WorldWideScience

Sample records for hazardous materials regulations

  1. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  2. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two regulatory philosophies, one based on 'specification' packaging standards and the other based on 'performance' packaging standards, currently define the hazmat packaging certification process. A main concern when setting performance standards is determining the appropriate standards necessary to assure adequate public protection. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration. In this project, the current bulk packagings (larger than 2000 gallons) for transporting Materials Extremely Toxic By Inhalation (METBI) are being evaluated and performance standards will be recommended. A computer software system, HazCon, has been developed which can calculate the dispersion of dense, neutral, and buoyant gases. HazCon also has a database of thermodynamic and toxicity data for the METBI materials, a user-friendly menu-driven format for creating input data sets for calculating dispersion of the METBI in the event of an accidental release, and a link between the METBI database and the dense gas dispersion code (which requires thermodynamic properties). The primary output of HazCon is a listing of mass concentrations of the released material at distances downwind from the release point. (J.P.N.)

  3. 75 FR 17111 - Hazardous Materials Regulations: Combustible Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... the probability and quantity of a hazardous material release. Under the HMR, hazardous materials are... present during transportation. The HMR specify appropriate packaging and handling requirements for... hazardous materials in commerce. During our regulatory review process, we look for opportunities that may...

  4. 76 FR 51324 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporating Rail Special Permits Into the Hazardous Materials Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... through use of electronic data interchange (EDI). The IVOHMA states ``differences in hazard communication... and on the possible effects EDI may have on distributing hazardous materials shipping paper... consider the use of EDI in other modes of transport in a future rulemaking. Petition No. P-1567 PHMSA...

  5. Feasibility study--computerized application of the hazardous material regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Green, V.M.; Rawl, R.R.

    1992-09-01

    The feasibility of developing a full expert system for transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials was initiated within the framework of three subtasks: (1) analysis of commercial packages related to regulation scanning, (2) analysis of computer languages to develop the expert system, and (3) development of expert system prototypes. The strategy to develop the latter subtask was to first,develop modules to capture the knowledge of different areas of transportation and packaging and second, to analyze the feasibility of appending these different modules in one final full package. The individual modules development contemplated one prototype for transporting and packaging of radioactive material and another for transporting hazardous chemical materials. In the event that it is not feasible to link these two packages, the modules can always be used as stand-alone tools, or linked as a single package with some restrictions in their applicability. The work done during this fiscal year has focused on developing a prototype for transporting radioactive materials

  6. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may also provide contact information, such as a telephone number and/or e-mail address. PHMSA and the.... PHMSA-2010-0130 (Notice No.10-2)] Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport... (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R-1), which is scheduled for...

  7. 78 FR 60726 - Hazardous Materials Regulations: Penalty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... new categories: Offeror Requirements for specific hazardous materials: Oxygen Generators and Batteries... protecting public health, welfare, safety, and our environment.'' Executive Order 13610 further instructs... the human environment. When developing potential regulatory requirements, PHMSA evaluates those...

  8. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. 49 CFR 171.1 - Applicability of Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) to persons and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... $250 for each violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death... and functions. Federal hazardous materials transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.) directs the... regulations to persons who transport hazardous materials in commerce. In addition, the law authorizes the...

  10. Regulating Hazardous-materials Transportation with Behavioral Modeling of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-29

    Changhyun Kwon (ORCID ID 0000-0001-8455-6396) This project considers network regulation problems to minimize the risk of hazmat accidents and potential damages to the environment, while considering bounded rationality of drivers. We consider governme...

  11. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting in unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  12. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B. P.; Crandall, R. S.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin.

  13. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  14. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  15. 76 FR 50331 - Hazardous Materials Regulations; Compatibility With the Regulations of the International Atomic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... geometry requirements applicable to tested fissile material packages. This TS-R-1 change is applicable to... percussion test.) The TS-R-1 revisions pertaining to the solar insolation conditions to be assumed in...

  16. Application of United States Department of Transportation regulations to hazardous material and waste shipments on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    All hazardous material and waste transported over roadways open to the public must be in compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. The DOT states that the hazardous material regulations (HMR) also apply to government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) transportation operations over any U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site roadway where the public has free and unrestricted access. Hazardous material and waste in packages that do not meet DOT regulations must be transported on DOE site roadways in a manner that excludes the public and nonessential workers. At the DOE Richland Field Office (the Hanford Site), hazardous material and waste movements that do not meet DOT requirements are transported over public access roadways during off-peak hours with the roadways barricaded. These movements are accomplished using a transportation plan that involves the DOE, DOE contractors, and private utilities who operate on or near the Hanford Site. This method, which is used at the Hanford Site to comply with DOT regulations onsite, can be communicated to other DOE sites to provide a basis for achieving consistency in similar transportation operations. (author)

  17. The transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of all kinds of transports has been leading to a continuously increasing number of accidents involving the release and escape of hazardous materials. The risks involved for men and the environment have to be realized and reduced to a minimum. Efforts in this field have meanwhile been accumulating an enormous quantity of rules, recommendations and regulations. They comprise, among others, both national and international rail transport, maritime transport, inland shipping, air and road transport regulations adding up to a total of about 5000 pages. The publication discusses the necessity and justification of the existing quantity of regulations, it deals with their possible simplification and modified user-oriented arrangement as well as with a possible international harmonization of regulations. Apart from giving a general survey of the transport of hazardous materials the author reviews the intensive efforts which are going into the safety of the transport of hazardous materials and points out technical and legal problems which have remained unsolved so far. The publication essentially contributes to clearing up the background, perspectives and prospects of the complex regulations controlling the transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  19. 75 FR 42364 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Certain Cargo Tank Special Permits Into Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    .... Moveable fuel storage tenders are used to supply LPG fuel to farmers for crop drying, crop irrigation... vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals. Control of soil- borne pests increases plant aesthetics, plant quality... liquid lacquer base. Paint related material including paint 3 UN1263 II thinning drying, removing, or...

  20. 75 FR 27205 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Special Permits Into Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... specially designed radiation detectors containing a Division 2.2 (non-flammable gas) material under a new.... Radiation Detectors Radiation detectors are used for measuring the intensity of ionizing radiation. The... visual inspection of the rupture disc in a non-reclosing pressure relief device of a rail tank car...

  1. The transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing use of dangerous chemicals and petroleum products by S.A. industry makes it necessary for some form of control to be introduced to regulate the transport of these materials before a major disaster occurs, such as has occurred overseas. This report examines all the aspects that could increase the likelihood of such a disaster occurring, including the preparedness of emergency services. It also recommends the improvements or changes required to minimize this possibility. It is apparent that the training and ability of vehicle drivers are key areas in this respect and they are discussed at length. Forthcoming regulations under the Hazardous Substances Act No. 15 of 1973 are examined and the effects of over-restrictive legislation considered. The report concludes that legislation promulgated gradually to reinforce voluntary industrial practices will ultimately restrict this type of transport to the safety-conscious and competent operator, therefore minimizing the risk as much as possible

  2. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  3. A comprehensive approach to managing hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, A.

    1990-01-01

    An increased emphasis on the need for environmental protection indicates that engineers must now consider the disposition of unused hazardous materials as waste. Before specifying and ordering materials, the engineer must consider the impact of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Hazard Communication Standard. Many commonly used materials such as paint, solvents, glues, and sealants fall under the requirements of these regulations. This paper presents a plant to manage hazardous materials at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is managed and operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. The basic elements of the plan are training, hazard communication, storage and handling, tracking, and disposal. Steps to be taken to develop the plan are outlined, problems and successes are addressed, and interactions among all affected departments are identified. The benefits of an organized and comprehensive approach to managing hazardous materials are decreased worker injuries, reduction of accidental releases, minimization of waste, and compliance with federal, state, and local safety and environmental laws. In summary, the benefits of an organized program for the management of hazardous materials include compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements, demonstration of Westinghouse's role as a responsible corporate entity, and reduction of waste management costs

  4. The new regulations on handling the materials hazardous to water. Consequences for the operation of biowaste processing plants; Die neue Verordnung ueber Anlagen zum Umgang mit wassergefaehrdenden Stoffen. Konsequenzen fuer den Betrieb von Bioabfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oexle, Anno [Koehler und Klett Rechtsanwaelte Partnerschaft, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The new regulations on the handling materials hazardous to water include the classification of materials and mixtures, the categorization of wastes, plant specific requirements: general requirements, specific requirements with respect to the capacity of fermentation residual storage.

  5. Instrumentation for Detecting Hazardous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    equipment a detector for monitoring radioactivity . A portable device for detecting the presence of hazardous mate- rials should also be included in the...Acrylonitrile 2 Natural Gas/LNG 2 211 ----- Material Name (Cont’d.) Number of Times Listed Radioactive Materials 2 Fertilizers 1 Cellulose Nitrate 1 Acrolein...Birnbaum, and Curtis Fincher, L "Fluorescence Determination of the Atmospheric Polutant NO2 in Impact of Lasers in Spectroscopy, Vol. 49 of Proceed

  6. Transportation of hazardous and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.; Shaver, D.

    1989-01-01

    Transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials is a vital part of the nation's economy. In recent years public concern over the relative safety of transporting hazardous materials has risen sharply. The United States has a long history of transporting hazardous and radioactive material; rocket propellants, commercial spent fuel, low-level and high-level radioactive waste has been shipped for years. While the track record for shipping these materials is excellent, the knowledge that hazardous materials are passing through communities raises the ire of citizens and local governments. Public outcry over shipments containing hazardous cargo has been especially prominent when shippers have attempted to transport rocket propellants or spent nuclear fuel. Studies of recent shipments have provided insight into the difficulties of shipping in a politically charged environment, the major issues of concern to citizens, and some of the more successful methods of dealing with public concerns. This paper focuses on lessons learned from these studies which include interviews with shippers, carriers, and regulators

  7. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  8. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  9. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  10. Hazardous materials management and compliance training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    OSHA training for hazardous waste site workers is required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). In December 1986, a series of regulations was promulgated by OSHA on an interim basis calling for the training of workers engaged in hazardous waste operations. Subsequent to these interim regulations, final rules were promulgated and these final rules on hazardous waste operations and emergency response became effective on March 6, 1990. OSHA has conducted hearings on the accreditation of training programs. OSHA would like to follow the accreditation process under the AHERA regulations for asbestos, in which the model plan for accreditation of asbestos abatement training was included in Section 206 of Title 11 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). OSHA proposed on January 26, 1990, to perform the accreditation of training programs for hazardous waste operations and that proposal suggested that they follow the model plan similar to the one used for AHERA. They did not propose to accredited training programs for workers engaged in emergency response. These new regulations pose a significant problem to the various contractors and emergency responders who deal with hazardous materials spill response, cleanup and site remediation since these programs have expanded so quickly that many people are not familiar with what particular segment of the training they are required to have and whether or not programs that have yet to be accredited are satisfactory for this type of training. Title III of SARA stipulates a training program for first responders which includes local emergency response organizations such as firemen and policemen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the needs of workers at hazardous waste site remediation projects and workers who are dealing with hazardous substances, spill response and cleanup

  11. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieberich, M.J. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States). Carderock Div.; Robinson, P. [Life Cycle Engineering, Inc., Charleston, SC (United States); Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  12. 40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous... (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of... demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous secondary material that is not legitimately recycled...

  13. Program in change: shipment of hazardous materials at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Positive measures such as education, control, and auditing ability should be incorporated into each hazardous material shipping program to assure compliance with regulations and the safe movement of hazardous materials. This paper discusses these and other pertinent components of a shipping program. 3 references

  14. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  15. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Rhyne, W.R.; Simmons, J.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  16. Regulation and Control of Hazardous Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Hans W. Gottinger

    1994-01-01

    Hazardous waste regulations require disposal in approved dumpsites, where environmental consequences are minimal but entry may be privately very costly. Imperfect policing of regulations makes the socially more costly option illicit disposal preferable form the perspective of the private decision maker. The existence of the waste disposal decision, its economic nature, production independence, and the control over environmental damage are key issues in the economics of hazardous waste managem...

  17. Hazardous materials and waste management a guide for the professional hazards manager

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    1995-01-01

    The management of hazardous materials and industrial wastes is complex, requiring a high degree of knowledge over very broad technical and legal subject areas. Hazardous wastes and materials are diverse, with compositions and properties that not only vary significantly between industries, but within industries, and indeed within the complexity of single facilities. Proper management not only requires an understanding of the numerous and complex regulations governing hazardous materials and waste streams, but an understanding and knowledge of the treatment, post-treatment, and waste minimizatio

  18. Auditors of safety in hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manas Lahoz, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The author describes the methodology for safety auditory and control, prevention, risks of hazardous materials transport through ship, airplane, rail, etc. In this way, The author presents the classification of damage materials transport, characteristic damage and different transport methods

  19. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  20. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  1. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-making

  2. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY)

  3. Hazardous materials routing - risk management of mismanagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Along with emergency planning and preparedness, the placement of restrictions on routing has become an increasingly popular device for managing the highway and rail risks of hazardous materials transportation. Federal studies conducted in 1985 indicate that at that time there were 513 different state and local restrictions on the routing of hazardous materials for these two modes of transportation, and that there were 136 state and local notification requirements, that is, restrictions that take the form of a statute or ordinance requiring advance warning or periodic reporting about hazardous materials shipments. Routing restrictions also take the form of prohibiting the use of road, a tunnel, or a bridge for a specified set of hazardous materials

  4. Quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has required for many years that quality assurance programs be established and implemented for the packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. This paper identifies various requirement principles and related actions involved in establishing effective quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. A primary purpose of these quality assurance program activities is to provide assurance that the packaging and transportation of hazardous materials, which includes radioactive and fissile materials, are in conformance with appropriate governmental regulations. Applicable regulations include those issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Transportation (DOT), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). DOE Order 5700.6A establishes that quality assurance requirements are to be applied in accordance with national consensus standards where suitable ones are available. In the nuclear area, ANSI/ASME NQA-1 is the preferred standard

  5. Health and safety information program for hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.P.; Fallon, N.J.; Kuehner, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The system is used as a management tool in several safety and health programs. It is used to: trace the use of hazardous materials and to determine monitoring needs; inform the occupational physician of the potential health problems associated with materials ordered by a given individual; inform the fire and rescue group of hazardous materials in a given building; provide waste disposal recommendations to the hazardous waste management group; assist the hazardous materials shipping coordinator in identifying materials which are regulated by the Department of Transportation; and guide management decisions in the area of recognizing and rectifying unsafe conditions. The information system has been expanded from a manual effort to provide a brief description of health hazards of chemicals used at the lab to a computerized health and safety information system which serves the needs of all personnel who may encounter the material in the course of their work. The system has been designed to provide information needed to control the potential problems associated with a hazardous material up to the time that it is consumed in a given operation or is sent to the waste disposal facility

  6. 78 FR 24309 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Special Permit Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA..., Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, East Building...

  7. 76 FR 45332 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of... Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of Applications for Modification of..., 2011. ADDRESSES: Record Center, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department...

  8. Environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmentally sound management or ESM has been defined under the Basel Convention as 'taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes and other wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes'. An initiative is underway to develop and implement a Canadian Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) regime for both hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials. This ESM regime aims to assure equivalent minimum environmental protection across Canada while respecting regional differences. Cooperation and coordination between the federal government, provinces and territories is essential to the development and implementation of ESM systems since waste management is a shared jurisdiction in Canada. Federally, CEPA 1999 provides an opportunity to improve Environment Canada's ability to ensure that all exports and imports are managed in an environmentally sound manner. CEPA 1999 enabled Environment Canada to establish criteria for environmentally sound management (ESM) that can be applied by importers and exporters in seeking to ensure that wastes and recyclable materials they import or export will be treated in an environmentally sound manner. The ESM regime would include the development of ESM principles, criteria and guidelines relevant to Canada and a procedure for evaluating ESM. It would be developed in full consultation with stakeholders. The timeline for the development and implementation of the ESM regime is anticipated by about 2006. (author)

  9. Nuclear and hazardous material perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, Gary M.; Kunze, Jay F.; Rogers, Vern C.

    2007-01-01

    The reemerging nuclear enterprise in the 21. century empowering the power industry and nuclear technology is still viewed with fear and concern by many of the public and many political leaders. Nuclear phobia is also exhibited by many nuclear professionals. The fears and concerns of these groups are complex and varied, but focus primarily on (1) management and disposal of radioactive waste [especially spent nuclear fuel and low level radioactive waste], (2) radiation exposures at any level, and (3) the threat nuclear terrorism. The root cause of all these concerns is the exaggerated risk perceived to human health from radiation exposure. These risks from radiation exposure are compounded by the universal threat of nuclear weapons and the disastrous consequences if these weapons or materials become available to terrorists or rogue nations. This paper addresses the bases and rationality for these fears and considers methods and options for mitigating these fears. Scientific evidence and actual data are provided. Radiation risks are compared to similar risks from common chemicals and familiar human activities that are routinely accepted. (authors)

  10. An optimization model for transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed-Hosseini, M.; Kheirkhah, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal routing problem for transportation of hazardous materials is studied. Routing for the purpose of reducing the risk of transportation of hazardous materials has been studied and formulated by many researcher and several routing models have been presented up to now. These models can be classified into the categories: the models for routing a single movement and the models for routing multiple movements. In this paper, according to the current rules and regulations of road transportations of hazardous materials in Iran, a routing problem is designed. In this problem, the routs for several independent movements are simultaneously determined. To examine the model, the problem the transportations of two different dangerous materials in the road network of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran is formulated and solved by applying Integer programming model

  11. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  12. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  13. Unify a hazardous materials/waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Efficiently managing a hazardous materials/waste program in a multi-facility, multi-product corporation is a major challenge. This paper describes several methods to help unify a program and gain maximum efficiency of manpower and to minimize risk

  14. GIS risk analysis of hazardous materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, C.; Olsten, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to assess the risks and vulnerability of transporting hazardous materials and wastes (such as gasoline, explosives, poisons, etc) on the Arizona highway system. This paper discusses the methodology that was utilized, and the application of GIS systems to risk analysis problems

  15. US Hazardous Materials Routes, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [hazardous_material_routes_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Hazardous Material Routes were developed using the 2004 First Edition TIGER/Line files. The routes are...

  16. Hazardous materials sensing: An electrical metamaterial approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, Vaishali; Kitture, Rohini [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Kumari, Dimple [Department of Applied Chemistry, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Rajesh, Harsh [Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER), IIT-Bombay Campus, Powai, Mumbai (India); Banerjee, Shaibal [Department of Applied Chemistry, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India); Kale, S.N., E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT), Girinagar, Pune 411025 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Metamaterials are recently emerging materials exhibiting amazing properties such as extremely miniaturized antennas, waveguides, optical couplers, multiplexers and filters. Such structures also respond to the variation in their ambient conditions when exposed to toxic and hazardous materials, which are especially hazardous to human health. Through this manuscript, we document our studies on three different high energy materials; namely 2- bromo-2nitropropane-1,3-diol (BNP), bis (1,3-diazido prop-2-yl) malonate (AM) and bis (1,3-diazido prop-2-yl) glutarate (AG). A Complementary Split Ring Resonator has been fabricated at resonant frequency of 4.48 GHz using copper on FR4 substrate. The energetic materials were exposed to the sensor and results were monitored using Vector Network Analyzer. The volume of liquids was varied from 0.5 µL to 3 µL. Prominent and explicit shifts in the transmission resonant frequency and amplitude was seen as a signature of each energetic material. The signatures were not only sensitive to the specific toxic group in the material but also to the volume of the liquid subjected to this sensor. The results are correlated with the simulation results, basic chemistry of the materials and permittivity measurements. The ultra-fast reversibility and repeatability, with good sensitivity and specificity of these devices project their applications in sensitive locations, particularly to combat for human security and health issues.

  17. Perceived safety of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Shepherd, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    A framework for relating the variables involved in the public perception of hazardous materials transportation was presented. The framework consisted of a conditional mathematical equation in which perceived safety was described by six basic terms (technical feasibility, political palatability, social responsibility, utility assessment, media interpretation, and familiarity as a function of time). The resulting framework provides the technologist with an initial formulation to better understand public perception

  18. Storage and transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, P.; Haferkamp, K.

    1986-01-01

    The attempt has been made to characterise the present risk scenario, and to set out approaches or methods for remedy and risk control. For this purpose, a retrospective analysis has been made of accidents, damage and consequential damage that occurred in the past either during storage of hazardous materials, or during road transport. A risk-benefit model facilitates assessment of accident frequency. The history of accidents during storage or transport allows assessment of the dangerousness of various materials. Another important aspect discussed is the property and behaviour of containers used for storage or transport. (DG) [de

  19. 46 CFR 151.03-30 - Hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous material means a liquid material or substance that is— (a) Flammable or combustible; (b) Designated a hazardous substance under section 311(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C... Agency designates hazardous substances in 40 CFR Table 116.4A. The Coast Guard designates hazardous...

  20. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, C.E.; Clover, J.C.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic trademark programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them

  1. Risk methodologies for offsite hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Eichler, T.V.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    A number of suggestions have been advanced in recent years concerning the risks posed to nuclear power plants by offsite hazardous materials relative to (1) the regulatory approach including considerations of minimum and safe standoff distances, exclusion distances, site acceptance ceilings and floors, screening distances and screening probabilities, plant design, etc., and (2) the analysis and evaluation procedures such as material screening criteria, plant vulnerability, standarized physical models, etc. An evaluation of current analyses and approaches indicates that this complex problem, variety of approaches, and safety concerns may be better accommodated by developing criteria and treatments along the lines of a so-called conditional risk approach. Specifically, the probability (P) of some ultimate consequence (C) occurring from an accident (A) involving hazardous materials is given as P(C) = P(C/A) x P(A). Assuming that the plant to accident site standoff distance is the fundamental independent variable of the risk methodology, certain conditional risk designations and conditions can be made and are presented

  2. 30 CFR 56.16004 - Containers for hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containers for hazardous materials. 56.16004 Section 56.16004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 56.16004 Containers for hazardous materials. Containers holding hazardous materials...

  3. 30 CFR 57.16004 - Containers for hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containers for hazardous materials. 57.16004 Section 57.16004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Storage and Handling § 57.16004 Containers for hazardous materials. Containers holding hazardous materials...

  4. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying and designing. Identifying and designing hazardous materials packaging for compliance with post HM-181 DOT Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    With the initial publication of Docket HM-181 (hereafter referred to as HM-181), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, Transportation Management Division decided to produce guidance to help the DOE community transition to performance-oriented packagings (POP). As only a few individuals were familiar with the new requirements, elementary guidance was desirable. The decision was to prepare the guidance at a level easily understood by a novice to regulatory requirements. This document identifies design development strategies for use in obtaining performance-oriented packagings that are not readily available commercially. These design development strategies will be part of the methodologies for compliance with post HM-181 U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging regulations. This information was prepared for use by the DOE and its contractors. The document provides guidance for making decisions associated with designing performance-oriented packaging, and not for identifying specific material or fabrication design details. It does provide some specific design considerations. Having a copy of the regulations handy when reading this document is recommended to permit a fuller understanding of the requirements impacting the design effort. While this document is not written for the packaging specialist, it does contain guidance important to those not familiar with the new POP requirements

  5. 49 CFR 172.202 - Description of hazardous material on shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... papers. 172.202 Section 172.202 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Shipping Papers § 172.202 Description of hazardous material on shipping papers. (a) The shipping description of a hazardous material on the shipping paper...

  6. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76 Transport... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may be...

  7. Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, B.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected

  8. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-05-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  9. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  10. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  11. Hazardous materials and toxic substances - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerlad, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper first forecasts what the status of hazardous wastes should be in the year 2028. The author believes all the problems will be solved: no new hazardous wastes will be being generated and the current hazardous waste problems will have been cleared up by common sense engineering. He then describes the current status of waste management of hazardous wastes, the regulatory situation, as well as combustion test programs

  12. 49 CFR 176.99 - Permit requirements for certain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit requirements for certain hazardous materials. 176.99 Section 176.99 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Special Requirements for Barges § 176.99 Permit requirements for certain hazardous...

  13. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat) a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zafer YILMAZ; Serpil EROL; Hakan Soner APLAK

    2016-01-01

    ransportation has a great role in logistics. Many researchers have studied on transportation and vehicle routing problems. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat) is a special subject for logistics. Causalities due to the accidents caused by trucks carrying hazardous materials will be intolerable. Many researchers have studied on risk assessment of hazmat transportation to find ways for reducing hazardous material transportation risks. Some researchers have studied routing of hazmat tr...

  14. Recovering energy and materials from hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    The tannery industry faces growing environmental concerns because of the high hazardous metal content of its process waste. The formation, during the tanning process, of the highly toxic hexavalent chromium precludes the use of conventional thermal incineration processes. Borge Tannery in Norway, which processes 600 cattle hides per day, has solved the problem by using new PyroArc technology. The PyroArc waste processing plant can treat all of the tannery's production wastes, transforming them into useful products such as fuel gas and re-usable metal. The fuel gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen, and has a calorific value of about 4 MJ/Nm{sub 3}. About 65-70% of the energy content of the source material (waste or biomass) is recovered in the gas, and this is used to produce steam and/or electricity in a gas engine with a capacity of 580 kW. A further 20-25% of the initial energy content is recovered as heat or low-pressure steam. The plant is designed to be self-sufficient in energy (1.5 MW) and to meet the tannery's maximum requirements for hot water and steam. (UK)

  15. Analysis on the Industrial Design of Food Package and the Component of Hazardous Substance in the Packaging Material

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Transferring the hazardous chemicals contained in food packaging materials into food would threaten the health of consumers, therefore, the related laws and regulations and the detection method of hazardous substance have been established at home and abroad to ensure the safety to use the food packaging material. According to the analysis on the hazardous component in the food packaging, a set of detection methods for hazardous substance in the food packaging was established in the paper and ...

  16. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations

  17. Overview of hazardous-waste regulation at federal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B.; Lerner, K.

    1982-05-01

    This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require

  18. Overview of hazardous-waste regulation at federal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B.; Lerner, K.

    1982-05-01

    This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require.

  19. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  20. 76 FR 43509 - Hazardous Materials; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... regulatory requirements; finalize outstanding petitions for rulemaking; facilitate international commerce... generate economic benefits to the regulated community. DATES: Effective Date: This final rule is effective... regulations which were subsequently adopted and expanded upon by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and...

  1. 75 FR 60017 - Hazardous Materials; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... prevent shifting or significant relative motion between the packages; that the consolidation bins be... display of the hazard identity (e.g., labels instead of placards) would support a small, more flexible... direction for all or part of their journey. Dynamic forces may shift an unsecured load or cause lading to...

  2. Was the hazard regulation really necessary. [Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyhaupt, F J

    1981-01-01

    The BImSchG (German Code) did not expressively require the passing of the hazard regulation. On the basis of comparative data for the danger of death and on the basis of quotations of representatives of different groups of society, the necessity of this regulation is accepted not only out of ethic motivations, but also out of occupational responsibility.

  3. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  4. Hazardous Material Cargo Frustration at Military Aerial Ports of Embarkation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Neil E

    2006-01-01

    Since military units often require critical hazardous materials in an expedited manner, identifying choke points within the supply chain is necessary to improve logistic support to front line forces...

  5. Regional risk associated with the transport of hazardous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nardini, L.; Aparicio, L.; Bandoni, A.; Tonelli, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    An increasing concern over the level of risk associated with hazardous materials transportation has led international efforts to focus on risk assessment at regional level. Following this trend, the aim of this work is to review the latest procedures for analysing the regional risks resulting from hazardous materials transportation by means of road and rail. In particular, two methodologies are reviewed and discussed, a method recently developed at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology [1] an...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  7. Design for containment of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; McDonald, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    Department of Energy, (DOE), facilities across the United States, use wind and tornado design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. In addition, other programs such as Advanced Light Water Reactors, New Production Reactors, and Individual Plant Examinations for External Events for commercial nuclear power plants utilize design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. The use of probabilistic performance goals is a departure from design practice for commercial nuclear power plants which have traditionally been designed utilizing a conservative specification of wind and tornado loading combined with deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits. Approaches which utilize probabilistic wind and tornado hazard curves for specification of loading and deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits are discussed in this paper. Through the use of such design/evaluation approaches, it may be demonstrated that there is high likelihood that probabilistic performance goals can be achieved. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Investigating the presence of hazardous materials in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustitus, D.A.; Blaisdell, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental hazards in buildings can be found in the air, on exposed surfaces, or hidden in roofs, walls, and systems. They can exist in buildings in solid, liquid, and gaseous states. A sound methodology for investigating the presence of environmental hazards in buildings should include several components. The first step in planning an investigation of environmental hazards in buildings is to ascertain why the investigation is to be performed. Research should be performed to review available documentation on the building. Next, a visual inspection of the building should be performed to identify and document existing conditions, and all suspect materials containing environmental hazards. Lastly, samples of suspect materials should be collected for testing. It is important to sample appropriate materials, based on the information obtained during the previous steps of the investigation. It is also important to collect the samples using standard procedures. Pollutants of concern include asbestos, lead, PCBs, and radon

  9. Preventing method and device for underground permeation of hazardous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Kurokawa, Hideaki; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Yamazaki, Tadashi.

    1996-01-01

    In a method of preventing hazardous materials from permeating into ground by burying adsorbing materials underground, a plurality of adsorbing layers are laminated being spaced apart from each other, the concentration of the hazardous materials between each of the adsorbent layers is measured. When the concentration reaches a predetermined value, the adsorbent layers are regenerated. A suppression means for preventing hazardous materials from permeating into the ground are formed by an upper adsorbent layer and a lower adsorbent layer, and a means for measuring the concentration of hazardous materials passing through the upper adsorbent layer and a means for charging and discharging regenerated liquid are disposed. When it is detected that the poisonous materials can not be eliminated, the poisonous materials are already permeated to the adsorbent layer, and they start to inflow into underground water. In order to prevent it, an adsorbent layer is additionally disposed at the lower side of the place of detection to eliminate the poisonous materials completely thereby enabling to prevent poisonous materials from permeating into underground for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  10. Development of an expert system for transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Rawl, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Transportation Management Division (EM-261), the Transportation Technologies Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and developed an expert system prototype application of the hazardous materials transportation regulations. The objective of this task was to provide a proof-of-concept for developing a computerized expert system that will ensure straightforward, consistent, and error-free application of the hazardous materials transportation regulations. The expert system prototype entailed the analysis of what an expert in hazardous materials shipping information could/should do. From the analysis of the different features required for the expert system prototype, it was concluded that the developmental efforts should be directed to a Windows trademark 3.1 hypermedia environment. Hypermedia technology usually works as an interactive software system that gives personal computer users the ability to organize, manage, and present information in a number of formats--text, graphics, sound, and full-motion video

  11. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  12. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J [Idaho Falls, ID; Knecht, Dieter A [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Burchfield, Larry A [W. Richland, WA; Anshits, Alexander G [Krasnoyarsk, RU; Vereshchagina, Tatiana [Krasnoyarsk, RU; Tretyakov, Alexander A [Zheleznogorsk, RU; Aloy, Albert S [St. Petersburg, RU; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V [St. Petersburg, RU

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  13. Regulatory Requirements to Combat Illicit Trafficking of Hazardous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2011-01-01

    Since more than a decade illicit Trafficking of hazardous ( CBRNE), materials ( chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive ) has been identified as a key threat in national, regional, inter regional and international strategies. An Effective response to hazardous materials (CBRNE) risk and threat were realized to require a very high level of cooperation and coordination between various governments and their responsible organizations and authorities of regional and international partner. While improper policy of actions may easily be exploited by non- state members to (CBRNE) trafficking which may lead to develop weapon of mass destruction (WMD). Such strategy are of paramount important between all levels of the states and among regional agreements through comprehensive tailored assistance packages (e.g. export control, illicit trafficking of hazardous materials, redirection of scientist, emergency planning, crisis response safety and security culture. Capacity building, action plans and instruments for stability are necessary actions for efficient combating against illicit trafficking of hazardous materials. Regarding the needs of assessment phase, assistance must be based on data collection, analysis and prioritization of implanting the regulatory controls. Several activities have to be conducted to reduce CBRNE threat. The one- by- one approach, covering either nuclear and radioactive or chemical or biological materials has to be implanted on the country basis performance to mitigate CBRNE hazardous risk. On several consequent phases of intervention dealing with CBRNE risk mitigation the country has to establish a network of local, regional and international capabilities. Such network is setting up the mechanism for the country needs identifications, the guidelines for data collection, for data platform maintenance and update, the data assessment and the competent and operative organizations. This network will be to strengthen the long - term

  14. Sustainable Materials Management: Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the non-hazardous materials and waste management hierarchy in recognition that no single waste management approach is suitable for managing all materials and waste streams in all circumstances.

  15. Toward a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    In recognition of the federal government's responsibility for initiating a national strategy for hazardous materials transportation safety, the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) prepared an internal strategy paper for creating a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety in August 1981. The paper outlined the scope of the hazardous materials transportation problem and established MTB's approach for creating an intergovernmental partnership for its resolution. This paper represents an update and refinement of the original plan, and is designed to chart the direction of the emerging federal/state/local relationship. The cornerstone of the plan remains the establishment of a single national set of safety regulations. It is on achievement of this objective that MTB's plan for development of enforcement, training, and emergency response capabilities at all levels of government is based. Chapter I introduces the problem with a desription of the economic importance of hazardous materials and discusses its implications for public safety. Chapter II defines the appropriate role for each level of government in the areas of rulemaking, enforcement, emergency response, and education. Chapter III demonstrates the need for uniform national safety standards and describes the economic and safety benefits of this approach. Chapter IV contains a detailed description of MTB's program for developing a successful intergovernmental partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

  16. 77 FR 39662 - Hazardous Materials; Reverse Logistics (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... logistics providers estimate that up to 7% of an enterprise's gross sales are return costs. The third-party... logistic shipments for hazardous materials? III. Issues To Be Considered As previously noted, the purpose... documentation costs to develop and maintain risk assessments and operational procedures? If so, what is a fair...

  17. 76 FR 73011 - Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of... Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of actions on Special Permit Applications. SUMMARY: In... reissue the Nuclear 173.56(b)(3)(i special permit Security ). originally issued Administration on an...

  18. 77 FR 24885 - Hazardous Materials; Miscellaneous Amendments (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... special provisions, clarify the lab pack requirements for temperature-controlled materials, and revise the... in Dewar flasks. Clarify the lab pack provisions in Sec. 173.12 pertaining to temperature-controlled... shipping names, hazard classes, packing groups, special provisions, packaging authorizations, air transport...

  19. 77 FR 21714 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... cells and batteries that have been adopted into the 2013-2014 International Civil Aviation Organization...) to address the air transportation risks posed by lithium cells and batteries. Some of the proposals...

  20. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transportation of lithium cells and batteries, including lithium cells and batteries packed with or contained in equipment. The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all lithium batteries are...

