WorldWideScience

Sample records for hazardous drinking tobacco

  1. Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption and Hazardous Drinking, Tobacco and Drug Use in Urban Tanzania, and Their Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatia¹, Joseph; Jenkins, Rachel; Singleton, Nicola; White, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests substance abuse in Tanzania is a growing public health problem. A random sample of 899 adults aged 15–59 in two urban sites of differing levels of poverty surveyed alcohol, tobacco and illicit substance use. Rates of substance use were 17.2%. 8.7% and 0.8% for alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, respectively. Living in the less affluent area was associated with higher lifetime rates of tobacco and alcohol use. Substance use is less prevalent in Tanzania than in richer countries, but lifetime consumption is higher in poorer areas. The association of substance use with a range of socio-economic factors warrants further research. PMID:19742167

  2. Sports drinks hazard to teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the dental hazards associated with sports supplement drinks by investigating the chemicophysical properties of eight brands of sports drinks. METHODS: The pH and titratable acidity against 0.1 M NaOH was measured. Calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentrations and viscosities of Carbolode, Gatorade, High Five, Isostar, Lucozade Sport Lemon, Lucozade Sport Orange, Maxim, and PSP22 were determined. RESULTS: The pH values of the drinks ranged from 4.46 (Maxim) to 2.38 (Isostar) and therefore were below the critical pH value (5.5) for enamel demineralisation. Both Lucozade varieties had high titratable acidities (16.30 ml 0.1M NaOH to neutrality) with Gatorade, High Five, and Isostar displaying intermediate titratable acidity, although Isostar had 74.5 ppm calcium and 63.6 ppm phosphate. The fluoride concentration of all drinks was low, and none of the drinks was particularly viscous (range 3.1-1.4 mPa.s). CONCLUSIONS: The chemicophysical analyses indicate that all the sports drinks in this study have erosive potential. However, drinks with higher pH, lower titratable acidity, and higher concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride will reduce this erosive potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9132205

  3. Positive drinking consequences among hazardous drinking college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Daniel W; Schmidt, Norman B

    2012-05-01

    Negative drinking consequences in college students have been well studied, but emerging evidence points to a role for positive drinking consequences in predicting alcohol related problems. Positive drinking consequences appear to be distinct from other drinking constructs such as drinking expectancies and drinking motives. However, no work has evaluated the role of positive drinking consequences in hazardous drinking college students, a population at high risk for alcohol related problems. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of positive drinking consequences on problem drinking and alcohol problem recognition in a hazardous drinking college sample. Participants (N=222) were hazardous drinking undergraduate students completing a battery of self-report measures about alcohol use. Findings indicated that positive drinking consequences predicted problem drinking above and beyond other related constructs including positive drinking motives (i.e. enhancement and social). However, positive drinking consequences did not appear to play a significant role in alcohol problem recognition. Future research directions and implications for interventions with hazardous drinking college students are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational hazard exposure and at risk drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, K M; Furner, S E; Qian, Y

    1999-01-01

    This study examined associations between workers' reported exposure to occupational hazards and at risk drinking. A sample of 15,907 working adults was drawn from the 1985 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (weighted sample represented 85,395,000 workers). This was the only year the NHIS included questions on both occupational hazard exposure and at risk drinking. Occupational hazard exposures included chemical/biological substances, physical hazards, injury risk, and mental stress. At risk drinking was defined as binge drinking and drinking and driving. Prevalence adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Sixty percent of workers reported exposure to one or more occupational hazards with considerable variation among and within occupations. In all, 31% reported binge drinking and 15% drove after drinking too much. In a multivariate analysis that controlled for background characteristics, workers who reported occupational hazard exposures were 1.2 to 1.4 times more likely to engage in binge drinking than workers without exposures. Similar results were found for drinking/driving. All multivariate results were statistically significant. Findings suggest workers who report occupational hazard exposures are at greater risk of both binge drinking and drinking/driving. Occupational and environmental health nurses can lead workplace initiatives to reduce occupational hazard exposure and, simultaneously, invest in health promotion efforts to curb at risk drinking among workers.

  5. Hazardous, harmful and dependent drinking in hosteldwelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hazardous, harmful and dependent drinking among hostel-dwelling students on the main campus of the University of the Free State (UFS), and the influence of sex and academic year on the habit. Method: A quarter of all hostel-dwelling students of UFS ...

  6. A randomized trial for hazardous drinking and smoking cessation for callers to a quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A; Martino, Steve; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M; McKee, Sherry A; Kahler, Christopher W; Rojewski, Alana M; Mahoney, Martin C; Wu, Ran; Celestino, Paula; Seshadri, Srinivasa; Koutsky, James; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated whether tobacco quitline telephone coaches can be trained to counsel hazardous-drinking smokers to improve smoking cessation success and to limit or abstain from alcohol use. Smokers (N = 1,948) who called the New York State Smokers' Quitline and reported hazardous drinking (exceeding sex-specific weekly limits [14 drinks for men, 7 drinks for women] or meeting/exceeding daily drinking limits [5 drinks for men, 4 drinks for women] at least once in the past year) were randomized to receive either brief motivational counseling to limit or abstain from alcohol plus an alcohol reduction booklet added to standard care (Alcohol + Tobacco Counseling; ATC), or only smoking cessation counseling plus a smoking cessation booklet added to standard care (Tobacco-Only Counseling; TOC). Acceptable coach adherence was achieved. The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that ATC was associated with a significantly higher rate of smoking abstinence at 7-month follow-up (13.5%) compared with TOC (10.3%; p = .03). The respondent analysis (ATC= 26.2%; TOC = 20.4%) paralleled the ITT findings. When controlling for treatment condition, participants who did not report any heavy drinking were significantly more likely to quit smoking than those who reported any heavy drinking (OR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.29, 2.71]; p = .001). A brief alcohol intervention plus standard care via a telephone quitline resulted in significantly higher smoking cessation rates for hazardous-drinking callers. Given that quitline coaches were trained to provide the intervention with acceptable adherence, the potential to extend this intervention for wide-scale implementation and impact is promising. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Evaluating the relationship between explicit and implicit drinking identity centrality and hazardous drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen P. Lindgren

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

  8. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: are there associated negative consequences beyond hazardous drinking in college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lisa; Fendrich, Michael; Fuhrmann, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is prevalent among college students as is hazardous drinking, a drinking pattern that places one at risk for alcohol-related harm. The present study, therefore, examined associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences in college students. Based on a probability sample conducted in 2010, participants were 606 undergraduate students aged 18-25. AmED consumption included lifetime and past year use. Hazardous drinking and alcohol-related consequences were measured during the past year. Point prevalence was used to estimate rates of AmED use, and chi-square, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to examine associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Lifetime and past year AmED use prevalence rates were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively. Hazardous drinkers who engaged in AmED use were significantly more likely than past year hazardous drinkers who did not engage in AmED use to have had unprotected sex (OR=2.35, CI 1.27-4.32). AmED use appears to be highly prevalent among college students, and AmED use may confer additional risk for unprotected sex beyond hazardous drinking. Unprotected sex has implications for public health, and students who drink hazardously and consume AmED may be at greater risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy Drinks: A New Health Hazard for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole; Johnson, Molly; Delaney, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    A new hazard for adolescents is the negative health effects of energy drink consumption. Adolescents are consuming these types of drinks at an alarming amount and rate. Specific effects that have been reported by adolescents include jitteriness, nervousness, dizziness, the inability to focus, difficulty concentrating, gastrointestinal upset, and…

  10. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  11. Evaluating the Relationship between Explicit and Implicit Drinking Identity Centrality and Hazardous Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Namaky, Nauder; Olin, Cecilia C; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-12-01

    Drinking identity strength (how strongly one views oneself as a drinker) is a promising risk factor for hazardous drinking. A critical next step is to investigate whether the centrality of drinking identity (i.e., the relative importance of drinking vs. other identity domains, like well-being, relationships, education) also plays a role. Thus, we developed explicit and implicit measures of drinking identity centrality and evaluated them as predictors of hazardous drinking after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. Two studies were conducted (Ns = 360 and 450, respectively). Participants, who self-identified as full-time students, completed measures of explicit identity strength, explicit and implicit centrality, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Study 1a evaluated two variants of the implicit measure (short- vs. long-format of the Multi-category Implicit Association Test); Study 1b only included the long form and also assessed alcohol consumption. In Study 1a, implicit and explicit centrality measures were positively and significantly associated with AUDIT scores after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. There were no significant differences in the implicit measure variants, but the long format had slightly higher internal consistency. In Study 1b, results replicated for explicit, but not implicit, centrality. These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.

  12. Evaluating the Relationship between Explicit and Implicit Drinking Identity Centrality and Hazardous Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Ramirez, Jason J.; Namaky, Nauder; Olin, Cecilia C.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Drinking identity strength (how strongly one views oneself as a drinker) is a promising risk factor for hazardous drinking. A critical next step is to investigate whether the centrality of drinking identity (i.e., the relative importance of drinking vs. other identity domains, like well-being, relationships, education) also plays a role. Thus, we developed explicit and implicit measures of drinking identity centrality and evaluated them as predictors of hazardous drinking after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. Methods Two studies were conducted (Ns = 360 and 450, respectively). Participants, who self-identified as full-time students, completed measures of explicit identity strength, explicit and implicit centrality, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Study 1a evaluated two variants of the implicit measure (short- vs. long-format of the Multi-category Implicit Association Test); Study 1b only included the long form and also assessed alcohol consumption. Results In Study 1a, implicit and explicit centrality measures were positively and significantly associated with AUDIT scores after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. There were no significant differences in the implicit measure variants, but the long format had slightly higher internal consistency. In Study 1b, results replicated for explicit, but not implicit, centrality. Conclusions These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies. PMID:28603766

  13. A Brief Alcohol Intervention for Hazardously-Drinking Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Hebert, Meg; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that among hazardously drinking incarcerated women who are returning to the community, a brief alcohol intervention will result in less alcohol use at follow-up relative to standard of care. Methods Eligible participants endorsed hazardous alcohol consumption--four or more drinks at a time on at least three separate days in the previous three months or a score of 8 or above on the AUDIT. Participants were randomized to either an assessment-only condition or to two brief motivationally-focused sessions, the first delivered during incarceration, the second one month later after community re-entry. Participants recalled drinking behaviors at three and six months after the baseline interview using a 90-day Timeline Followback method. Results The 245 female participants averaged 34 years of age, and were 71% Caucasian. Participants were abstinent only 47% of days in the three months prior to incarceration. On most days (85%) that they drank, women consumed four or more drinks. Intervention effects on abstinent days were statistically significant at 3-months (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.17, 3.30); the percent of days abstinent was 68% for those randomized to intervention and 57% for controls. At 6-months the effect of the intervention was attenuated and no longer statistically significant. Conclusions Among incarcerated women who reported hazardous drinking, a two-session brief alcohol intervention increased abstinent days at three-months, but this effect decayed by six months. Study participants continued to drink heavily after return to the community. More intensive intervention pre-release and after re-entry may benefit hazardously-drinking incarcerated women. PMID:20402990

  14. Geospatial Analysis on the Distributions of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sze Hang Fu; Prabhat Jha; Gupta, Prakash C; Rajesh Kumar; Rajesh Dikshit; Dhirendra Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smo...

  15. Drinking motives as mediators of social anxiety and hazardous drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S; Zamboanga, Byron L; Bacon, Amy K; Garcia, Tracey A

    2009-01-01

    Although social anxiety (SA) and alcohol use disorders commonly co-occur, the relationship between these variables in college populations has been inconsistent. The present study tested the hypothesized model that negatively reinforcing, but not positively reinforcing, drinking motives (or reasons for drinking) would mediate the association between SA and three aspects of hazardous drinking (quantity/frequency, consequences, and dependence symptoms) in an ethnically diverse sample of college drinkers (N = 817; mean age = 19.9 years, range = 18-29). Structural equation modeling (SEM) results using the asymmetrical distribution of products test indicated that coping motives partially mediated the relationship between SA and negative consequences and dependence symptoms but not the quantity/frequency outcome. Contrary to the hypothesized model, conformity motives did not mediate the association between SA and hazardous drinking. As expected, positive reinforcement motives did not mediate the SA-hazardous drinking association. Multigroup SEM analyses revealed that the mediation models did not differ for men (n = 215) and women (n = 602). Overall, the present findings support extant research and theoretical models regarding the mediating role of coping motives in the relationship between SA and problem drinking, suggesting a potential pathway for the development and maintenance of SA and alcohol use disorder comorbidity. Such findings could contribute to improved intervention programs by targeting coping drinking motives and building coping skills.

  16. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Providing a Clean Environment for Adolescents: Evaluation of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Li Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1 to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2 to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70, grocery stores (n = 83, and betel nut stalls (n = 81. The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1% of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers’ ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1% to 59 (25.2% and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9% to 175 (74.8% after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ2 = 11.26, p < 0.001. Study II: A total of 476 (89.1% participants had received tobacco hazards prevention education and 58 (10.9% had not. Among the various residential areas, the highest percentage of participants that did not received tobacco hazards prevention education located in the plane regions (8.4%. The government organizations should continue to adopt counseling strategies to reduce the rate of disobedience of the Tobacco Hazards

  18. Geospatial analysis on the distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sze Hang; Jha, Prabhat; Gupta, Prakash C; Kumar, Rajesh; Dikshit, Rajesh; Sinha, Dhirendra

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended.

  19. Geospatial analysis on the distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Hang Fu

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood.We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking.There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20 were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level.These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended.

  20. Hazardous drinking and weight-conscious drinking behaviors in a sample of college students and college student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Vail-Smith, Karen; Gallucci, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    "Weight-conscious drinking" refers to behaviors to restrict calories in conjunction with consuming alcohol and is associated with numerous negative consequences. This behavior has been observed in the college student population but has not been examined among college student athletes. This cross-sectional study assessed drinking, hazardous drinking levels (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption [AUDIT-C] sum score), and weight-conscious drinking behaviors (for weight loss purposes and for intoxication purposes) using a paper-and-pencil survey that was completed by students at a large, private university in the Southwest United States. The sample for this study included college student nonathletes (n = 482; 212 males and 270 females) who completed the survey in 1 of 34 classes and college student athletes (n = 201; 79 males and 122 females) who completed the survey during practice. These analyses examined whether hazardous drinking level and other personal covariates (gender, race, and athlete status) predicted the 2 weight-conscious drinking behaviors of interest. Among the subsample of students who drank, the same proportion of participants indicated weight-conscious drinking behavior for weight loss and weight-conscious drinking behavior for intoxication (both 24.9%; n = 122). In the multivariate analyses, students with higher hazardous drinking scores and females were significantly more likely to report engaging in both weight-conscious drinking behaviors. In those analyses, neither weight-conscious drinking behavior varied by athlete status. In this sample of college students, hazardous drinking most predicted weight-conscious drinking behavior and superseded gender and athlete status. In response, college health professionals should consider evidenced-based approaches to address hazardous drinking.

  1. Associations among Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress, and Hazardous Drinking in College Students: Considerations for Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Jennifer P.; Radomski, Sharon; Borsari, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Students with trauma and posttraumatic stress are disproportionately at risk for heavy drinking and for alcohol-related consequences. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce hazardous drinking in college students, and could serve as a first-line approach to reduce heavy drinking in students with trauma and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Yet the standard BMI format may not adequately address the factors that lead to hazardous drinking in these students. Here, we review t...

  2. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  3. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient.

  4. The role of hazardous drinking reductions in predicting depression and anxiety symptom improvement among psychiatry patients: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahorik, Amber L; Leibowitz, Amy; Sterling, Stacy A; Travis, Adam; Weisner, Constance; Satre, Derek D

    2016-12-01

    Co-occurrence of depression, anxiety, and hazardous drinking is high in clinical samples. Hazardous drinking can worsen depression and anxiety symptoms (and vice versa), yet less is known about whether reductions in hazardous drinking improve symptom outcomes. Three hundred and seven psychiatry outpatients were interviewed (baseline, 3-, 6-months) for hazardous drinking (drinking over recommended daily limits), depression (PHQ-9), and anxiety (GAD-7) as part of a hazardous drinking intervention trial. Longitudinal growth models tested associations between hazardous drinking and symptoms (and reciprocal effects between symptoms and hazardous drinking), adjusting for treatment effects. At baseline, participants had moderate anxiety (M=10.81; SD=10.82) and depressive symptoms (M=13.91; SD=5.58); 60.0% consumed alcohol at hazardous drinking levels. Over 6-months, participants' anxiety (B=-3.03, panxiety (B=0.09, p=.005) and depressive symptom (B=0.10, p=.004) improvement; reductions in hazardous drinking led to faster anxiety (B=-0.09, p=.010) and depressive (B=-0.10, p=.015) symptom improvement. Neither anxiety (B=0.07, p=.066) nor depressive (B=0.05, p=.071) symptoms were associated with hazardous drinking outcomes. Participants were psychiatry outpatients, limiting generalizability. Reducing hazardous drinking can improve depression and anxiety symptoms but continued hazardous use slows recovery for psychiatry patients. Hazardous drinking-focused interventions may be helpful in promoting symptom improvement in clinical populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual victimization and hazardous drinking among heterosexual and sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda L; Szalacha, Laura A; Johnson, Timothy P; Kinnison, Kelly E; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Cho, Young

    2010-12-01

    Although research shows that sexual minority women report high rates of lifetime sexual victimization and high rates of hazardous drinking, investigators have yet to explore the relationships between sexual victimization and hazardous drinking in this population. In addition, because the rates of these problems may vary within the sexual minority population, we examined and compared relationships between sexual victimization and hazardous drinking in exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian and exclusively lesbian) women. Data from 548 participants in the National Study of Health and Life Experiences of Women and 405 participants in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study were pooled to address these relationships. We compared hazardous drinking, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adult sexual assault (ASA), and revictimization (both CSA and ASA) across the five sexual identity subgroups. We then fit a multilevel general linear model to examine group differences in the relationships between hazardous drinking and sexual victimization and to test for potential interactions between victimization and identity on hazardous drinking. Sexual minority women reported higher levels of hazardous drinking and higher rates of CSA and sexual revictimization than did exclusively heterosexual women. Revictimization was the strongest predictor of hazardous drinking among women who identified as mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian. This study extends previous research by examining associations between sexual victimization and hazardous drinking in heterosexual and sexual minority women and by exploring within-group variations in these associations among sexual minority women. Higher rates of lifetime sexual victimization and revictimization may help to explain sexual minority women's heightened risk for hazardous drinking. The findings highlight the need for additional research that examines the meanings of sexual

  6. Components of behavioural impulsivity and automatic cue approach predict unique variance in hazardous drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Paul; Cole, Jon C; Goudie, Andrew J; Field, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Hazardous drinking is associated with both increased impulsivity and automatic approach tendencies elicited by alcohol-related cues. However, impulsivity is a multi-factorial construct, and it is currently unclear if all components of impulsivity are associated with heavy drinking. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests that the relationships between hazardous drinking and automatic alcohol cognitions may be moderated by individual differences in impulsivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the independence of measures of impulsivity and their association with hazardous drinking, and to examine if the relationship between hazardous drinking and automatic alcohol approach tendencies would be moderated by individual differences in impulsivity. Ninety-seven social drinkers (65 female) completed questionnaire measures of trait impulsivity, alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. Participants also completed computerised measures of automatic alcohol approach tendencies (stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task), and two behavioural measures of impulsivity (Go/No-go and delay discounting tasks). Principal component analysis revealed that the two measures of behavioural impulsivity were distinct from each other and from self-reported trait impulsivity, although self-reported non-planning impulsivity loaded on to two factors (trait impulsivity and delay discounting). Furthermore, all measures of impulsivity predicted unique variance in hazardous drinking as did automatic alcohol approach tendencies, although the latter relationship was not moderated by impulsivity. These results indicate that multiple components of impulsivity and automatic alcohol approach tendencies explain unique variance in hazardous drinking.

  7. Asian American Adolescents' Acculturation, Binge Drinking, and Alcohol and Tobacco-Using Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk C.; Lahiff, Maureen; Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the association between acculturation and subsequent binge drinking among Asian American adolescents and investigates the mediating effect of friends' alcohol and tobacco use. Data from a nationally representative sample of 714 Asian American adolescents in grades 7 to 12 were analyzed. There was no gender difference in terms…

  8. Emotion dysregulation explains associations between anxiety sensitivity and hazardous drinking and drinking motives among adult treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel J; Valadka, Jaclyn; Businelle, Michael S; Gallagher, Matthew W; Viana, Andres G; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Smoking and drinking frequently co-occur. For example, alcohol use is associated with smoking lapses during quit attempts. However, little is known regarding psychological factors explaining drinking among smokers. Anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor associated with hazardous drinking and drinking to cope and/or conform, although little is known about mechanisms underlying such associations. One potential explanatory factor is emotion dysregulation. The current study examined emotion dysregulation as an explanatory factor underlying Anxiety Sensitivity and 5 alcohol-related outcomes: hazardous drinking, alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, coping-oriented drinking, and drinking to conform. Participants for this study were 467 treatment-seeking adult, daily smokers (48.2% women; Mage = 36.7 years, SD = 13.6) who reported smoking an average of 16.5 cigarettes per day. Results indicate significant indirect effects of Anxiety Sensitivity on hazardous drinking via emotion dysregulation, alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, drinking to cope, and drinking to conform. Effects were medium in size. Alternative models testing indirect effects of emotion dysregulation through Anxiety Sensitivity on outcomes, and Anxiety Sensitivity through outcomes on emotion dysregulation were nonsignificant and all had small effect sizes. Follow-up tests examined the path of effects from Anxiety Sensitivity through specific emotion-dysregulation subfactors. Thus, among treatment-seeking smokers, emotion dysregulation may explain the associations of Anxiety Sensitivity with alcohol-related outcomes. This pattern of findings highlights the potential importance of interventions targeting emotion dysregulation among hazardous-drinking smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Associations among Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress, and Hazardous Drinking in College Students: Considerations for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; Radomski, Sharon; Borsari, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Students with trauma and posttraumatic stress are disproportionately at risk for heavy drinking and for alcohol-related consequences. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce hazardous drinking in college students, and could serve as a first-line approach to reduce heavy drinking in students with trauma and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Yet the standard BMI format may not adequately address the factors that lead to hazardous drinking in these students. Here, we review the literature on PTS and hazardous drinking in college students, and highlight cognitive (self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies) and behavioral (coping strategies, emotion regulation skills, protective behaviors) factors that may link trauma and PTS to drinking risk. Incorporating these factors into standard BMIs in a collaborative way that enhances their personal relevance may enhance intervention efficacy and acceptability for these at-risk students.

  10. Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; McKee, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking. Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Health hazards of energy drinks--the situation in Israel and the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Bennidor; Zaidani, Haitam; Israelit, Shlomo Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Since 1987, with the introduction of the first commercial energy drink in Europe, the level of sale of these drinks increased rapidly throughout the western world. These drinks are based on caffeine that is found in them ndependently, and in other ingredients. Other ingredients in these drinks potentiate the effects of caffeine. Caffeine acts in the organism through inhibition and activation of various receptors, and thus affects almost all the body systems. There is an increasing body of evidence about the medical hazards of uncontrolled use of these drinks, with neurologic, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic complications. There is a direct link between use of energy drinks and abuse of alcohol and drugs. Due to the above, health authorities in Israel and around the world have started addressing the regulatory, medical and informative aspects of the issue. In spite all of the above, there is lack of awareness of the public and medical teams about the hazards of cousuming these drinks.

  12. Longitudinal disparities of hazardous drinking between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermody, Sarah S; Marshal, Michael P; Cheong, Jeewon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14-18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53 % female) and 27-31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13 % self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16 % were Hispanic, and 36 % were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60 %) and Asian Americans (18 %). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood.

  13. Longitudinal patterns of binge drinking among first year college students with a history of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Li, Kin-Kit; Acock, Alan; Snyder, Frank J

    2009-07-01

    Underage heavy episodic drinking is a major contributor to alcohol-related morbidity/mortality. Reports indicate underage binge drinking among college students is widespread and has remained stable over the past decade. This study describes individual characteristics and calendar-specific events associated with binge drinking episodes over the course of freshman college academic year (2002-2003). Students (N=827, age 18 years), with a prior history of tobacco use, attending a large Midwest university completed weekly web-based surveys on the number of drinks consumed for each of the past 7 days over the duration of 35 consecutive weeks (avg. number of weeks reported 16.0+/-10.5). Average prevalence of binge episodes across the academic year was 17.2+/-14.4%, 23.6+/-8.3%, and 66.3+/-11.2% for weekdays, Thursdays, and weekend days, respectively. Two-level random effects logit survival models for repeated events indicated the prevalence of weekday and Thursday binge drinking was associated with specific university/community events (Local festival odds ratio [OR] 6.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34-8.36), holidays (New Year's Eve OR 18.48, CI 12.83-26.63), and academic breaks (Spring Break OR 6.45, CI 4.57-9.08). Expected associations of younger age of first heavy drinking, past 12-month drinking, and experiencing negative consequences from heavy drinking were observed. Although individual characteristics were related to engaging in a binge episode, binge episodes were strongly associated with time-specific calendar events. Effective interventions to prevent immediate and long-term health consequences associated with binge drinking should consider environmental and institutional policy-level controls to reduce high levels of binge drinking on college campuses connected with holidays and university/community events.

  14. Drinking and Dating: Examining the Link among Relationship Satisfaction, Hazardous Drinking, and Readiness-to-Change in College Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    For this study we examined the association between relationship satisfaction and readiness-to-change alcohol use, as well as the associations between hazardous drinking and readiness-to-change relationship issues in college dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18-25) completed self-report…

  15. Treatment Seeking Among College Students with Comorbid Hazardous Drinking and Elevated Mood/Anxiety Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Daniel W; Bauer, Brian W; Madson, Michael B; Schmidt, Norman B

    2017-11-27

    Hazardous drinking is prevalent among college students and often comorbid with mood and/or anxiety disorders; however, these disorders frequently go untreated. Prior studies have found that individuals with comorbid hazardous drinking are more likely to seek treatment than those with an hazardous drinking alone. The current study tested possible psychological and structural explanations to understand these treatment seeking behaviors. A sample of 222 students identified as hazardous drinkers (AUDIT ≥ 8) participated from September 2010 to April 2011. Behavioral measures designed to mimic actual treatment seeking and self-report measures were used to assess treatment seeking behaviors, and the influence of psychopathology and individual predictors on treatment interest. Students were more interested in treatment for emotional problems than for alcohol problems. Further, treatment seeking interest was significantly higher among individuals with comorbid hazardous drinking. When provided a telephone offer for a free on-campus clinic appointment, no students were interested in receiving treatment for alcohol use problems, but some were interested in an appointment for emotional problems (n = 13). Of those students expressing interest on the phone, seven attended the clinic appointment. Logistic regression analyses revealed that students with anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and depression were more likely to attend the clinic appointment. Conclusions/Importance: In sum, targeting mood and anxiety disorders may be a viable way to increase treatment seeking rates in hazardous drinking college students.

  16. An Analysis of the Vulnerability of Global Drinking Water Access to Climate-related Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Banerjee, O.; Christenson, E.; Holcomb, D.; Hamrick, L.; Bartram, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global drinking water access targets are formulated around "sustainable access." Global climate change (GCC) and associated hazards threaten the sustainability of drinking water supply. Extensive literature exists on the impacts of GCC on precipitation and water resources. However, the literature lacks a credible analysis of the vulnerability of global drinking water access. This research reports on an analysis of the current vulnerability of drinking water access due to three climate-related hazardous events: cyclone, drought and flood. An ArcGIS database was built incorporating the following: population density, hazardous event frequency, drinking water technologies in use and adaptive capacity. Two global grids were incorporated first: (1) LandScanTM global population distribution; and (2) frequency of cyclone, drought and flood from ~1980-2000 from Columbia University Center for Hazards Risk Research (CHRR). Population density was used to characterize cells as urban or rural and country-level urban/rural drinking water technologies in use were added based on the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme data. Expert assessment of the resilience of each technology to each hazardous event based on WHO/DFID Vision 2030 were quantified and added to the database. Finally, country-level adaptive capacity was drawn from the "readiness" parameter of the Global Adaptation Index (GaIn). ArcGIS Model Builder and Python were used to automate the addition of datasets. This presentation will report on the results of this analysis, the first credible attempt to assess the vulnerability of global drinking water access to climate-related hazardous events. This analysis has yielded country-level scores and maps displaying the ranking of exposure score (for flood, drought, cyclone, and all three in aggregate) and the corresponding country-level vulnerability scores and rankings incorporating the impact of drinking water technologies and adaptive capacity (Figure 1).

  17. [Patterns of drinking alcohol tobacco smoking among 6th year students of the faculty of medicine in Białstok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielska, Dorota; Kurpas, Donata; Ołtarzewska, Alicja; Piotrowska-Depta, Maria; Gomółka, Ewa; Wojtal, Mariola; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco are legal, easily available addictive substances. There are no universal criteria of safe alcohol consumption but some scientific studies have allowed for determination of consumption levels helpful in evaluation of the pattern of drinking and evoking readiness to limit the amount of consumed alcohol. The aim of the work was to evaluate and compare the knowledge of 6th year students of the Faculty of Medicine of the Medical University of Biatystok in the academic years 2011/12 and 2012/13 concerning the effects of alcohol abuse, as well as to determine their drinking patterns and tobacco smoking structure. The study material was collected by means of anonymous voluntary surveys carried out before classes concerning the issues of addictions within the framework of family medicine subject block. 356 students took part in the study: 226 (63.5%) women and 130 (36.5%) men (pdrinking day (rS=-0.15, p=0.03) as well as between a low level of knowledge and hazardous drinking (rS=-0.13, p=0.03). Among the respondents, 18,58% women and 14,63% men smoked cigarettes regularly. Those who are 6th year students in the academic year 2012/13 usually had started smoking within the first three years of study at the Medical University and drank greater amounts of alcohol on a typical drinking day than students surveyed in the 2011/12 year. A correlation was found between tobacco smoking and a greater frequency of getting drunk occasionally (rS=-0.18, p=0.002) among students of both years. Insufficient knowledge on the effects of alcohol abuse and smoking coexist with a higher risk of drinking alcohol.

  18. Impact of the 2009 Taiwan tobacco hazards prevention act on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Sung, Hai-Yen; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2014-01-01

    In January 2009, the government of Taiwan amended the 1997 Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act by extending smoke-free areas to include almost all enclosed work-places and public places, adding graphic health warnings to cigarette packages, totally banning tobacco advertisements, promotion and sponsorship and increasing tobacco taxes. This study examined the impact of the 2009 amended Act on smoking cessation in Taiwan. Taiwan Adult Tobacco Surveys 2007 and 2010, each with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older (n = 16 588, and n = 16 295, respectively). All recent active smokers (current smokers plus former smokers who quit smoking within the past 12 months) were used for the analyses (n = 3783 in 2007, and n = 2777 in 2010). Quit attempt rate and annual cessation rate (defined as having succeeded in quitting for at least 3 months) among recent active smokers were compared between the pre-Act (2007) and post-Act (2010) periods. The quit attempt rate increased significantly from 39.4% in 2007 to 42.9% in 2010. The annual cessation rate increased significantly from 7.1 to 8.9%. A multivariate analysis, controlling for demographic characteristics, showed that the implementation of the 2009 Act was associated with an increase in the quit attempt rate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.25] and the annual cessation rate (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.08-1.53). The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in 2009 in Taiwan, which combined smoke-free legislation with a tobacco tax increase, graphic health warning labels and a total ban on tobacco advertisements, was associated with increases in quit attempt rate and annual cessation rate. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Hazardous Drinking among Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zavala, Rosa Icela; Aarons, Gregory A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    To describe the prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking among female sex workers (FSWs) at 13 sites throughout Mexico. FSWs (N = 1089) who were enrolled in a brief sexual risk reduction intervention (Mujer Segura) were queried about their sexual risk and substance use practices and their work contexts. Participants were classified as hazardous or non-hazardous drinkers based on the Alcohol Use Disorders test (AUDIT-C). Logistic regression models were used to examine individual, contextual, and community-level factors as correlates of hazardous drinking. Ninety-two percent of participants reported alcohol consumption in the past month. Among drinkers (N = 1001), 83% met AUDIT-C criteria for hazardous drinking. Factors that were independently associated with hazardous drinking included: drug use in the past month (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.31; 95% CI 1.29-8.45), being a cigarette smoker (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.58), being a barmaid or dance hostess (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI 1.95-5.91), alcohol use before or during sex with clients (AOR = 7.78; 95% CI 4.84-12.52), and working in a city with a higher marginalization index (AOR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.11). Findings support the high prioritization by public health authorities of alcohol prevention and treatment programs for FSWs. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between stricter alcohol advertising regulations and lower hazardous drinking across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Guitart, Anna M; Bartroli, Montserrat; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa

    2014-10-01

    To analyse the association between alcohol advertising restrictions and the prevalence of hazardous drinking among people aged 50-64 years in 16 European countries, taking into account both individual and contextual-level factors (alcohol taxation, availability, etc.). Cross-sectional study based on SHARE project surveys. A total of 27 773 subjects, aged 50-64 years, from 16 European countries who participated in wave 4 of the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) project. We estimated the prevalence of hazardous drinking (through adaptation of the SHARE questions to the scheme used by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C) for each country. To determine whether the degree of advertising restrictions was associated with prevalence of hazardous drinking, we fitted robust variance multi-level Poisson models, adjusting for various individual and contextual variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained. The observed prevalence of hazardous drinking was 24.1%, varying by sex and country. Countries with greater advertising restrictions had lower prevalence of hazardous drinking: 30.6% (95% CI = 29.3-31.8) in countries with no restrictions, 20.3% (95% CI = 19.3-21.2) in countries with some restrictions and 14.4% (95% CI = 11.9-16.8) in those with greatest restrictions. The PR found (with respect to countries with greatest restrictions) were 1.36 (95% CI = 0.90-2.06) for countries with some restrictions and 1.95 (95% CI = 1.31-2.91) for those with no advertising restrictions. The extent of advertising restrictions in European countries is associated inversely with prevalence of hazardous drinking in people aged 50-64 years. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Pathways to Hazardous Drinking Among Racially and Socioeconomically Diverse Lesbian Women: Sexual Minority Stress, Rumination, Social Isolation, and Drinking to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robin J.; Mason, Tyler B.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Gaskins, Melissa; Irons, Lance B.

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian women engage in more hazardous drinking than heterosexual women yet we know relatively little about what explains this disparity. In the present study, race, socioeconomic status, minority stress, general psychological processes and distress were examined as pathways to hazardous drinking among young (18-35 years) Black and non-Hispanic White lesbian women. We used the psychological mediation framework adaptation of minority stress theory and the reserve capacity model as theoretical underpinnings of the conceptual model in the current study. Self-identified lesbian participants (N= 867) completed a one-time online survey that assessed race, socioeconomic status, perceived sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress (concealment, internalized homophobia, lack of connection to lesbian community), rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, drinking to cope, and hazardous drinking. Cross-sectional results demonstrated that being Black was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of rumination, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Socioeconomic status was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress, rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Understanding these pathways can aid researchers and clinicians studying and working with lesbians who are at risk for hazardous drinking. PMID:28138208

  2. Pathways to Hazardous Drinking Among Racially and Socioeconomically Diverse Lesbian Women: Sexual Minority Stress, Rumination, Social Isolation, and Drinking to Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B; Winstead, Barbara A; Gaskins, Melissa; Irons, Lance B

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian women engage in more hazardous drinking than heterosexual women yet we know relatively little about what explains this disparity. In the present study, race, socioeconomic status, minority stress, general psychological processes and distress were examined as pathways to hazardous drinking among young (18-35 years) Black and non-Hispanic White lesbian women. We used the psychological mediation framework adaptation of minority stress theory and the reserve capacity model as theoretical underpinnings of the conceptual model in the current study. Self-identified lesbian participants (N= 867) completed a one-time online survey that assessed race, socioeconomic status, perceived sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress (concealment, internalized homophobia, lack of connection to lesbian community), rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, drinking to cope, and hazardous drinking. Cross-sectional results demonstrated that being Black was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of rumination, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Socioeconomic status was associated with hazardous drinking via sequential mediators of sexual minority discrimination, proximal minority stress, rumination, social isolation, psychological distress, and drinking to cope. Understanding these pathways can aid researchers and clinicians studying and working with lesbians who are at risk for hazardous drinking.

  3. Drinking and Dating: Examining the Link between Relationship Satisfaction, Hazardous Drinking, and Readiness-to-Change in College Dating Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of relationship satisfaction on readiness-to-change alcohol use and the influence of hazardous drinking on readiness-to-change relationship issues in college student dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18–25) completed self-report measures of dating relationship satisfaction, alcohol use, readiness-to-change alcohol use, and readiness-to-change relationship issues via an online survey from Augus...

