waste management officials in developing and encouraging environmentally sound methods for the disposal of "nonhazardous" solid waste. Promulgated under the authority of municipal act, the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) regulation act establish a framework for planning and implementing municipal solid waste landfill programs at the state and local levels. This framework sets minimum standards for protecting h...

  18. 75 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... landfill. The scrubber water blowdown will be managed in the waste water treatment plant (WWTP). The sludge... waste streams included in the petition were: the RKI fly ash, RKI bottom ash and RKI scrubber water... water blowdown waste resulting from the operations of the rotary kiln incinerator at its facility. B...

  19. Household hazardous waste data for the UK by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Rebecca J; Bonin, Michael; Gronow, Jan R; Van Santen, Anton; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-04-01

    The amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) disposed of in the United Kingdom (UK) requires assessment. This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in three areas in southeast England involving over 500 households. Each participating householder was provided with a special bin in which to place items corresponding to a list of HHW. The amount of waste collected was split into nine broad categories: batteries, home maintenance (DIY), vehicle upkeep, pesticides, pet care, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, household cleaners, and printer cartridges. Over 1 T of waste was collected from the sample households over a 32-week period, which would correspond to an estimated 51,000 T if extrapolated to the UK population for the same period or over 7,000 T per month. Details of likely disposal routes adopted by householders were also sought, demonstrating the different pathways selected for different waste categories. Co-disposal with residual household waste dominated for waste batteries and veterinary medicines, hence avoiding classification as hazardous waste under new UK waste regulations. The information can be used to set a baseline for the management of HHW and provides information for an environmental risk assessment of the disposal of such wastes to landfill.

  20. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K. [Univ. of Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Waste minimization via destruction of hazardous organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing technologies that are capable of destroying hazardous organics, that is, converting them basically to water and carbon dioxide. If these technologies were incorporated into the main processing operation where the waste is produced, then the volume and toxicity of the hazardous or mix hazardous waste generated would be significantly reduced. This presentation will briefly discuss some of the waste treatment technologies under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on destroying hazardous organics

  2. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal and several impact categories have been considered, including standard categories, toxicity-related categories and groundwater contamination. Amongst the standard and toxicity-related categories, the highest potential impact is estimated for human toxicity via soil (HTs; 12 mPE/tonne). This is mostly caused by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 mPE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due to incomplete waste degradation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Stabilization of Landfill Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidzam Rahmat Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are local agricultural waste material from Palm Oil Industry and from Paddy Industry in Malaysia. Currently, the disposal of these ashes from a burning process is a problem to both industries, and hence leads to environmental pollution. The main aim of this research was to investigate the potential of utilizing POFA and RHA as sustainable stabilizer material as partial replacement of traditional one which is lime and Portland Cement (PC. Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilization of Malaysian Agricultural wastes POFA and RHA in stabilizing Teluk Kapas Landfill soil. Landfill soil on its own and combination with laterite clay soil were stabilized using POFA or RHA either on its own or in combination with Lime or Portland Cement (PC. The traditional stabilizers of lime or Portland Cement (PC were used as controls. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabilizer contents and moist cured for up to 60 days prior to testing for compressive and water absorption tests. The results obtained showed that landfill soil combined with laterite clay (50:50 stabilized with 20% RHA:PC (50:50and POFA: PC (50:50 recorded the highest values of compressive strength compared to the other compositions of stabilizers and soils. However, when the amount of POFA and RHA increased in the system the compressive strength values of the samples tends to increase. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using POFA and RHA and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  4. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  5. Assessing the disposal of wastes containing NORM in nonhazardous waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Williams, G. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Pfingston, M. R.; Herbert, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the past few years, many states have established specific regulations for the management of petroleum industry wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) above specified thresholds. These regulations have limited the number of disposal options available for NORM-containing wastes, thereby increasing the related waste management costs. In view of the increasing economic burden associated with NORM management, industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that still provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative being considered is the disposal of NORM-containing wastes in landfills permitted to accept only nonhazardous wastes. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 and lead-210 above regulated levels in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and associated health risks to workers and the general public. A variety of scenarios were considered to evaluate the effects associated with the operational phase (i.e., during landfill operations) and future use of the landfill property. Doses were calculated for the maximally exposed receptor for each scenario. This paper presents the results of that study and some conclusions and recommendations drawn from it

  6. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1992-03-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing an electrochemical process, based upon mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), that converts toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, and chloride or chloride precipitates. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag 2+ , Co 3+ , or Fe 3+ are produced at an anode. These can attack organic molecules directly, and may also produce hydroxyl free radicals that promote destruction. Solid and liquid radioactive waste streams containing only inorganic radionuclide forms may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. The coulombic efficiency of the process has been determined, as well as the destruction efficiency for ethylene glycol, a surrogate waste. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient- temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag(II) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(III) and Co(III) are attractive alternatives to Ag(II) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data have been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(III) and Co(III). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, these data have enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(III) and Co(III) with Ag(II). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(II) had already been collected

  7. 75 FR 11002 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental... and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities of waste generated, and waste... wastes. This final rule responds to a petition submitted by Valero to delist F037 waste. The F037 waste...

  8. The successful demonstration of aerobic landfilling. The potential for a more sustainable solid waste management approach?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, A.D. [School of Earth Science and Geography, Center for Environmental and Earth Science Research, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Surrey, KT1 2EE Kingston upon Thames (United Kingdom); Hudgins, M. [Environmental Control Systems Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Harper, S. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV, Atlanta, GA (United States); Phillips, P. [School of Environmental Science, University College Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom); Morris, J. [School of Law and Accountancy, University College Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills worldwide are experiencing the consequences of conventional landfilling techniques, whereby anaerobic conditions are created within the landfilled waste. Under anaerobic conditions within a landfill site slow stabilization of the waste mass occurs, producing methane, (an explosive 'green house' gas) and leachate (which can pollute groundwater) over long periods of time. As a potential solution, it was demonstrated that the aerobic degradation of MSW within a landfill can significantly increase the rate of waste decomposition and settlement, decrease the methane production and leachate leaving the system, and potentially increase the operational life of the site. Readily integrated into the existing landfill infrastructure, this approach can safely and cost-effectively convert a MSW landfill from anaerobic to aerobic degradation processes, thereby effectively composting much of the organic portions (one of the potentially polluting elements in a conventional landfill site) of the waste. This paper summarizes the successful results of two separate aerobic landfill projects located in Georgia (USA) and discusses the potential, economic and environmental impacts to worldwide solid waste management practices.

  9. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of hazardous waste, provided these... management under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide... 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon...

  10. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  11. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 [EPA-EPA-R10-RCRA-2010-0953; FRL-9247-5] Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental... modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. On March 22, 2004, EPA...

  12. Chemical Waste Landfill Annual Post-Closure Care Report Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Michael Marquand [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The CWL is a 1.9-acre remediated interim status landfill located in the southeastern corner of SNL/NM Technical Area III (Figures 2-1 and 2-2) undergoing post-closure care in accordance with the PCCP (NMED October 2009 and subsequent revisions). From 1962 until 1981, the CWL was used for the disposal of chemical and solid waste generated by SNL/NM research activities. Additionally, a small amount of radioactive waste was disposed of during the operational years. Disposal of liquid waste in unlined pits and trenches ended in 1981, and after 1982 all liquid waste disposal was terminated. From 1982 through 1985, only solid waste was disposed of at the CWL, and after 1985 all waste disposal ended. The CWL was also used as a hazardous waste drum-storage facility from 1981 to 1989. A summary of the CWL disposal history is presented in the Closure Plan (SNL/NM December 1992) along with a waste inventory based upon available disposal records and information.

  13. Technologies to remediate hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, J.W.

    1990-03-01

    Technologies to remediate hazardous wastes must be matched with the properties of the hazardous materials to be treated, the environment in which the wastes are imbedded, and the desired extent of remediation. Many promising technologies are being developed, including biological treatment, immobilization techniques, and in situ methods. Many of these new technologies are being applied to remediate sites. The management and disposal of hazardous wastes is changing because of federal and state legislation as well as public concern. Future waste management systems will emphasize the substitution of alternatives for the use of hazardous materials and process waste recycling. Onsite treatment will also become more frequently adopted. 5 refs., 7 figs

  14. 75 FR 73972 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of Direct Final.... Lists of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 261 Environmental Protection, Hazardous waste, Recycling, Reporting and... follows: PART 261--IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE 0 1. The authority citation for part 261...

  15. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  16. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included

  17. Hazardous Waste Management by healthcare Institutions, Addis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finding of the study shows that except Zewditu hospital, the rest use proper management to the hazardous waste. Lack of awareness about health hazards of healthcare waste, inadequate training, absence of waste management and disposal systems, insufficient financial and human resources, low priority given to the ...

  18. [Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented.

  19. Reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a energy efficient waste management system: methodology and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.

  20. Migration barrier covers for radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Manies, K.L.; Warren, R.W.; Bostick, K.V.; Trujillo, G.; Kent, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Migration barrier cover technology will likely serve as the remediation alternative of choice for most of DOE's radioactive and mixed waste landfills simply because human and ecological risks can be effectively managed without the use of more expensive alternatives. However, very little testing and evaluation has been done, either before or after installation, to monitor how effective they are in isolating waste or to develop data that can be used to evaluate model predictions of long term performance. Los Alamos National Laboratory has investigated the performance of a variety of landfill capping alternatives since 1981 using large field lysimeters to monitor the fate of precipitation falling on the cap surface. The objective of these studies is to provide the risk manager with a variety of field tested capping designs, of various complexities and costs, so that design alternatives can be matched to the need for hydrologic control at the site. Four different landfill cap designs, representing different complexities and costs, were constructed at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) in October and November, 1989. The designs were constructed in large lysimeters and instrumented to provide estimates of all components of water balance including precipitation, runoff (and soil erosion), infiltration, leachate production, evapotranspiration, and capillary/hydraulic barrier flow. The designs consisted of a typical soil cover to serve as a baseline, a modified EPA RCRA cover, and two versions of a Los Alamos design that contained erosion control measures, an improved vegetation cover to enhance evapotranspiration, and a capillary barrier to divert downward flow of soil water. A comprehensive summary of the Hill AFB demonstration will be available in October 1993, when the project is scheduled to terminate

  1. Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process

  2. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment AGENCY: Environmental...) 260.20 and 260.22 allows facilities to demonstrate that a specific waste from a particular generating facility should not be regulated as a hazardous waste. Based on waste-specific information provided by the...

  3. Evaluation of the Oedometer Tests of Municipal Landfill Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Emőke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the ongoing research is (i to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.. [1, 2, 3

  4. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI

  5. Assessment of LANL hazardous waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ''Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria Receipt at TA-54, Area L'' to determine if it meets applicable DOE requirements. The guidelines and requirements for the establishment of a Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria (HW-WAC) are found in 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. Neither set of requirements specifically require a WAC for the management of hazardous waste; however, the use of such documentation is logical and is consistent with the approach required for the management of radioactive waste. The primary purpose of a HW-WAC is to provide generators and waste management with established criteria that must be met before hazardous waste can be acceptable for treatment, storage and/or disposal. An annotated outline for a generic waste acceptance criteria was developed based on the requirements of 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. The outline contains only requirements for hazardous waste, it does not address the radiological components of low-level mixed waste. The outline generated from the regulations was used for comparison to the LANL WAC For Chemical and Low-level Mixed Waste Receipt at TA-54, Area L. The major elements that should be addressed by a hazardous waste WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Package/Container Requirements, Waste Forms, Land Disposal Restrictions, and Data Package-Certification ampersand Documentation

  6. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag 2+ or Ce +4 are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs

  7. Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

    2003-01-01

    Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them

  8. Permeability test and slope stability analysis of municipal solid waste in Jiangcungou Landfill, Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Xu, Zengguang; Chai, Junrui; Qin, Yuan; Li, Yanlong

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid increase of city waste, landfills have become a major method to deals with municipal solid waste. Thus, the safety of landfills has become a valuable research topic. In this paper, Jiangcungou Landfill, located in Shaanxi, China, was investigated and its slope stability was analyzed. Laboratory tests were used to obtain permeability coefficients of municipal solid waste. Based on the results, the distribution of leachate and stability in the landfill was computed and analyzed. These results showed: the range of permeability coefficient was from 1.0 × 10(-7) cm sec(-1) to 6.0 × 10(-3) cm sec(-1) on basis of laboratory test and some parameters of similar landfills. Owing to the existence of intermediate cover layers in the landfill, the perched water level appeared in the landfill with heavy rain. Moreover, the waste was filled with leachate in the top layer, and the range of leachate level was from 2 m to 5 m in depth under the waste surface in other layers. The closer it gets to the surface of landfill, the higher the perched water level of leachate. It is indicated that the minimum safety factors were 1.516 and 0.958 for winter and summer, respectively. Additionally, the slope failure may occur in summer. The research of seepage and stability in landfills may provide a less costly way to reduce accidents. Landslides often occur in the Jiangcungou Landfill because of the high leachate level. Some measures should be implemented to reduce the leachate level. This paper investigated seepage and slope stability of landfills by numerical methods. These results may provide the basis for increasing stability of landfills.

  9. SEISMIC DISTRESS AND PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2011-01-01

    Seismic distress of solid waste landfills may result from any of the two consequences of a seismic event: (a) the transient ground deformation related to seismic wave propagation, (b) the permanent ground deformation caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Design provisions for solid waste landfills...... prohibit the construction of landfills in the vicinity of an active fault aiming to prevent the latter. Nonetheless, the impact of applied permanent deformation on the system components of landfills and on the waste mass has not been fully demonstrated yet. For this purpose, efficient finite......-element analyses were performed, taking also into account the potential slip displacement development along the interfaces formulated on each side of the flexible membrane liner (FML). It is shown that base fault dislocation causes significant plastic strains at each one of the components of the waste landfill...

  10. Incineration of hazardous waste: A critical review update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.R.; Oppelt, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, concern over improper disposal practices of the past has manifested itself in the passage of a series of federal and state-level hazardous waste cleanup and control statutes of unprecedented scope. The more traditional and lowest-cost methods of direct landfilling, storage in surface impoundments and deep-well injection are being replaced in large measure by waste minimization at the source of generation, waste reuse, physical/chemical/biological treatment, incineration and chemical stabilization/solidification methods. Of all of the 'permanent' treatment technologies, properly designed incineration systems are capable of the highest overall degree of destruction and control for the broadest range of hazardous waste streams. Substantial design and operation experience exists in this area and a wide variety of commercial systems are available. Consequently, significant growth is anticipated in the use of incineration and other thermal destruction methods. The objective of this review is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding hazardous waste incineration in an effort to put these technological and environmental issues into perspective

  11. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification

  12. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department

  13. Treating landfill gas hydrogen sulphide with mineral wool waste (MWW) and rod mill waste (RMW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergersen, Ove; Haarstad, Ketil

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas is a major odorant at municipal landfills. The gas can be generated from different waste fractions, for example demolition waste containing gypsum based plaster board. The removal of H2S from landfill gas was investigated by filtering it through mineral wool waste products. The flow of gas varied from 0.3 l/min to 3.0 l/min. The gas was typical for landfill gas with a mean H2S concentration of ca. 4500 ppm. The results show that the sulphide gas can effectively be removed by mineral wool waste products. The ratios of the estimated potential for sulphide precipitation were 19:1 for rod mill waste (RMW) and mineral wool waste (MWW). A filter consisting of a mixture of MWW and RMW, with a vertical perforated gas tube through the center of filter material and with a downward gas flow, removed 98% of the sulfide gas over a period of 80 days. A downward gas flow was more efficient in contacting the filter materials. Mineral wool waste products are effective in removing hydrogen sulphide from landfill gas given an adequate contact time and water content in the filter material. Based on the estimated sulphide removal potential of mineral wool and rod mill waste of 14 g/kg and 261 g/kg, and assuming an average sulphide gas concentration of 4500 ppm, the removal capacity in the filter materials has been estimated to last between 11 and 308 days. At the studied location the experimental gas flow was 100 times less than the actual gas flow. We believe that the system described here can be upscaled in order to treat this gas flow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. ► Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. ► Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. ► Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  15. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., including any sludge, spill residue, ash, emission control dust, or leachate, remains a hazardous waste... water for use as a cleaning agent. The slop oil waste is thereby diluted and hazardous constituents are... separation sludges that are listed as hazardous wastes due to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead and...

  16. A meta-analysis of mortality data in Italian contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adverse effects of waste management represent a public health issue. Mortality meta-analysis in Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps is presented. Methods. 24 NPCSs include industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps. Class 1 (10 NPCSs with industrial waste landfills and Class 2 (14 NPCSs with illegal dumps were categorized. Random-effects model meta-analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios non-adjusted (SMRs and adjusted for Deprivation (DI-SMRs computed for each CS (1995-2002 were performed for overall 24 NPCSs and the two classes. The North-Southern gradient was considered. Results. 24 CSs pooled-SMRs are significantly increased in both genders for cancer of liver (men: SMR = 1.13; women: SMR = 1.18, bladder (men: SMR = 1.06; women: SMR = 1.11, and for cirrhosis (men: SMR = 1.09; women: SMR = 1.13. In Class 2 the increase is confirmed in both genders for liver and bladder cancers and for cirrhosis and in men only for lung cancer. Congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal conditions are not increased. Conclusion. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of adverse health effects of non-adequately managed hazardous waste. Causal interpretation is not allowed, but the meta-analytic approach provides more confidence in the findings.

  17. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  18. 75 FR 13066 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... hazardous waste and specific types of hazardous waste management facilities, the land disposal restrictions... requirements, the standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal... hazardous waste management facilities, the land disposal restrictions program, and the hazardous waste...

  19. 75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Chemical Company-Texas Operations (Eastman) to exclude (or delist) certain solid wastes generated by its Longview, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA used the Delisting Risk Assessment...

  20. 75 FR 60689 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule AGENCY... exclude (or delist) a certain solid waste generated by its Beaumont, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA used the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS) Version 3.0 in the evaluation of...

  1. 75 FR 61356 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... thermal desorber residual solids with Hazardous Waste Numbers: F037, F038, K048, K049, K050, and K051. In... and correcting it in Table 1 of appendix IX to part 261--Waste Excluded Under Sec. Sec. 260.20 and 260...

  2. Hazards from radioactive waste in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper compares the hazards from wastes from a 1000-MW(e) nuclear power plant to these from wastes from a 1000-MW(e) coal fueled power plant. The latter hazard is much greater than the former. The toxicity and carcinogenity of the chemicals prodcued in coal burning is emphasized. Comparisions are also made with other toxic chemicals and with natural radioactivity

  3. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  4. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  5. 75 FR 60632 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule AGENCY... management and treatment of several F- and K-waste codes. These waste codes are F037, F038, K048, K049, K051... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities...

  6. One-dimensional Seismic Analysis of a Solid-Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Lentini, Valentina; Maugeri, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the seismic performance of solid waste landfill follows generally the same procedures for the design of embankment dams, even if the methods and safety requirements should be different. The characterization of waste properties for seismic design is difficult due the heterogeneity of the material, requiring the procurement of large samples. The dynamic characteristics of solid waste materials play an important role on the seismic response of landfill, and it also is important to assess the dynamic shear strengths of liner materials due the effect of inertial forces in the refuse mass. In the paper the numerical results of a dynamic analysis are reported and analysed to determine the reliability of the common practice of using 1D analysis to evaluate the seismic response of a municipal solid-waste landfill. Numerical results indicate that the seismic response of a landfill can vary significantly due to reasonable variations of waste properties, fill heights, site conditions, and design rock motions

  7. Thermal co-treatment of combustible hazardous waste and waste incineration fly ash in a rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Florian; Blasenbauer, Dominik; Mallow, Ole; Lederer, Jakob; Winter, Franz; Fellner, Johann

    2016-12-01

    As current disposal practices for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash are either associated with significant costs or negative environmental impacts, an alternative treatment was investigated in a field scale experiment. Thereto, two rotary kilns were fed with hazardous waste, and moistened MSWI fly ash (water content of 23%) was added to the fuel of one kiln with a ratio of 169kg/Mg hazardous waste for 54h and 300kg/Mg hazardous waste for 48h while the other kiln was used as a reference. It was shown that the vast majority (>90%) of the inserted MSWI fly ash was transferred to the bottom ash of the rotary kiln. This bottom ash complied with the legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills, thereby demonstrating the potential of the investigated method to transfer hazardous waste (MSWI fly ash) into non-hazardous waste (bottom ash). The results of a simple mixing test (MSWI fly ash and rotary kiln bottom ash have been mixed accordingly without thermal treatment) revealed that the observed transformation of hazardous MSWI fly ash into non-hazardous bottom ash during thermal co-treatment cannot be referred to dilution, as the mixture did not comply with legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills. For the newly generated fly ash of the kiln, an increase in the concentration of Cd, K and Pb by 54%, 57% and 22%, respectively, was observed. In general, the operation of the rotary kiln was not impaired by the MSWI fly ash addition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  9. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers

  10. Regulation and Control of Hazardous Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Hans W. Gottinger

    1994-01-01

    Hazardous waste regulations require disposal in approved dumpsites, where environmental consequences are minimal but entry may be privately very costly. Imperfect policing of regulations makes the socially more costly option illicit disposal preferable form the perspective of the private decision maker. The existence of the waste disposal decision, its economic nature, production independence, and the control over environmental damage are key issues in the economics of hazardous waste managem...

  11. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  12. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  13. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  14. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, C.J.; Shaddoan, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a open-quotes contained landfill.close quotes These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal

  15. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), Emission Guidelines (EG) and Compliance Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    learn about the NSPS for municipal solid waste landfills by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations text, fact sheets, background information documents, related rules and compliance information.

  16. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. 40 CFR 264.317 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.317 Special requirements for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27. 264.317 Section 264.317 Protection of Environment...