  1. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transport of lithium cells and batteries. PHMSA and FAA will hold a public meeting on March 5, 2010, in... will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the Conference Center...

  2. 78 FR 1119 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... lithium cells and batteries that have been adopted into the 2013-2014 International Civil Aviation... edition, when transporting batteries domestically by air. Incorporation by reference of the 2013-2014...

  3. Developments in consequence modelling of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.

    2012-01-01

    The modelling of consequences of releases of hazardous materials in the Netherlands has mainly been based on the “Yellow Book”. Although there is no updated version of this official publication, new insights have been developed during the last decades. This article will give an overview of new

  4. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer YILMAZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ransportation has a great role in logistics. Many researchers have studied on transportation and vehicle routing problems. Transportation of hazardous materials (hazmat is a special subject for logistics. Causalities due to the accidents caused by trucks carrying hazardous materials will be intolerable. Many researchers have studied on risk assessment of hazmat transportation to find ways for reducing hazardous material transportation risks. Some researchers have studied routing of hazmat trucks. The emergency response models and network design problems for hazmat transportation were also studied by some researchers. The transportation of hazmats can also be classified according to the mode of transport. Mainly roads are used for hazmat transportation but some shipments are intermodal. There has been a great amount of effort spent to find convenient ways for hazmat transportation. In this study, a literature survey for the articles about hazmat transportation is prepared. After pointing out the importance of hazmat transportation by the example of US hazmat transportation data, the studies on hazmat transportation since 2005 have been examined. Totally 88 articles are classified as risk, routing, routing and scheduling, emergency response, network design and accident analysis. What can be studied in future researches is pointed out.Keywords: Hazardous materials, Network design, Transportation, Routing, Risk assessment

  5. 49 CFR 171.16 - Detailed hazardous materials incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containing any hazardous material suffers structural damage to the lading retention system or damage that..., explosion or dangerous evolution of heat (i.e., an amount of heat sufficient to be dangerous to packaging or personal safety to include charring of packaging, melting of packaging, scorching of packaging, or other...

  6. Enforcement of federal regulations and penalties for shipments of hazardous and radioactive materials. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Government Processes, of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, May 9, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The enforcement of federal safety regulations on the transport of radioactive and hazardous materials contained in the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act is the responsibility of the Department of Transportation, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Concern over the practice of charging less than 10% of the statutory maximum penalty and a poor record of collections raises questions about the diligence of enforcement agencies. Testimony by an Illinois state trooper revealed the extent of noncompliance, using the incident of the radioactive metal from Juarez, Mexico that was used to make table pedestals for illustration, and the state's response to the problem. Fourteen other witnesses from the enforcement agencies described procedures and problems. Additional material submitted for the record follows their testimony

  7. Evaluation of Hazardous Material Management Safety in the Chemical Laboratory in BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur-Rahmah-Hidayati

    2005-01-01

    The management safety of the hazardous material (B3) in the chemical laboratory of BATAN was evaluated. The evaluation is necessary to be done because B3 is often used together with radioactive materials in the laboratory, but the attention to the safety aspect of B3 is not paid sufficiently in spite of its big potential hazard. The potential hazard generated from the nature of B3 could be flammable, explosive, oxidative, corrosive and poisonous. The handling of B3 could be conducted by enforcing the labelling and classification in the usage and disposal processes. Some observations of the chemical laboratory of BATAN show that the management safety of hazardous material in compliance with the government regulation no. 74 year 2001 has not been dully conducted. The management safety of B3 could be improved by, designating one who has adequate skill in hazardous material safety specially as the B3 safety officer, providing the Material Safety Data Sheet that is updated periodically to use in the laboratory and storage room, updating periodically the inventory of B3, performing training in work safety periodically, and monitoring the ventilation system intensively in laboratory and storage room. (author)

  8. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center

  9. Method and apparatus for the management of hazardous waste material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jr., Holt

    1995-01-01

    A container for storing hazardous waste material, particularly radioactive waste material, consists of a cylindrical body and lid of precipitation hardened C17510 beryllium-copper alloy, and a channel formed between the mated lid and body for receiving weld filler material of C17200 copper-beryllium alloy. The weld filler material has a precipitation hardening temperature lower than the aging kinetic temperature of the material of the body and lid, whereby the weld filler material is post weld heat treated for obtaining a weld having substantially the same physical, thermal, and electrical characteristics as the material of the body and lid. A mechanical seal assembly is located between an interior shoulder of the body and the bottom of the lid for providing a vacuum seal.

  10. 77 FR 49167 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ..., but are not limited to, the authorization to allow wood as a material of package construction for... to the regulated community with respect to the material of construction authorized for such packages... amendments include, but are not limited to, the authorization to use wood as a material of package...

  11. Regulation of above-ground oil and waste containers. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, January 26, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Representatives from the petroleum industry, US EPA, National Bureau of Standards and Congress were among those testifying at a hearing to discuss one of the worst inland environmental disasters in this Nation's history. The January 2 collapse of the Ashland Oil Co.'s storage tank in Floreffe, Pennsylvania resulted in the release of some 4 million gallons of diesel fuel. Approximately a million gallons escaped the containment structures and spilled over into the Monongahela River. This spill has contaminated the drinking water sources for millions of people downstream, from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati to Louisville, and beyond. Attention is focused on the causes of this tank's collapse, the response measures taken by Ashland Oil, the Coast Guard, the EPA, and the need for tighter federal regulations of above-ground tanks used for the storage of petroleum and hazardous substances.

  12. Written instructions for the transport of hazardous materials: Accident management instruction sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the regulations and the safety provisions taken, accidents are not entirely avoidable in the transport of hazardous materials. For managing an accident and preventing further hazards after release of dangerous substances, the vehicle drivers must carry with them the accident management instruction sheets, which give instructions on immediate counter measures to be taken by the driver, and on information to be given to the police and the fire brigades. The article in hand discusses the purpose, the contents, and practice-based improvement of this collection of instruction sheets. Particular reference is given to the newly revised version of June 15, 1988 (Verkehrsblatt 1/88) of the 'Directives for setting up accident management instruction sheets - written instructions - for road transport of hazardous materials', as issued by the Federal Ministry of Transport. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    recommendations are provided and substitute materials such as aluminum alloys for stainless steel and high-density polyethylene for polyvinyl chloride and acrylonitrile-based polymers show promise to meet toxicity reduction, cost, and material functionality requirements. Furthermore, the TPI method, an European Union focused screening tool, is customized to reflect regulated U.S. toxicity parameters. Results show that, although it is possible to adopt U.S. parameters into the TPI method, harmonization of toxicity regulation and standards in various nations and regions is necessary to eliminate inconsistencies during hazard screening of substances used globally. As a whole, the present work helps to assimilate material hazard assessment methods into the larger framework of design for environment strategies so toxics use reduction could be achieved for the development and management of electronics and other consumer goods.

  14. 78 FR 60755 - Hazardous Materials: Enhanced Enforcement Procedures-Resumption of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... material,'' we envisioned etiological agents, such as biological products, infectious substances, medical... accidents or incidents involving the transportation of hazardous material. In order to achieve a uniform... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...

  15. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials

  16. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Yoon, Hongkyu [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Barkan, Christopher P.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  17. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

  18. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  19. Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

    2006-11-01

    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation.

  20. Risk management of onsite transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Field, J.G.

    1992-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has recently undergone a significant change in its mission. The focus of site-wide operations has been shifted from production to environmental restoration. As a result, there is a significant increase in quantities of the radioactive wastes and other hazardous materials to be packaged and transported onsite. In response to the elevated transportation activities, the operations and engineering contractor for the Hanford Site, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to further enhance the safe operations of the onsite packaging and transportation activities involving radioactive and other hazardous materials. This paper summarizes Westinghouse Hanford's proposed risk assessment and risk management methodology for onsite transportation of hazardous materials. The proposed Westinghouse Hanford risk assessment and management methodology for onsite packaging and transportation has three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization process. The purposes are to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable, and to further reduce the overall risk for current and future onsite transportation activities

  1. Mission: Possible. Center of Excellence for Hazardous Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Prather-Stroud, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Center of Excellence for Hazardous Materials Management (CEHMM) was established in May 2004 as a nonprofit research organization. Its purpose is to develop a sustainable technical/scientific community located in Carlsbad, New Mexico, that interacts worldwide to find solutions to hazardous materials management issues. An important part of the mission is to achieve improved protection of worker safety, human health, and the environment. Carlsbad has a large technical community due to the presence of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and its many contractors and support organizations. These groups include the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, Washington Group International, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. These organizations form the basis of a unique knowledge community with strengths in many areas, such as geosciences, actinide chemistry, environmental monitoring, and waste transportation. CEHMM works cooperatively with these organizations and others to develop projects that will maintain this knowledge community beyond the projected closure date of WIPP. At present, there is an emphasis in bio-monitoring, air monitoring, hazardous materials educational programs, and endangered species remediation. CEHMM is also currently working with a group from the American Nuclear Society to help facilitate their conference scheduled for April 2006 in Carlsbad. CEHMM is growing rapidly and is looking forward to a diverse array of new projects. (authors)

  2. 78 FR 69745 - Safety and Security Plans for Class 3 Hazardous Materials Transported by Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... material (considering the material's underlying chemical properties, corrosivity, and other characteristics) is fundamental to ensuring the selection of proper packaging and that the hazards of the materials...

  3. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry

  4. Environmental Assessment For the Proposed Construction of A Hazardous Materials Issue Facility and a Hazardous Wastes Storage Facility at Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    hazardous materials in accordance with the Occupational Health and Safety Administration ( OSHA ) storage standards. This facility would make the...subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia , Pakistan, or the Philippine Islands; and • Native Hawaiian and Other...regulated by the USEPA and the OSHA . The state of Colorado also has regulations pertaining to ACM abatement. Emissions of asbestos fibers into the

  5. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards

  6. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1996 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication is the revised version of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials as approved by the Board of Governors in September 1996. It establishes standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation, criticality and thermal hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. After an introductory section, the publication is structured as follows: Section 2 defines the terms that are required for the purposes of the Regulations; Section 3 provides general provisions; Section 4 gives the activity limits and material restrictions used throughout these Regulations; Section 5 provides requirements and controls for transport; Section 6 provides requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages; Section 7 provides requirements for test procedures; Section 8 provides approval and administrative requirements. The requirements for the transport of specified types of consignments are included in an abbreviated form as Schedules. Refs, figs, tabs

  7. 78 FR 66326 - Hazardous Materials: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank Car Transportation (RRR) AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Advance Notice of... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts...

  8. A multisignal detection of hazardous materials for homeland security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamaniotis Miltiadis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of hazardous materials has been identified as one of the most urgent needs of homeland security, especially in scanning cargo containers at United States ports. To date, special nuclear materials have been detected using neutron or gamma interrogation, and recently the nuclear resonance fluorescence has been suggested. We show a new paradigm in detecting the materials of interest by a method that combines four signals (radiography/computer tomography, acoustic, muon scattering, and nuclear resonance fluorescence in cargos. The intelligent decision making software system is developed to support the following scenario: initially, radiography or the computer tomography scan is constructed to possibly mark the region(s of interest. The acoustic interrogation is utilized in synergy to obtain information regarding the ultrasonic velocity of the cargo interior. The superposition of the computer tomography and acoustic images narrows down the region(s of interest, and the intelligent system guides the detection to the next stage: no threat and finish, or proceed to the next interrogation. If the choice is the latter, knowing that high Z materials yield large scattering angle for muons, the muon scattering spectrum is used to detect the existence of such materials in the cargo. Additionally, the nuclear resonance fluorescence scan yields a spectrum that can be likened to the fingerprint of a material. The proposed algorithm is tested for detection of special nuclear materials in a comprehensive scenario.

  9. A multisignal detection of hazardous materials for homeland security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamaniotis, M.; Terrill, S.; Perry, J.; Gao, R.; Tsoukalas, L.; Jevremovic, T.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of hazardous materials has been identified as one of the most urgent needs of homeland security, especially in scanning cargo containers at United States ports. To date, special nuclear materials have been detected using neutron or gamma interrogation, and recently the nuclear resonance fluorescence has been suggested. We show a new paradigm in detecting the materials of interest by a method that combines four signals (radiography/computer tomography, acoustic, muon scattering, and nuclear resonance fluorescence) in cargos. The intelligent decision making software system is developed to support the following scenario: initially, radiography or the computer tomography scan is constructed to possibly mark the region(s) of interest. The acoustic interrogation is utilized in synergy to obtain information regarding the ultrasonic velocity of the cargo interior. The superposition of the computer tomography and acoustic images narrows down the region(s) of interest, and the intelligent system guides the detection to the next stage: no threat and finish, or proceed to the next interrogation. If the choice is the latter, knowing that high Z materials yield large scattering angle for muons, the muon scattering spectrum is used to detect the existence of such materials in the cargo. Additionally, the nuclear resonance fluorescence scan yields a spectrum that can be likened to the fingerprint of a material. The proposed algorithm is tested for detection of special nuclear materials in a comprehensive scenario. (author)

  10. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-05-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment.

  11. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Route selection for the transport of hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, F A

    1988-12-01

    The factors governing the risk-weighted selection of routes for transport of hazardous materials are analyzed. Starting from a formulation for the total risk of these transports that assumes complete information, approximations for the more realistic case of partial and uncertain information are discussed. These approximations involve well-known risk assessment techniques and mathematical methods; among the latter, Monte Carlo calculations hold the most promise. The actual route selection is based on an index of total societal cost, evaluated for a set of potential routes. (author)

  13. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles... Transportation § 173.33 Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles. (a) General requirements. (1) No person may offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in a cargo tank motor vehicle except as...

  14. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  15. Hazard evaluation of The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgazzi, Luciano [ENEA-Centro Ricerche ' Ezio Clementel' , Advanced Physics Technology Division, Via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: burgazzi@bologna.enea.it

    2005-01-15

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is aimed to provide an intense neutron source by a high current deuteron linear accelerator and a high-speed lithium flow target, for testing candidate materials for fusion. Liquid lithium is being circulated through a loop and is kept at a temperature above its freezing point. In the frame of the design phase called Key Element technology Phase (KEP), jointly performed by an international team to verify the most important risk factors, safety assessment of the whole plant has been required in order to identify the hazards associated with the plant operation. This paper discusses the safety assessments that were performed and their outcome: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) approach has been adopted in order to accomplish the task. Main conclusions of the study is that, on account of the safety and preventive measures adopted, potential plant related hazards are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries and great care must be exercised to protect workers and site personnel from operating the plant. The analysis has provided as a result a set of Postulated Initiating Events (PIEs), that is off-normal events, that could result in hazardous consequences for the plant, together with the total frequency and the list of component failures which could induce the PIE: this assures the exhaustive list of major initiating events of accident sequences, helpful to the further accident sequence analysis phase. Finally, for each one of the individuated PIEs, the evaluation of the accident evolution, in terms of effects on the plant and relative countermeasures, has allowed to verify that adequate measures are being taken both to prevent the accident occurrence and to cope with the accident consequences, thus assuring the fulfilment of the safety requirements.

  16. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A.; Sanches, Matias P.

    2001-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  17. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  18. Hazardous materials incidents on major highways -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhaney, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Personnel from both the public and private sectors have been involved for many years in pre-planning for hazardous materials releases at fixed installations all over the world. As a result of several major petroleum releases during marine transportation, oil companies, private contractors and government agencies have been preparing contingency plans for oil spills and other petroleum product releases in marine settings. Various industry groups have also developed plans for railway and pipeline disasters. These response plans are of varying quality, complexity and usefulness. Organizations such as plant emergency response teams, government agencies, contract response and clean-up crews and fire departments use these plans as a basis for training and resource allocation, hopefully becoming familiar enough with them that the plans are truly useful when product releases occur. Planners and emergency responders to hazardous materials releases must overcome some of the deficiencies which have long stood in the way of efficient and effective response and mitigation efforts. Specifically they must recognize and involve all resources with which they may respond or interact during an incident. This involvement should begin with the planning stages and carry through to training and emergency response and recovery efforts. They must ensure that they adopt and utilize a common command and control system and that all potential resources know this system thoroughly and train together before the incident occurs. It is only through incorporating these two factors that may successfully combat the ever growing number of unwanted product releases occurring in the more difficult realm of transportation

  19. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  20. A structure for models of hazardous materials with complex behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Most atmospheric dispersion models used to assess the environmental consequences of accidental releases of hazardous chemicals do not have the capability to simulate the pertinent chemical and physical processes associated with the release of the material and its mixing with the atmosphere. The purpose of this paper is to present a materials sub-model with the flexibility to simulate the chemical and physical behaviour of a variety of materials released into the atmosphere. The model, which is based on thermodynamic equilibrium, incorporates the ideal gas law, temperature-dependent vapor pressure equations, temperature-dependent dissociation reactions, and reactions with atmospheric water vapor. The model equations, written in terms of pressure ratios and dimensionless parameters, are used to construct equilibrium diagrams with temperature and the mass fraction of the material in the mixture as coordinates. The model's versatility is demonstrated by its application to the release of UF 6 and N 2 O 4 , two materials with very different physical and chemical properties. (author)

  1. Some problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references

  2. Problems of risk balancing for regulating environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Rational regulation of environmental hazards may be based on the implicit underlying principles that government actions should enhance the average quality of life for those governed and maintain some degree of equity in the distribution of benefits, costs, and risks. Issues arising from these principles have practical implications for risk management policy in general and for the development and application of radiological protection criteria in particular. One of the issues is the appropriate distribution of expenditures for regulating different risks. The total resources available for risk regulation are finite; hence, minimizing the total risk subject to this constraint is an appropriate strategy for optimum risk management. Using a simple model, it is shown that this strategy leads to a distribution of expenditures between different risks such that a greater fraction is allocated to a risk with a higher cost of mitigation or control but the allocation is limited in such a manner that the fractional contribution of that risk to the total risk is also higher. The effect of deviating from this strategy is examined. It is shown that reducing a single risk of concern below the optimum value by a factor 1/F can increase the total risk by about F times the risk of concern. Taking into account the large uncertainties in risk assessment for establishing radiological protection criteria, it is argued that an optimum strategy for remedial action should (1) set basic risk limits as high as reasonable; (2) use realistic, case-specific data and analyses in deriving allowable residual contamination levels from basic risk limits; and (3) implement a policy of reducing residual contamination to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the constraints imposed by optimum resource allocation. 10 references, 1 figure

  3. 77 FR 60935 - Hazardous Materials: Minor Editorial Corrections and Clarifications (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... flammable cryogenic liquid is not received by the consignee within 20 days from the date of shipment.... * * * * * Container ship * * * * * * * * Hazardous material means a substance or material that the Secretary of... transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5103). The term includes hazardous substances, hazardous wastes, marine pollutants...

  4. Regulations on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with the Law on Health and Safety at Work (Law No. 57, 1972) the regulations require any employer who runs an undertaking performing radiation-related works (hereinafter called ''the employer'') to protect his employees from ionizing radiation hazards. Chapter 1 (general provisions) gives the definitions of such technical terms as the ionizing radiations, the radioactive substances and the radiation-related works. Chapter 2 defines the controlled areas and the tolerance doses of radiation exposures. The controlled areas mean the areas within which the employer is required: to control the radiation doses; to prohibit access thereto of anyone other than who are necessary there; not to cause any person who is engaged there in the radiation-related works to be exposed to the radiation dose more than 3 rem within 3 months and any other person who has access regularly thereto to be exposed to more than 1.5 rem within a year; and to build special rooms for containing prescribed radiation-related appliances or apparatus. Chapter 4 requires the employer to build special working rooms for the treatment of such radioactive substances that are not sealed up tightly, and also prescribes the requirements concerning the construction of such rooms. (Matsushima, A.)

  5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Certifications for Professional Hazardous Materials and Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need for determining a curriculum to provide qualified hazardous waste personnel. Describes the needed role of colleges and universities and current hazardous materials certification requirements. Lists requirements for 18 professional certifications. (MVL)

  6. International Regulations for Transport of Radioactive Materials, History and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2013-01-01

    International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.

  7. Preliminary proposed seismic design and evaluation criteria for new and existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The document provides a recommended set of deterministic seismic design and evaluation criteria for either new or existing underground hazardous materials storage tanks placed in either the high hazard or moderate hazard usage catagories of UCRL-15910. The criteria given herein are consistent with and follow the same philosophy as those given in UCRL-15910 for the US Department of Energy facilities. This document is intended to supplement and amplify upon Reference 1 for underground hazardous materials storage tanks

  8. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and by the year 2000. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. These research and education projects are particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy's programs aimed at addressing aquatic pollution problems associated with DOE National Laboratories. First year funding supported seven collaborative cluster projects and twelve initiation projects. This report summarizes research results for period December 1992--December 1993

  9. Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, July 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    About 1.5 billion tons of hazardous materials per year are moved in the US by truck, rail, barge, and air. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Act was the first attempt at a comprehensive Federal scheme for regulation. This hearing looks at the Secretary of Transportation's implementation of the statute for oversight and reauthorization responsibilities. Testimony was heard from 16 witnesses, representatives of Chemical Manufacturers Association, the American Trucking Association, the Association of American Railroads, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Environmental Policy Institute, Office of Technology Assessment, Hazardous Materials Advisory Council, National Tank Truck Carriers, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Paint and Coatings Association, and a representative from Ohio.

  10. Transportation of radioactive materials. Safety and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niel, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This engineering-oriented publication first presents fluxes and risks related to the transportation of radioactive materials: fluxes, risks, in-depth defence, and parcel typology. The author then describes the elaboration process for transportation regulations: IAEA recommendations for the transportation of radioactive materials and their review process, IAEA recommendations for modal regulations. He presents the French transportation regulation framework: evolutions of IAEA recommendations, case of aerial transport, and case of maritime transport. The next part addresses the specific case of the transportation of uranium hexafluoride. The last part addresses incidents and accidents occurring during transportation: declarations to be made, brief presentations of several examples of incidents and accidents

  11. Proposal of risk evaluation methodology for hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Luiz Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The increasing concern with the level of risk associated with the transportation of hazardous materials took some international institutions to pledge efforts in the evaluation of risk in regional level. Following this trend, the objective of this work was to analyze the most recent processes of analysis of risks from road transportation of hazardous materials. In the present work 21 methodologies of analysis of risks, developed by some authors and for diverse localities have been evaluated. Two of them, in special, have been reviewed and discussed: a method recently developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Nicolet-Monnier and Gheorghe, 1996) and the strategy delineated by the Center for Chemical Process Safety CCPS (1995), taking into consideration the estimate of the individual and social risk. Also, the models of Harwood et al. (1990) and of Ramos (1997), adapted by Hartman (2003) have been applied to the reality of the roads of the state of Sao Paulo. The extension of these methodologies was explored, in order to find its advantages and disadvantages. As a study case the present work considered the ammonia transportation throughout two routes evaluating the reality of the roads of the state of Sao Paulo, including a significant parcel of evaluation in a densely populated area, getting the results using risk, at least, one of the methodologies mentioned above. The innovation proposed by this work was the research, the development and the introduction of two variables to the model considered by Harwood et al. (1990). These variables that influence in the value of the risk are: the age of the driver of truck and the zone of impact that is function type of product, period of the day where the transport was carried and the volume that has been transported. The aim of the proposed modifications is to let the value of the risk more sensible in relation to the type of the product carried and the age of the truck driver. The main related procedural stages

  12. Hazardous materials emergency response training program at Texas A ampersand M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) as the engineering vocational training arm of the Texas A ampersand M University system has conducted oil-spill, hazardous-material, and related safety training for industry since 1976 and fire suppression training since 1931. In 1987 TEEX conducted training for some 66,000 persons, of which some 6000 were in hazardous-materials safety training and 22,000 in fire suppression or related fields. Various laws and regulations exist relative to employee training at an industrial facility, such as the Hazard Communication Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or more commonly Superfund), the Community Right to Know Law, and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Titles I and III. The TEEX programs developed on the foundation emphasize the hands-on approach (60% field exercises) to provide a comprehensive training curriculum resulting in regulatory compliance, an effective emergency response capability, a prepared community, and a safe work environment

  13. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. McLachlan

    2003-12-01

    In December 1992, the CBR was awarded a five-year grant of $25M from the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project was an interdisciplinary, collaborative research and education project aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments. This project funded 15 collaborative cluster multi-year projects and 41 one-year initiation projects out of 165 submitted research proposals. This project was carried out by 134 research and technical support faculty from Xavier University (School of Arts and Sciences, and College of Pharmacy) and Tulane University (Schools of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Health and Tropical Medicine), and 173 publications and 140 presentations were produced. More than 100 graduate and undergraduate students were trained through these collaborative cluster and initiation research projects. Nineteen Tulane graduate students received partial funding to conduct their own competitively-chosen research projects, and 28 Xavier undergraduate LIFE Scholars and 30 LIFE Interns were supported with DOE funding to conduct their mentored research projects. Studies in this project have defined: (1) the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, (2) the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and (3) the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The bayou and spoil banks of Bayou Trepagnier were mapped and analyzed in terms of risks associated with the levels of hydrocarbons and metals at specific sample sites. Data from contaminated sample sites have been incorporated into a large database and used in GIS analyses to track the fate and transport of heavy metals from spoil banks into the surrounding marsh. These data are crucial

  14. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions concerning refining business in the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as: exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area and worker. The application for the designation for refining business under the law shall be classified into the facilities for crushing and leaching-filtration, thikening, and refining, the storage facilities for nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, etc. To the application, shall be attached business plans, the explanations concerning the technical abilities of applicants and the prevention of hazards by nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials regarding refining facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, the maintenance of and accidents in refining facilities, and kept for specified periods, respectively. Security regulations shall be enacted for each works or enterprise on the functions and organizations of persons engaged in the control of refining facilities, the operation of the apparatuses which must be controlled for the prevention of accidents, and the establishment of control area and surrounding monitoring area, etc. The report on the usage of internationally regulated goods and the measures taken at the time of danger are defined particularly. (Okada, K.)

  15. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis - lessons learned: A regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, L.

    1990-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is a powerful, rational and attractive tool for decision-making. It is capable of absorbing and integrating a wide range of information and judgement and their associated uncertainties into a flexible framework that permits the application of societal goals and priorities. Unfortunately, its highly integrative nature can obscure those elements which drive the results, its highly quantitative nature can lead to false impressions of accuracy, and its open embrace of uncertainty can make decision-making difficult. Addressing these problems can only help to increase its use and make it more palatable to those who need to assess seismic hazard and utilize the results. (orig.)

  16. Regulations on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the labor safety and health law and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. The enterpriser shall try to reduce to the minimum doses of ionizing radiation received by workers. Ionizing radiation hereunder includes such rays as deutron, proton, beta, electron, neutron, gamma and X-ray. The enterpriser engaged in radiation business shall indicate by marks the area whose radiation dose may exceed 30 mili-rem per week by exterior radiation or radioactive materials in the air. Doses of the workers regularly engaged in radiation business in the controlled area shall not surpass the accumulative dose calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means limit of accumulative dose (unit rem) and N number of the age of the worker concerned. Doses of the workers entering into the controlled area on business shall not go over 1.5 rem for a year. The maximum permissible dose is 12 rem for the urgent work. Measures for prevention from exterior radiation are designated, including irradiation tubes, filter plates, signals, shelters and alarms, etc. Independent regular inspection, record, measurement and others are particularly essential. Prevention of contamination, emergent measures, appointment of the head of X or gamma rays business, measurement of working environment, health examination and others are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  17. Regulation on control of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kaname

    1976-01-01

    Some comment is made on the present laws and the future course of consolidating the regulation of nuclear fuel materials. The first part gives the definitions of the nuclear fuel materials in the laws. The second part deals with the classification and regulation in material handling. Refinement undertaking, fabrication undertaking, reprocessing undertaking, the permission of the government to use the materials, the permission of the government to use the materials under international control, the restriction of transfer and receipt, the reporting, and the safeguard measures are commented. The third part deals with the strengthening of regulation. The nuclear fuel safety deliberation special committee will be established at some opportunity of revising the ordinance. The nuclear material safeguard special committee has been established in the Atomic Energy Commission. The last part deals with the future course of legal consolidation. The safety control will be strengthened. The early investigation of waste handling is necessary, because low level solid wastes are accumulating at each establishment. The law for transporting nuclear materials must be consolidated as early as possible to correspond to foreign transportation laws. Physical protection is awaiting the conclusions of the nuclear fuel safeguard special committee. The control and information systems for the safeguard measures must be consolidated in the laws. (Iwakiri, K.)

  18. 77 FR 37961 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporating Rail Special Permits Into the Hazardous Materials Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...'' are added to Sec. 171.8. Requirements for electronic shipping papers, electronic data interchange (EDI... electronic shipping paper information transmitted by EDI for the development of shipping papers used to... shipping papers by carriers. Most of the commenters support amending the HMR to permit EDI transmission of...

  19. Monohydrocalcite: a promising remediation material for hazardous anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Munemoto, Takashi; Sakai, Minoru; Yagi, Shintaro

    2011-01-01

    The formation conditions, solubility and stability of monohydrocalcite (MHC, CaCO 3 ·H 2 O), as well as sorption behaviors of toxic anions on MHC, are reviewed to evaluate MHC as a remediation material for hazardous oxyanions. MHC is a rare mineral in geological settings that occurs in recent sediments in saline lakes. Water temperature does not seem to be an important factor for MHC formation. The pH of lake water is usually higher than 8 and the Mg/Ca ratio exceeds 4. MHC synthesis experiments as a function of time indicate that MHC is formed from amorphous calcium carbonate and transforms to calcite and/or aragonite. Most studies show that MHC forms from solutions containing Mg, which inhibits the formation of stable calcium carbonates. The solubility of MHC is higher than those of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, but lower than those of ikaite and amorphous calcium carbonate at ambient temperature. The solubility of MHC decreases with temperature. MHC is unstable and readily transforms to calcite or aragonite. The transformation consists of the dissolution of MHC and the subsequent formation of stable phases from the solution. The rate-limiting steps of the transformation of MHC are the nucleation and growth of stable crystalline phases. Natural occurrences indicate that certain additives, particularly PO 4 and Mg, stabilize MHC. Laboratory studies confirm that a small amount of PO 4 in solution (>30 μM) can significantly inhibit the transformation of MHC. MHC has a higher sorption capacity for PO 4 than calcite and aragonite. The modes of PO 4 uptake are adsorption on the MHC surface at moderate phosphate concentrations and precipitation of secondary calcium phosphate minerals at higher concentrations. Arsenate is most likely removed from the solution during the transformation of MHC. The proposed sorption mechanism of arsenate is coprecipitation during crystallization of aragonite. The arsenic sorption capacity by MHC is significantly higher than simple

  20. Monohydrocalcite: a promising remediation material for hazardous anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Munemoto, Takashi; Sakai, Minoru; Yagi, Shintaro

    2011-12-01

    The formation conditions, solubility and stability of monohydrocalcite (MHC, CaCO3·H2O), as well as sorption behaviors of toxic anions on MHC, are reviewed to evaluate MHC as a remediation material for hazardous oxyanions. MHC is a rare mineral in geological settings that occurs in recent sediments in saline lakes. Water temperature does not seem to be an important factor for MHC formation. The pH of lake water is usually higher than 8 and the Mg/Ca ratio exceeds 4. MHC synthesis experiments as a function of time indicate that MHC is formed from amorphous calcium carbonate and transforms to calcite and/or aragonite. Most studies show that MHC forms from solutions containing Mg, which inhibits the formation of stable calcium carbonates. The solubility of MHC is higher than those of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, but lower than those of ikaite and amorphous calcium carbonate at ambient temperature. The solubility of MHC decreases with temperature. MHC is unstable and readily transforms to calcite or aragonite. The transformation consists of the dissolution of MHC and the subsequent formation of stable phases from the solution. The rate-limiting steps of the transformation of MHC are the nucleation and growth of stable crystalline phases. Natural occurrences indicate that certain additives, particularly PO4 and Mg, stabilize MHC. Laboratory studies confirm that a small amount of PO4 in solution (>30 μM) can significantly inhibit the transformation of MHC. MHC has a higher sorption capacity for PO4 than calcite and aragonite. The modes of PO4 uptake are adsorption on the MHC surface at moderate phosphate concentrations and precipitation of secondary calcium phosphate minerals at higher concentrations. Arsenate is most likely removed from the solution during the transformation of MHC. The proposed sorption mechanism of arsenate is coprecipitation during crystallization of aragonite. The arsenic sorption capacity by MHC is significantly higher than simple adsorption

  1. Monohydrocalcite: a promising remediation material for hazardous anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fukushi, Takashi Munemoto, Minoru Sakai and Shintaro Yagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation conditions, solubility and stability of monohydrocalcite (MHC, CaCO3centerdotH2O, as well as sorption behaviors of toxic anions on MHC, are reviewed to evaluate MHC as a remediation material for hazardous oxyanions. MHC is a rare mineral in geological settings that occurs in recent sediments in saline lakes. Water temperature does not seem to be an important factor for MHC formation. The pH of lake water is usually higher than 8 and the Mg/Ca ratio exceeds 4. MHC synthesis experiments as a function of time indicate that MHC is formed from amorphous calcium carbonate and transforms to calcite and/or aragonite. Most studies show that MHC forms from solutions containing Mg, which inhibits the formation of stable calcium carbonates. The solubility of MHC is higher than those of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, but lower than those of ikaite and amorphous calcium carbonate at ambient temperature. The solubility of MHC decreases with temperature. MHC is unstable and readily transforms to calcite or aragonite. The transformation consists of the dissolution of MHC and the subsequent formation of stable phases from the solution. The rate-limiting steps of the transformation of MHC are the nucleation and growth of stable crystalline phases. Natural occurrences indicate that certain additives, particularly PO4 and Mg, stabilize MHC. Laboratory studies confirm that a small amount of PO4 in solution (>30 μM can significantly inhibit the transformation of MHC. MHC has a higher sorption capacity for PO4 than calcite and aragonite. The modes of PO4 uptake are adsorption on the MHC surface at moderate phosphate concentrations and precipitation of secondary calcium phosphate minerals at higher concentrations. Arsenate is most likely removed from the solution during the transformation of MHC. The proposed sorption mechanism of arsenate is coprecipitation during crystallization of aragonite. The arsenic sorption capacity by MHC is significantly

  2. Worker safety for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    A study group under the auspices of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) Labor Committee and the High-level Radioactive Waste/Hazardous Materials Transportation Task Force examined worker protection and safety programs for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials. Concern about the risks posed to people who live along spent nuclear fuel transportation routes has led to demands for redundant inspections of the transported spent fuel. It would also be prudent to examine the radiological risk to the inspectors themselves before state of federal regulations are promulgated which require redundant inspections. Other workers may also come close to a spent fuel cask during normal operations. The dose rate to which these inspectors and handlers are exposed is higher than the dose rate to which any other group is exposed during incident-free truck transportation and higher than the dose rate to the drivers when they are in the truck cab. This report consists of miscellaneous papers covering topics related to determining radiation doses to workers involved in the transport of radioactive materials

  3. 77 FR 36607 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... modification of special permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes... hazardous materials. 12102-M EQ Industrial 49 CFR 173.56(i); To modify the special Services, Inc. 173.56(b... 4.1. 13102-M Robertshaw Industrial 49 CFR 173.150(b); To modify the special Products dba 173.222(c...