  4. Training Medical Students about Hazardous Drinking Using Simple Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Jesús López-Torres; Pretel, Fernando Andrés; Bravo, Beatriz Navarro; Rabadan, Francisco Escobar; Serrano Selva, Juan Pedro; Latorre Postigo, Jose Miguel; Martínez, Ignacio Párraga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the ability of medical students to identify hazardous drinkers using screening tools recommended in clinical practice. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Faculty of Medicine of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Method: The medical students learnt to use Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and…

  5. Drinking and Dating: Examining the Link between Relationship Satisfaction, Hazardous Drinking, and Readiness-to-Change in College Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of relationship satisfaction on readiness-to-change alcohol use and the influence of hazardous drinking on readiness-to-change relationship issues in college student dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18–25) completed self-report measures of dating relationship satisfaction, alcohol use, readiness-to-change alcohol use, and readiness-to-change relationship issues via an online survey from August to December 2011. Participants were grouped on the basis of their scores on measures of alcohol use (hazardous drinkers vs. nonhazardous drinkers) and relationship satisfaction (high vs. low). Results indicated that alcohol use was negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, hazardous drinkers with high relationship satisfaction indicated more readiness-to-change alcohol use than hazardous drinkers with low relationship satisfaction. Alcohol problems were not related to readiness-to-change relationship issues. These findings indicate that highly satisfied dating relationships during college may positively influence readiness-to-change heavy drinking habits among college students. PMID:26997754

  6. Drinking and Dating: Examining the Link between Relationship Satisfaction, Hazardous Drinking, and Readiness-to-Change in College Dating Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddouma, Alexander; Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, Joanna; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of relationship satisfaction on readiness-to-change alcohol use and the influence of hazardous drinking on readiness-to-change relationship issues in college student dating relationships. A sample of 219 college students in a current dating relationship (aged 18-25) completed self-report measures of dating relationship satisfaction, alcohol use, readiness-to-change alcohol use, and readiness-to-change relationship issues via an online survey from August to December 2011. Participants were grouped on the basis of their scores on measures of alcohol use (hazardous drinkers vs. nonhazardous drinkers) and relationship satisfaction (high vs. low). Results indicated that alcohol use was negatively correlated with relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, hazardous drinkers with high relationship satisfaction indicated more readiness-to-change alcohol use than hazardous drinkers with low relationship satisfaction. Alcohol problems were not related to readiness-to-change relationship issues. These findings indicate that highly satisfied dating relationships during college may positively influence readiness-to-change heavy drinking habits among college students.

  7. Homeless women and hazardous drinking: screening results in a primary health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, Carole C; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Screening for alcohol use in primary care is underutilized, especially for women. The current study implemented systematic women's alcohol use screening in a health care for the homeless primary care program. All women (n=541) seeking care over 12 months were screened. Of the 541 screening forms returned, 80 women refused to answer the alcohol use questions. Of 461 completed screens, over 40% reported no alcohol use, while 43.8% reported hazardous drinking. Hazardous drinking was significantly associated with younger age, African American race, and living on the street or in a shelter. High rates of drinking were identified among women in different housing situations and use of systematic screening was beneficial to providers. Health care settings are important sites to identify hazardous drinking as well as alcohol disorders among women with unstable housing histories. The growing integration of behavioral health care into primary care, and the medical home concept, both provide opportunities for brief interventions for at-risk drinkers, as well as treatment options for those with alcohol use disorders that may be particularly appealing to women. Findings support further investigation of the relationship of housing stability to drinking, and suggest African American women may need special attention. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. Hazardously Drinking Jailed Women: Post-Release Perceived Needs and Risk of Reincarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Johnson, Jennifer E; Anderson, Bradley J; Caviness, Celeste; Stein, Michael D

    2017-12-01

    Women who drink hazardously face a high risk for re-arrest and reincarceration when they return to their communities after a jail stay. This study is the first to examine the associations between women's own reports of basic needs 1 month after jail release, and reincarceration (defined as spending at least one night in jail) during the next 5 months among unsentenced, female pretrial jail detainees who drink hazardously. Perceived needs for housing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.63; p < .01), substance treatment services (AOR = 2.65; p < .01), assistance/benefits (AOR = 2.37; p < .05), and mental health counseling (AOR = 2.07; p < .05) at 1 month after jail release were associated with reincarceration during the next 5 months for the 165 hazardously drinking jailed women in this study. These findings demonstrate that self-reported needs during the high-risk period immediately following jail release are associated with heightened odds of reincarceration among hazardously drinking jailed women.

  9. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Gao

    Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW.A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking.Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23, 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56 and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72, respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking.Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  10. Hazardous drinking and dimensions of impulsivity, behavioral approach, and inhibition in adult men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R.; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. Methods In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) Scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. Results There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all three dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward-Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than non-hazardous drinkers. Conclusion This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. PMID:22486201

  11. The Prevalence of Tobacco, Hubble-Bubble, Alcoholic Drinks, Drugs, and Stimulants among High-School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Alaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of tobacco, hubble-bubble, alcoholic drinks, and other drugs among Karaj high-school students in 2011. Methods: The research method was a descriptive-sectional study. Participants of this study were 447 girl and boy high-school students of Karaj that were selected by clustering random sampling. For data gathering, drug abuse questionnaire, and risk and protective factors inventory were administered among selected sample. Results: According to the results, 57% of students in this study said that they have had experiences with a kind of drug including tobacco, hubble-bubble, alcoholic drinks, and other drugs at least once in their lives. The study showed the prevalence for soft drugs: hubble-bubble, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks, and for hard drugs ecstasy, opium, hashish, meth, crack, and heroin respectively. Conclusion: Soft drugs including hubble-bubble, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks, are the most common among Karaj high-school students. The prevalence of hard drugs among them is rather low.

  12. Hazardous drinking and dimensions of impulsivity, behavioral approach, and inhibition in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2012-06-01

    Hazardous drinking is characterized by decisions to engage in excessive or risky patterns of alcohol consumption. Levels of impulsivity and behavioral approach and inhibition may differ in hazardous drinkers and nonhazardous drinkers. A comparison of the relative levels of dimensions of impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach in adult men and women hazardous and nonhazardous drinkers may inform treatment and prevention efforts. In the present research, 466 men and women from a community sample were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Approach System (BIS/BAS) scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11). Relations among the dimensions of these constructs were examined using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), with age and race as covariates. There were main effects of hazardous drinking on all 3 dimensions of impulsivity, the behavioral inhibition system, and the behavioral activation system Reward Responsiveness, and Fun-Seeking components, with hazardous drinkers scoring higher than nonhazardous drinkers. This research provides a better understanding of the manner in which impulsivity and behavioral inhibition and approach tendencies relate to hazardous alcohol use in men and women. The present results have implications for alcohol-related prevention and treatment strategies for adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Expert assessment of the resilience of drinking water and sanitation systems to climate-related hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Royster, Sarah; Sebastian, Daniel; Ojomo, Edema; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-08-15

    We conducted an expert assessment to obtain expert opinions on the relative global resilience of ten drinking water and five sanitation technologies to the following six climate-related hazards: drought, decreased inter-annual precipitation, flood, superstorm flood, wind damage, and saline intrusion. Resilience scores ranged from 1.7 to 9.9 out of a maximum resilience of 10, with high scores corresponding to high resilience. We find that for some climate-related hazards, such as drought, technologies demonstrated a large range in resilience, indicating that the choice of water and sanitation technologies is important for areas prone to drought. On the other hand, the range of resilience scores for superstorm flooding was much smaller, particularly for sanitation technologies, suggesting that the choice of technology is less of a determinant of functionality for superstorm flooding as compared to other climate-related hazards. For drinking water technologies, only treated piped utility-managed systems that use surface water had resilience scores >6.0 for all hazards, while protected dug wells were found to be one of the least resilient technologies, consistently scoring resilience, suggesting that sanitation systems need to be adapted to ensure functionality during and after climate-related hazards. The results of the study can be used to help communities decide which technologies are best suited for the climate-related challenges they face and help in future adaptation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual orientation differences in the relationship between victimization and hazardous drinking among women in the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen F; Hughes, Tonda L; Korcha, Rachael A; Lown, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    This study examined relationships between past experiences of victimization (sexual abuse and physical abuse in childhood, sexual abuse and physical abuse in adulthood, and lifetime victimization) and hazardous drinking among sexual minority women compared to exclusively heterosexual women. Data were from 11,169 women responding to sexual identity and sexual behavior questions from three National Alcohol Survey waves: 2000 (n = 3,880), 2005 (n = 3,464), and 2010 (n = 3,825). A hazardous drinking index was constructed from five dichotomous variables (5+ drinking in the past year, drinking two or more drinks daily, drinking to intoxication in the past year, two or more lifetime dependence symptoms, and two or more lifetime drinking-related negative consequences). Exclusively heterosexual women were compared with three groups of sexual minority women: lesbian, bisexual, and women who identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex partners. Each of the sexual minority groups reported significantly higher rates of lifetime victimization (59.1% lesbians, 76% bisexuals, and 64.4% heterosexual women reporting same-sex partners) than exclusively heterosexual women (42.3%). Odds for hazardous drinking among sexual minority women were attenuated when measures of victimization were included in the regression models. Sexual minority groups had significantly higher odds of hazardous drinking, even after controlling for demographic and victimization variables: lesbian (ORadj = 2.0, CI = 1.1-3.9, p sexual minority women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The Association between Social Stressors and Drug Use/Hazardous Drinking among Former Prison Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Susan; Beaty, Brenda; Mueller, Shane R.; Min, Sung-Joon; Binswanger, Ingrid A.

    2014-01-01

    Social stressors are associated with relapse to substance use among people receiving addiction treatment and people with substance use risk behaviors. The relationship between social stressors and drug use/hazardous drinking in former prisoners has not been studied. We interviewed former prisoners at baseline, 1 to 3 weeks post prison release, and follow up, between 2 and 9 months following the baseline interview. Social stressors were characterized by unemployment, homelessness, unstable housing, problems with family, friends, and/or significant others, being single, or major symptoms of depression. Associations between baseline social stressors and follow-up drug use and hazardous drinking were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Problems with family, friends, and/or significant others were associated with reported drug use (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.18–7.67) and hazardous drinking (AOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.05–6.87) post release. Further research may determine whether interventions and policies targeting social stressors can reduce relapse among former inmates. PMID:24642070

  16. Alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking among undergraduates at English universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Nick; Partington, Sarah; Partington, Elizabeth; Longstaff, Fran; Allsop, Susan; Jankowski, Mark; Wareham, Helen; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    To report on alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking from a survey of university students in England in 2008-2009. A cross-sectional survey using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was carried out in a purposive sample of 770 undergraduates from seven universities across England. Sixty-one per cent of the sample (65% men; 58% women) scored positive (8+) on the AUDIT, comprising 40% hazardous drinkers, 11% harmful drinkers and 10% with probable dependence. There were large and significant differences in mean AUDIT scores between the universities taking part in the survey. Two universities in the North of England showed a significantly higher combined mean AUDIT score than two universities in the Midlands which in turn showed a significantly higher mean AUDIT score than three universities in the South. When the effects of university attended were extracted in a binary logistic regression analysis, independent significant predictors of AUDIT positive status were younger age, 'White' ethnicity and both on-campus and off-campus term-time student accommodation. Undergraduates at some universities in England show very high levels of alcohol-related risk and harm. University authorities should estimate the level of hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders among students at their institutions and take action to reduce risk and harm accordingly. Research is needed using nationally representative samples to estimate the prevalence of alcohol risk and harm in the UK student population and to determine the future course of drinking problems among students currently affected.

  17. Tobacco consumption and awareness of their health hazards amongst lower income group school children in National Capital Territory of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinita; Pal, Hem Raj; Mehta, Manju; Kapil, Umesh

    2007-04-01

    Consumption of tobacco is a complex and multidimensional problem faced by the country. It is the main culprit behind oral cancer. The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of consumption of tobacco amongst adolescent school children of low-income group in National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi and to study the perception of the children regarding the health hazards of tobacco. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 3,422 children in the age group of 10-18 years studying in government schools in NCT of Delhi. About 9.8% of the study children had at least once experimented with any form of tobacco in their lifetime. The proportion of children who were "current users" of tobacco products was 5.4% (boys: 4.6%, Girls: 0.8%). Nearly eighty percent of the study subjects knew that, tobacco consumption is injurious to health. The parents of 59% of the children discussed the harmful effects of tobacco consumption with their children.

  18. Health hazards and mitigation of chronic poisoning from arsenic in drinking water: Taiwan experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Jen

    2014-01-01

    There are two endemic areas of long-term exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Taiwan. Residents in the southwestern and northeastern endemic areas started using high-arsenic artesian well water in the early 1910s and late 1940s, respectively. Public water supply system using surface water was implemented in southwestern and northeastern endemic areas in the 1970s and 1990s, respectively. Systemic health hazards of long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water have been intensively investigated since the 1960s, especially after 1985 in Taiwan. Several diseases have been well documented to be associated with chronic arsenic poisoning from drinking water showing a dose-response relation. They include characteristic skin lesions like hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hyperkeratosis in palms and soles, and Bowen disease, peripheral vascular disease (specifically blackfoot disease), ischemic heart disease, cerebral infarction, microvascular diseases, abnormal peripheral microcirculation, carotid atherosclerosis, QT prolongation and increased dispersion in electrocardiography, hypertension, goiter, diabetes mellitus, cataract (specifically posterior subcapsular lens opacity), pterygium, slow neural conduction, retarded neurobehavioral development, erectile dysfunction, and cancers of the skin, lung, urinary bladder, kidney, and liver. The method of choice to mitigate arsenic poisoning through drinking water is to use safe drinking water from uncontaminated sources.

  19. Validating the ability of a single-item assessing drunkenness to detect hazardous drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Chaney, Beth H; Stellefson, Michael L; Dodd, Virginia

    2013-09-01

    To simplify the screening process to identify problem drinking, researchers have developed single-item, quantity-based instruments. Quantity-based items, however, suffer from several limitations. Determine whether a non-quantity-based single item assessing drunkenness would be able to identify those who exhibited signs of hazardous alcohol use, as determined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C scores. Between September and November of 2011, the alcohol-related behaviors of 1062 self-identified current drinkers were assessed with self-report measures (i.e. AUDIT-C and one item assessing frequency of drunkenness) in addition to corresponding biologic samples (i.e. breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) samples). We assessed the concurrent validity of the single item to identify hazardous alcohol use established via gender-based AUDIT-C thresholds. Convergent validity of the single-item was assessed by determining its relationship to BrAC levels. The single item accounted for 0.791 of the area under the received operating characteristics curve for hazardous alcohol use (p utility of a non-quantity-based single-item alcohol screen for assessing drunkenness. Additional research is warranted to confirm the utility of this one-item drunkenness measure to capture risk of injury and hazardous drinking.

  20. AUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT-3: drinking patterns and screening for harmful, hazardous and dependent drinking in Katutura, Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Seth

    Full Text Available To describe alcohol drinking patterns among participants in Katutura, Namibia, and to evaluate brief versions of the AUDIT against the full AUDIT to determine their effectiveness in detecting harmful drinking.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four constituencies and 639 participants, 18 years or older, completed a sociodemographic survey and the AUDIT. The effectiveness of the AUDIT-C (first three questions and the AUDIT-3 (third question was compared to the full AUDIT.Approximately 40% were identified as harmful, hazardous or likely dependent drinkers, with men having a higher likelihood than women (57.2% vs. 31.0%, p<.0001. Approximately 32% reported making and/or selling alcohol from home. The AUDIT-C performed best at a cutoff ≥ 3, better in men (sensitivity: 99.3%, specificity: 77.8% than women (sensitivity: 91.7%, specificity: 77.4%. The AUDIT-3 performed poorly (maximum sensitivity: < 90%, maximum specificity: <51%. According to AUROC, the AUDIT-C performed better than the AUDIT-3.A large proportion of participants met criteria for alcohol misuse, indicating a need for screening and referral for further evaluation and intervention. The AUDIT-C was almost as effective as the full AUDIT and may be easier to implement in clinical settings as a routine screening tool in resource-limited settings because of its brevity.

  1. AUDIT, AUDIT-C, and AUDIT-3: drinking patterns and screening for harmful, hazardous and dependent drinking in Katutura, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Glenshaw, Mary; Sabatier, Jennifer H F; Adams, René; Du Preez, Verona; DeLuca, Nickolas; Bock, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    To describe alcohol drinking patterns among participants in Katutura, Namibia, and to evaluate brief versions of the AUDIT against the full AUDIT to determine their effectiveness in detecting harmful drinking. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four constituencies and 639 participants, 18 years or older, completed a sociodemographic survey and the AUDIT. The effectiveness of the AUDIT-C (first three questions) and the AUDIT-3 (third question) was compared to the full AUDIT. Approximately 40% were identified as harmful, hazardous or likely dependent drinkers, with men having a higher likelihood than women (57.2% vs. 31.0%, p<.0001). Approximately 32% reported making and/or selling alcohol from home. The AUDIT-C performed best at a cutoff ≥ 3, better in men (sensitivity: 99.3%, specificity: 77.8%) than women (sensitivity: 91.7%, specificity: 77.4%). The AUDIT-3 performed poorly (maximum sensitivity: < 90%, maximum specificity: <51%). According to AUROC, the AUDIT-C performed better than the AUDIT-3. A large proportion of participants met criteria for alcohol misuse, indicating a need for screening and referral for further evaluation and intervention. The AUDIT-C was almost as effective as the full AUDIT and may be easier to implement in clinical settings as a routine screening tool in resource-limited settings because of its brevity.

  2. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and risk of oral cavity cancer by subsite: results of a French population-based case-control study, the ICARE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Cyr, Diane; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Guida, Florence; Schmaus, Annie; Cénée, Sylvie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Carton, Matthieu; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Delafosse, Patricia; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-05-01

    The objective was to examine the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the incidence of oral cavity cancer by subsite in France, a high-incidence area. We analysed detailed data on lifelong tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking from 772 oral cavity cancer cases and 3555 controls included in a population-based case-control study, the ICARE study. Tobacco smoking increased the risk of oral cavity cancer even for the smaller quantities and durations, whereas alcohol drinking increased this risk only in heavy drinkers who were also ever smokers. The combined effect of smoking and drinking was greater than multiplicative. The floor of the mouth was the subsite that was the most affected by the harmful effects of tobacco and alcohol, whereas the gums were less susceptible. The risk associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption did not differ between intraoral cavity and subsites usually included in the oropharynx (soft palate and base of the tongue). Population-attributable risks for oral cavity cancer were 78.6% for tobacco smoking, 7.3% for alcohol drinking and 80.7% for tobacco and/or alcohol consumption. These results indicate that regular oral check-ups should be targeted at smokers and heavy drinkers, and that prevention efforts should be focused on smoking cessation.

  3. Gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged in Europe: the role of social context and women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Espelt, Albert; Borrell, Carme; Bartroli, Montse; Guitart, Anna M; Villalbí, Joan R; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in hazardous drinking among middle-aged people and to analyse whether these differences are associated with contextual factors, such as public policies or socioeconomic factors. Cross-sectional design. The study population included 50- to 64-year-old residents of 16 European countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project conducted in 2010-12 (n = 26 017). We estimated gender differences in hazardous drinking in each country. To determine whether different social context or women's empowerment variables were associated with gender differences in hazardous drinking, we fitted multilevel Poisson regression models adjusted for various individual and country-level variables, which yielded prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Prevalence of hazardous drinking was significantly higher in men than women [30.2% (95% CI: 29.1-31.4%) and 18.6% (95% CI: 17.7-19.4%), respectively] in most countries, although the extent of these differences varied between countries. Among individuals aged 50-64 years in Europe, risk of becoming a hazardous drinker was 1.69 times higher (95% CI: 1.45-1.97) in men, after controlling for individual and country-level variables. We also found that lower values of the gender empowerment measure and higher unemployment rates were associated with higher gender differences in hazardous drinking. Countries with the greatest gender differences in hazardous drinking were those with the most restrictions on women's behaviour, and the greatest gender inequalities in daily life. Lower gender differences in hazardous drinking seem to be related to higher consumption among women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Nondaily smoking and alcohol use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol diagnoses among young adults: findings from the NESARC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L R; Desai, Rani A; McKee, Sherry A

    2008-12-01

    Nondaily smoking and heavy alcohol use are prevalent behaviors among young adults, with nondaily smoking occurring primarily in the context of alcohol use. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well characterized in young adults, few epidemiological investigations have investigated the association between nondaily smoking and drinking behavior. We examined Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2003b; n = 43,093). Young adults (aged 18 to 25 years; n = 5,838) were stratified on current smoking behavior (daily, nondaily, and nonsmokers in the past 12 months) and differences in weekly quantity of alcohol use, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking behavior, rates of NIAAA-defined hazardous drinking, and rates of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses were investigated. College student status was examined. Twenty-five percent were current smokers and 7% were smoking on a nondaily basis. Seventy-one percent were current drinkers, 39% reported binge drinking at least once a month, 41% met criteria for hazardous drinking, and 18% had alcohol use disorders. Across all measures of alcohol use, there was a significant effect of smoking status, with daily smokers having greater alcohol use patterns, compared with nondaily smokers, with nonsmokers consuming the least. Nondaily smokers were more likely to report any binge drinking in the past 12 months. However, daily smokers were more likely to report daily binge drinking. With regard to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders, nondaily smoking conferred the greatest risk, followed by daily smoking with nonsmoking as the reference group. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated that the odds of being a hazardous drinker were 16 times greater (95% CI 9.46-26.48) in a nondaily smoker compared with a nonsmoker, whereas the odds for a daily smoker were increased by 7-fold (95% CI 5.54-9.36). A similar pattern of results was

  5. Sexual orientation identity and tobacco and hazardous alcohol use: findings from a cross-sectional English population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Lion; Brown, Jamie; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Michie, Susan; Semlyen, Joanna; West, Robert; Meads, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between tobacco and hazardous alcohol use and sexual orientation and whether such an association could be explained by other sociodemographic characteristics. Design Cross-sectional household survey conducted in 2014–2016. Setting England, UK. Participants Representative English population sample (pooled n=43 866). Main outcomes Sexual orientation identity (lesbian/gay, bisexual, heterosexual, prefer-not-to-say); current tobacco and hazardous alcohol use (defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Score ≥8). All outcomes were self-reported. Results Due to interactions between sexual orientation and gender for substance use, analyses were stratified by gender. Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher among lesbian/gay (women: 24.9%, 95% CI 19.2% to 32.6%; men: 25.9%, 95% CI 21.3% to 31.0%) and bisexual participants (women: 32.4%, 95% CI 25.9% to 39.6%; men: 30.7%, 95% CI 23.7% to 30.7%) and significantly lower for prefer-not-to-say participants in women (15.5%, 95% CI 13.5% to 17.8%) but not men (22.7%, 95% CI 20.3% to 25.3%) compared with heterosexual participants (women: 17.5%, 95% CI 17.0% to 18.0%; men: 20.4%, 95% CI 19.9% to 21.0%; psexual orientation groups among both women and men. By contrast, sexual orientation differences in hazardous alcohol use remained even after adjustment among women but not for bisexual and gay men. Conclusions In England, higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority men and women appear to be attributable to other sociodemographic factors. Higher rates of hazardous alcohol use among sexual minority men may also be attributable to these factors, whereas this is not the case for sexual minority women. PMID:29074508

  6. Validating a Hazardous Drinking Index in a Sample of Sexual Minority Women: Reliability, Validity and Predictive Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barth B.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Benson, Perry; Aranda, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Background Although sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk of hazardous drinking (HD), efforts to validate HD measures have yet to focus on this population. Objectives Validation of a 13-item Hazardous Drinking Index (HDI) in a large sample of SMW. Methods Data were from 700 adult SMW (age 18–82) enrolled in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. Criterion measures included counts of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, average daily and 30-day ethanol consumption, risky sexual behavior, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) measures of alcohol abuse/dependence. Analyses included assessment of internal consistency, construction of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to predict alcohol abuse/dependence, and correlations between HDI and criterion measures. We compared the psychometric properties (diagnostic accuracy and correlates of hazardous drinking) of the HDI to the commonly used CAGE instrument. Results KR-20 reliability for the HDI was 0.80, compared to 0.74 for the CAGE. Predictive accuracy, as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for alcohol abuse/dependence, was HDI: 0.89; CAGE: 0.84. The HDI evidenced the best predictive efficacy and tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. Results supported the concurrent validity of the HDI measure. Conclusions The Hazardous Drinking Index is a reliable and valid measure of hazardous drinking for sexual minority women. PMID:27661289

  7. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  8. Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points in the drinking water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Tavasolifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to design comprehensive risk management based on hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP in the Isfahan drinking water system. Materials and Methods: Data obtained from field inspections and through related organizations of Isfahan, Iran. The most important risks and risky events of water quality in all sources of raw water in the study area including the Zayanderoud river, the water treatment plant, and the distribution system were identified and analyzed. Practical measures for the protection, control, and limitation of the risks in different phases, from water supply to consumption point, were presented in the form of seven principles of the HACCP system. Results: It was found that there was a potential of hazards during the treatment process of water because of seasonal changes and discharge of various pollutants. Water contamination could occur in eight identified critical control points (CCP. River water could be contaminated by rural communities on the banks of the river, by natural and sudden accidents, by subversive accidents, by incomplete operation, by lack of proportionate of the current treatment process, and by the high extent of antiquity of the Isfahan water distribution system. Conclusions: In order to provide safe drinking water, it is necessary to implement a modern risk management system such as the HACCP approach. The increasing trend of the Zayandehroud river pollution needs urgent attention. Therefore, the role of the government in developing and mandating the HACCP system in water industries is essential.

  9. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections among hazardously drinking women after incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D; Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J

    2012-01-01

    At the time of incarceration, women have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In the months after community release, women remain at high risk for new infections. This study assessed the rates and predictors of incident chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis in a sample of hazardously drinking women after incarceration. Self-reported behavioral data were collected from 245 incarcerated women. Vaginal swabs were collected at baseline, and 3- and 6-month time points and tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Treatment was provided for all positive tests. Participants' mean age was 34.1 years of age; 175 (71.4%) were Caucasian, 47 (19.2%) were African American, 17 (6.9%) were Hispanic, and 6 (2.4%) were of other ethnic origins. The STI incidence rate was estimated to be 30.5 (95% confidence interval, 21.3-43.5) new infections per 100 person-years. Number of male sex partners reported during follow-up was a significant (z = 2.16; p = .03) predictor of STI; each additional male sex partner increased the estimated hazard of STI by 1.26. Incarcerated women who are hazardous drinkers are at high risk for STI in the months after their return to the community. In addition to testing and treatment during incarceration, post-release rescreening, education, partner treatment, and follow-up are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Hazardously-Drinking Women Following Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and background At the time of incarceration, women have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In the months following community release, women remain at high risk for new infections. This study assessed the rates and predictors of incident Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomoniasis in a sample of hazardously-drinking women following incarceration. Methods Self-reported behavioral data were collected from 245 incarcerated women. Vaginal swabs were collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-month time-points and tested for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomoniasis. Treatment was provided for all positive tests. Results Participants’ mean age was 34.1 years of age, 175 (71.4%) (n=175) were Caucasian, 47 (19.2%) were African-American, 17 (6.9%) were Hispanic and 6 (2.4%) were of other ethnic origins. The STI incidence rate was estimated to be 30.5 (95%CI 21.3 – 43.5) new infections per 100 person-years. Number of male sex partners reported during follow-up was a significant (z = 2.16, p = .03) predictor of STI; each additional male sex partner increased the estimated hazard of STI by 1.26. Conclusions and discussion Incarcerated women who are hazardous drinkers are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection in the months following their return to the community. In addition to testing and treatment during incarceration, post-release rescreening, education, partner treatment, and follow-up are recommended. PMID:21835632

  11. Longitudinal Associations among Discordant Sexual Orientation Dimensions and Hazardous Drinking in a Cohort of Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-06-01

    We examined differences between sexual minority women's (SMW's) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  12. Hazardous drinking and HIV-risk-related behavior among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk for HIV. Whereas the HIV risks of alcohol use are well understood, less is known about hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs, particularly in Mexico. We sought to identify risk factors for hazardous alcohol use and test associations between hazardous alcohol use and HIV risk behavior among male clients in Tijuana. Male clients of FSWs in Tijuana (n = 400) completed a quantitative interview in 2008. The AUDIT was used to characterize hazardous alcohol use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent associations of demographic and HIV risk variables with hazardous alcohol use (vs. non-hazardous). Forty percent of our sample met criteria for hazardous alcohol use. Variables independently associated with hazardous drinking were reporting any sexually transmitted infection (STI), having sex with a FSW while under the influence of alcohol, being younger than 36 years of age, living in Tijuana, and ever having been jailed. Hazardous drinkers were less likely ever to have been deported or to have shared injection drugs. Hazardous alcohol use is associated with HIV risk, including engaging in sex with FSWs while intoxicated and having an STI among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. We systematically described patterns and correlates of hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. The results suggest that HIV/STI risk reduction interventions must target hazardous alcohol users, and be tailored to address alcohol use. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Normative perceptions of non-medical stimulant use: associations with actual use and hazardous drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Jason R; Geisner, Irene Markman; Gasser, Melissa L; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 10% of US college students are engaged in non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and that use is linked to concerning health, educational, and societal consequences. Few studies have assessed normative perceptions surrounding NMUPS. Accordingly, we examined self-reported use and normative perceptions for NMUPS and demographic factors that may be associated with them. We also investigated whether higher normative perceptions for NMUPS were related to the most commonly used and abused substance among college students (alcohol). 1106 undergraduates participated in an online survey of normative perceptions of NMUPS and students' own drinking and stimulant use habits. Students overestimated NMUPS by other students and those normative estimates were associated with higher NMUPS. Living in a fraternity or sorority was related to higher NMUPS and perceived norms. Finally, higher normative perceptions of NMUPS were associated with higher hazardous drinking. The large discrepancy between actual use (generally low) and students' perceptions (generally high), and the relationship of these perceptions to both one's own use of NMUPS and alcohol suggests that interventions aimed at correcting norms may be useful. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Job strain, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related disorders among Brazilian bank workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos Tadeu; Farrell, Michael; Prince, Martin

    2013-03-01

    To assess the association between high job strain and drinking behaviors among bank workers. A crosssectional study was performed in 1,080 Brazilian bank employees. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to assess hazardous drinking (HZD). Alcohol-related disorders (ARDs) were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations between job strain and drinking behaviors were tested by fitting the main effects of high job demands and low job control, with the interaction between them, and by comparing high demands and low-control jobs with other jobs, using Poisson regression. Prevalences of HZD and ARDs were 25.5% and 13.5%, respectively. For the association with HZD, there was a significant interaction between high demands and low control (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.56, 95% CI [1.03, 2.35]). For low-demand jobs, low control was negatively associated with HZD (PR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.50, 0.97]). High demands only conferred increased risk for HZD in the context of low control. Patterns of association with ARDs were similar but did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, multivariate analyses supported the associations between the four-quadrant jobstrain model and HZD. However, passive jobs were associated with a low prevalence of HZD, and post hoc analysis suggested that increased risk of HZD was concentrated in the highest quarter of job strain (PR = 1.55, 95% CI [1.10, 2.21]). High job strain was associated with HZD; the association with ARDs was equivocal. For HZD, an interaction between high demands and low control, as posited by Karasek, was observed.

  15. Psychosocial Correlates of AUDIT-C Hazardous Drinking Risk Status: Implications for Screening and Brief Intervention in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahesh, Edward; Lewis, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study identified psychosocial variables associated with AUDIT-C hazardous drinking risk status for male and female college students. Logistic regression analysis revealed that AUDIT-C risk status was associated with alcohol-related negative consequences, injunctive norms, and descriptive norms for both male and female participants.…

  16. Respiratory effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water and tobacco smoking in southern part of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Jamali, Muhammad Khan, E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Jalbani, Nusrat, E-mail: nusratjalbani_21@yahoo.com [Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, University Road Karachi-75280 (Pakistan); Sarfraz, Raja Adil, E-mail: rajaadilsarfraz@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Education, Lahore, Okara Campus, Okara (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas, E-mail: gakandhro@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a survey has been conducted during 2005-2007 on surface and groundwater arsenic (As) contamination and its impact on the health of local population, of villages located on the banks of Manchar lake, southern part of Sindh, Pakistan. We have also assessed the relationship between arsenic exposure through respiratory disorders in male subjects with drinking water and smoking cigarettes made from tobacco grown in agricultural land irrigated with As contaminated lake water. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) were collected from As exposed subjects (100% smokers) and age matched healthy male subjects (40.2% smoker and 59.8% non smokers) belong to unexposed areas for comparison purposes. The As concentration in drinking water (surface and underground water), agricultural soil, cigarette tobacco and biological samples were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The range of As concentrations in lake water was 35.2-158 {mu}g/L (average 97.5 {mu}g/L), which is 3-15 folds higher than permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). While the As level in local cigarette tobacco was found to be 3-6 folds higher than branded cigarettes (0.37-0.79 {mu}g/g). Arsenic exposed subjects (with and without RD) had significantly elevated levels of As in their biological samples as compared to referent male subject of unexposed area. These respiratory effects were more pronounced in individuals who had also As induced skin lesions. The linear regressions showed good correlations between As concentrations in water versus hair and blood samples of exposed subjects with and without respiratory problems.

  17. Identification of hazardous drinking with the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire: Relative operating characteristics as a function of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; Haas, Amie L; Radomski, Sharon; Wickham, Robert E; Borish, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    Heavy and problematic drinking is common on college campuses and is associated with myriad hazardous outcomes. The Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ; Read et al., 2006) was developed to provide comprehensive and expedient assessment of negative consequences of young adult drinking and has been used in a number of research and clinical settings. To date, no empirically derived cutoffs for the YAACQ have been available for use in the identification of those drinkers at greatest risk. This was the objective of the present study. In a large (N = 1,311) and demographically heterogeneous multisite sample, we identified cutoff scores for the YAACQ, and the contrasted detection of hazardous drinking using these cutoffs with those recommended for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We also examined whether cutoffs differed by gender. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis yielded cutoffs that delineate 3 levels (or zones) of hazardous drinking risk: low, moderate, and high. A cutoff of 8 differentiated those at low risk from those at moderate risk or greater, and a cutoff of 16 differentiated between moderate and high risk. These zones corresponded to other indices of risky drinking, including heavy episodic "binge" drinking, more frequent alcohol consumption, and engagement in alcohol risk behaviors. Scores differentiating low to moderate risk differed for men (8) and women (10), whereas the cutoff for high risk was the same (16) across the sexes. Findings suggest that the YAACQ can be used to reliably assess level of drinking risk among college students. Furthermore, these cut scores may be used to refer to interventions varying in intensity level, based on level of indicated alcohol risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. [Television and Internet as sources of women knowledge of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks impact on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Kobyłecka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of the Internet allows obtaining information on different areas of life, including the impact of smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and active smoking are a serious risk for women's health, especially for women in reproductive age and children at any time in their lives. Alcohol is a risk factor for the development of general diseases, and consumed by pregnant women has a toxic effect on the body of women and a child in the prenatal period. Due to the increased consumption of energy drinks containing among others nervous system stimulants and carbohydrates, their consumption should be a conscious choice of the consumers. Knowledge of the health risks resulting from the lifestyle can be a decisive factor for the implementation of health behaviour. The aim of the study was to determine the sources from which men and women acquire information concerning the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. The respondents interest in the above mentioned subjects was also evaluated. The survey study was carried out in a group of 160 persons (114 women and 46 men), aged 19-60 years, randomly selected from the patients presenting to the Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. An author's questionnaire was prepared for this research. The data were analyzed statistically with the use of Pearson's X2 test. Statistically significant test values were those with penergy drinks for 61.40 % of women and 47.83% men. Differences between sex of the respondents and indicated source of information were not statistically significant. Obtaining information from television programmes on the impact of smoking on health reported 70.18% of women and 63.04% of men, about alcohol consumption - 66.67% women and 58.70% men respectively. There was no statistically significant correlation between sex of the respondents and obtaining

  19. Alcohol-related injuries, hazardous drinking, and BrAC levels among a sample of bar patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Brechbiel, Kerry; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol-related injuries are a serious public health issue and research has found that alcohol consumption is positively correlated with injury risk. To better understand the association between alcohol consumption and injury risk. We conducted four anonymous cross-sectional field studies among a sample of bar patrons (N = 917) to assess breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, hazardous drinking levels (based on AUDIT-C score), and past year alcohol-related injuries in Fall 2014. Next, we conducted two logistic regression analyses to predict alcohol-related injuries: one model used hazardous drinking level as a predictor variable and the other model used BrAC. Among participants in our sample, the average BrAC% was .076 (SD =.055) and the average hazardous drinking score (based on the AUDIT-C) was 5.0 (SD = 2.6). The majority of participants indicated that they had not experienced an alcohol-related injury in the past year (859; 93.7%). Our regression analyses found that each incremental increase in a participants' hazardous drinking score increased the odds of experiencing a self-reported alcohol-related injury by 1.4 times and as BrAC increased one unit of change (percentage), the odds of a past-year alcohol related injury increased twofold (OR = 2.2). Other covariates (ie, age, gender, race, college student status) did not significantly predict alcohol-related injuries in either model. High-risk drinking behaviors, including higher BrAC levels, greatly influenced experiencing an alcohol-related injury. This is the first examination of BrAC levels and alcohol-related injuries in a primarily college student sample. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. Selecting intervention components for a smartphone app (‘Drink Less’ to help people reduce hazardous and/or harmful drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Garnett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hazardous and/or harmful drinking is highly prevalent among adults in the UK but few drinkers use support to reduce their alcohol consumption. Smartphone apps offer potential support not dependent on face-to-face contact; however, we have little evidence of their effectiveness and little information about the extent to which they have been informed by theory and evidence from alcohol- and behaviour change research. Aim: To select intervention components most likely to be effective at reducing hazardous and/or harmful alcohol consumption in a smartphone app (‘Drink Less’. Method: To identify potential intervention components for the Drink Less app, we conducted a behavioural analysis, reviewed relevant behaviour change theories, types of alcohol interventions and digital interventions from other behavioural domains, conducted a formal consensus building exercise and analysed the most frequently used components included in existing alcohol reduction smartphone apps. The results of these different methodologies were synthesised and used as the basis for selecting the intervention components for the Drink Less app. Results: Five intervention components were selected for the app: 1 normative feedback, 2 feedback and self-monitoring, 3 identity change, 4 action planning and 5 cognitive bias re-training. Each component was designed in an intensive and a minimal credible version. Conclusions: Drawing on theory and empirical evidence, the Drink Less app was designed around five intervention components. Qualitative usability testing including think-aloud studies will inform the final version which will be evaluated in a full factorial randomised controlled trial to test the effects of the intervention components.