  18. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  19. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Goran B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55% and carbon dioxide (40-45% (both GHGs, has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine economic and environmental benefits from such energy production. For that purpose, the database of cogeneration potentials (CP of 51 landfills in the Republic of Serbia (RS was created. Amount of landfill gas generated at each municipal landfill was calculated by applying a first order decay equation which requires the data about solid waste production and composition and about some landfill characteristics. For all landfills, which have over 100,000 m3 each, a techno-economic analysis about building a CHP plant was conducted. The results have shown, that the total investment in 14 CHP plants with payback period of less than 7 years amounts € 11,721,288. The total nominal power of these plants is 7 MW of electrical power and 7.9 MW of thermal power, and an average payback period is about 61 months. In addition, using landfill biogas as energy source in proposed plants would reduce methane emission for 161,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42013: Research of cogeneration potential of municipal and industrial energy power plant in Republic of Serbia and opportunities for rehabilitation of existing and construction of new cogeneration plants

  20. Sustainable waste management: Waste to energy plant as an alternative to landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WTE plant is a reasonable and sustainable alternative technology to landfill. • A 150 kt plant in the only electrical configuration for Abruzzo region. • The percentage of energy recovery ranges from 21% to 25% in examined scenarios. • Financial Net Present Value is equal to 25.4 € per kiloton of treated waste. • The annual reduction of emissions is equal to 370 kgCO_2eq per ton of treated waste. - Abstract: The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been identified as one of the global challenges that must be carefully faced in order to achieve sustainability goals. European Union (EU) has defined as Waste to Energy (WTE) technology is able to create synergies with EU energy and climate policy, without compromising the achievement of higher reuse and recycling rates. The methodology used in this paper is based on two levels. A strategy analysis defines the amount of waste to incinerate with energy recovery considering different approaches based on unsorted waste, landfilled waste and separated collection rate, respectively. Consequently, it is evaluated the sustainability of a WTE plant as an alternative to landfill for a specific area. Two indicators are used: the Reduction of the Emissions of equivalent Carbon Dioxide (ER_C_O_2_e_q) and Financial Net Present Value (FNPV). Furthermore, a social analysis is conducted through interviews to identify the most critical elements determining the aversion toward the WTE realization. The obtained results show the opportunity to realize a 150 kt plant in the only electrical configuration. In fact, the cogenerative configuration reaches better environmental performances, but it is not profitable for this size. Profits are equal to 25.4 € per kiloton of treated waste and 370 kgCO_2eq per ton of treated waste are avoided using a WTE plant as an alternative to landfill. In this way, the percentage of energy recovery ranges from 21% to 25% in examined scenarios and disposal waste is minimised

  1. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 78918 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... and Community Right-to-Know Act FDA Food and Drug Administration HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste...(f)), and hazardous substances (40 CFR 302.4) based solely upon the evidence that it is a potential... subsequently identified as hazardous wastes in Sec. 261.33(f) based solely on their potential for carcinogenic...

  3. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous waste... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits...

  4. Evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55 C...

  5. Effect of quantity and composition of waste on the prediction of annual methane potential from landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han Sang; Moon, Hee Sun; Kim, Jae Young

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of waste composition change on the methane production in landfills. An empirical equation for the methane potential of the mixed waste is derived based on the methane potential values of individual waste components and the compositional ratio of waste components. A correction factor was introduced in the equation and was determined from the BMP and lysimeter tests. The equation and LandGEM were applied for a full size landfill and the annual methane potential was estimated. Results showed that the changes in quantity of waste affected the annual methane potential from the landfill more than the changes of waste composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating methane emissions from landfills based on rainfall, ambient temperature, and waste composition: The CLEEN model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjekar, Richa V; Bhatt, Arpita; Altouqui, Said; Jangikhatoonabad, Neda; Durai, Vennila; Sattler, Melanie L; Hossain, M D Sahadat; Chen, Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Accurately estimating landfill methane emissions is important for quantifying a landfill's greenhouse gas emissions and power generation potential. Current models, including LandGEM and IPCC, often greatly simplify treatment of factors like rainfall and ambient temperature, which can substantially impact gas production. The newly developed Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model aims to improve landfill methane generation estimates, but still require inputs that are fairly easy to obtain: waste composition, annual rainfall, and ambient temperature. To develop the model, methane generation was measured from 27 laboratory scale landfill reactors, with varying waste compositions (ranging from 0% to 100%); average rainfall rates of 2, 6, and 12 mm/day; and temperatures of 20, 30, and 37°C, according to a statistical experimental design. Refuse components considered were the major biodegradable wastes, food, paper, yard/wood, and textile, as well as inert inorganic waste. Based on the data collected, a multiple linear regression equation (R(2)=0.75) was developed to predict first-order methane generation rate constant values k as functions of waste composition, annual rainfall, and temperature. Because, laboratory methane generation rates exceed field rates, a second scale-up regression equation for k was developed using actual gas-recovery data from 11 landfills in high-income countries with conventional operation. The Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model was developed by incorporating both regression equations into the first-order decay based model for estimating methane generation rates from landfills. CLEEN model values were compared to actual field data from 6 US landfills, and to estimates from LandGEM and IPCC. For 4 of the 6 cases, CLEEN model estimates were the closest to actual. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial community structure and diversity in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Cao, Aixin; Zhao, Guozhu; Zhou, Chuanbin; Xu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are the most prevalent waste disposal method and constitute one of the largest sources of anthropogenic methane emissions in the world. Microbial activities in disposed waste play a crucial role in greenhouse gas emissions; however, only a few studies have examined metagenomic microbial profiles in landfills. Here, the MiSeq high-throughput sequencing method was applied for the first time to examine microbial diversity of the cover soil and stored waste located at different depths (0-150cm) in a typical MSW landfill in Yangzhou City, East China. The abundance of microorganisms in the cover soil (0-30cm) was the lowest among all samples, whereas that in stored waste decreased from the top to the middle layer (30-90cm) and then increased from the middle to the bottom layer (90-150cm). In total, 14 phyla and 18 genera were found in the landfill. A microbial diversity analysis showed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla, whereas Halanaerobium, Methylohalobius, Syntrophomonas, Fastidiosipila, and Spirochaeta were the dominant genera. Methylohalobius (methanotrophs) was more abundant in the cover layers of soil than in stored waste, whereas Syntrophomonas and Fastidiosipila, which affect methane production, were more abundant in the middle to bottom layers (90-150cm) in stored waste. A canonical correlation analysis showed that microbial diversity in the landfill was most strongly correlated with the conductivity, organic matter, and moisture content of the stored waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study

  9. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Hazardous waste disposal sites: Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Arkansas, like virtually every other state, is faced with a deluge of hazardous waste. There is a critical need for increased hazardous waste disposal capacity to insure continued industrial development. Additionally, perpetual maintenance of closed hazardous waste disposal sites is essential for the protection of the environment and human health. Brief descriptions of legislative and regulatory action in six other states are provided in this report. A report prepared for the New York State Environmental Facilities Corp. outlines three broad approaches states may take in dealing with their hazardous waste disposal problems. These are described. State assistance in siting and post-closure maintenance, with private ownership of site and facility, appears to be the most advantageous option

  11. Geomorphic and hydrologic assessment of erosion hazards at the Norman municipal landfill, Canadian River floodplain, Central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J.A.; Whitney, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Norman, Oklahoma, municipal landfill closed in 1985 after 63 years of operation, because it was identified as a point source of hazardous leachate composed of organic and inorganic compounds. The landfill is located on the floodplain of the Canadian River, a sand-bed river characterized by erodible channel boundaries and by large variation in mean monthly discharges. In 1986, floodwaters eroded riprap protection at the southern end of the landfill and penetrated the landfill's clay cap, thereby exposing the landfill contents. The impact of this moderate-magnitude flood event (Q12) was the catalyst to investigate erosion hazards at the Norman landfill. This geomorphic investigation analyzed floodplain geomorphology and historical channel changes, flood-frequency distributions, an erosion threshold, the geomorphic effectiveness of discharge events, and other factors that influence erosion hazards at the landfill site. The erosion hazard at the Norman landfill is a function of the location of the landfill with respect to the channel thalweg, erosional resistance of the channel margins, magnitude and duration of discrete discharge events, channel form and hydraulic geometry, and cumulative effects related to a series of discharge events. Based on current climatic conditions and historical channel changes, a minimum erosion threshold is set at bankfull discharge (Q = 572 m3/s). The annual probability of exceeding this threshold is 0.53. In addition, this analysis indicates that peak stream power is less informative than total energy expenditures when estimating the erosion potential or geomorphic effectiveness of discrete discharge events. On the Canadian River, long-duration, moderate-magnitude floods can have larger total energy expenditures than shorter-duration, high-magnitude floods and therefore represent the most serious erosion hazard to floodplain structures.

  12. Management of Hazardous Waste and Contaminated Land

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Sigman; Sarah Stafford

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of hazardous waste and cleanup of contaminated sites are two major components of modern public policy for environmental protection. We review the literature on these related areas, with emphasis on empirical analyses. Researchers have identified many behavioral responses to regulation of hazardous waste, including changes in the location of economic activity. However, the drivers behind compliance with these costly regulations remain a puzzle, as most research suggests a limited ro...

  13. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  14. Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ...? The Tokusen USA, Inc. facility produces high-carbon steel tire cord for use in radial tire... Part 261 Environmental protection, Hazardous Waste, Recycling, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements...

  16. 75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    .... facility produces high-carbon steel tire cord for use in radial tire manufacturing. The steel cord is... delisted waste. Lists of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 261 Environmental protection, Hazardous waste, Recycling...

  17. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayah Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  18. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, Nurul; Syafrudin

    2018-02-01

    Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  19. Environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmentally sound management or ESM has been defined under the Basel Convention as 'taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes and other wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes'. An initiative is underway to develop and implement a Canadian Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) regime for both hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials. This ESM regime aims to assure equivalent minimum environmental protection across Canada while respecting regional differences. Cooperation and coordination between the federal government, provinces and territories is essential to the development and implementation of ESM systems since waste management is a shared jurisdiction in Canada. Federally, CEPA 1999 provides an opportunity to improve Environment Canada's ability to ensure that all exports and imports are managed in an environmentally sound manner. CEPA 1999 enabled Environment Canada to establish criteria for environmentally sound management (ESM) that can be applied by importers and exporters in seeking to ensure that wastes and recyclable materials they import or export will be treated in an environmentally sound manner. The ESM regime would include the development of ESM principles, criteria and guidelines relevant to Canada and a procedure for evaluating ESM. It would be developed in full consultation with stakeholders. The timeline for the development and implementation of the ESM regime is anticipated by about 2006. (author)

  20. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities...... under specific circumstances. Initially a general water balance equation is defined for a typical landfill, and the different parts of the water balance are discussed. A separate section discusses water flow and the hydrogeology of landfilled wastes and considers the impact of water short...

  1. 76 FR 59960 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of proposed rule... Permitting Division, Corrective Action and Waste Minimization Section (6PD-C), 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX... petition. A new petition will be required for this waste stream. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 261...

  2. 76 FR 5110 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... will dispose of the leachate at a publicly owned treatment works or at an industrial waste disposal... classification of listed waste pursuant to Sec. Sec. 261.31 and 261.32. Specifically, in its petition, Gulf West... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule AGENCY...

  3. Special Report: Hazardous Wastes in Academic Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…

  4. Hazardous waste management: Reducing the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, B.A.; Hulme, J.A.; Johnson, C.

    1986-01-01

    Congress has strengthened the laws under which active hazardous waste facilities are regulated. Nevertheless, after visiting a number of active treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, the Council on Economic Priorities (CEP) found that not only do generators not know which facilities are the best, but that the EPA has not always selected the best facilities to receive wastes removed from Superfund sites. Other facilities were better managed, better located, and better at using more advanced technologies than the facilities the EPA selected. In fact, of the ten facilities CEP evaluated in detail the EPA chose the one that performed worst - CECOS International, Inc. in Williamsburg, Ohio - to receive Superfund wastes in more instances than any of the other nine facilities. Data from a house subcommittee survey indicate that almost half of the operating hazardous waste facilities the EPA chose to receive wastes removed from Superfund sites may have contaminated groundwater. Some of the chosen facilities may even be partially responsible for a share of the wastes they are being paid to clean up. Hazardous waste management strategies and technology, how to evaluate facilities, and case studies of various corporations and hazardous waste management facilities are discussed

  5. Mercury emission to the atmosphere from municipal solid waste landfills: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Dai, Shijin; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is regarded as an important emission source of atmospheric mercury (Hg), which is associated with potential health and environmental risks, as outlined by the Minamata Convention on Hg. This review presents the current state of knowledge with regards to landfill Hg sources, Hg levels in MSW and cover soils, Hg emission to the atmosphere, available Hg biogeochemical transformations, research methods for Hg emission, and important areas for future research. In addition, strategies for controlling landfill Hg emissions are considered, including reducing the Hg load in landfill and in situ controls. These approaches mainly focus on Hg source reduction, Hg recycling programs, public education, and in situ technology such as timely soil cover, vegetation, and end-of-pipe technology for controlling Hg emission from landfill gas.

  6. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na 2 O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO 2 ) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation

  7. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency

  8. Optimal sequence of landfills in solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, F.J. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide (Spain); Cerda, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Given that landfills are depletable and replaceable resources, the right approach, when dealing with landfill management, is that of designing an optimal sequence of landfills rather than designing every single landfill separately. In this paper, we use Optimal Control models, with mixed elements of both continuous-and discrete-time problems, to determine an optimal sequence of landfills, as regarding their capacity and lifetime. The resulting optimization problems involve splitting a time horizon of planning into several subintervals, the length of which has to be decided. In each of the subintervals some costs, the amount of which depends on the value of the decision variables, have to be borne. The obtained results may be applied to other economic problems such as private and public investments, consumption decisions on durable goods, etc. (Author)

  9. A new theory and method of preventing harmful waste landfill from pollution to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Zhang Yun; Song Shuhong; Hou Hongbing

    2006-01-01

    It is limited in conventional Soil Liner theory of waste landfill, we must update the theory and the calculational methods must be broke, so that the cost of waste landfill could be reduced in wide scope, this is important to develop economy and environment in sustaining rate. It is an innovation in the theory of the pollution control in the waste landfill groundwater through translated the theories of 'excluding infiltrate to groundwater' into 'insulating waste, allowing water into groundwater', the theory of waste landfill from pollution to groundwater came true. Clayey Soil not only can prevent seepage, but also can obstruct waste. If we can make use of its filtration adequately, just as using experimentation in laboratory to research filtration capability, calculation, we could made new testing technique and calculated technique of liner parameters. This paper take an example of which calculate to liner parameters, such as 'filtration capability' and 'adequacy thickness of effective liner', and make a programming of landfill site by this theory and method in Beijing plain. (authors)

  10. BIOLEACH: Coupled modeling of leachate and biogas production on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important factors to address when performing the environmental impact assessment of urban solid waste landfills is to evaluate the leachate production. Leachate management (collection and treatment) is also one of the most relevant economical aspects to take into account during the landfill life. Leachate is formed as a solution of biological and chemical components during operational and post-operational phases on urban solid waste landfills as a combination of different processes that involve water gains and looses inside the solid waste mass. Infiltration of external water coming from precipitation is the most important component on this water balance. However, anaerobic waste decomposition and biogas formation processes play also a role on the balance as water-consuming processes. The production of leachate one biogas is therefore a coupled process. Biogas production models usually consider optimal conditions of water content on the solid waste mass. However, real conditions during the operational phase of the landfill may greatly differ from these optimal conditions. In this work, the first results obtained to predict both the leachate and the biogas production as a single coupled phenomenon on real solid waste landfills are shown. The model is applied on a synthetic case considering typical climatological conditions of Mediterranean catchments.

  11. Household hazardous waste management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Moustakas, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    This paper deals with the waste stream of household hazardous waste (HHW) presenting existing management systems, legislation overview and other relevant quantitative and qualitative information. European Union legislation and international management schemes are summarized and presented in a concise manner by the use of diagrams in order to provide crucial information on HHW. Furthermore, sources and types, numerical figures about generation, collection and relevant management costs are within the scope of the present paper. The review shows that the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in households is not clearly defined in legislation, while there is absence of specific acts regulating the management of HHW. The lack of obligation to segregate HHW from the household waste and the different terminology used makes it difficult to determine the quantities and composition of this waste stream, while its generation amount is relatively small and, therefore, is commonly overlooked in waste statistics. The paper aims to cover the gap in the related literature on a subject that is included within the crucial waste management challenges at world level, considering that HHW can also have impact on other waste streams by altering the redox conditions or causing direct reactions with other non hazardous waste substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Certification plan transuranic waste: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWBF; and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  13. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity

  14. Effect of solid waste landfill organic pollutants on groundwater in three areas of Sicily (Italy) characterized by different vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indelicato, Serena; Orecchio, Santino; Avellone, Giuseppe; Bellomo, Sergio; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Di Stefano, Vita; Favara, Rocco; Candela, Esterina Gagliano; La Pica, Leonardo; Morici, Sabina; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Pisciotta, Antonino; Scaletta, Claudio; Vita, Fabio; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Bongiorno, David

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on the presence and levels of hazardous organic pollutants in groundwater located close to solid waste landfills. Eighty-two environmental contaminants, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 29 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDDs) and 10 furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDFs) were monitored in areas characterised by different geological environments surrounding three municipal solid waste landfills (Palermo, Siculiana and Ragusa) in Sicily (Italy) in three sampling campaigns. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs were always below the legal threshold. Overall, the Fl/Fl + Py diagnostic ratio revealed that PAHs had a petrogenic origin. VOC levels, except for two notable exceptions near Palermo landfill, were always below the legal limit. As concerns PCB levels, several samples were found positive with levels exceeding the legal limits. It is worth noting that the % PCB distribution differs from that of commercial compositions. In parallel, some samples of groundwater containing PCDDs and PCDFs exceeding the legal threshold were also found. Among the 17 congeners monitored, the most abundant were the highest molecular weight ones.

  15. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    is frequently given as a quantity of solid wasteand possibly some recovered energy from waste incineration.Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modeling oflandfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large......), and inorganic non-metals (e.g. chlorine,) which are considered individually. The computer toolLCA-LAND is useful for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in Europeancountries (for the present Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands). Input data...... of materials and components and the manufacture, transportation and use of the product to thefinal disposal and possible recycling of the product. Although LCA has developed significantly during recent years, product specific emissions from disposed waste have only got minorattention in the literature leaving...

  16. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KWIECINSKI, DANIEL ALBERT; METHVIN, RHONDA KAY; SCHOFIELD, DONALD P.; YOUNG, SHARISSA G.

    1999-01-01

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identified the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during

  17. 75 FR 71559 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0066; SW FRL-9231-4] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of Direct Final Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal of direct final exclusion...

  18. Exergy analysis of biogas production from a municipal solid waste landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George; Nanaki, E.; Koroneos, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the energy area, intensive efforts are being made over the last years to bridge the supply area with renewable energy sources and the demand side with energy conservation. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste landfills can play a contributing role in the solution of problems of both waste...

  19. High temperature slagging incineration of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanbrabant, R.; Van de Voorde, N.

    1987-01-01

    The SCK/CEN, as the treatment center for the low level radioactive waste in Belgium, develops appropriate treatment systems for different kinds of wastes. The technical concept of the high temperature slagging incineration system has been developed and improved. The construction of the first demonstration plant was initiated in 1974. Since then the system has been operated regularly and further developed with the view to industrial operations. Now it handles about 5 tons of waste in a week. The waste which is treated consists of low level beta/gamma and alpha-contaminated radioactive waste. Because of the special characteristics the system is thought to be an excellent incineration system for industrial hazardous waste as well. Recently the SCK/CEN has received the authorization to treat industrial hazardous waste in the same installation. Preliminary tests have been executed on special waste products, such as PCB-contaminated liquids, with excellent incineration results. Incineration efficiency up to 99.9999% could be obtained. The paper presents the state of the art of this original The SCK/CEN-technology and gives the results of the tests done with special hazard

  20. Impact of vent pipe diameter on characteristics of waste degradation in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobin; Liu, Dan; Chen, Weiming; Ye, Zhicheng; Liu, Hong; Li, Qibin

    2017-10-01

    The evolution mechanism of a vent pipe diameter on a waste-stabilization process in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills was analyzed from the organic-matter concentration, biodegradability, spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter, correlations and principal-component analysis. Waste samples were collected at different distances from the vent pipe and from different landfill layers in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with different vent pipe diameters. An increase in vent pipe diameter favored waste degradation. Waste degradation in landfills can be promoted slightly when the vent pipe diameter increases from 25 to 50 mm. It could be promoted significantly when the vent pipe diameter was increased to 75 mm. The vent pipe diameter is important in waste degradation in the middle layer of landfills. The dissolved organic matter in the waste is composed mainly of long-wave humus (humin), short-wave humus (fulvic acid) and tryptophan. The humification levels of the waste that was located at the center of vent pipes with 25-, 50- and 75-mm diameters were 2.2682, 4.0520 and 7.6419 Raman units, respectively. The appropriate vent pipe diameter for semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with an 800-mm diameter was 75 mm. The effect of different vent pipe diameters on the degree of waste stabilization is reflected by two main components. Component 1 is related mainly to the content of fulvic acid, biologically degradable material and organic matter. Component 2 is related mainly to the content of tryptophan and humin from the higher vascular plants.

  1. Sea dumping of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1980-01-01

    From 1967 until 1976 ca. 45,000 t of weak radioactive wastes had been dumped into the sea during several actions under the supervision of the NEA. The requirements to be deduced from the experiences with regard to marine areas, packaging and transports of the wastes are described. Up to now the possibilities of the sea dumping of strong radioactive wastes has been just discussed. The natural removal of the decay heat by sea water would be advantageous but the problem of water-proof packagings for the period of 1000 years have not been solved yet. (orig.) [de

  2. Modelling the Solid Waste Flow into Sungai Ikan Landfill Sites by Material Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Latifah A.; Ali, Nora'aini; Hassan, Nur Syafiqah A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the material flow of solid waste flows at Kuala Terengganu by using Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method, generated by STAN Software Analysis. Sungai Ikan Landfill has been operated for about 10 years. Average, Sungai Ikan Landfill receive an amount around 260 tons per day of solid waste. As for the variety source of the solid waste coming from, leachates that accumulated has been tested and measured. Highest reading of pH of the leachate is 8.29 which is still in the standard level before discharging the leachate to open water which pH in between 8.0-9.0. The percentages of the solid waste has been calculated and seven different types of solid waste has been segregated. That is, plastics, organic waste, paper, polystyrene, wood, fabric and can. The estimation of the solid waste that will be end as a residue are around 244 tons per day.

  3. Geophysical experiments for the pre-reclamation assessment of industrial and municipal waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balia, R.; Littarru, B.