  4. Preparedness of hazardous materials emergencies in railyards: Guidance for railroads and adjacent communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Railroads are a key part of the distribution system for hazardous materials and, thus, much hazardous material passes through railyards en route to intermediate or final consumers. While the vast majority of these materials are shipped without incident, both the number of shipments and the nature of the materials themselves dictate that railyards and surrounding communities be prepared to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies. This report contains information on 11 emergency preparedness functions and 150 guidance recommendations.

  5. Nuclear power for energy production and hazardous waste regulations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Goel, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Before installing any nuclear power- generation plants in India, it is important to implement stringent regulations for the health and safety of the people and for protection of the environment, soil and water from the nuclear and hazardous waste produced in the power plants. Although some initiatives have been taken for radioactive waste disposal in India, the current hazardous and nuclear waste storage/disposal regulations are still too soft and are not being implemented properly in the country

  6. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... to the risks that hazardous liquid and natural gas pipelines pose to the environment. In the Pipeline...

  7. Monohydrocalcite: a promising remediation material for hazardous anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushi, Keisuke [Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Munemoto, Takashi [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sakai, Minoru [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Yagi, Shintaro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The formation conditions, solubility and stability of monohydrocalcite (MHC, CaCO{sub 3}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O), as well as sorption behaviors of toxic anions on MHC, are reviewed to evaluate MHC as a remediation material for hazardous oxyanions. MHC is a rare mineral in geological settings that occurs in recent sediments in saline lakes. Water temperature does not seem to be an important factor for MHC formation. The pH of lake water is usually higher than 8 and the Mg/Ca ratio exceeds 4. MHC synthesis experiments as a function of time indicate that MHC is formed from amorphous calcium carbonate and transforms to calcite and/or aragonite. Most studies show that MHC forms from solutions containing Mg, which inhibits the formation of stable calcium carbonates. The solubility of MHC is higher than those of calcite, aragonite and vaterite, but lower than those of ikaite and amorphous calcium carbonate at ambient temperature. The solubility of MHC decreases with temperature. MHC is unstable and readily transforms to calcite or aragonite. The transformation consists of the dissolution of MHC and the subsequent formation of stable phases from the solution. The rate-limiting steps of the transformation of MHC are the nucleation and growth of stable crystalline phases. Natural occurrences indicate that certain additives, particularly PO{sub 4} and Mg, stabilize MHC. Laboratory studies confirm that a small amount of PO{sub 4} in solution (>30 {mu}M) can significantly inhibit the transformation of MHC. MHC has a higher sorption capacity for PO{sub 4} than calcite and aragonite. The modes of PO{sub 4} uptake are adsorption on the MHC surface at moderate phosphate concentrations and precipitation of secondary calcium phosphate minerals at higher concentrations. Arsenate is most likely removed from the solution during the transformation of MHC. The proposed sorption mechanism of arsenate is coprecipitation during crystallization of aragonite. The arsenic sorption capacity by MHC

  8. Automated accountability of hazardous materials at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depew, P.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP), currently operated by AlliedSignal Inc. has developed a comprehensive Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS). The purpose of this system is to provide a practical and automated method to collect, analyze and distribute hazardous material information to DOE, KCP associates, and regulatory agencies. The drivers of the HMIS are compliance with OSHA Hazard Communications, SARA reporting, pollution prevention, waste minimization, control and tracking of hazards, and emergency response. This report provides a discussion of this system

  9. GGVS. Ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials, including the European agreement on international road transport of hazardous materials (ADR), in their wording. Annexes A and B. Ordinances regarding exceptions from GGVS and from the ordinance on rail transport of hazardous materials, GGVE. Reasons. Selected guidelines. List of materials. 6. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1990-01-01

    The brochure contains the following texts: (1) Ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials (GGVS), including the European agreement on international road transport of hazardous materials (ADR), as of 1990: Skeleton ordinance, annexes A and B, reasons given for the first version, and for the first amendment in 1988, execution guidelines - RS 002 (guidelines for executing the ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials, with catalogue of penalties), guidelines for drawing up written instructions for the event of accidents - RS 006, guiding principles for the training of vehicle conductors; (2) ordinance regarding exceptions from the ordinance on road transport of hazardous materials; (3) ordinance regarding exceptions from the ordinance on rail transport of hazardous materials; (4) selected guidelines: Technical guidelines TR IBC K 001, TRS 003, TRS 004, TRS 005, TRS 006; (5) listing of materials and objects governed by the ordinance on hazardous materials transport; (6) catalogue of penalties relative to road transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Pre Conference Hazardous Materials Workshop, West/East Coast Safety Conference, held 3-4 October/31 October - 1 November 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    COMPATABILITY (2) PPE (3) SOP’s 𔃼 NOTES (1) USERDA ( RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS) (2) CHEMTREC (ALL OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS) 2. NAVY A. NAVY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH...NRC Regulations for Packaging of Radioactive Material for Transport and Transportation of Radioactive Material Under Certain Conditions (10 CFR 71) V...NAVY) I DOD Directives/Instructions--- DOD Instruction 4120.14 DOD Water and Air Polution Abatement Policy DOD 4145.19R Series Storage and Material

  11. Natural and technologic hazardous material releases during and after natural disasters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stacy; Balluz, Lina; Malilay, Josephine

    2004-04-25

    Natural disasters may be powerful and prominent mechanisms of direct and indirect hazardous material (hazmat) releases. Hazardous materials that are released as the result of a technologic malfunction precipitated by a natural event are referred to as natural-technologic or na-tech events. Na-tech events pose unique environmental and human hazards. Disaster-associated hazardous material releases are of concern, given increases in population density and accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disasters. These trends increase the probability of catastrophic future disasters and the potential for mass human exposure to hazardous materials released during disasters. This systematic review summarizes direct and indirect disaster-associated releases, as well as environmental contamination and adverse human health effects that have resulted from natural disaster-related hazmat incidents. Thorough examination of historic disaster-related hazmat releases can be used to identify future threats and improve mitigation and prevention efforts.

  12. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  13. Hazardous substances in electronics: the effects of European Union risk regulation on China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that European Union (EU) risk regulation of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) was both a trigger and formative factor in the development of similar Chinese regulation. The attractiveness and global interdependence of the EU market in EEE impelled a

  14. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  15. 78 FR 16044 - Hazardous Materials Packaging-Composite Cylinder Standards; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Toughiry, Engineering and Research Division, Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous... the HMR, ISO 11119 Parts-1, -2 and -3, contain design, construction and testing requirements that are.../permits-approvals/special-permits . II. Public Meeting Topics During this public meeting, PHMSA will...

  16. 41 CFR 101-42.202 - Identification of hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Order 12196, Occupational Safety and Health Programs for Federal Employees, dated February 26, 1980. GSA... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION... part of the acquisition process. Acquisition of MSDSs is also prescribed by the Occupational Safety and...

  17. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph; Pages, P

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago.

  18. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Pages, P.

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago

  19. Seismic Hazard Assessment and Uncertainties Treatment: Discussion on the current French regulation, practices and open issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge-Thierry, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Safety Authority. These studies performed by nuclear operators, leading to propose a 'Hard Core' of materials and organizational arrangements to ensure the control of crucial safety functions in extreme situations. The difficulties inherent in the definition of 'extreme situation' in a moderate seismically country as the French metropolitan area will be illustrated and discussed. This presentation gives the current practice of seismic risk management in France for nuclear safety. The regulation is composed by two coherent and complementary references the RFS 2001-01 and the Guide ASN/2/01. We point out the key steps of the seismic hazard assessment following the RFS 2001-01 methodology which is scenario based. We particularly highlight the sensitivity and the influences of seismic parameters choices in their uncertainty domains and their impact on the final hazard. The Tohoku 2011 mega-quake and the Fukushima associated accident resulted in the Complementary Safety Studies in the Nuclear field. The review of the French complementary studies by the ENSREG made the recommendation to complete the scenario based approach by a probabilistic hazard assessment. The presentation then exhibits the specificities and common aspects of a PSHA and DSHA. We underline that these two approaches are strictly founded on common databases and knowledge level: The epistemic uncertainties can be accounted by both PSHA and DSHA through logic trees (see [37] for DSHA). However they clearly differ by two points: - the PSHA accounts for the whole seismic catalogue with its occurrence rate, where the DSHA selects specific scenarios with consideration of occurrence level, - the aleatory variability is differently treated in scenario approach and in probabilistic approach. Finally, performing probabilistic seismic hazard assessment requires defining crucial parameters (i) the safety level target which corresponds a return period value of the hazard curve and (ii) its confidence level. In

  20. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (≤ 25 years)

  1. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials – Selection of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1–15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or – if not all compounds are identified – from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different

  2. Report: EPA Provided Quality and Timely Information on Hurricane Katrina Hazardous Material Releases and Debris Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2006-P-00023, May 2, 2006. After Hurricane Katrina, EPA was the agency with lead responsibility to prevent, minimize, or mitigate threats to public health and the environment caused by hazardous materials and oil spills in inland zones.

  3. Understanding and managing the movements of hazardous material shipments through Texas population centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Every day almost a million shipments of hazardous materials move safely and securely along our nations transportation system, via any combination of modes. Only a small fraction of total shipments interrupt their planned journey due to an incident...

  4. Hazardous materials management using a Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldgaard, E.; Fish, J.; Campbell, D.; Freshour, N.; Hammond, B.; Bray, O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hollingsworth, M. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services Co., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous materials management includes interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, and processes of various groups within a DOE site`s environmental, safety & health (ES&H) and line organizations. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information it requires must be gathered into a coherent set of common data for accurate and consistent hazardous material management and regulatory reporting. It is these common data requirements which the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. CGTIS collects information at the point at which a process begins or a material enters a facility, and maintains that information, for hazards management and regulatory reporting, throughout the entire life-cycle by providing direct on-line links to a site`s multitude of data bases to bring information together into one common data model.

  5. Notification: Audit of Security Categorization for EPA Systems That Handle Hazardous Material Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY18-0089, January 8, 2018. The OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA classified the sensitivity of data for systems that handle hazardous waste material information as prescribed by NIST.

  6. Hazardous materials safety and security technology field operational test. Volume II, evaluation final report synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-11

    The catastrophic events of September 11, 2001 and the ongoing war on terrorism have heightened the level of concern from Federal government officials and the transportation industry regarding the secure transport of hazardous materials (HAZMAT). Secu...

  7. Probabilistic Approach to Conditional Probability of Release of Hazardous Materials from Railroad Tank Cars during Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-13

    This paper describes a probabilistic approach to estimate the conditional probability of release of hazardous materials from railroad tank cars during train accidents. Monte Carlo methods are used in developing a probabilistic model to simulate head ...

  8. Hazardous-materials-management system: a guide for local emergency managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.T.; Roe, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    An increase in the manufacture, storage, and transportation of hazardous materials is occurring across the nation. Local jurisdictions have realized that they have the responsibility to assure a reasonable level of safety to their community members and visitors alike. Such a responsibility can be met by developing methods of preventing hazardous materials incidents; enforcing laws related to transporting and storing hazardous materials; the initiating of an appropriate first response, and activating available resources of government agencies and commercial organizations that deal with containment and cleanup. This manual has been written to help in the development of a total Hazardous Material Management System. The manual describes one approach but allows for variations as may be appropriate for the specific jurisdiction

  9. Hazardous materials management using a Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjeldgaard, E.; Fish, J.; Campbell, D.; Freshour, N.; Hammond, B.; Bray, O.; Hollingsworth, M.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous materials management includes interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, and processes of various groups within a DOE site's environmental, safety ampersand health (ES ampersand H) and line organizations. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information it requires must be gathered into a coherent set of common data for accurate and consistent hazardous material management and regulatory reporting. It is these common data requirements which the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. CGTIS collects information at the point at which a process begins or a material enters a facility, and maintains that information, for hazards management and regulatory reporting, throughout the entire life-cycle by providing direct on-line links to a site's multitude of data bases to bring information together into one common data model

  10. 77 FR 52636 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Fireworks Regulations (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ....4G consumer fireworks complies with the American Pyrotechnics Association's (APA) Standard 87-1 (IBR... processing of consumer fireworks applications, resulting in faster time to market for each firework device... industry, 50 percent of records will be stored in paper format and 50 percent of records will be stored in...

  11. 77 FR 31815 - Hazardous Materials Regulations: Combustible Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Comments Opposed to Harmonization and Granting Petitions P-1498 and P-1531 Commenters, such as the American Trucking Associations (ATA); American Petroleum Institute (API); Institute Makers of Explosives (IME... gallons) in a single packaging. Many commenters stress the difficulty of hiring seasonal, foreign workers...

  12. 78 FR 42457 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Fireworks Regulations (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    .... Given the long history and wide recognition of the EX numbering scheme, PHMSA sought specific comments... issues of math and spelling errors, which cause the vast majority of PHMSA rejections. IFSA proposes that...

  13. Hazardous materials responder training in the new millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Betsinger, G.B. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States). Environmental Response Team; Merchant, S. [Environmental Tectonics Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Environmental Response Team (ERT) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was created to provide on-site professional expertise as well as health and safety guidance to Federal on-scene coordinators during accidental oil and chemical releases. ERT provides practical technical solutions to response activities based on theory as well as actual experience. Its creation in 1978 fulfilled the requirements of the U.S. National Contingency Plan. Members of the team have developed a 40-hour Hazardous Waste Responders training course and have themselves, attended a hands-on chemical and biological warfare personnel protective clothing course provided by the U.S. Army. The course demonstrated decontamination showers, moon suits, and entry procedures to a contaminated battlefield situation. ERT continues to emphasize the importance of hands-on training and exercises. Various training programs are underway where students can learn real-time monitoring techniques and respond to simulated hazardous waste incidents. They also learn how to assess environmental, public and occupational health and safety information on the Internet. The students also run air plume models and perform wet bench chemistry experiments. With the advent of more powerful computers, the current objective is to continue with these training activities using Instructor Controlled Interactive Computer Training (ICICT).

  14. 41 CFR 101-42.404 - Special requirements for the sale of hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special requirements for... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION... special storage and handling. It is the responsibility of the holding agency to properly store hazardous...

  15. 41 CFR 101-42.304 - Special requirements for donation of certain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special requirements for... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION... is the responsibility of the Federal holding agency or State agency to properly store hazardous...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental anagement ystem Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  17. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities

  18. 76 FR 56304 - Hazardous Materials: Minor Editorial Corrections and Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... of the revisions in this final rule, new entries, ``Paint related material, flammable, corrosive... are correcting the HMT by adding the entries for ``Paint related material, flammable, corrosive...-3971 (HM-226) [67 FR 53118], entitled ``Revision to Standards for Infectious Substances.'' A transition...

  19. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  20. Transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon area; Transporte de produtos perigosos na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Wallace de Castro [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Elton; Nassi, Carlos David [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Amongst several exploratory sources of the subject 'hazardous materials transport', it is distinguished: 'the threat to the environment'. This paper presents an exploratory investigation of this subject line in the Amazon region. In view of the diversity of 'existing hazardous materials' and the raised dimension of the oil transport and its derivatives in this context, this paper focused in these products. Regarding to the geographic region, the approach was given to the State of Amazon, considering the amplitude of this State in the Amazon region and the availability of data. Therefore, this work explores and analyzes macro aspects inherent to the State of Amazon pertinent to the oil transport and its derivatives. In the macro context, it is observed the necessity of a higher control in the transport of hazardous materials in the region. The absence of registered data and the unfamiliarity on the risks related to the transport of hazardous materials by authorities and transporters indicate a relative absence of qualification in the region to deal with the monitoring of the transport of hazardous materials. So far, it is not possible up till now to make any evaluation of the environment threats of accidents with transport of hazardous materials in the Amazon region.(author)

  1. The development of a digital signal processing and plotting package to support testing of hazardous and radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M.; Lattier, C.N.; Hankinson, M.; Cannone, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Federal regulations allow package designers to use analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing to support certification of packages used to transport hazardous or radioactive materials. In recent years, many certified packages were subjected to a combination of analysis and testing. A major part of evaluating structural or thermal package response is the collection, reduction and presentation of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, has developed a comprehensive analysis and plotting package (known as KAPP) that performs digital signal processing of both transient structural and thermal data integrated with a comprehensive plotting package designed to support radioactive material package testing

  2. Method for decreasing radiation hazard in transporting radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    At the end of their useful life, fuel rods are removed from a nuclear reactor and transferred underwater into a shipping cask. The water in the pool of the nuclear reactor system (or fuels reprocessing plant) may contain troublesome amounts of radioactive isotopes, creating biological hazards for any shipping cask unless adequately cleaned after contacting pool water. Potential contamination of substantially all of the entire exterior of the shipping cask is avoided because such shipping cask is at least predominantly immersed in fresh water within a vertically shiftable container which can be, for example, shifted between the bottom and the surface of the pool. Fresh water is supplied to the interior of the shiftable container whereby substantially all of the exterior of the shipping cask is immersed in fresh water, maintained at a pressure and/or flow velocity preventing the pool water from contacting the exterior of the shipping cask

  3. Impacts of hazardous waste regulation on low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharples, F.E.; Eyman, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 have greatly expanded the universe of what, and who, is regulated under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Handling requirements for hazardous waste are becoming increasingly more stringent, particularly where land disposal is concerned. DOE needs to begin actively pursuing strategies directed at keeping the management of LLW clearly separated from wastes that are legitimately regulated under RCRA. Such strategies would include instituting systemwide changes in internal management practices, establishing improved location standards for LLW disposal, and negotiating interagency compromise agreements to obtain variances from RCRA requirements where necessary and appropriate

  4. Impacts of hazardous waste regulation on low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharples, F.E.; Eyman, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Since passage of the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), major changes have occurred in the regulation of hazardous waste. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also greatly modified its interpretation of how these regulations apply to wastes from federal facilities, including defense wastes from US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. As a result, the regulatory distinctions between low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and hazardous waste are becoming blurred. This paper discusses recent statutory and regulatory changes and how they might affect the management of LLW at DOE facilities. 6 references

  5. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazards of building materials in Xianyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Ren Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Common building materials collected from Xianyang, China were analyzed for the natural radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials ranges from 13.4 to 69.9, 13.1–99.1 and 124.7–915.1 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide average activity of soil. To assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples to the people, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index, indoor absorbed dose rate and total annual effective dose were estimated. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The external hazard index and internal hazard index of all analyzed building materials are less than unity. The mean values of indoor absorbed dose rate for all building materials except for lime are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h −1 and the total annual effective dose values of building materials are lower than 1 mSv y −1 except for some cyan brick samples. The study shows the measured building materials do not pose significant source of radiation hazard and are safe for use in the construction of dwellings. - Highlights: ► Natural radioactivity in building materials was determined by gamma ray spectrometry. ► The radiological hazard of studied building materials is within the recommended safety limit. ► Most of the studied building materials do not pose significant radiation risk to residents.

  6. 76 FR 25576 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part... to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials..., suggested that the scope should include low-stress gas pipelines such as those associated with coal bed...

  7. A five-year history of hazardous materials incidents in Chester County, PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorten, C.V.; McNamara, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 established Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) to oversee emergency response planning at the community level. In Pennsylvania, each county was assigned its own LEPC, and Chester County held its first LEPC meeting on October 15, 1987. From the data of that meeting through September 1992, 300 hazardous materials incidents have been reported. The majority of these incidents were met with fire department response, but several warranted response by hazardous materials teams. This report presents an analysis of the database of reported hazardous materials incidents in Chester County, including chemical identification, amount released, type of response, location, and trends. Over 235 of the reported spills were either gasoline, diesel fuel, home heating oil, or kerosene, often in five to 50 gallon amounts from transportation accidents. A number of extremely hazardous substance (EHS) incidents were reported, however, including sulfuric acid, chlorine, ammonia, phosphorus, formaldehyde, bromine, methyl mercaptan, and hydrofluoric acid. The most commonly released EHS's were ammonia and chlorine. The number of hazardous materials incidents reported in Chester County increased from only 14 in 1988 to 95 in 1991, with 67 in 1992 through September. This dramatic increase is attributable to both increased reporting and an increased number of incidents. This database clearly indicates both the success of EPCRA reporting system and the magnitude of hazardous materials incidents in this part of Pennsylvania

  8. Loopholes of laws and regulations related to redevelopment of former sites of radioactive material control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We found loopholes of laws and regulations for supervising radioactive materials. It is not obliged to measure the soil radioactivity of the sites that were formerly used as scientific or engineering institutes, or hospitals with a radioactive material control area. If the former institutes or hospitals made studies with radioactive materials before the enforcement of the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to isotopes and its detailed regulations, it is concluded that there was the period when the radioactive materials were not under management. If it is found that the radioactive materials were applied at the former site before the enforcement of the related laws and regulations, the radioactivity in the soil of the redeveloped area should be examined, which should be obliged by some laws or regulations. (author)

  9. Routing and scheduling of hazardous materials shipments: algorithmic approaches to managing spent nuclear fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds government regulation of routing and scheduling of Hazardous Materials Transportation (HMT). Increases in operating costs must be balanced against expected benefits from local HMT bans and curfews when promulgating or preempting HMT regulations. Algorithmic approaches for evaluating HMT routing and scheduling regulatory policy are described. A review of current US HMT regulatory policy is presented to provide a context for the analysis. Next, a multiobjective shortest path algorithm to find the set of efficient routes under conflicting objectives is presented. This algorithm generates all efficient routes under any partial ordering in a single pass through the network. Also, scheduling algorithms are presented to estimate the travel time delay due to HMT curfews along a route. Algorithms are presented assuming either deterministic or stochastic travel times between curfew cities and also possible rerouting to avoid such cities. These algorithms are applied to the case study of US highway transport of spent nuclear fuel from reactors to permanent repositories. Two data sets were used. One data set included the US Interstate Highway System (IHS) network with reactor locations, possible repository sites, and 150 heavily populated areas (HPAs). The other data set contained estimates of the population residing with 0.5 miles of the IHS and the Eastern US. Curfew delay is dramatically reduced by optimally scheduling departure times unless inter-HPA travel times are highly uncertain. Rerouting shipments to avoid HPAs is a less efficient approach to reducing delay

  10. Analysis of hazardous biological material by MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KL Wahl; KH Jarman; NB Valentine; MT Kingsley; CE Petersen; ST Cebula; AJ Saenz

    2000-03-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become a valuable tool for analyzing microorganisms. The speed with which data can be obtained from MALDI-MS makes this a potentially important tool for biological health hazard monitoring and forensic applications. The excitement in the mass spectrometry community in this potential field of application is evident by the expanding list of research laboratories pursuing development of MALDI-MS for bacterial identification. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the ability to obtain unique MALDI-MS spectra from intact bacterial cells and bacterial cell extracts. The ability to differentiate strains of the same species has been investigated. Reproducibility of MALDI-MS spectra from bacterial species under carefully controlled experimental conditions has also been demonstrated. Wang et al. have reported on interlaboratory reproducibility of the MALDI-MS analysis of several bacterial species. However, there are still issues that need to be addressed, including the careful control of experimental parameters for reproducible spectra and selection of optimal experimental parameters such as solvent and matrix.

  11. 49 CFR 173.2 - Hazardous materials classes and index to hazard class definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....50 1 1.6 Extremely insensitive detonating substances 173.50 2 2.1 Flammable gas 173.115 2 2.2 Non-flammable compressed gas 173.115 2 2.3 Poisonous gas 173.115 3 Flammable and combustible liquid 173.120 4 4.1 Flammable solid 173.124 4 4.2 Spontaneously combustible material 173.124 4 4.3 Dangerous when wet...

  12. 78 FR 14702 - Hazardous Materials: Miscellaneous Petitions for Rulemaking (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Division 4.1, Self-reactive solids and Self-reactive liquids Types B through F; allowing smokeless powder... provide a limited quantity exception for Division 4.1, Self-reactive solids and Self-reactive liquids... preference that PHMSA state that variations of material density within ASTM D4976- 06 would not constitute a...

  13. 78 FR 987 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization with International Standards (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... of wood as a material of package construction for certain explosives; (2) authorize the use of metals... protection caps and valve guards for industrial and medical gas cylinders--Design, construction and tests... protection caps and valve guards--Design, construction and tests, Second edition, 2008-09-01.'' The entry...

  14. 78 FR 15303 - Hazardous Materials; Miscellaneous Amendments (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... previous rulemaking. Add the inadvertently omitted entries for ``Paint related material, flammable..., flammable, corrosive (including paint thinning or reducing compound)'' UN3469, PG II, and PG III to the Sec... the more appropriate generic entries for organometallic compounds and substances. Add the entries for...

  15. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 rev. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of these Regulations is to establish standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. These Regulations shall apply to the transport by land, water or air, including transport on own account, of radioactive material other than that which is an integral part of the means of transport. Transport shall be deemed to include any operation incidental to the whole course of carriage, such as loading, unloading and storage in transit. The term includes both normal transport and that under accident conditions. These Regulations do not apply within establishments where the radioactive material is produced, used or stored, other than in the course of transport, and in respect of which other appropriate safety regulations are in force. In the transport of radioactive materials, any other hazardous characteristics of these materials such as explosiveness, inflammability, pyrophoricity, chemical toxicity, and corrosiveness must be taken into account in such a manner as to be in compliance with the relevant transport regulations for dangerous goods of each of the countries through or into which the materials will be transported, as well as in compliance with these Regulations.

  16. Regulations of safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.J.; Sumathi, E.

    2017-01-01

    BARC is a multi-disciplinary nuclear research organisation with facilities located at various parts of the country. The nuclear and radiological facilities in BARC include fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear research reactors, radiological laboratories, nuclear recycle facilities, waste management facilities and other associated facilities. RAdioactive Material (RAM) such as fresh nuclear fuel, irradiated fuel, radioactive sources, vitrified high level wastes, special nuclear material etc., are transported between these facilities either within the controlled premises or in public domain. In BARC the regulatory approval for the packages used for transport of RAM is issued by BARC Safety Council (BSC). Competent Authority for issuing the design approval for the BARC packages in public domain is Director, BARC. In this aspect BSC is assisted by Safety Review Committee-Transport of Radioactive Material (SRC-TRM) constituted by BSC entrusted with the mandate to ensure the packages are designed, manufactured and transported in accordance with the current regulations. This article summarizes the regulatory requirements for transport of RAM and experience in BARC facilities

  17. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The hydrolysis of aluminum dross in tap water generates pure hydrogen. ► Aluminum particles from dross are activated by mechanically milling technique. ► The process is completely greenhouse gases free and is cleanly to environment. ► Hydrolysis process leads to recycling of waste aluminum by hydrogen production. - Abstract: A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 μm. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation.

  18. Transports of radioactive materials. Legal regulations, safety and security concepts, experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Guenther

    2012-01-01

    In Germany, approximately 650,000 to 750,000 units containing radioactive materials for scientific, medical and technical applications are shipped annually by surface, air and water transports. Legally speaking, radioactive materials are dangerous goods which can cause hazards to life, health, property and the environment as a result of faulty handling or accidents in transit. For protection against these hazards, their shipment therefore is regulated in extensive national and international rules of protection and safety. The article contains a topical review of the international and national transport regulations and codes pertaining to shipments of radioactive materials, and of the protection concepts underlying these codes so as to ensure an adequate standard of safety and security in shipping radioactive materials in national and international goods traffic. (orig.)

  19. 77 FR 73289 - Hazardous Substances and Articles; Administration and Enforcement Regulations: Revisions to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... of Animals, and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. 1. Non-animal Testing Alternatives... Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA). DATES: This rule is effective on January 9, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... proposed amendments to the regulations that interpret, supplement, or provide alternatives to definitions...

  20. Colleges Struggle to Dispose of Hazardous Wastes in Face of Rising Costs and Increased Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Denise K.

    1989-01-01

    After years of being ignored by federal regulators because of the low volume of hazardous waste in question, colleges and universities are facing increased enforcement of environmental laws concerning waste disposal and storage, at great cost in money, facilities, and personnel. (MSE)

  1. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-01-01

    Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L -1 and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process

  2. Transportation of hazardous materials in Iran: A strategic approach for decreasing accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghazinoory

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available .“Hazardous materials” refer to those substances that seriously endanger human lives and/or the environment. The transportation of these materials will be inevitable in the increasingly industrialized economy of Iran. Nonetheless, numerous deadly accidents caused by the movement of these materials necessitate the design and implementation of preventive plans on several levels. This article looks into the present condition of transportation of hazardous materials in Iran and the resulting accidents. Optimal condition for the general transportation system of hazardous materials is delineated with due focus on transportation risk as the main parameter. Strategies for reaching the optimal condition are laid out and the impacts of these strategies on the reduction of accidents are analyzed.

  3. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information

  4. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b) and...

  5. 77 FR 22504 - Hazardous Materials; Packages Intended for Transport by Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Convention on International Civil Aviation--also known as the Chicago Convention. Future inconsistencies with... known as the Chicago Convention. Future inconsistencies with international transport standards may... material release. Releases of hazardous materials can result in explosions or fires, while radioactive...

  6. Numerical investigation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Matsushima, T.

    2018-05-01

    The volume of debris flows occurred in mountainous areas is mainly affected by the volume of debris materials deposited at the valley bottom. Quantitative evaluation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards is important to predict and prevent hazards. At midnight on 7th August 2010, two catastrophic debris flows were triggered by the torrential rain from two valleys in the northern part of Zhouqu City, NW China, resulting in 1765 fatalities and huge economic losses. In the present study, a depth-integrated particle method is adopted to simulate the debris materials, based on 2.5 m resolution satellite images. In the simulation scheme, the materials are modeled as dry granular solids, and they travel down from the slopes and are deposited at the valley bottom. The spatial distributions of the debris materials are investigated in terms of location, volume and thickness. Simulation results show good agreement with post-disaster satellite images and field observation data. Additionally, the effect of the spatial distributions of the debris materials on subsequent debris flows is also evaluated. It is found that the spatial distributions of the debris materials strongly influence affected area, runout distance and flow discharge. This study might be useful in hazard assessments prior to debris flow hazards by investigating diverse scenarios in which the debris materials are unknown.

  7. Reduction of Fire Hazard in Materials for Irrigators and Water Collectors in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, N. V.; Konstantinova, N. I., E-mail: konstantinova-n@inbox.ru [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation); Gordon, E. P. [Research and Production Center “Kaustik” (Russian Federation); Poedintsev, E. A. [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A way of reducing the fire hazard of PVC film used to make cooling-tower irrigators and water collectors is examined. A new generation of fire retardant, nanostructured magnesium hydroxide, is used to impart fire retardant properties. The fabrication technology is optimized with a roller-calendering manufacturing technique, and the permissible ranges of fire hazard indicators for materials in irrigators and water collectors are determined.

  8. Separation of some hazardous elements by natural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.; Shehata, M.K.K.; Sharaf El Deen, S.E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A study has been conducted to study the uptake of radio europium and radiocesium as representatives of fission products in addition to the element chromium as a heavy metal ion, straw and sugarcane residue as representatives of natural cheap materials. Radiometric measurements and spectrophotometric analysis of concerned elements were the techniques adopted in this work. Factors affecting the uptake behavior of the studied elements on different types of straw (Rice, wheat and maize) in addition to sugarcane residue were studied. Such factors are the Ph, contact time, ion concentration and type of media. The uptake % of Cr(III) on straw and sugarcane samples is found to reach 100% at Ph=1, while that of Cr(Vi) does not exceed 15% on the same samples at higher Ph values. While uptake % of Eu(III) reaches 75% with all studied materials. The uptake % of Cs(I) on straw and sugarcane samples is found to be 80% in a short time then decreases sharply

  9. Integrated Life-Cycle Hazardous Material Management: A Logistics Imperative for USAREUR and the 7th Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werle, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    This report examines the benefit to be gained by integrating traditional "pharmacy" business practices in the existing supply system rather than building a parallel system for hazardous material/hazardous waste (HM/HW) management...

  10. Removal of hazardous dye congored from waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Rajeev; Sikarwar, Shalini

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is aimed to investigate and develop cheap adsorption methods for color removal from wastewater using waste material sawdust as adsorbent. Sawdust, a biosorbent, was successfully utilized in removing a water soluble azo dye, congored from wastewater. The paper incorporates effect of pH, temperature, amount of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of adsorbate, particle size on adsorption. Specific rate constants of the processes were calculated by kinetic measurements and a first order adsorption kinetics was observed in each case. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were then applied to calculate thermodynamics parameters as well as to suggest the plausible mechanism of the ongoing adsorption processes. In order to observe the quality of wastewater COD measurements were also carried out before and after the treatments. A significant decrease in the COD values was observed, which clearly indicates that adsorption method offer good potential to remove congored from wastewater

  11. Recent advances in hazardous materials transportation research: an international exchange. State-of-the-art Report 3, addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, P.; Geysen, W.J.; Tomachevsky, E.G.; Ringot, C.; Pages, P.

    1986-01-01

    The 4 papers in the report deal with the following areas: the transport of non-nuclear toxic and dangerous wastes in the United Kingdom; the transport system of dangerous products as a risk factor for the future: the computer-aided information program on hazardous materials; a validation study of the INTERTRAN model for assessing risks of transportation accidents: road transport of uranium hexafluoride; modifying the regulation for small radioactive package transit through the Mont Blanc tunnel-assessment of the health and economic impact

  12. Consolidated permit regulations and hazardous waste management system: Environmental Protection Agency. Notice of issuance of regulation interpretation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-10

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing today a Regulation Interpretation Memorandum (RIM) which provides official interpretation of the issue of whether a generator who accumulates hazardous waste pursuant to 40 CFR 262.34, may qualify for interim status after November 19, 1980. This issue arose when the requirements for submitting a Part A permit application (one of the prerequisites to qualifying for interim status) were amended on November 19, 1980. The provisions interpreted today are part of the Consolidated Permit Regulations promulgated under Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA).