  1. Prevalence and predictors of sexually transmitted infections in hazardously-drinking incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Incarcerated women are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. Left untreated, these infections can have severe adverse health effects. In this study the authors present prevalence rates of trichomonas, chlamydia, and gonorrhea, and factors related to having a sexually transmitted infection in a sample of 245 hazardously-drinking incarcerated women who reported heterosexual intercourse in the previous 3 months. Vaginal swabs were collected following the self-report baseline assessment. Participants averaged 34.0 (±8.8) years of age; 174 (71.3%) were non-Hispanic Caucasian, 47 (19.3%) were African-American, 17 (7.0%) were Hispanic, and 6 (2.5%) were of other racial or ethnic origins. Twenty-three percent of participants tested positive for chlamydia, trichomonas, or gonorrhea. Being African-American, more frequent sex with a casual partner, and reporting more than one male partner were significantly positively related to sexually transmitted infection, while more frequent sex with a main partner was inversely related. Due to the high rates of infection in this population, jail admission provides a public health opportunity to access a concentrated group of sexually transmitted infectious women. Sexually transmitted infection testing targeted at specific demographic factors, for instance younger age, will miss infected women. Risky sexual partnerships, as well as the benefit of maintaining stable main partnerships may be important topics during sexually transmitted infection prevention interventions.

  2. Hazardous, harmful and dependent drinking in hostel-dwelling students at the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Paulina; Botha, Julie; van Wyk, Michelle; Breytenbach, Jaco; Nel, Christiaan; van Niekerk, Michael; Breytenbach, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hazardous, harmful and dependent drinking among hostel-dwelling students on the main campus of the University of the Free State (UFS), and the influence of sex and academic year on the habit. A quarter of all hostel-dwelling students of UFS were selected by systematic random sampling. Willing participants completed a questionnaire comprising a demographic section and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Of the 339 participants with total AUDIT scores, 15.6% exhibited hazardous drinking, 4.1% harmful drinking and 5.6% alcohol dependence. Male students had a statistically significant higher prevalence (32.8%) of hazardous, harmful or dependent drinking than female students (18.9%). Women, however, are biologically more vulnerable to the ill effects of alcohol due to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alcohol. In addition, intoxicated women suffer more biological and social risks. When the cut-off point for hazardous drinking was adapted to account for the increased biological vulnerability of women, the difference between female and male participants was no longer significant. First year male students were less likely to engage in unsafe drinking than senior students. Female students in the alcohol dependent category showed an increasing trend over advancing academic year. Follow-up studies are needed to confirm whether a significant difference in hazardous drinking of first year male students compared to seniors reflects the influence of university policy or merely precedes drinking acculturation.

  3. Alcoholics Anonymous and Hazardously Drinking Women Returning to the Community After Incarceration: Predictors of Attendance and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Strong, David R.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Brown, Richard A.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of females incarcerated within the United States has risen dramatically in recent decades and high rates of alcohol problems are evident among this population. Although little is known about the patterns of help utilization and efficacy for alcohol problems, preliminary evidence suggests that AA is a widely available resource for this population. Methods Data were collected as part of a study evaluating the effect of a brief intervention to reduce alcohol use among hazardously drinking (i.e., score of 8 or above on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or 4 or more drinks at a time on at least 3 days in prior 3 months) incarcerated women. The current study characterized demographic, clinical, and previous AA attendance variables associated with AA attendance in the 6-months following incarceration. Associations between frequency of AA attendance and drinking outcomes following incarceration were also evaluated. Results Among the 224 participants who provided data about AA attendance, 54% reported some AA attendance during the follow-up assessment period. AA attendance in the year prior to study entry (OR = 4.02; 95% CI: 3.32–4.71) and greater baseline consequences of alcohol use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.73–2.44) were associated with increased odds of higher frequency of AA attendance following incarceration. Weekly or greater AA attendance was associated with reductions in negative drinking consequences (B = −0.45; p < 0.01) and frequency of drinking days (B = −0.28; p < 0.01) following incarceration. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that AA is frequently utilized by hazardously drinking women following incarceration. Alcohol outcomes may be enhanced by AA attendance at a weekly or greater frequency is associated with better alcohol outcomes relative to lower levels of AA attendance. Evaluation of clinical guidelines for prescribing AA attendance for incarcerated women remains a task for future research. PMID:21158877

  4. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tea consumption and its interactions with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on oral cancer in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F; He, B-C; Yan, L-J; Liu, F-P; Huang, J-F; Hu, Z-J; Lin, Z; Zheng, X-Y; Lin, L-S; Zhang, Z-F; Cai, L

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological results on the association between tea consumption and oral cancer remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the exact relationship between tea consumption and oral cancer in Chinese population. A large-scale case-control study was conducted on 586 oral cancer patients and 1024 controls frequency-matched by age and gender. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structure questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of tea consumption on oral cancer stratified by smoking, alcohol drinking and demographics. Quantity of tea consumed (ml/day) was categorized into five subgroups based on quartiles and then its interactions was evaluated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at each subgroup. Tea consumption showed an inverse association with oral cancer for non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers (the odds ratios (ORs) were 0.610 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.425-0.876) and 0.686 (95% CI: 0.503-0.934), respectively). For smokers or alcohol drinkers, decreased risk was only observed in those who consumed >800 ml/day. Furthermore, oolong tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of oral cancer in smokers or alcohol drinkers but not in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Tea consumption combined with smoking or/and alcohol drinking had a greater risk than tea consumption alone, but the risk was roughly reduced from zero to Q4 (>800 ml/day). Additionally, when stratified by demographics, the protective effect of tea was especially evident in females, urban residents, normal body mass index population (18.5-23.9), farmers, office workers and those aged consumption protects against oral cancer in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers, but this effect may be obscured in smokers or alcohol drinkers. Additionally, demographics may modify the association between tea consumption and oral cancer.

  6. Household attitudes and knowledge on drinking water enhance water hazards in peri-urban communities in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimongu J. Kioko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring safe drinking water remains a big challenge in developing countries where waterborne diseases cause havoc in many communities. A major challenge is limited knowledge, misinformation and attitudes that work against ensuring that drinking water is safe. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of peri-urban households in Kakamega Town of Western Kenya, concerning the collection, treatment and storage of drinking water. Alongside this we examined the role of solid waste disposal in water safety. Three hundred and seventy eight households from four residential regions of varying economic levels were randomly sampled in Kakamega Town. Data was collected via questionnaire interviews that incorporated attitude questions based on a Likert scale of 1−5, and administered to the households and key informants. The results showed most respondents were knowledgeable about ideal methods of water collection, treatment and storage. However, they did not practise them appropriately. Some attitudes among the respondents worked against the ideals of achieving safe drinking water. For instance, many households perceived their drinking water source as safe and did not treat it, even when obtained from open sources like rivers. Further, they preferred to store drinking water in clay pots, because the pots kept the water cold, rather than use the narrow-necked containers that limit exposure to contaminants. Also, hand washing with soap was not practised enough in their daily lives to avoid contact with waterborne hazards. We recommend that the government undertake training programmes on drinking water safety that advocate appropriate water use, hygiene and sanitation strategies.

  7. When wanting to change is not enough: automatic appetitive processes moderate the effects of a brief alcohol intervention in hazardous-drinking college students

    OpenAIRE

    Brian D Ostafin; Palfai, Tibor P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research indicates that brief motivational interventions are efficacious treatments for hazardous drinking. Little is known, however, about the psychological processes that may moderate intervention success. Based on growing evidence that drinking behavior may be influenced by automatic (nonvolitional) mental processes, the current study examined whether automatic alcohol-approach associations moderated the effect of a brief motivational intervention. Specifically, we examined whet...

  8. A decision analysis framework for estimating the potential hazards for drinking water resources of chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Stanek, John; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing concerns over the potential for hydraulic fracturing to impact drinking water resources, there are limited data available to identify chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids that may pose public health concerns. In an effort to explore these potential hazards, a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework was employed to analyze and rank selected subsets of these chemicals by integrating data on toxicity, frequency of use, and physicochemical properties that describe transport in water. Data used in this analysis were obtained from publicly available databases compiled by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of a larger study on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water. Starting with nationwide hydraulic fracturing chemical usage data from EPA's analysis of the FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry 1.0, MCDAs were performed on chemicals that had either noncancer toxicity values (n=37) or cancer-specific toxicity values (n=10). The noncancer MCDA was then repeated for subsets of chemicals reported in three representative states (Texas, n=31; Pennsylvania, n=18; and North Dakota, n=20). Within each MCDA, chemicals received scores based on relative toxicity, relative frequency of use, and physicochemical properties (mobility in water, volatility, persistence). Results show a relative ranking of these chemicals based on hazard potential, and provide preliminary insight into chemicals that may be more likely than others to impact drinking water resources. Comparison of nationwide versus state-specific analyses indicates regional differences in the chemicals that may be of more concern to drinking water resources, although many chemicals were commonly used and received similar overall hazard rankings. Several chemicals highlighted by these MCDAs have been reported in groundwater near areas of hydraulic fracturing activity. This approach is intended as a preliminary analysis, and represents one

  9. Predicting the onset of hazardous alcohol drinking in primary care: development and validation of a simple risk algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellón, Juan Ángel; de Dios Luna, Juan; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Motrico, Emma; GildeGómez-Barragán, María Josefa; Torres-González, Francisco; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens, Catalina; Moreno-Peral, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the risk of progressing to hazardous alcohol use in abstinent or low-risk drinkers. To develop and validate a simple brief risk algorithm for the onset of hazardous alcohol drinking (HAD) over 12 months for use in primary care. Prospective cohort study in 32 health centres from six Spanish provinces, with evaluations at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Forty-one risk factors were measured and multilevel logistic regression and inverse probability weighting were used to build the risk algorithm. The outcome was new occurrence of HAD during the study, as measured by the AUDIT. From the lists of 174 GPs, 3954 adult abstinent or low-risk drinkers were recruited. The 'predictAL-10' risk algorithm included just nine variables (10 questions): province, sex, age, cigarette consumption, perception of financial strain, having ever received treatment for an alcohol problem, childhood sexual abuse, AUDIT-C, and interaction AUDIT-C*Age. The c-index was 0.886 (95% CI = 0.854 to 0.918). The optimal cutoff had a sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.80. Excluding childhood sexual abuse from the model (the 'predictAL-9'), the c-index was 0.880 (95% CI = 0.847 to 0.913), sensitivity 0.79, and specificity 0.81. There was no statistically significant difference between the c-indexes of predictAL-10 and predictAL-9. The predictAL-10/9 is a simple and internally valid risk algorithm to predict the onset of hazardous alcohol drinking over 12 months in primary care attendees; it is a brief tool that is potentially useful for primary prevention of hazardous alcohol drinking. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  10. Profiles of College Drinkers Defined by Alcohol Behaviors at the Week Level: Replication Across Semesters and Prospective Associations With Hazardous Drinking and Dependence-Related Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2016-01-01

    Types of college drinkers have been identified using traditional measures (e.g., 12-month drinking frequency). We used an alternative multidimensional approach based on daily reports of alcohol behaviors to identify college drinker statuses, each with a unique behavioral profile. The current study aimed to (a) identify drinker statuses at the week level across four semesters, (b) examine the predictive utility of drinker status by testing associations with senior-year hazardous drinking and dependence symptoms, and (c) identify concurrent predictors (gender, drinking motivations, hazardous drinking, any dependence symptoms) of senior-year drinker status. We also compared the week-level drinker statuses with drinker statuses identified using traditional measures. A multi-ethnic sample of U.S. college students completed 14-day bursts of daily web surveys across college (91%-96% completed ≥6 daily reports of the sampled week). Analyses focus on nine alcohol-related behaviors (including estimated blood alcohol concentration, pregaming, and drinking games) assessed daily in spring/sophomore year to fall/senior year and drinking motivations, hazardous drinking, and dependence symptoms assessed fall/senior year (n = 569; 56% women). Four week-level drinker statuses were replicated across semesters: Nondrinker, Light Weekend, Heavy Weekend, and Heavy Frequent. Across semesters, drinker status was associated with senior-year hazardous drinking and any dependence symptoms. Senior-year fun/social motivations were also associated with senior-year drinker status. Differences in behavioral profiles between week-level drinker statuses and those identified using traditional measures were found. Replicable week-level drinker statuses were identified, suggesting consistency in possible types of drinking weeks. Drinker statuses were predictive of senior-year hazardous drinking and dependence symptoms.

  11. Energy drinks and escalation in drug use severity: An emergent hazard to adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Wanda E; Jackson, Dylan B

    2017-11-29

    The aim of the current study is to determine whether energy drink consumption contributes to drug use and, more specifically, an escalation in the severity of drug use. We first examine the association between energy drink use and hard drug use, and subsequently investigate whether soft drug use mediates this relationship. Potential moderating influences are also investigated by testing whether the degree of mediation varies by age, gender, and race. The current study uses a nationally representative sample of 8th (ages 13-14), 10th (ages 15-16), and 12th (ages 17-18) grade adolescents from the 2015 Monitoring the Future survey. Negative binomial regression is employed to examine associations between energy drink consumption and soft and hard drug use. Mediation results indicate that energy drink consumption is significantly associated with increased soft drug use, which is, in turn, associated with significant increases in hard drug use. This cascading effect of energy drink consumption on drug use appears to be stronger among younger females and older males. Results for the moderating effect of race are mixed. Energy drinks appear to pose an important threat to adolescent health in the form of soft and hard drug use. The United States may want to consider adopting energy drink policies similar to European countries and Canada, which require warning labels on beverages with high caffeine content. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Parental alcohol misuse and hazardous drinking among offspring in a general teenage population: gender-specific findings from the Young-HUNT 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Siri H; Holmen, Turid L; Ravndal, Edle; Bratberg, Grete H

    2013-12-06

    Parental alcohol misuse may negatively affect drinking behaviours among offspring, but it is unclear to what extent influences are gender-specific and dependent upon the actual drinking behaviour measured. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hazardous drinking among Norwegian teenage boys (N = 2538) and girls (N = 2494) was associated with paternal and maternal alcohol misuse (CAGE). Definitions of hazardous drinking among offspring were based on self-reported alcohol consumption (in litres a year), frequency of drinking, and frequency of drunkenness. Based on this information, two composite measures of hazardous drinking were also constructed. Cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Young-HUNT 3 survey (2006-2008) were linked to information from biological parents who participated in the adult part of the HUNT study. Logistic regression analyses showed that both boys and girls with alcohol misusing fathers were more likely to report high levels of alcohol intake compared to others of the same age and gender. This was contrary to boys with misusing mothers, who reported less alcohol consumption than other boys. Among girls, but not boys, high frequency of drunkenness was associated with maternal as well as paternal misuse. This study suggests that adolescent hazardous drinking is more prevalent among boys and girls with alcohol misusing parents versus those whose parents do not misuse alcohol. However, findings were gender specific and varied depending on the drinking outcomes under investigation. More evidence-based knowledge in this field is of great importance for better understanding the possible role paternal and maternal alcohol misuse may play in the development of hazardous alcohol drinking patterns among adolescent boys and girls.

  13. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.

  14. Secondhand tobacco smoke: an occupational hazard for smoking and non-smoking bar and nightclub employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-09-01

    In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Between 2007 and 2009, the authors recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to five employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5-8.5) μg/m(3) and 0.2 (0.1-0.7) μg/m(3) in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6-16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5-5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a twofold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% CI 23% to 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2% to 19%) increase in smoking employees. Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues.

  15. Obsolete tobacco control themes can be hazardous to public health: the need for updating views on absolute product risks and harm reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn T. Kozlowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leading themes have guided tobacco control efforts, and these themes have changed over the decades. When questions arose about health risks of tobacco, they focused on two key themes: 1 how bad is the problem (i.e., absolute risk and 2 what can be done to reduce the risk without cessation (i.e., prospects for harm reduction. Using the United States since 1964 as an example, we outline the leading themes that have arisen in response to these two questions. Initially, there was the recognition that “cigarettes are hazardous to health” and an acceptance of safer alternative tobacco products (cigars, pipes, light/lower-tar cigarettes. In the 1980s there was the creation of the seminal theme that “Cigarettes are lethal when used as intended and kill more people than heroin, cocaine, alcohol, AIDS, fires, homicide, suicide, and automobile crashes combined.” By around 2000, support for a less-dangerous light/lower tar cigarette was gone, and harm reduction claims were avoided for products like cigars and even for smokeless tobacco which were summarized as “unsafe” or “not a safe alternative to cigarettes.” Discussion The Surgeon General in 2014 concluded that by far the greatest danger to public health was from cigarettes and other combusted products. At the same time the evidence base for smokeless tobacco and alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS had grown. Product innovation and tobacco/nicotine bio-behavioral, epidemiological and public health sciences demonstrate that low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., Swedish snus, and ANDS have substantially lower harms than cigarettes. Going forward, it is important to sharpen themes and key messages of tobacco control, while continuing to emphasize the extreme lethality of the inhaled smoke from cigarettes or from use of any combusting tobacco product. Summary Implications of updating the leading themes for regulation, policymaking and advocacy in tobacco control

  16. Obsolete tobacco control themes can be hazardous to public health: the need for updating views on absolute product risks and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T; Abrams, David B

    2016-05-24

    Leading themes have guided tobacco control efforts, and these themes have changed over the decades. When questions arose about health risks of tobacco, they focused on two key themes: 1) how bad is the problem (i.e., absolute risk) and 2) what can be done to reduce the risk without cessation (i.e., prospects for harm reduction). Using the United States since 1964 as an example, we outline the leading themes that have arisen in response to these two questions. Initially, there was the recognition that "cigarettes are hazardous to health" and an acceptance of safer alternative tobacco products (cigars, pipes, light/lower-tar cigarettes). In the 1980s there was the creation of the seminal theme that "Cigarettes are lethal when used as intended and kill more people than heroin, cocaine, alcohol, AIDS, fires, homicide, suicide, and automobile crashes combined." By around 2000, support for a less-dangerous light/lower tar cigarette was gone, and harm reduction claims were avoided for products like cigars and even for smokeless tobacco which were summarized as "unsafe" or "not a safe alternative to cigarettes." The Surgeon General in 2014 concluded that by far the greatest danger to public health was from cigarettes and other combusted products. At the same time the evidence base for smokeless tobacco and alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS) had grown. Product innovation and tobacco/nicotine bio-behavioral, epidemiological and public health sciences demonstrate that low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., Swedish snus), and ANDS have substantially lower harms than cigarettes. Going forward, it is important to sharpen themes and key messages of tobacco control, while continuing to emphasize the extreme lethality of the inhaled smoke from cigarettes or from use of any combusting tobacco product. Implications of updating the leading themes for regulation, policymaking and advocacy in tobacco control are proposed as an important next step. A new reframing can align

  17. Sexual risk-taking mediates the association between impulsivity and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections among hazardously drinking incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaki, Jumi; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2012-11-01

    A growing literature has identified associations between impulsivity and negative behaviors such as sexual risk-taking among high-risk and/or vulnerable populations, but few studies have linked impulsivity to biological outcomes of sexual risk-taking. The main purpose of this study was to document associations among impulsivity, sexual risk-taking, and biological measures of sexually transmitted infection (STI+) in a sample of hazardously drinking incarcerated women. Two hundred forty-five hazardously drinking incarcerated women self-reported alcohol consumption and consequences, impulsivity, and sexual behavior. Biological testing revealed a 22.9% prevalence rate for STI+. In this sample, sexual risk-taking fully mediated the association between impulsivity and likelihood of STI+. In addition, individuals reporting sexual activity with multiple partners were significantly more likely to test STI+ than those reporting sexual activity with a primary partner. These results support previous research on impulsivity by demonstrating that impulsivity leads to STI+ through risky behavioral choices. These findings also extend prior work by documenting this association using biologically confirmed measures in a vulnerable female population that carries multiple risk factors and thus warrants increased research attention. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Evaluation of health hazards by exposure to nickel in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa

    2009-01-01

    Nickel and its compounds are naturally present in the earth's crust and are released to the environment due to natural processes. In Denmark, nickel was detected in 3362 of 6972 wells (1993–2002) and in 221 wells, the current drinking water limit at 20 μg Ni/l was exceeded. Nickel compounds release...... the validity of the current drinking water limit at 20 μg Ni/l in Denmark as well as in the EU. The similarities and differences in the derivation of the quality criterion of 20 μg Ni/l (rounded value) versus the current WHO drinking water guideline of 70 μg Ni/l will be discussed in the poster. Copyright...

  19. A Review of Exercise as Intervention for Sedentary Hazardous Drinking College Students: Rationale and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    College students have high rates of alcohol problems despite a number of intervention initiatives designed to reduce alcohol use. Substance use, including heavy drinking, often occurs at the expense of other, substance-free, activities. This review examines the promotion of one specific substance-free activity--exercise--as an intervention for…

  20. A comparative study of the radiological hazard in sediments samples from drinking water purification plants supplied from different sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams A.M. Issa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural radiation level has been determined for 135 sediment samples from forty-six drinking water purification plants supplied from different sources (Nile River, Ibrahimia Canal and Bahr Yousif Canal aiming to evaluate the radiation hazard. The concentration of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K has been investigated by using gamma spectrometry (NaI (Tl 3″ × 3″ detector. The results showed that the concentrations of average activity in the sediment samples collected from Nile River, Ibrahimia Canal and Bahr Yousif Canal are (29 ± 2, 30 ± 2 and 240 ± 8 Bq kg−1, (47 ± 3, 46 ± 8 and 258 ± 12 Bq kg−1 and (28 ± 2, 27 ± 3 and 219 ± 18 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The distributions of average activity concentrations of samples under investigation are within the world values although some extreme values have been determined. Radiological hazard effects such as: absorbed dose rate (D, outdoor and indoor annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE, radium equivalent activities (Raeq, hazard indices (Hex and Hin, gamma index (Iγ, excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR and annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE for the corresponding samples were also estimated.

  1. The beliefs about pros and cons of drinking and intention to change among hazardous and moderate alcohol users: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Asgeir R.; Ahacic, Kozma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fundamental to supporting hazardous alcohol users are the rationales for reducing alcohol intake highlighted by the users themselves. This study analyses the relative importance of beliefs about pros and cons of drinking in relation to having an intention to reduce intake among both hazardous and moderate alcohol users. Methods: Intention to change was assessed in a representative sample of Stockholm’s population (n = 4278, response rate 56.5%). Alcohol use was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test measure. A decisional balance inventory was used to examine various beliefs about the pros and cons of drinking, which covered affect changes, social gains and losses, and possible adverse effects. Independent correlations were determined by logistic regression using a backward exclusion procedure (P > 0.05). Results: Higher ratings of importance were generally related to intent, whether or not the contrast was with having no intent or already having made a reduction. This was especially true for hazardous users. Only two beliefs were independently correlated with change among hazardous users: ‘Drinking could get me addicted’ and ‘Drinking makes me more relaxed/less tense’ (pseudo-R2 intent to change rated pro arguments as more important than those with no intent to change. Of the investigated pros and cons, only a few were independently related to intention to change drinking behaviour. These arguments provide interesting topics in consultations. Little support was found for any rational decision making behind the intention to reduce alcohol intake. PMID:24567291

  2. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Monica C; Decou, Christopher R; Gonzalez, Vivian M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behavior among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviors such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviors among students of various ethnic groups.

  3. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.

  4. [Changes in hazardous drinking in Spanish adolescent population in the last decade (2004-2013) using a quantitative and qualitative design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Milena, Alejandro; Redondo-Olmedilla, Manuel de Dios; Martínez-Fernández, María Luz; Jiménez-Pulido, Idoia; Mesa-Gallardo, Inmaculada; Leal-Helmling, Francisco Javier

    2017-11-01

    To determine the changes in hazardous drinking in adolescents in the last decade, as well as their motivations and experiences. Firstly, a descriptive design using a self-report questionnaire, and secondly an explanatory qualitative design, with video recordings of discussion groups with content analysis (coding, triangulation of categories and verification of results). Pupils from an urban High School, administering a questionnaire every 3 years from 2004 to 2013. Purposive sampling was used to elect groups in qualitative design. Homogeneity criteria: education level; heterogeneity criteria: age, gender, and drug use. Questionnaire: age, gender, drug use, and the CAGE test. Interviews: semi-structured on a previous script, evaluating experiences and expectations. Descriptive design: A total of 1,558 questionnaires, age 14.2±0.3years, 50% female. The prevalence of alcohol drinking decreases (13%), but its hazardous use increases (11%; P6 standard drink units weekly; P<.001, ANOVA), during the weekend (56%; P<.01, χ 2 ) and multiple drug use (P<.01, χ 2 ). CAGE questionnaire: 37% ≥1positive response (related to hazardous drinking, P<.05 χ 2 ), 18% ≥2answers. A total of 48 respondents, classified into 4 categories: personal factors (age, gender), social influences (family, friends), consumption standards (accessibility, nightlife), and addiction (risk, multiple drug use). Despite the decrease in the prevalence of alcohol drinking, the increase in the percentage of the hazardous drinking is a public health problem. It is related to being female, binge-drinking, and multiple drug use. Nightlife and social standards are the main reasons given by adolescents, who have no perception of risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol brief intervention for hospitalized veterans with hazardous drinking: protocol for a 3-arm randomized controlled efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Lauren M; Wieland, Melissa E; Confer, Andrea L; DiNardo, Monica M; Kraemer, Kevin L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Youk, Ada O; Gordon, Adam J; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2015-05-13

    Various hospital accreditation and quality assurance entities in the United States have approved and endorsed performance measures promoting alcohol brief intervention (BI) for hospitalized individuals who screen positive for unhealthy alcohol use, the spectrum of use ranging from hazardous use to alcohol use disorders. These performance measures have been controversial due to the limited and equivocal evidence for the efficacy of BI among hospitalized individuals. The few BI trials conducted with hospital inpatients vary widely in methodological quality. While the majority of these studies indicate limited to no effects of BI in this population, none have been designed to account for the most pervasive methodological issue in BI studies presumed to drive study findings towards the null: assessment reactivity (AR). This is a three-arm, single-site, randomized controlled trial of BI for hospitalized patients at a large academic medical center affiliated with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs who use alcohol at hazardous levels but do not have an alcohol use disorder. Participants are randomized to one of three study conditions. Study Arm 1 receives a three-part alcohol BI. Study Arm 2 receives attention control. To account for potential AR, Study Arm 3 receives AC with limited assessment. Primary outcomes will include the number of standard drinks/week and binge drinking episodes reported in the 30-day period prior to a final measurement visit obtained 6 months after hospital discharge. Additional outcomes will include readiness to change drinking behavior and number of adverse consequences of alcohol use. To assess differences in primary outcomes across the three arms, we will use mixed-effects regression models that account for a patient's repeated measures over the timepoints and clustering within medical units. Intervention implementation will be assessed by: a) review of intervention audio recordings to characterize barriers to intervention fidelity; and

  6. Water quality assessment: surface water sources used for drinking and irrigation in Zaria, Nigeria are a public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigor, Vincent N; Umoh, Veronica J; Okuofu, Charles A; Ameh, Joseph B; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-05-01

    We assessed the quality and pollution status of source surface waters in Zaria, Nigeria by monitoring the nature, cause and extent of pollution in Samaru stream, Kubanni River and Kubanni dam over a period of 10 months, between March and December 2002. A total of 228 water samples was collected from 12 sites and analysed for a total of ten physicochemical and one bacteriological quality indicators, using standard methods. Aesthetic water quality impairment parameters were also observed. The mean values of most water quality parameters were significantly higher (P water temperature (in the range 15-33°C); pH (5.77-7.32); and turbidity (1.4-567 NTU). The high FCC ranged from 2.0 × 10(1) to 1.6 × 10(6) MPN/100 ml and exceeded the WHO standards for drinking water and water used for fresh-produce irrigation, and correlated positively (P water bodies are potentially hazardous to public health and that proper sewage treatment and river quality monitoring are needed to warn against hazards to public health.

  7. Alcohol facts labels on Four Loko: will the Federal Trade Commission's order be effective in reducing hazardous drinking among underage youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Siegel, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Underage drinking accounts for 4400 alcohol-attributable deaths in the US each year. After several reports of the deaths of young people due to the consumption of the flavored-alcoholic beverage (FAB) Four Loko, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) examined whether Phusion Projects violated federal law by using deceptive marketing. In 2013, the FTC responded by ordering alcohol facts labels on Four Loko disclosing the number of standard drinks contained in the product. This paper aims to discuss whether the FTC's order for alcohol facts labels on Four Loko cans will effectively reduce the hazardous consumption of FABs among youth. The authors discuss the existing research that relates to the FTC's order, including studies on the effectiveness of serving size labeling for reducing youth drinking, research on the brand-specific consumption of FABs among underage youth, and the associations between youth drinking and exposure to alcohol marketing. After synthesizing the evidence, the authors conclude that simply requiring the disclosure of the number of standard drinks on supersized Four Loko cans is not likely to adequately address the hazardous consumption of this beverage among underage drinkers. Instead, if the FTC addresses the marketing of these products and its potential to encourage the excessive use of alcohol, as the Attorneys General did recently in a settlement with the same company, it is possible that there would be a greater impact on reducing youth alcohol consumption. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of alcohol facts labels in changing underage drinking behaviors.

  8. Religiosity as a protective factor for hazardous drinking and drug use among sexual minority and heterosexual women: Findings from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen F; Klinger, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    Despite research documenting disparities in risk for alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women, few studies explore potential protective factors within this population. This study examines how religiosity may function as a protective or risk factor for alcohol-problems or other substance use among sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals. Data from 11,169 women who responded to sexual identity and sexual behavior questions from three population-based National Alcohol Survey waves (2000, 2005, 2010) were utilized for analyses of religiosity in relation to lifetime drinking, past year hazardous drinking, and past year drug use. Religiosity was significantly greater among exclusively heterosexual women compared to all sexual minority groups (lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual women who report same sex partners). Lesbians reported the lowest rates of affiliation with religions/denominations discouraging alcohol use. Past year hazardous drinking and use of any illicit drugs were significantly lower among exclusively heterosexual women compared to all sexual minority groups. High religiosity was associated with lifetime alcohol abstention and was found to be protective against hazardous drinking and drug use among both sexual minority and heterosexual women. Reporting religious norms unfavorable to drinking was protective against hazardous drinking among exclusively heterosexual women but not sexual minority women. Findings reveal the importance of considering sexual minority status in evaluation of religion or spirituality as protective among women. Future studies should explore religiosity in the context of other individual and environmental factors, such as positive identity development and community-level acceptance, which may be salient to resiliency among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening for hazardous drinking using the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test-Geriatric Version (MAST-G) in elderly persons with acute cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Doug; McCaul, Mary E; Roger, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Effective and valid screening methods are needed to identify hazardous drinking in elderly persons with new onset acute medical illness. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test-Geriatric Version (MAST-G) in identifying hazardous drinking among elderly patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) and to compare the effectiveness of 2 shorter versions of the MAST-G with the full instrument. The study sample included 100 men and women who averaged 12 days posthemorrhagic or ischemic CVA admitted to a rehabilitation unit and who were at least 50 years of age and free of substance use other than alcohol. This cross-sectional validation study compared the 24-item full MAST-G, the 10-item Short MAST-G (SMAST-G), and a 2-item regression analysis derived Mini MAST-G (MMAST-G) to the reference standard of hazardous drinking during the past 3 months. Alcohol use was collected using the Timeline Followback (TLFB). Recent and lifetime alcohol-related consequences were collected using the Short Inventory of Problems (SIP). Nearly one-third (28%) of the study sample met the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for hazardous drinking. Moderately strong associations were found for the MAST-G, SMAST-G, and MMAST-G with alcohol quantity and frequency and recent and lifetime alcohol consequences. All 3 MAST-G versions could differentiate hazardous from nonhazardous drinkers and had nearly identical area under the curve characteristics. Comparable sensitivity was found across the 3 MAST-G measures. The optimal screening threshold for hazardous drinking was 5 for the MAST-G, 2 for the SMAST-G, and 1 for the MMAST-G. The 10-item SMAST-G and 2-item MMAST-G are brief screening tests that show comparable effectiveness in detecting hazardous drinking in elderly patients with acute CVA compared with the full 24-item MAST-G. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  10. The impact of civil union legislation on minority stress, depression, and hazardous drinking in a diverse sample of sexual-minority women: A quasi-natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hughes, Tonda L.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale A small but growing body of research documents associations between structural forms of stigma (e.g., same-sex marriage bans) and sexual minority health. These studies, however, have focused on a limited number of outcomes and have not examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and education, influence the relationship between policy change and health among sexual minorities. Objective To determine the effect of civil union legalization on sexual minority women’s perceived discrimination, stigma consciousness, depressive symptoms, and four indicators of hazardous drinking (heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, alcohol dependence symptoms, adverse drinking consequences) and to evaluate whether such effects are moderated by race/ethnicity or education. Methods During the third wave of data collection in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study (N=517), Illinois passed the Religious Freedom Protection and Civil Union Act, legalizing civil unions in Illinois and resulting in a quasi-natural experiment wherein some participants were interviewed before and some after the new legislation. Generalized linear models and interactions were used to test the effects of the new legislation on stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depression, and hazardous drinking indicators. Interactions were used to assess whether the effects of policy change were moderated by race/ethnicity or education. Results Civil union legislation was associated with lower levels of stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and one indicator of hazardous drinking (adverse drinking consequences) for all sexual minority women. For several other outcomes, the benefits of this supportive social policy were largely concentrated among racial/ethnic minority women and women with lower levels of education. Conclusions Results suggest that policies supportive of the civil rights of sexual minorities improve the health

  11. The impact of civil union legislation on minority stress, depression, and hazardous drinking in a diverse sample of sexual-minority women: A quasi-natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hughes, Tonda L

    2016-11-01

    A small but growing body of research documents associations between structural forms of stigma (e.g., same-sex marriage bans) and sexual minority health. These studies, however, have focused on a limited number of outcomes and have not examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and education, influence the relationship between policy change and health among sexual minorities. To determine the effect of civil union legalization on sexual minority women's perceived discrimination, stigma consciousness, depressive symptoms, and four indicators of hazardous drinking (heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, alcohol dependence symptoms, adverse drinking consequences) and to evaluate whether such effects are moderated by race/ethnicity or education. During the third wave of data collection in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study (N = 517), Illinois passed the Religious Freedom Protection and Civil Union Act, legalizing civil unions in Illinois and resulting in a quasi-natural experiment wherein some participants were interviewed before and some after the new legislation. Generalized linear models and interactions were used to test the effects of the new legislation on stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depression, and hazardous drinking indicators. Interactions were used to assess whether the effects of policy change were moderated by race/ethnicity or education. Civil union legislation was associated with lower levels of stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and one indicator of hazardous drinking (adverse drinking consequences) for all sexual minority women. For several other outcomes, the benefits of this supportive social policy were largely concentrated among racial/ethnic minority women and women with lower levels of education. Results suggest that policies supportive of the civil rights of sexual minorities improve the health of all sexual minority women, and may be most

  12. When wanting to change is not enough: automatic appetitive processes moderate the effects of a brief alcohol intervention in hazardous-drinking college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafin, Brian D; Palfai, Tibor P

    2012-12-07

    Research indicates that brief motivational interventions are efficacious treatments for hazardous drinking. Little is known, however, about the psychological processes that may moderate intervention success. Based on growing evidence that drinking behavior may be influenced by automatic (nonvolitional) mental processes, the current study examined whether automatic alcohol-approach associations moderated the effect of a brief motivational intervention. Specifically, we examined whether the efficacy of a single-session intervention designed to increase motivation to reduce alcohol consumption would be moderated by the strength of participants' automatic alcohol-approach associations. Eighty-seven undergraduate hazardous drinkers participated for course credit. Participants completed an Implicit Association Test to measure automatic alcohol-approach associations, a baseline measure of readiness to change drinking behavior, and measures of alcohol involvement. Participants were then randomly assigned to either a brief (15-minute) motivational intervention or a control condition. Participants completed a measure of readiness to change drinking at the end of the first session and returned for a follow-up session six weeks later in which they reported on their drinking over the previous month. Compared with the control group, those in the intervention condition showed higher readiness to change drinking at the end of the baseline session but did not show decreased drinking quantity at follow-up. Automatic alcohol-approach associations moderated the effects of the intervention on change in drinking quantity. Among participants in the intervention group, those with weak automatic alcohol-approach associations showed greater reductions in the amount of alcohol consumed per occasion at follow-up compared with those with strong automatic alcohol-approach associations. Automatic appetitive associations with alcohol were not related with change in amount of alcohol consumed per

  13. Prevalence of Hazardous Drinking Among UK 18-35 Year Olds; the Impact of a Revision to the AUDIT Cut Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Robert; Boniface, Sadie

    2016-05-01

    Most published research utilizes an AUDIT score of >8 as the threshold for hazardous drinking. Recent research suggests that this limit should be amended for younger drinkers (aged 18-35 years). This study aimed to explore the effect of a revision to AUDIT cut scores. Applying Foxcroft et al.'s [(2015) Accuracy of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for detecting problem drinking in 18-35 year-olds in England: method comparison study. Alcohol Alcohol 50, 244-50] suggested cut off scores of nine for males and four for females to the most recent Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (2007) data. This more than doubles the prevalence of female hazardous drinkers, and significantly increases the overall rate for that age group when compared with the standard threshold of >8. The prevalence of hazardous drinking among females ages 18-30 may be significantly higher than current estimates. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. The interplay of science, values, and experiences among scientists asked to evaluate the hazards of dioxin, radon, and environmental tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, G.L.; Lee, N.L.; Sund, K.G.; Pettygrove, S.D. [Health and Environmental Sciences Group, Ltd., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    To investigate the extent to which personal values and experiences among scientists might affect their assessment of risks from dioxin, radon, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), we conducted an experiment through a telephone survey of 1461 epidemiologists, toxicologists, physicians, and general scientists. Each participant was read a vignette designed to reflect the mainstream scientific thinking on one of the three substances. For half of the participants (group A) the substance was named. For the other half (group B), the substance was not named but was identified only as Substance X, Y, or Z. Knowing the name of the substance had little effect on the scientists` evaluation of dioxin, although those who knew the substance to be dioxin were more likely to rate the substance as a serious environmental health hazard (51% vs. 42%, p = 0.062). For radon, those who knew they were being asked about ETS rather than substance X were significantly more likely to consider the substance an environmental health hazard (88% vs. 66%, p < 0.001), to consider the substance a serious environmental health hazard (70% vs. 33%, p < 0.001), to believe that background exposure required public health intervention (85% vs. 41%, p < 0.001), and to believe that above-background exposure required public health intervention (90% vs. 74%, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that values and experiences may be influencing health risk assessments for these substances, and indicate the need for more study of this phenomenon. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. The magnitude of tobacco smoking-betel quid chewing-alcohol drinking interaction effect on oral cancer in South-East Asia. A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Petti

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol drinking are oral cancer risk factors. Observational studies unanimously report that oral cancer risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects is exceptionally high. However, none of them assessed the fractions of this risk attributable to the three individual risk factors and to the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction. The present study sought to assess the magnitude of the smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect on oral cancer. A meta-analysis of observational South-East Asian studies which reported oral cancer odds ratios (ORs stratified for smoking-drinking-chewing exposures was performed. The pooled ORs were estimated and controlled for quality, heterogeneity, publication bias and inclusion criteria. The smoking-drinking-chewing interaction effect was estimated through the pooled Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI, excess risk in smoking-drinking-chewing exposed individuals with respect to the risk expected from the addition of the three individual risks of smoking, drinking and chewing. Fourteen studies were included with low between-study heterogeneity. The pooled ORs for smoking, drinking, chewing, smoking-drinking-chewing, respectively were 3.6 (95% confidence interval -95% CI, 1.9-7.0, 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6-3.0, 7.9 (95% CI, 6.7-9.3, 40.1 (95% CI, 35.1-45.8. The pooled RERI was 28.4 (95% CI, 22.9-33.7. Among smoking-drinking-chewing subjects, the individual effects accounted for 6.7% (smoking, 3.1% (drinking, 17.7% (chewing of the risk, while the interaction effect accounted for the remaining 72.6%. These data suggest that 44,200 oral cancer cases in South-East Asia annually occur among smoking-drinking-chewing exposed subjects and 40,400 of these are exclusively associated with the interaction effect. Effective oral cancer control policies must consider concurrent tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing usages as a unique unhealthy lifestyle.