    2010-03-01

    Two examples of combined application of geophysical techniques for the pre-reclamation study of old waste landfills in Sardinia, Italy, are illustrated. The first one concerned a mine tailings basin and the second one a municipal solid waste landfill; both disposal sites date back to the 1970-80s. The gravity, shallow reflection, resistivity and induced polarization methods were employed in different combinations at the two sites, and in both cases useful information on the landfill's geometry has been obtained. The gravity method proved effective for locating the boundaries of the landfill and the shallow reflection seismic technique proved effective for the precise imaging of the landfill's bottom; conversely the electrical techniques, though widely employed for studying waste landfills, provided mainly qualitative and debatable results. The overall effectiveness of the surveys has been highly improved through the combined use of different techniques, whose individual responses, being strongly dependent on their specific basic physical characteristic and the complexity of the situation to be studied, did not show the same effectiveness at the two places.

  4. Geophysical experiments for the pre-reclamation assessment of industrial and municipal waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balia, R; Littarru, B

    2010-01-01

    Two examples of combined application of geophysical techniques for the pre-reclamation study of old waste landfills in Sardinia, Italy, are illustrated. The first one concerned a mine tailings basin and the second one a municipal solid waste landfill; both disposal sites date back to the 1970–80s. The gravity, shallow reflection, resistivity and induced polarization methods were employed in different combinations at the two sites, and in both cases useful information on the landfill's geometry has been obtained. The gravity method proved effective for locating the boundaries of the landfill and the shallow reflection seismic technique proved effective for the precise imaging of the landfill's bottom; conversely the electrical techniques, though widely employed for studying waste landfills, provided mainly qualitative and debatable results. The overall effectiveness of the surveys has been highly improved through the combined use of different techniques, whose individual responses, being strongly dependent on their specific basic physical characteristic and the complexity of the situation to be studied, did not show the same effectiveness at the two places

  5. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  6. Problems of placement of industrial wastes in landfills in the industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPANOV Evgeniy Georgievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the anthropogenic transformation of the environment increases when production wastes and consumption are placed in landfills. Hygienic condition of the areas with high population density and developed industry is determined by the increased amount of household and industrial waste, mainly deposited in the numerous landfills. This situation is studied on the example of landfills used for industrial wastes produced by the enterprises JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat», JSC «Salavatsteklo», located in the city of Salavat of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The sources of industrial pollution in Salavat have been analyzed. One should note that the city-forming enterprise is the JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat» which share of the total amount of wastes generated in the city per year is 80%. Another company which contributes significantly to this process is the JSC «Salavatsteklo». To study the possible migration of contaminants to the aquifer an observation well has been made at the landfill site. The research of the water obtained from the observation well at the polygon identified maximum allowable concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD, phenol and oil products. The groundwater occurrence modes have been studied. The migration of the chemicals contained in the body of the landfill, to groundwater, has been revealed. That leads to contamination of surface water. Laboratory studies of water objects in the zone of influence of industrial waste landfill in Romodanovskomu career have been performed. It was determined that excess of maximum permissible concentration of benzene, and the presence of toluene, lead, phenol indicates the pollution of groundwater by substances stored in landfills Romanovskogo career, both by infiltration and subsequent migration to groundwater of adjacent aquifers and through surface runoff and infiltration from snowmelt and rainwater.

  7. Indoor household pesticides: hazardous waste concern or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J M; Guiney, P D; Howard, P H; Aronson, D B; Gray, D A

    2000-01-01

    Many indoor household pesticides are efficient and useful tools for a variety of functions necessary to maintain clean, sanitary, and pleasant homes and institutional facilities, and to provide significant public health benefits. They do so by incorporating active ingredients and formulation technology that have not been associated with significant environmental impact in use or when disposed in landfills. Chemical and environmental fate properties, toxicological characteristics, and use patterns of indoor household pesticides that distinguish them from other categories of pesticides which have been associated with environmental contamination should be recognized when HHW policy is debated and established by governmental agencies. Most indoor household pesticides as defined here should not be considered hazardous waste or HHW because those relatively few containers, often no longer full, that have been disposed with MSW over the years have not been associated with environmental contamination. The tiny amounts of those product residues that will reach MSW landfills have been shown, in general, not to have chemical or environmental fate characteristics that would make them susceptible to leaching. Those that do have the potential to leach based on these characteristics, in most cases, do not represent a threat to human health based on toxicological considerations. However, compounds such as propoxur, which are very mobile and relatively persistent in soil and in addition have been associated with significant potential health effects, may be targeted by the screening process as described here and could be selected for further investigation as candidates for special waste management status (such as HHW). Our analysis and recommendations have not been extended to the many types of lawn and garden pesticides that are commonly used by homeowners and are frequently brought to HHW programs. However, their potential for groundwater contamination could also be judged using

  8. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  9. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities were built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Areas to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  10. Hazardous and mixed waste transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas. (J.P.N.)

  11. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas

  12. Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met

  13. Occupational Hearing Loss among Chinese Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Haijiao; Weng, Shaofan; Su, Wenjin; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yanfei; Yu, Dan; Du, Lili; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Weihong; Shi, Tingming

    2015-01-01

    Occupational hearing loss is an increasingly prevalent occupational condition worldwide, and has been reported to occur in a wide range of workplaces; however, its prevalence among workers from municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) remains less clear. This study aimed to investigate the occupational hearing loss among Chinese MSWL workers. A cross-sectional study of 247 workers from 4 Chinese MSWLs was conducted. Noise and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) levels at worksites were determined. We conducted hearing examinations to determine hearing thresholds. A worker was identified as having hearing loss if the mean threshold at 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in either ear was equal to or greater than 25 dB. Prevalence of occupational hearing loss was then evaluated. Using unconditional Logistic regression models, we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of MSWL work associated with hearing loss. According to the job title for each worker, the study subjects were divided into 3 groups, including group 1 of 63 workers without MSWL occupational hazards exposure (control group), group 2 of 84 workers with a few or short-period MSWL occupational hazards exposure, and group 3 of 100 workers with continuous MSWL occupational hazards exposure. Both noise and TVOCs levels were significantly higher at worksites for group 3. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds at frequencies of 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz were found in group 3, compared with that in group 1 and group 2. The overall prevalence rate of hearing loss was 23.5%, with the highest in group 3 (36.0%). The OR of MSWL work associated with hearing loss was 3.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-8.96). The results of this study suggest significantly higher prevalence of hearing loss among MSWL workers. Further studies are needed to explore possible exposure-response relationship between MSWL occupational hazards exposure and hearing loss.

  14. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  15. Bioprocessing scenarios for mixed hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of biological processing of mixed hazardous waste has not been determined. However, the use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. The isolation of a unique strain of Pseudomonas Putida Idaho seems well adapted to withstand the demands of the input stream comprised of liquid scintillation waste. This paper describes the results from the continuous processing of a mixture comprised of p-xylene and surfactant as well as commercial liquid scintillation formulations. The two formulations tested contained xylene and pseudocumene as the solvent base. The process is now at the demonstration phase at one of DOE's facilities which has a substantial amount of stored waste of this type. The system at the DOE facility is comprised of two CSTR units in series

  16. Seasonal dynamics in leachate hydrochemistry and natural attentuation in surface run-off waste from a tropical landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangimbulude, J.C.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Krave, A.S.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Open waste dump systems are still widely used in Indonesia. The Jatibarang landfill receives 650-700 tons of municipal waste per day from the city of Semarang, Central Java. Some of the leachate from the landfill flows via several natural and collection ponds to a nearby river. The objectives of the

  17. Quality checking of radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, D.M.; Burgoyne, S.M.J.; Dale, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the work of the HMIP Waste Quality Checking Laboratory (WQCL) for the period September 1989 -August 1991. The WQCL has conducted research and development of procedures for the receipt, sampling and analysis of low level solid radioactive waste (LLW), intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) and hazardous chemical waste (HW). Operational facilities have been commissioned for quality checking both LLW and HW. Waste quality checking has been completed on LLW packages seized from the UK waste disposal route by HMIP Inspectors. Packages have ranged in size from the 200 litre steel drum to half-height ISO freight container. Development work was continued on methods of sample extraction and radio-chemical analysis for cement encapsulated ILW in the form of magnox, graphite and stainless steel. This work was undertaken on non-radioactive simulants. (author)

  18. Regulatory barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Siegel, M.R.

    1991-02-01

    The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs

  19. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  20. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14±1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85±0.19 million t representing 37.22±6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait

  1. Pacific Basin conference on hazardous waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held November 4--8, 1996 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the problems of hazardous waste. Topics of discussion deal with pollution prevention, waste treatment technology, health and ecosystem effects research, analysis and assessment, and regulatory management techniques. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. Fire hazard analysis of the radioactive mixed waste trenchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) is intended to assess comprehensively the risk from fire associated with the disposal of low level radioactive mixed waste in trenches within the lined landfills, provided by Project W-025, designated Trench 31 and 34 of the Burial Ground 218-W-5. Elements within the FHA make recommendations for minimizing risk to workers, the public, and the environment from fire during the course of the operation's activity. Transient flammables and combustibles present that support the operation's activity are considered and included in the analysis. The graded FHA contains the following elements: description of construction, protection of essential safety class equipment, fire protection features, description of fire hazards, life safety considerations, critical process equipment, high value property, damage potential--maximum credible fire loss (MCFL) and maximum possible fire loss (MPFL), fire department/brigade response, recovery potential, potential for a toxic, biological and/or radiation incident due to a fire, emergency planning, security considerations related to fire protection, natural hazards (earthquake, flood, wind) impact on fire safety, and exposure fire potential, including the potential for fire spread between fire areas. Recommendations for limiting risk are made in the text of this report and printed in bold type. All recommendations are repeated in a list in Section 18.0

  3. Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  5. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imports of hazardous waste. 262.60 Section 262.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports...

  6. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that— (a...

  7. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  8. INPP Landfill[Disposal of very low level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jan; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2004-06-15

    The objective of this report is to propose the basic design for final disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) produced at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and at other small waste producers in Lithuania. Considering the safety for the environment, as well as the construction costs, it has been decided that the repository will be of a landfill type based on the same design principles as similar authorised facilities in other countries. It has also been decided that the location of the landfill shall be in the vicinity of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP)

  9. Hazardous Waste Cerification Plan: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of hazardous waste (HW) handled in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). The plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end- product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; and executive summary of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. The plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Systems Group Manager to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with several requirements of the Federal Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Act (RCRA), the Federal Department of Transportation (DOT), and the State of California, Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 22

  10. Identification of Cellulose Breaking Bacteria in Landfill Samples for Organic Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P. M.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the citizens of Hong Kong disposes 13,500 tonnes of waste to the landfill everyday. Out of the 13,500 tonnes, 3600 tonnes consist of organic waste. Furthermore, due to the limited supply of land for landfills in Hong Kong, it is estimated that landfills will be full by about 2020. Currently, organic wastes at landfills undergo anaerobic respiration, where methane gas, one of the most harmful green house gases, will be released. The management of such waste is a pressing issue, as possible solutions must be presented in this crucial period of time. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy introduced their very own method to manage the waste produced by the students. With an approximate of 1500 students on campus, the school produces 27 metric tonnes of food waste each academic year. The installation of the rocket food composter provides an alternate method of disposable of organic waste the school produces, for the aerobic environment allows for different by-products to be produced, namely compost that can be used for organic farming by the primary school students and subsequently carbon dioxide, a less harmful greenhouse gas. This research is an extension on the current work, as another natural factor is considered. It evaluates the microorganism community present in leachate samples collected from the North East New Territories Landfill, for the bacteria in the area exhibits special characteristics in the process of decomposition. Through the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the bacteria, the identification of the bacteria might lead to a break through on the current issue. Some bacteria demonstrate the ability to degrade lignin cellulose, or assist in the production of methane gas in aerobic respirations. These characteristics can hopefully be utilized in the future in waste managements across the globe.

  11. Hazardous waste market and technology trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    What forces are currently driving the growth of the hazardous waste remediation market? Which factors will control the development of cleanup technologies during the next decade? At what types of sites are various technologies being applied? In an effort to answer these questions, EPA has produced an overview of trends in the demand for remedial technologies at CERCLA, RCRA corrective action, underground storage tank (UST), and other cleanup sites across the United States. The 160-page document, entitled Cleaning Up the Nation's Waste Sites: Markets and Technology Trends, was developed by EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Highlights from the report are presented below. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Solidification as low cost technology prior to land filling of industrial hazardous waste sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sebaie, O; Ahmed, M; Ramadan, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to stabilize and solidify two different treated industrial hazardous waste sludges, which were selected from factories situated close to Alexandria. They were selected to ensure their safe transportation and landfill disposal by reducing their potential leaching of hazardous elements, which represent significant threat to the environment, especially the quality of underground water. The selected waste sludges have been characterized. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) from Alexandria Portland Cement Company, and Calcium Sulphate as a by-product from the dye industry were used as potential solidification additives to treat the selected treated waste sludges from tanning and dyes industry. Waste sludges as well as the solidified wastes have been leach-tested, using the General Acid Neutralization Capacity (GANC) procedure. Concentration of concerning metals in the leachates was determined to assess changes in the mobility of major contaminants. The treated tannery waste sludge has an acid neutralization capacity much higher than that of the treated dyes waste sludge. Experiment results demonstrated the industrial waste sludge solidification mix designs, and presented the reduction of contaminant leaching from two types of waste sludges. The main advantages of solidification are that it is simple and low cost processing which includes readily available low cost solidification additives that will convert industrial hazardous waste sludges into inert materials.

  13. Alternative treatment for septic tank sludge: co-digestion with municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfill simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R; den Hamer, D; Komboi, J; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-02-01

    Co-disposal of septic tank sludge had a positive effect on the municipal solid waste (MSW) stabilisation process in Bioreactor Landfill simulators. Co-disposal experiments were carried out using the Bioreactor Landfill approach aiming to solve the environmental problems caused by indiscriminate and inadequate disposal of MSW and especially of septic tank sludge. The simulator receiving septic tank sludge exhibited a 200 days shorter lag-phase as compared to the 350 days required by the control simulator to start the exponential biogas production. Additionally, the simulator with septic sludge apparently retained more moisture (>60% w/w), which enhanced the overall conversion of organic matter hence increasing the biogas production (0.60 m3 biogas kg(-1)VS(converted)) and removal efficiency of 60% for VS from the simulator. Alkaline pH values (pH>8.5) did not inhibit the biogas production; moreover it contributed to reduce partially the negative effects of NH(4)(+) (>2 g L(-1)) due to NH(3) volatilisation thus reducing the nitrogen content of the residues. Associated risks and hazards with septage disposal were practically eliminated as total coliform and faecal coliform contents were reduced by 99% and 100%, respectively at the end of the experiment. These results indicate that co-disposal has two direct benefits, including the safe and environmentally sound disposal of septic tank sludge and an improvement of the overall performance of the Bioreactor Landfill by increasing moisture retention and supplying a more acclimatised bacterial population.

  14. Assessment of the mineral industry NORM/TENORM disposal in hazardous landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontedeiro, E.M.; Heilbron, P.F.L.; Cotta, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the assessment methodology utilised in Brazil, to foresee the performance of industrial landfills to disposal solid wastes containing natural radionuclides arising from milling and metallurgical installations that process ores containing NORM. An integrated methodology is utilized and issues as risk, exposure pathways and the plausible scenarios in which the contaminant can migrate and reach the environment and human beings are addressed. A specific example of the procedure is described and results are presented for actual situations. The model consists of an engineered depository constructed of earthen materials which minimise costs and maintain integrity over long-term. In order to define the landfill characteristics and the potential consequences to the environment, an impact analysis is carried out, considering the engineering aspects of the waste deposit and the exposure pathways by which the contaminant can migrate and reach the environment and human beings. Analytical solutions are used in the computer program in order to obtain fast results

  15. Sustainable waste management research and development : a successful use of landfill tax credit funds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    A landfill tax was introduced to the United Kingdom in October 1996 to ensure that landfill waste disposal reflects its environmental cost. The tax system makes allowances so that some of the taxes raised can be used to encourage projects which reflect sustainable development in waste management. According to regulations, some of the projects deemed acceptable for tax credits are: (1) reclamation, remediation or restoration projects, (2) any operation that reduces the potential for pollution, (3) research, development and education of information about waste management practices, (4) improvements of public amenities in the vicinity of a landfill site, and (5) maintenance or repair of a historic building that is in the vicinity of a landfill site. The statistical data relating to the projects indicate a good response from landfill operators in the first two years, but since then, the proportional distribution of approved projects has remained static. This paper argues that the system is inadequately funded and focused in the wrong direction. The projects and contributions made under this new tax scheme were analyzed to determine if the system is capable of following a sustainable approach. 9 refs., 6 tabs

  16. HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

  17. Unify a hazardous materials/waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiently managing a hazardous materials/waste program in a multi-facility, multi-product corporation is a major challenge. This paper describes several methods to help unify a program and gain maximum efficiency of manpower and to minimize risk

  18. A generic hazardous waste management training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Karnofsky, B.

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of this training program element is to familiarize personnel involved in hazardous waste management with the goals of RCRA and how they are to be achieved. These goals include: to protect health and the environment; to conserve valuable material and energy resources; to prohibit future open dumping on the land; to assure that hazardous waste management practices are conducted in a manner which protects human health and the environment; to insure that hazardous waste is properly managed thereby reducing the need for corrective actions in the future; to establish a national policy to reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous waste, wherever feasible. Another objective of this progam element is to present a brief overview of the RCRA regulations and how they are implemented/enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and each of the fifty states. This element also discusses where the RCRA regulations are published and how they are updated. In addition it details who is responsible for compliance with the regulations. Finally, this part of the training program provides an overview of the activities and materials that are regulated. 1 ref

  19. The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996

  20. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture...... contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese...... waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China...

  1. Investigation of Biogas Production Process by the Mixture of Landfill Leachate and Animal Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein alidadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Energy consumption is on a rapidly growing trend in the world. Accordingly, the non-renewable energy sources are expected to be run out in the future. This issue has resulted in the establishment of efforts targeted toward the development of new energy-generating methods around the world. Biogas energy is one of the new and clean energies that is produced from the anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Anaerobic digestion is a cost-effective and environment-friendly method, which facilitates fertilizer and biogas production as well as landfill leachate treatment. Given the high environmental hazards of leachate and its mixture with animal wastes, the present study aimed to estimate the possibility of producing biogas in various mixture ratios. Methods: In this pilot-scale experimental study, the landfill leachate of Mashhad, Iran, were mixed with caw fresh dung in different ratios, but same conditions, under anaerobic digestion. This was conducted to consider the ability to produce methane gas in different proportions and landfill leachate. At the beginning and end of the project, the parameters of EC, pH, VS, TS, COD, TOC, P, K, N, and Na were measured. Additionally, the composition of the gases produced under different operating conditions was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Gas production began three weeks after uploading and continued for five weeks. The analysis of gas production in three ratios was indicative of the CH4 production in all three proportions. In this regard, 1/1 ratio produced the highest percentage of CH4. No gas production was observed in the two months of study. Other physical and chemical parameters, such as COD, TS, TKN, and TOC were reduced in the given mixtures during the biogas production procedure. For instance, the case with 1/1 ratio, which showed the best results, had almost 80% decrease in the given parameters. However, no gas

  2. The effect of leachate recirculation with enzyme cellulase addition on waste stability in landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffira, N.; Kristanto, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation is known to enhance waste stabilization. However, the composition of waste in Indonesia is comprised by organic waste which is lignocellulosic materials that considered take a long time to degrade under anaerobic condition. To accelerate the degradation process, enzyme addition is ought to do. Cellulase is an enzyme that can catalyse cellulose and other polysaccharide decomposition processes. Therefore, operation of waste degradation using leachate recirculation with a cellulase addition to enhance waste stabilization was investigated using anaerobic bioreactor landfill. The experiment was performed on 2 conditions; leachate recirculation with cellulase addition and recirculation only as a control. The addition of cellulase is reported to be significant in decreasing organic content, represented by volatile solid parameter. The volatile solid reduction in the cellulase augmented reactor and control reactor was 17.86% and 7.90%, respectively. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest cellulose reduction. Settlement of the landfill in a bioreactor with enzyme addition (32.67%) was reported to be higher than the control (19.33%). Stabilization of landfill review by the decreasing rate constant of the cellulose and lignin ratio parameter was more rapidly achieved by the enzyme addition (0.014 day-1) compared to control (0.002 day-1).

  3. Robotics in hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, R.J.; Jayaraman, K.M.; Cunningham, A.J.; Meieran, H.B.; Zafrir, H.; Kroitoru, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the advent of mobile robotic systems into the earth sciences and environmental studies. It presents issues surrounding the rationale for employing stationary and mobile robots to assist in waste chemical site remediation and cleanup activities, missions that could be conducted, and the current availability status for these devices. This rationale is an extension of that being promoted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assist in resolving environmental restoration and waste management (ER and WM) issues associated with several DOE national laboratories, facilities, and other sites. DOE has also committed to restore the environment surrounding the existing storage facilities and sites to a safe state. Technologies that are expected to play a major role in these activities are stationary and mobile robotic devices, and in particular, mobile robots. Specific topics discussed in this article include: introduction to robotics: motivations for considering robots in HWM: incorporation of robotics into HWM methods--this subsection includes a rationale for performing a ''screening test'' to determine the advantages of using a robot; safety and performance factors; illustrations for robots in action and current and future trends

  4. Estimation of Exposure Doses for Several Scenarios of the Landfill Disposal of NORM Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ko, Nak Yul; Baik, Min Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ki Hoon [Korea Institude of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Act on safety control of radioactive materials around living environment was promulgated to protect citizen's health and environment in 2013. According to this Act, the integrated plan for radiation protection and the necessary safety guides for treatment, reuse, and disposal of NORM wastes have to be made. And NORM wastes have to be disposed in landfill sites by reducing the concentration of radionuclide, and they should not be reutilized. In this study, we estimated exposure doses for several scenarios for NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) waste disposal into a reference landfill site to check the radiological safety. Also, we estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of important radionuclides in wastes to be disposed into a landfill site based on the exposure dose limits to support the establishment of technical bases for safety guide. We estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of wastes containing U series, Th series, and {sup 40}K based on the exposure dose limits. The results of this study can be used as technical bases to support the establishment of a guide for the safe management of NORM waste disposal.