  13. Some relevant parameters for assessing fire hazards of combustible mine materials using laboratory scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka E; Harteis, Samuel P; Teacoach, Kara A; DeRosa, Maria I; Thomas, Richard A; Smith, Alex C

    2018-04-15

    When combustible materials ignite and burn, the potential for fire growth and flame spread represents an obvious hazard, but during these processes of ignition and flaming, other life hazards present themselves and should be included to ensure an effective overall analysis of the relevant fire hazards. In particular, the gases and smoke produced both during the smoldering stages of fires leading to ignition and during the advanced flaming stages of a developing fire serve to contaminate the surrounding atmosphere, potentially producing elevated levels of toxicity and high levels of smoke obscuration that render the environment untenable. In underground mines, these hazards may be exacerbated by the existing forced ventilation that can carry the gases and smoke to locations far-removed from the fire location. Clearly, materials that require high temperatures (above 1400 K) and that exhibit low mass loss during thermal decomposition, or that require high heat fluxes or heat transfer rates to ignite represent less of a hazard than materials that decompose at low temperatures or ignite at low levels of heat flux. In order to define and quantify some possible parameters that can be used to assess these hazards, small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted in a number of configurations to measure: 1) the toxic gases and smoke produced both during non-flaming and flaming combustion; 2) mass loss rates as a function of temperature to determine ease of thermal decomposition; and 3) mass loss rates and times to ignition as a function of incident heat flux. This paper describes the experiments that were conducted, their results, and the development of a set of parameters that could possibly be used to assess the overall fire hazard of combustible materials using small scale laboratory experiments.

  14. Applying radiological emergency planning experience to hazardous materials emergency planning within the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltman, A.; Newsom, D.; Lerner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has extensive radiological emergency planning (REP) experience that is directly applicable to hazardous materials emergency planning. Recently, the Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, Ohio, successfully demonstrated such application. The REP experience includes conceptual bases and standards for developing plans that have been tested in hundreds of full-scale exercises. The exercise program itself is also well developed. Systematic consideration of the differences between chemical and radiological hazards shows that relatively minor changes to the REP bases and standards are necessary. Conduct of full-scale, REP-type exercises serves to test the plans, provide training, and engender confidence and credibility

  15. Relevant documents to IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Sabek, M.G.; Gomma, M.

    1998-01-01

    IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people, property, and environment against radiation, contamination, and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA routinely publishes technical reports which are relevant to radioactive material transportation such as INTERTRAN, directory of transport packaging test facilities, and others. A case study was performed to assess the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the suez canal using the two computer codes namely INTERTRAN and RADTRAN-4 which are part of IAEA technical documents. A comparison of the results of these two codes is given

  16. Calculation of Airborne Radioactivity Hazard from Machining Volume-Activated Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.T. Marshall; S.O. Schwahn

    1997-01-01

    When evaluating a task involving the machining of volume-activated materials, accelerator health physicists must consider more than the surface contamination levels of the equipment and containment of loose shavings, dust or filings. Machining operations such as sawing, routing, welding, and grinding conducted on volume-activated material may pose a significant airborne radioactivity hazard to the worker. This paper presents a computer spreadsheet notebook that conservatively estimates the airborne radioactivity levels generated during machining operations performed on volume-activated materials. By knowing (1) the size and type of materials, (2) the dose rate at a given distances, and (3) limited process knowledge, the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) fraction can be estimated. This tool is flexible, taking into consideration that the process knowledge available for the different materials varies. It addresses the two most common geometries: thick plane and circular cylinder. Once the DAC fraction has been estimated, controls can be implemented to mitigate the hazard to the worker

  17. Calculation of airborne radioactivity hazard from machining volume-activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.T.; Schwahn, S.O.

    1996-10-01

    When evaluating a task involving the machining of volume-activated materials, accelerator health physicists must consider more than the surface contamination levels of the equipment and containment of loose shavings, dust or filings. Machining operations such as sawing, routing, welding, and grinding conducted on volume-activated material may pose a significant airborne radioactivity hazard to the worker. This paper presents a computer spreadsheet notebook that conservatively estimates the airborne radioactivity levels generated during machining operations performed on volume-activated materials. By knowing (1) the size and type of materials, (2) the dose rate at a given distances, and (3) limited process knowledge, the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) fraction can be estimated. This tool is flexible, taking into consideration that the process knowledge available for the different materials varies. It addresses the two most common geometries: thick plane and circular cylinder. Once the DAC fraction has been estimated, controls can be implemented to mitigate the hazard to the worker

  18. Federal legal constraints on state and local regulation of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Morris, F.A.; Welles, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Within the last five years, the transportation of nuclear materials has experienced a rapid growth of state/local regulations. The federal government is responding to develop a legal basis for declaring these state/local regulations inconsistent and has proceeded to declare certain state regulations invalid. This paper summarizes the relevant legal doctrines, places these doctrines in the context of the federal regulatory framework and reaches conclusions about what forms of state and local regulation may be subject to possible preemptive initiatives and what regulations are unlikely candidates for federal actions. This paper also discusses an example of a preemptive initiative and a federal action. The initiative is contained in DOT's proposed rule on Highway Routing of Radioactive Materials. DOT's first general preemptive action under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act is described with respect to decisions on Rhode Island's regulations regarding transportation of liquified natural and petroleum gases. There are still some issues that have not been clarified - the role of the federal government in the development and support of emergency response capabilities for nuclear and other hazardous materials, detailed shipment information, and state requirements for prenotifications

  19. 76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ...] Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... amendments to the material control and accounting (MC&A) regulations. These regulations apply to NRC... ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully describe the accounting aspects that MC&A programs must include...

  20. Some issues on the Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors Amendment after JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    2001-01-01

    As the Amendment of the Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors on an opportunity of the JCO criticality accident can be almost evaluated at a viewpoint of upgrading on effectiveness of safety regulation, it is thought to remain a large problem to rely on only enforcement of regulation due to amendment of the Law at future accident. In future, it can be also said to be important subjects to further expand a philosophy on the regulation (material regulation) focussed to hazards of nuclear material itself, not only to secure effectiveness on the multi-complementary safety regulation due to the administrative agency and the Nuclear Safety Commission but also to prepare a mechanism reflexible of a new information to the safety regulation, and to prepare a mechanism to assist adequate business execution and so forth of enterprises. (G.K.)

  1. New regulation of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this text we give the modifications bringed to the French regulation to take into account the IAEA recommendations of 1990 and the regulations of the European agreements RID and ADR. 3 figs., 6 refs

  2. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  3. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruthagiri, G.; Rajamannan, B.; Suresh Jawahar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. (authors)

  4. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material (SNM). The goal of this... for control and accounting of SNM that is held by a licensee. The MC&A regulations ensure that the...

  5. Liberalization, Moral Hazard in Banking, and Prudential Regulation: Are Capital Requirements Enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C. Murdock; Thomas F. Hellmann; Joseph E. Stiglitz

    2000-01-01

    In a dynamic model of moral hazard, competition can undermine prudent bank behavior. While capital-requirement regulation can induce prudent behavior, the policy yields Pareto-inefficient outcomes. Capital requirements reduce gambling incentives by putting bank equity at risk. However, they also have a perverse effect of harming banks' franchise values, thus encouraging gambling. Pareto-efficient outcomes can be achieved by adding deposit-rate controls as a regulatory instrument, since they f...

  6. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, V.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Shvedov, M.O.

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well

  7. Evaluation of methods to compare consequences from hazardous materials transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, R.E.; Franklin, A.L.; Lavender, J.C.

    1986-10-01

    This report presents the results of a project to develop a framework for making meaningful comparisons of the consequences from transportation accidents involving hazardous materials. The project was conducted in two phases. In Phase I, methods that could potentially be used to develop the consequence comparisons for hazardous material transportation accidents were identified and reviewed. Potential improvements were identified and an evaluation of the improved methods was performed. Based on this evaluation, several methods were selected for detailed evaluation in Phase II of the project. The methods selected were location-dependent scenarios, figure of merit and risk assessment. This evaluation included application of the methods to a sample problem which compares the consequences of four representative hazardous materials - chlorine, propane, spent nuclear fuel and class A explosives. These materials were selected because they represented a broad class of hazardous material properties and consequence mechanisms. The sample case aplication relied extensively on consequence calculations performed in previous transportation risk assessment studies. A consultant was employed to assist in developing consequence models for explosives. The results of the detailed evaluation of the three consequence comparison methods indicates that methods are available to perform technically defensible comparisons of the consequences from a wide variety of hazardous materials. Location-dependent scenario and risk assessment methods are available now and the figure of merit method could be developed with additional effort. All of the methods require substantial effort to implement. Methods that would require substantially less effort were identified in the preliminary evaluation, but questions of technical accuracy preclude their application on a scale. These methods may have application to specific cases, however

  8. Radiological and hazardous material characterization report for the south portion of the 313 Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of the characterization was to determine the extent of radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials, to allow the preparation of an accurate cost estimate, and to plan for pre-demolition cleanup work to support building isolation. The scope of services for the project included the following tasks: Records Review and Interviews; Site Reconnaissance; Radiological Survey; and Sampling and Analysis

  9. 75 FR 45195 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of... compressed oxygen without rigid outer packaging when no other means of transportation exist. 14860-M Alaska... authorizing the transportation in commerce of compressed oxygen without rigid outer packaging when no other...

  10. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  11. 75 FR 63 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... contained in equipment, fuel cell systems must not charge batteries during transport; (3) For transportation... 2137-AE54 Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery... batteries and battery-powered devices. This final rule corrects several errors in the January 14, 2009 final...

  12. 78 FR 22798 - Hazardous Materials: Revision of Maximum and Minimum Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    .... 5101 et seq.). Section 5123(a) of that law provides civil penalties for knowing violations of Federal... 107--Guidelines for Civil Penalties * * * * * IV. * * * C. * * * Under the Federal hazmat law, 49 U.S... Maximum and Minimum Civil Penalties AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...

  13. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2013-09-15

    Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 5258 - Hazardous Materials Transportation; Registration and Fee Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...) train public sector hazardous materials emergency response employees to respond to accidents and... officers, and 500,000 emergency medical services (EMS) providers. Due to the high turnover rates of... planning grants; A new $4,000,000 grant program for non-profit hazmat employee organizations to train...

  15. International conference and workshop on modeling and mitigating the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This conference was held September 26--29, 1995 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous materials. Attention is focused on air dispersion of vapors. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  16. Guidelines for applying criteria to designate routes for transporting hazardous materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    These guidelines were prepared to assist State and local officials in the analysis of alternate routes to be used by highway vehicles transportating hazardous materials. A methodology for assessing comparative risks of routing alternatives is discussed and demonstrated through a hypothetical example. Mathematical models are provided for situations in which measured local data may not be easily obtained or adequate

  17. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  18. The Hazardous Material Technician Apprenticeship Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, S.D.

    1987-07-01

    This document describes an apprenticeship training program for hazardous material technician. This entry-level category is achieved after approximately 216 hours of classroom and on-the-job training. Procedures for evaluating performance include in-class testing, use of on-the-job checks, and the assignment of an apprentice mentor for each trainee

  19. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... seat-belt pretensioner devices to a capacity not greater than fifty (50) percent of the drum's total... transported; transportation operations conducted under a special permit; the potential for broad application... utilized by 31 grantees with no known safety problems. A review of the Hazardous Materials Incident Data...

  20. 75 FR 57830 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of... special permit Application No. Docket No. Applicant affected thereof 7951-M ConAgra Foods, 49 CFR To... outer packaging when no other means of transportation exist. 14953-M Applied 49 CFR To modify the...

  1. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kgogo, Obonye

    2016-04-01

    The report provides insight and investigates whether Transport Regulations in Botswana follow international standards for transport of radioactive material. Radioactive materials are very useful in most of our activities and are manufactured in different countries, therefore end up traversing from one country to another and being transported in national roads .The IAEA regulation for the Transport of radioactive material is used as the reference guideline in this study. The current Regulations for Transport of radioactive material in Botswana do not cover all factors which need to be considered when transporting radioactive although they refer to IAEA regulations. Basing on an inadequacy of the regulations and category of radioactive materials in the country recommendations were made concerning security, packaging and worker training's. The regulations for the Transport of radioactive material in Botswana need to be reviewed and updated so that they can relate to international standard. (au)

  2. Regulation of naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials. A Task Force review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, D.A.; Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, W.S.; Cunningham, L.J.; Mapes, J.R.; Schwartz, S.A.; Smith, D.A.

    1977-06-01

    The use of accelerator-produced radioisotopes (NARM), particularly in medicine, is growing rapidly. One NARM radioisotope, 226 Ra, is one of the most hazardous of radioactive materials, and 226 Ra is used by about 1 / 5 of all radioactive material users. Also, there are about 85,000 medical treatments using 226 Ra each year. All of the 25 Agreement States and 5 non-Agreement States have licensing programs covering NARM users. The Agreement States' programs for regulating NARM are comparable to their programs for regulating byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials under agreements with NRC. But there are 7 states who exercise no regulatory control over NARM users, and the remaining States have control programs which are variable in scope. There are no national, uniformly applied programs to regulate the design, fabrication and quality of sources and devices containing NARM or consumer products containing NARM which are distributed in interstate commerce. Naturally occurring radioactive material (except source material) associated with the nuclear fuel cycle is only partially subject to NRC regulation, i.e., when it is associated with source or special nuclear material being used under an active NRC license. The Task Force recommends that the NRC seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials for the reason that these materials present significant radiation exposure potential and present controls are fragmentary and non-uniform at both the State and Federal level

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in building materials used in Yan'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Caifeng

    2013-03-01

    The concentration of natural radionuclides in commonly used building materials collected from Yan'an, China, was determined using gamma ray spectroscopy with a NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentration of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K in the studied building materials ranges from 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9, and 258.9-1,055.1 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the world mean values for soil. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), indoor air absorbed dose rate, and annual effective dose rate due to natural radionuclides in samples were estimated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwellings made of the studied building materials. The calculated Raeq values of all building materials (75.7-222.1 Bq kg⁻¹) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹. The values of Hex and Hin are less than unity. The mean values of indoor air absorbed dose rates of all building materials (101.0 ± 14.1-177.0 ± 6.8 nGy h⁻¹) are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h⁻¹, while the mean values of annual effective dose range from 0.50 ± 0.07-0.87 ± 0.03 mSv y⁻¹, which are lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y⁻¹. It is found that these materials may be used safely as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards to inhabitants.

  4. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material provide standards for ensuring a high level of safety of people, property and the environment against radiation and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive material. The basic requirements to be met are: Effective containment of radioactive material; Effective control of radiation emitted from the package; A subcritical condition for any fissile material; and Adequate dissipation of any heat generated within the package. Effective quality assurance and compliance assurance programmes are required, for example: (a) Appropriate and sound packages are used; (b) The activity of radioactive material in each package does not exceed the regulatory activity limit for that material and that package type; (c) The radiation levels external to, and the contamination levels on, surfaces of packages do not exceed the appropriate limits; (d) Packages are properly marked and labelled and transport documents are completed; (e) the number of packages containing radioactive material in a conveyance is within the regulatory limits; (f) Packages of radioactive material are stowed in conveyances and are stored at a safe distance from persons and photosensitive materials; (g) Only those transport and lifting devices which have been tested are used in loading, conveying and unloading packages of radioactive material; and (h) Packages of radioactive material are properly secured for transport. The control of the transport of radioactive materials may be necessary also for other reasons, e.g. safeguards control and physical protection of nuclear materials and control of a property. For radioactive materials having other dangerous properties, the regulations of Member States, modal conventions and agreements, and other relevant documents of international organizations need to be applied. A Member State may require in its national regulations that an additional approval be

  5. Natural radioactivity level and radiological hazard assessment of commonly used building material in Xining, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigang Chao; Xinwei Lu; Mengmeng Zhang; Long Pang

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of the commonly used building materials in Xining of China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometer system comprising a NaI(Tl) detector. Radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied samples range from 11.6 to 120.6, 10.2 to 107.1 and 228.0 to 1,036.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the mean value for soil. Radium equivalent activity, indoor air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwelling made of the building materials. The radiological hazard assessment results show that the studied building materials, except for some aerated concrete block samples, are safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard. (author)

  6. Regulations relevant to the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1996-01-01

    As is the case in many countries, the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland is primarily regulated by the national regulations for the transport of dangerous goods. Currently these regulations, in the case of radioactive material, incorporate the 1985 IAEA Safety Series 6 Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (As amended 1990). However, as is also the case in some other countries, consignors, shippers and carriers of radioactive materials must also comply with additional laws when shipping radioactive materials. The most important of these other laws and their accompanying regulations are those concerned with radiation protection (import, export and carriers licences) and nuclear power (import, export, inland transport and transit licences). This paper sets out to describe the collective requirements resulting from all three of these sets of regulations. (Author)

  7. Materializing Exposure: Developing an Indexical Method to Visualize Health Hazards Related to Fossil Fuel Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wylie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How can STS researchers collaborate with communities to design environmental monitoring devices that more effectively express their experiences and address gaps in regulation? This paper describes and shows the results of a novel method of visualizing environmental emissions of corrosive gases such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S exposure using photographic paper. H2S is a neurotoxic and flammable gas that smells like rotten eggs and is frequently associated with oil and natural gas extraction. Communities living with oil and gas development in Wyoming report odors of rotten eggs and describe symptoms of H2S exposure. H2S is recognized as an acute and chronic threat to human and environmental health and oil and gas companies are required to have plans in place to prevent and respond to accidental, high concentration releases of H2S. They are not, however, required to monitor, report or prevent routine daily emissions. Yet 15-25% of the oil and gas wells in the US are predicted to contain H2S, and some communities surrounded by multiple wells report chronic, routine exposure. Chronic exposure is difficult to represent with current tools for monitoring H2S because they are designed to measure acute workplace exposure. Informed by STS theories of black boxes and regimes of imperceptibility that focus on the need to revise not only regulations but also material tools of science, this paper describes the development of an indexical approach to visualizing this hazard. In indexical design, the reactive sensing element of a scientific instrument is brought to the foreground. The silver in the photopaper is an index as it tarnishes with H2S exposure. Discolored tests strips can be arranged together to form data-rich maps of the exposure landscape where this discoloration both represents how the gas spreads through a space and is a physical trace of the gas. Preliminary results in the form of data-rich maps show that regulating H2S emissions as primarily

  8. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazardous of main building materials in Yan'an, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nan; Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Zhao Caifeng

    2012-01-01

    Background: With the rapidly economic development and urbanization in Yan'an city, more building materials were consumed in building construction. While the natural radioactivity level of building materials from Yan'an is limited in the literatures. Purpose: The main objective of this study is to determine the natural radioactivity level and to analyze the associated radiation hazards of building materials in Yan'an. Methods: The specific activities of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials from Yan'an city were determined using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry, and their radiation hazards were evaluated according to the standard methods. Results: The results show that the specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the building materials are 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9 and 258.9-1055.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The activities of 226 Ra and 232 Th, except for sand and gravel aggregate, in all other building materials are higher than the corresponding means of local soil, and the activities of 40 K in hollow brick, red-clay brick, sand and gravel aggregate exceed the means of 40 K in soil. However, the values of internal exposure index, external exposure index and gamma radiation index in all investigated building materials are less than 1. Conclusions: The radiation levels of all analyzed building materials are within the national safety standard, which indicates that all analyzed building materials can be used anywhere and they can't cause radiation hazard to the local residents. (authors)

  9. Double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for versatile hazardous materials detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottfried, Jennifer L. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)], E-mail: jennifer.gottfried@arl.army.mil; De Lucia, Frank C.; Munson, Chase A.; Miziolek, Andrzej W. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-WM-BD, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    We have developed a double-pulse standoff laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (ST-LIBS) system capable of detecting a variety of hazardous materials at tens of meters. The use of a double-pulse laser improves the sensitivity and selectivity of ST-LIBS, especially for the detection of energetic materials. In addition to various metallic and plastic materials, the system has been used to detect bulk explosives RDX and Composition-B, explosive residues, biological species such as the anthrax surrogate Bacillus subtilis, and chemical warfare simulants at 20 m. We have also demonstrated the discrimination of explosive residues from various interferents on an aluminum substrate.

  10. 41 CFR 101-42.1101 - Federal supply classification (FSC) groups and classes which contain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., building paper, and thermal insulation materials Asbestos cloth which has loose fibers or particles that... shipment. 5965 Headsets, handsets, microphones, and speakers Items containing magnetic material. 5970... hazardous chemicals, solvents. 6625 Electrical and electronic properties measuring and testing instruments...

  11. Natural radioactivity in some building materials and assessment of the associated radiation hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasumovic, Amira; Hankic, Ema; Kasic, Amela; Adrovic, Feriz [Tuzla Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Physics

    2018-04-01

    The results of the specific activities of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K measured in samples of commonly used building materials in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented. Measurements were performed by gamma-ray spectrometer with coaxial HPGe detector. The surface radon exhalation and mass exhalation rates for selected building materials were also measured. The determined values of specific activities were in range from 3.16 ± 0.81 Bq kg{sup -1} to 64.79 ± 6.16 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, from 2.46 ± 0.95 Bq kg{sup -1} to 53.89 ± 3.67 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 28.44 ± 7.28 Bq kg{sup -1} to 557.30 ± 93.38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The radium equivalent activity, the activity concentration index, the external and internal hazard indices as well as the absorbed dose rate in indoor air and the corresponding annual effective dose, due to gamma-ray emission from the radioactive nuclides in the building material, were evaluated in order to assess the radiation hazards for people. The measured specific activities of the natural radioactive nuclides in all investigated building materials were compared with the published results for building materials from other European countries. It can be noted that the results from this study are similar to the data for building materials from neighbouring countries and for building materials used in the EU Member States. The radiological hazard parameters of the building materials were all within the recommended limits for safety use.

  12. Flammability tests for regulation of building and construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Sumathipala

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of building materials and products for flammability is critical to ensure the safety of occupants in buildings and other structures. The involvement of exposed building materials and products in fires resulting in the loss of human life often spurs an increase in regulation and new test methods to address the problem. Flammability tests range from those...

  13. Hazardous emissions, operating practices, and air regulations at industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since October of 1988 the State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulated over four hundred substances as hazardous air pollutants. The rule regulates new as well as existing sources of air pollution in Wisconsin. Consequently, all permits to operate an air pollution source in Wisconsin must address the hazardous air emissions potential of the source. While widely perceived as a clean-burning fuel, wood is often burned in a manner which clearly results in significant emissions of very hazardous air pollutants. Research conducted on a 20 million BTU per hour wood-fired spreader stoker boiler in northern Wisconsin showed that this boiler has the potential to emit 0.022 pound of benzene and 0.012 pound of formaldehyde per ton (lb/ton) of wood fired. Recent stack tests at more than a dozen other small industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin show a range of formaldehyde emissions of 0.0007--0.1950 lb/ton. Work at Birchwood Lumber ampersand Veneer showed that the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under good firing conditions are an order of magnitude lower than the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under poor firing conditions. This finding has supported Wisconsin's regulatory approach of encouraging wood-fired facilities to enhance the quality of the combustion process as a technique to minimize the hazardous air pollution potential of industrial wood combustion. The Wisconsin strategy is to define open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes through easily measurable combustion parameters rather than emission standards. This paper presents several techniques in use in Wisconsin to comply with open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes for industrial wood-fired furnaces. These techniques include fuel blending overfire air, furnace insulation, and proper grate design

  14. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Abkowitz, M. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort.

  15. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M.; Abkowitz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort

  16. Petroleum and hazardous material releases from industrial facilities associated with Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Sengul, Hatice

    2010-04-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck an area dense with industry, causing numerous releases of petroleum and hazardous materials. This study integrates information from a number of sources to describe the frequency, causes, and effects of these releases in order to inform analysis of risk from future hurricanes. Over 200 onshore releases of hazardous chemicals, petroleum, or natural gas were reported. Storm surge was responsible for the majority of petroleum releases and failure of storage tanks was the most common mechanism of release. Of the smaller number of hazardous chemical releases reported, many were associated with flaring from plant startup, shutdown, or process upset. In areas impacted by storm surge, 10% of the facilities within the Risk Management Plan (RMP) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) databases and 28% of SIC 1311 facilities experienced accidental releases. In areas subject only to hurricane strength winds, a lower fraction (1% of RMP and TRI and 10% of SIC 1311 facilities) experienced a release while 1% of all facility types reported a release in areas that experienced tropical storm strength winds. Of industrial facilities surveyed, more experienced indirect disruptions such as displacement of workers, loss of electricity and communication systems, and difficulty acquiring supplies and contractors for operations or reconstruction (55%), than experienced releases. To reduce the risk of hazardous material releases and speed the return to normal operations under these difficult conditions, greater attention should be devoted to risk-based facility design and improved prevention and response planning.

  17. Survey of naturally occurring hazardous materials in deep geologic formations: a perspective on the relative hazard of deep burial of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.A.; Cohen, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Hazards associated with deep burial of solidified nuclear waste are considered with reference to toxic elements in naturally occurring ore deposits. This problem is put into perspective by relating the hazard of a radioactive waste repository to that of naturally occurring geologic formations. The basis for comparison derives from a consideration of safe drinking water levels. Calculations for relative toxicity of FBR waste and light water reactor (LWR) waste in an underground repository are compared with the relative toxicity indices obtained for average concentration ore deposits. Results indicate that, over time, nuclear waste toxicity decreases to levels below those of naturally occurring hazardous materials

  18. Proposed method for regulating major materials licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, appointed a Materials Regulatory Review Task Force to conduct a broad-based review of the Commission's current licensing and oversight programs for fuel cycle and large materials plants. The task force, as requested, defined the components and subcomponents of an ideal regulatory evaluation system for these types of licensed plants and compared they to the components and subcomponents of the existing regulatory evaluation system. This report discusses findings from this comparison and proposed recommendations on the basis of these findings

  19. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  20. An integrated risk communication system for the transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, J.W. IV; Abkowitz, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of the prototype of an an internet-based, risk communication system prototype for the transport of hazardous materials. The system was designed with the objectives of: (1) incorporating functionality and features that are useful for meeting a variety of risk communication needs, and (2) demonstrating a high degree of interaction among system components, enabling customisation to meet the specific transport risk communication needs requirements of the host organisation. To demonstrate 'proof of concept', the system is applied to two scenarios: 1) building knowledge and awareness, focusing on how information can be entered, organised and disseminated to the public and other transport stakeholders, and 2) emergency management, utilising the system for securely managing information in responding to a transport incident involving hazardous materials transport incident. The effectiveness of the system in these applications is subsequently discussed. (author)

  1. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel

  2. Material Selection for Cable Gland to Improved Reliability of the High-hazard Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashchuk, S. P.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Deeva, V. S.; Vashchuk, D. S.

    2018-01-01

    The sealed cable glands (SCG) are available to ensure safest connection sheathed single wire for the hazard production facility (nuclear power plant and others) the same as pilot cable, control cables, radio-frequency cables et al. In this paper, we investigate the specifics of the material selection of SCG with the express aim of hazardous man-made facility. We discuss the safe working conditions for cable glands. The research indicates the sintering powdered metals cables provide the reliability growth due to their properties. A number of studies have demonstrated the verification of material selection. On the face of it, we make findings indicating that double glazed sealed units could enhance reliability. We had evaluated sample reliability under fire conditions, seismic load, and pressure containment failure. We used the samples mineral insulated thermocouple cable.

  3. Project management plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the Hanford Site will involve the handling and cleanup of toxic substances. Thousands of workers involved in these new activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and associated risks. This project is an important part of the Hanford Site mission and will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet high standards for safety. The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER) project will construct a centralized regional training center dedicated to training hazardous materials workers and emergency responders in classrooms and with hands-on, realistic training aids representing actual field conditions. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a cost-effective, high-quality way to meet the Hanford Site training needs. The training center creates a partnership among DOE; government contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and selected institutions of higher education

  4. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, M. Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • An integrated framework is developed to optimize risk reduction. • A negative binomial regression model is developed to analyze accident-cause-specific railcar derailment probability. • A Pareto-optimality technique is applied to determine the lowest risk given any level of resource. • A multi-attribute decision model is developed to determine the optimal amount of investment for risk reduction. • The models could aid the government and rail industry in developing cost-efficient risk reduction policy and practice. -- Abstract: Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation.

  5. Just-in-Time techniques as applied to hazardous materials management

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study investigates the feasibility of integrating JIT techniques in the context of hazardous materials management. This study provides a description of JIT, a description of environmental compliance issues and the outgrowth of related HAZMAT policies, and a broad perspective on strategies for applying JIT to HAZMAT management. http://archive.org/details/justintimetechn00spic Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

  6. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... reduced iron (DRI) as briquettes molded at a temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher that have a density of 5... temperature of 650 [deg]C or higher or had a density of 5.0 g/cm[sup3] or greater. In this proposed rule, we... bulk materials of Hazard Classes 4 through 9. c. One comment recommended that a DCM be required for...

  7. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Sun; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The scope of this study consists of : in relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A., a determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material, a tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  8. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  9. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled ( 200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations

  10. Emergency response network design for hazardous materials transportation with uncertain demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shahanaghi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of hazardous materials play an essential role on keeping a friendly environment. Every day, a substantial amount of hazardous materials (hazmats, such as flammable liquids and poisonous gases, need to be transferred prior to consumption or disposal. Such transportation may result in unsuitable events for people and environment. Emergency response network is designed for this reason where specialist responding teams resolve any issue as quickly as possible. This study proposes a new multi-objective model to locate emergency response centers for transporting the hazardous materials. Since many real-world applications are faced with uncertainty in input parameters, the proposed model of this paper also assumes that reference and demand to such centre is subject to uncertainty, where demand is fuzzy random. The resulted problem formulation is modelled as nonlinear non-convex mixed integer programming and we used NSGAII method to solve the resulted problem. The performance of the proposed model is examined with several examples using various probability distribution and they are compared with the performance of other existing method.

  11. Statistical treatment of hazards result from radioactive material in metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.F.; Rashad, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive sources have a wide range of uses in medicine and industry. Radioactive materials entering the public domain in an uncontrolled manner may creating a serious risk of radiation exposure for workers and the public as well as excessive costs for plant decontamination and waste of product to be borne by the metal industry. This paper describes the major accidents that had happened in the last decades due to radioactive material in metal scrap, provides assessment of associated hazards and lessons learned. This will help Regulatory Authority to introduce measures capable to avoid the recurrence of similar events. The study highlights the situation for metal scrap incidents in Egypt.

  12. Prevention of suicide with regulations aimed at restricting access to highly hazardous pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, David; Knipe, Duleeka; Chang, Shu Sen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for 14–20% of suicides worldwide. Regulation aimed at restricting access to pesticides or banning highly hazardous pesticides is one approach to reducing these deaths. We systematically reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of pesticide regulation...... in reducing the incidence of pesticide suicides and overall suicides. Methods: We did a systematic review of the international evidence. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase for studies published between Jan 1, 1960, and Dec 31, 2016, which investigated the effect of national or regional bans, and sales...... or import restrictions, on the availability of one or more pesticides and the incidence of suicide in different countries. We excluded other interventions aimed at limiting community access to pesticides. We extracted data from studies presenting pesticide suicide data and overall suicide data from before...

  13. An examination of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA): A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    On November 16,1990, President Bush signed into law the most comprehensive amendments to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) in 15 years. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act of 1990 (HMTUSA) was created by Congress in an effort to strengthen and clarify the HMTA. This paper will discuss the act's provisions as they affect shipments of spent fuel and high-level radioactive materials as well as the impact of those provisions on routing and emergency response issues in the southern region. HMTUSA consists of seven key provisions that affect radioactive materials: clarification of regulatory jurisdiction; highway routing standards; broadened industry registration; safety permits for motor carriers of high risk materials; expanded nuclear transportation requirements; new provisions for emergency response training and planning; and a public process for assessing the feasibility of a federally operated central reporting system and data center. In addition to amending various HMTA provisions, the new HMTUSA act provides appropriations to carry out the specific goals of the legislation. The act authorizes appropriations for the 1991, 1992 and 1993 fiscal years

  14. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Prescriptions on the usage of internationally regulated goods'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law. Terms are explained, such as area for incoming and outgoing of goods, main measuring point, batch and real stocks. Applications for the permission of the use of internationally regulated goods shall be filed, in which the kinds of such goods for the materials and equipments in each partner country, with which international agreement was concluded, and the quantity and expected period of use of each regulated material must be written. The users of such regulated materials shall keep the records on the usage of such materials in each factory or establishment. Such records include the quantities of receiving and delivering and stocks of nuclear raw material of each kind, radiation control reports and the records of accidents in the facilities for using nuclear raw materials. Applications for the approval of the stipulation on the management of measurement shall be filed, in which the functions and organizations of the persons engaging in the measurement and control of internationally regulated goods, the establishment of the areas for receiving and delivering the goods and the marks to be put on such areas, etc. Applications for the designation as the persons engaging in information processing works are specified. (Okada, K.)

  15. Criticality analysis for hazardous materials transportation; Classificacao da criticidade das rotas do transporte rodoviario de produtos perigosos da BRASKEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Katia; Brady, Mariana [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Diniz, Americo [BRASKEM S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The bad conditions of Brazilians roads drive the companies to be more exigent with the transportation of hazardous materials to avoid accidents or materials releases with actions to contain the releases to community and water sources. To minimize this situation, DNV and BRASKEM developed a methodology for risk analysis called Criticality Analysis for Hazardous Materials Transportation. The objective of this methodology is identifying the most critical points of routes to make actions to avoid accidents. (author)

  16. Functional design criteria for the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Within the United States, there are few hands-on training centers capable of providing integrated technical training within a practical application environment. Currently, there are no training facilities that offer both radioactive and chemical hazardous response training. There are no hands-on training centers that provide training for both hazardous material operations and emergency response that also operate as a partnership between organized labor, state agencies, tribes, and local emergency responders within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Available facilities appear grossly inadequate for training the thousands of people at Hanford, and throughout the Pacific Northwest, who are required to qualify under nationally-mandated requirements. It is estimated that 4,000 workers at the Hanford Site alone need hands-on training. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, the potential target audience would be over 30,000 public sector emergency response personnel, as well as another 10,000 clean-up workers represented by organized labor. The HAMMER Training Center will be an interagency-sponsored training center. It will be designed, built, and operated to ensure that clean-up workers, fire fighters, and public sector management and emergency response personnel are trained to handle accidental spills of hazardous materials. Training will cover wastes at clean-up sites, and in jurisdictions along the transportation corridors, to effectively protect human life, property, and the environment

  17. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  18. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document references information pertaining to the presence of hazardous materials in the Mississippi River Basin. Topics discussed include: The biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous wastes; biological uptake and metabolism; sentinels of aquatic contamination; bioremediation; microorganisms; biomarkers of exposure and ecotoxicity; expert geographical information systems for assessing hazardous wastes in aquatic environments; and enhancement of environmental education at Tulane and Xavier

  19. Regulation on the transport of nuclear fuel materials by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations applying to the transport of nuclear fuel materials by vehicles, mentioned in the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The transport is for outside of the factories and the site of enterprises by such modes of transport as rail, trucks, etc. Covered are the following: definitions of terms, places of fuel materials handling, loading methods, limitations on mix loading with other cargo, radiation dose rates concerning the containers and the vehicles, transport indexes, signs and indications, limitations on train linkage during transport by rail, security guards, transport of empty containers, etc. together with ordinary rail cargo and so on. (Mori, K.)