  16. The efficacy of a brief intervention in reducing hazardous drinking in working age men in Russia: the HIM (Health for Izhevsk men individually randomised parallel group exploratory trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Russia has particularly low life expectancy for an industrialised country, with mortality at working ages having fluctuated dramatically over the past few decades, particularly among men. Alcohol has been identified as the most likely cause of these temporal variations. One approach to reducing the alcohol problem in Russia is 'brief interventions' which seek to change views of the personal acceptability of excessive drinking and to encourage self-directed behaviour change. Very few studies to evaluate the efficacy of brief interventions in Russia have been conducted. Motivational Interviewing (MI is a person-centred counselling style which can be adapted to brief interventions in which help is offered in thinking through behaviour in the context of values and goals, to decide whether change is needed, and if so, how it may best be achieved. Methods This paper reports on an individually randomised two-armed parallel group exploratory trial. The primary hypothesis is that a brief adaptation of MI will be effective in reducing self-reported hazardous and harmful drinking at 3 months. Participants were drawn from the Izhevsk Family Study II, with eligibility determined based on proxy reports of hazardous and harmful drinking in the past year. All participants underwent a health check, with MI subsequently delivered to those in the intervention arm. Signed consent was obtained from those in the intervention arm only at this point. Both groups were then invited for 3 and 12 month follow ups. The control group did not receive any additional intervention. Results 441 men were randomised. Of these 61 did not have a health check leaving 190 in each trial arm. Follow up at 3 months was high (97% of those having a health check, and very similar in the two trial arms (183 in the intervention and 187 in the control. No significant differences were detected between the randomised groups in either the primary or the secondary outcomes at

  17. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J

    2011-10-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Youth and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D

    2004-12-01

    Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.

  19. The impact of smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol on mortality risk in people of working age – Results of an 8-year study in a large urban center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of smoking and drinking alcohol on death rates in working-age urban inhabitants in Poland. Material and Methods: In 2001 randomly selected inhabitants of Łódź, aged 18-64 years, were included in the WHO Program Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention (CINDI. The study sample comprised 1828 people (1002 men, 826 women. In 2009 for all participants of the 2001 study, information was obtained whether they were living or deceased, or moved out of Łódź. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for the evaluation of hazard ratios (HR. Results: The analysis revealed the increased risk of death among Łódź inhabitants of working age. An 8-year follow-up yielded the following values: for active smokers compared with people slightly addicted to nicotine, HR = 2.582 (95% CI: 1.381-4.825, p < 0.003; for people heavily addicted to nicotine, HR = 3.656 (95% CI: 1.544-8.654, p < 0.004; and for passive smokers (risk for persons staying in smoky rooms up to 5 h a day, compared to those not living in smoke-filled rooms, HR = 2.021 (95% CI: 1.111-3.672, p < 0.03. The variable that had a protective effect on the mortality risk of working-age population turned out to be a "reasonable" use of alcohol (HR = 0.411, 95% CI: 0.227-0.744, p < 0.004, compared to non-drinking alcohol at all. Conclusions: Addiction to smoking significantly increases the risk of premature death, and therefore appropriate prevention programs aimed at the reduction of smoking can contribute to closing the gap in the population health status. Med Pr 2014;65(2:251–260

  20. Diagnostic usefulness of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire for the detection of hazardous drinking and dependence on alcohol among Spanish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Torres, Luis Angel Pérula; Rebollo, Encarnación Márquez; Ruiz-Moral, Roger; Fernández-García, Jose Angel; Vega, Raquel Arias; Palomino, María Muriel

    2009-01-01

    To check the validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among Spanish adult citizens. This is a descriptive observational study. The surveyed group comprised patients aged 18-80 years who went to their doctors' surgeries at two primary care centres located in Cordoba (Spain). We examined the psychometric properties of AUDIT and its capacity to correctly diagnose alcohol abuse or dependence, as defined by DSM-IV, ICD-10, and hazardous drinking. Six hundred and fourteen patients were studied (mean age 43+/-1.43 years). At a cut-off value of 7 points, the sensitivity of AUDIT in detecting hazardous drinking was 91.7%, and its specificity 91.9%; the area below the curve was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.937-0.975). To detect possible dependence, the optimum cut-off value was 6 points. According to ICD-10, sensitivity was 81.6%, specificity 82.3%, and the area under the curve 0.885 (95% CI 0.848-0.923; p<0.001), whereas according to DSM-IV criteria, sensitivity was 88.3%, specificity 83.1%, and the area under the curve 0.918 (95% CI 0.885-0.951). The high criterion-related validity of AUDIT was proven, regardless of the gold standard used.

  1. Caffeinated energy drink consumption among adolescents and potential health consequences associated with their use: a significant public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Nada; Soliman, Ashraf T; Elsedfy, Heba; Di Maio, Salvatore; El Kholy, Mohamed; Fiscina, Bernadette

    2017-08-23

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. The consumption of EDs has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. EDs contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of EDs poses a risk of caffeine toxicity and other ill effects when consumed by young people. Caffeine intoxication may result in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and even death. Other health concerns related to consumption of EDs include obesity and dental enamel erosion resulting from the acidity of EDs. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors in adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. Several researchers have demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Caffeine's effect on intoxication may be most pronounced when mixers are artificially sweetened, that is, lack sucrose which slows the rate of gastric emptying of alcohol. 1) health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks; 2) emergency department clinicians should consider asking patients about ED and traditional caffeine usage and substance use when assessing patient symptoms; 3) policy makers should  increase their attention on introducing regulatory policies on television food advertising to which youth are exposed;  4) failure to comply with standards for efficacious product labelling, and absence of broader education regarding guidelines, need to be addressed and 5) further studies must be done to

  2. Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Disorders, Smoking, and Hazardous Drinking Among a Population-Based Cohort of US Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    disorders and maladaptive behaviors. Pre- vious studies have explored the relationships between mental disorders , smoking, and alcohol drinking and...relationships between mental disorders and maladaptive behaviors, indepen- dent of other conditions and behaviors, and provides evidence that there are numerous...Adjusted Odds of Newly Reported Mental Disorder and Maladaptive Behaviors Among Participants Who Screened Negative at Baseline Outcome Main Exposures

  3. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... In Canada people have come to recognize the harmful effects of tobacco on health. In many poorer countries, however, the globalization of the tobacco industry, the lack of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of tobacco combine to create a growing health crisis. Currently ...

  4. The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT: validation of a Nepali version for the detection of alcohol use disorders and hazardous drinking in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Bickram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol problems are a major health issue in Nepal and remain under diagnosed. Increase in consumption are due to many factors, including advertising, pricing and availability, but accurate information is lacking on the prevalence of current alcohol use disorders. The AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire developed by WHO identifies individuals along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse and hence provides an opportunity for early intervention in non-specialty settings. This study aims to validate a Nepali version of AUDIT among patients attending a university hospital and assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders along the full spectrum of alcohol misuse. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in patients attending the medicine out-patient department of a university hospital. DSM-IV diagnostic categories (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence were used as the gold standard to calculate the diagnostic parameters of the AUDIT. Hazardous drinking was defined as self reported consumption of ≥21 standard drink units per week for males and ≥14 standard drink units per week for females. Results A total of 1068 individuals successfully completed the study. According to DSM-IV, drinkers were classified as follows: No alcohol problem (n=562; 59.5%, alcohol abusers (n= 78; 8.3% and alcohol dependent (n=304; 32.2%. The prevalence of hazardous drinker was 67.1%. The Nepali version of AUDIT is a reliable and valid screening tool to identify individuals with alcohol use disorders in the Nepalese population. AUDIT showed a good capacity to discriminate dependent patients (with AUDIT ≥11 for both the gender and hazardous drinkers (with AUDIT ≥5 for males and ≥4 for females. For alcohol dependence/abuse the cut off values was ≥9 for both males and females. Conclusion The AUDIT questionnaire is a good screening instrument for detecting alcohol use disorders in patients attending a university

  5. Rapid screening and identification of chemical hazards in surface and drinking water using high resolution mass spectrometry and a case-control filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserzon, Sarit L; Heffernan, Amy L; Thompson, Kristie; Mueller, Jochen F; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2017-09-01

    Access to clean, safe drinking water poses a serious challenge to regulators, and requires analytical strategies capable of rapid screening and identification of potentially hazardous chemicals, specifically in situations when threats to water quality or security require rapid investigations and potential response. This study describes a fast and efficient chemical hazard screening strategy for characterising trace levels of polar organic contaminants in water matrices, based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry with post-acquisition 'case-control' data processing. This method allowed for a rapid response time of less than 24 h for the screening of target, suspect and non-target unknown chemicals via direct injection analysis, and a second, more sensitive analysis option requiring sample pre-concentration. The method was validated by fortifying samples with a range of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (n = 46); with >90% of target compounds positively screened in samples at 1 ng mL-1, and 46% at 0.1 ng mL-1 when analysed via direct injection. To simulate a contamination event samples were fortified with compounds not present in the commercial library (designated 'non-target compounds'; fipronil and fenitrothion), tentatively identified at 0.2 and 1 ng mL-1, respectively; and a compound not included in any known commercial library or public database (designated 'unknown' compounds; 8Cl- perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), at 0.8 ng mL-1. The method was applied to two 'real-case' scenarios: (1) the assessment of drinking water safety during a high-profile event in Brisbane, Australia; and (2) to screen treated, re-circulated drinking water and pre-treated (raw) water. The validated workflow was effective for rapid prioritisation and screening of suspect and non-target potential hazards at trace levels, and could be applied to a wide range of matrices and investigations where comparison of organic contaminants between

  6. Examining Public Perceptions about Lead in School Drinking Water: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Twitter Response to an Environmental Health Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; McElwain, Cora-Ann; Sprague, Nadav

    2018-01-20

    Exposure to lead has long been a community health concern in St. Louis, Missouri. The objective of this study was to examine public response to reports of elevated lead levels in school drinking water in St. Louis, Missouri via Twitter, a microblogging platform with over 320 million active users. We used a mixed-methods design to examine Twitter user status updates, known as "tweets," from 18 August to 31 December 2016. The number of tweets each day was recorded, and Twitter users were classified into five user types (General Public, Journalist/News, Health Professional/Academic, Politician/Government Official, and Non-Governmental Organization). A total of 492 tweets were identified during the study period. The majority of discourse on Twitter occurred during the two-week period after initial media reports and was driven by members of the General Public. Thematic analysis of tweets revealed four themes: Information Sharing, Health Concerns, Sociodemographic Disparities, and Outrage. Twitter users characterized lead in school drinking water as an issue of environmental inequity. The findings of this study provide evidence that social media platforms can be utilized as valuable tools for public health researchers and practitioners to gauge public sentiment about environmental health issues, identify emerging community concerns, and inform future communication and research strategies regarding environmental health hazards.

  7. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQtotals ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10(-7) ≤ RQtotals ≤ 4.24 × 10(-4)) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol brief intervention for hospitalized veterans with hazardous drinking: protocol for a 3-arm randomized controlled efficacy trial

    OpenAIRE

    Broyles, Lauren M.; Wieland, Melissa E; Confer, Andrea L; DiNardo, Monica M; Kraemer, Kevin L; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Youk, Ada O.; GORDON, ADAM J; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Various hospital accreditation and quality assurance entities in the United States have approved and endorsed performance measures promoting alcohol brief intervention (BI) for hospitalized individuals who screen positive for unhealthy alcohol use, the spectrum of use ranging from hazardous use to alcohol use disorders. These performance measures have been controversial due to the limited and equivocal evidence for the efficacy of BI among hospitalized individuals. The few BI trial...

  9. Bad Mouthin': What Smokeless Tobacco Can Do to You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Clearinghouse, Madison.

    This booklet presents, in comic book format, information for children and adolescents on the hazards of using smokeless tobacco. It touches on the use of smokeless tobacco by baseball players, the advertising of smokeless tobacco, and the illegality of selling smokeless tobacco to minors. Health consequences of using smokeless tobacco, including…

  10. Comparison of WEB and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) Methods for Delivering Brief Alcohol Interventions to Hazardous-Drinking University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated automated techniques including personalized normative feedback and protective behavioral strategies, for brief interventions intended to reduce peak alcohol concentrations in university students. After completing baseline assessment, a total of 1,678 hazardous-drinking consumers were randomized to a single or a repeated Internet (WEB) or Interactive Voice Response (IVR) intervention, or to a control group (Single WEB: 323; Single IVR: 329; Repeated WEB: 318; Repeated IVR: 334; 374). At follow-up, six weeks after baseline, questionnaires were returned by 1,422 participants (Single WEB: 277; Single IVR: 286; Repeated WEB: 259; Repeated IVR: 279; 321). It was found that peak estimated BAC was reduced in the total group (b -0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.023; -0.005), in the total (b -0.17, 95% CI -0.027; -0.007) and single (b -0.021, 95% CI -0.032; -0.011) WEB group, and in the total (b -0.011, 95% CI -0.021; -0.015) and repeated (b -0.012, 95% CI -0.023; -0.000) IVR groups, compared to controls. The reduction in peak estimated BAC was greater in the single WEB group compared to the single IVR group (b -0.011, 95% CI -0.022; -0.000). This study concluded that both WEB and IVR interventions have a small but significant effect in reducing heavy episodic drinking, which may be due to the relatively large sample size. Repeated intervention may be needed if delivered by IVR. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Implicit alcohol associations, especially drinking identity, predict drinking over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Baldwin, S.A.; Norris, J.; Kaysen, D.; Gasser, M.L.; Wiers, R.W.

    OBJECTIVE: There is considerable excitement about implicit alcohol associations (IAAs) as predictors of college-student hazardous drinking; however, few studies have investigated IAAs prospectively, included multiple assessments, or controlled for previous drinking. Doing so is essential for showing

  12. Adolescent Perceptions of College Student Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Olds, R. Scott; Ray-Tomasek, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed secondary school students regarding their perceptions of college student drinking. Most 7th graders had normative perceptions of collegiate drinking. Adolescent substance use most closely related to peer norms. Perceptions of collegiate drinking independently related to alcohol use intensity, drinking onset, and indicators of tobacco and…

  13. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized.

  14. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco-related diseases burden fragile healthcare systems and hinder productivity. Tobacco is ... relatively recent innovation of flavouring the tobacco. IDRC partners at the American. University of ... Tobacco and Taxes: A winning strategy, IDRC 2006 http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-94887-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html. JA. C. O. B. K.

  15. Obsolete tobacco control themes can be hazardous to public health: the need for updating views on absolute product risks and harm reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynn T Kozlowski; David B Abrams

    2016-01-01

    ... nicotine delivery (e.g. vaping of e-cigarettes) without any tobacco per se [31, 32, 42]. Is snus or ANDS more lethal than any of these separately: heroin or cocaine or alcohol or AIDS or fires or homicide or suicide or automobile crashes? The credible arguments for the risks of snus or vaping products do not range to the level of highly letha...

  16. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ... role in other cancers, heart disease and stroke. Smokeless tobacco contains more nicotine than cigarettes. Nicotine is a ...

  17. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the consumption of raw drinking milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    -borne infection and the hazard being present in the European Union (EU), the impact of the hazard on human health and whether there was evidence for RDM as an important risk factor in the EU. The main hazards were Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Brucella...

  18. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    OpenAIRE

    Skewes, Monica C.; DeCou, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity.Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related ...

  19. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diabetes, low body mass index and the risk of self-reported symptoms of active tuberculosis: individual participant data (IPD meta-analyses of 72,684 individuals in 14 high tuberculosis burden countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadeep Patra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of multiple exposures on active tuberculosis (TB are largely undetermined. We sought to establish a dose-response relationship for smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI and to investigate the independent and joint effects of these and diabetes on the risk of self-reported symptoms of active TB disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed 14 national studies in 14 high TB-burden countries using self-reports of blood in cough/phlegm and cough lasting > = 3 weeks in the last year as the measures of symptoms of active TB. The random effect estimates of the relative risks (RR between active TB and smoking, drinking, diabetes, and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 were reported for each gender. Floating absolute risks were used to examine dyads of exposure. Adjusted for age and education, the risks of active TB were significantly associated with diabetes and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 in both sexes, with ever drinking in men and with ever smoking in women. Stronger dose-response relationships were seen in women than in men for smoking amount, smoking duration and drinking amount but BMI<18.5 kg/m2 showed a stronger dose-response relationship in men. In men, the risks from joint exposures were statistically significant for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR = 6.4, diabetics who smoked (RR = 3.8, and diabetics who drank alcohol (RR = 3.2. The risks from joint risk factors were generally larger in women than in men, with statistically significant risks for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR = 10.0, diabetics who smoked (RR = 5.4 and women with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 who smoked (RR = 5.0. These risk factors account for 61% of male and 34% of female estimated TB incidents in these 14 countries. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco, alcohol, diabetes, and low BMI are significant individual risk factors but in combination are associated with triple or quadruple the risk of development of recent active TB. These risk factors might help to explain the wide variation in TB across

  20. Reported Alcohol and Tobacco Use and Screening Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Kimberly; Sutherland, Melissa A; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    To describe the reports of young women in their senior college years related to alcohol and tobacco use and to describe their health screening experiences in college health centers. A secondary analysis of data collected as part of a cross-sectional study of college women. For the original study, women were recruited from two accredited 4-year universities in the Northeastern United States. The first was a private university, and the second was a public university; both had on-campus health centers. The participants were 615 female undergraduate students enrolled in their senior year of college. A Web-based survey was sent to approximately 1,200 women at each university. Women were asked about their alcohol and tobacco use and about screening experiences in college health centers. The mean response rate was 25.8%. Nearly 90% (n = 550) of the women reported drinking alcohol in the last 3 months, and of those, more than two thirds (n = 370) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of hazardous drinking. However, only 21.5% (n = 56) reported being screened for alcohol use. Similarly, only 19.7% (n = 52) reported being screened for tobacco use. College health centers are ideally positioned to screen and provide interventions for young women who are at high risk for alcohol misuse and tobacco use. Despite prevalence of use and importance of screening, reported screening is low. Future research is needed to understand barriers to screening and implement recommendations for college health centers. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and patterns of hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption assessed using the AUDIT among Bhutanese refugees in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Nagendra P; Jordans, Mark; Murphy, Adrianna; Roberts, Bayard; McCambridge, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain the prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption among Bhutanese refugees in Nepal and to identify predictors of elevated risk in order to better understand intervention need. Hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) administered in a face-to-face interview in a census of two camps comprising ∼8000 refugees. Approximately 1/5 men and 1/14 women drank alcohol and prevalence of hazardous drinking among current drinkers was high and comparable to that seen in Western countries with longstanding alcohol cultures. Harmful drinking was particularly associated with the use of other substances including tobacco. Assessment of the alcohol-related needs of Bhutanese refugees has permitted the design of interventions. This study adds to the small international literature on substance use in forced migration populations, about which there is growing concern.

  2. Booze and butts: A content analysis of the presence of alcohol in tobacco industry lifestyle magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Frequent depictions of smoking and drinking in tobacco industry lifestyle magazines might have reinforced norms about paired use of tobacco and alcohol among young adults. The pairing of tobacco and alcohol may particularly target young men. Anti-tobacco interventions need to address the co-use of tobacco and alcohol, change the social acceptability of smoking in social settings, and tailor anti-tobacco messaging by gender.

  3. Implicit alcohol associations, especially drinking identity, predict drinking over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Teachman, Bethany A; Baldwin, Scott A; Norris, Jeanette; Kaysen, Debra; Gasser, Melissa L; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-08-01

    There is considerable excitement about implicit alcohol associations (IAAs) as predictors of college-student hazardous drinking; however, few studies have investigated IAAs prospectively, included multiple assessments, or controlled for previous drinking. Doing so is essential for showing the utility of these associations as predictors, and ultimately, targets for screening or intervention. Therefore, 3 IAAs (i.e., drinking identity, alcohol approach, and alcohol excitement) were evaluated as prospective predictors of drinking in 1st- and 2nd-year undergraduates in the United States. A sample of 506 undergraduates completed 8 online assessments of IAAs, explicit measures of the IAA constructs, and hazardous drinking (i.e., consumption, problems, and risk of alcohol-use disorders) every 3 months over a 21-month period. Retention rates, ordered by follow-up time points, were 90%, 76%, 76%, 77%, 72%, 67%, and 66%, respectively. Half of the participants were nondrinkers at baseline; 21% were above clinical cutoffs for hazardous drinking. Drinking-identity and alcohol-excitement associations predicted future alcohol consumption and problems after controlling for previous drinking and explicit measures; drinking identity also predicted future risk of alcohol-use disorder. Relative to the other IAAs, drinking identity predicted alcohol consumption for the longest duration (i.e., 21 months). Alcohol-approach associations rarely predicted variance in drinking. IAAs vary in their utility as prospective predictors of college-student hazardous drinking. Drinking identity and, to a lesser extent, alcohol excitement, emerged as robust prospective predictors of hazardous drinking. Intervention and screening efforts could likely benefit from targeting those associations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Associations of Tobacco Use and Alcohol Drinking with Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer Risks among Men in Karunagappally, Kerala, India -Karunagappally Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Suminori; Gangadharan, Paleth; Koriyama, Chihaya

    2013-01-01

    Background From among a cohort of 65,553 men aged 30–84 in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India, 52 hypopharyngeal cancer cases and 85 laryngeal cancer cases were identified by the Karunagappally Cancer Registry during the period between 1990 and 2009. Methods We conduct Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, taking into account age and education. Results This study showed that the incidence rates of cancers of the hypopharynx and the larynx were strongly related to the number of bidis smoked a day (Plaryngeal cancers) and duration of bidi smoking (P=0.009; PLaryngeal cancer risk was significantly increased by bidi smoking (Plaryngeal cancer incidence rates with bidi smoking in South Asia, clearly showed dose–response relationships between those cancer risks and bidi smoking; larger amounts of bidi smoked a day and longer durations of bidi smoking increased the incidence rates of those cancers. Tobacco chewing was found not related to the risk of hypopharynx or larynx cancer. PMID:24015309

  5. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chew. These might include having a cup of coffee or an alcoholic drink, being stressed or worried, ... if you used to smoke when you drank coffee, drink hot tea instead.You may feel irritable. ...

  6. Vigilância da qualidade da água para consumo humano: abordagem qualitativa da identificação de perigos Drinking water quality surveillance: qualitative approach of hazard identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Ferraz Carmo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de que os serviços de vigilância da qualidade da água para consumo realizem sistemática/permanente avaliação de risco dos sistemas de abastecimento é um importante desafio. Como a metodologia de Avaliação de Risco ainda não se encontra estruturada para rotineira utilização, apresenta-se uma sugestão de identificação de perigos e categorização de riscos associados ao abastecimento de água, através da utilização da metodologia proposta no Manual de Procedimentos de Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental Relacionada à Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano, com modificações. Foram identificadas situações de perigo na saída do tratamento e na rede de distribuição do sistema estudado. A aplicação da metodologia permitiu uma visão abrangente do sistema de abastecimento e informações para planejamento/priorização de medidas de forma a reduzir os perigos identificados e possíveis riscos à saúde da população.Nowadays, an important challenge to the health service is the need of a systematic and permanent drinking water systems risk assessment. The risk analysis methodology is not an easy understanding or applicable tool for the health service routine, so the purpose of this work is a suggestion for the hazard identification and risk categorization associated to the drinking water systems. The methodology proposed in the " Health Environmental Surveillance associated to Drinking Water Quality Manual" was used as reference. Hazard situations were identified also at the treatment exit as at distribution systems studied. The tools for hazard identification and risk categorization proposed are applicable and allowed a general vision of the system. They also are helpful for the planning and the definition of intervention priorities as a way to reduce health risks associated to the drinking water systems.

  7. Screening for Hazardous Drinking in Nursing Home Residents: Evaluating the Validity of the Current Cutoffs of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption Questions by Using Ethyl Glucuronide in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher-Weber, Monika; Laireiter, Anton-Rupert; Kühberger, Anton; Kunz, Isabella; Yegles, Michel; Binz, Tina; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Hoffmann, Rainer; Praxenthaler, Verena; Lang, Siegfried; Wurst, Friedrich M

    2017-09-01

    Because of physiological changes, elderly people are much more exposed to the adverse effects of alcohol. Therefore, hazardous drinking is defined at lower levels as compared to younger adults. This work aimed to evaluate the validity of the current cutoff levels of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questions to detect hazardous drinking in the elderly by using ethyl glucuronide in hair (HEtG). In a border region between Austria and Germany, 344 nursing home residents were included from 33 of the 107 nursing homes. Residents were asked to answer the AUDIT-C questions, hair samples were obtained, and nursing staff members were asked for their assessments of the residents' alcohol consumption. Hair samples were analyzed for HEtG using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the validity of cutoff values for the AUDIT-C to detect an alcohol consumption of ≥10 g of alcohol/d. A total of 11.3% of the nursing home residents (n = 344) drank ≥10 g of alcohol/d (4.9% >60 g of alcohol/d, 6.4% 10 to 60 g of alcohol/d, 88.7% alcohol/d)). For the drinking limit of ≥10 g of alcohol/d, ROC curve analysis showed a balanced sensitivity and specificity, with an AUDIT-C cutoff of ≥4 for men (sensitivity: 70%, specificity: 83.6%; AUC = 0.823, CI = 0.718 to 0.928, p alcohol consumption and evaluated 40% of the chronic-excessive alcohol consumers (>60 g of alcohol/d) as being abstinent. Our data suggest that an AUDIT-C cutoff of ≥4 for men and ≥2 for women can be recommended to detect the consumption of ≥10 g of alcohol/d in the elderly. Because the nursing staff to a large extent underestimates the alcohol consumption among nursing home residents, further teaching of the staff, improvement of screening instruments for the elderly, and the use of objective biomarkers might be helpful for recognizing hazardous drinking and can thus help improve the

  8. Associations of tobacco use and alcohol drinking with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risks among men in Karunagappally, Kerala, India -Karunagappally cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy Amma Jayalekshmi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From among a cohort of 65,553 men aged 30-84 in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India, 52 hypopharyngeal cancer cases and 85 laryngeal cancer cases were identified by the Karunagappally Cancer Registry during the period between 1990 and 2009. METHODS: We conduct Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, taking into account age and education. RESULTS: This study showed that the incidence rates of cancers of the hypopharynx and the larynx were strongly related to the number of bidis smoked a day (P<0.001 for both hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers and duration of bidi smoking (P=0.009; P<0.001. Laryngeal cancer risk was significantly increased by bidi smoking (P<0.001, cigarette smoking (P=0.013 and regular alcohol use (P=0.005. CONCLUSION: The present study, the first cohort study to examine the association of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer incidence rates with bidi smoking in South Asia, clearly showed dose-response relationships between those cancer risks and bidi smoking; larger amounts of bidi smoked a day and longer durations of bidi smoking increased the incidence rates of those cancers. Tobacco chewing was found not related to the risk of hypopharynx or larynx cancer.

  9. Alcohol e-Help: study protocol for a web-based self-help program to reduce alcohol use in adults with drinking patterns considered harmful, hazardous or suggestive of dependence in middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael P; Tiburcio, Marcela; Martinez, Nora; Ambekar, Atul; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Wenger, Andreas; Monezi Andrade, André Luiz; Padruchny, Dzianis; Osipchik, Sergey; Gehring, Elise; Poznyak, Vladimir; Rekve, Dag; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2017-09-17

    Given the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use. Two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) with follow-up 6 months after randomization. Community samples in middle-income countries. People aged 18+, with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of 8+ indicating hazardous alcohol consumption. Offer of an internet-based self-help intervention, 'Alcohol e-Health', compared with a 'waiting list' control group. The intervention, adapted from a previous program with evidence of effectiveness in a high-income country, consists of modules to reduce or entirely stop drinking. The primary outcome measure is change in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score assessed at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include self-reported the numbers of standard drinks and alcohol-free days in a typical week during the past 6 months, and cessation of harmful or hazardous drinking (AUDIT < 8). Data analysis will be by intention-to-treat, using analysis of covariance to test if program participants will experience a greater reduction in their AUDIT score than controls at follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by (generalized) linear mixed models. Complier average causal effect and baseline observations carried forward will be used in sensitivity analyses. If the Alcohol e-Health program is found to be effective, the potential public health impact of its expansion into countries with underdeveloped alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatment systems world-wide is considerable. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  11. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  12. Communicating tobacco health risks: How effective are the warning labels on tobacco products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja

    2014-09-01

    Health hazards of tobacco are well known but only small numbers of tobacco users are fully aware of the harmful effects of tobacco. Warning labels on tobacco products are an effective way of communicating the consequences of tobacco use and bring about behavioural changes like quitting and reducing the tobacco consumption. So the present study was conducted to investigate the awareness and effectiveness of warning labels on tobacco products among health and non-healthcare professional of Barwala, Panchkula. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 408 subjects who were randomly selected from different professional colleges of Barwala, Panchkula. Data obtained were anlysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS 20.0. Most of study participants has noticed the warnings on tobacco products and most of them believe that they could understand warning labels. More that 70% believe that warnings create awareness about health hazards of tobacco and help in reducing or quitting tobacco. Pictorial warning was found to be better as compared to text warning. Health professionals were able to assess pictorial warnings more correctly as compared to non-healthcare professionals. Warning labels on tobacco packs effectively inform people about adverse health effects of tobacco but the mandated warnings do not serve the desired purpose since they are not properly understood.

  13. Contribution of time of drinking onset and family history of alcohol problems in alcohol and drug use behaviors in Argentinean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Caneto, Florencia; Garimaldi, Javier Alejandro; Vera, Belén Del Valle; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze independent and potential interactive effects of age at drinking onset and family history of alcohol abuse on subsequent patterns of alcohol drinking, alcohol-related problems and substance use. Participants were college students (60.3% females, mean age = 20.27 ± 2.54 years) from the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Several measures were used to assess alcohol, tobacco and drug use. The Spanish version of the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire was used to assess alcohol-related problems. Factorial analyses of variance, or its non-parametric equivalent, were performed to explore differences in substance use behaviors and alcohol-related problems in subjects with early or late drinking onset and with or without family history of alcohol abuse. Chi-square tests were conducted to analyze the association between these two risk factors and categorical measures of alcohol, tobacco and drug use. Early onset of drinking was associated with amount of consumption of alcohol including up to hazardous levels, as well as tobacco and drug use. However, the frequency of alcohol problems and frequency of episodes of alcohol intoxication were only related to age of onset in those with a positive family history of alcohol problems. Delaying drinking debut is particularly important in the prevention of future alcohol problems in those adolescents who have a family history of such problems.

  14. Temporal Assessment of Mental Disorders, Smoking, and Hazardous Drinking in United States Troops Deployed in Support of the Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    assessment of 3000 obstetric -gynecologic patients: the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire Obstetrics -Gynecology Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183(3...brain reward pathways. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998;51(1- 2):13-22. 39. Windle M, Mun EY, Windle RC. Adolescent -to-young adulthood heavy drinking

  15. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer On This Page What is smokeless tobacco? Are there harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco? Does ...

  16. [Significance of indicator microorganisms in the assessment of a microbial risk in the occurrence of epidemic hazard in drinking water use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshnia, V V; Zhuravlev, P V; Golovina, S V; Panasovets, O P; Nedachin, A E; Artemova, T Z; Ivanova, L V; Talaeva, Iu G; Zagaĭnova, A V; Butorina, N N; Ibragimova, L M; Kolbasnikova, I A; Glukhov, A A; Shcheglova, E I; Martynov, G A; Kovalevskaia, O L; Gordeev, V A; Beloglazova, M D; Subbotina, V I; Chernogorova, T N

    2008-01-01

    Summary. The paper provides comparative characteristics of water quality in the assessment of a risk for intestinal infections in drinking water use. It has shown that of the greatest predictive value is direct detection of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the integral indicator determined by glucose fermentation, such as glucose-positive coliform bacteria. Estimation of the per cent of nonstandard samples of water before its entering the distribution network and in the latter, including glucose-positive Escherichia coli GPEC, is recommended. The samples containing GPEC in a quantity of more than 2 CFU/100 ml should be singly taken into account.

  17. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  18. Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Parvez, Lutfar; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-07-15

    An integrated approach of pollution evaluation indices, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) was employed to evaluate the intensity and sources of pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems of northwestern Bangladesh. Temperature, BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Pb levels in most of the water samples exceed the Bangladesh and international standards. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (C(d)) yield different results despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) shows strong correlations with HPI and C(d), and gives a better assessment of pollution levels. Modifications to the existing HPI and C(d) schemes show comparable results with HEI, and indicate that about 55% of the mine drainage/irrigation waters and 50% of the groundwaters are moderately to highly contaminated. The CA, PCA and pollution indices suggest that the mine drainage water (DW) is contaminated by anthropogenic (mining operation and agrogenic) sources, and the proximal parts are more contaminated than the distal part. The groundwater system in the vicinity of the coal mine site is also heavily polluted by anthropogenic sources. The pollution status of irrigation and drinking water systems in the study area are of great environmental and health concerns. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  20. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript ... Page maintained by: Office of Associate Director of Communication, Division of Public Affairs Email Recommend Tweet YouTube ...

  1. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  2. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of binge drinks. 4 On average, underage drinkers consume more drinks per drinking occasion than adult drinkers. ... Disease Control and Prevention Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  3. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript [23 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [27. ...