  5. Seismic analysis of Industrial Waste Landfill 4 at Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This calculation was to seismically evaluate Landfill IV at Y-12 as required by Tennessee Rule 1200-1-7-04(2) for seismic impact zones. The calculation verifies that the landfill meets the seismic requirements of the Tennessee Division of Solid Waste, ''Earthquake Evaluation Guidance Document.'' The theoretical displacements of 0.17 in. and 0.13 in. for the design basis earthquake are well below the limiting seimsic slope stability design criteria. There is no potential for liquefaction due to absence of chohesionless soils, or for loss or reduction of shear strength for the clays at this site as result of earthquake vibration. The vegetative cover on slopes will most likely be displaced and move during a large seismic event, but this is not considered a serious deficiency because the cover is not involved in the structural stability of the landfill and there would be no release of waste to the environment

  6. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the concentration of Cd, Cu and Zn was not detected in the leachate but Fe was found to be in high concentration (184 mg/L) in raw leachate collected from a municipal landfill site. Therefore, the effects of biomass dosage, contact time, pH and agitation speed were observed for optimal adsorption of iron from ...

  7. Analysis the potential gas production of old municipal solid waste landfill as an alternative energy source: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, A. P.; Emalya, N.; Munawar, E.; Schwarzböck, T.; Lederer, J.; Fellner, J.

    2018-03-01

    The MSW landfill produces gas which is represent the energy resource that lost and polluted the ambient air. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential gas production of old landfill as an alternative energy source. The study was conducted by using 10 years old waste in landfill simulator reactor (LSR). Four Landfills Simulator Reactors (LSR) were constructed for evaluate the gas production of old MSW landfilled. The LSR was made of high density poly ethylene (HDPE) has 50 cm outside diameter and 150 cm of high. The 10 years old waste was excavated from closed landfill and subsequently separated from inorganic fraction and sieved to maximum 50 mm size particle prior emplaced into the LSR. Although quite small compare to the LSR containing fresh waste has been reported, the LRS containing 10 years old waste still produce much landfill gas. The landfill gas produced of LSR operated with and without leachate recirculation were about 29 and 21 litter. The composition of landfill gas produced was dominated by CO2 with the composition of CH4 and O2 were around 12.5% and 0.2 %, respectively.

  8. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Remediation of toxic and hazardous wastes: issues and concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This workshop presented the status of hazardous waste generation in the Philippines, as well the steps being done by the government to address the problem on hazardous materials in the environment and the disposal of the toxic wastes

  10. Decision analysis for INEL hazardous waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, L.A.; Roach, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In mid-November 1993, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) Manager requested that the INEL Hazardous Waste Type Manager perform a decision analysis to determine whether or not a new Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) was needed to store INEL hazardous waste (HW). In response to this request, a team was formed to perform a decision analysis for recommending the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. Personnel who participated in the decision analysis are listed in Appendix B. The results of the analysis indicate that the existing HWSF is not the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. The analysis detailed in Appendix C concludes that the best HW storage configuration would be to modify and use a portion of the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) Waste Storage Building (WWSB), PBF-623 (Alternative 3). This facility was constructed in 1991 to serve as a waste staging facility for WERF incineration. The modifications include an extension of the current Room 105 across the south end of the WWSB and installing heating, ventilation, and bay curbing, which would provide approximately 1,600 ft{sup 2} of isolated HW storage area. Negotiations with the State to discuss aisle space requirements along with modifications to WWSB operating procedures are also necessary. The process to begin utilizing the WWSB for HW storage includes planned closure of the HWSF, modification to the WWSB, and relocation of the HW inventory. The cost to modify the WWSB can be funded by a reallocation of funding currently identified to correct HWSF deficiencies.

  11. Decision analysis for INEL hazardous waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, L.A.; Roach, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In mid-November 1993, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) Manager requested that the INEL Hazardous Waste Type Manager perform a decision analysis to determine whether or not a new Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) was needed to store INEL hazardous waste (HW). In response to this request, a team was formed to perform a decision analysis for recommending the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. Personnel who participated in the decision analysis are listed in Appendix B. The results of the analysis indicate that the existing HWSF is not the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. The analysis detailed in Appendix C concludes that the best HW storage configuration would be to modify and use a portion of the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) Waste Storage Building (WWSB), PBF-623 (Alternative 3). This facility was constructed in 1991 to serve as a waste staging facility for WERF incineration. The modifications include an extension of the current Room 105 across the south end of the WWSB and installing heating, ventilation, and bay curbing, which would provide approximately 1,600 ft 2 of isolated HW storage area. Negotiations with the State to discuss aisle space requirements along with modifications to WWSB operating procedures are also necessary. The process to begin utilizing the WWSB for HW storage includes planned closure of the HWSF, modification to the WWSB, and relocation of the HW inventory. The cost to modify the WWSB can be funded by a reallocation of funding currently identified to correct HWSF deficiencies

  12. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report's information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  13. Proceedings of emerging technologies for hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of emerging technologies for hazardous waste management. Topics covered include: Low-temperature oxidation of organic chemical wastes; Advanced waste minimization strategies; Treatment of manufactured gas plant (MGP) and similar wastes; Bioremediation of soils and sediments; Advances in radioactive waste treatment; Computer aides approaches to hazardous waste management; Advances in soil remediation; Low-temperature oxidation of organic chemical waste; Boremediation: Micro, meso, and macro-scale processes; In situ remediation techniques; Treatment of hazardous organics with radiation or solar energy; Technologies for management of municipal waste combustion residues; Environmental restoration and waste management; and Advanced separation and stabilization technologies

  14. Analysis of Indirect Emissions Benefits of Wind, Landfill Gas, and Municipal Solid Waste Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques are introduced to calculate the hourly indirect emissions benefits of three types of green power resources: wind energy, municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion, and landfill gas (LFG) combustion. These techniques are applied to each of the U.S. EPA's eGRID subregions i...

  15. Critical evaluation of factors required to terminate the postclosure monitoring period at solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Regulations governing the disposal of solid waste in landfills specify that they must be monitored for 30 years after closure unless this period is extended by the governing regulatory authority. Given the wide range of conditions under which refuse is buried, technical criteria, rather than...

  16. Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill sampling and analysis plan and data quality objectives process summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the sampling and analytical activities and associated procedures that will be used to support the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill soil-gas investigation. This SAP consists of three sections: this introduction, the field sampling plan, and the quality assurance project plan. The field sampling plan defines the sampling and analytical methodologies to be performed

  17. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Bo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Cai, B.-F., Liu, J.-G., Gao, Q.-X., et al., 2014. Estimation of methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfills in China based on point emission sources. Adv. Clim. Change Res. 5(2, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.081.

  18. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  19. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1990-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  20. The newest achievements of studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Peizhe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    From 1991 to 1996, key studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes have been incorporated into the national plan for environmental protection science and technology. At present, the research achievements have been accomplished, have passed national approval, and have been accepted. The author of this paper, as leader of the national group for this research work, expounds the newest achievements of the studies involving four parts: (1) the reutilization technology of electroplating sludge, including the ion-exchange process for recovering the sludge and waste liquor for producing chromium tanning agent and extracting chromium and colloidal protein from tanning waste residue; on the recovery of heavy metals from the electroplating waste liquor with microbic purification; on the demonstration project of producing modified plastics from the sludge and the waste plastics; and on the demonstration of the recovery of heavy metals from waste electroplating sludge by using the ammonia-leaching process; (2) the demonstrative research of reutilization technology of chromium waste residues, including production of self-melting ore and smelting of chromium-containing pig iron, and of pyrolytic detoxification of the residue with cyclone furnace; (3) the incineration technology of hazardous wastes with successful results of the industrial incinerator system for polychlorinated biphenyls; and (4) the safety landfill technology for disposal of hazardous wastes, with a complete set of technology for pretreatment, selection of the site, development of the antipercolating materials, and design and construction of the landfill. Only a part of the achievements is introduced in this paper, most of which has been built and is being operated for demonstration to further spreading application and accumulate experience. 6 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  2. Metal loss from treated wood products in contact with municipal solid waste landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Brajesh [Department of Environmental Health, PO Box 70682, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Townsend, Timothy, E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Solo-Gabriele, Helena [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0630 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The research presented in this paper evaluates the potential impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate quality on the loss of metals from discarded treated wood during disposal. The loss of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and boron (B) from several types of pressure-treated wood (CCA: chromated copper arsenate, ACQ: alkaline copper quaternary, CBA: copper boron azole, and DOT: disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) using leachate collected from 26 MSW landfills in Florida was examined. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and California's waste extraction test (WET) were also performed. The results suggested that loss of preservative components was influenced by leachate chemistry. Copper loss from CCA-, ACQ- and CBA-treated wood was similar in magnitude when in contact with landfill leachates compared to synthetic TCLP and SPLP solutions. Ammonia was found as one of the major parameters influencing the leaching of Cu from treated wood when leached with MSW landfill leachates. The results suggest that disposal of ACQ- and CBA-treated wood in substantial quantity in MSW landfills may elevate the Cu concentration in the leachate; this could be of potential concern, especially for a bioreactor MSW landfill in which relatively higher ammonia concentrations in leachate have been reported in recent literature. For the As, Cr and B the concentrations observed with the landfill leachate as the leaching solutions were over a range from some sample showing the concentrations below and some showing above the observed value from corresponding SPLP and TCLP tests. In general the WET test showed the highest concentrations.

  3. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  4. Study of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities exposed to buckeye reclamation landfill drainage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, D.J.; Thoeny, W.T.; McCarthy, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Buckeye Reclamation Landfill (BRL), a Superfund site, incorporates approximately 50 acres of a 658 acre tract of land. The BRL consists of past underground mining voids, including some surface-mined lands, and mine refuse piles from processed bituminous coal. The area was subsequently used as a nonhazardous public and municipal solid waste landfill, and industrial sludge and liquid wastes were also deposited in an impoundment in the northern section of the landfill. The entire landfill area was completely covered with soil and revegetated in the late 1980's and early 1990's. The BRL produces acidic and highly mineralized drainage causing a widespread problem of serious mine drainage pollution in the watershed. A study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pollutants to the macroinvertebrate assemblages and to determine the extent of pollution of the BRL watershed. Samples were collected from ten sites in 1995. Nine systematic and spatial transect samples were taken at each collection site for macroinverbrates with a 595 microm mesh, modified kick net from riffle/run and glide/pool habitats of streams above and below the BRL watershed. All macroinverbrates were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. The levels for total Zn ranged from 22--604 microg/L; pH ranged from 4.4 to 8.1. The data distinguished the exposed sites receiving landfill leachates and sedimentation runoff from the less impacted sites

  5. Hazardous waste management in a developing economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladiran, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    Many developing countries are characterised by steady increase in population, low GNP and usually a single-source economy. These countries are principally situated in the 40degN/40degS window. In order to generate more wealth, there is a great desire for rapid industrialisation in these countries. However, modern technologies and processes are often associated with by-products and wastes which can be bulky, toxic, chemically unstable, corrosive, radio active and sometimes, at elevated temperatures. In this paper, a critical survey of the deleterious effects of hazardous wastes on man and environment is presented. Current disposal techniques and management principles are discussed Non-objectionable procedures and regulatory control mechanisms for dealing with these wastes are presented. Finally, the importance of research and development in handling these wastes are also highlighted. (author)

  6. 75 FR 62040 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... the lists of hazardous waste listed at 40 CFR 261.31, both past and currently generated sludge... water production waste treatment system. Once- through non-contact cooling water does not require... grease, sulfide, water content, corrosivity and ignitability. The sludge characterization included...

  7. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L.; Crutcher, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system

  8. Proceedings of emerging technologies for hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains the proceedings of emergin technologies for hazardous waste management. Topics covered include: advanced transuranic waste managements; remediation of soil/water systems contaminated with nonaqueous pollutants; advances in molten salt oxidation; air treatment and protection; advanced waste minimization strategies; removal of hazardous materials from soils or groundwater; bioremediation of soils and sediment; innovation, monitoring, and asbestos; high-level liquid waste chemistry in the Hanford tanks; biological contributions to soil and groundwater remediation; soil treatment technologies; pollution prevention; incineration and vitrification; current technology; systematic design approaches to hazardous waste management; waste management and environmental restoration at Savannah River; soil washing and flushing for remediation of hazardous wastes

  9. WIPP's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Renewal Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most, W.A.; Kehrman, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous waste permits issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) have a maximum term of 10-years from the permit's effective date. The permit condition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) governing renewal applications, directs the Permittees to submit a permit application 180 days prior to expiration of the Permit. On October 27, 1999, the Secretary of the NMED issued to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the owner and operator of WIPP, and to Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), the Management and Operating Contractor and the cooperator of WIPP, a HWFP to manage, store, and dispose hazardous waste at WIPP. The DOE and WTS are collectively known as the Permittees. The HWFP is effective for a fixed term not to exceed ten years from the effective date of the Permit. The Permittees may renew the HWFP by submitting a new permit application at least 180 calendar days before the expiration date, of the HWFP. The Permittees are not proposing any substantial changes in the Renewal Application. First, the Permittees are seeking the authority to dispose of Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled TRU mixed waste in Panel 8. Panels 4 through 7 have been approved in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit as it currently exists. No other change to the facility or to the manner in which hazardous waste is characterized, managed, stored, or disposed is being requested. Second, the Permittees also seek to include the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan, as Attachment Q in the HWFP. This Plan has existed as a separate document since May 2000. The NMED has requested that the Plan be submitted as part of the Renewal Application. The Permittees have been operating to the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan since the Plan was submitted. Third, some information submitted in the original WIPP RCRA Part B Application has been updated, such as demographic information. The Permittees will submit this information in the

  10. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  11. Town of Hague landfill reclamation study: Research ways to increase waste heating value and reduce waste volume. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerni, E. [SSB Environmental Inc., Albany, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Monitored composing was studied as a method for reducing the quantity of waste requiring disposed from a landfill reclamation project. After each of two re-screening steps, composted {open_quotes}soil{close_quotes} from a single long windrow of varying depths and moisture content was subjected to analytical testing to determine its suitability to remain as backfill in a reclaimed landfill site. The remaining uncomposted waste was combusted at a waste-to-energy facility to determine if Btu values were improved. Results indicate that a full-scale composting operation could result in a net decrease of approximately 11 percent in disposal costs. The Btu value of the reclaimed waste was calculated to be 4,500 to 5,000 Btu/lb. The feasibility of composting reclaimed waste at other landfill reclamation projects will depend upon site-specific technical and economic factors, including size and nature of the organic fraction of the waste mass, local processing costs, and the cost of waste disposal alternatives.

  12. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    By using life cycle assessment (LCA) modeling, this paper compares the environmental performance of six landfilling technologies (open dump, conventional landfill with flares, conventional landfill with energy recovery, standard bioreactor landfill, flushing bioreactor landfill and semi-aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is "landfilling of 1ton of wet household waste in a 10m deep landfill for 100 years". The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate that it is crucially important to ensure the highest collection efficiency of landfill gas and leachate since a poor capture compromises the overall environmental performance. Once gas and leachate are collected and treated, the potential impacts in the standard environmental categories and on spoiled groundwater resources significantly decrease, although at the same time specific emissions from gas treatment lead to increased impact potentials in the toxicity-related categories. Gas utilization for energy recovery leads to saved emissions and avoided impact potentials in several environmental categories. Measures should be taken to prevent leachate infiltration to groundwater and it is essential to collect and treat the generated leachate. The bioreactor technologies recirculate the collected leachate to enhance the waste degradation process. This allows the gas collection period to be reduced from 40 to 15 years, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence

  13. Minimizing generator liability while disposing hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, L.W.; Lahlou, M.; Pendurthi, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Potential liabilities associated with hazardous waste disposal are related to waste properties, disposal practices and the potential threat to people and the environment in case of a pollutant release. Based on various regulations, these liabilities are enforceable and longstanding. A methodology which can help hazardous waste generators select a commercial disposal facility with a relatively low risk of potential liability is described in this paper. The methodology has two parts. The first part has 8 categories encompassing 30 factors common to all facilities, and the second part includes one category dealing with 5 factors on specific wastes and treatment/disposal technologies. This two-part evaluation feature enables the user to adapt the methodology to any type of waste disposal. In determining the scores for the factors used in the evaluation. an unranked paired comparison technique with slight modifications was used to weight the relative importance of the individual factors. In the methodology it is possible for the user to redefine the factors and change the scoring system. To make the methodology more efficient, a user-friendly computer program has been developed; the computer program is written so that desired changes in the methodology can be readily implemented

  14. The Scientific Management of Hazardous Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Keith S.

    According to the jacket of this book, three independent scientists carefully define the limits of scientific knowledge applicable to the management of hazardous wastes. It is claimed that the extrapolation and application of this knowledge is examined, significant areas of uncertainty are identified, and the authors reveal “the fallibility of certain interpretations.” It would be more accurate to claim these as possible goals of the book rather than its accomplishments.Chapter 1, Hazardous Wastes and Their Recycling Potential, includes 11 pages of lists of chemicals, some of which are poorly reproduced. The remaining pages describe, superficially, several recycling schemes. Connections between the chemicals previously listed and the recycling schemes are not given. Concerning the potential for recycling, the last sentence of the chapter reads, “Indeed, the concept of waste recycling, itself a contradiction in terms, is better politics than business.” Taken literally, this assertion itself contradicts venerable practice, as the farmer might observe as he transfers waste from his cows to the crops in his field. More pertinently, it can be argued that the recovery of solvents, metals, and oil from waste flows is much more than a political gesture.

  15. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  16. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  17. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes

  18. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data

  19. Risk management at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Doty, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with additional resources and direction for the identification, evaluation, and remediation of hazardous waste sites in the United States. SARA established more stringent requirements for the Superfund program, both in terms of the pace of the program and the types of remedial alternatives selected. The central requirement is that remedial alternatives be ''protective of public health and the environment'' and ''significantly and permanently'' reduce the toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants. The mandate also requires that potential risk be considered in the decision-making process. This document discusses risk management at hazardous waste sites. Topics include selection of sites for placement on the National Priority List, risk assessment and the decision process, risk reduction and remedial alternative selection, and aquifer restoration. 10 refs., 2 figs

  20. Accuracy of hazardous waste project estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The HAZRATE system has been developed to appraise the current state of definition of hazardous waste remedial projects. This is shown to have a high degree of correlation to the financial risk of such projects. The method employs a weighted checklist indicating the current degree of definition of some 150 significant project elements. It is based on the author's experience with a similar system for establishing the risk characteristics of process plant projects (Hackney, 1965 and 1989; 1985). In this paper definition ratings for 15 hazardous waste remedial projects have been correlated with the excesses of their actual costs over their base estimates, excluding any allowances for contingencies. Equations are presented, based on this study, for computation of the contingency allowance needed and estimate accuracy possible at a given stage of project development

  1. Definitions of solid and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This guidance document explains the definitions of solid and hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The definitions are presented in flowchart form to provide the reader with a method of utilizing applicable regulations to determine whether or not a material meets the definition of a solid or hazardous waste. A narrative adjacent to each step of the flowchart elaborates on the specific subject and clarifies the role of the step. The text also contains cross references to other parts of this document for further clarification. The information is provided in terms of a decision-making process. The flowcharts and accompanying text include all major information from the RCRA regulations found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 261 (40 CFR Part 261). In some cases, regulatory language has been supplemented with language from EPA rulemaking preambles

  2. Quantification of landfill methane using modified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's waste model and error function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Siva Shangari; Agamuthu, P

    2014-10-01

    Waste management can be regarded as a cross-cutting environmental 'mega-issue'. Sound waste management practices support the provision of basic needs for general health, such as clean air, clean water and safe supply of food. In addition, climate change mitigation efforts can be achieved through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management operations, such as landfills. Landfills generate landfill gas, especially methane, as a result of anaerobic degradation of the degradable components of municipal solid waste. Evaluating the mode of generation and collection of landfill gas has posted a challenge over time. Scientifically, landfill gas generation rates are presently estimated using numerical models. In this study the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Waste Model is used to estimate the methane generated from a Malaysian sanitary landfill. Key parameters of the model, which are the decay rate and degradable organic carbon, are analysed in two different approaches; the bulk waste approach and waste composition approach. The model is later validated using error function analysis and optimum decay rate, and degradable organic carbon for both approaches were also obtained. The best fitting values for the bulk waste approach are a decay rate of 0.08 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.12; and for the waste composition approach the decay rate was found to be 0.09 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.08. From this validation exercise, the estimated error was reduced by 81% and 69% for the bulk waste and waste composition approach, respectively. In conclusion, this type of modelling could constitute a sensible starting point for landfills to introduce careful planning for efficient gas recovery in individual landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Innovative landfill bioreactor systems for municipal solid waste treatment in East Africa aimed at optimal energy recovery and minimal greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salukele, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Landfilling is currently the dominant disposal method for municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries. Approximately 50% of the MSW generated in East Africa is disposed in landfills. Low costs and availability of land have made landfilling the most common waste management option in East

  4. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.

    2010-01-01

    for in the life-cycle impact assessment calculation, the small gas generation in low-organic waste landfills reduced the actual potential for energy generation and therefore the environmental savings obtained were reduced proportionally. Groundwater pollution from input of leachate was also evaluated and the WHO......The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1...