  20. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1981-11-01

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  1. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Regulations and rules for the safe transport of radioactive materials by all kinds of conveyance are offered. Different types of packages and the conditions associated with the methods of safe packaging are given

  2. Quality management in the regulation of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenghi, Leonardo; Capadona, Nancy M.; Lopez Vietri, Jorge R.; Panzino, Marina; Ceballos, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the quality management procedure used by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority to establish the regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials. The quality management system is based on the family of the ISO 9000 norms [es

  3. 48 CFR 52.223-3 - Hazardous Material Identification and Material Safety Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... offeror is the actual manufacturer of these items. Failure to submit the Material Safety Data Sheet prior... data. (f) Neither the requirements of this clause nor any act or failure to act by the Government shall... resistant envelope. [56 FR 55375, Oct. 25, 1991, as amended at 60 FR 34740, July 3, 1995; 62 FR 238, Jan. 2...

  4. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulation is revised on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance for the Law, to enforce such provisions. This is the complete revision of the regulation of the same name in 1957. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaged in works, radioactive wastes, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, fluctuation of stocks, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. For the applications for the permission of the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials, the location of an enterprise, the construction of buildings and the construction of and the equipments for facilities of chemical processing, forming, coating, assembling, storage of nuclear fuel materials, disposal of radioactive wastes and radiation control must be written. Records shall be made and maintained for the periods specified on the inspection of processing facilities, nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, operation, maintainance, accidents of processing facilities and weather. Limit to entrance into the control area, measures for exposure radiation dose, patrol and inspection, operation of processing facilities, transport of materials, disposal of radioactive wastes, safety regulations are provided for. Reports to be filed by the persons engaging in the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials are prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  5. Development of Neutron Probes for Characterization of Hazardous Materials in the Sub-surface Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keegan, R.P.; McGrath, C.A.; Lopez, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron probes are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the detection, identification and quantification of hazardous materials in the ground. Such materials include plutonium, uranium, americium, chlorine and fluorine. Both a Neutron Gamma (NG) probe and a Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) probe are being developed. The NG probe is used primarily for nuclide identification and quantification measurements. The PFN is used mostly for the detection and measurement of fissile material, but also for the determination of thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross sections of the various elements comprising the ground matrix. Calibration of these probes will be carried out at the INEEL using an indoor facility that has been designed for this activity

  6. Decision Support for Environmental Management of Industrial Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials: New Analytical Methods Combined with Simulation and Optimization Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requir...

  7. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Since the first edition in 1961, the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the IAEA (IAEA Regulations) have served as the basis of safety for the transport of radioactive material worldwide. In the discussions leading to the first edition of the IAEA Regulations, it was realized that there was need for a publication to supplement the Regulations which could give information of individual provisions as to their purpose, their scientific background and how to apply them in practice. In response, the Agency published Safety Series No. 7, entitled, in its first edition in 1961, 'Notes on Certain Aspects of the Regulations'. An additional source of information on the Regulations, providing advice on 'how' the user should comply with them which could be augmented from time to time in the light of latest experience, was provided by the Agency, initially in relation to the 1973 edition of the Regulations. This was entitled 'Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' and designated Safety Series No. 37. This document is the result of combining the two Safety Series in a single publication. Thus the primary purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to users on proven and acceptable ways of complying with the Regulations. This Advisory Material is not a stand-alone text and it only has significance when used as a companion to the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. ST-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1996 edition)

  8. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  9. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some Cameroonian building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngachin, M. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon) and Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mngachin@yahoo.com; Garavaglia, M. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), 91 via Tavagnacco, 33100 Udine (Italy); Giovani, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), 91 via Tavagnacco, 33100 Udine (Italy); Kwato Njock, M.G. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Nourreddine, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, UMR7500 CNRS-IN2P3 et Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 Rue du Loess, BP 28, F-67037, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2007-01-15

    The concentration of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in 13 building materials obtained from factories and collected in field in Cameroon were investigated by {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The activity ranged from 1.76 to 49.84Bqkg{sup -1}, 0.32 to 147Bqkg{sup -1} and 18 to 1226Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The highest {sup 238}U activity was found in compressed red soil brick type I (49.6+/-0.3Bqkg{sup -1}) produced by a local manufacturer while the highest {sup 232}Th (139+/-13Bqkg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (1162+/-108Bqkg{sup -1}) activities were found in gravel collected from an exploitation site in Logbadjeck. The activities are compared with available data from other investigations and with the world average value for soils. The radium equivalent activity Ra{sub eq}, the external hazard index H{sub ex}, the indoor absorbed dose rate D-bar in air and the annual effective dose equivalent E-bar were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. All building materials have shown Ra{sub eq} (range from 10 to 313Bqkg{sup -1}) lower than the limit of 370Bqkg{sup -1} set in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD, 1979. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials. OECD, Paris] report which is equivalent to a {gamma}-dose of 1.5mSvyr{sup -1}. Except for the gravel from Logbadjeck, all the materials examined are acceptable for use as building materials as defined by the OECD criterion.

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some Cameroonian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.; Nourreddine, A.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in 13 building materials obtained from factories and collected in field in Cameroon were investigated by γ-ray spectrometry. The activity ranged from 1.76 to 49.84Bqkg -1 , 0.32 to 147Bqkg -1 and 18 to 1226Bqkg -1 for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The highest 238 U activity was found in compressed red soil brick type I (49.6+/-0.3Bqkg -1 ) produced by a local manufacturer while the highest 232 Th (139+/-13Bqkg -1 ) and 40 K (1162+/-108Bqkg -1 ) activities were found in gravel collected from an exploitation site in Logbadjeck. The activities are compared with available data from other investigations and with the world average value for soils. The radium equivalent activity Ra eq , the external hazard index H ex , the indoor absorbed dose rate D-bar in air and the annual effective dose equivalent E-bar were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. All building materials have shown Ra eq (range from 10 to 313Bqkg -1 ) lower than the limit of 370Bqkg -1 set in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD, 1979. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials. OECD, Paris] report which is equivalent to a γ-dose of 1.5mSvyr -1 . Except for the gravel from Logbadjeck, all the materials examined are acceptable for use as building materials as defined by the OECD criterion

  11. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1994-09-01

    This report contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, greater-than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic waste (TRU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled ( 200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste have been estimated previously, and a summary has been included in earlier WMFCI reports. In order to have a single source for obtaining transportation cost for all radioactive waste, the transportation costs for the contact- and remote-handled wastes are repeated in this report. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the US Department of Transportation (DOT), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations. It should be noted that the trend is toward greater restrictions on transportation of radioactive waste (e.g., truck or rail car speed, shipping route, security escort, and personnel training requirements), which may have a significant impact on future costs

  12. Processing of hazardous material, or damage treatment method for shallow layer underground storage structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Takehiko; Nishioka, Yoshihiro.

    1997-01-01

    In radioactive waste processing facilities and shallow layer underground structures for processing hazardous materials, sheet piles having freezing pipes at the joint portions are spiked into soils at the periphery of a damaged portion of the shallow layer underground structure for processing or storing hazardous materials. Liquid nitrogen is injected to the freezing pipes to freeze the joint portions of adjacent sheet piles. With such procedures, continuous waterproof walls are formed surrounding the soils at the peripheries of the damaged portion. Further, freezing pipes are disposed in the surrounding soils, and liquid nitrogen is injected to freeze the soils. The frozen soils are removed, and artificial foundation materials are filled in the space except for the peripheries of the damaged portion after the removal thereof, and liquid suspension is filled in the peripheries of the damaged portion, and restoration steps for closing the damaged portion are applied. Then, the peripheries of the damaged portion are buried again. With such procedures, series of treatments for removing contaminated soils and repairing a damaged portion can be conducted efficiently at a low cost. (T.M.)

  13. Recycling of hazardous solid waste material using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Meier, A.; Wuillemin, D.; Hoffelner, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2003-03-01

    A novel high-temperature solar chemical reactor is proposed for the thermal recycling of hazardous solid waste material using concentrated solar power. A 10 kW solar reactor prototype was designed and tested for the carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The reactor was subjected to mean solar flux intensities of 2000 kW/m2 and operated in both batch and continuous mode within the temperature range 1120-1400 K. Extraction of up to 99% and 90% of the Zn originally contained in the EAFD was achieved in the residue for the batch and continuous solar experiments, respectively. The condensed off-gas products consisted mainly of Zn, Pb, and Cl. No ZnO was detected when the O{sub 2} concentration remained below 2 vol.-%. The use of concentrated solar energy as the source of process heat offers the possibility of converting hazardous solid waste material into valuable commodities for processes in closed and sustainable material cycles. (author)

  14. Converting environmentally hazardous materials into clean energy using a novel nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Yong X., E-mail: yong.gan@utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gan, Bo J. [Ottawa Hills High School, 2532 Evergreen Road, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Clark, Evan; Su, Lusheng [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Zhang, Lihua [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► A photoelectrochemical fuel cell has been made from TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. ► The fuel cell decomposes environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity. ► Doping the anode with a transition metal oxide increases the visible light sensitivity. ► Loading the anode with a conducting polymer enhances the visible light absorption. -- Abstract: In this work, a novel photoelectrochemical fuel cell consisting of a titanium dioxide nanotube array photosensitive anode and a platinum cathode was made for decomposing environmentally hazardous materials to produce electricity and clean fuel. Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs) were prepared via electrochemical oxidation of pure Ti in an ammonium fluoride and glycerol-containing solution. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the morphology of the nanotubes. The average diameter, wall thickness and length of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NTs were determined. The photosensitive anode made from the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} NTs has good photo-catalytic property, as proven by the decomposition tests on urea, ammonia, sodium sulfide and automobile engine coolant under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To improve the efficiency of the fuel cell, doping the TiO{sub 2} NTs with a transition metal oxide, NiO, was performed and the photosensitivity of the doped anode was tested under visible light irradiation. It is found that the NiO-doped anode is sensitive to visible light. Also found is that polyaniline-doped photosensitive anode can harvest photon energy in the visible light spectrum range much more efficiently than the NiO-doped one. It is concluded that the nanostructured photoelectrochemical fuel cell can generate electricity and clean fuel by decomposing hazardous materials under sunlight.

  15. Transports of radioactive materials. Legal regulations, safety and security concepts, experience; Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. Rechtsvorschriften, Sicherheits- und Sicherungskonzept, Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Guenther

    2012-07-15

    In Germany, approximately 650,000 to 750,000 units containing radioactive materials for scientific, medical and technical applications are shipped annually by surface, air and water transports. Legally speaking, radioactive materials are dangerous goods which can cause hazards to life, health, property and the environment as a result of faulty handling or accidents in transit. For protection against these hazards, their shipment therefore is regulated in extensive national and international rules of protection and safety. The article contains a topical review of the international and national transport regulations and codes pertaining to shipments of radioactive materials, and of the protection concepts underlying these codes so as to ensure an adequate standard of safety and security in shipping radioactive materials in national and international goods traffic. (orig.)

  16. Development of the photo catalytic materials for the purification and deodorization of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Gye Woon; Park, Ji Yeon; Jung, Choong Hwan; Kim, Weon Ju

    1999-12-01

    A hazardous material treatment system utilizing photochemical reaction is a new technology which does not produce any secondary pollutants after dissolving treatment because it is activated by solar photo energy. Photo catalysis reaction apparatus using photo catalytic reaction of TiO 2 was fabricated and installed to food waste treatment system for removing bad smell during treatment of food waste. Evolved gas was analysed by gas chromatograph and active carbon fiber sheet and yarn were used as adsorption media for photo catalysis in order to increase the effectiveness of filter system. (author)

  17. Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, Barbara H.; Richins, William D.; Novascone, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision

  18. Sanitary Assessment of Hazardous Materials Exposed To Highly Toxic Chemical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembovskiy, V.; Ermolaeva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial or terroristic accidents in which toxic chemicals (TC) are the main or attendant damaging factors should be regarded as a new challenge for experts, because of little knowledge on the methodology to estimating the long-term risk for humans due to contamination of the building materials and environment. In the Russian Federation, there appeared to be a kind of model systems for developing an algorithm for solving these or similar problems. Under dismantling and liquidation of the former facilities for chemical weapon production (FCWP) the building materials are regarded as potential waste products the fate of which (processing, warehousing, utilization, and destruction) is dependent on their possible hazard for human population and environment. The standard approaches for hazard assessment of waste products of the FCWP turned out to be insufficient. When conducting the present work, the following problems have been solved: 1. Selection of representative samples taking into consideration a diversity of construction materials, great quantities of potentially toxic waste materials, information on the production conditions, breakdowns in the process of production, accidents, composition of the decontaminators used, decontamination frequency, etc. 2. Analysis of TC in composite matrixes complicated by the following problems: extraction, masking effects of concomitant components during indirect analysis, lack of certified methods of direct analysis of TC, discrepancy of results of GC and direct GCMS analysis, low sensitivity of GCMS analysis, big volume of samples (more than 0.5 kg), heterogeneity of physical-chemical properties of different matrixes influencing the process of degradation of TC. 3. Hazard assessment of the wastes in toxic-and-sanitary experiment relying on non-specific signs of intoxication due to relatively low percentage of TC and masking effects of various matrix components. Application of the integral toxicity tests with soil

  19. Project T100 -- Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) is to provide a system of Quality Assurance reviews and verifications on the design and construction of the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center, project 95L-EWT-100 at Hanford. The reviews and verifications will be on activities associated with design, procurement, and construction of the HAMMER project which includes, but is not limited to earthwork, placement of concrete, laying of rail, drilling of wells, water and sewer line fabrication and installation, communications systems, fire protection/detection systems, line tie-ins, building and mock-up (prop) construction, electrical, instrumentation, pump and valves and special coatings

  20. German regulation concerning domestic or transboundary transport of hazardous goods by rail (GGVE). As of 12 December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The full official text of the German ordinance on transport of hazardous goods by rail (GGVE) is reproduced, which officially replaces the previous ordinance of 15 Dec. 1995. The new ordinance is published for implementation of the Regulation 96/49 EC of the European Council of 23 July 1996, and for adjustment of German national law to EU legislation governing the transport of hazardous goods by rail within the European Union. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Expert geographical information system for assessing hazardous materials in aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regens, J.L.; White, L.; Wright, J.D.; Rene, A.; Mielke, H.; Bakeer, R.; Belkhouche, B.; Barber, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hazardous substances, including radionuclides, heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and industrial solvents, pose unique challenges in terms of environmental restoration and waste management, especially in aquatic environments. When stored, used or disposed of improperly, hazardous materials including transuranic wastes, high level wastes, low level wastes, greater than class C wastes, mixed wastes or chemical wastes can contaminate an array of environmental receptors ranging from soils, sediments, groundwater to surface water. Depending on the specific hazardous substance and site attributes, environmental restoration and waste management can be a complex, problematic activity. This is particularly true for the major Defense Programs facilities managed by the Department of Energy (DOE). This research cluster consists of two discrete elements. Project Element No. 1 develops and applies GIS-based approaches to decision support for environmental restoration by delineating potential exposures and health risks at the Rocky Flats Plant and profiling contemporary and historical demographic/land use patterns at Sandia National Laboratories. Project Element No. 2 develops ESS software for surface water and ground water contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin

  2. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are wholly revised under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: employee engaged in radiation work; person regularly entering into the controlled area; the maximum permissible exposure dose; accumulative dose; the maximum permissible accumulative dose; the maximum permissible concentration in the air; the maximum permissible concentration under water; the maximum permissible surface density. The application for permission of the uses shall be made according to the form attached and include as appendix following documents: copy of register of the applicant legal person; plane drawings of the works or the enterprise and their surroundings in reduced scales and with directions, centering on facilities in use, of storage and disposal, etc. The report of the uses shall list name and address of the user, object and method of the uses, and include as annex copy of register of the user legal person and papers explaining the expected date of beginning and the period of the uses, etc. Standards of the uses, refilling, storage, transport and disposal are in detail stipulated. Specified measures shall be taken for measurement, prevention of radiation hazards, finding out of persons injured by radiation and others. (Okada, K.)

  3. [Hazardous food-borne fungi and present and future approaches to the mycotoxin regulations in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Kosuke; Aihara, Maki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, various food-related accidents and health scares have dissipated trust in the food industry. Health hazards resulting from food contaminated with fungi is increasing. Food contamination by fungi causes many problems, especially in Japan, which relies on foreign countries for about 60% of its food: the contamination of imported food by fungi and mycotoxins constitutes a serious problem. As the quantity of imported food increases and changes in food distribution have occurred, so too has the number and type of fungi causing food-related damages; osmophilic and thermotolerant fungi, in addition to the mainstream fungi of genera Cladosporium, Pecinillium, and Aspergillus, have become a problem. Although European countries and the U.S. have recently conducted risk assessments for mycotoxins, Japan has not attained an international level in the determination of baseline values. However, in addition to risk management for Aflatoxin M1, Ochratoxin, T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin, and Fumonisin, determination of baseline values for mycotoxins is beginning in Japan. In this review, we summarize hazardous food-borne fungi, and present and future approaches to the mycotoxin regulations in Japan.

  4. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes'' and the Enforcement Order for the ''Law concerning the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes''. The Regulation includes the definitions of terms, applications for the permission of the use of radioisotopes, standards on usage, obligation of measurement, persons in charge of radiation, etc. Terms are explained, such as persons engaging in radiation works, persons who enter at any time the control areas, radiation facilities, maximum permissible exposure dose, cumulative dose, maximum permissible cumulative dose, maximum permissible concentration in the air, maximum permissible concentration in water and maximum permissible surface density. The applications for permission in written forms are required for the use, sale and abandonment of radioisotopes. Radioisotopes or the apparatuses for generating radiation shall be used in the using facilities. The measurement of radiation dose rate, particle flux density and contamination due to radioisotopes shall be made with radiation-measuring instruments. At least one person shall be chosen as the chief radiation-handling person in each factory, establishment, selling office or abandoning establishment by a user, a trademan or a person engaged in abandonment of radioisotopes. The forms for the application for permission, etc. are attached. (Okada, K.)

  5. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In the Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors, the regulations have all been revised on the fabrication business of nuclear fuel materials. The revised regulations are given : application for permission of the fabrication business, application for permission of the alteration, application for approval of the design and the construction methods, application for approval of the alteration, application for the facilities inspection, facilities inspection, recordings, entry limitations etc. for controlled areas, measures concerning exposure radiation doses etc., operation of the fabrication facilities, transport within the site of the business, storage, disposal within the site of the business, security regulations, designation etc. of the licensed engineer of nuclear fuels, collection of reports, etc. (Mori, K.)

  6. Regulation of Transportation of Radioactive Material in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirwono, Muttaqin Margo; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition

  7. The environmental and medical geochemistry of potentially hazardous materials produced by disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Meeker, G.P.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Hageman, Philip L.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Many natural or human-caused disasters release potentially hazardous materials (HM) that may pose threats to the environment and health of exposed humans, wildlife, and livestock. This chapter summarizes the environmentally and toxicologically significant physical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of materials produced by a wide variety of recent disasters, such as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes and extreme storms, spills of mining/mineral-processing wastes or coal extraction by-products, and the 2001 attacks on and collapse of the World Trade Center towers. In describing these characteristics, this chapter also illustrates the important roles that geochemists and other earth scientists can play in environmental disaster response and preparedness. In addition to characterizing in detail the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of HM generated by the disasters, these roles also include (1) identifying and discriminating potential multiple sources of the materials; (2) monitoring, mapping, and modeling dispersal and evolution of the materials in the environment; (3) understanding how the materials are modified by environmental processes; (4) identifying key characteristics and processes that influence the materials' toxicity to exposed humans and ecosystems; (5) estimating shifts away from predisaster environmental baseline conditions; and (6) using geochemical insights learned from past disasters to help estimate, prepare for, and increase societal resilience to the environmental and related health impacts of future disasters.

  8. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, International Regulations and its Supporting Documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1 ( ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series No 7 and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series No 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS=113), compliance assurance (SS=112), the training manual and other

  9. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, International Regulations and its Supporting Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shinawy, R M.K. [Radiation Protection Dept., NRC, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-04-01

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1 ( ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series No 7 and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series No 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS=113), compliance assurance (SS=112), the training manual and other.

  10. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulations are established on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the usage of nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law, to enforce such provisions. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaging in works, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. In the applications for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials, the expected period and quantity of usage of each kind of such materials and the other party and the method of selling, lending and returning spent fuel or the process of disposal of such fuel must be written. Explanations concerning the technical ability required for the usage of nuclear fuel materials shall be attached to the applications. Applications shall be filed for the inspection of facilities for use, in which the name and the address of the applicant, the name and the address of the factory or the establishment, the range of the facilities for use, the maximum quantity of nuclear fuel materials to be used or stocked, and the date, the place and the kind of the expected inspection are written. Prescriptions cover the records to be held, safety regulations, the technical standards for usage, the disposal, transport and storage of nuclear fuel materials and the reports to be filed. (Okada, K.)

  11. Tracking and Monitoring of Radioactive Materials in the Commercial Hazardous Materials Supply Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Randy M.; Kopsick, Deborah A; Warren, Tracy A; Abercrombie, Robert K.; Sheldon, Frederick T; Hill, David E.; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the main components of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Materials Program is to prevent the loss of radioactive materials through the use of tracking technologies. If a source is inadvertently lost or purposely abandoned or stolen, it is critical that the source be recovered before harm to the public or the environment occurs. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging on radioactive sources is a technology that can be operated in the active or passive mode, has a variety of frequencies available allowing for flexibility in use, is able to transmit detailed data and is discreet. The purpose of the joint DOE and EPA Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project is to evaluate the viability, effectiveness and scalability of RFID technology under a variety of transportation scenarios. The goal of the Phase II was to continue testing integrated RFID tag systems from various vendors for feasibility in tracking radioactive sealed sources which included the following performance objectives: 1. Validate the performance of RFID intelligent systems to monitor express air shipments of medical radioisotopes in the nationwide supply chain, 2. Quantify the reliability of these tracking systems with regards to probability of tag detection and operational reliability, 3. Determine if the implementation of these systems improves manpower effectiveness, and 4. Demonstrate that RFID tracking and monitoring of radioactive materials is ready for large scale deployment at the National level. For purposes of analysis, the test scenario employed in this study utilized the real world commerce supply chain process for radioactive medical isotopes to validate the performance of intelligent RFID tags. Three different RFID systems were assessed from a shipping and packaging perspective, included varied environmental conditions, varied commodities on board vehicles, temporary staging in shipping terminals using various commodities and normal

  12. Transportation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes: Material identification is the key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancell, D.F.; Willaford, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will discuss how material identification and classification will result in an accurate determination of regulatory requirements, and will assure safe and compliant shipment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The primary focus of the paper is a discussion of lessons learned by the Department of Energy in making waste shipments, and how this can be applied to future mixed waste shipments. There will be a brief discussion of the Department's regulatory compliance program, including a presentation of compliance audit results, and how regulatory issues are addressed through effective information exchange, technical assistance, and compliance training. A detailed discussion will follow, which describes cases involving material identification and classification problems. Examples will include both RCRA waste and uranium mill tailings shipments. The paper will conclude with a discussion concerning the application of these lessons to future mixed waste shipments proposed by the Department. (author)

  13. Developing high-risk scenarios and countermeasure ideas for mitigation of hazardous materials incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.R. Sr.

    1991-01-01

    Kansas State University (KSU) conducted a comprehensive study of the development of a set of prioritized, extreme-risk scenarios, the development of a set of feasible, practical and implementable protective systems, and a report to summarize guidelines on the use of these protective systems to mitigate potential, extreme-risk situations that could occur during the transport of hazardous materials (Hazmat) on our highway system. This paper covers the methodology used to compete the first tow objectives with use of a state's panel. The research study was limited to materials (such as LNG, propane, gasoline, etc.) spilled within the highway system. It focused on potential risks which would result in severe, long-term, permanent, irreparable or catastrophic consequences, and existing technology and state-of-the-art knowledge for development of protective systems to mitigate these consequences. The protective systems within the scope of this study were systems constructed or physically incorporated into the highway system or modifications thereto

  14. Selecting the minimum risk route in the transportation of hazardous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Žura

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The transportation of hazardous materials is a broad and complex topic. Percent and iveight of accidents of vehicles carrying dangerous goods are growing fast. Modern computer based information system for dangerous materials management is becoming more and more important. In this paper I present an interactive software system for minimum risk route selection based on the PC ARC/INFO. The model computes optimal path based on accident probability is computed from traffic accident rates, highway operational speed, traffic volume and technical characteristic of the roadwidth, radius and slope. Dangerous goods are classified into nine classes according to their impact to different sensible environment elements. Those sensible elements are drinking water resourses, natural heritage, forestry, agricultural areas, cultural heritage, urban areas and tourist resorts. Some results of system implementation on Slovenia road network are be presented.

  15. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.

  16. Musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic hazards among material handlers in grocery retail industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Zuhaidi, Muhammad Fareez Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    Grocery retail work can be physically demanding as material handler’s tasks involve manual lifting, lowering, carrying, pushing and pulling loads. The nature of this work puts them at a risk for serious low back pain, shoulder pain and other musculoskeletal injuries. This study was conducted by using two different types of tools which were Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) as a survey and Washington Industrial Safety and Health Act (WISHA) Checklist as a direct observation method. Among 46 males and 14 females material handlers were involved throughout this study. For NMQ, the highest body part trouble in the last 12 months was low back pain (88.3%), followed by upper back (68.3%), neck (55.3%) and shoulder (36.7%). While for WISHA Checklist, most of them experienced hazard level involving awkward posture and high hand force. From the research conducted, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and ergonomic risk factors (ERFs) do related as it showed that musculoskeletal disorders may arise if the workers ignored the safety in ergonomic hazards.

  17. Two Chaotic Patterns of Dynamic Risk Definition for Solving Hazardous Materials Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of determining routes for hazardous material transportation, risk is considered as a main attribute. Transport risk, which is usually combined with other attributes such as cost or travel time, plays a significant role in determining paths for hazardous materials transportation. Since, risk is chaotically affected by road incidents, decision makers are dealing with selecting a method for defining chaotic risk factors in hazmat transportation. In this paper, transport risk has been defined as a chaotic variable using two different methods of generating chaotic patterns. In an experimental road network, which consists of eighty-nine nodes and one hundred and one two-way links, two different methods of generating chaotic variables have been used for applying the proposed procedure. In addition, results for different amounts of risk and cost have also been analyzed in case study. Results revealed that different cost and risk priorities change the frequencies of selected paths determined for hazmat transportation, but the route convergence of the route to chaos method is better than that of the logistic map equation.

  18. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests

  19. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikols, E.H.; Gill, A.S.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-01-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III

  20. Hazardous Materials Pharmacies - A Vital Component of a Robust P2 Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarter, S.

    2006-01-01

    Integrating pollution prevention (P2) into the Department of Energy Integrated Safety Management (ISM) - Environmental Management System (EMS) approach, required by DOE Order 450.1, leads to an enhanced ISM program at large and complex installations and facilities. One of the building blocks to integrating P2 into a comprehensive environmental and safety program is the control and tracking of the amounts, types, and flow of hazardous materials used on a facility. Hazardous materials pharmacies (typically called HazMarts) provide a solid approach to resolving this issue through business practice changes that reduce use, avoid excess, and redistribute surplus. If understood from concept to implementation, the HazMart is a powerful tool for reducing pollution at the source, tracking inventory storage, controlling usage and flow, and summarizing data for reporting requirements. Pharmacy options can range from a strict, single control point for all hazardous materials to a virtual system, where the inventory is user controlled and reported over a common system. Designing and implementing HazMarts on large, diverse installations or facilities present a unique set of issues. This is especially true of research and development (R and D) facilities where the chemical use requirements are extensive and often classified. There are often multiple sources of supply; a wide variety of chemical requirements; a mix of containers ranging from small ampoules to large bulk storage tanks; and a wide range of tools used to track hazardous materials, ranging from simple purchase inventories to sophisticated tracking software. Computer systems are often not uniform in capacity, capability, or operating systems, making it difficult to use a server-based unified tracking system software. Each of these issues has a solution or set of solutions tied to fundamental business practices. Each requires an understanding of the problem at hand, which, in turn, requires good communication among all

  1. Hazardous properties and environmental effects of materials used in solar heating and cooling (SHAC) technologies: interim handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, J.Q.

    1978-12-01

    General background informaion related to SHAC systems, how a particular material was chosen for this handbook, and codes and standards are given. Materials are categorized according to their functional use in SHAC systems as follows: (1) heat transfer fluids and fluid treatment chemicals, (2) insulation materials, (3) seals and sealant materials, (4) glazing materials, (5) collector materials, and (6) storage media. The informaion is presented under: general properties, chemical composition, thermal degradation products, and thermoxidative products of some commercial materials; toxic properties and other potential health effects; fire hazard properties; and environmental effects of and disposal methods for SHAC materials. (MHR)

  2. Regulation of hazardous air pollutants emitted from fossil-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Daellenbach, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The changes made in section 112 of the Clean Air Act by the 1990 Amendments to the Act will affect the regulation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by fossil-fired boilers. The 1990 Amendments designated 189 chemicals/compounds as HAPS. Major and area sources of these pollutants in categories designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be subject to emission standards set by EPA. Industrial and institutional/commercial boilers are two such categories of HAPs designated by EPA for which emission standards will be issued. Fossil-fired boilers can emit a variety of HAPS. All or a portion of such emissions that exceed designated thresholds are likely to be regulated. This paper discusses how the 1990 amendments impact fossil-fired boilers. The steps are outlined which can be taken by owners of industrial and institutional/commercial boilers before the final emission standards are issued. These steps include participation in EPA's standard setting process, participation in EPA's early reduction program to delay the time when compliance with the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standard is required, and consideration of any planned modifications to a facility which might subject that facility to a MACT standard set in advance of the EPA-set standard

  3. A study on the safety regulation of byproduct material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Song, Yang Su [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-15

    The objective of this study is to develop the technical criteria and regulatory system for establishing the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally. Up to this point, domestically, though many byproduct materials are distributed and used already, it seems that there are no related technical criteria and regulatory system and it becomes an obstacle in the development of relating industry. Since this kind of situation may give negative impact on the proper recognizance of the radiation to public, it is very urgent to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material. In relating to the domestic license of byproduct material, a survey of technical criteria and status of regulation in U.S.A. A determination of range of application and contents of byproduct material. A tentative suggestion of related technical criteria and regulatory system. A study was performed about the above topics to establish the safe regulation of byproduct material institutionally, and this can be contributed in establishing the proper domestic technical criteria related.

  4. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

    2009-12-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types—based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

  5. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types--based on BGO, NaI and LaBr 3 crystals is presented.

  6. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the uses of international controlled material in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: area of material delivery; fluctuation of stock; batch; real stock, effective value; fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for permission of the uses of international controlled material shall be filed to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency by the processor, the establisher of reactor, the reprocessor or the user for each works or enterprise, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the works or the enterprise where such material is used, kind and quantity of the material and expected period of the uses. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods for each works or enterprise on specified matters, including especially delivery, stock and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. Provisions on control of measurement, method of analysis and information processing business are stipulated. Reports shall be submitted to the Director in the forms attached on delivery, control and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. (Okada, K.)

  7. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear source materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area, worker and radioactive waste. Nuclear raw materials shall be used at the facilities for using them, and control areas and surrounding monitoring areas shall be set up. Cumulative dose and exposure radiation dose of workers shall not exceed the permissible quantities defined by the General Director of the Science and Technology Agency. Records shall be made in each works or enterprise on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials, radiation control and the accidents in the facilities of using nuclear raw materials, and kept for specified periods, respectively. The users of nuclear raw materials shall present reports in each works or enterprise on the stock of these materials on July 30 and December 31, every year. They shall submit reports immediately to the Director General on the particular accidents concerning nuclear raw materials and their facilities and on the circumstances and the measures taken against such accidents within ten days. These reports shall be presented on internationally regulated raw materials too. (Okada, K.)

  8. Assessment of natural radioactivity and the associated radiation hazards in some Cameroonian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.

    2005-09-01

    The concentration of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K in natural and fabricated building materials used in Cameroon was investigated by a high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry system with a co-axial HPGe detector. Fourteen kinds of building materials were collected from factories and in the field. Each sample was therefore kept in a 500 ml plastic Marinelli beakers and measured in a very low-background laboratory. The measured activity concentrations range from 1.76 to 49.84 Bq kg -1 , from 0.32 to 147.2 Bq kg -1 and from 18.16 to 1226.29 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K respectively. The highest mean value of 238 U concentration was found in red compressed soil-brick type I (49.57±0.33 Bq kg -1 ) produced by MIPROMALO whereas the highest average concentration of 232 Th (138.89±12.51 Bq kg -1 ) and 40 K (1161.46±107.57 Bq kg -1 ) was found in gravel collected from an exploitation site in LOGBADJECK. The activity concentrations obtained were compared with available data from other investigations and with the world average value for soils. The radium equivalent activity Ra eq , the external hazard index H ex as well as the indoor absorbed dose rate D radical in air and the annual effective dose equivalent H radical E were evaluated to assess the radiation hazards for people living in dwellings made of studied materials. All building materials have shown Ra eq activity (range from 10.15 to 312.57 Bq kg -1 ) lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg -1 set in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 1979) report, and which is equivalent to a γ-dose of 1.5 mSv yr -1 All the examined materials are acceptable for use as building materials in accord with the OECD criterion. (author)

  9. Temperature-regulated guest admission and release in microporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang (Kevin); Shang, Jin; Gu, Qinfen; Awati, Rohan V.; Jensen, Nathan; Grant, Andrew; Zhang, Xueying; Sholl, David S.; Liu, Jefferson Z.; Webley, Paul A.; May, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    While it has long been known that some highly adsorbing microporous materials suddenly become inaccessible to guest molecules below certain temperatures, previous attempts to explain this phenomenon have failed. Here we show that this anomalous sorption behaviour is a temperature-regulated guest admission process, where the pore-keeping group's thermal fluctuations are influenced by interactions with guest molecules. A physical model is presented to explain the atomic-level chemistry and structure of these thermally regulated micropores, which is crucial to systematic engineering of new functional materials such as tunable molecular sieves, gated membranes and controlled-release nanocontainers. The model was validated experimentally with H2, N2, Ar and CH4 on three classes of microporous materials: trapdoor zeolites, supramolecular host calixarenes and metal-organic frameworks. We demonstrate how temperature can be exploited to achieve appreciable hydrogen and methane storage in such materials without sustained pressure. These findings also open new avenues for gas sensing and isotope separation.