  4. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  5. Tobacco Use and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DON'T START SAY IT - SHARE IT Home > Health Effects > Tobacco Use and Pregnancy HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Tobacco Use and Fertility Tobacco ...

  6. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Hall, Sabine; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers) or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when') was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting') were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti-smoking campaigns

  7. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Jones

    Full Text Available 'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when' was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting' were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti

  8. Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxes are widely regarded as a highly effective strategy for reducing tobacco use and its consequences. The voluminous literature on tobacco taxes is assessed, drawing heavily from seminal and recent publications reviewing the evidence on the impact of tobacco taxes on tobacco use and related outcomes, as well as that on tobacco tax administration. Well over 100 studies, including a growing number from low-income and middle-income countries, clearly demonstrate that tobacco excise taxes are a powerful tool for reducing tobacco use while at the same time providing a reliable source of government revenues. Significant increases in tobacco taxes that increase tobacco product prices encourage current tobacco users to stop using, prevent potential users from taking up tobacco use, and reduce consumption among those that continue to use, with the greatest impact on the young and the poor. Global experiences with tobacco taxation and tax administration have been used by WHO to develop a set of 'best practices' for maximising the effectiveness of tobacco taxation. Significant increases in tobacco taxes are a highly effective tobacco control strategy and lead to significant improvements in public health. The positive health impact is even greater when some of the revenues generated by tobacco tax increases are used to support tobacco control, health promotion and/or other health-related activities and programmes. In general, oppositional arguments that higher taxes will have harmful economic effects are false or overstated.

  9. Noncoding RNA Profiles in Tobacco- and Alcohol-Associated Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nayra Soares do Amaral; Natalia Cruz e Melo; Beatriz de Melo Maia; Rafael Malagoli Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are the leading environmental risk factors in the development of human diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and liver injury. Despite the copious amount of research on this topic, by 2030, 8.3 million deaths are projected to occur worldwide due to tobacco use. The expression of noncoding RNAs, primarily microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), is modulated by tobacco and alcohol consumption. Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes can modulate the...

  10. Tobacco Product Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying

    2017-04-01

    Sexual minority youth face health disparities and a high risk of substance abuse. This study sought to fully characterize the disparity of tobacco use and risk factors in this high-risk subpopulation. Using data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the current use of various tobacco products (cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and e-cigarettes) was compared according to sex and distinct sexual identities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and unsure). Heterosexual/straight adolescents served as the control group. Of 14 703 respondents, 88.8% were heterosexual/straight, 2.0% were lesbian or gay, 6.0% were bisexual, and 3.2% were unsure about their sexual identity. Sexual minorities had a higher prevalence of tobacco product use than their heterosexual/straight counterparts. Sex had a significant effect on the disparities of tobacco use. Lesbian and bisexual girls had higher odds of reporting current use of any tobacco product, cigarettes, cigars, and e-cigarettes than did straight girls, whereas sexual minority boys had similar smoking behaviors compared with straight boys. Substance use, including marijuana use, drinking, and binge drinking, was significantly associated with any tobacco use. Tobacco use differs among subgroups of sexual minority youth, with lesbians and bisexual girls having a higher prevalence of tobacco use than their straight peers. Heterogeneity of tobacco use across distinct sexual identity groups underscores the need to develop evidence-based tobacco control strategies for sexual minority youth. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Tobacco, nicotine and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Houezec, Jacques; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2011-03-01

    Tobacco smoking, sustained by nicotine dependence, is a chronic relapsing disorder, which in many cases results in lifelong cigarette use and consequent death of one out of two lifelong smokers from a disease caused by their smoking. Most toxicity due to cigarette smoking is related to the burning process. Models of harm reduction applied to tobacco suggest that use of non-combustible, less toxic, nicotine-containing products as a substitute for cigarette smoking would reduce the death toll arising from tobacco use. Available options include medicinal nicotine and smokeless tobacco products. The potential role of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in a harm reduction strategy is currently severely restricted by strict regulations on dose, safety and potential addictiveness. As a result, NRT products are designed to provide much less nicotine, and deliver it to the brain more slowly, than cigarettes, which are widely accessible and poorly regulated. Smokeless tobacco (snus) has proved to be an acceptable reduced hazard alternative to smoking in Sweden, but supply of snus is illegal elsewhere in the European Union. To increase accessibility and reach more smokers, barriers to the use of NRT use need to be removed and more effective NRTs need urgently to be developed. Smokeless tobacco could also play an important role in harm reduction, but current European Union regulations and concerns over exploitation by tobacco companies currently preclude wider use. To improve public health there is an urgent need for an appropriate regulatory framework and regulatory authority at the European level, controlling both tobacco and nicotine products to ensure that the least harmful products are the most accessible. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Associated Factors in Tuberculosis Public Primary Care Patients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Matseke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol use and associated factors among patients with tuberculosis in South Africa. In a cross-sectional survey new tuberculosis (TB and TB retreatment patients were consecutively screened using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The sample included 4,900 (54.5% men and women 45.5% tuberculosis patients from 42 primary care clinics in three districts. Results indicate that, overall 23.2% of the patients were hazardous or harmful alcohol drinkers, 31.8% of men and 13.0% of women were found to be hazardous drinkers, and 9.3% of men and 3.4% of women meet criteria for probable alcohol dependence (harmful drinking as defined by the AUDIT. Men had significantly higher AUDIT scores than women. In multivariable analyses it was found that among men poor perceived health status, tobacco use, psychological distress, being a TB retreatment patient and not being on antiretroviral therapy (ART, and among women lower education, tobacco use and being a TB retreatment patient were associated with hazardous or harmful alcohol use. The study found a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful alcohol use among tuberculosis primary care patients. This calls for screening and brief intervention and a comprehensive alcohol treatment programme as a key component of TB management in South Africa.

  13. Why Do the Youths in Northeast India Use Tobacco?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laishram Ladusingh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an assessment of the influence of parent’s tobacco use on prospective tobacco use trajectories among young offspring. The study is based on unit level data from District Level Household and Facility Survey-4 (2012-2013 comprising 27,706 youths in 15–24 years’ age group from northeastern states of India and used multilevel regression to identify the potential risk factors of tobacco consumption. The likelihood of using tobacco was found to be 3.4 and 1.14 times more, respectively, for the youths coresiding with mothers who use tobacco and fathers who use tobacco, in comparison to youths staying with parents not taking tobacco. The significant effect of peers on tobacco consumption among youths was also observed. School-going youths had significantly lower risk of tobacco use. The estimated likelihood of a young person from a household to use any tobacco, use smokeless tobacco, and smoke was found to be 28, 12, and 17 percent, respectively. There is an urgent need to extend National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP to the community level involving civil societies and young and adult generations for spreading awareness about the health hazards of tobacco use, providing support and facilitating quitting tobacco use.

  14. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    , and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  15. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior.

  16. Alcohol and Tobacco Cessation in Alcohol Dependent Smokers: Analysis of Real-Time Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Cooney, Ned L.; Litt, Mark D.; Cooney, Judith L.; Pilkey, David T.; Steinberg, Howard R.; Oncken, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol-tobacco interactions and relapse precipitants were examined among alcohol dependent smokers in a trial of concurrent alcohol and tobacco treatment. After discharge from treatment, participants completed 14 days of electronic diary (ED) assessments of mood, self-efficacy, urges to drink or smoke, and drinking and smoking behavior. ED data revealed an increase in frequency of alcohol urges after smoking episodes. Drinking relapse episodes were predicted by prior ED ratings of low self-e...

  17. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2012-03-01

    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence.

  18. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  19. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  20. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  1. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & ...

  2. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise ... Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you ...

  3. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... future Preconception Health (Full) Injury, Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop ... Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim ...

  4. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who ... Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies ...

  5. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Living in Philadelphia, PA Injury, Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop ... Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim ...

  6. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  7. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... at some point in their lives. Interferes with brain development Research shows that young people’s brains keep ...

  8. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health ...

  9. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  10. Beer consumption among hazardous drinkers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, William F; Meng, Chen; Rayburn, Brittany B; Proctor, Brandi; Handmaker, Nancy S

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of beer consumption among hazardous drinkers in our pregnant patient population. This prospective clinic-based cohort study involved women who were surveyed during their first prenatal visit. Hazardous drinking was identified on alcohol surveys as frequent or binge drinking habits with related consequences. Participants completed initial and postpartum interviews about the quantity, frequency, and type (beer, wine, liquor, and/or combinations) of alcoholic beverages consumed before and after pregnancy recognition. Of the total 4,494 patients who completed the survey, 203 (4.52%) met criteria for hazardous drinking, met study eligibility criteria, and completed the interviews. Beer was consumed most often (n = 151, 74.4%) and in greater quantities than wine (P Beer continued to be consumed by 52.3% women after pregnancy recognition. Although abstinence for prolonged periods was common during pregnancy, beer was consumed more than wine and liquor per drinking episode (2.7 versus 0.9 drinking units per drinking day; P = .002) indicating a binging pattern. Very few switched to drinking either a light beer (n = 6) or a nonalcoholic beer (n = 1). Beer is the most consumed among women with hazardous drinking habits before and after pregnancy awareness. Focusing on binge beer drinking is worthwhile during routine prenatal questioning. II-2.

  11. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... De Las Manos Salva Vidas Mi Salud, Mi Decisión, Mi Futuro Salud Pregestacional ¿Yo? ¿Tener un Bebé? ¿ ... professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript [ ...

  12. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send ...

  13. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies ...

  14. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... 10:09) Systems Mapping: The Basics (11:00) Visual Tools to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take ... professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript ...

  15. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript [23 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [27.9 ... risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – ...

  16. ELSA 2016 Cohort: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use and Their Association with Age of Drug Use Onset, Risk Perception, and Social Norms in Argentinean College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Pilatti

    2017-08-01

    , significantly explained the frequency of marijuana and tobacco use and frequency of hazardous drinking. Overall, despite important cultural and contextual differences between Argentina and the United States, our findings suggest that certain vulnerability factors have a similar influence across these cultural contexts.

  17. ELSA 2016 Cohort: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use and Their Association with Age of Drug Use Onset, Risk Perception, and Social Norms in Argentinean College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Read, Jennifer P.; Pautassi, Ricardo M.

    2017-01-01

    the frequency of marijuana and tobacco use and frequency of hazardous drinking. Overall, despite important cultural and contextual differences between Argentina and the United States, our findings suggest that certain vulnerability factors have a similar influence across these cultural contexts. PMID:28890707

  18. ELSA 2016 Cohort: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana Use and Their Association with Age of Drug Use Onset, Risk Perception, and Social Norms in Argentinean College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Read, Jennifer P; Pautassi, Ricardo M

    2017-01-01

    frequency of marijuana and tobacco use and frequency of hazardous drinking. Overall, despite important cultural and contextual differences between Argentina and the United States, our findings suggest that certain vulnerability factors have a similar influence across these cultural contexts.

  19. Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: the associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine patterns of tobacco chewing, smoking and alcohol drinking in a sample of young males. Method: The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits, snuffing habits, consumption of alcohol and subjective evaluation of periodontal health and oral mucosa. The subjects with ...

  20. Mobile phone text messaging to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people – a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness of text messaging-based programs to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people. Results: Two published studies on text message-based programs for the reduction of problem drinking and two studies on programs for enhancing smoking cessation were identified. A US-American pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of a text messaging-based assessment and brief intervention among young adults identified during their emergency department visit with hazardous drinking. It demonstrated the feasibility of the text messaging-based program to collect drinking data in young adults after emergency department discharge. A Swiss pre–post study tested the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored web- and text messaging (SMS-based program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. It provided evidence for the appropriateness of the intervention and initial evidence for its efficacy to reduce problem drinking. One of the two studies addressing smoking cessation was a US-American pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited via online advertisements and received text messages tailored according to their quitting stage. The intervention significantly affected self-reported quitting rates at 4 weeks but not at 3 months after the quit date. Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Switzerland, smoking students were proactively recruited within vocational

  1. Truth About Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks?Energy drinks differ from soft drinks and sports drinks. Soft drinks have a lower amount of caffeine. They also contain sugar or fake sweeteners. Sports drinks can have vitamins, carbs, and sugar. You should ...

  2. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up to 2 drinks per day for men. Binge Drinking: NIAAA defines binge drinking as a pattern of drinking that brings blood ... Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), defines binge drinking as 5 or more alcoholic drinks for males ...

  3. Tobacco-free campus initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayabb, Gina; Hoppers, Trevor

    2006-03-01

    College students in the United States face many health risks in what, for most, is their first extended stay away from home. Unhealthy diets, binge drinking, and stress can all contribute to the decreased health status of many 18-24 year olds attending college. Smoking on college campuses, however, is one factor that is not as often included in this list of risky behavior. Smoking and tobacco use is so prevalent that it is often considered the normal thing to do. To counter this belief, and hopefully provide a better way to equip Oklahoma students to lead tobacco-free lifestyles as adults, we have developed a thorough and pointed policy aimed at reducing tobacco use among the 18-24-year-old population. The Oklahoma statute entitled "Smoking in Public Places and Indoor Workplaces Act," Title 63, specifically addresses smoking in educational facilities in Section 1-1523 by giving educational facilities freedom to assign areas permissible for smoking outside buildings and during most activities. Part C of this section states, "Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit educational facilities from having more restrictive policies regarding smoking and the use of other tobacco products in the buildings or on the grounds of the facility." Part C is the premise of the following proposed policy. Outlined in this discussion will be the definition of the problem and basic rationale for such a policy, definition of educational facilities, an outline and communication of policy provisions, suggestions for assistance and cessation, types of enforcement, funding sources, and key players who need to be involved for effective application of this policy. Additionally discussed are the implications and limitations of a restricting policy on tobacco use.

  4. Booze and butts: A content analysis of the presence of alcohol in tobacco industry's lifestyle magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Cortese, Daniel K; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-06-01

    Advertising influences people's health behaviors. Tobacco companies have linked tobacco and alcohol in their marketing activities. We examined how depictions of alcohol were placed in lifestyle magazines produced by tobacco companies, and if these references differed depending on if the magazine was oriented towards men, women, or if it was unisex. Content analysis of 6 different tobacco industry lifestyle magazines (73 issues), including 73 magazine covers, 1558 articles, 444 tobacco ads, and 695 non-tobacco ads. 14 of 73 (19%) magazine covers featured alcohol; 581 of 1558 (37%) magazine articles mentioned alcohol; 119 of 444 (27%) tobacco ads showed alcohol images; and 57 of 695 (8%) non-tobacco ads portrayed alcohol. Male-oriented magazines ( Unlimited , CML , and Real Edge ) contained the most alcohol references, and the references were mainly beer, mixed drinks, and liquor or spirits. Female-oriented magazines ( All Woman and Flair ) contained the fewest alcohol references, and wine and mixed drinks were the major types of alcoholic beverage portrayed. For unisex magazine ( P.S. ), the frequency of alcohol references fell between the male- and female-oriented magazines, and most frequently mentioned mixed drinks. Frequent depictions of smoking and drinking in tobacco industry lifestyle magazines might have reinforced norms about paired use of tobacco and alcohol among young adults. The pairing of tobacco and alcohol may particularly target young men. Anti-tobacco interventions need to address the co-use of tobacco and alcohol, change the social acceptability of smoking in any social settings, and tailor alcohol related anti-tobacco messaging by gender.

  5. Chemistry and toxicology of smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhisey, R A

    2012-01-01

    In most parts of the world, tobacco is used for smoking, whereas, in India, tobacco is used for smoking as well as in diverse smokeless forms. Absorption of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco and other ingredients added to various products are causally associated with several non-communicable diseases including cancer, especially oral cancer, which is the leading cancer among men and the third most common cancer among women in India. This article highlights the toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenic effects of hazardous chemicals present in smokeless tobacco products. This endeavor was based on the extensive review of literature from various sources. The SLT products have influence on cellular metabolism, ability to cause DNA damage, and cancer in experimental animals. It is, therefore, essential to consider the collective role of chemical constituents of SLT products in the causation of adverse effect on human health.

  6. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view.

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, P; Meek, M E

    1983-01-01

    For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that...

  7. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  8. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K.

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  9. Tobacco and alcohol in films and on television

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests exposure to film smoking increases youth smoking, and this is also likely to be the case for television. Some evidence suggests alcohol in films and television has similar effects on drinking behaviours. It is therefore important to document the extent to which tobacco and alcohol occur in films and television in the UK. Methods Films (1989-2008) and television broadcasting were content coded for tobacco and alcohol including branding, use, parapherna...

  10. Comparison of tobacco-containing and tobacco-free waterpipe products: effects on human alveolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas; Rammah, Mayassa; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, a class of products marketed as "tobacco-free" alternatives for the "health conscious user" has become widely available for waterpipe (hookah, narghile, or shisha) smoking. Their adoption may be in part driven by regulations banning tobacco smoking in public places and by an increasing awareness of the hazards of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Although these products are presented in advertising as a "healthier" choice, very little is known about their health effects. In this study, we compared the effects of smoke generated with tobacco-free and conventional tobacco-derived products on human alveolar cells. Smoke was generated with a smoking machine that precisely mimicked the puffing behavior of 15 experienced waterpipe smokers when they used conventional waterpipe tobacco products of their choice and flavor-matched tobacco-free products. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were treated with particulate matter sampled from the smoke, and the effects on cell cycle, proliferation, and doubling time were measured during the subsequent 72hr. We found that smoke from both types of waterpipe products markedly reduced cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, and increased cell doubling time. There were no significant differences across product in any measure. Tobacco-free and tobacco-based waterpipe products exert substantial and similar deleterious effects on human lung cells. This study adds to the nascent evidence base indicating that except for exposure to nicotine and its derivatives, use of tobacco-free waterpipe products does not present a reduced health risk relative to the use of conventional tobacco-based products.

  11. Binge Drinking in Female College Students: The Association of Physical Activity, Weight Concern, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Kristin S.; Patten, Christi A.; Bronars, Carrie; Lane, Kristi; Stevens, Susanna R.; Croghan, Ivana T.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Clark, Matthew M.

    2004-01-01

    As an initial step in building gender-specific binge drinking intervention programs, the authors investigated the relation of potentially modifiable factors (physical activity level, weight concern, and depressive symptoms) to binge drinking while controlling for the effects of previously established correlates of binge drinking (tobacco and…

  12. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe ... & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us ...

  13. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... binge drinking carries more serious and longer-lasting risks as well. Alcohol Poisoning Alcohol poisoning is the most life-threatening ... or pale skin If you think someone has alcohol poisoning, call 911 ... drinking impairs judgment, so drinkers are more likely to take risks they might not take when they're sober. ...

  14. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking (40 percent vs. 7 percent) and 5 times more likely to have missed a class (64 percent vs. 12 percent). 6 Alcohol Use ... 6 weeks of freshman year are a vulnerable time for heavy drinking and ... social pressures at the start of the academic year. How much is a ...

  15. Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use and Pregnancy Text Size: A A A Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Can smokeless tobacco affect my ... smokeless tobacco use cause other health problems? Can smokeless tobacco affect my oral health? It may cause tooth ...

  16. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When kids drink too much juice, juice drinks, sports drinks, and soda, these beverages can crowd out the ... this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Caffeine Calcium Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? What Should Preschoolers ...

  17. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  18. Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Smokeless Tobacco URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Until recently, the Chinese tobacco industry has been run as a state-owned monopoly. It is reported, however, that two mainland tobacco firms have begun making Marlboro cigarettes under license from Philip Morris International. The combination of low-cost Marlboro cigarettes and Western marketing practices is likely to ...

  20. Pediatric Blood Cancer Survivors and Tobacco Use across Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Masiero, Marianna; Riva, Silvia; Fioretti, Chiara; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Scholars underline the pivotal role of tobacco cigarette smoking in carcinogenesis process for blood tumors. A controversial debate is represented by the diffusion of tobacco use in young cancer survivors that had a previous diagnosis of blood tumor during the childhood. Compared with their peers, scientific evidence highlights that pediatric survivors have more difficult to give-up cigarette smoking. Furthermore, tobacco-smoking is frequently linked with others risk behaviors as drinking or ...

  1. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tobacco use on TV and in movies, music videos, billboards and magazines–most teens, adults, and athletes DON’T use tobacco. Make friends, develop athletic skills, control weight, be independent, be cool … play sports. Don’t waste (burn) money on tobacco. Spend ...

  2. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and ...

  3. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Swimming Is No Accident No Antibiotics Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic ... Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4: ...

  4. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory Science: Mission Critical Saving Lives, Protecting People Environmental Health CDC Tracking Network Health Begins at Home ... the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: ...

  5. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > File Formats ...

  6. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video ... Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of ...

  7. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Source of Health (:30) Systems Thinking The Value of Systems Thinking (10:09) Systems Mapping: The ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  8. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such ...

  9. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Philadelphia, PA Injury, Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence ... in Indian Country Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Dangerous Creatures Healthy Changes Start in Preschool ...

  10. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC-TV videos cover a variety of health, safety and preparedness topics and include closed-captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  11. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe ...

  12. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act ... CDC-TV videos cover a variety of health, safety and preparedness topics and include closed-captioning. Videos ...

  13. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention ... Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

  14. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization Baby Book The Story of Folic ... the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and ...

  15. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Violence & Safety A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research ... In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital ...

  16. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  17. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... goals: Foster changes in society that facilitate healthy adolescent development and that help prevent and reduce underage drinking. ... cultural, and gender differences. Conduct additional research on adolescent ... to development. Work to improve public health surveillance on underage ...

  18. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ... Binge Drinking A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research In the Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers ...

  19. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 35) Fighting Flu (:60) Fighting Flu (:30) H1N1 (Swine Flu) I Never Get The Flu Influenza Round ... Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your ...

  20. Screening for problem drinking among college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M J; Walker, L S; Greene, J W

    1994-06-01

    This study identified predictors of older adolescents at risk for problem drinking. College freshmen (n = 492) completed a questionnaire that addressed drinking patterns, risk factors for problem drinking, the CAGE questions, the Perceived-Benefit-of-Drinking Scale (PBDS), and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). They also responded to questions regarding alcohol-related problems including blackouts; alcohol-related injury, illness, violence, or legal problems; driving under the influence; and missing class. 50% of students were male with a mean age of 17.9 years (SD = 0.5). Higher scores on the CAGE and PBDS, use of tobacco, best friend's drinking pattern, and younger age at first drinking were associated with higher scores on a quantity/frequency drinking index and with reports of significantly more alcohol-related problems. Regression models using these variables explained 40% to 51% of the variance in drinking habits and alcohol-related problems. A composite screening measure had significantly better sensitivity and specificity than either the CAGE or PBDS alone in identifying older adolescents at high risk for problem drinking.

  1. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  2. Tobacco, Nicotine, and Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2015-01-01

    Migraineurs variably attribute the cause of their headache to tobacco exposure, whereas tobacco is often stated to cause headache-related disability worldwide. Given tobacco's physiological and emotional addictiveness and migraine's substantial economic impact, improved functionality can be difficult for those with migraine exposed to tobacco products. Environmental tobacco exposure in indoor spaces and workplaces is associated with exacerbation of headache. Avoidance of headache triggers is included in most comprehensive migraine treatment programs, yet tobacco awareness, avoidance, or coping is rarely emphasized as part of that regimen. The aims of this study were to examine the various types of tobacco products to which headache sufferers are exposed and the known basic mechanisms by which tobacco (nicotine) exposure promotes headache pain, and to review the extensive literature on tobacco related to headache with a detailed descriptive narrative providing the basis for conclusions regarding association of noncluster headache-related tobacco exposure. Tobacco-related recommendations are offered. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched without yearly restriction through the date of submission (May 2015), using the MeSH terms "tobacco," "tobacco products," "smoking," "tobacco use," "headache," and "headache disorders." The selection of articles was not limited to English studies or to humans. Articles were excluded when "headache" and "tobacco" were not both mentioned with data provided. Case series were included. Bibliographies of all articles were screened for additional relevant articles. Although migraineurs worldwide report tobacco smoke among triggers, it is rarely among the highest in frequency, and biases abound with predominantly noncontrolled retrospective data. Prospective population-based diary data are extremely limited, and no controlled trials exist to confirm a cause and effect for headache of any type. Although some studies are

  3. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diabetes, low body mass index and the risk of self-reported symptoms of active tuberculosis: individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses of 72,684 individuals in 14 high tuberculosis burden countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayadeep; Jha, Prabhat; Rehm, Jürgen; Suraweera, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The effects of multiple exposures on active tuberculosis (TB) are largely undetermined. We sought to establish a dose-response relationship for smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI) and to investigate the independent and joint effects of these and diabetes on the risk of self-reported symptoms of active TB disease. We analyzed 14 national studies in 14 high TB-burden countries using self-reports of blood in cough/phlegm and cough lasting > = 3 weeks in the last year as the measures of symptoms of active TB. The random effect estimates of the relative risks (RR) between active TB and smoking, drinking, diabetes, and BMIeducation, the risks of active TB were significantly associated with diabetes and BMIdiabetics with BMIdiabetics who smoked (RR = 3.8), and diabetics who drank alcohol (RR = 3.2). The risks from joint risk factors were generally larger in women than in men, with statistically significant risks for diabetics with BMIdiabetics who smoked (RR = 5.4) and women with BMIalcohol, diabetes, and low BMI are significant individual risk factors but in combination are associated with triple or quadruple the risk of development of recent active TB. These risk factors might help to explain the wide variation in TB across countries.

  4. The association of media exposure and media literacy with adolescent alcohol and tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-ching; Miao, Nae-fang; Lee, Ching-mei; Chen, Ping-hung; Chiu, Chiung-hui; Lee, Shu-ching

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of media exposure and media literacy to alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 10th-grade students recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan, completed a questionnaire in 2010. The multivariable analysis results indicated that the students with higher alcohol and tobacco media exposure were more likely to use alcohol and tobacco and have intentions to drink and smoke, while students with higher media literacy were less likely to use alcohol and have intentions to drink and smoke. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Ching-Yi; Lan, Yu-Ching

    2017-08-24

    Background : This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods : Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results : Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%), being curious about the products (32.0%), enjoying the flavor (31.3%), or preparing for school exams (26.7%). Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents' home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink's effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions : In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  6. Effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Poland: The World Health Organization perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Kozieł, Anna; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Miśkiewicz, Paulina; Drygas, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing approximately half of the people who use it. Several strategies have been proved to reduce tobacco use. However, more than 50 years after the health effects of smoking were scientifically proven, and more than 20 years after evidence confirmed the hazards from exposure to second-hand smoke, few countries have implemented effective and recognized strategies to control the tobacco epidemic. This paper summarizes the World Health Organization recommendations for effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke along with the existing tobacco control programs and legislation in force in Poland.

  7. Longitudinal evaluation of a screening measure for problem drinking among female college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M J; Walker, L S; Greene, J W

    1994-12-01

    A previous study suggested that combining the CAGE (cutting down of drinking, feeling annoyed by criticisms of drinking, feeling guilty about something that happened because of drinking, having an eye-opener) questionnaire with the Perceived-Benefit-of-Drinking Scale, an adolescent's use of tobacco, the age at which an adolescent first started drinking, and an adolescent's best friend's drinking pattern is a useful composite screening measure for problem drinking among adolescents. The present study was undertaken to evaluate prospectively this composite screening measure as a predictor of subsequent problem drinking among college women during their freshman year. Cross-sectional. Private university student health service. A random sample of 248 college freshman women entered a longitudinal study of alcohol use at the beginning of their freshman year. One hundred twenty (48%) completed follow-up measures of alcohol use at the end of the year. Respondents were 90% white, with a mean age of 17.9 years (SD = 0.5 years). An index of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use and a composite measure of specific alcohol-related problems. The CAGE questionnaire score, the Perceived-Benefit-of-Drinking Scale score, the student's tobacco use, the student's best friend's drinking pattern, and the age at which the student first started drinking as reported at the beginning of the year together explained 38% of the variance in subsequent drinking habits and 26% of the variance in alcohol-related problems reported during the freshman year. Use of the composite screening measure significantly increased sensitivity and specificity beyond that obtained with the CAGE questionnaire or the Perceived-Benefit-of-Drinking Scale alone for problem drinking. The CAGE questions, the Perceived-Benefit-of-Drinking Scale, the student's tobacco use, the student's best friend's drinking pattern, and the age at which the student first started drinking may together constitute a clinically useful

  8. Biotechnological Reduction of Tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Samane Sattar; Gholamreza Asghari; Ali Akbar Ehsanpour

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nicotiana tobacco contains large amounts of alkaloid nicotine. Tobacco plant is used for smoking and causes many health problems since it is high in nicotine which is one of the widely-recognized toxic compounds with serious side effects for different body organs. Reducing nicotine content of this plant is a way to reduce its health hazards in cigarette smokers. Utilizing the new methods of genetic engineering can modify nicotine levels in the plant. In this study, through transfe...

  9. Strategies to prevent underage drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Toomey, Traci L

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol use by underage drinkers is a persistent public health problem in the United States, and alcohol is the most commonly used drug among adolescents. Accordingly, numerous approaches have been developed and studied that aim to prevent underage drinking. Some approaches are school based, involving curricula targeted at preventing alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. Other approaches are extracurricular, offering activities outside of school in the form of social or life skills training or alternative activities. Other strategies strive to involve the adolescents' families in the prevention programs. Policy strategies also have been implemented that have increased the minimum legal drinking age, reduced the commercial and social access of adolescents to alcohol, and reduced the economic availability of alcohol. Approaches involving the entire community also have been employed. Several programs (e.g., the Midwestern Prevention Project and Project Northland) have combined many of these strategies.

  10. Association between tobacco consumption and alcohol, vegetable and fruit intake across urban and rural areas in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrão, Patrícia; Silva-Matos, Carla; Damasceno, Albertino; Lunet, Nuno

    2011-05-01

    Smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy diet are known to cluster, but evidence from developing countries at the early phases of the tobacco epidemics and with markedly different cultures, lifestyles and forms of tobacco use is scarce. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between tobacco consumption (manufactured cigarettes, hand-rolled cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) and alcohol, fruit and vegetable intake in Mozambique according to place of residence (urban/rural). A representative sample of 12 902 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years was evaluated in a national household survey conducted in 2003 using a structured questionnaire. Age- and education-adjusted ORs were computed to estimate the association between tobacco consumption and alcohol, fruit and vegetable intake. Tobacco use and overall alcohol drinking were positively associated, regardless of type of tobacco consumed, but smoking of hand-rolled cigarettes and consumption of smokeless tobacco was negatively associated with beer drinking. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes had a less frequent intake of fruit, but smokeless tobacco consumption and hand-rolled cigarette smoking were not inversely related with intake of fruit or vegetables. This pattern was relatively consistent across genders and urban/rural areas, with the observed differences likely to be explained either by random variation or heterogeneity in tobacco consumption patterns across genders or places of residence. Strong associations between tobacco consumption and the intake of alcoholic beverages, vegetable and fruit intake are found, but not consistently for all forms of tobacco use.

  11. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  12. Differences by gender and education in responding to tobacco control measures implemented in Ukraine since 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Socially disadvantaged population groups are known to be less responsive to tobacco control policies. The objective of the study was to consider changes in smoking prevalence, exposure to secondhand smoke and tobacco advertising, as well as tobacco-related knowledge by gender and education groups in Ukraine after the implementation of tobacco control policies since 2006. METHODS: Prevalence of daily smoking was compared in 2000, 2005, and 2010. Data on tobacco awareness, exposure to SHS and tobacco advertising were available from the surveys conducted in 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: The decline in smoking prevalence in 2005-2010 was similar for men and women with different levels of education. Men with university education have lower smoking rates than other men. Women with less than secondary education had the lowest smoking rates which keep consistently low over time. Secondhand smoke and tobacco advertising exposure declined similarly across gender and education. Knowledge about tobacco-related health hazards increased more substantially in lower educated groups. CONCLUSIONS: All demographic groups in Ukraine revealed decline in smoking prevalence, exposure to SHS and the tobacco advertising as well as increase of tobacco-related health knowledge in response to tobacco control policies. Lower educated groups were more responsive to tobacco control policies than it was expected based on findings from high-income countries. In such countries as Ukraine comprehensive tobacco control measures are beneficial for all social groups and could lead to quick decline in prevalence of active and passive smoking.

  13. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Go: Passport To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza Influenza (:30) Influenza (:60) No Hay Excusas Prevención del virus del Zika para ... Drinking Transcript High resolution [27.9 MB] Open Captioned [12.6 ...

  14. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: ...

  15. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drinking" width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/I9hdkDTaQWU?rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>

  16. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  17. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics (11:00) Visual Tools to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  18. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... d’Opération d’Urgence (COU) Portuguese Vacine-se e proteja-se contra o sarampo Somali Halagu Tallaalo ... Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of our videos? Your feedback ...

  19. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  20. The effect of tobacco and alcohol and their reduction/cessation on mortality in oral cancer patients: short communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerjes, Waseem; Upile, Tahwinder; Radhi, Hani; Petrie, Aviva; Abiola, Jesuloba; Adams, Aidan; Kafas, Panagiotis; Callear, Jacqueline; Carbiner, Ramin; Rajaram, Kartic; Hopper, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The use of tobacco is known to increase the incidence of developing oral cancer by 6 times, while the additive effect of drinking alcohol further increases the risk leading to higher rate of morbidity and mortality...

  1. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Women and Tobacco Use: Discrepancy in the Knowledge, Belief and Behavior towards Tobacco Consumption among Urban and Rural Women in Chhattisgarh, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ram Vinod; Gupta, Anjali; Agrawal, Ankush; Gandhi, Aniruddh; Gupta, Manjari; Das, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco consumption has become pandemic, and is estimated to have killed 100 million people in the 20th century worldwide. Some 700,000 out of 5.4 million deaths due to tobacco use were from India. The era of global modernization has led to an increase in the involvement of women in tobacco consumption in the low income and middle-income countries. Tobacco consumption by females is known to have grave consequences. To assess: (1) the tobacco use among urban and rural women; (2) the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural women in Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India. The study population consisted of 2,000 18-25 year old young women from Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India, from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected using a pretested, anonymous, extensive face to face interview by a female investigator to assess the tobacco use among women and the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural individuals. The prevalence of tobacco use was found to be 47.2%. Tobacco consumption among rural women was 54.4% and in urban women was 40%. The majority of the women from urban areas (62.8%) were smokers whilst rural women (77.4%) showed preponderance toward smokeless tobacco use. Urban women had a better knowledge and attitude towards harms from tobacco and its use than the rural women. Women in rural areas had higher odds (1.335) of developing tobacco habit than the urban women. Increased tobacco use by women poses very severe hazards to their health, maternal and child health, and their family health and economic well-being. Due to the remarkably complex Indian picture of female tobacco use, an immediate and compulsory implementation of tobacco control policies laid down by the WHO FCTC is the need of the hour.

  3. Energy-drinks and alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    National Committee for Food Safety

    2012-01-01

    The Directorate General for Food Hygiene, Food Safety and Nutrition asked the Committee to deliver an opinion on hazards to health linked with energy- drinks consumption, in particular combined with alcohol. Energy- drinks contain substances whose effects are described as “positive” since are purported to boost mental and physical energy; in most cases, these substances are caffeine, taurine, carnitine, guarana, glucoronolactone, ginseng, ginko biloba etc. If used in moderate amounts these su...

  4. Consumption of Energy Drinks among Undergraduate Students in Taiwan: Related Factors and Associations with Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Jung Chang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods: Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results: Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%, being curious about the products (32.0%, enjoying the flavor (31.3%, or preparing for school exams (26.7%. Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents’ home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink’s effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions: In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.

  5. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  6. Childhood alcohol use may predict adolescent binge drinking: a multivariate analysis among adolescents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Santos, Mariana G R; Pereira, Ana Paula D; Nappo, Solange A; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Carlini, Claudia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that first alcohol use during childhood is associated with heavy drinking patterns during adolescence and with parental drinking patterns and parental rules about alcohol consumption. A national cross-sectional survey of 17,371 high-school students. Students were drawn from 789 public and private schools in all the Brazilian state capitals using a multistage probabilistic sampling method and a self-report questionnaire. Weighted data were analyzed through logistic regression testing for differences on the associated factors for first use of alcohol during childhood. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were used to confirm results. Among the 82% alcohol lifetime users, 11% had first used alcohol before age 12 years. The lack of perception of possible punishment by parents is associated with childhood alcohol use (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.67-2.95). Adolescents who first used alcohol during childhood compared with those who only used alcohol at later ages are more likely to engage in binge drinking behaviors (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17-2.10), to have a pattern of heavy alcohol use (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.26-3.09), and to have recently used illegal drugs (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.39-2.16). According to hazard ratios, students with an earlier age of onset were more likely to have used tobacco and any illegal drug in the past year. Childhood alcohol may be a risk factor for the most dangerous patterns of alcohol use in adolescence and is associated with parental alcohol use. Parental rules about child alcohol use must be clear because perception of punishment might delay the age of first alcohol use. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  8. Adolescent tobacco use and its determinants: evidence from Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M A; Goh, Kim-Leng; Khan, M M H

    2015-03-01

    Adolescent tobacco use (ATU) is on the rise worldwide and the problem is particularly severe in developing countries. Based on nationally representative data, this study aims to investigate the association between ATU and its possible correlates for Bangladesh, where the prevalence rate of ATU is high. The data set is extracted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Bangladesh conducted in 2007. The survey collected information from a total of 3113 students from 52 schools, with a response rate of 100% at the school level, while a response rate of 88.9% was achieved from the students. Students covered in the survey were in grades 7, 8, 9, and 10, with age ranging from 11 to 17 years. The prevalence rate of ATU at the time of the survey was 8.4%, while 35.6% of the students had used at least a type of tobacco products before. Logistic regressions were used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) in favor of ATU for each of the possible determinants and the confidence intervals (CIs) of these ratios. Use of tobacco among friends (OR = 3.46; CI = 2.37-5.05), the experience of seeing others smoking at home (OR = 2.10; CI = 1.36-3.22) or other places (OR = 1.6; CI = 1.02-2.57), receiving pocket money (OR = 7.6; CI = 4.59-13.28), receiving free tobacco from vendors (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.44-3.78), and exposure to advertisements and promotions of tobacco products (OR = 1.83; CI = 1.23-2.79) were associated with a higher likelihood of ATU. Increased awareness of health hazards of tobacco use through education in schools helped mitigate the problem of ATU. The findings of this study have ramifications for tobacco control prevention strategies in Bangladesh. © 2013 APJPH.