  5. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies

  6. Research of the Indicators the efficiency of the biodegradable waste on the Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kotovicová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of the research work for the exploitation of the preventive tools for the decrease of biodegradable waste comes out from the requirements, which are reposed on Czech Republic as a valid member of European Union. The Czech Republic have to follow the legislative requirements, which are defined for the waste treatment, in this case it deals with the EC Landfill Directive (1999/31/ES. The directive undertakes for the EU members to limit the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills. The main sense of this restriction is to reduce the volume of the emitted gas, mainly methane, into atmosphere. Therefore, it was assigned the Waste Management Plan of the Czech republic, which states in the interest of the strategic goals (the decrease of the specific waste production independently on the level of the economic growth, the maximal waste exploitation as a reserve of the primary natural resources and the minimalization of negative impacts on human health and environment by the waste treatment the goal achievement in its binding part, what´s the decrease of maximal volume of the biodegradable municipal waste deposited in landfills, thus the rate of this element will be the most 75% weighted in 2010, the most 50% weighted in 2013 and the most 35% weighted from the total volume rised in 1995. One of the ways, how to achieve the required reduction of the waste volume deposited in the landfills, is consistent exercitation of the preventive methods and the sound agricultural and sound operating practice methods. The main goal of the work consists in creation of methodics for the make prognosis of the region development charging by the biodegradable waste in the preventive tool exploitation. I identified the typical sources of biodegradable waste and the key areas of their uprise after the evaluation of environmental gains of the selected preventive projects by the creation of methodics. After this manner of data acquirement, I proposed

  7. Research of the indicators the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kotovicová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of the research work for the exploitation of the preventive tools for the decrease of bio- degradable waste comes out from the requirements, which are reposed on Czech Republic as a valid member of European Union. The Czech Republic have to follow the legislative requirements, which are defined for the waste treatment, in this case it deals with the EC Landfill Directive (1999/31/ES. The directive undertakes for the EU members to limit the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills. The main sense of this restriction is to reduce the volume of the emitted gas, mainly methane, into atmosphere. Therefore, it was assigned the Waste Management Plan of the Czech republic, which states in the interest of the strategic goals (the decrease of the specific waste production independently on the level of the economic growth, the maximal waste exploitation as a reserve of the primary natural resources and the minimalization of negative impacts on human health and environment by the waste treatment the goal achievement in its binding part, whatęs the decrease of maximal volume of the biodegradable municipal waste deposited in landfills, thus the rate of this element will be the most 75% weighted in 2010, the most 50 % weighted in 2013 and the most 35 % weighted from the total volume rised in 1995. One of the ways, how to achieve the required reduction of the waste volume deposited in the landfills, is consistent exercitation of the preventive methods and the sound agricultural and sound operating practice methods. The main goal of the work consists in creation of methodics for the make prognosis of the region development charging by the biodegradable waste in the preventive tool exploitation. I identified the typical sources of biodegradable waste and the key areas of their uprise after the evaluation of environmental gains of the selected preventive projects by the creation of methodics. After this manner of data acquirement, I

  8. Estimation of methane emission rate changes using age-defined waste in a landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2013-09-01

    Long term methane emissions from landfill sites are often predicted by first-order decay (FOD) models, in which the default coefficients of the methane generation potential and the methane generation rate given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are usually used. However, previous studies have demonstrated the large uncertainty in these coefficients because they are derived from a calibration procedure under ideal steady-state conditions, not actual landfill site conditions. In this study, the coefficients in the FOD model were estimated by a new approach to predict more precise long term methane generation by considering region-specific conditions. In the new approach, age-defined waste samples, which had been under the actual landfill site conditions, were collected in Hokkaido, Japan (in cold region), and the time series data on the age-defined waste sample's methane generation potential was used to estimate the coefficients in the FOD model. The degradation coefficients were 0.0501/y and 0.0621/y for paper and food waste, and the methane generation potentials were 214.4 mL/g-wet waste and 126.7 mL/g-wet waste for paper and food waste, respectively. These coefficients were compared with the default coefficients given by the IPCC. Although the degradation coefficient for food waste was smaller than the default value, the other coefficients were within the range of the default coefficients. With these new coefficients to calculate methane generation, the long term methane emissions from the landfill site was estimated at 1.35×10(4)m(3)-CH(4), which corresponds to approximately 2.53% of the total carbon dioxide emissions in the city (5.34×10(5)t-CO(2)/y). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program: integrating waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, J.L.; Sharples, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program was established to integrate Defense Programs' activities in hazardous and mixed waste management. The Program currently provides centralized planning and technical support to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs. More direct project management responsibilities may be assumed in the future. The Program, under the direction of the ASDP's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management, interacts with numerous organizational entities of the Department. The Oak Ridge Operations Office has been designated as the Lead Field Office. The Program's four current components cover remedial action project identification and prioritization; technology adaptation; an informative system; and a strategy study for long-term, ''corporate'' project and facility planning

  10. Disposal of radioactive and other hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boge, R.; Bergman, C.; Bergvall, S.; Gyllander, C.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was discuss legal, scientific and practical aspects of disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste and other types of hazardous waste. During the workshop the non-radioactive wastes discussed were mainly wastes from energy production, but also industrial, chemical and household wastes. The workshop gave the participants the opportunity to exchange information on policies, national strategies and other important matters. A number of invited papers were presented and the participants brought background papers, describing the national situation, that were used in the working groups. One of the main aims of the workshop was to discuss if the same basic philosophy as that used in radiation protection could be used in the assessment of disposal of non-radioactive waste, as well as to come up with identifications of areas for future work and to propose fields for research and international cooperation. The main text of the report consists of a summary of the discussions and the conclusions reached by the workshop

  11. Application study of RESRAD program in radiological impact assessment of very low level waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aihua; Huang Dan; Jia Chuanzhao; Shen Haibo; Huang Kedong

    2014-01-01

    The radiological impact assessment of release utilizing a very low level waste landfill at home was carried out by using RESRAD program. The basic principles, sub-models and calculation method of RESRAD program were outlined. The selection and processing of site-specific parameters were analyzed. Selecting resident farmer scenario, the effective dose of the resident was calculated after the landfill was open, and the critical pathway as well as the critical nuclides was analyzed further. The results show that, for this landfill the maximum effective dose per year is 0.003 mSv, 0.13% of the average global public natural background radiation dose. There is small dose contribution for radioactive nuclides with short life, but large dose contribution for the nuclides with small retardation factor and middle or long-life. For the latter, the main exposure pathway is the underwater route, and enhancing indoor ventilation is an effective way to eliminate radiation dose of radon. (authors)

  12. Planning document for the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Bostick, K.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy and Department of Defense are faced with the closure of thousands of decommissioned radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste landfills as a part of ongoing Environmental Restoration activities. Regulations on the closure of hazardous and radioactive waste landfills require the construction of a ''low-permeability'' cover over the unit to limit the migration of liquids into the underlying waste. These landfills must be maintained and monitored for 30 years to ensure that hazardous materials are not migrating from the landfill. This test plan is intended as an initial road map for planning, designing, constructing, evaluating, and documenting the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD). It describes the goals/ objectives, scope, tasks, responsibilities, technical approach, and deliverables for the demonstration

  13. Evaluation of methane oxidation activity in waste biocover soil during landfill stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Wang, Jing; Xia, Fang-Fang; Mao, Li-Juan; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Biocover soil has been demonstrated to have high CH(4) oxidation capacity and is considered as a good alternative cover material to mitigate CH(4) emission from landfills, yet the response of CH(4) oxidation activity of biocover soils to the variation of CH(4) loading during landfill stabilization is poorly understood. Compared with a landfill cover soil (LCS) collected from Hangzhou Tianziling landfill cell, the development of CH(4) oxidation activity of waste biocover soil (WBS) was investigated using simulated landfill systems in this study. Although a fluctuation of influent CH(4) flux occurred during landfill stabilization, the WBS covers showed a high CH(4) removal efficiency of 94-96% during the entire experiment. In the LCS covers, the CH(4) removal efficiencies varied with the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux, even negative ones occurred due to the storage of CH(4) in the soil porosities after the high CH(4) influent flux of ~137 gm(-2) d(-1). The lower concentrations of O(2) and CH(4) as well as the higher concentration of CO(2) were observed in the WBS covers than those in the LCS covers. The highest CH(4) oxidation rates of the two types of soil covers both occurred in the bottom layer (20-30 cm). Compared to the LCS, the WBS showed higher CH(4) oxidation activity and methane monooxygenase activity over the course of the experiment. Overall, this study indicated the WBS worked well for the fluctuation of CH(4) influent flux during landfill stabilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material for odour control at landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Claire [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Longhurst, Philip [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.j.longhurst@cranfield.ac.uk; Pollard, Simon [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Smith, Richard [Integrated Waste Management Centre, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Jefferson, Bruce [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Gronow, Jan [Environment Agency, Science Group - Waste and Remediation, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, West Midlands, B92 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    The ability of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material to reduce the odorous emissions associated with landfill surfaces was investigated. Trials were carried out using landfill gas, a certified sulphurous gas mix and ambient air as a control. Odorous gas was passed through portable test column filled with compost at different densities (590 kg/m{sup 3} and 740 kg/m{sup 3}). Gas samples were taken from the inlet, outlet and at varying column depths and examined using a combination of sensory analysis (olfactometry) and a novel analytical method (Transportable Selected Ion Flow Tube - TSIFT). Results for the trials using landfill gas showed a 69% odour reduction (OU/m{sup 3}) through the column for compost with a bulk density of 590 kg/m{sup 3}, and a reduction of 97% using compost with a bulk density of 740 kg/m{sup 3}. TSIFT analysis showed an overall decrease in the concentration of terpenes, and sulphurous compounds in the outlet gas from the column for both bulk densities. No significant trend could be identified for the concentrations at different depths within the column. Results show the ability of compost to reduce landfill odours under differing conditions. The inconclusive data provided by TSIFT analysis may be due to the analysis of compounds that are not contributing to odour, and thus highlights the potential for synergetic effects and the importance of sensory measurement when examining odorous emissions. - Practical measures to improve landfill odour control are investigated.

  15. Assessment of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material for odour control at landfill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, Claire; Longhurst, Philip; Pollard, Simon; Smith, Richard; Jefferson, Bruce; Gronow, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The ability of municipal waste compost as a daily cover material to reduce the odorous emissions associated with landfill surfaces was investigated. Trials were carried out using landfill gas, a certified sulphurous gas mix and ambient air as a control. Odorous gas was passed through portable test column filled with compost at different densities (590 kg/m 3 and 740 kg/m 3 ). Gas samples were taken from the inlet, outlet and at varying column depths and examined using a combination of sensory analysis (olfactometry) and a novel analytical method (Transportable Selected Ion Flow Tube - TSIFT). Results for the trials using landfill gas showed a 69% odour reduction (OU/m 3 ) through the column for compost with a bulk density of 590 kg/m 3 , and a reduction of 97% using compost with a bulk density of 740 kg/m 3 . TSIFT analysis showed an overall decrease in the concentration of terpenes, and sulphurous compounds in the outlet gas from the column for both bulk densities. No significant trend could be identified for the concentrations at different depths within the column. Results show the ability of compost to reduce landfill odours under differing conditions. The inconclusive data provided by TSIFT analysis may be due to the analysis of compounds that are not contributing to odour, and thus highlights the potential for synergetic effects and the importance of sensory measurement when examining odorous emissions. - Practical measures to improve landfill odour control are investigated

  16. Hydrologic studies of multilayered landfill covers for closure of waste landfills at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Langhorst, G.J.; Martin, C.E.; Martinez, J.L.; Schofield, T.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory examined water balance relationships for four different landfill cover designs containing engineered barriers. These field experiments were performed at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, in 1.0- by 10.0-m plots with downhill slopes of 5, 10, 15 and 25%. Field measurements of seepage, precipitation, interflow, runoff, and soil water content were collected in each of the 16 plots representing four slopes each with four cover designs: Conventional, EPA, Loam Capillary Barrier and Clay Loam Capillary Barrier. A seepage collection system was installed beneath each cover design to evaluate the influence of slope length on seepage using a series of four metal pans filled with medium gravel that were placed end-to-end in the bottom of each field plot. An automated waterflow datalogging system was used to collect hourly seepage, interflow and runoff data and consisted of 100 100-liter tanks, each of which was equipped with an ultrasonic liquid-level sensor and a motor-operated ball valve used to drain the tank. Soil water content was routinely monitored every six hours at each of 212 locations throughout the 16 plots with time domain reflectrometry (TDR) techniques using an automated and multiplexed measurement system

  17. Nasreya: a treatment and disposal facility for industrial hazardous waste in Alexandria, Egypt: phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Adham R; Kock, Per; Nadim, Amani

    2005-04-01

    A facility for the treatment and disposal of industrial hazardous waste has been established in Alexandria, Egypt. Phase I of the facility encompassing a secure landfill and solar evaporation ponds is ready to receive waste, and Phase II encompassing physico-chemical treatment, solidification, and interim storage is underway. The facility, the Nasreya Centre, is the first of its kind in Egypt, and represents the nucleus for the integration, improvement and further expansion of different hazardous waste management practices and services in Alexandria. It has been developed within the overall legal framework of the Egyptian Law for the Environment, and is expected to improve prospects for enforcement of the regulatory requirements specified in this law. It has been developed with the overall aim of promoting the establishment of an integrated industrial hazardous waste management system in Alexandria, serving as a demonstration to be replicated elsewhere in Egypt. For Phase I, the Centre only accepts inorganic industrial wastes. In this respect, a waste acceptance policy has been developed, which is expected to be reviewed during Phase II, with an expansion of the waste types accepted.

  18. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  19. Assessing the impact of hazardous waste on children's health: The exposome paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of the health impacts related to hazardous waste is a major scientific challenge with multiple societal implications. Most studies related to associations between hazardous waste and public health do not provide established of mechanistic links between environmental exposure and disease burden, resulting in ineffective waste management options. The exposome concept comes to overhaul the nature vs. nurture paradigm and embraces a world of dynamic interactions between environmental exposures, endogenous exposures and genetic expression in humans. In this context, the exposome paradigm provides a novel tool for holistic hazardous waste management. Waste streams and the related contamination of environmental media are not viewed in isolation, but rather as components of the expotype, the vector of exposures an individual is exposed to over time. Thus, a multi-route and multi-pathway exposure estimation can be performed setting a realistic basis for integrated health risk assessment. Waste management practices are thus assessed not only regarding their technological edge and efficacy but also their effects on human health at the individual and community level, considering intra-subject variability in the affected population. The effectiveness of the exposome approach is demonstrated in the case of Athens, the capital of Greece, where the health effects associated to long term and short term exposure to two major waste management facilities (landfill and plastic recycling) are presented. Using the exposome analysis tools, we confirmed that proximity to a landfill is critical for children neurodevelopment. However, this effect is significantly modified by parameters such as parental education level, socioeconomic status and nutrition. Proximity to a plastics recycling plant does not pose significant threats under normal operating conditions; yet, in the case of an accidental fire, release of persistent carcinogenic compounds (dioxins and furans) even for a

  20. Slope stability of bioreactor landfills during leachate injection: effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic municipal solid waste conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Rajiv K; Reddy, Krishna R

    2014-03-01

    In bioreactor landfills, leachate recirculation can significantly affect the stability of landfill slope due to generation and distribution of excessive pore fluid pressures near side slope. The current design and operation of leachate recirculation systems do not consider the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the increased pore gas pressures in landfilled waste caused due to leachate recirculation on the physical stability of landfill slope. In this study, a numerical two-phase flow model (landfill leachate and gas as immiscible phases) was used to investigate the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of MSW on moisture distribution and pore-water and capillary pressures and their resulting impacts on the stability of a simplified bioreactor landfill during leachate recirculation using horizontal trench system. The unsaturated hydraulic properties of MSW were considered based on the van Genuchten model. The strength reduction technique was used for slope stability analyses as it takes into account of the transient and spatially varying pore-water and gas pressures. It was concluded that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW with varied unit weight and saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly influenced the moisture distribution and generation and distribution of pore fluid pressures in landfill and considerably reduced the stability of bioreactor landfill slope. It is recommended that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW must be considered as it provides a more reliable approach for the design and leachate operations in bioreactor landfills.

  1. Hazardous and toxic waste management in Botswana: practices and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, Daniel; Li, Baizhan; Meng, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Hazardous and toxic waste is a complex waste category because of its inherent chemical and physical characteristics. It demands for environmentally sound technologies and know-how as well as clean technologies that simultaneously manage and dispose it in an environmentally friendly way. Nevertheless, Botswana lacks a system covering all the critical steps from importation to final disposal or processing of hazardous and toxic waste owing to limited follow-up of the sources and types of hazardous and toxic waste, lack of modern and specialised treatment/disposal facilities, technical know-how, technically skilled manpower, funds and capabilities of local institutions to take lead in waste management. Therefore, because of a lack of an integrated system, there are challenges such as lack of cooperation among all the stakeholders about the safe management of hazardous and toxic waste. Furthermore, Botswana does not have a systematic regulatory framework regarding monitoring and hazardous and toxic waste management. In addition to the absence of a systematic regulatory framework, inadequate public awareness and dissemination of information about hazardous and toxic waste management, slower progress to phase-out persistent and bio-accumulative waste, and lack of reliable and accurate information on hazardous and toxic waste generation, sources and composition have caused critical challenges to effective hazardous and toxic waste management. It is, therefore, important to examine the status of hazardous and toxic waste as a waste stream in Botswana. By default; this mini-review article presents an overview of the current status of hazardous and toxic waste management and introduces the main challenges in hazardous and toxic waste management. Moreover, the article proposes the best applicable strategies to achieve effective hazardous and toxic waste management in the future. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged

  3. Case study on prediction of remaining methane potential of landfilled municipal solid waste by statistical analysis of waste composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, İlker; Çakmakcı, Mehmet; Özkaya, Bestamin; Suphi Altan, H

    2016-10-01

    Main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model for easier and faster Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) prediction of landfilled municipal solid waste by analyzing waste composition of excavated samples from 12 sampling points and three waste depths representing different landfilling ages of closed and active sections of a sanitary landfill site located in İstanbul, Turkey. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used as a decision support tool to evaluation and describe the waste composition variables. Four principal component were extracted describing 76% of data set variance. The most effective components were determined as PCB, PO, T, D, W, FM, moisture and BMP for the data set. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were built by original compositional data and transformed data to determine differences. It was observed that even residual plots were better for transformed data the R(2) and Adjusted R(2) values were not improved significantly. The best preliminary BMP prediction models consisted of D, W, T and FM waste fractions for both versions of regressions. Adjusted R(2) values of the raw and transformed models were determined as 0.69 and 0.57, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Choice of noxious facilities: case of a solid waste incinerator versus a sanitary landfill in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Khee, Pek Chuen

    2014-05-01

    A choice experiment analysis was conducted to estimate the preference for specific waste disposal technologies in Malaysia. The study found that there were no significant differences between the choice of a sanitary landfill or an incinerator. What matters is whether any disposal technology would lead to obvious social benefits. A waste disposal plan which is well linked or integrated with the community will ensure its acceptance. Local authorities will be challenged to identify solid waste disposal sites that are technically appropriate and also socially desirable.

  5. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumathi, V.R.; Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-01-01

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process

  6. VEGETATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE LANDFILLS WITHIN THE AGGLOMERATION OF THE CAPITAL CITY OF WARSAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz H. Dyguś

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of examination of the vegetation on the waste landfill of ArcelorMittal-Warszawa steel mill and the combustion waste landfill of Siekierki Power Station, both sites in Warsaw. The presented analyses of the field research contain detailed floristic-phytosociological data as well as botanical and ecological evaluation of the identified plants. The vegetative structures, together with the succession trends of the vegetation cover of two examined landfills, have been shown. Ecological habitat adaptations of plants and their spatial structure have been evaluated. The inventoried flora has been subjected to taxonomic, syntaxonomic and ecological classification. 154 plant species from 48 taxones in the range of families have been identified. Families characterized by the biggest abundance of species were: Compositae, grasses and Fabaceae. More than half of the live forms indentified were hemicryptophytes. The vegetation of two landfills has been dominated by synantrophic communities (Stellarietea mediae, Artemisietea vulgaris, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, with apophytes being in the largest number. With the use of ecological indicators a broad ecological tolerance of the majority of species toward ecological factors has been observed.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill: Innovative strategies towards characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardito, Cynthia P.; Parsons, Alva M.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Phelan, James M.; Mattson, Earl D.

    1992-01-01

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) was used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque for disposal of hazardous chemicals from the years 1962 to 1985. During routine sampling in the spring of 1990, low levels of trichloroethylene (TCE) were detected in groundwater samples from a water table aquifer approximately 146 meters below ground surface. Therefore, a RCRA Site Investigation (RSI) has been initiated and remediation of organic contaminants will be performed at the CWL prior to closure of this landfill. The RSI is focused on optimal characterization of the volatile organic contamination (VOC) and dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination at this site. This will be possible through application of innovative strategies for characterization and promising new technologies which are discussed in this paper. The first part of this paper provides a discussion of conceptual models of VOC and DNAPL transport at the CWL and an overview of our investigative strategy. Each stage of the RSI has been developed to gather information which will reduce the uncertainty in the design of each subsequent phase of the investigation. Three stages are described; a source characterization stage, unsaturated zone characterization stage, and a saturated zone characterization stage. An important focus of the unsaturated zone characterization phase is to provide all data necessary to make decisions concerning the necessity of additional saturated zone characterization. The second part of this paper presents a brief discussion of some innovative approaches to characterization and remediation that are being applied at the CWL. Through the. SNL Environmental Restoration Program's desire to find new and improved methods for site characterization and remediation, several innovative technologies have been identified. These technologies include: the surface towed arrays developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for use in locating buried ordinance, core drilling using sonic

  8. Complete decay of radionuclides: Implications for low-level waste disposal in municipal landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meck, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The time required for the complete decay of a radioactive source can be quantified by specifying an acceptable probability and using an original derivation. The physical phenomenon of complete decay may be used as the technical basis to change regulations and permit, with public acceptance, the inexpensive disposal of short half-lived radioactive waste into municipal landfills. Current regulations require isolation of trash form the biosphere for 30 years during the post-closure control period for municipal landfills. Thirty years is sufficient time for complete decay of significant quantities of short-lived radionuclides, and there is a large decay capacity in the nation's landfills. As the major generators of low-level radioactive waste with relatively short half-lives, the academic, medical, and research communities likely would benefit most from such regulatory relief. Disposal of such waste is prohibited or costly. The waste must be specially packaged, stored, transported, and disposed in designated repositories. Regulatory relief can be initiated by citizens since the Administrative Procedures Act gives citizens the right to petition for regulatory change. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The current state of municipal solid waste landfills in Suceava county and their impact on water and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   The location of municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in inappropriate places is a serious risk to the quality of all environmental factors. These waste disposal sites can become major sources of chemical pollution and biological contamination of soil, groundwater and surface waters due to the high content of heavy metals and organic substances with low biodegradation rate.The paper discusses in detail the issues of the landfill sites territorial distribution in Suceava County (the Mirăuţi landfill, located in the adjacent area of Suceava city and the Gura Humorului, Radauti, Siret, Campulung Moldovenesc, Fălticeni and Vatra Dornei urban landfills, together with a review of the technical data of the landfills, as well as an evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative effects they produce on the landscape, soil and groundwater quality.

  11. Characterizing the biotransformation of sulfur-containing wastes in simulated landfill reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Sun, Mei; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-07-01

    Landfills that accept municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. may also accept a number of sulfur-containing wastes including residues from coal or MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, microbially mediated processes can convert sulfate to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The presence of H2S in landfill gas is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, human toxicity, and corrosive nature. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a laboratory-scale reactor method to measure the H2S production potential of a range of sulfur-containing wastes. The H2S production potential was measured in 8-L reactors that were filled with a mixture of the target waste, newsprint as a source of organic carbon required for microbial sulfate reduction, and leachate from decomposed residential MSW as an inoculum. Reactors were operated with and without N2 sparging through the reactors, which was designed to reduce H2S accumulation and toxicity. Both H2S and CH4 yields were consistently higher in reactors that were sparged with N2 although the magnitude of the effect varied. The laboratory-measured first order decay rate constants for H2S and CH4 production were used to estimate constants that were applicable in landfills. The estimated constants ranged from 0.11yr(-1) for C&D fines to 0.38yr(-1) for a mixed fly ash and bottom ash from MSW combustion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  13. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste

  14. Hazardous waste systems analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urioste, J.

    1997-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory produces routine and non-routine hazardous waste as a by-product of mission operations. Hazardous waste commonly generated at the Laboratory includes many types of laboratory research chemicals, solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, compressed gases, metals, and other solid waste contaminated with hazardous waste. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental Stewardship Office has established a Hazardous Waste Minimization Coordinator to specifically focus on routine and non-routine RCRA, TSCA, and other administratively controlled wastes. In this process, the Waste Minimization Coordinator has developed and implemented a systems approach to define waste streams, estimate waste management costs and develop plans to implement avoidance practices, and develop projects to reduce or eliminate the waste streams at the Laboratory. The paper describes this systems approach

  15. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions

  16. Mixed waste removal from a hazardous waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel transfer canal at the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was found to be leaking 400 gallons of water per day into the surrounding soil. Sampling of the sediment layer on the floor of the canal to determine the environmental impact of the leak identified significant radiological contamination and elevated levels of cadmium and lead which are hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under RCRA regulations and Rules of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the canal was considered a hazardous waste storage tank. This paper describes elements of the radiological control program established in support of a fast-track RCRA closure plan that involved underwater mapping of the radiation fields, vacuuming, and ultra-filtration techniques that were successfully used to remove the mixed waste sediments and close the canal in a method compliant with state and federal regulations

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  19. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calaf-Forn, Maria, E-mail: mcalaf@ent.cat [Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona (Spain); Roca, Jordi [Departament de Teoria Econòmica, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Diagonal, 696, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi [ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  20. Possible interactions between recirculated landfill leachate and the stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    The stabilized organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SOFMSW) is a product of the mechanical/biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). SOFMSW is considered a 'grey' compost and the presence of pollutants (particularly heavy metals) and residual glass and plastic normally prevents agricultural use, making landfills the typical final destination for SOFMSW. Recirculation of leachate in landfills can be a cost-effective management option, but the long-term sustainability of such a practice must be verified. Column tests were carried out to examine the effect of SOFMSW on leachate recirculation. The results indicate that organic matter may be biologically degraded and metals (copper and zinc) are effectively entrapped through a combination of physical (adsorption), biological (bacterial sulfate reduction), and chemical (precipitation of metal sulfides) processes, while other chemicals (i.e. ammonia nitrogen and chloride) are essentially unaffected by filtration through SOFMSW.

  1. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste determination. 262.11 Section 262.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Administrator under 40 CFR 260.21; or (2) Applying knowledge of the hazard characteristic of the waste in light...

  2. 40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (viii) The quantities of the waste generated at individual generation sites or on a regional or national... result of the improper management of wastes containing the constituent. (x) Action taken by other... frequently are hazardous under the definition of hazardous waste found in section 1004(5) of the Act. (c) The...

  3. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment ''systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs

  4. Adaptive control of manipulators handling hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses on developing a robot control system capable of meeting hazardous waste handling application requirements, and presents as a solution an adaptive strategy for controlling the mechanical impedance of kinematically redundant manipulators. The proposed controller is capable of accurate end-effector impedance control and effective redundancy utilization, does not require knowledge of the complex robot dynamic model or parameter values for the robot or the environment, and is implemented without calculation of the robot inverse transformation. Computer simulation results are given for a four degree of freedom redundant robot under adaptive impedance control. These results indicate that the proposed controller is capable of successfully performing important tasks in robotic waste handling applications. (author) 3 figs., 39 refs

  5. Bioprocessing of concentrated mixed hazardous industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Silver, G.; Attalla, A.; Prisc, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of selected microorganisms for the degradation and/or the detoxification of hazardous organic compounds is gaining wide acceptance as an alternative waste treatment technology. This work describes the unique capabilities of an isolated strain of Pseudomonas for metabolizing methylated aromatic compounds. This strain of Pseudomonas putida Idaho is unique in that it can tolerate and grow under a layer of neat p-xylene. A bioprocess has been developed to degrade LLW and mixed wastes containing methylated aromatic compounds, i.e., pseudocumene, toluene and p-xylene. The process is now in the demonstration phase at a DOE facility and has been running for one year. Feed concentrations of 21200 ppm of the toxic organic substrate have been fed to the bioreactor. This report describes the results obtained thus far

  6. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiological consequences of proposed landfilling of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, P.

    1991-01-01

    A proposal for landfilling of low-level radioactive waste (100 GBq in 10 000 m 3 ) at Ringhals Nuclear Power Plants was sent to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SRPI) in 1989. In 1990, slight changes were made to the proposal to overcome the conventional risks of landfilling. In the proposed method, most of the low-level wastes is compacted and put into sealed plastic packages. The waste is then placed on a sand-moraine bed above a level-blasted rock surface. The area above and between the waste packages is filled with a sand-seashell mixture for pH adjustment of any waster infiltrating into the site. The whole deposit is covered with a least 50 cm of moraine in order to attenuate most of the radiation form the waste and to prevent rainwater from reaching the waste. Downstream from the deposit, there is a retention bed made of seashells and seaweed. Any small quantities of water from the deposit passing through the retention bed, as well as rainwater, will continue out to the sea. Use of this method will most probably not lead to an increase in the radiation dose to people outside the site. In the rather improbable case of intrusion into the deposit after 50 years, a maximum dose of 10 μSv per year would be received. If all the radioactivity were to be transported to the sea in one year, as a results of the breakdown of all the barrier, an individual eating fish caught in the vicinity of the site would receive less than 25 μSv during the following year. In the worst case, if the waste ignites prior to, or during landfilling, individuals living at a distance of 1 km from the fire could receive a dose of less than 20 μSv. (au)

  8. Recovering energy and materials from hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The tannery industry faces growing environmental concerns because of the high hazardous metal content of its process waste. The formation, during the tanning process, of the highly toxic hexavalent chromium precludes the use of conventional thermal incineration processes. Borge Tannery in Norway, which processes 600 cattle hides per day, has solved the problem by using new PyroArc technology. The PyroArc waste processing plant can treat all of the tannery's production wastes, transforming them into useful products such as fuel gas and re-usable metal. The fuel gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, and has a calorific value of about 4 MJ/Nm{sub 3}. About 65-70% of the energy content of the source material (waste or biomass) is recovered in the gas, and this is used to produce steam and/or electricity in a gas engine with a capacity of 580 kW. A further 20-25% of the initial energy content is recovered as heat or low-pressure steam. The plant is designed to be self-sufficient in energy (1.5 MW) and to meet the tannery's maximum requirements for hot water and steam. (UK)

  9. Interaction of Degradation, Deformation and Transport Processes in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Bente, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a model for the complex interactions between deformation, degradation and transport processe in municipal solid waste landfills is presented. Key aspects of the model are a joint continuum mechanical framework and a monolithic solution of the governing equations within the Theory of Porous Media. Interactions are considered by coupling the governing physical fields over the domain of a representative elementary volume via selected state variables. A simplified two-stage degrada...

  10. Health risk assessment as an approach to manage an old landfill and to propose integrated solid waste treatment: A case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, O; Massabò, M

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill. Hazard Index (HI) and Cancer Risk (CR) in case of operating landfill and under the suspected situation of failure of the sealing system, were respectively 1.15 and 1.1∗10 -7 . Unacceptable HI were found due to groundwater contamination, while HI due to river pollution was slightly under the threshold. Vegetables ingestion was the most important pathway and ammonia the most responsible of toxic adverse effects. Fish ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated water were found to be the most important exposure pathways for carcinogenic risk, due mainly to BTEX. HI and CR in the supposed scenario of total waste gasification were respectively 9.4∗10 -1 and 1.1∗10 -5 while they were respectively 3.2∗10 -1 and 6∗10 -6 in case of gasification of the dry fraction. CR in both scenarios was over the threshold mainly due to dioxins, where milk and meat ingestion were found to be the highest risk pathways. Inhalation resulted as the highest not-carcinogenic risk exposure pathway, mainly due to NOx. Decision making was made by weighing up the different scenarios, and results

  11. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  12. Zero air emission and zero drilling waste landfill leachate collection well installation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.S.; Hornsby, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Landfilling of industrial wastes is an extensively used means of disposal throughout the US. Prior to RCRA, many landfills were little more than excavated trenches. During the construction and filling of such trenches, the long-term environmental impact was seldom considered. Water (leachate) management for these early landfills was not part of engineering or operating considerations. Today, waste management facilities succeed or fail on the quality of their leachate management efforts, as judged by groundwater quality around the landfill. The CECOS International Inc. facility near Livingston, Louisiana has three pre-RCRA disposal units (landfills) that were designed, constructed, and closed by a previous owner. These disposal units were constructed without any type of leachate removal system. During 1984-1985, samples from two nearby monitor wells revealed evidence of groundwater contamination in the area, principally in the shallow (30-foot) zone. A one-year, state-approved groundwater assessment revealed the nature and extent of groundwater contamination. Later, the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) approved a remedial action plan (RAP) for this area that included: Installation of an engineered slurry wall surrounding the disposal units to isolate the shallow groundwater regime. Placement of an engineered cap over the units to prevent rainwater infiltration. Installation of several recovery wells inside the units to facilitate removal of leachate. While efforts are now underway to provide for removal of impacted groundwater in the vicinity of these old wells, the long-term solution is to reduce or, to the greatest extent possible, eliminate the liquid volume inside the cells. This paper deals with the installation of 16 leachate recovery wells inside the pre-RCRA disposal units

  13. Comparison between landfill gas and waste incineration for power generation in Astana, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Rojas-Solórzano, Luis; Kim, Jong; Aitbekova, Aisulu; Ismailova, Aizada

    2015-05-01

    The city of Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, which has a population of 804,474, and has been experiencing rapid growth over the last 15 years, generates approximately 1.39 kg capita(-1) day(-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW). Nearly 700 tonnes of MSW are collected daily, of which 97% is disposed of at landfills. The newest landfill was built using modern technologies, including a landfill gas (LFG) collection system.The rapid growth of Astana demands more energy on its path to development, and the viability analysis of MSW to generate electricity is imperative. This paper presents a technical-economic pre-feasibility study comparing landfill including LFG utilization and waste incineration (WI) to produce electricity. The performance of LFG with a reciprocating engine and WI with steam turbine power technologies were compared through corresponding greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction, cost of energy production (CEP), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) from the analyses. Results demonstrate that in the city of Astana, WI has the potential to reduce more than 200,000 tonnes of GHG per year, while LFG could reduce slightly less than 40,000 tonnes. LFG offers a CEP 5.7% larger than WI, while the latter presents a BCR two times higher than LFG. WI technology analysis depicts a NPV exceeding 280% of the equity, while for LFG, the NPV is less than the equity, which indicates an expected remarkable financial return for the WI technology and a marginal and risky scenario for the LFG technology. Only existing landfill facilities with a LFG collection system in place may turn LFG into a viable project. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Biological denitrification from mature landfill leachate using a food-waste-derived carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Haowei; Liu, Nuo; Zou, Quan

    2018-05-15

    The mature landfill leachate containing high ammonia concentration (>1000 mg/L) is a serious threat to environment; however, the low COD to TN ratio (C/N, waste and oil-added food waste, were first applied as external carbon sources for the biological nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachate in an aerobic/anoxic membrane bioreactor. "Acidogenic liquid b" served quite better than commercial sodium acetate, considering the higher denitrification efficiency and the slightly rapider denitrification rate. The effect of C/N and temperature were investigated under hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 d, which showed that C/N ≥ 7 (25 °C) was enough to meet the general discharge standards of NH 4 + -N, TN and COD in China. Even for some special areas of China, the more stringent discharge standards (NH 4 + -N ≤ 8 mg/L, TN ≤ 20 mg/L) could also be achieved under longer HRT of 14 d and C/N ≥ 6. Notably, the COD concentration in effluent could also be well reduced to 50-55 mg/L, without further physical-chemical treatment. This proposed strategy, involving the high-value utilization of food waste, is thus promising for efficient nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced Fuzzy-OWA model for municipal solid waste landfill site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Abujayyab, Sohaib K. M.

    2017-10-01

    In Malaysia, the municipal solid waste landfill site is an essential facility that needs to be evaluated as its demand is infrequently getting higher. The increment of waste generation forces the government to cater the appropriate site for waste disposal. However, the selection process for new landfill sites is a difficult task with regard to land scarcity and time consumption. In addition, the complication will proliferate when there are various criteria to be considered. Therefore, this paper intends to show the significance of the fuzzy logic-ordered weighted average (Fuzzy-OWA) model for the landfill site suitability analysis. The model was developed to generalize the multi-criteria combination that was extended to the GIS applications as part of the decision support module. OWA has the capability to implement different combination operators through the selection of appropriate order weight that is possible in changing the form of aggregation such as minimum, intermediate and maximum types of combination. OWA give six forms of aggregation results that have their specific significance that indirectly evaluates the environmental, physical and socio-economic (EPSE) criteria respectively. Nevertheless, one of the aggregated results has shown similarity with the weighted linear combination (WLC) method.

  16. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  17. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed

  18. Hazardous E-waste and its impact on soil structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharini, K.; Cynthia, J. Bernadette; Kamalambikai, B.; Sudar Celestina, J. P. Arul; Muthu, D.

    2017-07-01

    E-waste disposal has been a significant issue over the past few decades with the development of technology and the plethora of electronic products produced. The inclusive term E-Waste encapsulates various forms of electrical and electronical equipment which provides no value to the current owners and it is one among the fastest growing waste streams. E-Waste is a complex, non-biodegradable waste which is generally dumped in mountain like heaps. These wastes are said to have a large quantities of lead, cadmium, arsenic etc.it is mandatory to dispose such scrupulously since they have the ability to affect the soil and water parameters. Solid waste management is a blooming field which strives to reduce the accumulation of used electronic gadgets. Rainwater gets infiltrated through the e-waste landfill and it leaches through the soil which in turn reaches the groundwater directly thereby affecting the water intended for drinking and domestic purposes. This study focuses on the consequences of toxic waste by comparing the difference in properties of the soil structure prior to and after the e-waste landfill at various concentrations.

  19. 77 FR 43002 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... ConocoPhillips filter press processing of storm water Billings Refinery). tank sludge (F037) generated at... residual solids from the processed storm water tank sludge meet the delisting levels in 40 CFR 261 Appendix... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 [FRL 9704-1] Hazardous Waste Management System...

  20. 77 FR 12497 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...,'' from the list of hazardous wastes, a maximum of 200 cubic yards per year of residual solids from sludge... accept the delisted processed storm water tank sludge. This rule also imposes testing conditions for... of F037 residual solids from processing (for oil recovery) sludge removed from two storm water tanks...

  1. Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, G A [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

  2. CCA-treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna; Weitz, Keith; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy; Thorneloe, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. Although some countries have banned the use of the product for some applications, others have not, and the product continues to enter the waste stream from construction, demolition and remodeling projects. CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. In the US, CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills; however some of the wood is combusted in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. In other countries, the predominant disposal option for wood, sometimes including CCA-treated wood, is combustion for the production of energy. This paper presents an estimate of the quantity of CCA-treated wood entering the disposal stream in the US, as well as an examination of the trade-offs between landfilling and WTE combustion of CCA-treated wood through a life-cycle assessment and decision support tool (MSW DST). Based upon production statistics, the estimated life span and the phaseout of CCA-treated wood, recent disposal projections estimate the peak US disposal rate to occur in 2008, at 9.7 million m(3). CCA-treated wood, when disposed with construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW), has been found to increase arsenic and chromium concentrations in leachate. For this reason, and because MSW landfills are lined, MSW landfills have been recommended as a preferred disposal option over unlined C&D debris landfills. Between landfilling and WTE for the same mass of CCA-treated wood, WTE is more expensive (nearly twice the cost), but when operated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, it produces energy and does not emit fossil carbon emissions. If the wood is managed via WTE, less landfill area is required, which could be an influential trade-off in some countries. Although metals are concentrated

  3. Application of geographical information system in disposal site selection for hazardous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeimahmoudi, Mehdi; Esmaeli, Abdolreza; Gharegozlu, Alireza; Shabanian, Hassan; Rokni, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a scientific method based on Geographical Information System (GIS) regarding all sustainable development measures to locate a proper landfill for disposal of hazardous wastes, especially industrial (radioactive) wastes. Seven effective factors for determining hazardous waste landfill were applied in Qom Province, central Iran. These criteria included water, slope, population centers, roads, fault, protected areas and geology. The Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP) model based on pair comparison was used. First, the weight of each factor was determined by experts; afterwards each layer of maps entered to ARC GIS and with special weight multiplied together, finally the best suitable site was introduced. The most suitable sites for burial were in northwest and west of Qom Province and eventually five zones were introduced as the sample sites. GIs and AHP model is introduced as the technical, useful and accelerator tool for disposal site selection. Furthermore it is determined that geological factor is the most effective layer for site selection. It is suggested that geological conditions should be considered primarily then other factors are taken into consideration.

  4. The impact of a 50% reduction of solid waste disposal in Canada on methane emissions from landfills in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, L.M.F.; Owen, G.T.; Barclay, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan established a goal of 50% reduction in municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal between 1988 and the year 2000. Canada has also committed to stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by 2000. MSW landfills are targeted since they account for a significant portion of anthropogenic methane emissions. Current composition and quantities of MSW were estimated. Using five scenarios for achieving a 50% reduction of waste disposed, the quantities and composition of waste managed were estimated through to the year 2000. A first-order decay model was used to estimate methane emissions from landfills of each scenario by varying the methane generation potential (L o ) based on the amount of biodegradable carbon in the MSW stream. Despite the overall reduction in waste, methane emissions are still projected on increase between 1990 and 2000 for scenarios with 25 to 45% of waste going to landfill in 2000. The estimated increases in methane emissions range from 2% for the high composting scenario to 16% for the high landfill scenario. In general, emissions peak during the 1990's and are decreasing by 2000. The projected increase in emissions is due to the 65--75% contribution of MSW landfilled before 1990. In conclusion, a significant reduction in methane emissions from landfills by 2000 will require methane recovery systems in addition to MSW reduction initiatives

  5. Management of Hazardous Waste in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, H.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia needs to build four Treatment Centrals for 229,907 tons per year produced hazardous waste. But almost all hazardous waste treatment is managed by just one company at present, namely PT. PPLI (Prasada Pamunah Limbah Industri). This research is based on collected data which identifies payback period of 0.69 years and rate of return 85 %. PT PPLI is located within the Cileungsi District of the Bogor Regency of West Java Province. Records from nearest rainfall station at Cibinong indicate that annual average rainfall for the site is about 3,600 mm. It is situated on hilly terrain and is characterized by steep slopes as well as has a very complex geological structure. The Tertiary sequence was folded to form an assymetric anticline with axis trend in an East-West direction. Three major faults cut the middle of the site in a North-South direction with a vertical displacement of about 1.5 meters and a zone width of 1 meter. The high concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 2500 ppm in Secondary Leachate Collection System (SLCS) indicate a possible failure of the Primary Leachate Clection System (PLCS), which need correct action to prevent groundwater contamination.

  6. Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Otoniel, Buenrostro; Liliana, Marquez-Benavides; Gaona Francelia, Pinette

    2008-01-01

    Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied

  7. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  8. Characterization of trichloroethylene adsorption onto waste biocover soil in the presence of landfill gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Su, Yao; Kong, Jiaoyan

    2015-09-15

    Waste biocover soils (WBS) have been demonstrated to have great potential in mitigating trichloroethylene (TCE) emission from landfills, due to the relatively high TCE-degrading capacity. In this study, the characteristics of TCE adsorption on WBS in the presence of the major landfill gas components (i.e., CH4 and CO2) were investigated in soil microcosms. The adsorption isotherm of TCE onto WBS was fitted well with linear model within the TCE concentrations of 7000 ppmv. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto WBS was affected by temperature, soil moisture content and particle size, of which, temperature was the dominant factor. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto the experimental materials increased with the increasing organic matter content. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the adsorption capacity of TCE and the organic matter content of experimental materials that had relatively higher organic content (r = 0.988, P = 0.044). To better understand WBS application in practice, response surface methodology was developed to predict TCE adsorption capacity and emissions through WBS in different landfills in China. These results indicated that WBS had high adsorption capacity of TCE in LFG and temperature should be paid more attention to manipulate WBS to reduce TCE emissions from landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Raster-based outranking method: a new approach for municipal solid waste landfill (MSW) siting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Mohamad; Abbaspour, Rahim Ali; Davalou, Romina

    2015-08-01

    MSW landfill siting is a complicated process because it requires integration of several factors. In this paper, geographic information system (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) were combined to handle the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill siting. For this purpose, first, 16 input data layers were prepared in GIS environment. Then, the exclusionary lands were eliminated and potentially suitable areas for the MSW disposal were identified. These potentially suitable areas, in an innovative approach, were further examined by deploying Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) II and analytic network process (ANP), which are two of the most recent MCDA methods, in order to determine land suitability for landfilling. PROMETHEE II was used to determine a complete ranking of the alternatives, while ANP was employed to quantify the subjective judgments of evaluators as criteria weights. The resulting land suitability was reported on a grading scale of 1-5 from 1 to 5, which is the least to the most suitable area, respectively. Finally, three optimal sites were selected by taking into consideration the local conditions of 15 sites, which were candidates for MSW landfilling. Research findings show that the raster-based method yields effective results.

  10. Spatial effect of new municipal solid waste landfill siting using different guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2014-01-01

    Proper implementation of landfill siting with the right regulations and constraints can prevent undesirable long-term effects. Different countries have respective guidelines on criteria for new landfill sites. In this article, we perform a comparative study of municipal solid waste landfill siting criteria stated in the policies and guidelines of eight different constitutional bodies from Malaysia, Australia, India, U.S.A., Europe, China and the Middle East, and the World Bank. Subsequently, a geographic information system (GIS) multi-criteria evaluation model was applied to determine new suitable landfill sites using different criterion parameters using a constraint mapping technique and weighted linear combination. Application of Macro Modeler provided in the GIS-IDRISI Andes software helps in building and executing multi-step models. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process technique was included to determine the criterion weight of the decision maker's preferences as part of the weighted linear combination procedure. The differences in spatial results of suitable sites obtained signifies that dissimilarity in guideline specifications and requirements will have an effect on the decision-making process.

  11. A framework for a decision support system for municipal solid waste landfill design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verge, Ashley; Rowe, R Kerry

    2013-12-01

    A decision support system (Landfill Advisor or LFAdvisor) was developed to integrate current knowledge of barrier systems into a computer application to assist in landfill design. The program was developed in Visual Basic and includes an integrated database to store information. LFAdvisor presents the choices available for each liner component (e.g. leachate collection system, geomembrane liner, clay liners) and provides advice on their suitability for different situations related to municipal solid waste landfills (e.g. final cover, base liner, lagoon liner). Unique to LFAdvisor, the service life of each engineered component is estimated based on results from the latest research. LFAdvisor considers the interactions between liner components, operating conditions, and the existing site environment. LFAdvisor can be used in the initial stage of design to give designers a good idea of what liner components will likely be required, while alerting them to issues that are likely to arise. A systems approach is taken to landfill design with the ultimate goal of maximising long-term performance and service life.

  12. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Standard and alternative landfill capping design in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Franz-Georg; Mueller, Werner W.

    2004-01-01

    Engineered capping systems are in most cases an indispensable and often the only efficient component required by the long-term safety concept for landfills, mine tailings tips and contaminated land. In Germany the composite liner is the main component of standard landfill cappings for municipal and hazardous waste landfills and the compacted clay liner (CCL) for landfills for inert or low-contamination waste. The composite liner is a technically highly effective but very expensive system. Research and experience has given rise to concern about the proper long-term performance of a conventional single CCL as a landfill capping. Therefore, alternative capping systems are discussed and applied for landfills and for the containment of contaminated sites. This paper gives an overview on various alternative engineered cappings and suitable systems for capping reflecting the state of the art and the expert view in Germany. According to the European Council Directive on the landfill of waste an impermeable mineral layer is recommended for the surface sealing of non-hazardous landfills and a composition of artificial sealing liner and impermeable mineral layer for hazardous landfills. In both cases a drainage layer thickness of at least 0.5 m is suggested. These recommendations should be interpreted flexibly and to some extent modified in the light of the experience and results presented in this paper

  14. Developments in, and environmental impacts of, electricity generation from municipal solid waste and landfill gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1991 NFFO allocations for renewable energy generation are reviewed with emphasis on electricity from municipal solid waste (MSW) and landfill gas (LFG) combustion tranches. The implications of materials recovery on the calorific value of MSW are considered, as are the environmental impacts of both MSW and LFG combustion with special reference to air pollutant emissions. The performance and economics of state of the art incineration and LFG power generating plants are examined. It is shown that energy recovery from these wastes can be both cost effective and environmentally desirable. (Author)

  15. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  16. Application of non-intrusive geophysical techniques at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peace, J.L.; Goering, T.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessment and remediation of the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The Mixed Waste Landfill is an inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. The landfill contains disposal pits and trenches of questionable location and dimension. Non-intrusive geophysical techniques were utilized to provide an effective means of determining the location and dimension of suspected waste disposal trenches before Resource Conservation and Recovery Act intrusive assessment activities were initiated. Geophysical instruments selected for this investigation included a Geonics EM-31 ground conductivity meter, the new Geonics EM-61 high precision, time-domain metal detector, and a Geometrics 856 total field magnetometer. The results of these non-intrusive geophysical techniques were evaluated to enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of future waste-site investigations at Environmental Restoration Project sites

  17. ORNL grouting technologies for immobilizing hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, L.R.; Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Cement and Concrete Applications Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed versatile and inexpensive processes to solidify large quantities of hazardous liquids, sludges, and solids. By using standard off the shelf processing equipment, these batch or continuous processes are compatible with a wide range of disposal methods, such as above-ground storage, shallow-land burial, deep geological disposal, sea-bed dumping, and bulk in-situ solidification. Because of their economic advantages, these latter bulk in-situ disposal scenarios have received the most development. ORNL's experience has shown that tailored cement-based formulas can be developed which tolerate wide fluctuations in waste feed compositions and still maintain mixing properties that are compatible with standard equipment. In addition to cements, these grouts contain pozzolans, clays and other additives to control the flow properties, set-times, phase separations and impacts of waste stream fluctuation. The cements, fly ashes and other grout components are readily available in bulk quantities and the solids-blends typically cost less than $0.05 to 0.15 per waste gallon. Depending on the disposal scenario, total disposal costs (material, capital, and operating) can be as low as $0.10 to 0.50 per gallon

  18. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Exposure to Soil and Paddy Plant around the Closed Municipal Solid Waste Landfill: Case Study at Gunung Tugel Landfill, Banyumas-Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasam; Rahmawati, Suphia; Mulya Iresha, Fajri; Wacano, Dhandhun; Farida Fauziah, Ida; Afif Amrullah, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    This work was focused on assessing the exposure of heavy metal from closed municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill on soil and paddy plants. This study aimed to determine heavy metal content whether at the soil in the around Gunung Tugel landfill included and accumulated in the paddy plant tissues. The investigated metals include chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The samples were acid-digested before the desired elements were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The results are presented as distribution map of the landfill area based on the total heavy metals content distribution in the soil and paddy plants. The samples shown that the concentrations of heavy metals around Gunung Tugel landfill are 6.27-34.71 mg/kg, 0.17-0.42 mg/kg, 28.29-48.69 mg/kg, 18,997.26-32,572.29 mg/kg, 342.74-834.49 mg/kg, 136.10-290.14 mg/kg at the top soil and 0.00-1.70 mg/kg, 0.00-0.26 mg/kg, 0.79-10.46 mg/kg, 13.88-61.46 mg/kg, 18.79-50.56 mg/kg, 87.27-273.22 mg/kg at the paddy for Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn respectively. According to the results, The Gunung Tugel landfill is not a direct source of heavy metal pollution at paddy plant in the landfill area, but through surface water and soil media. Rainfall around landfill is quite high ie more 2000 mm/year of rainfall and soil permeability is 1.0 cm/sec.

  19. Closure of a mixed waste landfill: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Much experience has been gained during the closure of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and many lessons were learned. This knowledge was applied to other closures at SRS yielding decreased costs, schedule enhancement, and increased overall project efficiency. The next major area of experience to be gained at SRS in the field of waste site closures will be in the upkeep, maintenance, and monitoring of clay caps. Further test programs will be required to address these requirements

  20. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Lloréns, Ma Del C; Torres, Matilde López; Alvarez, Haydee; Arrechea, Alexis Pellón; García, Jorge Alejandro; Aguirre, Susana Díaz; Fernández, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vías landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana.

  1. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C; Lopez Torres, Matilde; Alvarez, Haydee; Pellon Arrechea, Alexis; Garcia, Jorge Alejandro; Diaz Aguirre, Susana; Fernandez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vias landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana

  2. Clean-up progress at the SNL/NM Classified Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, P.J.; Galloway, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)Environmental Restoration Project is currently excavating the Classified Waste Landfill in Technical Area II, a disposal area for weapon components for approximately 40 years until it closed in 1987. Many different types of classified parts were disposed in unlined trenches and pits throughout the course of the landfill's history. A percentage of the parts contain explosives and/or radioactive components or contamination. The excavation has progressed backward chronologically from the last trenches filled through to the earlier pits. Excavation commenced in March 1998, and approximately 75 percent of the site (as defined by geophysical anomalies) has been completed as of November 1999. The material excavated consists primarily of classified weapon assemblies and related components, so disposition must include demilitarization and sanitization. This has resulted in substantial waste minimization and cost avoidance for the project as upwards of 90 percent of the classified materials are being demilitarized and recycled. The project is using field screening and lab analysis in conjunction with preliminary and in-process risk assessments to characterize soil and make waste determinations in a timely a fashion as possible. Challenges in waste management have prompted the adoption of innovative solutions. The hand-picked crew (both management and field staff) and the ability to quickly adapt to changing conditions has ensured the success of the project. The current schedule is to complete excavation in July 2000, with follow-on verification sampling, demilitarization, and waste management activities following

  3. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  4. Methodology of environmental diagnosis for construction and demolition waste landfills: a tool for planning and making decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, E; Calvo, F; Ramos, A F; Zamorano, M

    2005-11-01

    Current legislation in the European Union regarding landfills provides measures, procedures and guidance to prevent or reduce, insofar as possible, negative effects on the environment. This means that Member States must take measures so that landfills cannot operate unless the operator first presents a plan for the site, which includes the implementation of improvements considered necessary by the engineer for compliance with regulations. Researchers at the University of Granada have developed a method to ascertain the degree of environmental impact that a construction and demolition waste landfill may produce on its immediate surroundings. This methodology is based on environmental indexes; its objective is to give crucial information concerning possible environmental problems produced by a landfill. The data thus obtained will permit the elaboration of guidelines for improvements in the location, design, and operation of landfills, or in extreme cases, their dosing, sealing, and rehabilitation.

  5. Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valencia Vázquez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard

  6. TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-waste landfill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1992-11-01

    Chem-Nuclear Geotech, Inc. (Geotech), operating contractor for the US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, is conducting the Integrated Geophysics Program for Non-Intrusive Characterization of Mixed-Waste Landfill Sites (Technical Task Plan [TTP] AL921102). The TTP is part of the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of this task was to demonstrate that an integrated program of surface geophysics can be used to effectively and nonintrusively characterize n-mixed-waste landfill sites. To accomplish this objective, integrated field demonstrations were conducted over two previously identified areas of interest (designated Areas A and B) within the MWLID test site at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), Technical Area 3, at the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (Figures 1 and 2). Area A was centered roughly around the Chromic Acid and Organics Pits in the southeast-central portion of the landfill and Area B was centered around the ''60's Pits'' area in the northeast-central portion of the landfill. Pit locations were known in Area A and suspected in Area B. This progress report describes the geophysical surveys conducted by Geotech and presents preliminary displays and analyses. Volume 2 of this report contains the raw data for all the surveys conducted by Geotech for this TTP

  7. Hydrogen sulfide generation in simulated construction and demolition debris landfills: impact of waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenton; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills has been associated with the biodegradation of gypsum drywall. Laboratory research was conducted to observe H2S generation when drywall was codisposed with different C&D debris constituents. Two experiments were conducted using simulated landfill columns. Experiment 1 consisted of various combinations of drywall, wood, and concrete to determine the impact of different waste constituents and combinations on H2S generation. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the effect of concrete on H2S generation and migration. The results indicate that decaying drywall, even alone, leached enough sulfate ions and organic matter for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to generate large H2S concentrations as high as 63,000 ppmv. The codisposed wastes show some effect on H2S generation. At the end of experiment 1, the wood/drywall and drywall alone columns possessed H2S concentrations > 40,000 ppmv. Conversely, H2S concentrations were debris landfills are suggested.

  8. Characteristics and evaluation on heavy metal contamination in Changchun municipal waste landfill after closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu-dan; Zhao, Chun-li; Qu, Tong-bao; Wang, Ying; Guo, Tai-jun; Sun, Xiao-gang

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, comprehensive investigation on the spot and typical investigation method were used to assess Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Cu level, pH value, organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents in soil of Changchun municipal waste landfill. The results showed that soil in the closure area of Changchun municipal waste landfill was alkaline in nature and the average value of organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents were lower than that in normal black soil in Changchun City of Jilin Province. Single factor indices of As, Pb and Cr content was > 1, where P(As) was 1.131, P(Pb) 1.061 and P(Cr) 1.092 mildly contaminated. In different sample spots but the same landfill time, the comprehensive Nemerow contamination indexes of 7a (5 #) and 7a (2 #) were P(2 comprehensive) = 1.176 and P(5 comprehensive) = 1.229. The performance value of of heavy metal contamination in soil was similar and there was a low ecological risk.

  9. Phytoremediation and rehabilitation of municipal solid waste landfills and dumpsites: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, R; Selvam, A; Joseph, Kurian; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2006-01-01

    Environmental problems posed by municipal solid waste (MSW) are well documented. Scientifically designed landfills and/or open dumpsites are used to dispose MSW in many developed and developing countries. Non-availability of land and need to reuse the dumpsite space, especially in urban areas, call for rehabilitation of these facilities. A variety of options have been tried to achieve the goals of rehabilitation. In the last couple of decades, phytoremediation, collectively referring to all plant-based technologies using green plants to remediate and rehabilitate municipal solid waste landfills and dumpsites, has emerged as a potential candidate. Research and development activities relating to different aspects of phytoremediation are keeping the interest of scientists and engineers alive and enriching the literature. Being a subject of multi-disciplinary interest, findings of phytoremediation research has resulted in generation of enormous data and their publication in a variety of journals and books. Collating data from such diverse sources would help understand the dynamics and dimensions of landfill and dumpsite rehabilitation. This review is an attempt in this direction.

  10. Apparatus for waste disposal of radioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burack, R.D.; Stenger, W.J.; Wolfe, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for concentrating dissolved and solid radioactive materials carried in a waste water solution containing a hazardous chelating agent used for cleaning nuclear equipment. It comprises oxidizing chamber means, separator means coupled to the oxidizing chamber means; ion exchange means containing an ion exchange resin; dryer means for receiving the radioactive solids from the separator means and for producing dry solids; and packaging means for receiving the dry solids and spent ion exchange resins containing the removed dissolved radioactive materials and for packaging the dry solids and spent resins in solid form

  11. Application of constructed wetlands to the treatment of leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, M K C

    2005-06-01

    Leachates are wastewater generated principally from landfills and solid waste disposal sites. Leachates emanating from municipal wastes are a major source of surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. Globally, leachates have been implicated in low yield of farm produce, developmental anomalies, low birth weights, leukemia incidence, and other cancers in communities around the site. They have also been implicated in hazards to the environment, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of water sources. At Aba-Eku in Nigeria, leachates are being discharged into the Omi Stream without treatment. A study was conducted on a method of leachate treatment that passes the leachate through constructed wetlands using Ipomoea aquatica (Forsk), a locally available plant found close to the landfill site. The aim of the study was to evolve a sustainable and cost-effective method of treatment whose effluents can be discharged into the Omi Stream with no or minimal impact. The study was descriptive and analytical in design. Samples were collected and analyzed with standard methods for pH, suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, nitrate, and trace metals. Raw leachates were turbid and amber in color and contained suspended solids (197.5 mg/L), ammonia (610.9 mg/L), lead (1.64 mg/L), iron (198.10 mg/L), and manganese (23.20 mg/L). When the leachates were passed through the constructed wetland with eight hours' detention time, effluents showed significant reductions in suspended solids (81.01 percent), BOD (86.03 percent), and ammonia (97.77 percent). The study shows that a constructed wetland is a feasible tool for the treatment of leachates before their disposal into the environment in Nigeria and can help safeguard environmental quality.

  12. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste

  13. Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, L.F.; Ebrahim, S.A.; Al-Thukair, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous healthcare waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited documentation regarding generation, handling, management, and disposal of waste. This in turn hinders efforts to plan better healthcare waste management. In this paper, hazardous waste management status in the Kingdom has been investigated through an extensive survey carried out on selected public and private healthcare premises. Hazardous waste management practices including: waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal were determined. The results of this study along with key findings are discussed and summarized. In addition; several effective recommendations and improvements of hazardous waste management are suggested.

  14. Rainfall Reliability Evaluation for Stability of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills on Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kuo Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to assess the reliability for the stability of municipal solid waste (MSW landfills on slope due to rainfall infiltration is proposed. Parameter studies are first done to explore the influence of factors on the stability of MSW. These factors include rainfall intensity, duration, pattern, and the engineering properties of MSW. Then 100 different combinations of parameters are generated and associated stability analyses of MSW on slope are performed assuming that each parameter is uniform distributed around its reason ranges. In the following, the performance of the stability of MSW is interpreted by the artificial neural network (ANN trained and verified based on the aforementioned 100 analysis results. The reliability for the stability of MSW landfills on slope is then evaluated and explored for different rainfall parameters by the ANN model with first-order reliability method (FORM and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS.

  15. DOES COMPOSTING OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ON THE LANDFILL BODY MAKE SENSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study white mustard (Sinapis alba plants were allowed to grow in earthen pots, treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC to study the effect of MSWC on the plant biomass production. Twenty-one days from the establishment of the experiment sprouts and the number of growing plants occurring in the earthen pots were counted. Plants growing in the earthen pots with the compost samples exhibited an increasing plant biomass while no changes were observed in their appearance; retarded growth or necrotic changes were not recorded. The performed phytotoxicity tests show that the analyzed composts produced in the composting plant situated on the landfill surface achieved high percentages of the germinating capacity of white mustard (Sinapis alba seeds and can be therefore used in the subsequent reclamation of the concerned landfill.

  16. Biotreatment of industrial and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.A.; Gealt, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book attempts to approach the topic of biodegradation of hazardous wastes in a holistic fashion. The issues of science, engineering and regulation are all addressed. As much as possible, both theoretical and practical considerations have been dealt with. Selection of bacteria for the specific purpose of degrading compounds is discussed at the bench-scale to the field level. Engineering theory as applied to growth on toxic substances is discussed. The legal issues are covered. There are also several examples of field studies indicating the current usage of biodegradation, both within reactors and in situ. The use of biodegradation is compared with other mechanisms of disposal, in terms of time limitations, degradation limitations and, perhaps most important, cost. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  17. Method for disposing of hazardous wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl- 2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  18. Occurrence, characteristics and leakage of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in leachate from municipal solid waste landfills in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Deng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Raw leachate samples were collected from various municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in a densely populated city in North China to measure the levels and compositional patterns of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachate. The total concentration of PBDEs ranged from 4.0 to 351.2 ng/L, with an average of 73.0 ng/L. BDE-209 dominated the congeners in most of the samples, followed by BDE-47 and -99. Higher PBDEs concentrations were found in leachate from younger landfill facilities in the urban area. Pearson correlation analysis implied a potential dependence of the PBDEs level on landfill age, suspended solids and dissolved organic carbon, while the results of principal component analysis (PCA) suggested potential origins and transportation of PBDEs in leachate. The Monte Carlo method was adopted to estimate the annual leakage of PBDEs into the underground environment nationwide, based on two main scenarios: simple landfills with inadequate liner systems and composite-lined landfills with defective geomembranes. -- Highlights: • Levels and congener patterns of PBDEs in landfill leachate from China are measured. • Pollution loading of PBDEs in leachate is identified through comparative analysis. • Leachate properties perform moderate impact on the occurrence of PBDEs. • Both commercial and decomposition origins contribute to lower brominated congeners. • Leakage rate of PBDEs due to inadequate liner is estimated nationwide. -- This paper determined the levels and distribution of PBDEs in MSW landfill leachate and predicted the leakage of PBDEs from sanitary landfills into the underground environment across China

  19. Integrated treatment process of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fujimura, Y.; Nakashima, T.; Moriya, Y.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated waste treatment system was studied based on technologies developed for the treatment of liquid radioactive, organic, and aqueous wastes containing hazardous materials and soils contaminated with heavy metals. The system consists of submerged incineration, metal ion fixing and stabilization, and soil washing treatments. Introduction of this system allows for the simultaneous processing of toxic waste and contaminated soils. Hazardous organic wastes can be decomposed into harmless gases, and aqueous wastes can be converted into a dischargeable effluent. The contaminated soil is backfilled after the removal of toxic materials. Experimental data show that the integration system is practical for complicated toxic wastes

  20. 75 FR 12989 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... regulations that relate to hazardous waste identification, manifesting, the hazardous waste generator..., NW., Washington, DC 20460. Attention Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-RCRA-2008-0678. Please include a total of 2 copies. Hand Delivery: EPA West Building, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. Such...

  1. Department of Energy Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the hazardous waste remedial actions program (HAZWRAP) which manages approximately 200 hazardous waste projects. These projects include preliminary assessments, site inspections, and remedial investigation/feasibility studies. The author describes the procedures HAZWRAP follows to ensure quality. The discussion covers the quality assurance aspects of project management, project planning, site characterization, document control and technical teamwork

  2. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation

  3. Management, treatment and final disposal of solid hazardous hospital wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebiani Serrano, T.

    2000-01-01

    Medical Waste is characterized by its high risk to human health and the environment. The main risk is biological, due to the large amount of biologically contaminated materials present in such waste. However, this does not mean that the chemical and radioactive wastes are less harmful just because they represent a smaller part of the total waste. Hazardous wastes from hospitals can be divided in 3 main categories: Solid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (S.H.H.W.), Liquid Hazardous Hospital Wastes (L.H.H.W.) and Gaseous Hazardous Hospital Wastes (G.H.H.W.) Most gaseous and liquid hazardous wastes are discharged to the environment without treatment. Since this inappropriate disposal practice, however, is not visible to society, there is no societal reaction to such problem. On the contrary, hazardous solid wastes (S.H.H.W.) are visible to society and create worries in the population. As a result, social and political pressures arise, asking for solutions to the disposal problems of such wastes. In response to such pressures and legislation approved by Costa Rica on waste handling and disposal, the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social developed a plan for the handling, treatment, and disposal of hazardous solid wastes at the hospitals and clinics of its system. The objective of the program is to reduce the risk to society of such wastes. In this thesis a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to determine the minimum cost at which it is possible to reach a maximum level of reduction in hazardous wastes, transferring to the environment the least possible volume of solid hazardous wastes, and therefore, reducing risk to a minimum. It was found that at the National Children's Hospital the internal handling of hazard solid wastes is conducted with a high level of effectiveness. However, once out of the hospital area, the handling is not effective, because hazardous and common wastes are all mixed together creating a larger amount of S.H.H.W. and reducing the final efficiency

  4. Characterizing cemented TRU waste for RCRA hazardous constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeamans, D.R.; Betts, S.E.; Bodenstein, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized drums of solidified transuranic (TRU) waste from four major waste streams. The data will help the State of New Mexico determine whether or not to issue a no-migration variance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) so that WIPP can receive and dispose of waste. The need to characterize TRU waste stored at LANL is driven by two additional factors: (1) the LANL RCRA Waste Analysis Plan for EPA compliant safe storage of hazardous waste; (2) the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) The LANL characterization program includes headspace gas analysis, radioassay and radiography for all drums and solids sampling on a random selection of drums from each waste stream. Data are presented showing that the only identified non-metal RCRA hazardous component of the waste is methanol

  5. Heavy element accumulation in Evernia prunastri lichen transplants around a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannoni, Francesco; Santolini, Riccardo; Protano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a biomonitoring study to evaluate the environmental impact of airborne emissions from a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy. Concentrations of 11 heavy elements, as well as photosynthetic efficiency and cell membrane integrity were measured in Evernia prunastri lichens transplanted for 4months in 17 monitoring sites around the waste landfill. Heavy element contents were also determined in surface soils. Analytical data indicated that emissions from the landfill affected Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations in lichens transplanted within the landfill and along the fallout direction. In these sites moderate to severe accumulation of these heavy elements in lichens was coupled with an increase in cell membrane damage and decrease in photosynthetic efficiency. Nevertheless, results indicated that landfill emissions had no relevant impact on lichens, as heavy element accumulation and weak stress symptoms were detected only in lichen transplants from sites close to solid waste. The appropriate management of this landfill poses a low risk of environmental contamination by heavy elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hazardous waste research and development in the Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Carpenter, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effective management of hazardous waste is an issue that all countries of the Pacific Basin must address. By very rough estimates, almost 272 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are being generated every year in the region. While the data are not consistently defined and reported, they do indicate the extent of the problem. Increasing development brings along an increase in the rate of hazardous waste generation. On this basis, the developing countries of the region can be expected to experience some of the same problems of the developed countries as their economies become more industrialized. Fundamental problems are involved in the compilation of consistent hazardous-waste generation statistics in the Pacific Basin. One involves the definition of what constitutes hazardous waste

  7. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@eng.nssmc.com [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., (EUROPEAN OFFICE), Am Seestern 8, 40547 Dusseldorf (Germany); Ishida, Yoshihiro [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A new waste management scheme and the effects of co-gasification of MSW were assessed. • A co-gasification system was compared with other conventional systems. • The co-gasification system can produce slag and metal with high-quality. • The co-gasification system showed an economic advantage when bottom ash is landfilled. • The sensitive analyses indicate an economic advantage when the landfill cost is high. - Abstract: This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the

  8. Hazardous Medical Waste Management as a Public Health Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković, Natalija; Vitale, Ksenija; Afrić, Ivo; Janev Holcer, Nataša

    2005-01-01

    The amount of waste produced is connected with the degree of a country’s economic development; more developed countries produce more waste. This paper reviews the quantities, manipulation and treatment methods of medical waste in Croatia, as well as hazardous potentials of medical waste for human health. Medical waste must be collected and sorted in containers suitable for its characteristics, amount, means of transportation and treatment method in order to prevent contact with environment an...

  9. 2016 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Sonja L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); English, Charles Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE), inclusive of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Office of Environmental Management, and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program, which is a component of the overall Pollution Prevention (P2) Program, administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (EPC-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and P2 goals of the Associate Directorate of Environmental Management (ADEM) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. This report includes data for all waste shipped offsite from LANL during fiscal year (FY) 2016 (October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016). LANS was active during FY2016 in waste minimization and P2 efforts. Multiple projects were funded that specifically related to reduction of hazardous waste. In FY2016, there was no hazardous, mixed-transuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste shipped offsite from the Laboratory. More non-remediation hazardous waste and MLLW was shipped offsite from the Laboratory in FY2016 compared to FY2015. Non-remediation MTRU waste was not shipped offsite during FY2016. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  10. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lab-wide training. This course addresses the requirements of the DOT that are unique to hazardous waste shipments. Appendix B provides the Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reference material needed for this course.

  11. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for WESF. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  12. Using an information system to meet Hazardous Waste Management needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.J. Jr.; Howe, R.E.; Townsend, S.L.; Maloy, D.T.; Kochhar, R.K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large quantity RCRA hazardous waste generator. LLNL also generates low level and transuranic radioactive waste that is managed in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The mixed low level and mixed transuranic waste generated must be managed to comply with both RCRA regulations and DOE orders. LLNL's hazardous and radioactive waste generation is comprised of 900 generators who contribute to nearly two hundred waste streams. LLNL has a permitted EPA treatment and storage (TSD) facility for handling RCRA hazardous waste that is operated by LLNL's Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) division. In HWM we have developed an information system, the Total Waste Management System (TWMS), to replace an inadequate ''cradle to grave'' tracking of all the waste types described above. The goals of this system are to facilitate the safe handling and storage of these hazardous wastes, provide compliance with the regulations and serve as an informational tool to help HWM manage and dispose of these wastes in a cost effective manner

  13. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper.\\ Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  14. Overview of hazardous-waste regulation at federal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B.; Lerner, K.

    1982-05-01

    This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require

  15. Overview of hazardous-waste regulation at federal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B.; Lerner, K.

    1982-05-01

    This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require.

  16. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOTSON, PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY, ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR, CARL EDWARD

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where

  17. Mercury leaching from hazardous industrial wastes stabilized by sulfur polymer encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Alguacil, Francisco J; Rodríguez, Olga; Sierra, María José; Millán, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    European Directive 2013/39/EU records mercury as a priority hazardous substance. Regulation n° 2008/1102/EC banned the exportation of mercury and required the safe storage of any remaining mercury compounds. The present work describes the encapsulation of three wastes containing combinations of HgS, HgSe, HgCl2, HgO2, Hg3Se2Cl2, HgO and Hg(0), according to patent of Spanish National Research Council WO2011/029970A2. The materials obtained were subjected to leaching tests according to standards UNE-EN-12457 and CEN/TS 14405:2004. The results are compared with the criteria established in the Council Decision 2003/33/EC for the acceptance of waste at landfills. The Hg concentrations of all leachates were <0.01mgHg/kg for a liquid/solid ratio of 10l/kg. All three encapsulated materials therefore meet the requirements for storage in inert waste landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hazardous materials and waste management a guide for the professional hazards manager

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    1995-01-01

    The management of hazardous materials and industrial wastes is complex, requiring a high degree of knowledge over very broad technical and legal subject areas. Hazardous wastes and materials are diverse, with compositions and properties that not only vary significantly between industries, but within industries, and indeed within the complexity of single facilities. Proper management not only requires an understanding of the numerous and complex regulations governing hazardous materials and waste streams, but an understanding and knowledge of the treatment, post-treatment, and waste minimizatio

  19. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  20. Characteristic of total suspended particulate (TSP) containing Pb and Zn at solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budihardjo, M. A.; Noveandra, K.; Samadikun, B. P.

    2018-05-01

    Activities conducted at municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) potentially cause air pollution. Heavy vehicles in MSWLs release various pollutants that can have negative impacts for humans. One noticeable pollutant at MSWLs is airborne total suspended particulate (TSP) which may contain heavy metals such as Pb and Zn and can cause disease when inhaled by humans. In this study, TSP from a landfill in Semarang, Indonesia was collected and characterized to quantify the concentration of Pb and Zn. Meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, humidity and wind velocity) and landfill activities were considered as factors affecting pollutant concentrations. TSP was sampled using dust samplers while the concentrations of heavy metals in TSP were analyzed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Pb concentration ranged from 0.84 to 1.78 µg/m3 while Zn concentration was from 7.87 to 8.76 µg/m3. The levels of Pb were below the threshold specified by the Indonesian Government. Meanwhile, the threshold for Zn has not yet been determined.

  1. An attempt to perform water balance in a Brazilian municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São Mateus, Maria do Socorro Costa; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Barbosa, Maria Cláudia

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents an attempt to model the water balance in the metropolitan center landfill (MCL) in Salvador, Brazil. Aspects such as the municipal solid waste (MSW) initial water content, mass loss due to decomposition, MSW liquid expelling due to compression and those related to weather conditions, such as the amount of rainfall and evaporation are considered. Superficial flow and infiltration were modeled considering the waste and the hydraulic characteristics (permeability and soil-water retention curves) of the cover layer and simplified uni-dimensional empirical models. In order to validate the modeling procedure, data from one cell at the landfill were used. Monthly waste entry, volume of collected leachate and leachate level inside the cell were monitored. Water balance equations and the compressibility of the MSW were used to calculate the amount of leachate stored in the cell and the corresponding leachate level. Measured and calculated values of the leachate level inside the cell were similar and the model was able to capture the main trends of the water balance behavior during the cell operational period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban construction and demolition waste and landfill failure in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xia, Junqiang; Thompson, Julian R; Flower, Roger J

    2017-05-01

    On December 20, 2015 at 11:40 am a landslide in one of China's most advanced cities, Shenzhen, killed 73 people and damaged 33 buildings. In the absence of heavy rainfall or earthquakes, the landslide was an unexpected and profound shock to many people. According to China's Ministry of Land and Resources, the landslide was triggered by the collapse of an enormous pile of construction and demolition waste (CDW). With China's rapid urbanization, an increasing amount of CDW is being generated, especially in major cities. In total, China produces some 30% of the world's municipal solid waste and of this about 40% is CDW. To prevent landslides associated with CDW, the volume of waste dumped in landfills should be regulated. More specifically 4-Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle and recover) policies should be implemented more widely and efficiently. Although landfill will continue to be an important disposal option, proper management and careful monitoring of CDW are urgently needed to satisfy pressing safety issues. International collaboration, sharing of knowledge, and use of the latest technologies are needed so that the similar landslides can be prevented in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salzman, Sonja L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); English, Charles J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are inherent goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program (a component of the overall Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention [WMin/PP] Program) administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and pollution prevention goals of the Environmental Programs Directorate (EP) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. LANS was very successful in fiscal year (FY) 2013 (October 1-September 30) in WMin/PP efforts. Staff funded four projects specifically related to reduction of waste with hazardous constituents, and LANS won four national awards for pollution prevention efforts from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In FY13, there was no hazardous, mixedtransuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste generated at the Laboratory. More hazardous waste, MTRU waste, and MLLW was generated in FY13 than in FY12, and the majority of the increase was related to MTRU processing or lab cleanouts. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  4. Regulated Disposal of NORM/TENORM Waste in Colorado: The Deer Trail Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Retallick, P.G.; Kehoe, J.H.; Webb, M.M.; Nielsen, D.B.; Spaanstra, J.R.; Kornfeld, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    On January 31, 2005, Clean Harbors Environmental Services submitted a license application to the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced radioactive material (TENORM) at Clean Harbor's Deer Trail RCRA Subtitle C landfill. Deer Trail is located 70 miles east of Denver, Colorado. The license application for Deer Trail was submitted under CCR 1007-1, Part 14 [1] the Colorado State equivalent of 10 CFR Part 61 [2] for radioactive waste disposal. A disposal license is required since some of the NORM/TENORM waste in Colorado is licensed by CDPHE. The license application does not extend to byproduct or source material, and thus does not include the broader categories found in Class A radioactive waste. The license application requires the establishment of a radiation protection program, assuring that all NORM/TENORM waste, even non-licensed waste disposed under RCRA, will have appropriate radiological controls for workers, the public, and the environment. Because Deer Trail is a RCRA Subtitle C facility with an active RCRA Permit and because of the overlapping and similar requirements in the process to obtain either a RCRA permit or a radioactive waste disposal license, the license process for Deer Trail was appropriately focused. This focusing was accomplished by working with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) and excluding or waiving selected radioactive materials license requirements from further consideration because they were found to be adequately addressed under the RCRA Permit. Of most significance, these requirements included: - Institutional Information - Federal or State ownership will not be required, since the State's Radiation Control regulations allow for private site ownership, consistent with the same financial assurance and institutional control requirements of RCRA. - Development of Additional Technical

  5. Innovative technologies for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Anderson, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes incur significant costs for Department of Energy (DOE) installations. These wastes must be managed under strict environmental controls and regulations to prevent the possibility of migration of hazardous materials to the biosphere. Through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, the DOE is seeking to develop innovative ways of improving current treatment technologies to eliminate the hazardous components of wastes, reduce waste management costs, and minimize the volume requiring disposal as hazardous or mixed waste. Sponsored projects progress from research and development to field demonstration. Among the innovative technologies under development are supercritical water oxidation of hazardous chemicals, microwave-assisted destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, paramagnetic separation of metals from waste, detoxification and reclamation of waste acid, nitrate destruction through calcination, treatment/disposal of reactive metals, and methodologies for encapsulation. Technologies at a demonstration phase include detoxification of mixed waste sludge, microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil, and the remediation process for a hydrocarbon spill. 14 refs

  6. Study on hazardous substances contained in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Ryoichiro; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary that the technical criteria is established concerning waste package for disposal of the TRU waste generated in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. And it is important to consider the criteria not only in terms of radioactivity but also in terms of chemical hazard and criticality. Therefore the environmental impact of hazardous materials and possibility of criticality were investigated to decide on technical specification of radioactive waste packages. The contents and results are as following. (1) Concerning hazardous materials included in TRU waste, regulations on disposal of industrial wastes and on environmental preservation were investigated. (2) The assessment methods for environmental impact of hazardous materials included in radioactive waste in U.K, U.S.A. and France were investigated. (3) The parameters for mass transport assessment about migration of hazardous materials in waste packages around disposal facilities were compiled. And the upper limits of amounts of hazardous materials in waste packages to satisfy the environmental standard were calculated with mass transport assessment for some disposal concepts. (4) It was suggested from criticality analysis for waste packages in disposal facility that the occurrence of criticality was almost impossible under the realistic conditions. (author)

  7. Containment and stabilization technologies for mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A prevalent approach to the cleanup of waste sites contaminated with hazardous chemicals and radionuclides is to contain and/or stabilize wastes within the site. Stabilization involves treating the wastes in some fashion, either in situ or above ground after retrieval, to reduce the leachability and release rate of waste constituents to the environment. This approach is generally reserved for radionuclide contaminants, inorganic hazardous contaminants such as heavy metals, and nonvolatile organic contaminants. This paper describes the recent developments in the technical options available for containing and stabilizing wastes. A brief description of each technology is given along with a discussion of the most recent developments and examples of useful applications

  8. Decision-making methodology for management of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, J.S.; Cranwell, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    A decision-making methodology is presented that combines systems and risk analysis techniques to evaluate hazardous waste management practices associated with DOE weapon production operations. The methodology provides a systematic approach to examining waste generation and waste handling practices in addition to the more visible disposal practices. Release-exposure scenarios for hazardous waste operations are identified and operational risk is determined. Comparisons may be made between existing and alternative waste management practices (and processes) on the basis of overall risk, cost and compliance with regulations. Managers can use this methodology to make and defend resource allocation decisions and to prioritize research needs

  9. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Carla; Cairns, John

    2009-06-24

    Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium). Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF), extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is euro11.6 billion. This value ranges from euro5.4 to euro20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. This study suggests that there is a strong economic argument for both reclaiming the land contaminated with hazardous

  10. The potential monetary benefits of reclaiming hazardous waste sites in the Campania region: an economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating the economic benefit of reducing negative health outcomes resulting from waste management is of pivotal importance for designing an effective waste policy that takes into account the health consequences for the populations exposed to environmental hazards. Despite the high level of Italian and international media interest in the problem of hazardous waste in Campania little has been done to reclaim the land and the waterways contaminated by hazardous waste. Objective This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about health damage due to waste exposure by providing for the first time a monetary valuation of health benefits arising from the reclamation of hazardous waste dumps in Campania. Methods First the criteria by which the landfills in the Campania region, in particular in the two provinces of Naples and Caserta, have been classified are described. Then, the annual cases of premature death and fatal cases of cancers attributable to waste exposure are quantified. Finally, the present value of the health benefits from the reclamation of polluted land is estimated for each of the health outcomes (premature mortality, fatal cancer and premature mortality adjusted for the cancer premium. Due to the uncertainty about the time frame of the benefits arising from reclamation, the latency of the effects of toxic waste on human health and the lack of context specific estimates of the Value of Preventing a Fatality (VPF, extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. Results There are estimated to be 848 cases of premature mortality and 403 cases of fatal cancer per year as a consequence of exposure to toxic waste. The present value of the benefit of reducing the number of waste associated deaths after adjusting for a cancer premium is €11.6 billion. This value ranges from €5.4 to €20.0 billion assuming a time frame for benefits of 10 and 50 years respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a strong

  11. Landfill design in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanac Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal is an important element of integrated waste management. In order to dispose of waste that is free of environmental risk, the proper design of landfills during their construction and/or closure is necessary. The first section of the paper presents the current state of landfills in Serbia, the second deals with problems in project design of landfills, especially in regard to their: a program of waste disposal; b impermeable layer; c leaching collection and treatment; and d gas collection and treatment. Analysis shows that many modern landfills in Serbia do not meet environmental protection requirements, therefore, they need reconstruction. All existing landfills owned by municipalities, as well as illegal dump sites, should be adequately closed. This paper presents the guidelines for successful landfill design which are to serve to meet the requirements and recommendations of Serbian and European regulations. Sound design of landfill technological elements should insure full sustainability of landfills in Serbia.

  12. Landfill mining: Development of a cost simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pinkel, Michael; Polansek, Stephanie; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Pomberger, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Landfill mining permits recovering secondary raw materials from landfills. Whether this purpose is economically feasible, however, is a matter of various aspects. One is the amount of recoverable secondary raw material (like metals) that can be exploited with a profit. Other influences are the costs for excavation, for processing the waste at the landfill site and for paying charges on the secondary disposal of waste. Depending on the objectives of a landfill mining project (like the recovery of a ferrous and/or a calorific fraction) these expenses and revenues are difficult to assess in advance. This situation complicates any previous assessment of the economic feasibility and is the reason why many landfills that might be suitable for landfill mining are continuingly operated as active landfills, generating aftercare costs and leaving potential hazards to later generations. This article presents a newly developed simulation model for landfill mining projects. It permits identifying the quantities and qualities of output flows that can be recovered by mining and by mobile on-site processing of the waste based on treatment equipment selected by the landfill operator. Thus, charges for disposal and expected revenues from secondary raw materials can be assessed. Furthermore, investment, personnel, operation, servicing and insurance costs are assessed and displayed, based on the selected mobile processing procedure and its throughput, among other things. For clarity, the simulation model is described in this article using the example of a real Austrian sanitary landfill. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Disposal of hazardous wastes in Canada's Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henney, P.L.; Heinke, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the past decade, many jurisdictions have attempted to estimate quantities and types of hazardous wastes generated within their boundaries. Similar studies done in the Northwest Territories (NWT) are out-of-date, incomplete or specific to only one type of waste or geographical location. In 1990, an industry, business and community survey was conducted to determine types and quantities of hazardous wastes generated in the NWT and currently used disposal methods for these wastes. The survey revealed that 2,500 tons of hazardous wastes were generated each year, including waste oil and petroleum products, fuel tank sludges, acid batteries, spent solvents, antifreeze an waste paint. In many regions, disposal of these wastes may be routine, but waste disposal in arctic and subarctic regions presents unique difficulties. Severe climate, transportation expense, isolation and small quantities of waste generated can make standard solutions expensive, difficult or impossible to apply. Unique solutions are needed for northern waste disposal. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of low-cost, on-site or local hazardous wastes disposal options which can be applied in Canada's NWT and also in other arctic, remote or less-developed regions

  14. Research of Methods, Technologies and Materials for Drainage Water Treatment at the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Salaryevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with innovative methods, technologies and materials intended to reduce the adverse ecological impact of human waste and various industrial waste situated in municipal solid waste landfills (MSW, on water bodies, soil, and atmosphere. The existence of these factors makes the region less attractive for urban development. A comparison has been made of the methods intended to reduce the damage caused to the environment, in order to provide for sustainable development of cities, using the example of an actual landfill situated in the territory of Moscow. A scheme of reconstruction is recommended for the drainage water treatment plant at this landfill, which will lead to improvement of the environmental situation and contribute to the development of territories in the adjacent districts, and to reduction of pollution load on the river and atmosphere.

  15. Comparison of potential greenhouse gas emissions from disposal of MSW in sanitary landfills vs. waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates the US currently generates about 160 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) per year, and this figure will exceed 200 million tons annually by the year 2000. About 80 percent of the MSW will be disposed of in landfills and waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities, both of which generate greenhouse gases, namely methane and carbon dioxide. This paper provides an introductory level analysis of the potential long term greenhouse gas emissions from these two MSW disposal alternatives. Carbon dioxide credits are derived for fossil fuel offset by WTE and methane emissions are converted to equivalent CO 2 emissions in order to derive a single emission figure for comparison of the greenhouse contribution of the two disposal strategies. A secondary analysis is presented to compare the net equivalent CO 2 emissions from WTE facilities to those from landfills with methane gas recovery, combustion and energy generation. The conclusion is, that for a given amount of MSW, landfilling contributes to the greenhouse effect about 10 times more than a modern Waste-To-Energy facility. Even with 50% of all landfill methane emissions recovered and converted to electricity, the contribution to the greenhouse effect by the landfill alternative is about 6 times greater than the waste-to-energy alternative

  16. An assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Arnish, J.J.; Williams, G.P.; Blunt, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

  17. 77 FR 47302 - South Dakota: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... EPA proposed to authorize South Dakota's State Hazardous waste management Program revisions published... to the hazardous waste program revisions submitted by South Dakota. The Agency published a Proposed...

  18. 77 FR 59758 - Idaho: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection..., (RCRA), allows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to authorize State hazardous waste management... codification of the authorized Idaho hazardous waste management program and incorporates by reference...

  19. 77 FR 15273 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous waste management program. We authorized the following revisions: Oklahoma received authorization... its program revision in accordance with 40 CFR 271.21. The Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act...

  20. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9804-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste [[Page 23247...