  10. Regulation Concepts for Clearance Level of Radionuclide in Solid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanang Triagung Edi Hermawan

    2008-01-01

    Practices of nuclear energy have expanded in some fields such as researches and development, educations, agricultures, medicines and industries. Every practice beside give much benefit, could generate residue or waste. Radioactive waste needs management to ensure the safety of workers, member of the public, and for the eternal of environment. The product of radioactive waste management, in generally, is some containment of radionuclide concentration in solid matrix material after immobilization or conditioning process. Some kind of processed radioactive wastes with short half live then decay faster to stabile condition. The decay will reach clearance level in sometimes, so from the radiation protection views is harmless. This materials above didn’t need control and must be cleared from all determinate and regulation aspects of radioactive material practices. There is clearance for harmless material off course will be simplify management task and efficiency of money. So the regulation about clearance levels will be important as law basic for technical practices in field. (author)

  11. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Fengying; Zhou Jingbo; Zhang Ling; Huang Lei; Bi Jun

    2010-01-01

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China.

  12. Selection of Liner Materials and Design of Hazardous Water Facilities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel N. Abduljauwad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in Saudi Arabia has produced a broad spectrum of wastes.  In the last two decades, several refineries and petrochemical industries have been established. These industries have produced sludges and other toxic wastes which need proper planning for their handling and disposal. This paper covers design and selection of liner materials for two hazardous waste disposal sites. One of them is located in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, while the second one is located in the Western part. The paper will present complete design details of the natural compacted and geosynthetic soil liners and the leachate collection and removal system for primary liners and leak detection/leachate collection and removal system for secondary liners.

  13. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials. 1973 revised edition (as amended).

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On the basis of a comprehensive review carried out by a panel of experts, a revised version of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1972 and published in April 1973 as Safety Series No.6 - 1973 Revised Edition. Minor amendments, together with a number of changes of detail were promulgated by the Director General in 1975 and 1977. In October 1978, the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, established by the Director General in 1977, reviewed and recommended a small number of additional amendments. The recommendations of SAGSTRAM were subsequently accepted by the Director General. All these minor amendments and changes of detail are incorporated in the present text of the Regulations. The purpose of these Regulations is to establish standards of safety which provide an acceptable level of control of the radiation hazards to persons, property and the environment that are associated with the transport of radioactive material. They apply to the transport by land, water or air, including transport on own account, of radioactive material other than that which is an integral part of the means of transport. Transport includes any operation incidental to the whole course of carriage, such as loading, unloading and storage in transit. The term includes both normal transport and that under accident conditions

  14. Technical regulations for road transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul-Jensen, P.; Ulbak, K.

    1990-01-01

    The technical regulations for the transport of radioactive materials in Denmark are set down by the (Danish) National Board of Health in collaboration with the (Danish) National Institute for Radiation Hygiene in accordance with paragraph 3 of the Danish Ministry of Justice's Executive Order no. 2 of 2, January 1985 on the national road transport of dangerous goods by road, as amended by exutive order no. 251 of April 29th 1987 and no. 704 of November 1989. These regulations are presented here. They are almost identical, with only very few exceptions indicated in the publication, with the rules for Class 7 of the European convention on international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR). In addition to the aforementioned regulations for national road transport of radioactive materials the general rules for the transport of radioactive materials found in the National Board of Health's executive order no. 721 of November 27th 1989 on the transport of radioactive materials are valid. The abovementioned executive orders, with the exception of certain supplements which are not part of the technical regulations, are also contained in this publication. (AB)

  15. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Gul, R.; Ara, T.; Hussain, M.

    2012-01-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg -1 , respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively in laterite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg -1 , respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ), internal hazard index (H in ), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E eff ) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications. (authors)

  16. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W.; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS 2 p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane

  17. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W. [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: jmschoenung@ucdavis.edu [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS{sub 2} p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane.

  18. Hazardous materials transportation. Part 2. Radioactive materials and wastes (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Final report for 1964--March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimherr, G.W.

    1978-06-01

    The bibliography cites studies on the hazards, risks, and uncertainty of transporting radioactive wastes and materials. The design of shipping containers and special labels for identification purposes for transporting fuels and wastes are also cited. Studies are included on legislation dealing with the safety and health of the population and the environmental problems associated with transporting radioactive materials

  19. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. The application for permission shall state the expected period and amount of the uses for each kind of nuclear fuel materials. Persons to whom spent fuels shall be sold, lent or returned and the method of disposal of such fuels shall be also indicated. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods for each works and enterprise on inspection of facilities, control of dose, maintenance and accident of facilities in use. The application for permission of the safeguard regulations shall report rules for each works and enterprise on the faculty and organization of controllers of facilities in use, safeguard education of employees, operation of apparatus which needs special control for prevention of disaster, establishment of controlled and inspected surrounding areas, entrance limitation, inspection of exposure dose, etc. Technical standards of the uses of nuclear fuel materials, disposal and transportation in the works and the enterprise and storage are stipulated in detail. Reports on exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be submitted every year to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency according to the forms attached. (Okada, K.)

  20. Powder Flux Regulation in the Laser Material Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizubieta, Jon Iñaki; Wegener, Maximiliam; Arntz, Kristian; Lamikiz, Aitzol; Ruiz, Jose Exequiel

    In the present research work a powder flux regulation system has been designed, developed and validated with the aim of improving the Laser Material Deposition (LMD) process. In this process, the amount of deposited material per substrate surface unit area depends on the real feed rate of the nozzle. Therefore, a regulation system based on a solenoid valve has been installed at the nozzle entrance in order to control the powder flux. The powder flux control has been performed based on the machine real feed rate, which is compared with the programmed feed rate. An instantaneous velocity error is calculated and the powder flow is controlled as a function of this variation using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals. Thereby, in zones where the Laser Material Deposition machine reduces the feed rate due to a trajectory change, powder accumulation can be avoided and the generated clads would present a homogeneous shape.

  1. Transport of radioactive material in Sudan practice and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, M. K. E.

    2010-12-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an impressive increase in applications of radioactive material. Such an extensive and widely spread usage of radioactive materials demands safe transportation of radioactive material from the production site to the application location, as well as quick and effective response in a case of an unexpected transportation event according to Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) regulation. The thesis described the local practice for transport of radioactive material as compared to the international standards for radiation protection, and also discussed the emergency procedures that must be follow in case of accident during transport of radioactive material. Furthermore, the objective of this study was also to set proposals for how to cope in the event of a radiological accident. The study methods included survey of current literature on safe transport of radioactive material, survey of national regulations on the subjects in additional to case studies aimed at investigating the practical issues pertinent to transport of radioactive materials in Sudan. A comprehensive review was presented on how to classification of radioactive packages and general requirement for all packaging and packages according to international standard. transport of number of radioactive sources from Khartoum airport to the field was evaluated with regard transport index, category of source, type of package, dose rate around the source, time to destination and means of transport of doses to public, worker are be made. All results were within the limit specified in the national as well as international regulation. The study has addressed for the first time the practice of transport of radioactive material in Sudan. It is anticipated that the results will encourage national organizational and professional bodies to enhance radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. (Author)

  2. An evaluation of a risk-based environmental regulation in Brazil: Limitations to risk management of hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naime, Andre

    2017-01-01

    The environmental regulation of hazardous projects with risk-based decision-making processes can lead to a deficient management of human exposure to technological hazards. Such an approach for regulation is criticized for simplifying the complexity of decisions involving the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the installation and operation of hazardous facilities in urban areas. Results of a Brazilian case study indicate that oil and gas transmission pipelines may represent a threat to diverse communities if the relationship between such linear projects and human populations is overlooked by regulatory bodies. Results also corroborate known challenges to the implementation of EIA processes and outline limitations to an effective environmental and risk management. Two preliminary topics are discussed to strengthen similar regulatory practices. Firstly, an effective integration between social impact assessment and risk assessment in EIA processes to have a more comprehensive understanding of the social fabric. Secondly, the advancement of traditional management practices for hazardous installations to pursue a strong transition from assessment and evaluation to management and control and to promote an effective interaction between land-use planning and environmental regulation.

  3. An evaluation of a risk-based environmental regulation in Brazil: Limitations to risk management of hazardous installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naime, Andre, E-mail: andre.naime.ibama@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    The environmental regulation of hazardous projects with risk-based decision-making processes can lead to a deficient management of human exposure to technological hazards. Such an approach for regulation is criticized for simplifying the complexity of decisions involving the economic, social, and environmental aspects of the installation and operation of hazardous facilities in urban areas. Results of a Brazilian case study indicate that oil and gas transmission pipelines may represent a threat to diverse communities if the relationship between such linear projects and human populations is overlooked by regulatory bodies. Results also corroborate known challenges to the implementation of EIA processes and outline limitations to an effective environmental and risk management. Two preliminary topics are discussed to strengthen similar regulatory practices. Firstly, an effective integration between social impact assessment and risk assessment in EIA processes to have a more comprehensive understanding of the social fabric. Secondly, the advancement of traditional management practices for hazardous installations to pursue a strong transition from assessment and evaluation to management and control and to promote an effective interaction between land-use planning and environmental regulation.

  4. Royal Order of 5 December 1975 amending the Royal Order of 11 May 1971 embodying the general Military Regulations for Protection Against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Royal Order amends the Royal Order on general Military Regulations for Protection against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations to bring it into line with the Royal Order of 23 December 1970, amending the general Regulations for Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations of 28 February 1963, subject to certain adaptations specific to military activities. (NEA) [fr

  5. Stop radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Brief general advice is presented for the employer unused to handling radioactive materials or using x-ray techniques. Topics mentioned are the definition of radiation and its hazards, measuring and monitoring the working environment, how to decide on and obtain equipment, standards and regulations, codes of practice, records, training, and useful sources of information. (U.K.)

  6. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as material delivery and receipt area, stock fluctuation, batch, real inventory, effective value, fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for the permission of using internationally regulated goods shall list the kinds of the goods classifying into materials and facilities for each partner country of international agreements concerning these goods. When such goods are utilized by fabricators, persons who install reactors, reprocessors or users, they shall file application to the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency for each works or enterprise where these goods are employed. The application shall include names and addresses, the names and places of works or enterprises where the goods are used, the kinds and quantities of the goods and expected period of usage etc. Records shall be made on the items specified for refiners, fabricators, persons who install reactors and users, respectively, and kept for particular periods. Measurement control, analysis method and business rules are defined. Reports shall be submitted to the Director General on the receipt and delivery, control, and stock fluctuation of nuclear raw materials and fuel materials, etc. (Okada, K.)

  7. Radiant business. Hazards of international, illicit trafficking with nuclear materials; Strahlende Geschaefte. Gefahren des internationalen Atomschmuggels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attali, J.

    1996-03-01

    Since the Cold War has been terminated, public media increasingly come out with reports about cases of illicit trafficking with nuclear technology and nuclear materials. So far, the potential hazard has not been exploding into the big disaster, but imagine what may happen if uranium or plutonium falls into the hands of terrorists, fanatics, or Mafia-type organisations ? The author has been investigating into this problem on behalf of the Secretary General of the UN. He has been travelling all around the world in pursuit of information and indications, and now presents us with the essential results of his mission, compiled in this explosive report. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges berichten die Medien immer haeufiger ueber Schmuggel von Atomtechnologie und spaltbarem Material. Bis heute ist uns eine Katastrophe erspart geblieben. Was geschieht aber, wenn Uran oder Plutonium in die Haende von Terroristen, Fanatikern oder mafiaaehnlichen Kartellen faellt? Der Autor ist im Auftrag des Generalsekretaers der Vereinten Nationen dieser Frage nachgegangen. Rund um die Welt fuehrten ihn seine Nachforschungen und Gespraeche. Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse aus seinem brisanten Bericht enthuellt er in diesem Buch. (orig./HP)

  8. Developing emergency exercises for hazardous material transportation: process, documents and templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Margaret; Kelly, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Multi-agency emergency exercises establish and reinforce relationships, and bring people from different areas together to work as a team, realise clear goals, understand roles and responsibilities, and get to know and respect each agency's strengths and weaknesses. However, despite the long-held belief in and respect for exercises in their provision of benefits to the individual and the organisation, there is little evidence of a consistent and clear process for exercise design, especially identifying the documents that may need to be completed to ensure efficient exercise preparation and performance. This paper reports the results of a project undertaken on behalf of the organisations that form the radioactive material transportation mutual-aid agreement, RADSAFE, to develop a standardised process to design emergency exercises. Three stages, from identifying the requirement for an exercise (Stage I), through to obtaining approval for operational orders (Stage II), then conducting a management review as part of the continuous improvement cycle (Stage III), were developed. Although designed for radioactive material transportation events, it is suggested that many of the factors within these three stages can be generalised for the design of exercises in other high-hazard industries.

  9. A hazardous waste from secondary aluminium metallurgy as a new raw material for calcium aluminate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Delgado, Aurora; Tayibi, Hanan; Pérez, Carlos; Alguacil, Francisco José; López, Félix Antonio

    2009-06-15

    A solid waste coming from the secondary aluminium industry was successfully vitrified in the ternary CaO-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2) system at 1500 degrees C. This waste is a complex material which is considered hazardous because of its behaviour in the presence of water or moisture. In these conditions, the dust can generate gases such as H(2), NH(3), CH(4), H(2)S, along with heat and potential aluminothermy. Only silica sand and calcium carbonate were added as external raw materials to complete the glasses formula. Different nominal compositions of glasses, with Al(2)O(3) ranging between 20% and 54%, were studied to determine the glass forming area. The glasses obtained allow the immobilisation of up to 75% of waste in a multicomponent oxide system in which all the components of the waste are incorporated. The microhardness Hv values varied between 6.05 and 6.62GPa and the linear thermal expansion coefficient, alpha, varied between (62 and 139)x10(-7)K(-1). Several glasses showed a high hydrolytic resistance in deionised water at 98 degrees C.

  10. Application of supercritical and subcritical fluids for the extraction of hazardous materials from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupan Dara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcritical and supercritical extractions are novel, non destructive techniques which can be applied for the removal of hazardous compounds from contaminated soil without any changes of the soil composition and structure. The aim of the presented review paper is to give information on up-to day results of this method commonly applied by several institutions worldwide. Interest in the application of SC CO2 has been more expressed in the last two decades, which may be related to its favorable characteristics (non-toxic, non-flammable, increase diffusion into small pores, low viscosity under SC conditions, low price and others. However, interest in wet oxidation (WO and especially in SCWO (the application of water under supercritical conditions with air has also increased in the last few years. Interest in H2O as a SC fluid, as well as in extraction with water under subcritical conditions may also be related to specific characteristics and the enhanced rate of extraction. Moreover, the solubility of some specific compounds present in soil can be easily changed by adjusting the pressure and temperature of extraction. The high price of the units designed to operate safely at a pressure and temperature much higher than the a critical one of the applied fluids is the main reason why, at present, there is no more broader application of such techniques for the removal hazardous materials from contaminated soil. In the present paper, among many literature citations and their overall review, some specific details related to the development of specific analytical methods under SC conditions are also considered.

  11. The IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material; new strategies for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.; Brittinger, M.T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a historic review of 30 years experience with the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material as the basis for regulatory control of those materials worldwide. It is demonstrated that the underlying principles and fundamental philosophy have proven their validity and have been the main reason for the excellent safety record of transport operations. The IAEA Regulations are currently halfway a comprehensive revision process aiming at the publication of a new edition by 1996. Although the main principles are likely to be maintained in the next edition of the Regulations, some developments in this area will undoubtedly have an effect on their structure. The main new developments are: the air transport of large quantities of radioactive material, requiring that a risk basis be established which is comparable with other modes of transport, transport of uranium hexafluoride requiring provisions which include the associated chemical hazards, the transport of large volumes of radioactive waste originating from decommissioning of nuclear power stations, and the influence of the new risk estimates for exposure to ionizing radiation and consequently the lower dose limits as recommended by ICRP. This paper will make an attempt to identify the problems associated with those developments, to outline its programme of activities intended to address the problems and to suggest possible solutions as recommended by the IAEA senior advisory group in this subject area. (J.P.N.)

  12. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  13. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are provided for under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning refining business in the enforcement order for the law. The basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose, accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. Refining facilities listed in the application for designation shall be classified into clushing and leaching, thickning, refining facilities, storage facilities of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, disposal facilities of contaminated substances and building for refining, etc. Business program attached to the application shall include expected time of beginning of refining, estimated production amount of nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel materials for the first three years and funds necessary for construction, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods on delivery and storage of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, control of radiation, maintenance and accidents of refining facilities. Safety securing, application of internationally regulated substances and measures in dangerous situations are stipulated respectively. Exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be reported by the refiner yearly to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  14. Dialectics of nature: Temporal and spatial regulation in material sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianlong Xia; Lei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The cooperative interaction distance measure has been proposed as a novel law pertaining to dialectics of nature,and has been extensively carried out in the design of functional nanomaterials.However,the temporal and spatial dimensions are akin to yin and yang,and thus temporal regulation needs to be accounted for when implementing the above-mentioned principle.Here,we summarize recent advances in temporally and spatially regulated materials and devices.We showcase the temporal regulation of organic semiconductors for organic photovoltaics (OPVs) using the example of exciton lifetime manipulation.As an example of spatial regulation,we consider the distribution of charge carriers in core-shell quantum dot (QD) nanocrystals for modulating their optical properties.Long exciton lifetime can in principle increase the exciton diffussion length,which is desiable for high-efficiency large-area OPV devices.Spatially regulated QDs are highly valuable emitters for light-emitting applications.We aim to show that cooperative spatio-temporal regulation of nanomaterils is of vital importance to the development of functional devices.

  15. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-09-15

    Copper-indium-gallium-selenium-sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS₂ p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis on tank truck accidents involved in road hazardous materials transportation in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ying; Li, Xiaonan; Xie, Chenjiang; Wang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Due to the sheer size and capacity of the tanker and the properties of cargo transported in the tank, hazmat tanker accidents are more disastrous than other types of vehicle accidents. The aim of this study was to provide a current survey on the situation of accidents involving tankers transporting hazardous materials in China. Detailed descriptions of 708 tanker accidents associated with hazmat transportation in China from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed to identify causes, location, types, time of occurrence, hazard class for materials involved, consequences, and the corresponding probability. Hazmat tanker accidents mainly occurred in eastern (38.1%) and southwest China (12.3%). The most frequent hazmat tanker accidents involved classes 2, 3, and 8. The predominant accident types were rollover (29.10%), run-off-the-road (16.67%), and rear-end collisions (13.28%), with a high likelihood of a large spill occurring. About 55.93% of the accidents occurred on freeways and class 1 roads, with the spill percentage reaching 75.00% and the proportion of spills that occurred in the total accidents amounting to 77.82%, of which 61.72% are considered large spills. The month with the highest accident probability was July (12.29%), and most crashes occurred during the early morning (4:00-6:00 a.m.) and midday (10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.) hours, 19.63% versus 16.10%. Human-related errors (73.8%) and vehicle-related defects (19.6%) were the primary reasons for hazmat tanker crashes. The most common outcomes of a hazmat tanker accident was a spill without further events (55.51%), followed by a release with fire (7.77%), and release with an explosion (2.54%). The safety situation of China's hazmat tanker transportation is grim. Such accidents not only have high spill percentages and consistently large spills but they can also cause serious consequences, such as fires and explosions. Improving the training of drivers and the quality of vehicles, deploying roll stability aids, enhancing

  17. Logistics of radioactive materials: optimization of laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akakiev, B.V.; Makarevich, I.M.; Nesterov, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    The article considers the problems of the Russian authorization system in the field of radioactive materials (RM) logistics which does not meet the needs of their application in medicine, science and industry. To correct the situation, first of all, it is necessary to revise the licensing system. For optimization of licensing in the field of RM transportation, a radical revision is needed for the Regulations of transportation of dangerous cargoes by automobiles, sanitary regulations, the GOST Dangerous Cargoes, numerous federal codes and norms issued by Rostekhnadzor in recent years. It is also necessary to review and coordinate various sanitary regulations for radiation safety, develop the Agreement on transit transportation of RM between the countries of the CIS [ru

  18. Regulations for the protection of ships-crew from ionizing radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of the ''Law on seamen''. The Regulation covers matters, such as general rule, control area, limit of exposure dose, measurement of exposure dose, prevention of exposure to external radiation, prevention of contamination due to radioactive materials, measures to accidents, health control and matters to be observed by seamen. Ionizing radiation includes particle beam or electromagnetic waves, such as alpharay, deuteron beam, proton beam, betaray, electron beam, neutron beam, gamma ray and X-ray. The owners of ships on which radiation works are carried out shall indicate with marks the areas where the dose due to external radiation or radioactive materials in the air may exceed 30 millirem a week. Such owners shall measure the dose rate of external radiation in the control areas and the concentration of radioactive materials in the air with measuring instruments once a month, and keep the records of such measurements for five years. The limit of exposure dose for the persons engaging in radiation works is a value calculated by the formula D = 5 (N-18), in which D means the limit of cumulative dose, and N the age of the seaman concerned. The exposure doses of the persons engaging in radiation works the persons having access to the control area at any time and the seamen engaging in the urgent works shall be limited to the specified values. Seamen shall take refuge immediately from the areas which may be subjected to remarkable radiation or contaminated by radioactive materials in case of the accidents specified. (Okada, K.)

  19. On-site transportation and handling of uranium-233 special nuclear material: Preliminary hazards and accident analysis. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solack, T.; West, D.; Ullman, D.; Coppock, G.; Cox, C.

    1995-01-01

    U-233 Special Nuclear Material (SNM) currently stored at the T-Building Storage Areas A and B must be transported to the SW/R Tritium Complex for repackaging. This SNM is in the form of oxide powder contained in glass jars which in turn are contained in heat sealed double polyethylene bags. These doubled-bagged glass jars have been primarily stored in structural steel casks and birdcages for approximately 20 years. The three casks, eight birdcages, and one pail/pressure vessel will be loaded onto a transport truck and moved over an eight day period. The Preliminary Hazards and Accident Analysis for the on-site transportation and handling of Uranium-233 Special Nuclear Material, documented herein, was performed in accordance with the format and content guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, dated July 1994, specifically Chapter Three, Hazard and Accident Analysis. The Preliminary Hazards Analysis involved detailed walkdowns of all areas of the U-233 SNM movement route, including the T-Building Storage Area A and B, T-Building truck tunnel, and the roadway route. Extensive discussions were held with operations personnel from the Nuclear Material Control Group, Nuclear Materials Accountability Group, EG and G Mound Security and the Material Handling Systems Transportation Group. Existing documentation related to the on-site transportation of hazardous materials, T-Building and SW/R Tritium Complex SARs, and emergency preparedness/response documentation were also reviewed and analyzed to identify and develop the complete spectrum of energy source hazards

  20. 78 FR 41853 - Safety Advisory Guidance: Heating Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... rail tank car due to chemical self-reaction and expansion of the toluene diisocyanate matter wastes. On...: Cheryl West Freeman, Division of Engineering and Research, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... catastrophically ruptured at a transfer station at the BASF Corporation chemical facility in Freeport, Texas. The...

  1. Robust routing for hazardous materials transportation with conditional value-at-risk on time-dependent networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    New methods are proposed for mitigating risk in hazardous materials (hazmat) transportation, based on Conditional : Value-at-Risk (CVaR) measure, on time-dependent vehicular networks. While the CVaR risk measure has been : popularly used in financial...

  2. A Decision Support Model Using Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis to Select Cost-Effective Alternatives for Hazardous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    AF89-071. Washington: GPO, 1989. 159 14. Diaz , SSgt Laura, 648 Med Sq/SGHL. Personal interview. Brooks AFB, San Antonio TX, 14 July 1993. 15. EA...Training Strateav of the Acauisition Management of Hazardous Materials Program. Draft Report. McLean VA, August 1991. 36. Moore, SSgt Alicia . AL/OEVP

  3. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Variable neighborhood search to solve the vehicle routing problem for hazardous materials transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula, Gustavo Alfredo; Prodhon, Caroline; Gonzalez, Fabio Augusto; Afsar, H Murat; Velasco, Nubia

    2017-02-15

    This work focuses on the Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing problem (HFVRP) in the context of hazardous materials (HazMat) transportation. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total expected routing risk. This is a nonlinear function, and it depends on the vehicle load and the population exposed when an incident occurs. Thus, a piecewise linear approximation is used to estimate it. For solving the problem, a variant of the Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) algorithm is employed. To improve its performance, a post-optimization procedure is implemented via a Set Partitioning (SP) problem. The SP is solved on a pool of routes obtained from executions of the local search procedure embedded on the VNS. The algorithm is tested on two sets of HFVRP instances based on literature with up to 100 nodes, these instances are modified to include vehicle and arc risk parameters. The results are competitive in terms of computational efficiency and quality attested by a comparison with Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) previously proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Brederode, Nelly E; Bos, Peter M J; Nijhuis, Nicole J; van de Weerdt, Rik H J; van der Woude, Irene; Eggens, Martin L

    2014-12-15

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency responders. Such exposure information may also be used to respond to individual concerns such as questions about a possible relationship between the chemicals released during the incident and health effects. In The Netherlands a guideline was prepared to support early decision-making about the possible use of HBM for exposure assessment during or as soon as possible following a chemical incident. The application of HBM in such an emergency setting is not much different from situations where HBM is normally used but there are some issues that need extra attention such as the choice of the biomarker, the biological media to be sampled, the time point at which biological samples should be collected, the ethics approval and technical implementation of the study protocol and the interpretation and communication of the study results. These issues addressed in the new guideline will support the use of HBM in the management of chemical disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The regulation concerning transportation of radioactive materials by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulation is established on the basis of The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Law for the prevention of radiation injuries due to radioisotopes.'' The prescriptions cover the transport of radioactive materials by railway, street rail way, ropeway, trolley buses, motorcars and light vehicles. Terms are explained, such as nuclear fuel materials, radioisotopes, radioactive substances, transported radioactive things, transported fissile things, vehicles, containers, exclusive loading, surrounding inspection area. Four types of transported radioactive things are specified, L and A types being less dangerous and BM and BU being more dangerous. Transported fissile things are classified to three kinds according to the safety to criticality of such things. Transported radioactive things except those of L type and containers with transported fissile things shall not be loaded or unloaded at the places where persons other than those concerned come in usually. Loading and unloading of such things shall be carried out so that the safety of such things is not injured. The maximum dose rate of radiation of the containers with transported radioactive things shall not be more than 200 millirem per hour on the surface and 10 millirem per hour at the distance of 1 meter. Specified transported radioactive things shall be particularly marked by the letter of ''radioactive'' or other signs indicating as such. (Okada, K.)

  7. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The law intends under the principles of the atomic energy act to regulate the refining, processing and reprocessing businesses of nuclear raw and fuel metarials and the installation and operation of reactors for the peaceful and systematic utilization of such materials and reactors and for securing public safety by preventing disasters, as well as to control internationally regulated things for effecting the international agreements on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; nuclear reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing; internationally regulated thing. Any person who is going to engage in refining businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade Industry. Any person who is going to engage in processing businesses shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister. Any person who is going to establish reactors shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister, The Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transportation according to the kinds of specified reactors, respectively. Any person who is going to engage in reprocessing businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister. The employment of nuclear fuel materials and internationally regulated things is defined in detail. (Okada, K.)

  8. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to perform regulations on enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing of nuclear source and fuel materials and on establishment and operation of reactors to realize the peaceful and deliberate utilization of atomic energy according to the principle of the atomic energy basic law. Regulations of use of internationally regulated substances are also envisaged to observe international agreements. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear source material; reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing and internationally regulated substance. Any person besides the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Material Developing Corporation who undertakes refining shall be designated by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. An application shall be filed to the ministers concerned, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the refining works, equipment and method of refining, etc. The permission of the Prime Minister is necessary for any person who engages in processing. An application shall be filed to the Prime Minister, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the processing works and equipment and method of processing, etc. Permission of the Prime Minister, the Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transport is necessary for any person who sets up reactors. An application shall be filed to the minister concerned, listing name and address of the person, purpose of operation, style, thermal output of reactor and number of units, etc. (Okada, K.)

  9. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are entirely revised under the law for the regulations of nuclear materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the fabricating business in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area; employee and radioactive waste. The application for permission of the fabricating business shall include: location of processing facilities; structure of building structure and equipment of chemical processing facilities; molding facilities; structure and equipment of covering and assembling facilities, storage facilities of nuclear fuel materials and disposal facilities of radioactive waste, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods in each works and place of enterprise on inspection of processing facilities, control of dose, operation, maintenance, accident of processing facilities and weather. Specified measures shall be taken in controlled area and inspected surrounding area to restrict entrance. Measures shall be made not to exceed permissible exposure dose for employees defined by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency. Inspection and check up of processing facilities shall be carried on by employees more than once a day. Operation of processing facilities, transportation in the works and enterprise, storage, disposal, safety securing, report and measures in dangerous situations, etc. are in detail prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  10. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  11. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (particles for comparative studies of their cytotoxic potential in macrophage (THP-1) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines. We found that nanosized III-V arsenides, including GaAs and InAs, could induce significantly more cytotoxicity over a 24-72 h observation period. In contrast, GaP and InP particulates of all sizes as well as ionic GaCl3 and InCl3 were substantially less hazardous. The principal mechanism of III-V arsenide nanoparticle toxicity is dissolution and shedding of toxic As(III) and, to a lesser extent, As(V) ions. GaAs dissolves in the cell culture medium as well as in acidifying intracellular compartments, while InAs dissolves (more slowly) inside cells. Chelation of released As by 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid interfered in GaAs toxicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that III-V arsenides, GaAs and InAs nanoparticles, contribute in a major way to the toxicity of III-V materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  12. Tension in the tie-down chains of a shipping container for hazardous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Chains are frequently used to tie the shipping containers of hazardous material to a truck bed. The tie-down system is nonlinear when the container is subjected to a triaxial force during transit. It is nonlinear because chains cannot carry compressive force, and the base of the container may partially lift off from the truck bed. A method was developed to calculate the amount of tension in the chains. This methodology includes three assumptions: (1) No friction exists between the container and the truck bed; (2) The container and the truck bed are rigid; and (3) All chains are properly tightened (i.e., no slacks) during preparation for shipment. The methodology employs an iterative process of a linear tie-down system. This linear system is derived from the nonlinear system with two additional assumptions: (a) All chains can carry compression as well as tension; and (b) There is a point contact between the container and the truck bed. This linear system has a closed-form solution. After the first solution of the linear system is obtained, the unreasonable, or physically impossible, rotational degree of freedom of the container and the chains with compressive force are eliminated in the follow-up iterative calculations using the same linear system. Unreasonable rotation is detected when the results indicate a rotation of the container into the truck bed. Zero rotational value is assigned to this degree of freedom in the follow-up iterations. For chains under compression, the chain length is replaced with a fictitiously large value because a long chain carries essentially no load. This process usually needs only two or three iterations and can easily be carried out in a spread sheet using such programs as Microsoft Excel or LOTUS 123

  13. Association between stricter alcohol advertising regulations and lower hazardous drinking across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Guitart, Anna M; Bartroli, Montserrat; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa

    2014-10-01

    To analyse the association between alcohol advertising restrictions and the prevalence of hazardous drinking among people aged 50-64 years in 16 European countries, taking into account both individual and contextual-level factors (alcohol taxation, availability, etc.). Cross-sectional study based on SHARE project surveys. A total of 27 773 subjects, aged 50-64 years, from 16 European countries who participated in wave 4 of the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) project. We estimated the prevalence of hazardous drinking (through adaptation of the SHARE questions to the scheme used by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C) for each country. To determine whether the degree of advertising restrictions was associated with prevalence of hazardous drinking, we fitted robust variance multi-level Poisson models, adjusting for various individual and contextual variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained. The observed prevalence of hazardous drinking was 24.1%, varying by sex and country. Countries with greater advertising restrictions had lower prevalence of hazardous drinking: 30.6% (95% CI = 29.3-31.8) in countries with no restrictions, 20.3% (95% CI = 19.3-21.2) in countries with some restrictions and 14.4% (95% CI = 11.9-16.8) in those with greatest restrictions. The PR found (with respect to countries with greatest restrictions) were 1.36 (95% CI = 0.90-2.06) for countries with some restrictions and 1.95 (95% CI = 1.31-2.91) for those with no advertising restrictions. The extent of advertising restrictions in European countries is associated inversely with prevalence of hazardous drinking in people aged 50-64 years. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. 77 FR 60334 - New Marking Standards for Parcels Containing Hazardous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... dimension of each side must be 100 mm (3.94 inches), unless the package size requires a reduced size marking...: * * * * * 10.12 Gases (Hazard Class 2) * * * * * 10.12.2 Mailability [Revise the third and fourth sentences of...

  15. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, 1990 Ship Production Symposium, Paper No. 4B-1: Solving SARA Compliance with Computerized Hazardous Materials Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Don; Schoenleber, Dave

    1990-01-01

    ...) has forced facilities to keep track of hazardous materials as never before. EPCRA contains five major reporting requirements including planning notification, emergency release notification, Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS...

  16. Management system for regulating transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics and fundamentals of the Nuclear regulatory Authority's (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN) management system applied to the regulation of transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TRM process from now on. ARN's quality management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TRM process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of quality system. Such sub processes were defined taking account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials and are listed below: 1) Development and updating of standards and regulatory guides; 2) Licensing of packages, special radioactive materials and consignments of radioactive materials; 3) Compliance assurance during the transport of radioactive materials, and 4) Training, advising and communications. For each of these sub processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, the clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. It was decided to develop a quality plan to organize and manage activities to meet quality requirements, to optimize the use of limited resources of the organization and to be used as a basis for monitoring and assessing compliance with the requirements, both internal and external. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to implement continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measure the sub processes as a way to show

  17. Federal regulation on the handling of substances constituting a hazard to water; Bundeseinheitliche Regelung des Umgangs mit wassergefaehrdenden Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaender, Robert; Unnerstall, Herwig; Skiba, Katja; Katscher, Henriette; Kochmann, Linda; Enderlein, Frank [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Umwelttechnik und -management; Helmholtzzentrum fuer Umweltforschung - ufz, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Umwelt- und Planungsrecht; Sachverstaendigenorganisation AGU-TSO e.V., Bergen b. Auerbach (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Subject of the research project was preliminary work for a draft of the federal ordinance on the handling of substances constituting a hazard to water. Basis was the draft for an Environmental Code by the Federal Ministry for the Environment from 25. June 2007 and 03. July 2008, Part II on water management. This report includes an analysis of the existing ordinances of the Laender (to be replaced by the new federal ordinance), a survey on problems with their enforcement, an analysis of European Directives on relevant implementation requirements, an analysis of the relation to the legislation on construction products, a comparison to regulations of other European Countries for the protection of water against hazardous substances, an approach for obligations of an ordinance, a preliminary draft of an ordinance, a concept for a system of related Technical Rules and finally an evaluation of possible costs of operators and of additional tasks of authorities due to obligations in the preliminary draft. (orig.)