  9. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D. Vitória

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard.

  10. Perceptions of ceremonial and nonceremonial uses of tobacco by American-Indian adolescents in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2006-04-01

    American-Indian adolescents have the highest tobacco use prevalence of all ethnic groups in the United States. Although much has been written about the role of tobacco in traditional Native-American cultures, little is known about modern-day perceptions of tobacco among American-Indian adolescents. This study conducted focus groups of 40 American-Indian adolescents in urban and rural areas of Southern California. Participants discussed the role of traditional ceremonial tobacco use in their lives, the use of commercial tobacco as a substitute for sacred tobacco, the perceived safety of traditional versus commercial tobacco, and the perceptions of American-Indian imagery in tobacco advertising. Many American-Indian adolescents may be introduced to traditional tobacco use at early ages. Smoking is viewed as a sign of respect for the elders, but there are acceptable ways for adolescents to participate in ceremonies without inhaling smoke. Commercial cigarettes often are substituted for homegrown tobacco at ceremonies and events. Traditional tobacco was perceived as less dangerous than commercial tobacco because it does not contain chemical additives. However, respondents still perceived that smoking traditional tobacco and breathing tobacco smoke conferred health hazards. Participants found the use of American-Indian imagery in tobacco advertising offensive and stereotypical. Indian casinos were mentioned frequently as places where smoking occurred. Continued health education efforts are needed to decrease habitual use of commercial tobacco products and secondhand smoke exposure among American-Indian youth. Further research is needed to identify ways for American-Indian youth to participate in their cultural traditions while minimizing their risk for tobacco-related diseases.

  11. Students' knowledge and attitudes towards ill-effects of tobacco use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Young people are vulnerable to a range of ill behaviours including tobacco use. Preventing tobacco use among youths may be an ... More than a quarter of the attempted quitters (n=68) sought advice about quitting from friends rather than health professionals. Conclusion: Knowledge of the specific hazards of ...

  12. Tobacco control and tobacco farming in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H

    2015-02-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.

  13. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Meek, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies in Canada, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. The Canadian studies provide no consistent, convincing evidence of increased cancer risks attributable to the ingestion of drinking water contaminated by asbestos, even though the observed asbestos concentrations were relatively high in several communities. Only one study, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, has shown evidence of increased cancer incidence associated with the ingestion of asbestos in drinking water. 6 references.

  14. Drinking cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh andexplore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility oflinking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water...... beconducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant’s drinking water sourceswere all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explainedthat they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Conclusion: Theoretically, V....... cholerae can survive in the river systems in Bangladesh; however,water sources which have been contaminated with river water are avoided as potential drinkingwater sources. Furthermore, there are no physical connecting points between the river system anddrinking water sources among the study population...

  15. Cancer and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... friends, family, and coworkers to quit using tobacco. Teach children and adolescents about the health risks of tobacco ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: English (US) Español ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  16. Tobacco Cessation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labani Satyanarayana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the most common cause of non-communicable disease related morbidity and mortality worldwide despite being preventable. Almost fifty percent or more than seven million tobacco users get killed each year and about 13 percent of them are non-smokers being exposed to second hand smoke (1. According to the recent National family health survey (NFHS-4 study for the year 2015-16, there were 38.9% men who use any kind of tobacco in urban while 48% in rural areas of India. On the other hand, 4.4% of women in urban and 8.1% in rural use any kind of tobacco. Prevalence of tobacco use in the ages of 13-15 among boys was 19% and girls 8.3 % according to global youth tobacco survey of 2009. The tobacco dependence was considered as disease by the international classification of diseases (ICD 10. Proportion of tobacco related cancers in comparison to all other cancers were reported to be as high as 25% in men and 18% in women (2.

  17. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vital Signs Vital Signs – Presión Arterial Alta Other Languages Arabic احصل على التطعيم لتجنب الحصبة French Faites- ... of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and ...

  18. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  19. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  20. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  1. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M. Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs...

  2. Study on the use of tobacco among male medical students in Lucknow, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Ranjeeta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Is use of tobacco a major health problem among medical students? To find out the factors associated with the use of tobacco. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 250 undergraduate male medical students using a pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire to study about the problem and various correlates of the tobacco use. Data was collected and analysed using Excel and SPSS software. Results: Among the tobacco users (28.8%, smoking was found in 87.5% and tobacco chewing in the form of gutka, khaini, gulmanjan (locally available forms of tobacco in 37.5% as the predominant means of the use of tobacco. The mean age of our sample was 23.5 years. The residential background, i.e., rural or urban, and religion were not significantly associated with the use of tobacco in the present study. Hostellers were found to be more frequent tobacco users as compared to day-scholars. There was a familial aggregation of the use of tobacco. The factor initiating the use of tobacco was usually peer pressure. Conclusion: Tobacco use is a significant problem among the male medical students and we need to take steps to stop its use by them so as to prevent them from being exposed to its hazardous effects. This will also make their role in the advocacy of the smoking cessation activities more trustworthy.

  3. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality. Book cover Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming. Directeur(s) : Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours, and Daniel Buckles. Maison(s) d'édition : Anthem Press, IDRC. 10 septembre 2014. ISBN : 9781783082933. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552505823.

  4. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming : Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming : Separating Myth from Reality. Couverture du livre Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming. Editor(s):. Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours et Daniel Buckles. Publisher(s):. Anthem Press, CRDI. September 10, 2014. ISBN: 9781783082933. 250 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552505823.

  5. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support the collection of baseline data against which to measure future changes in smoking patters and amount of tobacco consumed. Surveys will be carried out at six months and one, two ... Tabagisme, tabagisme passif, maladies chroniques et pauvreté en Chine. La mondialisation de l'industrie du tabac ...

  6. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  7. Teens and Tobacco (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-04-14

    While fewer high school students are smoking cigarettes and cigars, the popularity of e-cigarettes and hookahs has increased. This podcast discusses the importance of communicating tobacco hazards to young people.  Created: 4/14/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/14/2016.

  8. Smokeless tobacco: the epidemiology and politics of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carl V; Heavner, Karyn K

    2009-07-01

    The health burden from tobacco smoking results almost entirely from inhalation of the components of smoke, although this is not widely known. The primary benefit of smoking is nicotine delivery, but nicotine can be obtained without combustion. Thus there is potential for tobacco harm reduction (THR), the substitution of lower-risk nicotine products for smoking. Epidemiological evidence suggests that smokeless tobacco causes about one one-hundredth the health risk of smoking. Despite the practice of harm reduction being widely accepted in public health, however, THR has faced fierce opposition from antitobacco activists. These activists have effectively misled the public about what aspect of smoking cigarettes causes the harm, convincing them that nicotine and tobacco themselves are harmful, ignoring the smoke. In the interests of promoting public health and rescuing science from politics, experts on inhalation hazards and health could play an important role in educating the public and policy makers about THR.

  9. The ERS role on Tobacco Control Policy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gratziou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Respiratory Society is an international medical organisation that brings together physicians, healthcare professionals, scientists and other experts working in respiratory medicine. Its aim is to alleviate suffering from respiratory diseases and promote lung health globally through science, education and advocacy. ERS has since its founding in 1990 demonstrated strong commitment to tobacco control. Through scientific assemblies, education courses, various alliances and collaboration (Framework Convention Alliance, European Chronic Disease Alliance, World Health Organisation etc. As well as a Tobacco Control Committee (TCC dedicated to advocacy, ERS constantly strives to promote strong and evidence-based policies to reduce the burden of tobacco related diseases. One of the main outcome of the TCC is the creation of Smokehaz, a website aimed at providing policy-makers with scientific information on the Health hazards associated with smoking. Recently, ERS created the Latin-America Working Group which aims at strengthening tobacco control activities in Spain, Portugal and Latin-American countries.

  10. I drink therefore I am: validating alcohol-related implicit association tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Westgate, E.; Greenwald, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    There is an imperative to predict hazardous drinking among college students. Implicit measures have been useful in predicting unique variance in drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, they have been developed to test different theories of drinking and have rarely been directly compared with

  11. Social network characteristics, perceived drinking norms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts by researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders to bring about significant reductions in alcohol use among the youth appears not to be yielding desired results, as the problem of hazardous drinking among the youth has persisted. One possible problem is that studies and policies on alcohol have not adequately ...

  12. Sports Promotion and Teen Smoking and Drinking: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul N.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of adolescents examined the link between sports promotion and advertising of alcohol and tobacco and teen smoking and drinking behaviors. Data analysis found an association between exposure to sporting events and cigarette use and beer consumption. Watching stock car racing was related to cigarette use; football and basketball to beer use.…

  13. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cycle Glossary of Terms FAQ Infographics Shareable Media Subscription Services Publication Catalog Get Email Updates To receive ... 770-488-5493. Fact Sheets Adult Data Cessation Economics Fast Facts Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Tobacco ...

  14. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigar use have generally declined, sharp increases in e-cigarette and hookah tobacco use among teens in previous ... dangers of using electronic nicotine delivery systems, like e-cigarettes. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly ...

  15. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  16. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarette, emphasizing its cool and refreshing taste. In reality, menthol reduces the harshness of cigarette smoke, which ... the use of non-cigarette smoked tobacco products increased dramatically. The largest increases were in use of ...

  17. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  18. Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: Links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Ehlke, Sarah J; Cobb, Caroline O; Soule, Eric K

    2017-05-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) has been increasing, particularly among young adults and has similar health effects compared to cigarette smoking. The link between HTS and poly-tobacco use is well documented, but fewer show an association between HTS and alcohol use. It is essential to identify factors that increase the risk for or addictiveness and consequences of HTS, given its growing prevalence. This study examined whether the association between HTS and poly-tobacco use differed as a function of age and alcohol consumption within in a sample of 1223 adult cigarette smokers. Approximately 20% of participants reported HTS. Compared to non-users, hookah users were more likely to be male, highly educated, and to report drug and alcohol use, binge drinking, and poly-tobacco use but were less likely to be heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Regression analyses predicting number of tobacco products used (excluding cigarettes and HTS) indicated a three-way interaction of HTS, frequency of alcohol use, and age such that the association between HTS and number of tobacco products used was strongest for younger respondents who consumed alcohol more frequently. As observed in previous studies, alcohol is an important risk factor in the relationship between HTS and poly-tobacco use, particularly among younger cigarette smokers. The links between alcohol, HTS, and poly-tobacco use should be considered when developing HTS education and prevention materials directed toward younger cigarette smokers. Findings provide information relevant to FDA's interest in the addiction potential of HTS and its link to poly-tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non?college-attending peers. These drink...

  20. Price and consumption of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Saxena, Puneet; Meena, Hardayal; Mangal, Daya Krishan

    2012-07-01

    It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%). Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  1. Tobacco and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, raised blood pressure, insulin resistance (with and without glucose intolerance, pro-inflammatory state, and pro-thrombotic state. Tobacco use is associated with various core components of metabolic syndrome. It has been found to play a causal role in various pathways leading on to development this condition, the current article discusses various facets of this association.

  2. Longitudinal Conjoint Patterns of Alcohol and Tobacco Use Throughout Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Talley, Anna E; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Fromme, Kim

    2017-02-23

    The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco has a multiplicative effect on both social and physical consequences. While it is known that alcohol and tobacco use are strongly correlated in emerging adulthood, there is significant individual variability in use. However, little research has examined how patterns of concurrent use are related over time. The current study explores these longitudinal conjoint trajectories, as well as the associated sociodemographic factors. We used sequential latent class growth analysis to explore the co-occurring longitudinal patterns of recent alcohol and tobacco use across emerging adulthood (10 data collection periods, 2004-2009) with a diverse sample of 2,244 college students (60% female; 54% White). Twenty distinct patterns of conjoint alcohol and tobacco use were found. There was more variation in tobacco use trajectories among alcohol users than variation in alcohol trajectories among tobacco users. Using multinomial logistic regression models we determined the impact of sociodemographic characteristics on classification into each conjoint pattern versus the normative trajectory (Abstaining tobacco/Low alcohol). Male gender, White race, fraternity/sorority affiliation, and higher family income were significantly associated with riskier conjoint trajectory patterns. Conclusions/Importance: Findings highlight the diversity of alcohol and tobacco use behaviors across emerging adulthood. The low variation in alcohol use among tobacco users indicates that tobacco use is a significant risk factor for heavier drinking. A better understanding of the covarying use of these two ubiquitous substances may provide new avenues for preventing and reducing the use of both.

  3. [TOBACCO CONSUMPTION AMONG ADULTS IN MONTERREY: RELATION TO EXERCISE REGULARLY AND FAMILY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Juan, Francisco; Isorna-Folgar, Manuel; Ruiz-Risueño, Jorge; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel

    2015-08-01

    determine the relationship among tobacco consumption, physical activity, sociodemographic variables and family behaviours in Mexican adults. 978 Mexican adults (483 males and 495 females) were interviewed by a random routes questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI = 95%). men have a high risk factor of tobacco comsumption in frequency and/or amount. 18 to 45 years-old is the age range with high probability of tobacco comsumption, while the more age, the less comsumption. The tobacco consumption risk is significantly low in people who have less that a primary education. Participants who have never done physical exercise have a low possibility of tobacco consumption, while the consumption is high in the group of people who have abandoned physical activity. The family context is a risk factor of tobacco consumption in frequency. About alcohol consumption, it was found that people who drink alcohol have a high probability of smoke. tobacco consumption at high frequencies and amounts and physical activity are inversely relationship. It has been also detected a direct relationship between the frequency and the amount of tobacco and alcohol consumptions; and between the frequency and the amount of tobacco consumption and the family in the tobacco consumption. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Binge drinking in pregnancy and risk of fetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Nielsen, Naja Rod; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the frequency and timing of binge drinking episodes (intake of five or more drinks on one occasion) during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy increase the risk of fetal death. METHODS: The study is based upon data from 89,201 women who were enrolled in the Danish National...... to nonbinge drinkers. Women with an average intake of three or more drinks per week and two or more binge drinking episodes had a hazard ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval 1.73-2.80) compared with women with no average intake and no binge drinking. CONCLUSION: Binge drinking three or more times during...... pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of stillbirth, but neither frequency nor timing of binge drinking was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in clinically recognized pregnancies....

  5. Resolving an identity crisis: Implicit drinking identity and implicit alcohol identity are related but not the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Olin, Cecilia C; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2017-09-01

    Two variations of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the Drinking Identity IAT and the Alcohol Identity IAT, assess implicit associations held in memory between one's identity and alcohol-related constructs. Both have been shown to predict numerous drinking outcomes, but these IATs have never been directly compared to one another. The purpose of this study was to compare these IATs and evaluate their incremental predictive validity. US undergraduate students (N=64, 50% female, mean age=21.98years) completed the Drinking Identity IAT, the Alcohol Identity IAT, an explicit measure of drinking identity, as well as measures of typical alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. When evaluated in separate regression models that controlled for explicit drinking identity, results indicated that the Drinking Identity IAT and the Alcohol Identity IAT were significant, positive predictors of typical alcohol consumption, and that the Drinking Identity IAT, but not the Alcohol Identity IAT, was a significant predictor of hazardous drinking. When evaluated in the same regression models, the Drinking Identity IAT, but not the Alcohol Identity IAT, was significantly associated with typical and hazardous drinking. These results suggest that the Drinking Identity IAT and Alcohol Identity IAT are related but not redundant. Moreover, given that the Drinking Identity IAT, but not the Alcohol Identity IAT, incrementally predicted variance in drinking outcomes, identification with drinking behavior and social groups, as opposed to identification with alcohol itself, may be an especially strong predictor of drinking outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  7. [Tobacco and alcohol use among the unemployed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata; Kłos, Jan; Adamek, Renata; Zysnarska, Monika; Kara, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt today, that any amount of tobacco products use and excessive alcohol consumption are among the fundamental causes of diseases. The health situation of the unemployed is worse than employed. One of the consequences of unemployment and also ways of coping with it can be unhealthy behaviors. The aim of this paper is to present the prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption, and to identify their causes among the unemployed, and also to show possible changes in these behaviors as a result of finding themselves in a situation of employment deprivation. The results of this study have demonstrated that the unemployed often have anti-health behaviors such as smoking and alcohol consumption with high frequency and single intake exceeding health standards. One of the important factors of smoking and drinking alcohol is a desire to reduce the emotional tension. Being outside the labor market affects the start of the consumption of alcohol and tobacco, but does not result in the cessation of consumption. It happens that the unemployment influence the reduction of consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and the key role is played by the economic factor.

  8. Drinking pattern and mortality in Danish nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morch, L.S.; Johansen, D.; Lokkegaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    . SUBJECTS AND METHODS: At baseline in 1993, a total of 17 772 female members of the Danish Nurse Association completed questionnaires on alcohol intake and other lifestyle factors. The influence of alcohol intake on risk of death was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Alcohol intake of 1......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Moderate alcohol consumption has beneficial effects on survival. Sex differences, however, have been suggested implying less beneficial effect among women. We examined the impact of alcohol consumed on weekdays and at weekends, respectively, on risk of death among women......-3 drinks per week was associated with the lowest risk of death. Intake above six drinks per weekend (Friday through Sunday) increased risk of death from all causes by 3% for each additional drink consumed per weekend (corresponding to an increased risk by 9% per drink per weekend day). Consumption of one...

  9. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  10. (S)-N′-Nitrosonornicotine, a constituent of smokeless tobacco, is a powerful oral cavity carcinogen in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Balbo, Silvia; James-Yi, Sandra; Johnson, Charles S.; O’Sullivan, Michael G.; Stepanov, Irina; Wang, Mingyao; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Kassie, Fekadu; Carmella, Steven; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, smokeless tobacco products are being proposed as an alternative mode of tobacco use associated with less harm. All of these products contain the tobacco-specific carcinogen N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). The major form of NNN in tobacco products is (S)-NNN, shown in this study to induce a total of 89 benign and malignant oral cavity tumors in a group of 20 male F-344 rats treated chronically with 14 p.p.m. in the drinking water. The opposite enantiomer (R)-NNN was weakly active, but ...

  11. Tobacco, alcohol and drug use among dental undergraduates at one English university in 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, B; Fox, K; Manogue, M

    2010-02-27

    To estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and drug use among dental undergraduates at one English university in 2008, and compare these with prevalence in 1998. Cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire. In 2008 all 384 dental undergraduates at one English university were sent a questionnaire in order to obtain data on the frequency and amount of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illicit drugs used before and during their time as a dental undergraduate. The same survey had been conducted on dental undergraduates at the university 10 years earlier. Tobacco smoking was reported by 27% of males and 13.5% of females, a reduction from 1998 (42% of males and 32% of females) being significant among females. 63% of males and 69.5% of females reported drinking alcohol: significantly fewer than in 1998 (82% males and 90% females). Binge drinking was reported by 69.5% of males compared to 56% in 1998. In females 66% binged compared to 58.5% in 1998. The increase in males was significant. 62% of males and 68% of females had never used cannabis compared to 38% in males and 50.5% of females in 1998, a significant reduction. A significant reduction in amphetamine use was reported among both male and female undergraduates in 2008 compared to 1998 and a significant increase in amyl nitrate use was reported by females. Reported illicit drug use was associated with alcohol drinking, and particularly with tobacco use. Dental undergraduates at one English university in 2008 when compared to those in 1998 are reported to be significantly less likely to drink alcohol, use cannabis and amphetamines. If female, they are significantly less likely to smoke tobacco and overestimate the number of units of alcohol they can safely consume in a week, but more likely to use amyl nitrate. If male, those who drink alcohol are significantly less likely to drink at a level of increased risk, but more likely to binge drink.

  12. Tobacco use pattern among a national firefighter cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Jahnke, Sara A; Day, Rena S

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been no large-scale, national epidemiological studies of tobacco use patterns among firefighters, particularly with a focus on smokeless tobacco (SLT) and dual use with cigarettes. While rates of firefighters' smoking are relatively low compared to the general population, SLT use typically is substantially higher than the populations they protect. In the current study, we systemically examine tobacco use, including SLT and dual use, and the health-related profiles of various tobacco use groups in a national sample of career firefighters. Data are from a national cohort study of career departments (N = 20) comprised of 947 male firefighters. Among 947 participants, 197 (21%) were tobacco users, of which, 34.5% used cigarettes, 53.2% used SLT, and 12.2% used both cigarettes and SLT. Adjusted rates of smoking, SLT use, and dual use were 13.2%, 10.5%, and 12.2%, respectively. Tobacco users of all types were significantly younger and had served fewer years in fire service and were significantly more likely to engage in heavy and binge drinking, as well as more likely to show signs of depressive symptoms compared to nontobacco users. Detailed information on tobacco use pattern will aid in better understanding what factors are contributing to the high rates of SLT and dual use among firefighters in order to guide and develop an appropriate treatment program for the fire service. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  14. Role of tobacco smoking in hangover symptoms among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Piasecki, Thomas M; Howland, Jonathan; Richardson, Alison E

    2013-01-01

    Although hangover results from excessive alcohol consumption, the specific pathways through which hangover symptoms arise have not been elucidated. Research on predictors of hangover sensitivity may provide clues about such mechanisms. The present study investigated whether tobacco smoking on days of heavy drinking affects next-day hangover incidence and severity. The study drew on diary data from a study on smoking and drinking among 113 students at a midwestern university in the United States. Participants completed a daily, web-based, 26-item survey for 8 weeks to assess prior-day alcohol and tobacco use as well as current-day hangover symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the hypothesis that amount of smoking is related to hangover, controlling for amount of alcohol consumed, sex, and other individual characteristics. Analyses were conducted after selecting only days with alcohol consumption levels that typically elicit hangover, then repeated on lighter drinking days for comparison. Validity of the hangover items was checked by comparing reports after such heavy drinking days with days of lighter drinking. Across all possible person-days, 92% of daily reports were obtained. When selecting only events where an estimated blood alcohol concentration of 110 mg/dl was attained, smoking significantly increased the odds of hangover incidence and hangover severity while controlling for number of drinks consumed and sex. Additional analyses controlling for age first smoked regularly, frequency of drug use, type of drug involvement, or smoking status resulted in findings that were unchanged. Smoking more on heavy drinking days affects hangover sensitivity and severity, possibly because of acute pharmacological effects.

  15. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  16. An endgame for tobacco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2013-05-01

    Since its origins in the 1960s, tobacco control has achieved remarkable success against the scourge of tobacco-produced disease and death. Yet tobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, remains the world's leading cause of preventable premature death and is likely to do so for decades to come. Evidence-based policies seem incapable of substantially hastening the demise of smoking. Slowness in the decline of smoking in developed nations, and increasing smoking in many low- and middle-income countries has sparked interest in novel, even radical 'endgame' strategies to eliminate the toll of tobacco. This paper identifies the principal endgame proposals and, with the other papers in this volume, has the goal of expanding and deepening the endgame conversation by engaging the broader tobacco control community. While we struggle today with often widely divergent perspectives and beliefs about what is possible and how it might be achieved, we all share the same vision of the final words to this story: 'The end'.

  17. Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attila, Sema; Çakir, Banu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in a group of college students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hacettepe University (Ankara, Turkey) and included 439 students pursuing a career in medicine, sports, and arts. Only fourth-year students were approached. Data were collected using a self-administered standard questionnaire. In bivariate analyses, frequency of energy-drink consumption was higher in students of arts and sports and in those who did not have breakfast on a regular basis, ever smoked cigarettes, drank alcoholic beverages, and regularly engaged in sports compared with their counterparts. Many students who had "ever" tried an energy drink did so the first time because they wondered about its taste. Of regular users of energy drinks, reasons for using such drinks varied across the three selected groups of students and included obtaining getting energy, staying awake, boosting performance while doing sports, or mixing with alcoholic beverages. About 40% of all current users of energy drinks reported that they mixed those with alcoholic beverages. In multivariate analyses, statistically significant predictors of energy-drink consumption were faculty type, presence of any health insurance, use of alcoholic beverages, and monthly income, controlling for gender. Most students could not correctly define the ingredients of energy drinks or their potential hazardous health effects, and they could not distinguish energy and sports drinks when they were requested to select them from a list of commercial names of various drinks. Consumption of energy drinks, despite the variation in the reason for choosing such drinks, is quite common in college students. Awareness of university students of the ingredients and potential health hazards of energy drinks, in particular in mixing with alcoholic beverages, should be increased. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Childhood physical punishment and the onset of drinking problems: evidence from metropolitan China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui G; Anthony, James C; Huang, Yueqin; Lee, Sing; Liu, Zhaorui; He, Yanling

    2011-10-01

    Evidence in support of a suspected causal association linking childhood physical punishment (CPP) and later alcoholic beverage-related disturbances has been found in metropolitan China. Here, the focus shifts to the CPP association with the estimated risk of starting to drink, having the first drinking problem, and transitioning from first drink to the first drinking problem. Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys-metropolitan China study, with representative samples of adult household residents living in two metropolitan cities, Beijing and Shanghai. Recalled information was available for early life experiences (including CPP, other childhood adversities, and parental alcohol and drug problems), as well as the onset age of drinking and drinking problems. Survival analyses were used to estimate the Hazard Ratio. A structural equation modeling approach was used to control for other inter-correlated childhood adversities. Cox proportional hazards modeling discloses statistically robust associations linking CPP with drinking and drinking problems, as well as more rapid transitions from first drink to first drinking problem, even after accounting for other childhood adversities and parental drinking problems. These associations cannot be attributed to a more general noxious family environment. These results lay a foundation for future experimental studies on the possible causal relationship linking CPP with the onset of drinking problems and the transition from drinking to drinking problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative ...

  20. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Eritrea has taken steps to control tobacco use. Its 2004 proclamation aims to curb consumption, as do higher tax rates on cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, in spite of these measures, tobacco consumption is increasing. Enforcement of the proclamation is weak, and cheap, smuggled cigarettes and other ...

  1. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Tobacco use in many Latin American countries is high among boys, girls, men, and women. However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates between lower- and higher-income groups in middle-income countries such ...

  2. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  3. Relationship between Tobacco Advertising and Youth Smoking: Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Antismoking Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramini, Richard F.; Bridge, Patrick D.

    2001-01-01

    The Hazards of Tobacco (C) program, which focuses on smoking prevention among youth, was completed by 259 suburban sixth graders (199 controls) and 166 urban fifth through seventh graders. Participation significantly changed understanding of the role of tobacco advertising and the intention to smoke in both samples. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  4. Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; Bacchi, Donna; West, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results…

  5. BeTobaccoFree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction ... Proposes New Tobacco Regulations Proposed new rule would cover cigars, e-cigarettes, pipe tobacco and other retail products not currently ...

  6. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Convenience Stores Not Your Grandfather's Cigar Global Marlboro Campaign YOUTH INITIATIVES Kick Butts Day Taking Down Tobacco ... Advocacy Incubator draws on lessons from tobacco control campaigns in over 50 countries to provide training and ...

  7. Drinking games, tailgating, and pregaming: precollege predictors of risky college drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kevin; Pearson, Matthew R; Hustad, John T P; Borsari, Brian

    2014-09-01

    The transition from high school to college is a critical period for developing college drinking habits. Hazardous alcohol consumption increases during this period, as well as participation in drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating. All of these risky drinking practices are associated with higher levels of intoxication as well as an increased risk of alcohol-related problems. The current study aimed to evaluate pre-college predictors (personality, social norms, and beliefs reflecting the internalization of the college drinking culture [ICDC]) of estimated peak BAC (pBAC) reached during drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating, as well as pBAC and alcohol-related problems during the first 30 days of college. Participants (n = 936) were incoming freshmen at a large university who completed a baseline assessment prior to college matriculation and a follow-up assessment after they had been on campus for 30 days. Using path analysis, ICDC was significantly associated with pBAC reached during the three risky drinking practices. ICDC had an indirect effect on both pBAC and alcohol-related problems via pBAC from drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating. Hopelessness and sensation seeking were significantly related to alcohol use outcomes. Precollege perceptions of the college drinking culture are a stronger predictor of subsequent alcohol use than social norms. Interventions that target these beliefs may reduce peak intoxication and associated harms experienced during the first 30 days of college.

  8. Drinking games, tailgating, and pregaming: Precollege predictors of risky college drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kevin; Pearson, Matthew R.; Hustad, John T. P.; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background The transition from high school to college is a critical period for developing college drinking habits. Hazardous alcohol consumption increases during this period, as well as participation in drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating. All of these risky drinking practices are associated with higher levels of intoxication as well as an increased risk of alcohol-related problems. Objective The current study aimed to evaluate pre-college predictors (personality, social norms, and beliefs reflecting the internalization of the college drinking culture [ICDC]) of estimated peak BAC (pBAC) reached during drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating, as well as pBAC and alcohol-related problems during the first 30 days of college. Methods Participants (n =936) were incoming freshmen at a large university who completed a baseline assessment prior to college matriculation and a follow-up assessment after they had been on campus for 30 days. Results Using path analysis, ICDC was significantly associated with pBAC reached during the three risky drinking practices. ICDC had an indirect effect on both pBAC and alcohol-related problems via pBAC from drinking games, pregaming, and tailgating. Hopelessness and sensation seeking were significantly related to alcohol use outcomes. Conclusion Precollege perceptions of the college drinking culture are a stronger predictor of subsequent alcohol use than social norms. Interventions that target these beliefs may reduce peak intoxication and associated harms experienced during the first 30 days of college. PMID:25192204

  9. An overview of alcohol and tobacco/nicotine interactions in the human laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Terril L; McKee, Sherry A

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol use disorders and tobacco use contribute significant risk to the global burden of disease, and each are major public health concerns. Together, alcohol and tobacco use are highly comorbid and have multiplicative health risks when used concurrently, underscoring the importance of examining alcohol-tobacco interactions in the human laboratory. The aims of this review were to summarize the state of research examining alcohol-tobacco interactions in the human laboratory. We reviewed human laboratory evidence for alcohol and tobacco/nicotine interactions, including 1) craving in drinkers and smokers exposed to smoking or drinking cues, 2) fixed-dosing of alcohol or nicotine in smokers and drinkers, and 3) smoking and alcohol influences on self-administration behaviors. The interactive effects of tobacco/nicotine with other drugs of abuse are also briefly discussed. Overall, results identified that alcohol and tobacco have reciprocal influences on potentiating craving, subjective responses to fixed-dose alcohol or nicotine administration, and self-administration. The literature identified that alcohol increases craving to smoke, decreases time to initiate smoking, and increases smoking self-administration. Similarly, tobacco and nicotine increase alcohol craving, decrease subjective effects of alcohol, and increase alcohol consumption. Future studies should continue to focus on alcohol and tobacco/nicotine interactions in individuals with a wide scope of drinking and smoking histories, different states of alcohol and nicotine deprivation, and influences of either drug on craving, subjective responses, and consumption over the course of the blood alcohol curve. This work could have important implications for the impact of alcohol-tobacco interactions on guiding clinical practice, as well as in the changing landscape of addiction.

  10. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  11. What we fund Tobacco control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Analysis of the influence of the tobacco industry's direct and indirect activities on policy-makers, researchers, funding agencies, and opinion leaders. Appraisal of the perceived economic value of the tobacco industry to national economies and those whose livelihoods include income from tobacco production, marketing, or ...

  12. Alcohol use, drunkenness and tobacco smoking in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, T Q; Oeltmann, J E; Odhiambo, F O; Beynon, C; Pevzner, E; Cain, K P; Laserson, K F; Phillips-Howard, P A

    2013-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of smoking and alcohol use and abuse in an impoverished rural region of western Kenya. Picked from a population-based longitudinal database of demographic and health census data, 72 292 adults (≥18 years) were asked to self-report their recent (within the past 30 days) and lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol and frequency of recent 'drunkenness'. Overall prevalence of ever smoking was 11.2% (11.0-11.5) and of ever drinking, 20.7% (20.4-21.0). The prevalence of current smoking was 6.3% (6.1-6.5); 5.7% (5.5-5.9) smoked daily. 7.3% (7.1-7.5) reported drinking alcohol within the past 30 days. Of these, 60.3% (58.9-61.6) reported being drunk on half or more of all drinking occasions. The percentage of current smokers rose with the number of drinking days in a month (P alcohol use increased with decreasing socio-economic status and amongst women in the oldest age group (P alcohol use are prevalent in this rural region of Kenya. Abuse of alcohol is common and likely influenced by the availability of cheap, home-manufactured alcohol. Appropriate evidence-based policies to reduce alcohol and tobacco use should be widely implemented and complemented by public health efforts to increase awareness of their harmful effects. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. [Microorganisms surviving in drinking water systems and related problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulicino, F A; Pastoni, F

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water in distribution systems may show abnormal values of some parameters, such as turbidity, and may support particular phenomena, such as bacterial regrowth or presence of Viable Not Culturable (VNC) bacteria. Turbidity can provide shelter for opportunistic microorganisms and pathogens. The Milwaukee outbreak (400,000 people) is one example of waterborne disease caused by the presence of pathogens (Cryptosporidium) in drinking water characterized by high and intermittent levels of turbidity. Bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution systems may cause high increments of microorganisms such as heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and pathogens. Microorganisms isolated from biofilm including Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Legionella may have a significant health hazard especially in hospital areas. The presence of VNC bacteria in drinking water may represent a problem for their discussed role in infectious diseases, but also for the possibility of a considerable underestimation of true microbial concentrations in drinking waters. To study this kind of problems is necessary to apply suitable methods for drinking water analyses.

  14. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

    2015-01-01

    (50-100%), compared to drinking drinks/week. In general, results were similar for women. CONCLUSIONS: In men, daily drinking was associated with an increased risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Recent alcohol consumption rather than earlier in life was associated with risk of alcoholic cirrhosis......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS...

  15. The tobacco industry, state politics, and tobacco education in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begay, M E; Traynor, M; Glantz, S A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposition 99 added 25 cents to the California state cigarette tax and mandated that 20% of the new revenues be spent on tobacco education and prevention programs. This paper examines the implementation of these programs and the tobacco industry's response to Proposition 99. METHODS. Political expenditure data for twelve tobacco firms and associations were gathered from California's Fair Political Practices Commission and secretary of state's Political Reform Division. Tobacco education expenditure data were collected from Governor's Budgets and the Department of Finance. RESULTS. Since Proposition 99 passed, tobacco industry political expenditures in California have risen 10-fold, from $790,050 in the 1985-1986 election to $7,615,091 in the 1991-1992 election. The tobacco industry is contributing more heavily to the California legislature than to Congress. A statistical analysis of data on campaign contributions indicates that California legislators' policy-making is influenced by campaign contributions from the tobacco industry. Since fiscal year 1989-1990, the state has ignored the voters' mandate and spent only 14.7% of the new revenues to tobacco education. Medical care programs received more money than permitted by the voters. CONCLUSIONS. The tobacco industry has become politically active in California following the passage of Proposition 99. One result may be that the state has underfunded tobacco education by $174.7 million through the 1993-1994 fiscal year. The estimated redirection of funds to medical care would essentially eliminate the tobacco education campaign by the year 2000. PMID:8362994

  16. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  17. Noncoding RNA Profiles in Tobacco- and Alcohol-Associated Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayra Soares do Amaral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco and alcohol are the leading environmental risk factors in the development of human diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and liver injury. Despite the copious amount of research on this topic, by 2030, 8.3 million deaths are projected to occur worldwide due to tobacco use. The expression of noncoding RNAs, primarily microRNAs (miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, is modulated by tobacco and alcohol consumption. Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes can modulate the expression of miRNAs and lncRNAs through various signaling pathways, such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammatory pathways—primarily interleukin 6 (IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, which seems to play a major role in the development of diseases associated with these risk factors. Since they may be predictive and prognostic biomarkers, they can be used both as predictors of the response to therapy and as a targeted therapy. Further, circulating miRNAs might be valuable noninvasive tools that can be used to examine diseases that are related to the use of tobacco and alcohol. This review discusses the function of noncoding RNAs in cancer and other human tobacco- and alcohol-associated diseases.

  18. Tobacco Harm to Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014. 18 See, e.g., Tonetti, MS, “Cigarette Smoking and Periodontal Disease: Etiology and Management of Disease,” Annals of Periodontology , ... Burgan, SW, “The Role of Tobacco Use in Periodontal Diseases: A Literature ... Krall, EA, “Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Tooth Loss,” Journal of Dental ...