  18. Flow evaluation of the leaching hazardous materials from spent nickel-cadmium batteries discarded in different water surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingmei; Song, Yan; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    The leaching characteristics of hazardous materials from Ni-Cd batteries immersed in four typical water samples, i.e., water with NaCl, river water, tap water, and deionized water, were investigated to evaluate the potential environmental harm of spent Ni-Cd batteries in the water surroundings. It is shown that four water surroundings all could leach hazardous materials from the Ni-Cd batteries. The water with NaCl concentration of 66.7 mg L -1 had the highest leaching ability, the hazardous materials were leached after only approximately 50 days (average time, with a standard deviation of 4.1), while less than 100 days were needed in the others. An electrochemical corrosion is considered to be the main leaching mechanism leading to battery breakage, while the dissolution-deposition process and the powder route result in the leakage and transference of nickel and cadmium materials from the electrodes. The anions, i.e., SO 4 2- and Cl - , and dissolved oxygen in water were demonstrated to be the vital factors that influence the leaching processes. Thus, it is proposed that spent Ni-Cd batteries must be treated properly to avoid potential danger to the environment.

  19. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) -- an international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) was first recognized as a potential problem as long ago as 1904 in the oil fields of Canada. NORM later became an issue in the North Sea oil and gas production facilities in the early 1980's and became more widely recognized in the United States in 1986 during a routine well workover in the state of Mississippi. NORM contamination of oil and gas industry production equipment has since been identified world wide. The United States, including Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico region, the North Sea region, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and several Middle Eastern countries have all reported NORM contamination. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the international regulations or guidelines that have been promulgated concerning NORM in the oil and gas industry. Additionally, the impact of these regulations or guidelines on non-oil and gas industries will also be discussed. A comparison of these regulations or guidelines to those generally found in the United States shall be drawn

  20. Report of consultants to the IAEA on requirements for the safe transport of low hazard radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, W.; Grenier, M.; Hopkins, D.

    1982-01-01

    In the present paper changes are recommmended to certain definitions given in the 2nd draft revision of the IAEA 'regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials (safety series no. 6)'. (orig./RW)

  1. Review of the bases for regulations governing the transport of fissile and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Thomas, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    The outstanding record of transport of radioactive materials prompted this brief review of the history of the regulations. IAEA as well as DOT regulations are discussed, as are all classes of shipments and materials (Class I, II, III)

  2. Developing strategies to reduce the risk of hazardous materials transportation in iran using the method of fuzzy SWOT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kheirkhah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in hazardous materials transportation in Iran along with the industrial development and increase of resulted deadly accidents necessitate the development and implementation of some strategies to reduce these incidents. SWOT analysis is an efficient method for developing strategies, however, its structural problems, including a lack of prioritizing internal and external factors and inability to consider two sided factors reducing its performance in the situations where the number of internal and external factors affecting the risk of hazardous materials is relatively high and some factors are two sided in nature are presented in the article. Fuzzy SWOT analysis is a method the use of which helps with solving these problems and is the issue of employing an effective methodology. Also, the article compares the resulted strategies of the fuzzy method with the strategies developed following SWOT in order to show the relative supremacy of the new method.

  3. Radiation regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, J.; Grabosky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  4. Radioactive materials and nuclear fuel transport requirements in Poland in the light of international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musialowicz, T.

    1977-01-01

    National regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and nuclear fuel in Poland are discussed. Basic transport requirements and regulations, transport experience including transport accidents and emergency service are described. The comparison with international regulations is given

  5. Protective Behaviour of Citizens to Transport Accidents Involving Hazardous Materials: A Discrete Choice Experiment Applied to Populated Areas nearby Waterways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther W de Bekker-Grob

    Full Text Available To improve the information for and preparation of citizens at risk to hazardous material transport accidents, a first important step is to determine how different characteristics of hazardous material transport accidents will influence citizens' protective behaviour. However, quantitative studies investigating citizens' protective behaviour in case of hazardous material transport accidents are scarce.A discrete choice experiment was conducted among subjects (19-64 years living in the direct vicinity of a large waterway. Scenarios were described by three transport accident characteristics: odour perception, smoke/vapour perception, and the proportion of people in the environment that were leaving at their own discretion. Subjects were asked to consider each scenario as realistic and to choose the alternative that was most appealing to them: staying, seeking shelter, or escaping. A panel error component model was used to quantify how different transport accident characteristics influenced subjects' protective behaviour.The response was 44% (881/1,994. The predicted probability that a subject would stay ranged from 1% in case of a severe looking accident till 62% in case of a mild looking accident. All three transport accident characteristics proved to influence protective behaviour. Particularly a perception of strong ammonia or mercaptan odours and visible smoke/vapour close to citizens had the strongest positive influence on escaping. In general, 'escaping' was more preferred than 'seeking shelter', although stated preference heterogeneity among subjects for these protective behaviour options was substantial. Males were less willing to seek shelter than females, whereas elderly people were more willing to escape than younger people.Various characteristics of transport accident involving hazardous materials influence subjects' protective behaviour. The preference heterogeneity shows that information needs to be targeted differently depending on

  6. SOR/89-426, Transport Packaging of Radioactive Materials Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These Regulations of 24 August 1989 amend the Transport Packaging of Radioactive Materials Regulations by clarifying the text and specifying certain requirements. In particular certain definitions have been replaced, namely those of ''Fissile Class III package'' and ''Special form radioactive material''. Also, this latter material may not be carried without a certificate attesting that it meets the requirements of the Regulations. (NEA)

  7. 76 FR 454 - Hazardous Materials Transportation: Revisions of Special Permits Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... special permits. The HMR generally are performance-oriented regulations that provide the regulated... forbidden for transportation by aircraft except under a special permit (see Columns 9A and 9B in the table...

  8. Application of pristine and doped SnO2 nanoparticles as a matrix for agro-hazardous material (organophosphate) detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naushad; Athar, Taimur; Fouad, H.; Umar, Ahmad; Ansari, Z. A.; Ansari, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    With an increasing focus on applied research, series of single/composite materials are being investigated for device development to detect several hazardous, dangerous, and toxic molecules. Here, we report a preliminary attempt of an electrochemical sensor fabricated using pristine Ni and Cr-doped nano tin oxide material (SnO2) as a tool to detect agro-hazardous material, i.e. Organophosphate (OP, chlorpyrifos). The nanomaterial was synthesized using the solution method. Nickel and chromium were used as dopant during synthesis. The synthesized material was calcined at 1000 °C and characterized for morphological, structural, and elemental analysis that showed the formation of agglomerated nanosized particles of crystalline nature. Screen-printed films of powder obtained were used as a matrix for working electrodes in a cyclic voltammogram (CV) at various concentrations of organophosphates (0.01 to 100 ppm). The CV curves were obtained before and after the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on the nanomaterial matrix. An interference study was also conducted with hydroquinone to ascertain the selectivity. The preliminary study indicated that such material can be used as suitable matrix for a device that can easily detect OP to a level of 10 ppb and thus contributes to progress in terms of desired device technology for the food and agricultural-industries.

  9. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  10. 46 CFR 153.900 - Certificates and authorization to carry a bulk liquid hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ship must have a Subchapter D or I Certificate of Inspection that is endorsed to allow the cargo tank... requirements for the bulk liquid cargo; and (2) The ship— (i) Has a Certificate of Inspection, Certificate of...) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS...

  11. 75 FR 52069 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...) Association of Hazmat Shippers, Inc. (AHS; PHMSA-2009-0126- 0009); (7) U.S. Fuel Cell Council (USFCC; PHMSA... flammability criteria for Class 3, PG II, and toxicity criteria for Division 6.1, PG I, poisonous-by-inhalation... inhalation hazard of each crude oil batch they transport and switch to other placards and shipping papers...

  12. 78 FR 1101 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ..., S.A. (Amadeus). Air Line Pilots Association International (ALPA). Airlines for America (A4A). Alaska Airlines (Alaska). American Coatings Association (ACA). American Veterinary Distributors Association (AVDA... Transportation of Hazardous Articles, Inc. (COSTHA). Dangerous Goods Advisory Council, Inc. (DGAC). Food...

  13. 75 FR 52385 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Actions on Special Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... communication requirements, quantity limitations and certain loading and stowage requirements (mode 4). Nature... Dog 172.101 Column transportation in Operations, 9(B). commerce of Anchorage, AK. Xanthates, which... subject to hazard communication requirements, quantity limitations and certain loading and stowage...

  14. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ''major'' sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ''an ample margin of safety,'' the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country's economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern

  15. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, C.; Akber, R.; Johnston, A.; Cassels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia. (authors)

  16. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  17. Radiation sources safety and radioactive materials security regulation in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyshliaiev, A.; Holubiev, V.; Makarovska, O.

    2001-01-01

    packages for shipment of radiation sources; State registration of radiation sources; licensing of radiation material transportation. In 1997, the Government of Ukraine decided to establish a unified computerized system of accountancy, control and registration of radiation sources - the State Register of Radiation Sources (Register). In 1998, under the Ukrainian State Production Enterprise 'Isotope' a separate subdivision 'State Register of Radiation Sources' was established. This subdivision functions as the main registration centre, and has been supplied with computer equipment with the assistance of the IAEA. During 1999-2000, the basic documents that regulate the legal status of the Register, the radiation source registration procedure and the State inventory of radiation source procedure were developed and approved by the relevant ministries. Urgent commissioning of the Register and starting the State registration of radiation sources will form a good basis for considerable upgrading of the level of safety and security of radiation sources, reduction of illicit trafficking in radiation sources, and investigation of illicit trafficking cases. Lack of funds is the main problem impeding the commissioning of the Register. On the basis of analysis of safety regulation system for activities dealing with radiation sources in Ukraine, we can draw a conclusion about its sufficiency for effective safety regulation of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials. (author)

  18. Measurement of natural radioactivity and radiation hazards for some natural and artificial building materials available in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntean, L.E.; Moldovan, D.V.

    2014-01-01

    As building materials are known to be the second source regarding high radon concentrations, it is very important to determine the amounts of natural radionuclides from every building material in use. In the present study the most frequently used Romanian natural (sand, gypsum, limestone) and artificial (portland cement, lime, clinker, electrofilter powder, fly ash, cement-lime plaster mortar, cement plaster mortar) building materials were analyzed. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent rate for people living in dwelling buildings made of these building materials under investigation were also calculated. The analysis was performed with gamma-ray spectrometry, with two hyper-pure germanium detectors. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were in the ranges: 5.2-511.8 Bq kg - 21 for 226 Ra; 0.6-92.6 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and -1 for 40 K, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in the fifty-one (51) samples varied from 9 to 603 Bq kg -1 . By calculating all the radioactivity indices (R aeq , H ext , I α , I yr ) it was found that all the building materials under investigation can be used to erect dwelling buildings. Except for sample SA6, SA7 and SA11 among the natural building materials and sample SG1, SG2, FAH1, CLM1, CM1 among the artificial building materials that are considered hazardous materials when are used in large quantities. (author)

  19. 75 FR 43898 - Hazardous Materials Transportation: Revisions of Special Permits Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    .... The HMR generally are performance-oriented regulations that provide the regulated community with a... aircraft except under a special permit (see Columns 9A and 9B in the table in 49 CFR 172.101), an applicant... forbidden for transportation by aircraft except under a special permit (see Columns 9A and 9B in the table...

  20. 75 FR 10973 - Hazardous Materials: Risk-Based Adjustment of Transportation Security Plan Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... (explosive) material; (3) More than 1 L (1.06 qt.) per package of a material poisonous by inhalation in... controlled; and 6.1 materials poisonous by inhalation. We also proposed to require security plans for any... happens very rapidly, and in the process, the propane combines readily with air to form fuel air mixtures...

  1. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Concerning refining, fabrication and reprocessing operations of such materials as well as the installation and operation of reactors, necessary regulations are carried out. Namely, in case of establishing the business of refining, fabricating and reprocessing nuclear materials as well as installing nuclear reactors, applications for the permission of the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry should be filed. Change of such operations should be permitted after filing applications. These permissions are retractable. As regards the reactors installed aboard foreign ships, it must be reported to enter Japanese waters and the permission by the Prime Minister must be obtained. In case of nuclear fuel fabricators, a chief technician of nuclear fuel materials (qualified) must be appointed per each fabricator. In case of installing nuclear reactors, the design and methods of construction should be permitted by the Prime Minister. The standard for such permission is specified, and a chief engineer for operating reactors (qualified) must be appointed. Successors inherit the positions of ones who have operated nuclear material refining, fabrication and reprocessing businesses or operated nuclear reactors. (Rikitake, Y.)

  2. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for designation of undertakings of refining (spallation and eaching filtration facilities, thickening facilities, refining facilities, nuclear material substances or nuclear fuel substances storage facilities, waste disposal facilities, etc.), application for permission for alteration (business management plan, procurement plan, fund raising plan, etc.), application for approval of merger (procedure, conditions, reason and date of merger, etc.), submission of report on alteration (location, structure, arrangements processes and construction plan for refining facilities, etc.), revocation of designation, rules for records, rules for safety (personnel, organization, safety training for employees, handling of important apparatus and tools, monitoring and removal of comtaminants, management of radioactivity measuring devices, inspection and testing, acceptance, transport and storage of nuclear material and fuel, etc.), measures for emergency, submission of report on abolition of an undertaking, submission of report on disorganization, measures required in the wake of revocation of designation, submission of information report (exposure to radioactive rays, stolen or missing nuclear material or nuclear fuel, unusual leak of nuclear fuel or material contaminated with nuclear fuel), etc. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Radionuclide content and associated radiation hazards of building materials and by-products in Baoji, West China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Zhang, X.

    2008-01-01

    Seven types of common building materials and by-products of coal-fired power plants collected from Baoji, West China, were analysed for the natural radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using gamma ray spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average activity concentrations vary from 23.0 to 112.2, 20.2 to 147.5 and 113.2 to 890.8 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the data reported from other countries and with the worldwide average activity of soil. As a measure of radiation hazard to the people, the radium equivalent activities, total annual effective dose and activity concentration index were estimated. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The calculated total annual effective dose and the activity concentration index of seven types of common building materials are -1 and 1, respectively. But fly ash and bottom ash exhibit the higher values that exceed and be close to the acceptable values, respectively. This study shows that the measured building materials do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard and are safe for use in the construction of dwellings. Nevertheless, when fly ash and bottom ash are used in dwelling construction, it is important to assess their radiation potential. (authors)

  4. Means of regulating combustible materials and products in external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkola Esko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents proposals for defining means of regulating the use of combustible materials and products in external walls. Required protections are based on the quantities of fire loads and their contribution to fire development. The study is based on life safety and protection of property priorities taking into account reaction to fire classes related to different types of fire loads and fire compartmentation requirements of the adjacent spaces of concern. The proposals include the following main principles in relation to fire-separation requirements: In case of internal fire exposure the protective structure for combustible building parts needs to meet at least half of the fire-separating requirement for the compartment of concern. In case of external fire exposure the protection time requirement can be 15 minutes less than for the internal protection. The proposals are applicable for residential buildings and offices. In case of buildings with longer evacuation times more stringent requirement levels may be considered. For verification of protection performance of fire loads it is proposed to use existing standardized test methods (fire protection ability (K classes and fire-separating function (EI classes validated methods of calculation and/or large scale fire testing.

  5. Developing a highway emergency response plan for incidents involving hazardous materials, second edition, March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This provides minimum guidelines for developing an emergency response plan for incidents involving hazardous liquid hydrocarbons, such as gasoline and crude oil, transported in MC 306/DOT 406 and MC 307/DOT 407 aluminum cargo tanks and for coordinating and cooperating with local, state, and federal officials. This publication covers response plan priorities, personnel training, special equipment, media relations, environmental relations, and post-response activities. The apprendixes to this recommended practice outline a highway emergency response plan and suggest a procedure for removing liquid hydrocarbons from overturned cargo tanks and righting the tank vehicles

  6. Hazardous materials in Aquatic environments of the Mississippi River basin. Quarterly project status report, 1 January 1994--30 March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelghani, A.

    1994-06-01

    Projects associated with this grant for studying hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin are reviewed and goals, progress and research results are discussed. New, one-year initiation projects are described briefly.

  7. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Quarterly project status report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly project status report discusses research projects being conducted on hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River basin. We continued to seek improvement in our methods of communication and interactions to support the inter-disciplinary, inter-university collaborators within this program. In addition to the defined collaborative research teams, there is increasing interaction among investigators across projects. Planning for the second year of the project has included the development of our internal request for proposals, and refining the review process for selection of proposals for funding.

  8. Assessment of state and local notification requirements for transportation of radioactive and other hazardous materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dively, D.; Morris, F.; Schilling, A.H.; Shen, E.; Allen, J.

    1985-01-01

    State and local laws requiring notification for shipments of radioactive and other hazardous materials have become increasingly common and controversial during the last decade. Such laws are seen by their proponents as essential for planning and emergency response, while their opponents view them as unnecessary and intrusive. The debate over the value of notification requirements has often been hampered by the lack of information about the extent and nature of these laws. The report is intended to present factual information about notification laws in order to facilitate more informed discussion

  9. Conditions for a partial summation of SO2 and NO2 hazardous effect in gas emission regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    In order to provide environmental safety, the concentrations of SO2 and SO2 in the surface layer of atmospheric air should not exceed corresponding one-time values accepted for maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). The only document that provides a normative calculation of hazardous substance dispersion in the atmospheric air up to the present time is presented by regulations OND-86. It has established that, in taking into account the summation (unidirectionality) of hazardous action of substances (including SO2 and NO2 gases), the sum of their relative concentrations should not exceed unity. A novel standard GN 2.1.6.2326-08 stipulates that "nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide have a partial summation of action; therefore the sum of their relative concentrations should not exceed 1.6." This paper is devoted to analyzing the calculation of the summation of action for SO2 and NO2 gases and proving that the condition established in GN 2.1.6.2326-08 is not quite correct. According to the condition required by standard GN 2.1.6.2326-08, it turns out that, for some combinations of concentrations, the hazardous effect of gases is not added together, but one gas compensates an effect of the other, which contradicts the points of OND-86. For example, at SO2 and NO2 concentrations amounting to 0.6 and 0.04, respectively, the condition required by standard GN 2.1.6.2326-08 is satisfied, although the concentration of SO2 exceeds a normatively fixed value of MPC = 0.5. The graphical analysis of a concentration region for SO2 and NO2 gases clearly shows the areas where the condition required by standard GN 2.1.6.2326-08 is satisfied, but the environmental safety according to OND-86 is not provided. Recommendations are proposed for the correction of requirements established by standard GN 2.1.6.2326-08.

  10. 78 FR 24353 - Provisions for Fees Related to Hazardous Materials Endorsements and Transportation Worker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Mitchell, Office of Intelligence and Analysis (OIA), TSA-10, Transportation Security Administration, 601... Management System (FDMS) Web page at http://www.regulations.gov ; (2) Accessing the Government Printing...

  11. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  12. Light-Regulated Electrochemical Sensor Array for Efficiently Discriminating Hazardous Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongqiu; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Huihui; Jin, Han; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jin, Qinghui; Zou, Jie; Haick, Hossam; Jian, Jiawen

    2017-10-27

    Inadequate detection limit and unsatisfactory discrimination features remain the challenging issues for the widely applied electrochemical gas sensors. Quite recently, we confirmed that light-regulated electrochemical reaction significantly enhanced the electrocatalytic activity, and thereby can potentially extend the detection limit to the parts per billion (ppb) level. Nevertheless, impact of the light-regulated electrochemical reaction on response selectivity has been discussed less. Herein, we systematically report on the effect of illumination on discrimination features via design and fabrication of a light-regulated electrochemical sensor array. Upon illumination (light on), response signal to the examined gases (C 3 H 6 , NO, and CO) is selectively enhanced, resulting in the sensor array demonstrating disparate response patterns when compared with that of the sensor array operated at light off. Through processing all the response patterns derived from both light on and light off with a pattern recognition algorithm, a satisfactory discrimination feature is observed. In contrast, apparent mutual interference between NO and CO is found when the sensor array is solely operated without illumination. The impact mechanism of the illumination is studied and it is deduced that the effect of the illumination on the discriminating features can be mainly attributed to the competition of electrocatalytic activity and gas-phase reactivity. If the enhanced electrocatalytic activity (to specific gas) dominates the whole sensing progress, enhancements in the corresponding response signal would be observed upon illumination. Otherwise, illumination gives a negligible impact. Hence, the response signal to part of the examined gases is selectively enhanced by illumination. Conclusively, light-regulated electrochemical reaction would provide an efficient approach to designing future smart sensing devices.

  13. Assessment of Heat Hazard during the Polymerization of Selected Light-Sensitive Dental Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Janeczek, Maciej; Herman, Katarzyna; Fita, Katarzyna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk-Zaj?c, Ma?gorzata; Czajczy?ska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piesiak-Pa?czyszyn, Dagmara; Kosior, Piotr; Dobrzy?ski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Polymerization of light-cured dental materials used for restoration of hard tooth tissue may lead to an increase in temperature that may have negative consequence for pulp vitality. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine maximum temperatures reached during the polymerization of selected dental materials, as well as the time that is needed for samples of sizes similar to those used in clinical practice to reach these temperatures. Materials and Methods. The study involved fo...

  14. Analysis of low-level wastes. Review of hazardous waste regulations and identification of radioactive mixed wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1985-12-01

    Regulations governing the management and disposal of hazardous wastes have been promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These were reviewed and compared with the available information on the properties and characteristics of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). In addition, a survey was carried out to establish a data base on the nature and composition of LLW in order to determine whether some LLW streams could also be considered hazardous as defined in 40 CFR Part 261. For the survey, an attempt was made to obtain data on the greatest volume of LLW; hence, as many large LLW generators as possible were contacted. The list of 238 generators contacted was based on information obtained from NRC and other sources. The data base was compiled from completed questionnaires which were returned by 97 reactor and non-reactor facilities. The waste volumes reported by these respondents corresponded to approximately 29% of all LLW disposed of in 1984. The analysis of the survey results indicated that three broad categories of LLW may be radioactive mixed wastes. They include: waste containing organic liquids, disposed of by all types of generators; wastes containing lead metal, i.e., discarded shielding or lead containers; wastes containing chromates, i.e., nuclear power plant process wastes where chromates are used as corrosion inhibitors. Certain wastes, specific to particular generators, were identified as potential mixed wastes as well. 8 figs., 48 tabs

  15. Support for the Delisting of Decontaminated Liquid Chemical Surety Materials as Listed Hazardous Waste from Specific Sources (STATE) MD02 in COMAR 10.51.02.16-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    radiography , and clear’y stated in I 160.81(c), EPA test systems without also bearing the handling of biohazardous materials." considers the inclusion of this...treatment, and necropsy, histology, radiography , and proper conduct of the study. control of disease. Additionally, EPA handling of bimazardous materials...inhalation Pa1 Page 8-77 hazard test reccgnizes that both volatility and toxicity affect the hazard potential in the workplace . To address these two

  16. Temporary shelter-in-place as protection against a release of airborne hazardous material : report of a literature search.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yantosik, G. D.; Lerner, K.; Maloney, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    ''Temporary shelter-in place'' is the combination of prompt shelter-in-place (SIP) to minimize initial exposure to airborne hazardous material, followed by timely action to terminate this protection to minimize exposure to hazardous vapor accumulations in the shelter once the air outside becomes less hazardous than the air inside the shelter. Temporary SIP, if properly executed, is considered to be an effective way to protect populations from hazardous chemical vapors, especially from high concentrations for short periods. This is supported by laboratory and field experiments. The need for timely termination of temporary SIP as protection from infiltrated vapors is an integral component of a temporary SIP strategy. It was from this premise that Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) was asked to develop methodologies for deciding when and how to terminate SIP. These methodologies, in turn, could be the basis for site-specific operational guidelines (e.g., decision matrix, decision-tree, or algorithm) for terminating SIP on each of the eight Army chemical stockpile storage sites, and in the off-post communities surrounding them. This project consists of two tasks. Task 1 was to collect and analyze existing literature that might be relevant to the termination of temporary SIP. This report is the product of Task 1. Task 2, which will begin on 2 February 2001, will use the results of the literature search as the baseline to investigate the concepts associated with temporary SIP, and to develop methodologies for termination of temporary SIP that can be incorporated in site-specific operational guidelines. It is understood that these methods will be consistent with Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) policy that ''the most important objective of the emergency preparedness and implementation process is the avoidance of fatalities to the maximum extent practicable, should an accidental release of chemical agent occur.'' It is also anticipated that these

  17. Assessment of Heat Hazard during the Polymerization of Selected Light-Sensitive Dental Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczek, Maciej; Herman, Katarzyna; Fita, Katarzyna; Dudek, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk-Zając, Małgorzata; Czajczyńska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piesiak-Pańczyszyn, Dagmara; Kosior, Piotr; Dobrzyński, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Polymerization of light-cured dental materials used for restoration of hard tooth tissue may lead to an increase in temperature that may have negative consequence for pulp vitality. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine maximum temperatures reached during the polymerization of selected dental materials, as well as the time that is needed for samples of sizes similar to those used in clinical practice to reach these temperatures. Materials and Methods. The study involved four composite restorative materials, one lining material and a dentine bonding agent. The polymerization was conducted with the use of a diode light-curing unit. The measurements of the external surface temperature of the samples were carried out using the Thermovision®550 thermal camera. Results. The examined materials significantly differed in terms of the maximum temperatures values they reached, as well as the time required for reaching the temperatures. A statistically significant positive correlation of the maximum temperature and the sample weight was observed. Conclusions. In clinical practice, it is crucial to bear in mind the risk of thermal damage involved in the application of light-cured materials. It can be reduced by using thin increments of composite materials.

  18. Assessment of Heat Hazard during the Polymerization of Selected Light-Sensitive Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Janeczek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polymerization of light-cured dental materials used for restoration of hard tooth tissue may lead to an increase in temperature that may have negative consequence for pulp vitality. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine maximum temperatures reached during the polymerization of selected dental materials, as well as the time that is needed for samples of sizes similar to those used in clinical practice to reach these temperatures. Materials and Methods. The study involved four composite restorative materials, one lining material and a dentine bonding agent. The polymerization was conducted with the use of a diode light-curing unit. The measurements of the external surface temperature of the samples were carried out using the Thermovision®550 thermal camera. Results. The examined materials significantly differed in terms of the maximum temperatures values they reached, as well as the time required for reaching the temperatures. A statistically significant positive correlation of the maximum temperature and the sample weight was observed. Conclusions. In clinical practice, it is crucial to bear in mind the risk of thermal damage involved in the application of light-cured materials. It can be reduced by using thin increments of composite materials.

  19. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in building materials used in Peloponnese, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaefthymiou, H.; Gouseti, O.

    2008-01-01

    Five different kinds of building materials (Pozzolanic and Portland cements, limestone, white cement, marble powder and sand) commonly used in building construction in Peloponnese, Greece, and Portland cement's raw materials were analyzed for their natural radioactivity content, using γ-ray spectrometry. Pozzolanic and Portland cement (Cem II) samples were found to contain the highest average 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentrations compared with the other examined building material samples. This could be attributed to their containing fly ash, which was found to contain high natural radionuclide concentrations, especially that of 226 Ra (1041Bqkg -1 ). Results obtained were compared with the results reported by other Greek researchers and the worldwide values for building materials and soil. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all the examined building material samples were lower than the recommended exception limits for exposure to external γ-radiation

  20. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in building materials used in Peloponnese, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, H. [Division of Physics, Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)], E-mail: epap@chemistry.upatras.gr; Gouseti, O. [Division of Physics, Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    Five different kinds of building materials (Pozzolanic and Portland cements, limestone, white cement, marble powder and sand) commonly used in building construction in Peloponnese, Greece, and Portland cement's raw materials were analyzed for their natural radioactivity content, using {gamma}-ray spectrometry. Pozzolanic and Portland cement (Cem II) samples were found to contain the highest average {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activity concentrations compared with the other examined building material samples. This could be attributed to their containing fly ash, which was found to contain high natural radionuclide concentrations, especially that of {sup 226}Ra (1041Bqkg{sup -1}). Results obtained were compared with the results reported by other Greek researchers and the worldwide values for building materials and soil. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all the examined building material samples were lower than the recommended exception limits for exposure to external {gamma}-radiation.

  1. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lab-wide training. This course addresses the requirements of the DOT that are unique to hazardous waste shipments. Appendix B provides the Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reference material needed for this course.

  2. Physicochemically modified peat by thermal and oxidation processes as an active material for purification of wastewaters from certain hazardous pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Jelena M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical modification of peat through thermal and oxidation processes was carried out, in order to obtain new, inexpensive and active material for purification of different types of waters. During the modification, surface chemical compounds of Shilov type were formed. Batch adsorption properties and suitability of physicochemically modified peat (PCMP for odor removal were tested in aqueous solutions of H2S and colloidal sulphur. Additionally, PCMP was tested in the removal of As(V which is hazardous ingredient in contaminated waters. Possible mechanisms of pollutants binding include interactions, which lead to formation of adducts and clathrates. All these processes are elucidated in detail. The results showed that the obtained material can be used for the removal of sulphide, colloidal sulphur and As(V from different types of waters. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 45012

  3. Present situation and influence of new ICRP recommendations on radioactive material transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamard, J.; Ringot, C.

    1991-01-01

    The publication of new ICRP recommendations will involve the revision of IAEA standards and consequently the revision of transport regulations for radioactive materials. Transport regulations are briefly reviewed and application for radiation protection of workers and public is examined. Influence of new recommendations on transport regulations and eventual modifications on classification and transport of materials, packaging design and permissible exposure for workers and public in the prospect of regulation revision forecasted for 1995

  4. Characterization of post-disaster environmental management for Hazardous Materials Incidents: Lessons learnt from the Tianjin warehouse explosion, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Duan, Huabo; Zuo, Jian; Song, MingWei; Zhang, Yukui; Yang, Bo; Niu, Yongning

    2017-09-01

    Hazardous Materials Incidents (HMIs) have attracted a growing public concern worldwide. The health risks and environmental implications associated with HMIs are almost invariably severe, and underscore the urgency for sound management. Hazardous Materials Explosion incidents (HMEIs) belong to a category of extremely serious HMIs. Existing studies placed focuses predominately on the promptness and efficiency of emergency responses to HMIs and HMEIs. By contrast, post-disaster environmental management has been largely overlooked. Very few studies attempted to examine the post-disaster environmental management plan particularly its effectiveness and sufficiency. In the event of the Tianjin warehouse explosion (TWE), apart from the immediate emergency response, the post-disaster environmental management systems (P-EMSs) have been reported to be effective and sufficient in dealing with the environmental concerns. Therefore, this study aims to critically investigate the P-EMSs for the TWE, and consequently to propose a framework and procedures for P-EMSs in general for HMIs, particularly for HMEIs. These findings provide a useful reference to develop P-EMSs for HMIs in the future, not only in China but also other countries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 209 - Federal Railroad Administration Guidelines for Initial Hazardous Materials Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of violation—this is generally going to be the consist list for a train.) 6,000. Train crew has... secure, pieces of lumber or other material may not be necessary to achieve the “tight load” requirement...

  8. 75 FR 43906 - Hazardous Materials: Requirements for the Storage of Explosives During Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... program in emergency response procedures for all employees working at the safe haven. NFPA 498 section 4.5... safe havens used for unattended storage of Division 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 explosives. DATES: Comments must... circumstances and operational environment. B. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs), 49 CFR Parts...

  9. 76 FR 5483 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Certain Cargo Tank Special Permits Into Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... are used to supply LPG fuel to farmers for crop drying, crop irrigation, flame weeding, plant..., applicators use soil fumigants primarily on high value crops, such as vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals...

  10. 77 FR 22226 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    .... Electronic Access. You may access this Federal Register document electronically through the EPA Internet... Smoke. 10 Reasons Why Gasification, Pyrolysis and Plasma Incineration are Not Green Solutions. Global...

  11. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... CONTACT: Alan Carpien, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of General Counsel, Mail Code 2366A... and the Louisiana Environmental Action Network (LEAN). Sierra Club and LEAN request that EPA... state whether the Sierra Club and LEAN are requesting whether EPA amend or repeal the Gasification Rule...

  12. Transport of hazardous goods. Befoerderung gefaehrlicher Gueter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH).