  19. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and Omax (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and Omax, and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  1. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  2. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  3. Solitary drinking is associated with specific alcohol problems in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Matthew T; O'Connor, Roisin M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2018-01-01

    Hazardous drinking in emerging adulthood is associated with multiple domains of alcohol problems, which range in type and severity. Alcohol problems at the severe end of the spectrum (e.g., impaired control) may be early warning signs of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among emerging adults. However, given the emphasis in the literature on predictors of overall problem risk, we still know very little about predictors of these specific (and severe) domains of alcohol problems in emerging adults. Many emerging adults drink at social events (e.g., parties), but an estimated 15% engage in solitary drinking. Solitary drinking - a developmentally atypical behavior in emerging adulthood - may be especially risky. Data suggests that frequent solitary drinking may reflect a loss of control over drinking, leading to hazardous use and subsequent problems. Accordingly, we expected that frequent solitary drinking among emerging adults would predict severe alcohol problems that map onto diagnostic criteria for AUDs and these effects would be mediated by hazardous alcohol use. Undergraduates (N=118) completed self-report measures as a part of a larger study on motivation and alcohol use. As predicted, path analysis showed that solitary drinking positively predicted hazardous alcohol use, and this in turn predicted severe alcohol problems associated with diagnostic criteria for AUDs, particularly risky behaviors and blackout drinking. Solitary drinking also positively predicted less severe problems of diminished self-perception and poor self-care through hazardous use. Though comparatively smaller, some indirect effects were observed from social drinking (at parties, but not at bars) to alcohol problems, via hazardous alcohol use. Overall, our results suggest that solitary drinking is particularly harmful in emerging adulthood. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. COMPUTERS HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  5. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Gerard Hastings

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61% and absence of a coherent strategy (39%.

  6. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  7. Crossing a border for a low-cost, high-risk environment: smoking status and excessive drinking among young adults in Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Elizabeth; Gitchell, Joe G; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the drinking and smoking behavior of 2,311 college-age adults traveling from San Diego, California, to Tijuana, Mexico (December 2006 to December 2008). We describe this Border sample's drinking history and smoking status and estimate multivariate models of evening drinking participation and, conditional on drinking, blood alcohol concentration. Noting limitations, we present implications for identifying young adults at high risk for alcohol and tobacco use, particularly females, and lay the foundation for further research examining young adults? alcohol and tobacco use in reduced price scenarios.

  8. The impact of tobacco promotion at the point of sale: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Janine; Edwards, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco promotion increases the likelihood that adolescents will start smoking. Much of the tobacco industry's promotional budget is spent on point of sale (PoS) promotion in many jurisdictions. Consequently, tobacco is an eye-catching feature at the PoS in many places. We reviewed the evidence that PoS tobacco promotion influences key smoking-related behaviors and beliefs, increases susceptibility to smoking in youth, undermines smokers' quit attempts, and promotes relapse among ex-smokers. We found 12 peer-reviewed studies, 10 of which were focused on children. Seven of 8 observational studies found statistically significant associations between exposure to tobacco promotion at the PoS and smoking initiation or susceptibility to smoking. Two experimental studies of children found statistically significant associations between exposure to PoS tobacco promotions and beliefs about ease of getting tobacco and smoking prevalence among their peers. An experimental study with adults found that a picture of collected tobacco pack elicited cravings for cigarettes among smokers. A cross-sectional study found that 25% of adult smokers reported impulse purchasing and a third of recent ex-smokers reported urges to start smoking after seeing tobacco displayed. More prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal relationship between exposure to PoS tobacco and outcome. However, given the addictiveness of tobacco, the severity of the health hazards posed by smoking, the evidence that tobacco promotion encourages children to start smoking, and the consistency of the evidence that PoS promotion influences children's smoking, we believe that ample justification exists for banning PoS advertising and displays of smoked tobacco products.

  9. [Selected biochemical parameters of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to tobacco smoke in animals addicted to ethyl alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Anna; Kulza, Maksymilian; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Cimino, Francesco; Saija, Antonella; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Chuchracki, Marek; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Kramer, Lucyna; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes and alcohol addiction are serious problems in health hazard and life of society. Tobacco smoke leads to many kinds of cancer formation and scientific research indicates, that heart-vascular disease and lung cancer are the most common diseases caused by tobacco smoke. While talking about ethanol, it is responsible for liver, pancreas, mucous membrane damage and leads to central and circular nervous disorder. Scientific research indicates, that many smokers drink alcohol and vice versa. Unfortunately in that case the risk of many diseases increases. Both of these stimulants leads to enlarged production of reactive oxygen species, which is connected with unbalance between pro and antioxidant processes in human organism. Free radicals in normal conditions plays positive role but with tobacco smoke and alcohol connection may lead to serious changes in human organism. They damage organs, it comes to protein structure, nucleic acid and fat violation, which in consequence leads to immunity decrease and many pathological changes. Reactive oxygen species also plays role in pathogenesis of many diseases: diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and Down syndrome. ROS may also increase the risk of pancreas, lung, larynx and urinary bladder cancer formation. Human organism defends oneself from harmful influence of reactive oxygen species owing to enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems presence-Non-enzymatic antioxidants: glutathione, carotene, bilirubin, tocopherol, uric acid and ions metals temporary complex belong to non-enzymatic systems. To enzymatic ones belong: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. The aim of the study was tobacco smoke and ethyl alcohol influence evaluation in rats addicted to these substances on activity of chosen enzymes responsible for organism defense against toxic compounds action. To this study 63 white, Wistar tribe rats at the age of 3,5 months were used - males addicted to ethyl alcohol. They

  10. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially

  11. Alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and risk of infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønboek, Morten; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-11-01

    The safety of small amounts of alcohol drinking and occasional binge-level drinking during pregnancy remains unsettled. We examined the association of maternal average alcohol intake and binge drinking (>or=5 drinks per sitting) with infant mortality, both in the neonatal and postneonatal period. Participants were 79,216 mothers who were enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort in 1996-2002, gave birth to a live-born singleton, and provided information while they were pregnant on alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Information on infant mortality and causes of death was obtained from national registries and medical records. During the first year of life, 279 children (0.35%) died, 204 during the neonatal period. Infant mortality was not associated with alcohol drinking, even at a consumption level of either 4+ drinks per week or 3+ occasions of binge drinking. Postneonatal mortality was associated with an intake of 4+ drinks per week (hazard ratio = 3.56 [95% confidence interval = 1.15-8.43]) and with 3+ binge episodes (2.69 [1.27-5.69]). When restricting analyses to term births, both infant mortality and postneonatal mortality were associated with a weekly average intake of 4+ drinks or 3+ binge episodes. Among term infants, intake of at least 4 drinks of alcohol per week or binging on 3 or more occasions during pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of infant mortality, especially during the postneonatal period.

  12. Socioeconomic disadvantage and indicators of risky alcohol-drinking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Suominen, Sakari; Car, Josip; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to establish how the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risky drinking depends on the indicator of risky alcohol-drinking patterns. Alcohol-drinking Finnish men (n = 9316) and women (n = 11,888) aged 20-54 years at baseline participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) postal survey in 1998. Socioeconomic disadvantage was measured by low educational level, history of previous unemployment among those currently employed, current unemployment, being on disability pension and history of experiencing financial hardships. Indicators of risky drinking were hazardous weekly intake (≥24 and ≥16 Finnish standard drinks for men and women, respectively), frequency of intoxications/drunkenness, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs. The study participants were also followed up for 7 years for alcohol-specific hospitalizations and deaths. Socioeconomic gradient in risky drinking was observed across all indicators of risky drinking, but the gradient was relatively larger in patterns of risky drinking representing high-intensity drinking occasions such as alcohol-induced hangovers and pass-outs. No marked gender differences were observed. These results highlight the need to take into account the multidimensionality of risky alcohol-drinking patterns as a contributing factor in the socioeconomic gradient in alcohol use.

  13. Energy drinks: Getting wings but at what health cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Iftikhar, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Energy drink consumption represents a global public health problem, especially among adolescents and young adults. The consumption of energy drinks has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. Although manufacturers of energy drinks claim that these beverages are beneficial in that they can boost energy, physical performance, and improve cognitive performance, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support these claims. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of energy drinks, supplemented with reports of toxicity, raise concern for the potentially severe adverse events linked with energy drink use. Limited numbers of reviews have been published on this important subject..The aim of this review was to identify the major ingredients in energy drinks and to delineate the adverse effects related to their consumption. Electronic databases of PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google and Cochrane library were extensively searched for energy drink articles. More than hundred articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant forty articles were used Conclusion: Energy drinks & its ingredients are potentially dangerous to many aspects of health. Measures should be taken to improve awareness among adolescents and their parents regarding the potential hazards of energy drinks. Furthermore, the sale of energy drinks on college and university campuses and to adolescents below 16 years should be prohibited.

  14. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  16. The role of nicotine in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J H; Pritchard, W S

    1992-01-01

    The 1988 US Surgeon General's Report titled "Nicotine Addiction", is cited frequently in the literature as having established the "fact" that nicotine derived from cigarette smoke is addictive in the same sense as "classic" addicting drugs such as heroin and cocaine. This manuscripts critically evaluates key research findings used in support of this claim and identifies shortcomings in the data that seriously question the logic of labeling nicotine as "addictive". In addition, the manuscript argues that the role of nicotine in tobacco use is not like the role of cocaine in coca leaf use as argued by the 1988 Surgeon General's Report, but is, in fact, more like the role of caffeine in coffee drinking as concluded in the 1964 US Surgeon General's Report.

  17. Older Adults and Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than this increases the risk of serious alcohol problems. Heavy drinking makes certain health problems worse, too, ... or drink heavily can experience a variety of problems from alcohol. 3 Many prescription, over-the-counter medications, and ...

  18. Chloramines in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Chloramines provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.

  19. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  20. Tobacco control in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D T; Kosik, R O; Mandell, G A; Chen, Y A; Su, T P; Chiu, A W; Fan, A P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the use of tobacco in Vietnam. Review study. Data were collected through a review of tobacco-related literature in Vietnam. Grey literature and web content from agencies such as the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were consulted. Tobacco smoking is still common in Vietnam, although numerous policies have been issued and implemented over the last two decades. Based on the most recent data (2010), the prevalence of smoking among adults aged >15 years was 23.8%, with a higher percentage among males (47.4%) than females (1.4%). The prevalence of smoking among students aged 13-15 was 3.8% (2007), with a similar gender pattern. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke is of concern, with 73.1% and 55.9% of adults reporting exposure to secondhand smoke at home and at work or other places, respectively. Of the adult respondents, 55.5% believed that smoking may cause lung cancer, stroke and heart disease. Most students (93.4%) and adults (91.6%) had seen anti-smoking media messages. Of the students, 56.4% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements on billboards, 36.9% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements in newspapers or magazines, and 8.2% had been offered free cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. The price of cigarettes decreased by approximately 5% between 1995 and 2006, whereas gross domestic product per capita increased by more than 150%. On average, smokers smoked 13.5 cigarettes per day, and spent US$86 on cigarettes per year. Despite such high levels of tobacco exposure in Vietnam, the total tax on cigarettes remains at 45% of the retail price. Furthermore, only 29.7% of smokers had been advised to quit by a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Strong enforcement and evidence-based regulations which rounded on MPOWER are needed to help protect current smokers and non-smokers from the devastating effects of tobacco. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  1. Implicit drinking identity: Drinker+me associations predict college student drinking consistently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Foster, Dawn W; Westgate, Erin C; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-05-01

    Predicting hazardous drinking in college students continues to be a serious priority. Emerging evidence suggests that implicit measures may offer additional insight in predicting unique variance in alcohol outcomes. Implicit drinking identity, in particular, may be a powerful predictor of alcohol use. The current study examined the predictive validity of three alcohol-related associations (e.g., drinking identity, alcohol approach, and alcohol cope) using adaptations of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in a sample of 243 undergraduates. Confirming previous findings, drinking identity associations were the most consistent predictor of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. They were the only associations that were unique predictors of alcohol use after controlling for other implicit associations. In comparison, alcohol cope and alcohol approach associations were weak but consistent predictors of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Although positively correlated with all drinking outcomes, neither set of associations predicted unique variance in the drinking outcomes when all implicit associations were included in the same model. Collectively, these results extend previous findings that implicit drinking identity may be a powerful tool for predicting alcohol outcomes and a potential target for clinical intervention and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Gender-Specific Association between Age at First Drink and Later Alcohol Drinking Patterns in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between the age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns, and analyzed whether differences in the association exist among Korean adults according to gender. The subjects included 10,649 adults (5,405 men and 5,244 women) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009, which extracted the standard survey household by using the proportional systematic sampling method. Baseline individual characteristics, the age at first drink, and individual alcohol drinking patterns were obtained by specially trained interviewers or examiners. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol drinking patterns was summarized with odds ratios and their confidence intervals obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis with sampling weights of KNHANES complex sample survey design. The results of this study show that age, co-habitation, occupation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significantly related to the drinking patterns for men, whereas education, co-habitation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significant factors for the drinking patterns of women. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol consumption was significant for both genders and, interestingly, the alcohol drinking patterns were significantly differed by gender even after controlling for the individual characteristics. These results imply a need for gender-specific strategies to prevent hazardous alcohol consumption at a later time for Korean. PMID:24595268

  3. The gender-specific association between age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsun Kang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between the age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns, and analyzed whether differences in the association exist among Korean adults according to gender. The subjects included 10,649 adults (5,405 men and 5,244 women from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009, which extracted the standard survey household by using the proportional systematic sampling method. Baseline individual characteristics, the age at first drink, and individual alcohol drinking patterns were obtained by specially trained interviewers or examiners. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol drinking patterns was summarized with odds ratios and their confidence intervals obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis with sampling weights of KNHANES complex sample survey design. The results of this study show that age, co-habitation, occupation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significantly related to the drinking patterns for men, whereas education, co-habitation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significant factors for the drinking patterns of women. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol consumption was significant for both genders and, interestingly, the alcohol drinking patterns were significantly differed by gender even after controlling for the individual characteristics. These results imply a need for gender-specific strategies to prevent hazardous alcohol consumption at a later time for Korean.

  4. The gender-specific association between age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minsun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between the age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns, and analyzed whether differences in the association exist among Korean adults according to gender. The subjects included 10,649 adults (5,405 men and 5,244 women) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009, which extracted the standard survey household by using the proportional systematic sampling method. Baseline individual characteristics, the age at first drink, and individual alcohol drinking patterns were obtained by specially trained interviewers or examiners. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol drinking patterns was summarized with odds ratios and their confidence intervals obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis with sampling weights of KNHANES complex sample survey design. The results of this study show that age, co-habitation, occupation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significantly related to the drinking patterns for men, whereas education, co-habitation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significant factors for the drinking patterns of women. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol consumption was significant for both genders and, interestingly, the alcohol drinking patterns were significantly differed by gender even after controlling for the individual characteristics. These results imply a need for gender-specific strategies to prevent hazardous alcohol consumption at a later time for Korean.

  5. Use of alternative tobacco products in multiethnic youth from Jujuy, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Gregorich, Steven E; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2010-01-01

    This study examines alternative tobacco use among Latin American youth. A self-administered survey in a random sample of 27 schools was administered in 2004 in Jujuy, Argentina (N = 3218). Prevalence of alternative tobacco product use was 24.1%; 15.3% of youth used hand-rolled cigarettes, 7.8% smoked cigars, 2.3% chewed tobacco leaf and 1.6% smoked pipe. Among youth who never smoked manufactured cigarettes, alternative product use was rare (2.9%), except for chewing tobacco (22%). In multivariate logistic regression boys were more likely than girls to smoke pipe (OR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.1-8.7); indigenous language was associated with smoking hand-rolled cigarettes (OR = 1.4; 95% CI-1.1-1.9) and pipe (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.4). Working in tobacco sales was a risk factor for chewing tobacco (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.7-4.9) and smoking hand-rolled cigarettes (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8). Having friends who smoked was associated with chewing tobacco (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.2) and with smoking cigars (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.5-2.9). Current drinking and thrill-seeking orientation were associated with cigars and pipe smoking. Findings highlight the importance of surveillance of alternative tobacco products use and availability among youth and for addressing identified risk factors.

  6. The acute effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on video-lottery terminal gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sean P; Collins, Pam; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-03-01

    Gamblers often use alcohol and/or tobacco when they gamble but little is known about the extent to which drinking or smoking affects gambling behavior. This study examined the acute effects of alcohol and nicotine-containing tobacco administration on the subjective and behavioral responses to video-lottery terminal (VLT) gambling in 16 regular video-lottery terminal players (11 male) who were also regular consumers of alcohol and tobacco. During four double-blind, counterbalanced sessions, participants assessed the subjective effects of nicotine-containing tobacco or denicotinized tobacco following the administration of a moderately intoxicating dose of alcohol or a placebo beverage. They were then given $40 and provided with an opportunity to gamble using an authentic VLT. Alcohol administration was associated with increased ratings of several subjective descriptors including "intoxicated", "high", "want alcohol", "crave cigarette", and "want to gamble" but did not affect subsequent gambling behavior. In contrast, relative to denicotinized tobacco, the administration of nicotine containing tobacco was associated with increased average wagers, but did not significantly alter subjective state. Findings suggest that both alcohol and nicotine-containing tobacco may acutely increase the propensity to gamble using VLTs, but they may do so through separate processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  8. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  9. Tobacco and nicotine product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J; Zeller, Mitch R

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions.

  10. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  11. Association between alcohol advertising and beer drinking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Roberta; Vendrame, Alan; Silva, Rebeca; Pinsky, Ilana

    2011-06-01

    To analyze the association between alcohol advertising and beer drinking among adolescents. A total of 1,115 students enrolled in the 7th and 8th grades of three public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, Southeastern Brazil, were interviewed in 2006. The independent variables were as follows: attention paid to alcohol advertisements, belief in the veracity of advertisements, affective response to advertisements and previous tobacco use, among others. The dependent variable was beer drinking in the last 30 days. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were made. Age, importance given to religion and the presence of a bathroom in the home were used as control. Beer drinking in the last 30 days was associated with tobacco use (OR = 4.551), having a favorite alcoholic beverage brand (OR = 5.150), poor parental supervision (OR = 2.139), considering parties one goes to as similar to those seen in commercials (OR = 1.712), paying more attention to advertisements (OR = 1.563) and believing that advertisements tell the truth (OR = 2.122). This association remained, even in the presence of other variables associated with beer drinking. Alcohol advertisements are positively associated with recent beer drinking, because they remind adolescents of their own reality or make them believe in their veracity. Alcohol advertisement restrictions can be one way to prevent alcohol use and abuse by adolescents.

  12. Non-cigarette tobacco products: What have we learned and where are we headed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of non-cigarette forms of tobacco and nicotine exists and their use varies regionally and globally. Smoked forms of tobacco such as cigars, bidis, kreteks, and waterpipes have high popularity and are often perceived erroneously as less hazardous than cigarettes, when in fact their health burden is similar. Smokeless tobacco products vary widely around the world in both form and health hazards, with some clearly toxic forms (e.g. South Asia), and some forms with far fewer hazards (e.g., Sweden). There are also emerging nicotine delivery systems not directly reliant on tobacco (e.g. electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]). The presence of such products presents both challenges and opportunities for public health. Future regulatory actions such as expansion of smokefree environments, product health warnings, and taxation may serve to increase or decrease the use of non-cigarette forms of tobacco. These regulations may also bring about changes in non-cigarette tobacco products themselves that could impact public health by affecting attractiveness and/or toxicity. PMID:22345243

  13. Relationship of Lifetime Exposure to Tobacco, Alcohol and Second Hand Tobacco Smoke with Upper aero-digestive tract cancers in India: a Case-Control Study with a Life-Course Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Bhawna; Kumar, Narinder; Newell W. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADTSCC) are a multifaceted public health problem. Effects of lifestyle risk factors, including tobacco (chewing and smoking), alcohol drinking and exposure to second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) at home and their association with UADT cancers was assessed in a case-control study with a life-course perspective. The study was conducted at two different hospitals in Pune, India. Material and methods: The total sample size (N=48...

  14. Health warnings on tobacco products - worldwide, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-22

    Many countries require that tobacco product packaging includes health warnings about the risks associated with tobacco use. Health warnings on tobacco product packages are effective in highlighting the perception of health risk, supporting the intention to quit tobacco use, discouraging the intention to begin tobacco use, and increasing cessation rates. Prominent displays of health warnings increase their effectiveness; larger warnings, with pictures, are more likely to be noticed, better communicate health risks, provoke greater emotional response, and further motivate tobacco users to quit. This report assesses the current status of tobacco packaging health warning requirements worldwide. Governments could further discourage tobacco use by requiring prominent health warnings on tobacco packaging.

  15. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  16. Hazard reduction in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    The release of hazardous substances is a matter of concern for nanotechnology. This may include some nanoparticles, reactants, by-products, and solvents. The use of low-hazard solvents may reduce the hazards from nanoparticle production and nanomaterial processing. The hazards of inorganic

  17. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    OpenAIRE

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families.

  18. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  19. The changing face of tobacco use among United States youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana; Hoshino, Risa; Gordon, Terry; Watkins, Beverly-Xaviera; Weitzman, Michael; Zelikoff, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States (U.S.). The adverse effects of tobacco use began to be recognized in the 1940's and new hazards of active smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure from cigarettes continue to be identified to this day. This has led to a sustained and wide-ranging array of highly effective regulatory, public health, and clinical efforts that have been informed by extensive scientific data, resulting in marked decreases in the use of cigarettes. Unfortunately, the dramatic recent decline in cigarette use in the U.S., has been accompanied by an upsurge in adolescent and young adult use of new, non-cigarette tobacco and nicotine-delivery products, commonly referred to as alternative tobacco products (ATPs). Commonly used ATPs include hookah, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and electronic cigarettes. While there have been a number of review articles that focus on adult ATP use, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is, and is not known about emerging ATP use among U.S. adolescents on a national scale; as well as to identify research gaps in knowledge, and discuss future health and policy needs for this growing public health concern. This paper is not meant to systemically review all published survey data, but to present clear depiction of selected ATP usage in youth populations using national survey data.

  20. Tobacco Cessation May Improve Lung Cancer Patient Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson Amato, Katharine A; Hyland, Andrew; Reed, Robert; Mahoney, Martin C; Marshall, James; Giovino, Gary; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Zevon, Michael A; Cummings, K Michael; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Singh, Anurag K; Chen, Hongbin; Warren, Graham W; Reid, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This study characterizes tobacco cessation patterns and the association of cessation with survival among lung cancer patients at Roswell Park Cancer Institute: an NCI Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. Lung cancer patients presenting at this institution were screened with a standardized tobacco assessment, and those who had used tobacco within the past 30 days were automatically referred to a telephone-based cessation service. Demographic, clinical information, and self-reported tobacco use at last contact were obtained via electronic medical records and the Roswell Park Cancer Institute tumor registry for all lung cancer patients referred to the service between October 2010 and October 2012. Descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether tobacco cessation and other factors were associated with lung cancer survival through May 2014. Calls were attempted to 313 of 388 lung cancer patients referred to the cessation service. Eighty percent of patients (250 of 313) were successfully contacted and participated in at least one telephone-based cessation call; 40.8% (102 of 250) of persons contacted reported having quit at the last contact. After controlling for age, pack year history, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, time between diagnosis and last contact, tumor histology, and clinical stage, a statistically significant increase in survival was associated with quitting compared with continued tobacco use at last contact (HR = 1.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.82) with a median 9 month improvement in overall survival. Tobacco cessation among lung cancer patients after diagnosis may increase overall survival.

  1. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non–college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  2. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  3. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Shirane

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs' efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness.TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy.There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small

  4. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  5. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  6. Correlation between tobacco and alcohol use and Traditional Chinese Medicine constitutions: an analysis based on a sample from general population of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Zhu, Yanbo; Di, Jie; Lin, Lin

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking and drinking and constitution types from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. The Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (CCMQ) was used. A sample of 8448 subjects from nine provinces and municipalities was chosen from the database of the TCM constitution and health status survey. Constituent ratio and correspondence analysis were used to find the relationship between smoking and drinking and TCM constitution. There was an association between smoking and drinking and the Gentleness, phlegm-dampness, and dampness-heat type constitutions. People that did not smoke tobacco or drink alcohol tended to have Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, Qi-depression, Qi-deficiency, special diathesis, or blood-stasis type constitutions. There was a significant correlation between tobacco and alcohol use and TCM constitutions. To improve patient health, more attention should be paid to tobacco and alcohol control.

  7. Combined heavy smoking and drinking predicts overall but not disease-free survival after curative resection of locoregional esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Peng Sun,1,2,* Cui Chen,3,* Fei Zhang,1,2,* Hang Yang,1,2 Xi-Wen Bi,1,2 Xin An,1,2 Feng-Hua Wang,1,2 Wen-Qi Jiang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 3Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: The prognostic impact of smoking and drinking on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC was scarcely discussed. We investigated the prognostic value of smoking and drinking and their relationships with clinicopathological characteristics in a large cohort of patients with locoregional ESCC.Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 488 patients who underwent curative treatment at a single institution between January 2007 and December 2008. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationships between smoking and drinking and clinicopathological variables, the Kaplan–Meier method was used for 5-year overall survival (OS and disease-free survival, and Cox proportional hazards models were applied for univariate and multivariate analyses of variables with respect to OS and disease-free survival.Results: Heavy smokers were more likely to have advanced Tumor-Node-Metastases (TNM stage and higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio at diagnosis (P<0.05. Drinkers were more likely to have advanced TNM stage, to present with a larger tumor, and to undergo multidisciplinary treatment (P<0.05. For patients who used neither heavy tobacco nor alcohol, used either tobacco or alcohol, and used both, the 5-year OS rates and OS times were 57.4%, 46.4%, and 39.1% (P<0.05 and not reached, 55.2 months, and 41.2 months (P<0.05, respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients who both heavily smoked and drank had 1.392 times the risk of dying during follow-up compared with

  8. Prioritizing hazardous pollutants in two Nigerian water supply schemes: a risk-based approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Etchie, Ayotunde T; Etchie, Tunde O; Adewuyi, Gregory O; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Saravanadevi, S; Wate, Satish R

    2013-01-01

    .... Hazardous pollutants in drinking-water in the study area were identified from a literature search and selected pollutants were monitored from April 2010 to December 2011 in catchments, treatment works and consumer taps...

  9. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  10. Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ajab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals.

  11. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  13. Dark nights behind the white clouds - risks of tobacco smoking on human health besides the oral health and malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainul, Zarin

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the common practice in a large percentage of the population worldwide, and the incidence is continuously increasing. Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of lung cancer, and it also impairs oral health. People are aware of the carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoking on the lungs and oral cavity, but it is also a risk factor for many other harmful diseases. This review article covers most of the diseases that are associated with tobacco smoking, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), arthritis, impotency, infertility, tuberculosis, and Alzheimer's disease. The association of these diseases with tobacco smoking is discussed in detail in this review, along with their possible pathophysiology. This article focuses on the ongoing research of these diseases, and aims to raise awareness of the hazards of tobacco smoking, and to promote anti-smoking awareness programs.

  14. A literature Survey on the Assessment of Microbiological Risk for Drinking Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis PFM; Havelaar AH; Medema GJ; LWL

    1994-01-01

    This literature study introduces the main ingredients of quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for pathogenic microorganisms in drinking water: hazard analysis, exposure assessment of dose-response relations, and risk characterization. While QRA potentially rationalizes the processes of setting

  15. High-resolution Temporal Representations of Alcohol and Tobacco Behaviors from Social Media Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tom; Elghafari, Anas; Relia, Kunal; Chunara, Rumi

    2017-11-01

    Understanding tobacco- and alcohol-related behavioral patterns is critical for uncovering risk factors and potentially designing targeted social computing intervention systems. Given that we make choices multiple times per day, hourly and daily patterns are critical for better understanding behaviors. Here, we combine natural language processing, machine learning and time series analyses to assess Twitter activity specifically related to alcohol and tobacco consumption and their sub-daily, daily and weekly cycles. Twitter self-reports of alcohol and tobacco use are compared to other data streams available at similar temporal resolution. We assess if discussion of drinking by inferred underage versus legal age people or discussion of use of different types of tobacco products can be differentiated using these temporal patterns. We find that time and frequency domain representations of behaviors on social media can provide meaningful and unique insights, and we discuss the types of behaviors for which the approach may be most useful.

  16. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    high stability.1,3,5 Porphyrin reagents have therefore received increasing attention and are widely applied for the simulta- neous determination of metal ions.9–19. The determination of trace amounts of lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel, cobalt and tin in tobacco and tobacco additives is important because of the biological ...

  17. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  18. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are also strong indications that the tobacco industry sees Eritrea as a strategic gateway to east and northeast Africa. The industry may be planning to develop Eritrea as a distribution hub for its products. This will make the country even more vulnerable. This project will assess the impact of tobacco taxation, smuggling, ...

  19. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of cancer were diagnosed in 112,430 never smokers in EPIC. Childhood ETS was self-reported by participants at baseline, along with other lifestyle factors. Hazard ratios (HR) for ETS exposure in childhood and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and study center and adjusted for education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, physical activity, non-alcoholic energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, and adulthood ETS exposure. Models were further adjusted for reproductive factors for female cancers, for meat intake for digestive system cancers, and for diabetes status for pancreatic cancer. No association was observed between childhood ETS exposure and overall cancer risks (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02), and for selected sites. The only exception was pancreatic cancer, as previously reported by Vrieling et al., among those who had been exposed daily in childhood (overall HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.14-3.84). In conclusion, childhood ETS exposure might not be a major risk factor for common cancers in adulthood.

  20. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  1. Conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among tuberculosis patients in public primary healthcare in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among tuberculosis (TB patients in South Africa (SA. Methods. In a cross-sectional survey, 4 900 (54.5% men, 45.5% women consecutively selected TB patients (including new TB and new TB retreatment patients from 42 public primary care clinics in three districts in SA were assessed using various measures (including those for alcohol and tobacco use, within one month of anti-TB treatment. Results. Overall, 10.1% (15.5% among men; 3.4% among women were conjointly hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users and daily or almost-daily tobacco users. The proportion of daily or almost-daily tobacco users among hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users was 48.9%, (53.3% among men; 26.4% among women. Those with hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol use had significantly higher odds of having anxiety and/or depression (odds ratio (OR 1.37; confidence interval (CI 1.13 - 1.65 and exhibiting daily or almost-daily tobacco use (OR 5.94; CI 4.33 - 5.87. The mean ± standard deviation alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT score among conjoint hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users and daily or almost-daily tobacco users was significantly higher (17.1±6.1 than among hazardous, harmful or dependent alcohol users who were not current tobacco users (15.4±5.6 (p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, male gender, coloured ethnicity, lower education and greater poverty, TB retreatment patient status and non-adherence to anti-TB medication were associated with a greater risk for conjoint alcohol and tobacco use. Conclusions. A high prevalence and several risk factors for conjoint alcohol and tobacco use were found among TB patients. The findings of this study call for dual-intervention approaches to alcohol and tobacco use.

  2. Portrayal of tobacco smoking in popular women's magazines: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasujee, Naseera; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo; Lyons, Ailsa; Bains, Manpreet

    2017-09-01

    Whilst many countries have introduced legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising and sponsorship, references to tobacco continue to appear in the media. This study quantified and characterized tobacco smoking content in popular women's magazines. The 10 top weekly and 5 monthly women's magazines most popular among 15-34 year olds in Britain published over a 3-month period were included. A content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 146 magazines, there were 310 instances of tobacco content, the majority of which were positive towards smoking. Instances of celebrities smoking were most common (171, 55%), often in holiday or party settings that could be perceived to be luxurious, glamorous or fun. In all, 55 (18%) tobacco references related to fashion, which generally created an impression of smoking as a norm within the industry; and 34 (11%) text and image references to tobacco in TV and film. There were 50 (16%) reader-initiated mentions of smoking, typically in real-life stories or readers writing in to seek advice about smoking. Anti-smoking references including the hazards of smoking were infrequent (49; 16%). Although tobacco advertising is prohibited in Britain, women's magazines still appear to be promoting positive messages about tobacco and smoking.

  3. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  4. (S)-N'-Nitrosonornicotine, a constituent of smokeless tobacco, is a powerful oral cavity carcinogen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Silvia; James-Yi, Sandra; Johnson, Charles S; O'Sullivan, Michael G; Stepanov, Irina; Wang, Mingyao; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Kassie, Fekadu; Carmella, Steven; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2013-09-01

    Currently, smokeless tobacco products are being proposed as an alternative mode of tobacco use associated with less harm. All of these products contain the tobacco-specific carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). The major form of NNN in tobacco products is (S)-NNN, shown in this study to induce a total of 89 benign and malignant oral cavity tumors in a group of 20 male F-344 rats treated chronically with 14 p.p.m. in the drinking water. The opposite enantiomer (R)-NNN was weakly active, but synergistically enhanced the carcinogenicity of (S)-NNN. Thus, (S)-NNN is identified for the first time as a strong oral cavity carcinogen in smokeless tobacco products and should be significantly reduced or removed from these products without delay in order to prevent debilitating and deadly oral cavity cancer in people who use them.

  5. Association of coffee drinking with total and cause-specific mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Neal D; Park, Yikyung; Abnet, Christian C; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-05-17

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear. We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline. During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (Pcoffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.).

  6. Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Neal D.; Park, Yikyung; Abnet, Christian C.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear. Methods We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline. Results During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (Pcoffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.) PMID:22591295

  7. Snuffing Out Smokeless Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Major League Baseball's ban on players using tobacco during minor league games may provide physicians with a timely excuse to discuss smokeless tobacco with young patients. Chewing and dipping remain a significant health problem, especially among young men, many of whom view it as a secret ingredient in sports success. (SM)

  8. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  9. Tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy: prevalence and determinants in Geneva in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupraz, Julien; Graff, Valérie; Barasche, Judith; Etter, Jean-François; Boulvain, Michel

    2013-05-25

    To describe alcohol and tobacco consumption during pregnancy in women giving birth in a public hospital in Geneva, to evaluate risk factors related to these consumptions and to explore the influence of close relatives on the consumption habits of pregnant women. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey after delivery in 207 women in the maternity ward of the Geneva University Hospitals in 2008. We used retrospective self-reports of smoking during pregnancy (including temporary smoking), smoking during the entire pregnancy and alcohol drinking during pregnancy (even a single glass). The proportion of smokers decreased from 31.2% before pregnancy to 21.7% during pregnancy (temporary smoking included), and 9.2% of women smoked continuously until delivery. Major factors associated with tobacco use were living alone, living with a smoker and tobacco consumption of the husband/partner in the presence of the pregnant woman. Regarding alcohol consumption, 62.7% of the participants reported drinking (even occasionally) before pregnancy, and 36.3% of the women drank at least one glass of alcohol during pregnancy. The alcohol consumption of the husband/partner and invitations to drink from other people were associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Among women delivering in a public hospital, tobacco and alcohol consumption during pregnancy was important and significantly influenced by the habits and attitude of close relatives. The involvement of relatives in health promotion interventions should be addressed.

  10. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  11. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  12. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients they contain and how they measure up: Sports Drinks Sports drinks may be beneficial for kids who participates in ... time when the body's stores are becoming depleted. Sports drinks also contain electrolytes like sodium and potassium, which ...

  13. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  14. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D L; Carol, J; Balbach, E D; McGee, S

    1999-01-01

    To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of second-hand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal. Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview. 54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry. Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use. The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.

  15. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  16. Tobacco industry use of flavourings to promote smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    While fruit, candy and alcohol characterising flavours are not allowed in cigarettes in the USA, other flavoured tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco (ST) continue to be sold. We investigated tobacco manufacturers' use of flavoured additives in ST products, the target audience(s) for flavoured products, and marketing strategies promoting products by emphasising their flavour. Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents triangulated with data from national newspaper articles, trade press and internet. Internally, flavoured products have been consistently associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users. Internal studies confirmed that candy-like sweeter milder flavours (eg, mint, fruit) could increase appeal to starters by evoking a perception of mildness, blinding the strong tobacco taste and unpleasant mouth feel; or by modifying nicotine delivery by affecting product pH. Similar to cigarettes, flavoured ST is likely to encourage novices to start using tobacco, and regulations limiting or eliminating flavours in cigarettes should be extended to include flavoured ST products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  18. Hazardous Alcohol Use among Doctors in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There has been conflicting reports of the level of hazardous alcohol use among doctors despite the significant occurrences in the general population. Hence, the need to study the drinking habits of doctors, being supposedly role models in terms of behavior and lifestyle. Methods: All the consenting doctors in ...

  19. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Use of smokeless tobacco among groups of Pakistani medical students – a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Mahwish

    2007-09-01

    governments should add the goal of eliminating smokeless tobacco to existing drives against cigarette smoking. Drives in Karachi should focus more on eliminating paan usage while those in NWFP should focus more on the use of naswar. Medical colleges should provide greater education about the myths and hazards of smokeless tobacco.

  1. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  2. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether e...

  3. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  4. Drinking-Smoking Status and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saingam, Darika; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Geater, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking, smoking, and health risk behaviors are significant problems for Thai adolescents. However, little is known about the association and magnitude among alcohol, tobacco, or co-using and health risk behaviors. Data of the National School Survey of 2007 were analyzed. The sample consisted of 50,033 high school and vocational college students.…

  5. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  6. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  7. Drinking Water and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  8. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  9. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Contact Us Share Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste Hazardous waste that ... Regulations part 261 . Select a question below to learn more about each step in the hazardous waste ...

  10. Drinking water microbial myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E

    2015-01-01

    Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.

  11. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  12. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  13. 210Po in Human Saliva of Smokeless Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and mobility of Po in oral smokeless tobacco products (STPs) were determined because its effects on human health must be taken into account. This research was subdivided into two parts: determination by alpha spectrometry of the Po activity concentration in 16 oral smokeless tobacco products of different brands purchased in local specialty stores in Europe and evaluation of its percent extraction into an artificial salivary gland during sucking or chewing operations. Polonium-210 was detected in all samples, and its concentrations ranged from 3.46 to 14.8 Bq kg (mean value of 7.45 ± 3.82 Bq kg). The highest concentration was found in chewing tobacco. The samples showed no significant difference in the content of Po level. The data obtained in this study show that the polonium, although poorly extracted (12.8 ± 8.96%) by artificial saliva, is not totally retained within the smokeless tobacco products, with a consequent potential health hazard associated with oral use of these products.

  14. Biotechnological Reduction of Tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L. Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Sattar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotiana tobacco contains large amounts of alkaloid nicotine. Tobacco plant is used for smoking and causes many health problems since it is high in nicotine which is one of the widely-recognized toxic compounds with serious side effects for different body organs. Reducing nicotine content of this plant is a way to reduce its health hazards in cigarette smokers. Utilizing the new methods of genetic engineering can modify nicotine levels in the plant. In this study, through transferring the blocking gene, the pathway of nicotine biosynthesis was blocked to produce transgenic tobacco with low levels of nicotine. Methods: Transgenic plants carrying T DNA, and non-transgenic plants were grown on MS medium. Then their leaves were dried and powdered. The plants were extracted with alkali solution. Eventually, the nicotine content of the extract were analyzed using GC. Results: The analysis of extracts showed a reduction in the nicotine content of the transgenic plant (contain T-DNA in comparison with non-transgenic plants. Conclusion: Tobacco with lower nicotine reduction can reduce the toxic effects of smoking on smokers and can facilitate withdrawal from it.

  15. Tobacco Xenobiotics Release Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam EWN

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many xenobiotic compounds exert their actions through the release of free radicals and related oxidants 12, bringing about unwanted biological effects 3. Indeed, oxidative events may play a significant role in tobacco toxicity from cigarette smoke. Here, we demonstrate the direct in vitro release of the free radical nitric oxide (•NO from extracts and components of smokeless tobacco, including nicotine, nitrosonornicotine (NNN and 4-(methyl-N-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK in phosphate buffered saline and human saliva using electron spin resonance and chemiluminescence detection. Our findings suggest that tobacco xenobiotics represent as yet unrecognized sources of •NO in the body.

  16. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaku Israel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.

  17. Addressing Tobacco Through Organizational Change (ATTOC) in residential addiction treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guydish, Joseph; Ziedonis, Douglas; Tajima, Barbara; Seward, Greg; Passalacqua, Emma; Chan, Mable; Delucchi, Kevin; Zammarelli, Lucy; Levy, Michael; Kolodziej, Monika; Brigham, Greg

    2012-02-01

    Smoking prevalence among persons in addiction treatment is 3-4 times higher than in the general population. However, treatment programs often report organizational barriers to providing tobacco-related services. This study assessed the effectiveness of a six month organizational change intervention, Addressing Tobacco Through Organizational Change (ATTOC), to improve how programs address tobacco dependence. The ATTOC intervention, implemented in three residential treatment programs, included consultation, staff training, policy development, leadership support and access to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) medication. Program staff and clients were surveyed at pre- and post-intervention, and at 6 month follow-up. The staff survey measured knowledge of the hazards of smoking, attitudes about and barriers to treating smoking, counselor self-efficacy in providing such services, and practices used to address tobacco. The client survey measured knowledge, attitudes, and tobacco-related services received. NRT use was tracked. From pre- to post-intervention, staff beliefs became more favorable toward treating tobacco dependence (F(1, 163)=7.15, p=0.008), NRT use increased, and tobacco-related practices increased in a non-significant trend (F(1, 123)=3.66, p=0.058). Client attitudes toward treating tobacco dependence became more favorable (F(1, 235)=10.58, p=0.0013) and clients received more tobacco-related services from their program (F(1, 235)=92.86, p<0.0001) and from their counselors (F(1, 235)=61.59, p<0.0001). Most changes remained at follow-up. The ATTOC intervention can help shift the treatment system culture and increase tobacco services in addiction treatment programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of clinical periodontal status among habitual smokeless-tobacco users and cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Uttamani, Juhi Raju; Bhatavadekar, Neel B

    2016-02-01

    Investigating the comparative effect of cigarette smoking and smokeless-tobacco use on periodontal health. There is a dearth of studies comparing the effects of smoking and smokeless tobacco on periodontal health. Smokeless tobacco is emerging as a major public health hazard, but is often neglected as a risk factor by many clinicians. A cross-sectional study of 286 subjects was conducted. The participants were divided into mutually exclusive groups (i.e. any subject who had the habit of both smoking as well as smokeless tobacco usage was excluded from the study), as follows: a smoking group (SG; n=121); a smokeless-tobacco group (ST; n=81); and a non-tobacco-consuming group (NT; n=84). Data were obtained using a questionnaire and by clinical examination. The Periodontal Disease Index (PDI) and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S) were used to clinically evaluate the periodontal and dental health status of the subjects. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify statistical correlations. The Plaque Index was higher in the ST group than in the SG group and was statistically significantly higher in the ST group than in the NT group. Probing depth and gingival inflammation (components of the PDI) were also higher in the ST group than in the SG and NT groups, but this was not statistically significant. Within the limits of the study, and for this study population, the impact on the periodontium as a result of smokeless tobacco use appeared to be comparable with that of smoking tobacco. The results of this study affirm the need to consider smokeless tobacco as a possible contributory factor to periodontal disease, in addition to smoking, and to counsel patients accordingly. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to validate the long-term impact of smokeless tobacco on periodontal disease. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. Tobacco industry allegations of "illegal lobbying" and state tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, S A; Fox, B J; Glantz, S A

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the perceived effect of tobacco industry allegations of "illegal lobbying" by public health professionals on policy interventions for tobacco control. Structured interviews were conducted with state health department project managers in all 17 National Cancer Institute-funded American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) states. Documentation and media records related to ASSIST from the National Cancer Institute, health advocates, and the tobacco industry were analyzed. The tobacco industry filed formal complaints of illegal lobbying activities against 4 ASSIST states. These complaints had a temporary chilling effect on tobacco control policy interventions in those states. ASSIST states not targeted by the tobacco industry developed an increased awareness of the industry's tactics and worked to prepare for such allegations to minimize disruption of their activities. Some self-reported self-censorship in policy activity occurred in 11 of the 17 states (65%). Public health professionals need to educate themselves and the public about the laws that regulate lobbying activities and develop their strategies, including their policy activities, accordingly.

  20. The relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with ageing self-perceptions in older people in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Villiers-Tuthill, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviour patterns in older groups, including tobacco and alcohol use, are key factors in chronic disease prevention. We explore ageing self-perceptions as motivating factors behind smoking and drinking alcohol in older adults, and the complex reasons why individuals engage harmfully in these behaviours.

  1. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  2. Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Carla T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

  3. Public Policy and Youth Smokeless Tobacco Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J.; Michael Grossman; John A. Tauras

    1996-01-01

    While much is known about the effects of prices and tobacco control policies on cigarette smoking, relatively little is known about their impact on smokeless tobacco use. This paper addresses these issues using data on smokeless tobacco use by adolescent males taken from the 1992, 1993, and 1994 Monitoring the Future Surveys. Site-specific smokeless tobacco tax data and several measures of limits on youth access to tobacco products are added to the survey data. Ordered probit methods are used...

  4. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  5. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.25 Smokeless tobacco tax rates. Smokeless tobacco products...

  6. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  7. Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cycle Glossary of Terms FAQ Infographics Shareable Media Subscription Services Publication Catalog Get Email Updates To receive ... 770-488-5493. Fact Sheets Adult Data Cessation Economics Fast Facts Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Tobacco ...

  8. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  9. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  10. Resources for Smokeless Tobacco Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflin, Molly; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Pamphlets, posters, films, videotapes, slide/tape programs, models, teaching guides and packets, booklets, and other resources for smokeless tobacco education are listed. Many of the resources are from nonprofit agencies and are free or minimal cost. (CB)

  11. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  12. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) for an ultrasound food processing operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Hoarau, Nicolas

    2004-05-01

    Emerging technologies, such as ultrasound (US), used for food and drink production often cause hazards for product safety. Classical quality control methods are inadequate to control these hazards. Hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) is the most secure and cost-effective method for controlling possible product contamination or cross-contamination, due to physical or chemical hazard during production. The following case study on the application of HACCP to an US food-processing operation demonstrates how the hazards at the critical control points of the process are effectively controlled through the implementation of HACCP.

  13. Toxicity of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Brian J; Ganetsky, Michael; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-04-01

    'Energy drinks', 'energy shots' and other energy products have exploded in popularity in the past several years; however, their use is not without risk. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. The effects of chronic high-dose caffeine intake in children and adolescents are unknown. Caffeine may raise blood pressure, disrupt adolescent sleep patterns, exacerbate psychiatric disease, cause physiologic dependence, and increase the risk of subsequent addiction. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors, harm to adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. The toxicity of ingredients often present in energy drinks, such as taurine, niacin, and pyridoxine, is less well defined. Recent and significant literature describing adverse events associated with energy drink use are reviewed. Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure. The high doses of caffeine, often in combination with ingredients with unknown safety profiles, mandates urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents. Regulation of pediatric energy drink use may be a necessary step once the health effects are further characterized.

  14. Changes in drinking patterns in the first years after onset: a latent transition analysis of National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Orla; Adamson, Gary; Cheng, Hui G; Slade, Tim

    2014-09-01

    This study examined adult drinking patterns in the first year after onset and whether these patterns changed after 3 years. We also investigated whether specific demographic characteristics or DSM-IV alcohol use disorder symptoms were related to drinking transitions. Data from National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were analyzed. "Newly onset alcohol users" (NOAUs; n = 854) were adults who initiated drinking in the year prior to Wave 1 (2001-2002) and who were followed-up at Wave 2 (2004-2005). Latent class models were estimated for 10 frequency-type drinking patterns at both waves. Latent transition analysis explored changes in drinking patterns from baseline to follow-up. Three drinker classes emerged at Wave 1: (a) low risk (41%); (b) sporadic hazardous (35%); and (c) regular hazardous (24%). One in 5 (18%) NOAUs stopped drinking by Wave 2 and were assigned to an "abstainer" class. The transition probability into the "abstainer" class was highest for the Wave 1 low risk drinkers (86%). The remaining NOAUs (82%) continued to drink at Wave 2. Of these, 70% of regular hazardous drinkers at Wave 1 maintained this drinking pattern at Wave 2, with approximately 30% reducing their pattern of drinking. One third of sporadic hazardous drinkers at Wave 1 remained at this level of drinking at Wave 2; the remainder escalated the drinking. Tolerance, larger/longer, cut down/quit and withdrawal were common among regular hazardous drinkers. Adult drinkers who engage in a low frequency and quantity drinking pattern are most likely to stop drinking soon after onset. Drinking patterns adopted in the first year after onset were indicative of drinking involvement 3 years later.

  15. Tobacco and the movie industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the tobacco industry's voluntary restrictions and its agreement with the state attorneys general prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. Extensive research provides strong and consistent evidence that smoking in the movies promotes smoking. This article summarizes the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others) and proposes several solutions to reduce adolescent exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking.

  16. The Irish tobacco industry position on price increases on tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Fenton

    2012-09-01

    To examine what the tobacco industry in Ireland says to government on tobacco price, and what it does. The annual government budgetary and tobacco trade, tax/price increases on cigarettes (2000-2010) and pre-budget submissions from the tobacco industry were analysed. Price increased from €4.77 in 2000 to €8.55 at the end of 2010, 64.0% of the increase was government imposed and 36.0% was imposed by the tobacco trade. The tobacco industry consistently urged government not to increase taxes as this would increase smuggling and contraband tobacco products. However, the tobacco industry increased price every year. There is significant disparity in what the tobacco industry says to government and how it behaves with respect to tobacco price. It is important that tobacco control advocates have access to such data and underscores the importance of strong guidelines for Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  17. Global challenges in tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schotte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen unprecedented achievements in global tobacco control. These include the entry into force of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC and 179 states, as well as the European Union, becoming Parties to the Treaty,leading to an increased global cognizance of the negative health and economic impact of tobacco use. Governments around the world continue to adopt and implement effective tobacco control strategies and financial contributions from major philanthropies have increased the levels of financial support for tobacco control efforts in low- and middle-income countries. The UN high-level summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs in 2011 and the 2015 adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, in which NCDs and acceleration of implementation of WHO FCTC are included as specific targets, represent an increased global recognition of the need to address tobacco use prevalence as a key element of NCD interventions...

  18. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  19. Tobacco companies' use of developing countries' economic reliance on tobacco to lobby against global tobacco control: the case of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Mamudu, Hadii M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-10-01

    Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC.

  20. Migration and Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  1. The effects of parental divorce on adult tobacco and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfinger, N H

    1998-09-01

    I use data from the 1977-1994 National Opinion Research Council General Social Survey to examine the impact of parental divorce on the alcohol and tobacco consumption of adult offspring. Divorce greatly increases the likelihood of being a smoker and, for men, a problem drinker. Parental remarriage completely offsets the effects of parental divorce on men's drinking but does not substantially affect cigarette use. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics accounted for a portion of the relationship between parental divorce and smoking but did not affect rates of problem drinking. Social control and psychosocial adjustment--two established explanations for the effects of parental divorce--could not adequately explain my findings.

  2. Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labour practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry websites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990 s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimise their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labour and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labour costs because of child labour and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco-related deforestation in the top 12 tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labour and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies' practices at the farm level.

  3. Increased tobacco and alcohol use among women with joint hypermobility: a way to cope with anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population.

  4. Depression, anxiety, and tobacco use: Overlapping impediments to sleep in a national sample of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Matthew A; Lei, Quinmill M; Lloyd, Robin M; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2016-10-01

    To examine how tobacco use and depression/anxiety disorders are related to disturbed sleep in college students. 85,138 undergraduate respondents (66.3% female, 74.5% white, non-Hispanic, ages 18-25) from the Spring 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II database. Multivariate analyses of tobacco use (none, intermediate, daily) and mental health (diagnosed and/or symptomatic depression or anxiety) were used to predict sleep disturbance. Daily tobacco use was associated with more sleep problems than binge drinking, illegal drug use, obesity, gender, and working >20 hours/week. Students with depression or anxiety reported more sleep disturbances than individuals without either disorder, and tobacco use in this population was associated with the most sleep problems. Tobacco use and depression/anxiety disorders are both independently associated with more sleep problems in college students. Students with depression and/or anxiety are more likely to be daily tobacco users, which likely exacerbates their sleep problems.

  5. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Geneviéve Plamondon; Emmanuel Guindon; Guillermo Paraje

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 0...

  6. Tobacco industry denormalisation as a tobacco control intervention: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a review of research examining the effects of tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) on smoking-related and attitude-related outcomes. Methods The authors searched Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published through December 2010 (see figure 1). We included all peer-reviewed TID studies we could locate that measured smoking-related outcomes and attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Exclusion criteria included: non-English language, focus on tobacco use rather than TID, perceived ad efficacy as sole outcome, complex program interventions without a separately analysable TID component and non peer-reviewed literature. We analysed the literature qualitatively and summarised findings by outcome measured. Results After excluding articles not meeting the search criteria, the authors reviewed 60 studies examining TID and 9 smoking-related outcomes, including smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, intention to smoke and intention to quit. The authors also reviewed studies of attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its regulation. The majority of studies suggest that TID is effective in reducing smoking prevalence and initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Evidence is mixed for some other outcomes, but some of the divergent findings may be explained by study designs. Conclusions A robust body of evidence suggests that TID is an effective tobacco control intervention at the population level that has a clear exposure–response effect. TID may also contribute to other tobacco control outcomes not explored in this review (including efforts to ‘directly erode industry power’), and thus may enhance public support and political will for structural reforms to end the tobacco epidemic. PMID:22345240

  7. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scope | Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Hospital eTool Administration Central Supply Clinical Services Dietary Emergency Engineering Healthcare Wide Hazards Heliport Housekeeping ICU Laboratory Laundry ...

  8. Drinking problems and mortality risk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard G; Boardman, Jason D; Pendergast, Philip M; Lawrence, Elizabeth M

    2015-06-01

    We examine the links between 41 problems related to alcohol consumption and the risk of death among adults in the United States. We use Cox proportional hazards models and data from the nationally representative prospective National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files (NHIS-LMF). Drinking problems are relatively common among moderate and heavy drinkers and these problems are associated with increases in the risk of death. The strongest associations between problem drinking and mortality involved cases in which physicians, family members, or friends intervened to suggest reduced drinking. Losing one's job because of drinking problems within their lifetime (HR = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11, 1.65) was strongly linked to mortality risk. Social risks were equally or more strongly linked to mortality than physiological consequences of alcohol abuse such as lifetime reports of needing a drink to stop shaking or getting sick (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.40). Most importantly, these associations were evident despite statistical controls for alcohol consumption levels and demographic, social, economic, behavioral, health, and geographic factors. Our results highlight the independent and additive effects of alcohol-related problems and alcohol consumption levels on the risk of death. We recommend that studies examining the mortality risks of alcohol consumption take into account drinking status and also specific drinking-related problems, paying particular attention to social problems related to alcohol use or abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between tobacco and alcohol use among young adult bar patrons: a cross-sectional study in three cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Lee, Youn Ok; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-05-24

    Bars and nightclubs are key public venues where young adults congregate and use both tobacco and alcohol, and young adult bar patrons are at high risk for substance use. This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and alcohol use among a random sample of young adult bar patrons from three different cities in the USA. Cross-sectional data was collected from a random sample of young adult bar patrons aged 18-29 in San Diego, CA (N = 1,150), Portland, ME (N = 1,019), and Tulsa, OK (N = 1,106) from 2007-2010 (response rate 88%) using randomized time location sampling. Respondents reported the number of days they smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol, and binge drank in the past 30 days. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze the association between smoking (nonsmoker, occasional smoker, and regular smoker) and drinking and binge drinking for each city controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education. Predicted probabilities of each smoking category were calculated by drinking and binge drinking status. The association between smoking and drinking and binge drinking among combined samples was also analyzed, controlling for demographic variables and city. Respondents reported high current smoking rates, ranging from 51% in Portland to 58% in Tulsa. Respondents in Tulsa were more likely to report regular smoking than those in San Diego and Portland, with demographic variables being controlled. Young adult bar patrons also exhibited a strong association between smoking and drinking. In general, as the frequency of drinking and binge drinking increased, the predicted probability of being a smoker, especially a regular smoker, increased in each city. Young adult bar patrons consistently reported a high smoking rate and a strong relationship between smoking and drinking, regardless of the different bar cultures and tobacco control contexts in each of the three cities. While smoke-free bar policies were negatively associated with

  10. Similarity in romantic couples' drinking motivations and drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Leonard, Kenneth E; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that enhancement, conformity, social, coping-with-anxiety, and coping-with-depression drinking motives are linked to specific drinking outcomes in a theoretically expected manner. Social learning theory suggests that people who spend more time together emulate each other's behavior to acquire reinforcing outcomes. The present study sought to integrate drinking motives theory and social learning theory to investigate similarity in drinking behaviors and drinking motives in romantic couples. We hypothesized that couples would be more similar than chance in their drinking behaviors and motives. We also hypothesized that demographics reflecting time around and interactions with romantic partners (e.g., days spent drinking together) would positively correlate with similarity in drinking behaviors and motivations. The present study tested hypotheses in 203 romantic couples. Participants completed a Timeline Follow-Back measure and the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised to track their alcohol use and drinking motives. Similarity profiles were calculated using McCrae's (J Pers Assess. 2008;90:105-109) coefficient of profile agreement, rpa. Couples were more similar in their drinking behavioral and motivational profiles than could be explained by chance. Days spent drinking together and days with face-to-face contact predicted increased similarity in drinking behavior profiles, but not similarity in drinking motives profiles. Results are partially consistent with social learning theory and suggest that social influences within couples could be important intervention targets to prevent escalations in drinking.

  11. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLellan Deborah L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758 were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy.

  12. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Deborah L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Fagan, Pebbles; Reif, Sharon; Horgan, Constance M

    2012-07-11

    Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy.

  13. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  14. SDWISFED Drinking Water Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...

  15. Risks of underage drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... homicide Being a victim of violent crime Risky Sexual Behavior Alcohol use can lead to risky sexual ... a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ...

  16. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  17. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  18. Moist smokeless tobacco (Snus) use and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ye, Weimin; Liu, Zhiwei; Norberg, Margareta; Forsgren, Lars; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Bellocco, Rino; Alfredsson, Lars; Knutsson, Anders; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Wennberg, Patrik; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Lager, Anton C J; Araghi, Marzieh; Lundberg, Michael; Magnusson, Cecilia; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. It is unclear what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. Use of Swedish moist smokeless tobacco (snus) can serve as a model to disentangle what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether snus use was associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Individual participant data were collected from seven prospective cohort studies, including 348 601 men. We used survival analysis with multivariable Cox regression to estimate study-specific relative risk of Parkinson's disease due to snus use, and random-effects models to pool estimates in a meta-analysis. The primary analyses were restricted to never-smokers to eliminate the potential confounding effect of tobacco smoking. During a mean follow-up time of 16.1 years, 1199 incident Parkinson's disease cases were identified. Among men who never smoked, ever-snus users had about 60% lower Parkinson's disease risk compared with never-snus users [pooled hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.61]. The inverse association between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk was more pronounced in current (pooled HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.63), moderate-heavy amount (pooled HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.90) and long-term snus users (pooled HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.83). Non-smoking men who used snus had a substantially lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Results also indicated an inverse dose-response relationship between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk. Our findings suggest that nicotine or other components of tobacco leaves may influence the development of Parkinson's disease.

  19. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  20. Smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy as the risk factors for poor child neurodevelopment – A review of epidemiological studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Jurewicz; Wojciech Hanke

    2015-01-01

    Maternal active and passive smoking and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy, taking into account the level of exposure and developmental or behavioral outcomes, are recognized as a significant issue from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The article aims at evaluating the impact of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy on children neurodevelopment by reviewing the most recently published literature. R...

  1. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  2. First drink to first drunk: age of onset and delay to intoxication are associated with adolescent alcohol use and binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Connell, Christian; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-10-01

    Quickly progressing from initiating alcohol use to drinking to intoxication recently was identified as a novel risk factor for hazardous drinking in college students (ME Morean et al. [2012] Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 36, 1991-1999). The current study evaluated the risk associated with age of onset (AO) and delay to first intoxication (Delay) in a high school sample. Adolescent drinkers (N = 295, age 16.29 [1.14], 55.3% female, 80.3% Caucasian, AO = 13.51 [2.29] years, Delay = 0.80 [1.43] years) completed an anonymous survey about their substance use in February of 2010. Self-report questions assessed AO and age of first intoxication (AI) (i.e., "How old were you the first time you tried alcohol/got drunk?") and past-month alcohol use/binge drinking (i.e., How often did you drink alcohol/drink ≥5 drinks?). Bivariate correlations indicated that AO was positively correlated with AI and inversely correlated with Delay, the frequency of any drinking, and the frequency of binge drinking. When considered alone, Delay was not significantly correlated with either alcohol use outcome. In contrast, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that when considered in concert, an earlier AO and a shorter Delay were each associated with heavier drinking (any drinking adjusted R(2)  = 0.08; binge drinking R(2)  = 0.06, p-values drinking to intoxication appear to be important determinants of high school student drinking. In addition to continuing efforts to postpone AO, efforts designed to delay intoxication may modulate alcohol-related risk associated with early drinking. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Diet, alcohol, tobacco and risk of cancer of the pancreas: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Durbec, J. P.; Chevillotte, G.; Bidart, J. M.; Berthezene, P; SARLES, H.

    1983-01-01

    In view of the increased incidence of pancreatic cancer and the possible aetiological role of certain dietary factors, a retrospective epidemiological study was undertaken to investigate the roles of tobacco, alcohol, fat, protein and carbohydrate intakes. Sixty-nine patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and 199 normal subjects were interviewed. Data were obtained on life time drinking, smoking and dietary habits. Conditional logistic regression models were used to analyse the relative ris...

  4. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Monika; Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12-16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere.

  5. Tobacco control and prevention in Oklahoma: best practices in a preemptive state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Rebekah R; Beebe, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Oklahoma Tobacco Settlement Endowment Trust and Oklahoma State Department of Health have collaborated to implement best practices in tobacco control through state and community interventions, including legislated and voluntary policy approaches, health communication, cessation programs, and surveillance and evaluation activities. This partnership eliminates duplication and ensures efficient use of public health dollars for a comprehensive tobacco control program based on a systems and social norm change approach. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe strategies to reduce tobacco use despite a rare policy environment imposed by the presence of near-complete state preemption of tobacco-related law. Key outcome indicators were used to track progress related to state tobacco control and prevention programs. Data sources included cigarette excise tax stamp sales, statewide surveillance systems, Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline registration data, and local policy tracking databases. Data were collected in 2001-2013 and analyzed in 2012 and 2013. Significant declines in cigarette consumption and adult smoking prevalence occurred in 2001-2012, and smoking among high school students fell 45%. Changes were also observed in attitudes and behaviors related to secondhand smoke. Community coalitions promoted adoption of local policies where allowable, with 92 ordinances mirroring state clean indoor air laws and 88 ordinances mirroring state youth access laws. Tobacco-free property policies were adopted by 292 school districts and 309 worksites. Moving forward, tobacco use will be prioritized as an avoidable health hazard in Oklahoma as it is integrated into a wellness approach that also targets obesity reduction. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PEDIATRIC BLOOD CANCER SURVIVORS AND TOBACCO USE ACROSS ADOLESCENCE AND EMERGING ADULTHOOD: A NARRATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eMasiero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars underline the pivotal role of tobacco cigarette smoking in carcinogenesis process for blood tumors. A controversial debate is represented by the diffusion of tobacco use in young cancer survivors that had a previous diagnosis of blood tumor during the childhood. Compared with their peers, scientific evidence highlights that pediatric survivors have more difficult to give-up cigarette smoking. Furthermore, tobacco-smoking is frequently linked with others risk behaviors as drinking or substance abuse. In reviewing the main knowledge on this topic, authors affirm the need for increasing research on blood cancer survivors in order to depict psychological characteristics of pediatric blood cancer survivors. Improving health decision-making skills in young survivors could reduce the risk to adopt un-healthy behaviors and increase psychological wellbeing. Furthermore, authors propose tailored antismoking interventions based on the knowledge of the psychological and cognitive factors that support smoking during the transition toward emerging-adulthood.

  7. Places and social contexts associated with simultaneous use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, Mallie J; Robert F, Saltz; Morrison, Christopher N

    2017-04-19

    Little is known about social-ecological correlates of simultaneous use of alcohol with other substances. This study examined places and social contexts associated with simultaneous use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana among young adults. We used survey data obtained from 1538 young adult recent alcohol drinkers (49% male; 18-30 years old) in 24 non-contiguous cities in California. Event-level measures included alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use, drinking places and social characteristics of the event. Individual-level measures included alcohol expectancies, depression and demographics. Bars and restaurants had less alcohol and marijuana use (odds ratio = 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.18, 0.62; P Places and social contexts associated with simultaneous use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana among young adults. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Customized hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Finding out about the historic occurrence of six different types of natural hazards in any region in the United States recently became a little easier.A Project Impact initiative of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and ESRI—a leading provider of Geographic Information System (GIS) software and a Project Impact partner—offers the public customized online hazard maps.

  9. A Natural Hazards Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Fred

    This paper discusses the development of and provides examples of exercises from a student workbook for a college-level course about natural hazards. The course is offered once a year to undergraduates at Western Illinois University. Students are introduced to 10 hazards (eight meteorological plus earthquakes and volcanoes) through slides, movies,…

  10. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, N N; Sein, T; Sein, A A; Than Htike, M M; Tun, A; Shein, N N N

    2012-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in various forms is highly prevalent in Myanmar. The aim of this paper is to study the socio-cultural background of SLT use and products of SLT in Myanmar and the prevalence of SLT based on surveys and from other published data bases. Information was obtained from the literature review and through search on PubMed and Google. The use of SLT is deep rooted in Myanmar culture, and there is also wide-spread belief that it is not as dangerous as smoking. SLT use is growing in Myanmar. About 9.8% of the 13-15-year-old school children and 20.8% adults use SLT; it is many-fold higher among men. The use of SLT is prevalent using many different types of tobacco and forms of its use in Myanmar. The socio-cultural acceptance and the myths were compounded by the lack of specific SLT control component in the National Tobacco Control Legislation adopted needs to be addressed as a priority through intensified community awareness programs, public education programs, and advocacy campaigns. Effective enforcement of the law and amendment to include specific components of SLT in the provisions of the law is highly recommended. The prevalence of SLT is high among school children and adults (especially in men) in Myanmar. Betel quid and tobacco is a common form of SLT use. Although control of smoking and consumption of tobacco product law exists, its implementation is weak.

  11. Initial reactions to tobacco and cannabis smoking: A twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Initial subjective reactions to cannabis and tobacco, broadly classified as positive or negative, have previously been explored for their associations with onset and maintenance of subsequent abuse/dependence. We examine (a) the factorial architecture of self-reported initial reactions to cannabis and tobacco; (b) whether these factors associate with concurrently reported age at onset of DSM-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence and cannabis abuse/dependence; and (c) estimate heritable variation in and covariation between the factors. Design Factorial and exploratory structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the factor structure of initial reactions. Cox proportional hazards modeling was employed to examine their association with time to onset of diagnosis of DSM-IV nicotine dependence and cannabis abuse/dependence. Classical twin modeling, using univariate and multivariate models, was used to parse variance in each factor (and the covariance between factors) to their additive genetic, shared environmental and non-shared environmental sources. Setting and Participants General population sample of Caucasian female twins aged 18–32 years, with a lifetime history of tobacco [N=2393] and cannabis [N=1445] use. Measurement Self-report of initial subjective reactions to tobacco (cigarettes) and cannabis the first time they were used and time to onset of lifetime history of DSM-IV diagnosis of abuse (cannabis) and dependence (cannabis or nicotine). Findings Factors representing putatively positive and negative reactions to cannabis and tobacco emerged. Initial reactions to tobacco were associated with onset of DSM-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence and cannabis abuse/dependence while initial reactions to cannabis were associated with onset of DSM-IV diagnosis of cannabis abuse/dependence alone. Genetic factors played a moderate role in each factor (heritability of 27–35%, p < 0.05) with the remaining variance attributed to individual

  12. Contextual Influences on Early Drinking: Characteristics of Drinking and Non-Drinking Days

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Merrill, Jennifer E; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Abar, Caitlin C.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Hayes, Kerri L.

    2016-01-01

    Research characterizing the adolescent drinking context is limited, often relies on samples of current drinkers reporting on recent/last or typical drinking experiences, and provides little information about the context of very early use. The present study uses repeated monthly assessments to describe the context of drinking days and matched non-drinking days to determine the unique risk associated with different drinking-related characteristics. Additionally, we used latent class analysis to...

  13. Socioeconomic implications of tobacco use in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rijo M; Mamudu, Hadii M; Liber, Alex C

    2012-10-01

    Country-level evidence from Africa on the prevalence of tobacco use and the role played by both demographic and socioeconomic factors, as influences on the use of tobacco products, is sparse. This paper analyzes the determinants of tobacco use in Ghana and explores the association between tobacco use and poverty in the country. Data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of households (n = 12,323), were used to generate descriptive statistics and characterize tobacco use in the country. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationships between tobacco use and age, place of residence, region, education status, wealth, marital status, alcohol use, and whether the person has children. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for tobacco users and nonusers on the likelihood of their purchase of selected commodities indicative of living standards. Tobacco use was significantly higher among those living in poverty stricken regions, those with less education, lower levels of wealth, parents, and alcohol users. Tobacco use was significantly higher among men (7%) than women (0.4%), and it increased to a peak age of 41.4 years before it declined. Using tobacco was also associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing health insurance. Tobacco use is inextricably related to poverty in Ghana. Policies should be formulated to target populations and regions with higher tobacco prevalence to combat both poverty and tobacco use simultaneously.

  14. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  15. The moderating role of implicit alcohol-related cognitions in hazardous alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Lucia; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous). As expected, participants held implicit appraisals of alcohol as ‘‘bad’’ and ‘‘dangerous’’ in the context of nonalcoholic drinks, and as ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘safe’’ in the context of licit and illicit drugs. Implicit alcohol-related cognitions moderated the relationship between drinking to cope with negative affect and hazardous drinking and drinking due to cues or craving and hazardous drinking. These findings highlight the multidimensional nature of implicit cognitions and the role of negative implicit alcohol-related associations in moderating relationships between explicit processes and subsequent alcohol use behaviors. PMID:26989352

  16. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  17. Tobacco and alcohol use in the context of adolescent pregnancy and postpartum: a scoping review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents’ use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls’ substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use. PMID:24405036

  18. Convergent results of two methods of estimating the prevalence of problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R H; Poudrier, L M; Shain, M; Haakonson, N H

    1983-07-01

    Two studies were conducted using different methods of estimating the prevalence of problem drinking among the Canadian Armed Forces. In one case, data on alcohol sales from base outlets were used to calculate mean per capita consumption, which in turn was applied to a theoretical and, to some extent, empirically-validated plot of the distribution of consumption often referred to as the Ledermann curve. Criteria for different levels of problem drinking were then applied to this distribution. In the other case, estimates of problem drinking and presumptive problem drinking were derived from self-reported data on the correlates and sequelae of excessive drinking. The results derived from the two methods were highly convergent. As in the case of studies from the United States, the estimates were disturbingly high, both placing approximately 18% of the respective populations in he hazardous drinking category. The preventive and treatment-related implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Smokeless tobacco use and risk of stillbirth: a cohort study in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Subramoney, Sreevidya

    2006-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking has been causally associated with an increased risk for stillbirth. Preliminary reports suggest an increased risk for stillbirth with smokeless tobacco use during pregnancy. We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study to investigate this association by using a house-to-house approach to recruit 1,217 women who were between 3 and 7 months' gestation. Of these, 96% were contacted after delivery to determine the pregnancy outcome. Demographic and maternal variables which were apparently associated either with stillbirth or with smokeless tobacco use (OR >or= 1.5) were included as potential confounders. Stillbirth was defined as any delivery of a dead fetus after 20 completed weeks of gestation. We used time-to-event methods to analyze the risk of stillbirth. Overall occurrence of stillbirth among singleton deliveries in this population was 4.1%. Smokeless tobacco use was reported by 17% of women; 8.9% of smokeless tobacco users had a stillbirth compared with 3.1% among nonusers (life-table adjusted hazard ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval = 1.7-5.6). After adjustment by the Cox proportional hazards procedure for age, educational and socioeconomic background, working status of mother, parity, prenatal care variables, and place of delivery, the risk for stillbirth in users was 2.6 (95% confidence interval-1.4-4.8). Most women used mishri (a pyrolyzed tobacco product often used as dentifrice), and there was a dose-response relationship between the daily frequency of use and stillbirth risk. The risk of stillbirth associated with smokeless tobacco use was greater in earlier gestational periods. Smokeless tobacco use during pregnancy increases stillbirth risk, with a risk at least as great as that associated with maternal cigarette smoking.

  20. Smoky coal, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Chapman, Robert S.; Hu, Wei; He, Xingzhou; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Larry Z.; Lai, Hong; Chen, Wei; Silverman, Debra T.; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Linwei; Bassig, Bryan; Shen, Min; Zhang, Yawei; Ma, Shuangge; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Lung cancer rates in Xuanwei are the highest in China. In-home use of smoky coal was associated with lung cancer risk, and the association of smoking and lung cancer risk strengthens after stove improvement. Here, we explored the differential association of tobacco use and lung cancer risk by the intensity, duration, and type of coal used. Materials and Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study of 260 male lung cancer cases and 260 age-matched male controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for tobacco use was calculated by conditional logistic regression. Results Use of smoky coal was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer risk, and tobacco use was weakly and non-significantly associated with lung cancer risk. When the association was assessed by coal use, the cigarette-lung cancer risk association was null in hazardous coal users and elevated in less hazardous smoky coal users and non-smoky coal users. The risk of lung cancer per cigarette per day decreased as annual use of coal increased (>0-3 tons: OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.17; >3 tons: OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95-1.03). Among more hazardous coal users, attenuation occurs at even low levels of usage (>0-3 tons: OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91-1.14; >3 tons: OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.97-1.03). Conclusion We found evidence that smoky coal attenuated the tobacco and lung cancer risk association in males that lived in Xuanwei, particularly among users of hazardous coal where even low levels of smoky coal attenuated the association. Our results suggest that the adverse effects of tobacco may become more apparent as China's population continues to switch to using cleaner fuels for the home, underscoring the urgent need for smoking cessation in China and elsewhere. PMID:24506909