  13. Apparatus and test method for characterizing the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, De-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials such as fabrics treated with phase change material microcapsules, a new apparatus was developed. The apparatus and the test method can measure the heat flux, temperature, and displacement signals during the dynamic contact and then quickly give an evaluation for the temperature regulating properties by simulating the dynamic heat transfer and temperature regulating process when the materials contact the body skin. A series of indices including the psychosensory intensity, regulating capability index, and relative regulating index were defined to characterize the temperature regulating properties. The measurement principle, the evaluation criteria and grading method, the experimental setup and the test results discussion, and the gage capability analysis of the apparatus are presented. The new apparatus provides a method for the objective measurement and evaluation of the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

  14. Environmental impact of hazardous inorganic materials. Pollution and remediation of soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, S.; Hakuta, T. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Barrington, S.; Wasay, S. [McGill University, (Canada)

    1998-02-10

    Recently, soil pollution has become a grave social problem. This paper reviews history, laws and regulations, current status and measures related to soil pollution, centered by those of Japan. Soil pollution problems in Japan date back to around 1880, when pollution of the Watarase River basin started by waste water exhausted from Asio Mine. Various grave problems have been recorded since then, including the Itai-itai and Minamata Diseases caused by Cd and methyl mercury, respectively, which started in 1945 and 1956, with the result that the government has amended laws/regulations related to treatment and cleaning of industrial wastes. Later, the related laws/regulations have been frequently amended, and the environmental standards related to soil pollution was established in 1991. Treatment for remediation of polluted soils has been effected with the aid of inorganic acids, organic solvents, chelating agents, natural organic acids (such as acetic and formic acids) and biological surface active agents. They must be carefully planned to take into consideration various aspects, such as pH level and other conditions, cost and environmental safety, before being actually used. One of the recommended measures is on-the-site treatment in an enclosed space while regenerating and recycling the agent. 66 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Sor/89-426, 24 August 1989, transport packaging of radioactive materials regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    These Regulations of 24 September 1983 were amended mainly to clarify the original text and further specify certain requirements. In particular, the definitions of A 1 , A 2 , Fissile Class III package and special Form Radioactive Material have been revoked and replaced by new definitions. Also, a new condition has been added regarding Special Form Radioactive Material. Henceforth, no such material may be transported without a certificate attesting that the material meets the requirements set out in Schedule XII of the Regulations [fr

  16. STRRAP system-A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, S.M.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M.; Scenna, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a powerful computational tool (Stochastic Toxic Release Risk Assessment Package, STRRAP) useful in risk assessment and emergency planning (safe distance calculation), which allows to handle the stochastic uncertainty of atmospheric parameters, critical for risk calculation when diffusion of hazardous gases or particulate matter occur as a consequence of an emission or accidental release. In fact, the random behaviour of wind intensity, wind direction, atmospheric stability and temperature, given a time horizon, (a season or a complete year), is taken into account considering also the day or night condition. STRRAP can be used for releases or emissions from static sources (for example a stack or a fixed tank in a facility) or from transportation accidents (road, rail, maritime and pipeline transport) involving different scenarios. After a stochastic simulation based on well-known diffusion models (dense and light gases, particulate matter) is carried out, the downwind pollutant concentrations are obtained, in order to compute safe distances and/or individual and societal risks. Some study cases are analyzed to show STRRAP capabilities

  17. Site characterization and modeling to estimate movement of hazardous materials in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative approach for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurement activities is developed and illustrated with an example application to hypothetical measurement schemes at a potential geologic repository site for radioactive waste. The method is a general one and could also be applied at sites for underground disposal of hazardous chemicals. The approach presumes that measurements will be undertaken to support predictions of the performance of some aspect of a constructed facility or natural system. It requires a quantitative performance objective, such as groundwater travel time or contaminant concentration, against which to compare predictions of performance. The approach recognizes that such predictions are uncertain because the measurements upon which they are based are uncertain. The effectiveness of measurement activities is quantified by a confidence index, β, that reflects the number of standard deviations separating the best estimate of performance from the perdetermined performance objective. Measurements that reduce the uncertainty in predictions lead to increased values of β. The link between measurement and prediction uncertainties, required for the evaluation of β for a particular measurement scheme, identifies the measured quantities that significantly affect prediction uncertainty. The components of uncertainty in those key measurements are spatial variation, noise, estimation error, and measurement bias. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. Evaluation of Landfill Site Candidate for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Norm) and Hazardous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta; Hadi Suntoko; Bunawas

    2007-01-01

    Refers to co-location concept, Kabil site, where located at the southeast end of low hills in Batam Island, will be sited as an integrated industrial waste management center including landfill. So that, it is necessary an evaluation of the landfill site candidate for NORM and hazardous waste. The evaluation includes geological and non-geological aspects, to determine the suitability or capability in supporting the function as landfill facility. The site candidate was evaluated by serial sreps as follows: 1) criteria formulation; 2) selecting the parameter for evaluation; 3) Positive screening or evaluation of the land having potentiality for landfill site by descriptive method: and 4) determine the land suitability or capability for landfill site. The evaluation of geological and non- geological aspects include topography, litology, seismicity, groundwater and surface water, climate, hydro-oceanography, flora and fauna, spatial pattern and transportation system. The most of the parameters evaluated show the fulfilling to the site criteria, and can be mentioned that the land is suitable for landfill site. Some parameters are not so suitable for that purpose, especially on permeability and homogeneity of the rocks/soils, distance to surface water body, depth of groundwater, the flow rate of groundwater, precipitation, and humidity of the air. The lack of suitability showed by some parameters can be compensated by improving the appropriate engineered barrier in order to fulfill the landfill performance in providing the supporting capacity, long live stability and waste containment. (author)

  19. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in non-nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The volume and concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material is large across a variety of industries commonly thought not to involve radioactive material. The regulation of naturally occurring radioactive material in the United States is in a state of flux. Inventory of naturally occurring radioactive materials is given, along with a range of concentrations. Current and proposed regulatory limits are presented. (author)

  20. On policies to regulate long-term risks from hazardous waste disposal sites under both intergenerational equity and intragenerational equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhongbin

    In recent years, it has been recognized that there is a need for a general philosophic policy to guide the regulation of societal activities that involve long-term and very long-term risks. Theses societal activities not only include the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and global warming, but also include the disposal of non-radioactive carcinogens that never decay, such as arsenic, nickel, etc. In the past, attention has been focused on nuclear wastes. However, there has been international recognition that large quantities of non-radioactive wastes are being disposed of with little consideration of their long-term risks. The objectives of this dissertation are to present the significant long-term risks posed by non-radioactive carcinogens through case studies; develop the conceptual decision framework for setting the long-term risk policy; and illustrate that certain factors, such as discount rate, can significantly influence the results of long-term risk analysis. Therefore, the proposed decision-making framework can be used to systematically study the important policy questions on long-term risk regulations, and then subsequently help the decision-maker to make informed decisions. Regulatory disparities between high-level radioactive wastes and non-radioactive wastes are summarized. Long-term risk is rarely a consideration in the regulation of disposal of non-radioactive hazardous chemicals; and when it is, the matter has been handled in a somewhat perfunctory manner. Case studies of long-term risks are conducted for five Superfund sites that are contaminated with one or more non-radioactive carcinogens. Under the same assumptions used for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, future subsistence farmers would be exposed to significant individual risks, in some cases with lifetime fatality risk equal to unity. The important policy questions on long-term risk regulation are identified, and the conceptual decision-making framework to regulate

  1. Design and fabrication hazard stakes golf course polymeric foam material empty bunch (EFB) fiber reinforced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfahmi; Syam, B.; Wirjosentono, B.

    2018-02-01

    A golf course with obstacles in the forms of water obstacle and lateral water obstacle marked with the stakes which are called golf course obstacle stake in this study. This study focused on the design and fabrication of the golf course obstacle stake with a solid cylindrical geometry using EFB fiber-reinforced polimeric foam composite materials. To obtain the EFB fiber which is free from fat content and other elements, EFB is soaked in the water with 1% (of the watre total volume) NaOH. The model of the mould designed is permanent mould that can be used for the further refabrication process. The mould was designed based on resin-compound paste materials with talc powder plus E-glass fiber to make the mould strong. The composition of polimeric foam materials comprised unsaturated resin Bqtn-Ex 157 (70%), blowing agent (10%), fiber (10%), and catalyst (10%). The process of casting the polimeric foam composit materials into the mould cavity should be at vertical casting position, accurate interval time of material stirring, and periodical casting. To find out the strength value of the golf course obstacle stake product, a model was made and simulated by using the software of Ansys workbench 14.0, an impact loading was given at the height of 400 mm and 460 mm with the variation of golf ball speed (USGA standard) v = 18 m/s, v = 35 m/s, v = 66.2 m/s, v = 70 m/s, and v = 78.2 m/s. The clarification showed that the biggest dynamic explicit loading impact of Fmax = 142.5 N at the height of 460 mm with the maximum golf ball speed of 78.2 m/s did not experience the hysteresis effect and inertia effect. The largest deformation area occurred at the golf ball speed v = 66.2 mm/s, that is 18.029 mm (time: 2.5514e-004) was only concentrated around the sectional area of contact point of impact, meaning that the golf course obstacle stakes made of EFB fiber-reinforced polymeric foam materials have the geometric functional strength that are able to absorb the energy of golf ball

  2. A Coupled Damage and Reaction Model for Simulating Energetic Material Response to Impact Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAER, MELVIN R.; DRUMHELLER, D.S.; MATHESON, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Baer-Nunziato multiphase reactive theory for a granulated bed of energetic material is extended to allow for dynamic damage processes, that generate new surfaces as well as porosity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is employed to constrain the constitutive forms of the mass, momentum, and energy exchange functions as well as those for the mechanical damage model ensuring that the models will be dissipative. The focus here is on the constitutive forms of the exchange functions. The mechanical constitutive modeling is discussed in a companion paper. The mechanical damage model provides dynamic surface area and porosity information needed by the exchange functions to compute combustion rates and interphase momentum and energy exchange rates. The models are implemented in the CTH shock physics code and used to simulate delayed detonations due to impacts in a bed of granulated energetic material and an undamaged cylindrical sample

  3. Safety Analysis Report for the use of hazardous production materials in photovoltaic applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, R.S.; Nelson, B.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-07-01

    To ensure the continued safety of SERI's employees, the community, and the environment, NREL commissioned an internal audit of its photovoltaic operations that used hazardous production materials (HPMs). As a result of this audit, NREL management voluntarily suspended all operations using toxic and/or pyrophoric gases. This suspension affected seven laboratories and ten individual deposition systems. These activities are located in Building 16, which has a permitted occupancy of Group B, Division 2 (B-2). NREL management decided to do the following. (1) Exclude from this SAR all operations which conformed, or could easily be made to conform, to B-2 Occupancy requirements. (2) Include in this SAR all operations that could be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements with special administrative and engineering controls. (3) Move all operations that could not practically be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements to alternate locations. In addition to the layered set of administrative and engineering controls set forth in this SAR, a semiquantitative risk analysis was performed on 30 various accident scenarios. Twelve presented only routine risks, while 18 presented low risks. Considering the demonstrated safe operating history of NREL in general and these systems specifically, the nature of the risks identified, and the layered set of administrative and engineering controls, it is clear that this facility falls within the DOE Low Hazard Class. Each operation can restart only after it has passed an Operational Readiness Review, comparing it to the requirements of this SAR, while subsequent safety inspections will ensure future compliance

  4. Rheological characteristics of waste rock materials in abandoned mine deposit and debris flow hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sueng-Won; Lee, Choonoh; Cho, Yong-Chan; Wu, Ying-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    In Korea, approximately 5,000 metal mines are spread, but 50% of them are still abandoned without any proper remediation and cleanup. Summer heavy rainfall can result in the physicochemical modification of waste rock materials in the mountainous. From the geotechnical monitoring and field investigation, there are visible traces of mass movements every year. Soil erosion is one of severe phenomena in the study area. In particular, study area is located in the upper part of the Busan Metropolitan City and near the city's water supply. With respect to the supply of drinking water and maintenance of ecological balance, proper disposal of waste rock materials is required. For this reason, we examine the rheological properties of waste rock materials as a function of solid content using a ball- and vane-penetrated rheometer. In the flow curves, which are the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate of waste rock materials, we found that the soil samples exhibited a shear thinning beahivor regardless of solid content. The Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Power-law, and Papanastasiou models are used to determine the rheological properties. Assuming that the soil samples behaved as the viscoplastic behavior, the yield stress and viscosity are determined for different water contents. As a result, there are clear relationships between the solid content and rheological values (i.e., Bingham yield stress and plastic viscosity). From these relationships, the maximum and minimum of Bingham yield stresses are ranged from 100 to 2000 Pa. The debris flow mobilization is analysed using a 1D BING and 2D Debris flow models. In addition, the effect of wall slip and test apparatus are discussed.

  5. Accidental hazardous material releases with human impacts in the United States: exploration of geographical distribution and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Chermak, Christina

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the circumstances and geographic and temporal distributions of hazardous material releases and resulting human impacts in the United States. Releases with fatalities, injuries, and evacuations were identified from reports to the National Response Center between 1990 and 2008, correcting for data quality issues identified in previous studies. From more than 550,000 reports, 861 deaths, 16,348 injuries and 741,427 evacuations were identified. Injuries from releases of chemicals at fixed facilities and natural gas from pipelines have decreased whereas evacuations from petroleum releases at fixed facilities have increased. Results confirm recent advances in chemical and pipeline safety and suggest directions for further improvement including targeted training and inspections and adoption of inherently safer design principles.

  6. On the problem of radiation hazard of fuel-containing materials in conversion of object <>; O probleme yadernoj opasnosti toplivosoderzhashchikh materialov pri preobrazovanii ob`ekta << Ukrytie >>.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badovskij, V P; Dubar, L V; Shevchenko, S V [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A problem of radiation hazard of fuel-containing materials (FCM) in object << Shelter >> is discussed. A conservative approach is applied. The approach was developed with allowance for a conservative estimation of fuel distribution in FCM and errors of the FCM hazard measurements. A version of 4PB accident development is proposed. According to this version there is considerable part of fuel in 305/2 room which forms FCM with average fuel concentration in this room over 25%.

  7. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. Vietnam Standard (TCVN 4985-89)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The regulations were prepared in line with the Safety Regulation for Ionizing Radiations 1988 of Vietnam. Its purpose is to provide requirements in transport of radioactive materials. The exposure levels of transport personnel are determined. The package for different types of materials is regulated. The orders and procedures in transport are defined. In addition, specific requirements for each mean of transport are given. (N.H.A)

  8. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J. [Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  9. Gamma activity as a guide for the building raw materials selection and controlling the environmental hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectrometric measurements can provide an alarm for the radiation activity and radioelement concentra-tions. The activity increase over the ambient background can be achieved by well calibrated gamma-spectrometers. In comparison between Wadi El-Dahl and Abu Zawal quarries for building raw materials (feld-spar, the activity concentration of El-Dahl stream sediments are 54.5 and 44.5 Bq/kg for uranium and thorium respectively. While the activity concentration of Abu Zawal rock quarry are 167.03 and 79.77 Bq/kg for uranium and thorium respectively. These activities yielding effective dose rates of 0.63 mSv/y for Wadi El-Dahl stream sediments and 1.48 mSv/y for Abu Zawal rock quarry. In summary, the spectrometric measurements are excellent selective tool to monitoring the environment against the radiation risk. In this aspect, Wadi El-Dahl stream sedi-ment quarry considered as the more suitable for producing feldspar as a raw materials to building industry. In comparison, Abu Zawal rock quarry has a higher effective dose rate exceeds the international permissible limits which is 1 mSv/y. A total of 19 feldspar samples were completely described regarding their general chemical fea-tures by using x-ray fluorescence. From the study all the samples contain high concentration of barium and ru-bidium which can separate using different methods in order to use in different important industry.

  10. Control of Nuclear Materials and Special Equipment (Nuclear Safety Regulations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.; Ilijas, B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (OG 173/03) the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) in 2008 adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (OG 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (OG 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (OG 15/08). Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a license to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance also lays down the manner in which nuclear material records have to be kept, the procedure for notifying the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety by the nuclear material user, and the keeping of registers of nuclear activities, nuclear material and special equipment by the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety, as well as the form and content of official nuclear safety inspector identification card and badge.(author)

  11. Transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the transport of radioactive materials. The associated hazards and potential hazards are at first described and shows the necessity to define specific safety regulations. The basic principles of radiological protection and of the IAEA regulations are given. The different types of authorized packages and of package labelling are explained. The revision, updating and the monitoring of the regulations effectiveness is the subject of the last part of this conference. (O.M.)

  12. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    General provisions specify the purpose of the Law and definitions of terms used in it. Provisions relating to control of business management for refining cover designation of business operation, requirements for designation, permission and report of alteration, report of commencement of business operation, revocation of designation, recording, and measures for wastes. Provisions relating to control of business management for processing cover permission of operation, requirements for permission, approval of design and construction plan, inspection of facilities, report of commencement of business management, measures for maintenance, suspension of use of facilities, responsible personnel for handling nuclear fuel, and permit, obligations, etc. of responsible personnel for handing nuclear fuel. Provisions relating to control of construction and operation of nuclear reactor cover permission of construction, permission concerning nuclear reactor mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, requirements for permission, etc. Other articles stipulate provisions relating to control of business management for reprocessing, use of nuclear fuel substances, use of materials and substances covered by international regulations, designation of inspection organizations, and other rules. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Prevention of suicide with regulations aimed at restricting access to highly hazardous pesticides: a systematic review of the international evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, David; Knipe, Duleeka; Chang, Shu-Sen; Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Lee, Won Jin; Eddleston, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for 14-20% of suicides worldwide. Regulation aimed at restricting access to pesticides or banning highly hazardous pesticides is one approach to reducing these deaths. We systematically reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of pesticide regulation in reducing the incidence of pesticide suicides and overall suicides. We did a systematic review of the international evidence. We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase for studies published between Jan 1, 1960, and Dec 31, 2016, which investigated the effect of national or regional bans, and sales or import restrictions, on the availability of one or more pesticides and the incidence of suicide in different countries. We excluded other interventions aimed at limiting community access to pesticides. We extracted data from studies presenting pesticide suicide data and overall suicide data from before and after national sales restrictions. Two reviewers independently assessed papers for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We undertook a narrative synthesis of the data in each report, and where data were available for the years before and after a ban, we pooled data for the 3 years before and the 3 years after to obtain a crude estimate of the effect of the ban. This study is registered through PROSPERO, number CRD42017053329. We identified 27 studies undertaken in 16 countries-five low-income or middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Colombia, India, Jordan and Sri Lanka), and 11 high-income countries (Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, UK, and USA). Assessments largely focused on national bans of specific pesticides (12 studies of bans in six countries-Jordan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Greece [Crete], South Korea, and Taiwan) or sales restrictions (eight studies of restrictions in five countries- India, Denmark, Ireland, the UK and the USA). Only five studies used optimum analytical methods. National bans on commonly ingested

  14. ASSET RECOVERY OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS BENEFICIAL REUSE OF RADIOLOGICALLY ENCUMBERED LEAD STOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Meehan, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Underutilized and surplus lead stocks and leaded components are a common legacy environmental problem across much of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. While seeking to dispose of these items through its Environmental Management Program, DOE operational programs continue to pursue contemporary mission requirements such as managing and/or storing radioactive isotopes that require lead materials for shielding. This paradox was identified in late 1999 when DOE's policies for managing scrap metal were assessed. In January 2000, the Secretary of Energy directed the National Center of Excellence for Materials Recycle (NMR) to develop and implement a comprehensive lead reuse program for all of DOE. Fluor Hanford, contractor for DOE Richland Operations, subsequently contacted NMR to pilot lead reclamation and reuse at the Hanford Site. This relationship resulted in the development of a beneficial reuse pathway for lead reclaimed from spent fuel transport railcars being stored at Hanford. The 1.3 million pounds of lead in the railcars is considered radiologically encumbered due to its prior use. Further, the material was considered a mixed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) low-level radioactive waste that would require expensive storage or macro encapsulation to meet land disposal restrictions prior to burial. Working closely with Flour Hanford and the Office of Air, Water, and Radiation (EH-412), NMR developed a directed reuse pathway for this and other radiologically encumbered lead. When derived supplemental release limits were used, the lead recovered from these railcars became eligible for reuse in shielding products to support DOE and commercial nuclear industry operations. Using this disposition pathway has saved Hanford one third of the cost of disposing of the lead and the cost of acquiring additional lead for nuclear shielding applications. Furthermore, the environmental costs associated with mining and producing new lead for shielding products a

  15. 33 CFR 150.628 - How must the operator label, tag, and mark a container of hazardous material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Workplace Safety and Health Hazard Communication Program § 150.628 How must the operator label, tag, and..., reactive and other special condition hazard warnings. The only exception is for portable containers that...

  16. Accidents with potentially hazardous biological material among workers in hospital supporting services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Gir, Elucir; Machado, Alcyone Artiolli

    2005-01-01

    Descriptive study was carried out to characterize the occupational accidents involving potentially contaminated material among workers of hospital supporting services. The study reviewed records of workers involved in these accidents and attended at a specialized outpatient clinic of a large tertiary care hospital between January 1997 and October 2001. A total of 2814 workers from different professional categories were attended during this period. Of these, 147 (5.2%) belonged to the hospital supporting services and were the victims of 156 accidents, auxiliary cleaning personnel (80.2%), and over a third of the workers had not received any dose of hepatitis B vaccine (35.4%). Most accidents were due to sharp injuries (96.8%) caused by inadequately discarded hollow needles. Chemoprophylaxis for HIV was not indicated in only 23.1% of cases. We conclude that these workers are also exposed to the possibility of acquiring blood-borne pathogens and that periodical education programs are needed.

  17. Description of the information and calculation system for combatment of accidents with hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheur, M.J. van de; Stolk, D.J.

    1987-04-01

    On request of the Netherlands government by TNO a decision support system is developed for the assessment of the off-site consequences of an accident with toxic or radioactive materials. The interactive system supports the emergency planning in two ways. First, the risk to the residents in the surroundings of the accident is quantified in terms of severity and magnitude. Second, a set of countermeasures is evaluated by which an optimum strategy to reduce the impact of the accident can be determined. At this moment the system is in a development stage. It turned out that even the preliminary system provides information to the decision process that is urgently needed. This specifically refers to the introduction of the time aspects and the quantification of the damage. 7 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. X-ray emission as a potential hazard during ultrashort pulse laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legall, Herbert; Schwanke, Christoph; Pentzien, Simone; Dittmar, Günter; Bonse, Jörn; Krüger, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    In laser machining with ultrashort laser pulses unwanted X-ray radiation in the keV range can be generated when a critical laser intensity is exceeded. Even if the emitted X-ray dose per pulse is low, high laser repetition rates can lead to an accumulation of X-ray doses beyond exposure safety limits. For 925 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm, the X-ray emission was investigated up to an intensity of 2.6 × 1014 W/cm2. The experiments were performed in air with a thin disk laser at a repetition rate of 400 kHz. X-ray spectra and doses were measured for various planar target materials covering a wide range of the periodic table from aluminum to tungsten. Without radiation shielding, the measured radiation doses at this high repetition rate clearly exceed the regulatory limits. Estimations for an adequate radiation shielding are provided.

  19. Packaging, carriage and dispatching fuel and radioactive materials, IAEA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need to bring fuel and other radioactive substances into a nuclear power plant and to send out irradiated or contaminated materials: spent fuel, activated equipment, used filters, resin and clothing, etc. gives rise to the question: How can these materials be transported safely and economically. The purpose of this paper is to answer that question by providing information on the regulatory requirements that have been developed for packaging, labelling and handling and on the containers which are being employed. (orig./RW)

  20. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) with emphasis on NORM disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.

    1995-01-01

    Regulation of radioactive material can occur at the Federal, State, and sometimes local level. In addition to regulations at the federal and state level, there are guidelines and standards that do not carry the weight of law, yet are often referenced. Neither the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) categorically regulates NORM at this time. However, many of the existing regulations and guidelines for licensed radioactive material can be applied by states and other regulatory agencies to NORM. The primary regulations covering radioactive materials and exposures were promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) or 1954, as amended. NRC licenses and regulates civilian use of nuclear materials to protect public health and safety and the environment. NRC makes rules and sets standards for licensees and inspects the activities of licensees to insure that they do not violate safety rules. OSHA regulations for worker protection from exposures to radioactivity are contained in 29CFR1910.96. These standards are designed to protect workers from exposure to radiation in programs other than those regulated by OSHA. The Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act, with implementing regulations found in 40CFR192 were promulgated by the EPA for cleanup of uranium mill tailings. These standards are often used by states and other agencies in regulating cleanup of NORM. EPA is currently considering regulation of NORM on NRC and DOE facilities under 40CFR195

  1. Regulation on control of nuclear materials of the 31 Oct 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The new regulation on accounting for and control of nuclear materials was issued on 31 October 1986 and put into force on 1 February 1987. The following provisions are included: aim and scope, responsibility for nuclear material accounting and control, rights and obligations of the nuclear material control officer, licensing, facility's instructions for nuclear material control, accounting, records, reporting, unusual events, inspections, nuclear material transfers, exemptions and termination of IAEA safeguards, final provisions, and definitions of terms

  2. A real-time tracking system for monitoring shipments of hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Phillip; Paschal, Jon; Hopper, Lindsay; Pinson, Dudley; Schultz, Frederick; Whitfield Humphrey, Melinda

    2007-04-01

    Due to the ever increasing use of radioactive materials in day to day living from the treatment of cancer patients and irradiation of food for preservation to industrial radiography to check for defects in the welding of pipelines and buildings there is a growing concern over the tracking and monitoring of these sources in transit prior to use as well as the waste produced by such use. The prevention of lost sealed sources is important in reducing the environmental and health risk posed by direct exposure, co-mingling in the metal recycling stream, use in contaminated consumer products, and use in terrorist activities. Northwest Nuclear, LLC (NWN) and the Applied Physics Institute (API) at Western Kentucky University have developed a tracking technology using active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. This system provides location information by measuring the time of arrival of packets from a set of RFID tags to a set of location receivers. The system can track and graphically display the location on maps, drawings or photographs of tagged items on any 802.11- compliant device (PDAs, laptops, computers, WiFi telephones) situated both outside and inside structures. This location information would be vital for tracking the location of high level radiological sources while in transit. RFID technology would reduce the number of lost sources by tracking them from origination to destination. Special tags which indicate tampering or sudden movement have also been developed.

  3. All-fiber-coupled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for hazardous materials analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohling, Christian [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); SECOPTA GmbH, Ostendstr. 25, 12459 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: c.bohling@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Hohmann, Konrad [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: k.hohmann@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Scheel, Dirk [Systektum GmbH, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Str. 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: d.scheel@systektum.de; Bauer, Christoph [LaserAnwendungsCentrum (LAC) Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Strasse 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: c.bauer@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Schippers, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: w.schippers@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Burgmeier, Joerg [LaserAnwendungsCentrum (LAC) Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Strasse 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: j.burgmeier@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Willer, Ulrike [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); LaserAnwendungsCentrum (LAC) Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Strasse 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: u.willer@pe.tu-clausthal.de; Holl, Gerhard [Wehrwissenschaftliches Institut fuer Werk-, Explosiv- und Betriebsstoffe (WIWEB), Grosses Cent, 53913, Swisttal (Germany)], E-mail: gerhardholl@bwb.orgd; Schade, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); LaserAnwendungsCentrum (LAC) Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Strasse 6, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: w.schade@pe.tu-clausthal.de

    2007-12-15

    An all-fiber-coupled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor device is developed. A passively Q-switched Cr{sup 4+}Nd{sup 3+}:YAG microchip laser is amplified within an Yb fiber amplifier, thus generating high power laser pulses (pulse energy E{sub p} = 0.8 mJ, wavelength {lambda} = 1064 nm, repetition rate f{sub rep.} = 5 kHz, pulse duration t{sub p} = 1.2 ns). A passive (LMA) optical fiber is spliced to the active fiber of an Yb fiber amplifier for direct guiding of high power laser pulses to the sensor tip. In front of the sensor a plasma is generated on the surface to be analyzed. The plasma emission is collected by a set of optical fibers also integrated into the sensor tip. The spectrally resolved LIBS spectra are processed by application of principal component analysis (PCA) and analyzed together with the time-resolved spectra with neural networks. Such procedure allows accurate analysis of samples by LIBS even for materials with similar atomic composition. The system has been tested successfully during field measurements at the German Armed Forces test facility at Oberjettenberg. The LIBS sensor is not restricted to anti-personnel mine detection but has also the potential to be suitable for analysis of bulk explosives and surface contaminations with explosives, e.g. for the detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs)

  4. 5th December 1990 - Royal Order amending the provisions of the General Regulations for protection at work, concerning the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Royal Order amending the 1946 General Regulations for the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation implements on a national level the European Community Directives No. 80/836 Euratom of 15 July 1980 laying down basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations and No. 84/466 Euratom of 3 September 1984 laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment [fr

  5. 78 FR 71532 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans... material control and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material (SNM) and the proposed guidance... and how the NRC will review and inspect these plans. DATES: The public meeting will be held on...

  6. Regulations on nuclear materials control of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present 'Regulations on Nuclear Materials Control of the People's Republic of China' were promulgated by the State Council on June 15, 1987, which are enacted to ensure safe and lawful use of nuclear materials, to prevent theft, sabotage, lose, unlawful diversion and unlawful use, to protect the security of the State and the Public and to facilitate the development of nuclear undertakings. The nuclear materials controlled are: 1. Uranium-235 (materials and products); 2. Uranium-233 (material and products); 3. Plutonium-239 (materials and products); 4. tritium (materials and products); 5. lithium-6 (materials and products); 6. Other nuclear materials requiring control. The present regulations are not applicable to the control of uranium ore and its primary products. The control measures for nuclear products transferred to the armed forces shall be laid down by the national defence department

  7. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  8. Potential hazards and artifacts of ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic surgical and dental materials and devices in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, P.F.J.; Rosen, B.R.; Brady, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    The risks to patients with metal surgical implants who are undergoing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and the artifacts caused by such implants were studied. Twenty-one aneurysm and other hemostatic clips and a variety of other materials (e.g., dental amalgam, 14 karat gold) were used. Longitudinal forces and torques were found to be exerted upon 16 of the 21 clips. With five aneurysm clips, forces and torques sufficient to produce risk of hemorrhage from dislocation of the clip from the vessel or aneurysm, or cerebral injury by clip displacement without dislodgement were identified. The induced ferromagnetism was shown to be related to the composition of the alloys from which the clips were manufactured. Clips with 10-14% nickel are evidently without sufficient induced ferromagnetism to cause hazard. The extent of NMR imaging artifacts was greater for materials with measurable ferromagnetic properties, but metals without measurable ferromagnetism in our tests also resulted in significant artifacts. Dental amalgam and 14 karat gold produced no imaging artifacts, but stainless steels in dentures and orthodontic braces produced extensive artifacts in the facial region

  9. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Annual technical report, 30 December 1992--29 December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and beyond the year 2000. In 1989, the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) was established as the umbrella organization which coordinates environmental research at both universities. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier DBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ``Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin`` project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  10. Safety analysis report for the use of hazardous production materials in photovoltaic applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, R.S.; Nelson, B.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-07-01

    To ensure the continued safety of SERI's employees, the community, and the environment, NREL commissioned an internal audit of its photovoltaic operations that used hazardous production materials (HPMS). As a result of this audit, NREL management voluntarily suspended all operations using toxic and/or pyrophoric gases. This suspension affected seven laboratories and ten individual deposition systems. These activities are located in Building 16, which has a permitted occupancy of Group B, Division 2 (B-2). NREL management decided to do the following. (1) Exclude from this SAR all operations which conformed, or could easily be made to conform, to B-2 Occupancy requirements. (2) Include in this SAR all operations that could be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements with special administrative and engineering controls. (3) Move all operations that could not practically be made to conform to B-2 occupancy requirements to alternate locations. In addition to the layered set of administrative and engineering controls set forth in this SAR, a semiquantitative risk analysis was performed on 30 various accident scenarios. Twelve presented only routine risks, while 18 presented low risks. Considering the demonstrated safe operating history of NREL in general and these systems specifically, the nature of the risks identified, and the layered set of administrative and engineering controls, it is clear that this facility falls within the DOE Low Hazard Class. Each operation can restart only after it has passed an Operational Readiness Review, comparing it to the requirements of this SAR, while subsequent safety inspections will ensure future compliance. This document contains the appendices to the NREL safety analysis report.

  11. Application of the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material to bulk shipments of materials in minerals industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, Nick; Hinrichsen, Paul John; Omar, M.; Fernandes, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The following discussion is based on the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (T S -R-1,2005)[1] and Advisory Material for these Regulations (T S -G-1.1,2003)[2]. There were many amendments to the first issue of T S -R-1 (1996-2000) [3], several changes were also made when the Regulations were adopted in Australia [4]. The marks [->] or [->?] have been used in the text to indicate where a change has occurred between the references [1, 2, 3 and 4]. The mark [->] indicates that there is a difference in wording between 2000 and 2005 editions, the mark indicates that if in a particular jurisdiction 1996-2000 Transport Regulations are in force, additional consultation with an appropriate regulatory authority is required.

  12. Role IAEA implementation of ICRP-60 on regulations the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshinawy, R.K.M.; Gomaa, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In november 1990, the (ICRP) adopted its 1990 recommendations (ICRP-60) ( 1). These recommendations will significantly influence not only IAEA's basic safety standards (safety series 9) ( 2), but also the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material ( 3) and its supporting documents ( 4-6). IAEA experts are currently engaged in the revision of the transport regulations. This revision process led to the publication of the revised transport regulations of 1966. The transport regulations are developed to ensure safety during movement of radioactive materials, and to provide reasonable assurance that the transport activities comply with the basic safety standards for radiation protection

  13. Royal Order of 22 April 1974 on Establishment of Fees in Implementation of Regulations on Protection at Work, Protection against Hazardous Equipment and Ionizing Radiations and amending the General Regulations on Protection at Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Order was made in implementation of the Act of 3 December 1969 empowering the King to establish fees in application of regulations on protection at work, dangerous equipment and ionizing radiations. In particular, it sets fees for the licensing procedure for establishment classified according to the General Regulations for the Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiations of 28 February 1963. (NEA) [fr

  14. Numerical regulation of a test facility of materials for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zauq, M.H.

    1982-02-01

    The installation aims at testing materials used in nuclear power plants; tests consists in simulations of a design basis accident (failure of a primary circuit of a PWR type reactor) for a qualification of these materials. A description of the test installation, of the thermodynamic control, and of the control system is presented. The organisation of the software is then given: description of the sequence chaining monitor, operation, list and function of the programs. The analog information processing is also presented (data transmission). A real-time microcomputer and clock are used for this work. The microprocessor is the 6800 of MOTOROLA. The microcomputer used has been built around the MC 6800; its structure is described. The data acquisition include an analog data acquisition system and a numerical data acquisition system. Laboratory and on-site tests are finally presented [fr

  15. Thermal testing transport packages for radioactive materials: Reality vs regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Carlson, R.W.

    1994-03-01

    The principle objective of this paper is to provide information that will help describe the physical thermal tests performed to demonstrate compliance with the hypothetical accident conditions specified in 10 CFR 71.73. Physical testing should be applied to packages that cannot be modeled by analysis to adequately predict their response to hypothetical accident conditions. These tests should be used when chemical decomposition or material changes occur during an accident that would be difficult to analytically predict or model

  16. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for such matters as permission for an undertaking of processing, alteration (of location, structure, arrangements, processing method, etc.), approval of design and construction plan, approval of alteration (of design and construction plan of processing facilities), and inspection of the facilities. The regulations also cover execution of facilities inspection, certificate of facilities inspection, processing facilities subject to welding inspection, application for welding inspection, execution of welding inspection, facilities not subject to welding inspection, approval of welding method, welding inspection for imported equipment, certificate of welding inspection, application for approval of joint management, notice of alteration, etc., cancellation of permission, record keeping, restriction on access to areas under management measures concerning exposure to radioactive rays, patrol and checking in processing facilities, operation of processing equipment, transportation within plant or operation premises, storage, waste disposal within plant or operation premises, safety rules, public notification concerning examination and successful applicants, procedure for application for examination, reissue of certificate for nuclear fuel handling expert, return of certificate for nuclear fuel handling expert, submission of report, measures for emergency, notice of abolition of business, measures concerning cancellation of permission, identification card, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  18. Management System for Regulating Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Capadona, N.M.; Barenghi, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN) management system applied to the transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TMR from now on. ARN's management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TMR process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of the system. Such sub processes were defined taking into account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials. For each of this processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to achieve continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measures sub processes as a way to show objective evidence of conformity with objectives. Finally, as conclusions of this paper, they will be showed the main obstacles and troubleshooting found in the design and implementation of management system as well as their solutions and state of advance. (authors)

  19. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for permission for use of nuclear fuel substances, application for alteration (of method for spent fuel disposal, etc.), application for inspection of facilities, execution of inspection of facilities, (airtight properties test, watertight properties test, corrosion resistance test, chemical analytical test, non-destructive test, mechanical test, pressure resistance test, leakage test), issue of certificate, technical standards concerning construction (geometry, resistance to earthquake, airtight performance, shielding wall, alarm system, waste disposal capacity, emergency power source, etc.), facilities subject to welding inspection, application for welding inspection, execution of welding inspection, facilities not subject to welding inspection, certificate of welding method, resord keeping, safety rules, technical standards for operation, technical standards for waste disposal within plant or for operation premises, transportation within plant or operation premises, technical standards for storage, submission of report, measures for emergency, notice of abolition of business operation, notice of disorganization, measures concerning cancellation of permission, identification card, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities