WorldWideScience

Sample records for hazard characterizing toxicity

  1. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  2. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  3. Toxic Hazards in Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Pasteur, Lillm,FRANCE. (2) CONISH H.H., EARTH M.L.& IANNi F.L, "Comparative Toxicology of Platics during Thar-modecoqiorition Intsw-re8posium on...Pyrolysnis and Combustion of Materials" Firm and Materials (1976).1, 29-35 (8) ALAAIE Y."Toxicity of Platic dacomposition ProductsŖd Annu~al Progress

  4. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  5. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  6. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report: 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mediated hemolysis by mercapto compounds. Journal of Applied Toxicology, Volume 6, Number 5, pages 336-370, 1986. Hydrophobic tributyltin ( TBT ...7 ~OF~ AAMRL-TR-87-020 NMRI-87-2 ’~LRES 4 Iq 1986 TOXIC HAZARDS RESEARCH UNIT ANNUAL REPORT WILLIAM E. HOUSTON, Ph.D. RAYMOND S. KUTZMAN, Ph.D...and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDElRi BRUCE 0. STUART, Ph.D. Director, Toxic Hazards Division Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical

  7. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  8. Toxic and fire hazard of flooring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illarionova L. V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available polymer materials have become widespread in the modern construction industry due to their cheapness and variety. With regard to their popularity at the present time there can appear the issues of their toxic and fire danger. The work has studied the samples of two floor synthetic building materials. The results of the determination of the fire hazard indicators of materials (combustibility, flammability, smoke ratio showed their compliance with the current certificates. The authors have studied the properties of gaseous combustion products of samples by the method of thermal analysis and FTIR analysis. The results of chloride ions analysis according the formula of Maxwell-Mohr in thermolysis products indicate the toxicity of the materials studied.

  9. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ''Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.'' To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste

  10. Hazardous and toxic waste management in Botswana: practices and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, Daniel; Li, Baizhan; Meng, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Hazardous and toxic waste is a complex waste category because of its inherent chemical and physical characteristics. It demands for environmentally sound technologies and know-how as well as clean technologies that simultaneously manage and dispose it in an environmentally friendly way. Nevertheless, Botswana lacks a system covering all the critical steps from importation to final disposal or processing of hazardous and toxic waste owing to limited follow-up of the sources and types of hazardous and toxic waste, lack of modern and specialised treatment/disposal facilities, technical know-how, technically skilled manpower, funds and capabilities of local institutions to take lead in waste management. Therefore, because of a lack of an integrated system, there are challenges such as lack of cooperation among all the stakeholders about the safe management of hazardous and toxic waste. Furthermore, Botswana does not have a systematic regulatory framework regarding monitoring and hazardous and toxic waste management. In addition to the absence of a systematic regulatory framework, inadequate public awareness and dissemination of information about hazardous and toxic waste management, slower progress to phase-out persistent and bio-accumulative waste, and lack of reliable and accurate information on hazardous and toxic waste generation, sources and composition have caused critical challenges to effective hazardous and toxic waste management. It is, therefore, important to examine the status of hazardous and toxic waste as a waste stream in Botswana. By default; this mini-review article presents an overview of the current status of hazardous and toxic waste management and introduces the main challenges in hazardous and toxic waste management. Moreover, the article proposes the best applicable strategies to achieve effective hazardous and toxic waste management in the future. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Remediation of toxic and hazardous wastes: issues and concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This workshop presented the status of hazardous waste generation in the Philippines, as well the steps being done by the government to address the problem on hazardous materials in the environment and the disposal of the toxic wastes

  12. Potential hazard by toxic substances in foods. Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterhalt, B

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews various toxic substances found in foods. These toxic substances include not only natural occurring toxins but also bacterial food poisons, pesticide residues, heavy metals, and food additives. The potential hazard of each toxic substance is discussed. 74 references.

  13. Hazardous materials and toxic substances - Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerlad, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper first forecasts what the status of hazardous wastes should be in the year 2028. The author believes all the problems will be solved: no new hazardous wastes will be being generated and the current hazardous waste problems will have been cleared up by common sense engineering. He then describes the current status of waste management of hazardous wastes, the regulatory situation, as well as combustion test programs

  14. 1997 Toxic Hazards Research Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    evaluate the potential for CF 3I to produce reproductive toxicity and to provide additional information on the effect of CF 3I exposure on the...questions raised on the effects of CF 3I exposure following the recently completed acute and subchronic inhalation toxicity studies (Dodd et al., 1997a...individuals from potential toxic consequences resulting from exposure to combustion products of advanced composite materials (ACM), this laboratory has

  15. 75 FR 5261 - Waybill Data Reporting for Toxic Inhalation Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... monitor traffic flows and rate trends in the industry, and to develop evidence in Board proceedings. The... humans as to pose a hazard to health in the event of a release during transportation. These materials... so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health in the event of a release during transportation...

  16. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report: 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    the medullary tubules and a significant increase in the incidence c4 renal tumors (Bruner, 1984). Studies investigating the toxic and carcinogenic...of military interest. In: M.A. Mehlman et alds. Renal Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons, op. 133-L 140. Princeton, NY: Princeton Scientific Publishers...order reaction kinetics, with the rate of reaction increasing rapidly as a funcion of increasing RH (Figure 9.1-2). Reaction rate constants at three RH

  17. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  18. Base catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.J.; Kornel, A.; Sparks, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    There are vast amounts of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which have pervaded our environment during the past fifty years, leaving us with serious, crucial problems of remediation and disposal. The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ''dioxins'' and pesticides in soil sediments and living systems is a serious problem that is receiving considerable attention concerning the cancer-causing nature of these synthetic compounds.US EPA scientists developed in 1989 and 1990 two novel chemical Processes to effect the dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCP and other pollutants in soil, sludge, sediment and liquids. This improved technology employs hydrogen as a nucleophile to replace halogens on halogenated compounds. Hydrogen as nucleophile is not influenced by steric hinderance as with other nucleophile where complete dehalogenation of organohalogens can be achieved. This report discusses catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals

  19. Radiology of adverse reactions to drugs and toxic hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansell, G.

    1989-01-01

    The book reviews the contribution offered by radiological methods to detection of lesions, confirmation of tentative diagnoses, and differentiation of lesions. The radiological methods discussed cover the conventional roentgenology as well as computed tomography, ultrasonography, scintiscanning, and NMR tomography, which are the useful tools for the very important task, to detect and define the manifestations of adverse reactions and toxic hazards, in order to commence treatment in time. (orig.) With 154 figs [de

  20. Bioremediation of toxic and hazardous wastes by denitrifying bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraquio, Wilfredo L.

    2005-01-01

    This papers discusses the wastes coming rom domestic, industrial and agricultural sources are polluting the forests, rivers lakes, groundwater, and air and there are some measures like the physicochemical and biological measures are being utilized to remedy the destruction of resources; and of the measures, bioremediation offers great potential in cleaning up the environment of pollutants which is a cost-effective and environment-friendly technology that uses microorganisms to degrade hazardous substances into less toxic

  1. Management and deposition of nuclear, toxic and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalston, Regina Celia Reboucas; Montalvao, Renata; Nascimento, Igor; Oliveira, Maristela Aparecida de; Motta, Rondineli; Morais, Magda de; Dantas, Alberto Pinheiro

    2005-01-01

    the main guidelines of the management program of toxic, radioactive and hazardous wastes which are applicable to the graduation laboratories at the Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB) are presented. The main advantages and possibilities of applications of processes for inertization of salts of heavy metals by precipitation with sodium metasilicate solution and methods of adsorption of toxic wastes in minerals such as bentonites and silicates are discussed. In the treatment of waste, the use of effective technologies enables solid wastes to be processed and prepared in accordance with the existing rules and resolutions. The applicability of supports of polymeric resins catalyzed for moulding and final disposal of toxic wastes, previously treated and converted in the form of insoluble salts is presented. It is also suggested the use of polymeric supports for the containment of radioactive wastes

  2. Aquatic toxicity testing for hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard

    the traditionally applied, and determination of different exposure fractions such as the concentration of dissolved ions from ENPs and body burdens. Although these approaches are scientifically exploratory by nature, the aim is to generate data applicable for regulatory hazard identification of ENPs. The focus has......Within the last few decades, major advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled production of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) for various applications and consumer products already available on the market. ENPs may exhibit unique and novel properties compared to their bulk counterparts...... and the response axes. The actual exposure experienced by organisms may not be reflected by the ENPconcentration in medium, commonly applied as the exposure metric, and the responses of organisms may result from various toxic and non-toxic mechanisms occurring simultaneously. In this thesis, the challenges related...

  3. Eastern US seismic hazard characterization update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.B.; Boissonnade, A.C.; Mensing, R.W.; Short, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    In January 1989, LLNL published the results of a multi-year project, funded by NRC, on estimating seismic hazard at nuclear plant sites east of the Rockies. The goal of this study was twofold: to develop a good central estimate (median) of the seismic hazard and to characterize the uncertainty in the estimates of this hazard. In 1989, LLNL was asked by DOE to develop site specific estimates of the seismic hazard at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina as part of the New Production Reactor (NPR) project. For the purpose of the NPR, a complete review of the methodology and of the data acquisition process was performed. Work done under the NPR project has shown that first order improvement in the estimates of the uncertainty (i.e., lower mean hazard values) could be easily achieved by updating the modeling of the seismicity and ground motion attenuation uncertainty. To this effect, NRC sponsored LLNL to perform a reelicitation to update the seismicity and ground motion experts' inputs and to revise methods to combine seismicity and ground motion inputs in the seismic hazard analysis for nuclear power plant sites east of the Rocky Mountains. The objective of the recent study was to include the first order improvements that reflect the latest knowledge in seismicity and ground motion modeling and produce an update of all the hazard results produced in the 1989 study. In particular, it had been demonstrated that eliciting seismicity information in terms of rates of earthquakes rather than a- and b-values, and changing the elicitation format to a one-on-one interview, improved our ability to express the uncertainty of earthquake rates of occurrence at large magnitudes. Thus, NRC sponsored this update study to refine the model of uncertainty, and to re-elicitate of the experts' interpretations of the zonation and seismicity, as well as to reelicitate the ground motion models, based on current state of knowledge

  4. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can...

  5. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996 consists of 2042 polygons for selected hazardous waste sites...

  6. Harmonizing human exposure and toxicity characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, O.; McKone, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    The UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative has launched a project to provide global guidance and build consensus on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators. Human health effects from exposure to toxic chemicals was selected as impact category due to high relevance of human toxicity...... and harmonizing human toxicity characterization in LCIA. Building on initial work for the far-field and indoor air environments, and combining it with latest work on near-field consumer and occupational exposure assessment, dose-response and severity data, we aim at providing revised guidance on the development...... and use of impact factors for toxic chemicals. We propose to couple fate processes in consumer and occupational environments with existing environmental compartments and processes via a consistent and mass balance-based set of transfer fractions to quantify overall aggregated exposure to toxic substances...

  7. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review methods for testing toxicity of sediments affected by metals. • Toxicity testing provides site-specific assessment of impacts on resident biota. • Goals are to document extent of toxicity and associations with metal exposure. • Need to characterize bioavailability of metals in sediment and pore water. • Toxicity data is basis for guidelines used to predict hazards of metal toxicity. - Abstract: This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate

  8. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-05-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment.

  9. Warehouse hazardous and toxic waste design in Karingau Balikpapan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Bayu Rendy; Kencanawati, Martheana

    2017-11-01

    PT. Balikpapan Environmental Services (PT. BES) is company that having core business in Hazardous and Toxic Waste Management Services which consisting storage and transporter at Balikpapan. This research starting with data collection such as type of waste, quantity of waste, dimension area of existing building, waste packaging (Drum, IBC tank, Wooden Box, & Bulk Bag). Processing data that will be done are redesign for warehouse dimension and layout of position waste, specify of capacity, specify of quantity, type and detector placement, specify of quantity, type and fire extinguishers position which refers to Bapedal Regulation No. 01 In 1995, SNI 03-3985-2000, Employee Minister Regulation RI No. Per-04/Men/1980. Based on research that already done, founded the design for warehouse dimension of waste is 23 m × 22 m × 5 m with waste layout position appropriate with type of waste. The necessary of quantity for detector on this waste warehouse design are 56 each. The type of fire extinguisher that appropriate with this design is dry powder which containing natrium carbonate, alkali salts, with having each weight of 12 Kg about 18 units.

  10. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs.

  11. Immobilisation/solidification of hazardous toxic waste in cement matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization and solidification of polluting waste, introduced into the industrial sector more than 20 years ago, and throughout last 10 years is being the object of a growing interest for engineers and environment scientists, has become a remarkable standardized process for treatment and management of toxic and hazardous liquid wastes, with special to those containing toxic metals. Experimental monitorization of the behaviour of immobilized waste by solidification and stabilisation in life time safe deposits is not possible, reason why it is essential to develop models predicting adequately the behaviour of structures that have to undergo a range of conditions simulating the environment where they are to be exposed. Such models can be developed only if the basic physical and chemical properties of the system matrix/solidifying-waste are known. In this work immobilization/solidification systems are analyzed stressing out the formulation systems based on Portland cement. Finally, some examples of the results obtained from the study of interaction of specific species of wastes and fixation systems are presented.

    La inmovilización y solidificación de residuos contaminantes, implantada en el sector comercial desde hace más de 20 años y que desde hace diez es objeto de creciente interés por parte de ingenieros y científicos medioambientales, se ha convertido en un proceso estandarizado único para el tratamiento y gestión de residuos tóxicos y peligrosos líquidos y, en especial, de los que contienen metales pesados. La monitorización experimental del comportamiento de un residuo inmovilizado por solidificación y estabilización en el tiempo de vida de un depósito de seguridad no es posible, por lo que es imprescindible desarrollar modelos que predigan satisfactoriamente el comportamiento del sistema bajo un rango representativo de condiciones del entorno de exposición. Tales modelos sólo pueden ser desarrollados si se

  12. Subtask 1.11 - Spectroscopic field screening of hazardous waste and toxic spills. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisanti, A.A.

    1997-10-01

    Techniques for the field characterization of soil contamination due to spillage of hazardous waste or toxic chemicals are time-consuming and expensive. Thus more economical, less time-intensive methods are needed to facilitate rapid field screening of contaminated sites. The overall objective of this project is to study the feasibility of using an evanescent field absorbance sensor Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic sensor coupled with cone penetrometry as a field screening method. The specific objectives of this project are as follows: design an accessory for use with FT-IR that interfaces the spectrometer to a cone penetrometer; characterize the response of the FT-IR accessory to selected hydrocarbons in a laboratory-simulated field environment; and determine the ability of the FT-IR-CPT instrument to measure hydrocarbon contamination in soil by direct comparison with a reference method (e.g., Soxhlet extraction followed by gas chromatography) to quantify hydrocarbons from the same soil

  13. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quotient/Hazard Index (HQ/HI) formulation to determine the toxic concentration threshold for mixtures of... cloud center of mass altitude. (vi) Worst case initial source term assuming instantaneous release of...

  14. Toxic and hazardous air pollutants from co-firing biomass fuels, fossil fuels, MSW and RDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    Toxic and hazardous pollutants are defined and then are considered from the perspective of pollutants which enter the combustion process with the fuel (principally the metals and metallic compounds) and pollutants which are formed as products of incomplete combustion. Control strategies are reviewed through the entire process including fuel preparation and storage, combustion control and the application of air pollution control devices. Measurement techniques for specific toxic and hazardous air pollutants are discussed

  15. Confidence Limits for Hazardous Concentrations Based on Logistically Distributed NOEC Toxicity Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldenberg T; Slob W

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the calculation of Hazardous Concentrations of toxic substances from small sets of laboratory toxicity data, e.g. NOECs. A procedure due to Van Straalen and Denneman, as adapted from Kooijman (case n=1), in which one seeks a concentration that protects 95% of the biological

  16. HABIT, Toxic and Radioactive Release Hazards in Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. 2 - Methods: Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel

  17. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide Hazard Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more reso...

  18. Potentials and limitations of hazard indices for the determination of risk potentials of disposed toxic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Hazard indices are often used for the determination of risk potentials arising from the geological disposal of toxic wastes. They are based on simplified models for the calculation of potential health effects caused by the wastes. The attractiveness of hazard indices lies in their simplicity which nevertheless results in reliable data on necessary isolation times and the most toxic nuclides of a waste. They also make possible comparisons of the potential risks of different wastes. After a discussion of the processes that control the behavior of toxic wastes in the environment after a failure of the geological barriers, a new hazard index is presented. Originally developed for nuclear wastes, it is the first which involves the joint consideration of the composition of a waste, the probability for transport of waste nuclides to man, their toxicity, and the time-dependent changes of the risk potentials which are caused by radioactive buildup and decay processes after the waste has entered the biosphere. The new hazard index makes possible the calculation of risk potentials at a given time of release and time period of concern thereafter. Sample calculations for different nuclear wastes show the importance of the model improvements on resulting time-dependent risk potentials. Applicability of the new hazard index to non-nuclear wastes is described. Potentials and limitations of comparative risk assessments using hazard indices are discussed. (author)

  19. Biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity of toxic and hazardous waste in the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelghani, A.; Hartley, W.; Bart, H.; Ide, C.; Ellgaard, E.; Sherry, T.; Devall, M.; Thien, L.; Horner, E.; Mizell, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the cluster investigators is to develop a dynamic model for the evaluation of the biological fate, transport, and ecotoxicity from multiple chemical contamination of the Mississippi River Basin. To develop this environmental model, FY 93-94 most of cluster investigators focused on Devil's Swamp Site (DSS), a cypress swamp which lies just Northwest of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, adjacent to the Mississippi River. The DSS which includes a man-made lake has contaminated sediment, water and biota. The DSS receives flood water from the Mississippi River during high flow periods and the Baton Rouge Bayou drains through the DSS. The DSS receives toxic substances and hazardous waste from a wide variety of surrounding industrial operations including an abandoned hazardous waste disposal facility. In addition, some investigators studied Bayou Trepangnier. This research cluster will continue studying Devil Swamp. The large number of investigators in this cluster resulted from incorporating related research proposals based on reviewer recommendations. The specific aims of the cluster for the first year were to conduct a physical, chemical, ecological survey and baseline toxicological characterization of the DSS from existing databases maintained by State and federal agencies, field studies (assessment) of sediment, air, water and biota, and laboratory screening studios. This assessment will provide critical information and focus for the next two years in-depth studies of critical transport and fate processes, ecotoxicity, biomarkers of effect, and uptake, metabolism and distribution of toxicants. The primary significant outcome of the cluster researchers will be the development of an ecological risk assessment model combining biotic and physical/chemical variables for DSS with a projection of model reliability and accuracy for use at other typical Mississippi River Basin sites

  20. Gaseous emissions and toxic hazards associated with plastics in fire situations: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    The hazards of plastics in fire situations, the gases emitted, the factors influencing the nature of these emissions, the characteristics of toxic gases, and the results of laboratory studies, are discussed. The literature pertaining to the pyrolysis and oxidation of plastics was reviewed. An effort was made to define the state of the art for determining the toxic gases emitted by plastics under fire conditions. Recommendations are made and research needs defined as a result of this review.

  1. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corburn, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale

  2. 75 FR 48409 - Establishment of the Toxic by Inhalation Hazard Common Carrier Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... to the Board on issues related to the common carrier obligation with respect to the rail... advice on issues pertaining to the common carrier obligation with respect to the rail transportation of... Toxic by Inhalation Hazard Common Carrier Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface...

  3. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Summary Report. Metro Toxicant Program Report No. 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Susan M.; Galvin, David V.

    The Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project was established as an interagency effort to reduce the level of toxicants entering the environment by developing a control plan for the safe disposal of small quantities of household chemicals. This summary report provides an overview of the aspects of this problem that were examined, and the steps…

  4. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel

  5. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  6. Toxic and hazardous waste disposal. Volume 1. Processes for stabilization/solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojasek, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Processes for the stabilization and/or solidification of toxic, hazardous, and radioactive wastes are reviewed. The types of wastes classified as hazardous are defined. The following processes for the solidification of hazardous wastes are described: lime-based techniques; thermoplastic techniques; organic polymer techniques; and encapsulation. The following processes for the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes are described: calcination; glassification; and ceramics. The solidification of low-level radioactive wastes with asphalt, cement, and polymeric materials is also discussed. Other topics covered include: the use of an extruder/evaporator to stabilize and solidify hazardous wastes; effect disposal of fine coal refuse and flue gas desulfurization slurries using Calcilox additive stabilization; the Terra-Tite Process; the Petrifix Process; the SFT Terra-Crete Process; Sealosafe Process; Chemfix Process; and options for disposal of sulfur oxide wastes

  7. Integration of Probabilistic Exposure Assessment and Probabilistic Hazard Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Slob, W.

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed for integrated probabilistic risk assessment where exposure assessment and hazard characterization are both included in a probabilistic way. The aim is to specify the probability that a random individual from a defined (sub)population will have an exposure high enough to cause a

  8. Characterizing cemented TRU waste for RCRA hazardous constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeamans, D.R.; Betts, S.E.; Bodenstein, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized drums of solidified transuranic (TRU) waste from four major waste streams. The data will help the State of New Mexico determine whether or not to issue a no-migration variance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) so that WIPP can receive and dispose of waste. The need to characterize TRU waste stored at LANL is driven by two additional factors: (1) the LANL RCRA Waste Analysis Plan for EPA compliant safe storage of hazardous waste; (2) the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) The LANL characterization program includes headspace gas analysis, radioassay and radiography for all drums and solids sampling on a random selection of drums from each waste stream. Data are presented showing that the only identified non-metal RCRA hazardous component of the waste is methanol

  9. Sanitary Assessment of Hazardous Materials Exposed To Highly Toxic Chemical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembovskiy, V.; Ermolaeva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial or terroristic accidents in which toxic chemicals (TC) are the main or attendant damaging factors should be regarded as a new challenge for experts, because of little knowledge on the methodology to estimating the long-term risk for humans due to contamination of the building materials and environment. In the Russian Federation, there appeared to be a kind of model systems for developing an algorithm for solving these or similar problems. Under dismantling and liquidation of the former facilities for chemical weapon production (FCWP) the building materials are regarded as potential waste products the fate of which (processing, warehousing, utilization, and destruction) is dependent on their possible hazard for human population and environment. The standard approaches for hazard assessment of waste products of the FCWP turned out to be insufficient. When conducting the present work, the following problems have been solved: 1. Selection of representative samples taking into consideration a diversity of construction materials, great quantities of potentially toxic waste materials, information on the production conditions, breakdowns in the process of production, accidents, composition of the decontaminators used, decontamination frequency, etc. 2. Analysis of TC in composite matrixes complicated by the following problems: extraction, masking effects of concomitant components during indirect analysis, lack of certified methods of direct analysis of TC, discrepancy of results of GC and direct GCMS analysis, low sensitivity of GCMS analysis, big volume of samples (more than 0.5 kg), heterogeneity of physical-chemical properties of different matrixes influencing the process of degradation of TC. 3. Hazard assessment of the wastes in toxic-and-sanitary experiment relying on non-specific signs of intoxication due to relatively low percentage of TC and masking effects of various matrix components. Application of the integral toxicity tests with soil

  10. Increasing worker and community awareness of toxic hazards in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    In November 1984, the Governing Council of the American Public Health Association (APHA) released this position paper on disclosure of occupational health hazards. The Council's action was prompted by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration's (OSHA's) promulgation of a national right-to-know standard that would pre-empt stronger state and local laws protecting an employee's right to be told about hazardous materials in the workplace. The APHA document outlines the dimensions of the toxic substances problem in the United States; argues the need for right-to-know laws; defines the roles of OSHA, unions, and local coalitions for workplace safety; and criticizes the Federal Hazard Communication Standard. Lists of ten essential components of a national right-to-know policy and of four actions the APHA will take to further the worker's right-to-know conclude the paper.

  11. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee's evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable

  12. Hazard and risk assessment of human exposure to toxic metals using in vitro digestion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A. Alhadrami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clean-up targets for toxic metals require that the site be “fit for purpose”. This means that targets are set with respect to defined receptors that reflect intended land-use. In this study, the likely threat of human exposure to toxic metals has been evaluated by simulating the human digestion process in vitro. The effects of key attributes (i.e. sample fraction size, pH, Kd and total metal concentrations on the bioavailability of Cu and Ni were also investigated. Total metal concentration was the key explanatory factor for Cu and Ni bioavailability. A comparative ranking of metal concentrations in the context of tolerable daily intakes for Cu and Ni confirmed that the pH has the greatest impact on metals bioavailability. Rapid screening of key attributes and total toxic metal doses can reveal the relative hazard imposed on human, and this approach should be considered when defining threshold values for human protection.

  13. Characterization of copper toxicity in letttuce seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, S; Gupta, B D

    1972-01-01

    Information on the effects of toxic concentration of cupric sulphate on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedlings is provided. Root growth is completely inhibited at 5 x 10/sup -2/ M and germination stops altogether at 10/sup -1/ M. The relative inhibition of root growth is stronger than that of hypocotyl growth. Various metabolites and hormones are partially capable of relieving copper inhibition. Catalase, peroxidase and IAA-oxidase activity shows increments directly proportional to the concentration of copper. It is obvious that growth is inversely proportional to enzyme activity. The increased level of these enzymes is probably due to an accelerated protein synthesis.

  14. Toxicity characterization of waste mobile phone plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nnorom, I.C.; Osibanjo, O.

    2009-01-01

    Waste plastic housing units (N = 60) of mobile phones (of different models, and brands), were collected and analyzed for lead, cadmium, nickel and silver using atomic absorption spectrophotometry after acid digestion using a 1:1 mixture of H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 . The mean (±S.D.) and range of the results are 58.3 ± 50.4 mg/kg (5.0-340 mg/kg) for Pb, 69.9 ± 145 mg/kg (4.6-1005 mg/kg) for Cd, 432 ± 1905 mg/kg (5.0-11,000 mg/kg) for Ni, and 403 ± 1888 mg/kg (5.0-12,500 mg/kg) for Ag. Approximately 90% of the results for the various metals were ≤100 mg/kg. Results greater than 300 mg/kg were generally less than 7% for each metal and could be attributed to exogenous contamination of the samples. These results suggest that there may not be any immediate danger from end-of-life (EoL) mobile phone plastic housing if appropriately treated/managed. However, considering the large quantities generated and the present low-end management practices in most developing countries, such as open burning, there appears a genuine concern over the potential for environmental pollution and toxicity to man and the ecology

  15. Toxicity characterization of waste mobile phone plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnorom, I C; Osibanjo, O

    2009-01-15

    Waste plastic housing units (N=60) of mobile phones (of different models, and brands), were collected and analyzed for lead, cadmium, nickel and silver using atomic absorption spectrophotometry after acid digestion using a 1:1 mixture of H2SO4 and HNO3. The mean (+/-S.D.) and range of the results are 58.3+/-50.4mg/kg (5.0-340mg/kg) for Pb, 69.9+/-145mg/kg (4.6-1005mg/kg) for Cd, 432+/-1905mg/kg (5.0-11,000mg/kg) for Ni, and 403+/-1888mg/kg (5.0-12,500mg/kg) for Ag. Approximately 90% of the results for the various metals were plastic housing if appropriately treated/managed. However, considering the large quantities generated and the present low-end management practices in most developing countries, such as open burning, there appears a genuine concern over the potential for environmental pollution and toxicity to man and the ecology.

  16. Treatment of hazardous and toxic liquids using Rochem Disc Tube technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMonica, D.

    1992-01-01

    Rochem Separation Systems, established in 1990 as a subsidiary of the international Rochem Group, has advanced the treatment of hazardous and toxic liquids with its unique, patented Disc Tube technology. Developed in 1987 at Rochem's design and production facilities in Hamburg, Germany, the Disc Tube technology is a series of membrane modules that greatly reduce the problems that hamper the effectiveness of other treatment technologies (i.e. fouling, scaling, cost, etc.). Applications of the Disc Tube technology include reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Rochem was recently accepted into the EPA Superfund Site program as a result of its Disc Tube technology. 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Toxicovigilance: A new approach for the hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descotes, Jacques; Testud, Francois

    2005-01-01

    The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings

  18. Toxicovigilance: a new approach for the hazard identification and risk assessment of toxicants in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, Jacques; Testud, François

    2005-09-01

    The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in human beings. Poison centers are key players in this function as poisoning statistics are essential to define the cause, incidence and severity of poisonings occurring in the general population. In addition, the systematic search for unexpected shifts in the recorded causes of poisonings, e.g., following the introduction of a new product, or change in the formulation or recommended use of an old product, allows for a rapid detection of potential adverse health consequences and the implementation of preventive or corrective measures. However, toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach of human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance is based on the in-depth medical assessment of acute or chronic intoxications on an individual basis, which requires detailed information that poison centers can rarely obtain via emergency telephone calls and that epidemiologists cannot collect or process. Validation of this medical information must primarily be based on toxicological expertise to help identify causal links between otherwise unexplained pathological conditions and documented toxic exposures. Thus, toxicovigilance can contribute to hazard identification and risk assessment by providing medically validated data which are often overlooked in the process of risk assessment. So far, very few structured toxicovigilance systems have been set up and hopefully national and international initiatives will bridge this gap in our knowledge of the toxicity of many chemicals and commercial products in human beings.

  19. Lidar-Based Rock-Fall Hazard Characterization of Cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Greg M.Stock,

    2017-01-01

    Rock falls from cliffs and other steep slopes present numerous challenges for detailed geological characterization. In steep terrain, rock-fall source areas are both dangerous and difficult to access, severely limiting the ability to make detailed structural and volumetric measurements necessary for hazard assessment. Airborne and terrestrial lidar survey methods can provide high-resolution data needed for volumetric, structural, and deformation analyses of rock falls, potentially making these analyses straightforward and routine. However, specific methods to collect, process, and analyze lidar data of steep cliffs are needed to maximize analytical accuracy and efficiency. This paper presents observations showing how lidar data sets should be collected, filtered, registered, and georeferenced to tailor their use in rock fall characterization. Additional observations concerning surface model construction, volumetric calculations, and deformation analysis are also provided.

  20. General procedure to characterize hazardous waste contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, A.; Svoboda, K.; Necasova, M.

    2002-04-01

    The report is structured as follows: Overview of current status of characterization of hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides (HWCTR) in the Czech Republic (Legislative aspects; Categorization of HWCwR; Overview of HWCwR emerging from workplaces handling ionizing radiation sources; Mixed waste management in the Czech Republic); General procedure to characterized wastes of the HWCwR type (Information needed from the waste producer; Waste analysis plan - description of waste treatment facilities, verification of wastes, selection of waste parameters followed, selection of sampling method, selection of test methods, selection of frequency of analyses; Radiation protection plan; Non-destructive methods of verification of waste - radiography/tomography, dosimetric inspection, measuring instrumentation, methods usable for the determination of volume and surface activities of materials; Non-destructive invasive methods - internal pressure measurement and gas analysis, endoscopic examination, visual inspection; Destructive methods - sampling, current equipment at Nuclear Research Institute Rez; Identification of hazardous components in waste - chemical screening of mixed wastes; Assessment of immobilization waste matrices; Assessment of packaging; Safety analyses; QA and QC). (P.A.)

  1. Monitoring and trace detection of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Dougherty, D.R.; Chen, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon process, which shifts the frequency of an outgoing photon according to the vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. When involving an allowed electronic transition (resonance Raman), this scattering cross section can be enhanced by 10 4 to 10 6 and provides the basis for a viable technique that can monitor and detect trace quantities of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many of the ideal characteristics for monitoring and detecting of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Some of these traits are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints); (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region); (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk); (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions -- either bulk or aerosols); and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching). Data from a few chemicals will be presented which illustrate these features. In cases where background fluorescence accompanies the Raman signals, an effective frequency modulation technique has been developed, which can completely eliminate this interference

  2. Evaluating the toxic effects of three priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) to rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Pan, Luqing; Lin, Pengfei; Miao, Jingjing; Wang, Xiufen; Lin, Yufei; Wu, Jiangyue

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spill in the marine environment is an issue of growing concern, and it will mostly continue to do so in the future owing to the increase of high chemical traffic. Nevertheless, the effects of HNS spill on marine environment, especially on aquatic organisms are unclear. Consequently, it is emergent to provide valuable information for the toxicities to marine biota caused by HNS spill. Accordingly, the acute toxicity of three preferential HNS and sub-lethal effects of acrylonitrile on Brachionus plicatilis were evaluated. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) at 24 h were 47.2 mg acrylonitrile L -1 , 276.9 mg styrene L -1 , and 488.3 mg p-xylene L -1 , respectively. Sub-lethal toxicity effects of acrylonitrile on feeding behavior, development, and reproduction parameters of B. plicatilis were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that rates of filtration and ingestion were significantly reduced at 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg L -1 of acrylonitrile. Additionally, reproductive period, fecundity, and life span were significantly decreased at high acrylonitrile concentrations. Conversely, juvenile period was significantly increased at the highest two doses and no effects were observed on embryonic development and post-reproductive period. Meanwhile, we found that ingestion rate decline could be a good predictor of reproduction toxicity in B. plicatilis and ecologically relevant endpoint for toxicity assessment. These data will be useful to assess and deal with marine HNS spillages.

  3. Thermal treatment of toxic metals of industrial hazardous wastes with fly ash and clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, I.B. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India)]. E-mail: ibsingh58@yahoo.com; Chaturvedi, K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India); Morchhale, R.K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India); Yegneswaran, A.H. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India)

    2007-03-06

    Waste generated from galvanizing and metal finishing processes is considered to be a hazardous due to the presence of toxic metals like Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, etc. Thermal treatment of such types of wastes in the presence of clay and fly ash can immobilizes their toxic metals to a maximum level. After treatment solidified mass can be utilized in construction or disposed off through land fillings without susceptibility of re-mobilization of toxic metals. In the present investigation locally available clay and fly ash of particular thermal power plant were used as additives for thermal treatment of both of the wastes in their different proportions at 850, 900 and 950 deg. C. Observed results indicated that heating temperature to be a key factor in the immobilization of toxic metals of the waste. It was noticed that the leachability of metals of the waste reduces to a negligible level after heating at 950 deg. C. Thermally treated solidified specimen of 10% waste and remaining clay have shown comparatively a higher compressive strength than clay fired bricks used in building construction. Though, thermally heated specimens made of galvanizing waste have shown much better strength than specimen made of metal finishing waste. The lechability of toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn became far below from their regulatory threshold after heating at 950 deg. C. Addition of fly ash did not show any improvement either in engineering property or in leachability of metals from the solidified mass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the solidified product confirmed the presence of mixed phases of oxides of metals.

  4. Toxicant emissions from hazardous wastes in landfills - implications for disposal risk management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmuth, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental impacts and risks of hazardous wastes disposed in Finnish landfills were assessed in a 5-yr field study. By systematic analysis of the acquired information, the toxicological impacts and risks of landfills seem as a whole small when compared with those caused by other kinds of environmental toxicants. Locally more significant risks arise, and may be difficult to manage. Scientific information on risk factors and their development is as yet insufficient, and additional research and monitoring are needed. Since uncertainties will remain, the prevention and control of risks, e.g. by improved hazardous waste management and disposal, are advocated by safety principles, but are made difficult by many technical and societal factors. Control strategies and remedial actions should thus be based on more comprehensive, comparative risk assessments and improved decision methods. Ethical, political and methodological issues in the management of hazardous waste disposal are discussed, with special reference to the interaction of science with regulatory decision-making related to the risks of old chemical waste sites. (44 refs.) (au)

  5. Sensing and capture of toxic and hazardous gases and vapors by metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lustig, William P; Li, Jing

    2018-03-13

    Toxic and hazardous chemical species are ubiquitous, predominantly emitted by anthropogenic activities, and pose serious risks to human health and the environment. Thus, the sensing and subsequent capture of these chemicals, especially in the gas or vapor phase, are of extreme importance. To this end, metal-organic frameworks have attracted significant interest, as their high porosity and wide tunability make them ideal for both applications. These tailorable framework materials are particularly promising for the specific sensing and capture of targeted chemicals, as they can be designed to fit a diverse range of required conditions. This review will discuss the advantages of metal-organic frameworks in the sensing and capture of harmful gases and vapors, as well as principles and strategies guiding the design of these materials. Recent progress in the luminescent detection of aromatic and aliphatic volatile organic compounds, toxic gases, and chemical warfare agents will be summarized, and the adsorptive removal of fluorocarbons/chlorofluorocarbons, volatile radioactive species, toxic industrial gases and chemical warfare agents will be discussed.

  6. Comparative hazard analysis and toxicological modeling of diverse nanomaterials using the embryonic zebrafish (EZ) metric of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Bryan; Thomas, Dennis; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Baker, Nathan; Tang, Kaizhi; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Lins, Roberto; Harper, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The integration of rapid assays, large datasets, informatics, and modeling can overcome current barriers in understanding nanomaterial structure–toxicity relationships by providing a weight-of-the-evidence mechanism to generate hazard rankings for nanomaterials. Here, we present the use of a rapid, low-cost assay to perform screening-level toxicity evaluations of nanomaterials in vivo. Calculated EZ Metric scores, a combined measure of morbidity and mortality in developing embryonic zebrafish, were established at realistic exposure levels and used to develop a hazard ranking of diverse nanomaterial toxicity. Hazard ranking and clustering analysis of 68 diverse nanomaterials revealed distinct patterns of toxicity related to both the core composition and outermost surface chemistry of nanomaterials. The resulting clusters guided the development of a surface chemistry-based model of gold nanoparticle toxicity. Our findings suggest that risk assessments based on the size and core composition of nanomaterials alone may be wholly inappropriate, especially when considering complex engineered nanomaterials. Research should continue to focus on methodologies for determining nanomaterial hazard based on multiple sub-lethal responses following realistic, low-dose exposures, thus increasing the availability of quantitative measures of nanomaterial hazard to support the development of nanoparticle structure–activity relationships

  7. Comparative hazard analysis and toxicological modeling of diverse nanomaterials using the embryonic zebrafish (EZ) metric of toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Bryan [Oregon State University (United States); Thomas, Dennis; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Baker, Nathan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Tang, Kaizhi [Intelligent Automation, Inc. (United States); Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (United States); Lins, Roberto [CPqAM, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, FIOCRUZ-PE (Brazil); Harper, Stacey, E-mail: stacey.harper@oregonstate.edu [Oregon State University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The integration of rapid assays, large datasets, informatics, and modeling can overcome current barriers in understanding nanomaterial structure–toxicity relationships by providing a weight-of-the-evidence mechanism to generate hazard rankings for nanomaterials. Here, we present the use of a rapid, low-cost assay to perform screening-level toxicity evaluations of nanomaterials in vivo. Calculated EZ Metric scores, a combined measure of morbidity and mortality in developing embryonic zebrafish, were established at realistic exposure levels and used to develop a hazard ranking of diverse nanomaterial toxicity. Hazard ranking and clustering analysis of 68 diverse nanomaterials revealed distinct patterns of toxicity related to both the core composition and outermost surface chemistry of nanomaterials. The resulting clusters guided the development of a surface chemistry-based model of gold nanoparticle toxicity. Our findings suggest that risk assessments based on the size and core composition of nanomaterials alone may be wholly inappropriate, especially when considering complex engineered nanomaterials. Research should continue to focus on methodologies for determining nanomaterial hazard based on multiple sub-lethal responses following realistic, low-dose exposures, thus increasing the availability of quantitative measures of nanomaterial hazard to support the development of nanoparticle structure–activity relationships.

  8. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  9. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction

  10. Characterization of toxic waste produced in PYMES manufacturing detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campuzano, Silvia; Camacho, Judith Elena; Alvarez, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    From the protection of the environment, the problem of the residuals squatter a main place in the environmental administration; presently study a test pilot was standardized, to characterize the toxic waste generated in the production of detergents, to standardize methods of chemical valuation and microbiological of polluted waters that allow later on to apply methods of biological purification and processes of bio-treatment of residuals, the project macro of handling of toxic waste it was addressed this way in small and medium companies producers of detergents. The presence settled down of toxic in the studied waste, represented in surfactants significant amounts, phenols, hydrocarbons, fat and phosphates and the decrease of its quantity in front of the action of bacteria, situation that allowed concluding that the approach to the biotransformation process could be carried out

  11. Potential hazards of toxic metals found in toothpastes commonly used in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Okolo, Kenneth Obinna; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Ajaezi, Godwin Chukwuebuka; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze

    2016-01-01

    Toothpastes have multi-functional configurations as oral care products. They can however constitute a pos- sible source, amongst others, of toxic metal exposure in public health. Indeed, the public health impact of personal hygiene and consumer products is largely unknown. To determine the level of toxic metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel) in toothpastes available in Nigeria, (home produced and imported), and assess the potential risk to the people. The samples of toothpastes commonly used in Nigeria were tested. Using a market basket protocol thirty five different brands of toothpaste were used. Samples were digest by addition of 10 mL mixture of conc. nitric and hydrochloric acids (HCl:HNO(3), 3:1), followed by heating to dryness. 20 mL deionized water was added, stirred and filtered. The filtrate was made up in standard volumetric flask and lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt and nickel concentrations were determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry 205A. The daily intake of metals and target hazard quotient (THQ) were then calculated. Pepsodent and Flodent had the highest levels of lead at respectively 23.575 and 18.092 mg/kg while Colgate Herbal had the highest nickel of 18.535 mg/kg. The daily intake estimates of all imported toothpaste samples were below the stated upper limits (UL). All target hazard quotients were also found to be below one. Although the UL, THQ and daily intake rates were all normal, the high levels of lead in some of the tooth- pastes an important concern to public health suggesting that pre-marketing safety studies of toothpastes may be worthwhile for the regulatory authorities.

  12. Experimental outgassing of toxic chemicals to simulate the characteristics of hazards tainting globally shipped products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Therese Budnik

    Full Text Available Ambient monitoring analyses may identify potential new public health hazards such as residual levels of fumigants and industrial chemicals off gassing from products and goods shipped globally. We analyzed container air with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-2D-GC-MS/FPD and assessed whether the concentration of the volatiles benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane exceeded recommended exposure limits (REL. Products were taken from transport containers and analyzed for outgassing of volatiles. Furthermore, experimental outgassing was performed on packaging materials and textiles, to simulate the hazards tainting from globally shipped goods. The mean amounts of benzene in analyzed container air were 698-fold higher, and those of ethylene dichloride were 4.5-fold higher than the corresponding REL. More than 90% of all containers struck with toluene residues higher than its REL. For 1,2-dichloroethane 53% of containers, transporting shoes exceeded the REL. In standardized experimental fumigation of various products, outgassing of 1,2-dichloroethane under controlled laboratory conditions took up to several months. Globally produced transported products tainted with toxic industrial chemicals may contribute to the mixture of volatiles in indoor air as they are likely to emit for a long period. These results need to be taken into account for further evaluation of safety standards applying to workers and consumers.

  13. Toward economic flood loss characterization via hazard simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Cunha, Luciana K.; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Smith, James A.

    2016-08-01

    Among all natural disasters, floods have historically been the primary cause of human and economic losses around the world. Improving flood risk management requires a multi-scale characterization of the hazard and associated losses—the flood loss footprint. But this is typically not available in a precise and timely manner, yet. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel and multidisciplinary approach which relies on a computationally efficient hydrological model that simulates streamflow for scales ranging from small creeks to large rivers. We adopt a normalized index, the flood peak ratio (FPR), to characterize flood magnitude across multiple spatial scales. The simulated FPR is then shown to be a key statistical driver for associated economic flood losses represented by the number of insurance claims. Importantly, because it is based on a simulation procedure that utilizes generally readily available physically-based data, our flood simulation approach has the potential to be broadly utilized, even for ungauged and poorly gauged basins, thus providing the necessary information for public and private sector actors to effectively reduce flood losses and save lives.

  14. Physical and toxic properties of hazardous chemicals regularly stored and transported in the vicinity of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    This report gives a compilation of data based on information assembled by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completed by the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the UK AEA, the Dutch Reactor Safety Commission, the French Atomic Energy Commission, and the CSNI Secretariat. Data sheets for a large number of hazardous chemicals are presented (from acetaldehyde to xylene), giving details of their physical and toxic properties such as: molecular weight, boiling point, vapor density, heat of vaporization, toxic concentration in air, flammability limits, toxic effects, vapor pressure data, etc.

  15. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 ("Release of an acute toxic gas") in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Samaali, Ismahen; Molina, Pauline

    2016-12-01

    A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as "Release of an acute toxic gas": waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, 2014b). When the substances with the cited hazard statement codes react with water or an acid, they can release HCl, Cl 2 , HF, HCN, PH 3 , H 2 S, SO 2 (and two other gases very unlikely to be emitted, hydrazoic acid HN 3 and selenium oxide SeO 2 - a solid with low vapor pressure). Hence, a method is proposed:For a set of 49 waste, water addition did not produce gas. Nearly all the solid waste produced a gas in contact with hydrochloric acid in 5 min in an automated calcimeter with a volume >0.1L of gas per kg of waste. Since a plateau of pressure is reached only for half of the samples in 5 min, 6 h trial with calorimetric bombs or glass flasks were done and confirmed the results. Identification of the gases by portable probes showed that most of the tested samples emit mainly CO 2 . Toxic gases are emitted by four waste: metallic dust from the aluminum industry (CO), two air pollution control residue of industrial waste incinerator (H 2 S) and a halogenated solvent (organic volatile(s) compound(s)). HF has not been measured in these trials started before the present definition of HP 12. According to the definition of HP 12, only the H 2 S emission of substances with hazard statement EUH031 is accounted for. In view of the calcium content of the two air pollution control residue, the presence of calcium sulphide (EUH031) can be assumed. These two waste are therefore classified potentially hazardous for HP 12, from a total of 49 waste. They are also classified as hazardous for other properties (HP 7

  16. Parameters that characterize the radon hazard of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, T.E.; Mervis, J.A.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Carey, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    It has been observed that the radon concentration in homes does not depend solely on the steady-state 222 Rn concentration in the soil. An explanation for the lack of correlation between radon concentrations in the soil and in adjacent homes includes factors such as the construction of the homes, their heating systems, and the habits of their occupants. Another explanation, which is proposed in this paper, is that the steady-state concentration of radon in the pore gas does not fully characterize the soil as a radon hazard. Other soil properties, such as its diffusion length for radon and its porosity, may be important. In this paper, the authors have identified the soil properties important in radon transport into the basement of a home by mathematically modeling ventilated basement air enclosed in basement walls and surrounded by soil and by solving the model equations to determine an expression for the basement air radon concentration as a function of the properties of the soil and basement wall

  17. A survey of hazardous and toxic wastes from lead and zinc industries in Zanjan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamesi, J.; Asadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Angoran, situated in north-west of Zanjan province is unique in Middle East in respect of its rich reserves of Lead and Zinc minerals. These valuable reserves have attracted a number of Lead and Zinc industries into the province. With the absent of a proper waste management practices, a great deal of hazardous and toxic wastes are produced which contains a high percent of heavy metals that are potential sources for soil and water pollution. In this paper, after recognition of the main sources of the pollutants, the affected and vulnerable areas are mapped using Geographic Information System. The quality and quantity of these hazardous wastes are then evaluated by sampling and analyzing the samples and by taking into account the undesirable environmental conditions faced by the province, a number of preventive and curative measures for a better waste management practices are introduced. The annual wastes produced by 22 Zinc plants in the province are calculated to be about 260000 tons of filter cake leachates, 13000 tons of Cobalt filter cake, and 6550 tons of Cadmium-Nickel filter cakes. Two active Lead factories in the province are also producing about 13000 tons of slag annually. These wastes are containing 27000 ton Zinc, 9220 ton Lead, 560 ton Cadmium and 242000 tons of other wastes, that are left in open spaces within the factory or is dumped in dry riverbeds or near river valleys.The wastes are transported and deposited by wind in the environment and are washed by rain into the river systems or are soaked into the ground polluting the underground aquifers. Based of Basel Convention, these wastes are given international codes (Y 23, Y 31, Y 26, Y 46). Possession, disposal, and recycling of such wastes must be undertaken with specific management measures

  18. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; McKernan, Moira A.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Hoffman, David J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 μg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 μg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 μg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 μg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  19. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W.; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS 2 p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane

  20. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W. [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: jmschoenung@ucdavis.edu [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS{sub 2} p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane.

  1. Management of toxic and hazardous contents of oil sludge in Siri Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pazoki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sirri Island is one of the most important islands in Iran where contains massive amounts of crude oil reservoirs and is a crude oil exporting and storage spot. Petroleum sludge wastes produced by the refineries are deposited in outdoor 2-ha open pits. 30 sludge samples from different depot locations were conducted in 3-time intervals and mixed with each other to form one homogenized sample. The sample was treated by solvent extraction method using methyl ethyl ketone as an efficient polar solvent in order to recover the valuable hydrocarbon and oil. About 99.8% of the oil was recovered and determined to reach almost the same quality as the exportable crude oil of Sirri Island. The sediments were also tested for size distribution range and titled as fine-grained soil. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure test was conducted on the residuals to determine whether the waste is categorized as toxic and hazardous. The industrial waste evaluation model used in the current work suggested different leachate concentrations (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of total leachate based on toxicity characteristics leaching procedure for different probable leaching scenarios. The surface and subsurface regional conditions such as depth to underground water table, climate condition, subsurface pH, soil texture and material were defined to the model as well. Then, the model simulated 10000 possible runs considering the leaching procedure, contaminant concentrations, maximum contaminant limits and surface and sub-surface conditions. The final outcomes regarding heavy metals results showed that nickel, chromium and vanadium were protective under composite liner while cobalt and lead were not safe under such liner and need proper treatment before landfilling. As the final step, the size and details of landfill were designed. The landfill was selected as a square with side and depth of 55m and 3m respectively. The composite liner consisted of 1.5mm high density

  2. The potential role of earthworms in toxicity assessment of terrestrial hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Understanding the toxic potential and mechanisms of action of environmental xenobiotics is fundamental for assessing risk to public and environmental health. Current established protocols with earthworms focus primarily on defining the lethal effects of chemicals associated with soil contamination. Development of sublethal assays, until recently, has been largely ignored. Here the authors develop rationale for use of earthworms as a model organism for comprehensive assessment of risks to higher wildlife from contaminated soils and hazardous waste sites. They present a panel of lethal (LC/LD50`s) and sublethal measurement endpoint biomarkers, developed within the framework of the National Toxicology Program`s tiered immunotoxicity protocol for mice and according to published criteria for good measurement endpoints, that represent sensitive phylogenetically-conserved processes. Specifically the authors discuss immunosuppressive effects of terrestrial heavy metal and organic contamination on the innate, nonspecific and specific immune responses of earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, coelomocytes in terms of total and differential cell counts, lysozyme activity, nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, phagocytic activity and secretary rosette formation. Findings indicate that sensitive phylogenetically conserved immune responses present in invertebrates can be used to assess or predict risk to wildlife from contaminated soils.

  3. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-09-15

    Copper-indium-gallium-selenium-sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS₂ p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  5. A COMPARISON: ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS VERSUS THE 1990 TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY AIR RELEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste, and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition `to hazardous waste' incineration HWI). One of the reasons cited for...

  6. The role of health and safety experts in the management of hazardous and toxic wastes in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi; Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    Occupational Safety and Health Experts in Indonesia have an important role in integrating environmental health and safety factors, including in this regard as human resources assigned to undertake hazardous waste management. Comprehensive knowledge and competence skills need to be carried out responsibly, as an inherent professional occupational safety and health profession. Management leaders should continue to provide training in external agencies responsible for science in the management of toxic waste to enable occupational safety and health experts to improve their performance in the hierarchy of control over the presence of hazardous materials. This paper provides an overview of what strategies and competencies the Occupational Safety and Health expert needs to have in embracing hazardous waste management practices.

  7. The influence of zinc hydroxystannate on reducing toxic gases (CO, NO{sub x} and HCN) generation and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bibo; Sheng, Haibo [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Yongqian [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215123 (China); Song, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hu, Weizhao, E-mail: hwz1988@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The ZnHS could significantly enhance the mechanical properties of the TPU composites. • ZnHS has excellent smoke suppression and reduction the HRR for TPU composites. • ZnHS shows significant decrease in CO, HCN, NO{sub x} for TPU composites. • These improvements are due to charring and catalytic degradation the toxic gases. - Abstract: A uniform zinc hydroxystannate (ZnHS) microcube was synthesized to reduce toxicity and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate as a flame retardant agent. The structure, morphology and thermal properties of ZnHS were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ZnHS on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test, cone calorimeter test, and thermalgravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry and tube furnace were employed to evaluate the toxic gases (CO, NO{sub x} and HCN) of TPU composites. The incorporation of ZnHS into TPU matrix effectively improved the fire safety and restrained the smoke density, which is attributed to that the char residue catalyzed by ZnHS enhanced barrier effect that reduced peak heat release rate, total heat release, smoke particles and organic volatiles during combustion. Furthermore, the ZnHS synergist demonstrated high efficiency in catalytic degradation of the toxic gases, which obviously decreased total volatiled product and toxic volatiles evolved, such as the CO, HCN and NO{sub x}, indicating suppressed toxicity of the TPU composites.

  8. Characterization of the atmospheric pathway at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.

    1988-10-01

    Evaluation of potential health effects for populations surrounding hazardous waste sites requires consideration of all potential contaminant transport pathways through groundwater, surface water, and the atmosphere. A comprehensive pathway model that includes emission, dispersion, and deposition computations has been developed as a component of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). RAPS is designed to assess the relative potential risks associated with hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste disposal sites. The atmospheric component includes optional volatilization and suspension emission routines. Atmospheric transport, dispersion, and deposition are computed using relatively standard modeling techniques expanded to incorporate topographical influences. This sector-averaged Gaussian model accounts for local channeling, terrain heights, and terrain roughness effects. Long-term total deposition is computed for the terrain surrounding the hazardous waste site. An example is given of applications at a US Department of Energy site, where atmospheric emissions are potentially important. The multiple applications of RAPS have provided information on the relative importance of different constitutent transport pathways from a potential population risk basis. Our results show that the atmospheric pathway is often equally as important as other pathways such as groundwater and direct soil ingestion. 6 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Seismic Hazard characterization study using an earthquake source with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) method in the Northern of Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, A.; Palupi, M. I. R.; Suharsono

    2016-01-01

    Sumatra region is one of the earthquake-prone areas in Indonesia because it is lie on an active tectonic zone. In 2004 there is earthquake with a moment magnitude of 9.2 located on the coast with the distance 160 km in the west of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and triggering a tsunami. These events take a lot of casualties and material losses, especially in the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and North Sumatra. To minimize the impact of the earthquake disaster, a fundamental assessment of the earthquake hazard in the region is needed. Stages of research include the study of literature, collection and processing of seismic data, seismic source characterization and analysis of earthquake hazard by probabilistic methods (PSHA) used earthquake catalog from 1907 through 2014. The earthquake hazard represented by the value of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) in the period of 0.2 and 1 second on bedrock that is presented in the form of a map with a return period of 2475 years and the earthquake hazard curves for the city of Medan and Banda Aceh. (paper)

  10. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  11. Toxic and hazardous waste disposal. Volume 4. New and promising ultimate disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojasek, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstrats were prepared for four of the eighteen chapters of this book which reviews several disposal options available to the generators of hazardous wastes. The chapters not abstracted deal with land disposal of hazardous wastes, the solidification/fixation processes, waste disposal by incineration and molten salt combustion and the use of stabilized industrial waste for land reclamation and land farming

  12. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Demonstration of automated robotic workcell for hazardous waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliday, M.; Dougan, A.; Gavel, D.; Gustaveson, D.; Johnson, R.; Kettering, B.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1993-02-01

    An automated robotic workcell to classify hazardous waste stream items with previously unknown characteristics has been designed, tested and demonstrated The object attributes being quantified are radiation signature, metal content, and object orientation and volume. The multi sensor information is used to make segregation decisions plus do automatic grasping of objects. The work-cell control program uses an off-line programming system by Cimetrix Inc. as a server to do both simulation control as well as actual hardware control of the workcell. This paper will discuss the overall workcell layout, sensor specifications, workcell supervisory control, 2D vision based automated grasp planning and object classification algorithms

  15. A Bayesian sampling strategy for hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Prior knowledge based on historical records or physical evidence often suggests the existence of a hazardous waste site. Initial surveys may provide additional or even conflicting evidence of site contamination. This article presents a Bayes sampling strategy that allocates sampling at a site using this prior knowledge. This sampling strategy minimizes the environmental risks of missing chemical or radionuclide hot spots at a waste site. The environmental risk is shown to be proportional to the size of the undetected hot spot or inversely proportional to the probability of hot spot detection. 12 refs., 2 figs

  16. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 (“Release of an acute toxic gas”) in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebert , Pierre; Samaali , Ismahen; Molina , Pauline

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as “Release of an acute toxic gas”: waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, ...

  17. Characterizing the nature and variability of avalanche hazard in western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandro, Bret; Haegeli, Pascal

    2018-04-01

    The snow and avalanche climate types maritime, continental and transitional are well established and have been used extensively to characterize the general nature of avalanche hazard at a location, study inter-seasonal and large-scale spatial variabilities and provide context for the design of avalanche safety operations. While researchers and practitioners have an experience-based understanding of the avalanche hazard associated with the three climate types, no studies have described the hazard character of an avalanche climate in detail. Since the 2009/2010 winter, the consistent use of Statham et al. (2017) conceptual model of avalanche hazard in public avalanche bulletins in Canada has created a new quantitative record of avalanche hazard that offers novel opportunities for addressing this knowledge gap. We identified typical daily avalanche hazard situations using self-organizing maps (SOMs) and then calculated seasonal prevalence values of these situations. This approach produces a concise characterization that is conducive to statistical analyses, but still provides a comprehensive picture that is informative for avalanche risk management due to its link to avalanche problem types. Hazard situation prevalence values for individual seasons, elevations bands and forecast regions provide unprecedented insight into the inter-seasonal and spatial variability of avalanche hazard in western Canada.

  18. The relevance of national and international initiatives on toxic substances to the management of hazardous air pollutants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccini, J.

    2001-03-30

    The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), seeking guidance on current and emerging national and international initiatives, activities, and programs that could impact on the management of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in Canada, commissioned the author to prepare this document. In this report, HAPs are defined as toxic substances subject to airborne transport as a significant route of environmental distribution and/or exposure. Heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were included in this definition. A model, known as toxics cycle, represented the four distinct stages of the process of selecting substances for risk assessment and management: problem identification and priority setting, risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and evaluation. A large number of international activities were reviewed, such as research, hazard and risk assessment, risk management, and monitoring and surveillance programs. The present report only deals with the programs that had been identified in the National Air Issues Coordinating Committee-Other Air Issues (NAICC-A) of the CCME report published in 1999 and which had recent or foreseen impacts. Five bi-lateral and multi-lateral agreements on persistent toxic substances, as well as national, regional and global programs, activities, and initiatives concerning the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals and actions were reviewed. It was recommended that initiatives at all levels continue to be monitored and that Environment Canada continue to be the conduit of information at the international level. Issues and opportunities must be identified by all jurisdictions with regard to risk management. It was suggested by the author that risk assessment be conducted by Environment Canada and the attention of the HAP group be drawn on specific topics as required. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. The results of the toxicity and hazard studies of isopropyl meta-carborane with single administration to laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov G.G.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intensive research on the chemistry of borohydrides and the creation of high-energy fuels led to the discovery of a completely new type of organoboron compounds, which were collectively called carboranes. Taking into account the scope of application of organoboron compounds in various branches of human economic activity, we present for publication the quantitative data of a toxicological study of the higher isomer of carboranes of isopropyl meta-carborane at the level of a single injection into the laboratory animals through the mouth and lungs. Background. Supplementing data on toxicity and the hazard of organoboron compounds requires the study of the response of the organism to the action of isopropyl meta-carborane. The purpose of the study: identification of possible features and specificity of the toxic effect of carboranes on the example of isopropyl meta-carborane. Methods. The object of the study is nonlinear laboratory animals: rats, mice and rabbits contained in standard vivarium conditions, with observance of the rules of humane treatment of animals. Traditional methods of research (physiological, hematological, morphological have been used. Statistical processing of data was carried out using the programs «Microsoft Office Excel 2007» and «Biostat». Differences were considered statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05, using a parametric test. Results. Acute toxicity parameters were obtained, which allowed the substance to be classified as moderately hazardous (3rd hazard class according to GOST 12.1.007, which does not have selective irritant, pneumotoxic and fibrogenic effects. Conclusion. Thus, the predominant influence of the substance is established objectively with a single exposure to the blood system as its toxicological feature, and its effect on spermatozoa is a specificity of the action, which stimulates the study of this carborane under conditions of chronic administration to the animals.

  20. Photosynthesis tests as an alternative to growth tests for hazard assessment of toxicant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    Acute (3- and 6-h) toxic responses toward Cu, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and tributyltin (TBT) of lightsaturated and unsaturated photosynthesis were investigated for Rhodomonas salina and Skeletonema costatum obtained from exponentially growing batch cultures and from chemostat cultures...

  1. Seismic hazard characterization of the Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Savy, J.B.; Mensing, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The methodology or the authors study evolved from two earlier studies that the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performed for the NRC. One study was part of the NRC's Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) and is simply referred hereafter to as the SEP study. The other study was part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). By the time the authors methodology was firmed up and the calculations performed (i.e. by 1985), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) had embarked on a parallel study. The authors performed a comparative study to help in understanding the reasons for differences in results between the LLNL and the EPRI studies. The three main differences were found to be the minimum magnitude value of the earthquakes contributing to the hazard in the EUS, the ground motion attenuation models, and the fact that LLNL accounted for local site characteristics and EPRI did not. Several years passed between the 1985 study and the application of the methodology to all the sites in the EUS. In recognition of the fact that during that time a considerable amount of research in seismotectonics and in the field of strong ground motion prediction, in particular with the development of the so called random vibration or stochastic approach, NRC decided to follow their recommendations and have a final round of feedback with all their experts prior to finalizing the input to the analysis

  2. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  3. Remediation of toxic ad hazardous wastes: plants as biological agents to mitigate heavy metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadiz, Nina M.; Principe, Eduardo B.

    2005-01-01

    This papers introduced the plants as biological agents to control heavy metal pollution and the process used the green plants to clean contaminated soils or to render the toxic ions harmless is a new technology called phytoremediation with two levels, the phytostabilization and phytoextraction

  4. Assessment of the toxicity level of an industrial eco-system for its hazardous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Matiullah; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is an agricultural country, yet it is facing a serious threat due to the shortage of water resources and degradation of the agricultural land by the pollution of industrial effluents. A limited number of the current industries are equipped with proper operating treatment plants. Generally, the untreated effluents are disposed off to the open environment which is used for irrigation purposes. Therefore, vegetables and crops grown around the industrial areas is a major potential source of metal poisoning which pose a serious risk to the general public. Hence, study of the toxicity level in vegetables and crops is highly desirable. In this regard, systematic studies have been carried out to determine concentration levels of toxic elements in the samples of vegetables, crops, effluents and soil collected from the industrial areas of the Faisalabad. After processing, these samples were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometric techniques. The highest concentrations of toxic metals were observed for As (2.73 ± 0.34) in cabbage, Cd (1.5 ± 0.1), Ni (5.1 ± 0.9) and Pb (4.3 ± 0.2) in corn, Co (0.65 ± 0.02), and Sb (0.09 ± 0.01) in carrot, Cr (9.63 ± 1.3), Mn (46.5 ± 4.2) and Se (1.03 ± 0.1) in millet, Cu (11.3 ± 1.1) in tomato vegetables and crop samples. Although, the observed toxicity levels in vegetables and crop samples were higher than those grown in non-industrial areas, yet these toxicity levels are within the safe recommended limits. (author)

  5. A dynamic approach for the impact of a toxic gas dispersion hazard considering human behaviour and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Maragkos, Georgios; Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart

    2016-11-15

    The release of toxic gases due to natural/industrial accidents or terrorist attacks in populated areas can have tragic consequences. To prevent and evaluate the effects of these disasters different approaches and modelling tools have been introduced in the literature. These instruments are valuable tools for risk managers doing risk assessment of threatened areas. Despite the significant improvements in hazard assessment in case of toxic gas dispersion, these analyses do not generally include the impact of human behaviour and people movement during emergencies. This work aims at providing an approach which considers both modelling of gas dispersion and evacuation movement in order to improve the accuracy of risk assessment for disasters involving toxic gases. The approach is applied to a hypothetical scenario including a ship releasing Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on a crowd attending a music festival. The difference between the results obtained with existing static methods (people do not move) and a dynamic approach (people move away from the danger) which considers people movement with different degrees of sophistication (either a simple linear path or more complex behavioural modelling) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of EDTA washing of metal polluted garden soils. Part I: Toxicity hazards and impact on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelusic, Masa; Lestan, Domen

    2014-03-15

    We applied a multi-level approach assessing the quality, toxicity and functioning of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated/remediated soil from a vegetable garden in Meza Valley, Slovenia. Contaminated soil was extracted with EDTA and placed into field experimental plots equipped with lysimeters. Soil properties were assessed by standard pedological analysis. Fractionation and leachability of toxic metals were analyzed by sequential extraction and TCLP and metal bioaccessibility by UBM tests. Soil respiration and enzyme activities were measured as indicators of soil functioning. Remediation reduced the metal burden by 80, 28 and 72% for Pb, Zn and Cd respectively, with a limited impact on soil pedology. Toxic metals associated with labile soil fractions were largely removed. No shifts between labile and residual fractions were observed during the seven months of the experiment. Initial metal leaching measured through lysimeters eventually ceased. However, remediation significantly diminished potential soil enzyme activity and no trends were observed of the remediated soil recovering its biological properties. Soil washing successfully removed available forms of Pb, Zn and Cd and thus lowered the human and environmental hazards of the remediated soil; however, remediation also extracted the trace elements essential for soil biota. In addition to reduced water holding capacity, soil health was not completely restored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and adsorption behaviour of some organic and inorganic sorbents for some hazardous toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M.M.; Abdel-Hamid, M.M.; Shady, S.A.; Aly, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    Poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid ) -zirconium phosphate p(AM-AA) -Zr p is a new organic resin and can be synthesized by gamma radiation induced polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of poly acrylamide (PAM) using a template polymerization technique in the presence of zirconium oxychloride and then soaking in phosphoric acid. The obtained polymer shows an excellent thermal and chemical stabilities, high capacities measurements in addition to high selectivity behaviour to some hazardous heavy metals. In a comparative study for the previous organic resin, P(AM-AA)-Zr P with cerium(IV) antimonate (Ce Sb) and titanium (IV) antimonate (Ti Sb) as inorganic ion exchangers we can concluded that both of Ce Sb and Ti Sb have a greater selectivities to the hazardous heavy metals as compared with p(AM-AA) Zr P whereas the later has a higher capacity than Ce Sb and Ti Sb

  8. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies

  9. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embry, Michelle R.; Belanger, Scott E.; Braunbeck, Thomas A.; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Halder, Marlies; Hinton, David E.; Leonard, Marc A.; Lillicrap, Adam; Norberg-King, Teresa; Whale, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  10. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embry, Michelle R., E-mail: membry@ilsi.org [ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, 1156 15th Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Belanger, Scott E., E-mail: belanger.se@pg.com [Procter and Gamble, Central Product Safety, PO Box 538707, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Braunbeck, Thomas A., E-mail: braunbeck@zoo.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, Heidelberg D -69120 (Germany); Galay-Burgos, Malyka, E-mail: malyka.galay-burgos@ecetoc.org [European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse B-1160, Brussels (Belgium); Halder, Marlies, E-mail: marlies.halder@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, In-Vitro Methods Unit TP-580 Ispra 21027 (Italy); Hinton, David E., E-mail: dhinton@duke.edu [Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, PO Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, Unites States (United States); Leonard, Marc A., E-mail: mleonard@rd.loreal.com [L' Oreal Recherche Avancee, Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, 1 av. E. Schueller, 93601 Aulnay sous bois (France); Lillicrap, Adam, E-mail: Adam.lillicrap@niva.no [AstraZeneca, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Norberg-King, Teresa, E-mail: norberg-king.teresa@epa.gov [U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804-1636 (United States); Whale, Graham, E-mail: graham.whale@shell.com [Shell Global Solutions, Analytical Technology, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  11. Radiological and hazardous material characterization report for the south portion of the 313 Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of the characterization was to determine the extent of radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials, to allow the preparation of an accurate cost estimate, and to plan for pre-demolition cleanup work to support building isolation. The scope of services for the project included the following tasks: Records Review and Interviews; Site Reconnaissance; Radiological Survey; and Sampling and Analysis

  12. Overview and technical and practical aspects for use of geostatistics in hazardous-, toxic-, and radioactive-waste-site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossong, C.R.; Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.; Vecchia, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    Technical and practical aspects of applying geostatistics are developed for individuals involved in investigation at hazardous-, toxic-, and radioactive-waste sites. Important geostatistical concepts, such as variograms and ordinary, universal, and indicator kriging, are described in general terms for introductory purposes and in more detail for practical applications. Variogram modeling using measured ground-water elevation data is described in detail to illustrate principles of stationarity, anisotropy, transformations, and cross validation. Several examples of kriging applications are described using ground-water-level elevations, bedrock elevations, and ground-water-quality data. A review of contemporary literature and selected public domain software associated with geostatistics also is provided, as is a discussion of alternative methods for spatial modeling, including inverse distance weighting, triangulation, splines, trend-surface analysis, and simulation

  13. Treatment of heterogeneous mixed wastes: Enzyme degradation of cellulosic materials contaminated with hazardous organics and toxic and radioactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderberg, L.A.; Foreman, T.M.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Brainard, J.R.; Sauer, N.

    1999-01-01

    The redirection and downsizing of the US Department of Energy's nuclear weapons complex requires that many facilities be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D). At Los Alamos National Laboratory, much of the low-level radioactive, mixed, and hazardous/chemical waste volume handled by waste management operations was produced by D and D and environmental restoration activities. A combination of technologies--air stripping and biodegradation of volatile organics, enzymatic digestion of cellulosics, and metal ion extraction--was effective in treating a radiologically contaminated heterogeneous paint-stripping waste. Treatment of VOCs using a modified bioreactor avoided radioactive contamination of byproduct biomass and inhibition of biodegradation by toxic metal ions in the waste. Cellulase digestion of bulk cellulose minimized the final solid waste volume by 80%. Moreover, the residue passed TCLP for RCRA metals. Hazardous metals and radioactivity in byproduct sugar solutions were removed using polymer filtration, which employs a combination of water-soluble chelating polymers and ultrafiltration to separate and concentrate metal contaminants. Polymer filtration was used to concentrate RCRA metals and radioactivity into <5% of the original wastewater volume. Permeate solutions had no detectable radioactivity and were below RCRA-allowable discharge limits for Pb and Cr

  14. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ''major'' sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ''an ample margin of safety,'' the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country's economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern

  15. Solidification process for toxic and hazardous wastes. Second part: Cement solidification matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, A.; Arcuri, L.; Dotti, M.; Pace, A.; Pietrelli, L.; Ricci, G.; Basta, M.; Cali, V.; Pagliai, V.

    1989-05-01

    This paper reports the second part of a general study carried out at the Nuclear Fuel Division aiming at verifying the possible application of the radioactive waste solidification processes to industrial hazardous wastes (RTN). The cement solidification of several RTN types has been taken into consideration, both from the technical and from the economic point of view. After a short examination of the Italian juridical and economical situation in the field, which demonstrates the need of the RTN solidification, the origin and characteristics of the RTN considered in the study and directly provided by the producing industries are reviewed. The laboratory experimental results of the cementation of RTN produced by gold manufacturing industries and by galvanic industries are reported. The cementation process can be considered a very effective mean for reducing both the RTN management costs and the environmental impact of RTN disposal. (author)

  16. Task 1.11 - Spectroscopic field screening of hazardous waste and toxic spills. Semi-annual report, January 1 - June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gristanti, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Techniques for the field characterization of soil contamination due to spillage of hazardous waste or toxic chemicals are time-consuming and expensive. Thus, more economical, less time-intensive methods are needed to facilitate rapid field screening of contaminated sites. In situ detection of toxic chemicals in soil offers both time and cost advantages for field screening with additional application to real-time site monitoring. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy coupled with evanescent mode fiber-optic sensors has been demonstrated as a means to remotely detect and classify petroleum products in water using mid-infrared (MIR) optical fibers. This work demonstrated that a fiber-optic evanescent field absorbance sensor (EFAS) could be used to classify petroleum contamination into categories such as crude oil, kerosene, No. 2 fuel and residual distillates using the MIR spectral range. The overall objective of this project is to study the feasibility of using an EFAS FT-IR spectroscopic sensor coupled with cone penetrometry as a field screening method. The Fourier transform infrared cone penetrometry method (FT-IR-CPT) will be developed by building on the work cited above. The specific objectives of this project are: design an accessory for use with FT-IR that interfaces the spectrometer to a cone penetrometer; characterize the response of the FT-IR accessory to selected hydrocarbons in a laboratory-simulated field environment; and determine the ability of the FT-IR-CPT instrument to measure hydrocarbon contamination in soil by direct comparison with a reference method to quantify hydrocarbons from the same soil

  17. Development and Evaluation of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Tests for Assessing the Hazards of Environmental Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    diet of the animals, their dret was supplemented wtth Poly Vt vitamins by injecting the worms with vitamins three tunes a week. The weight of the...No Kl K2 K3 Bl B2 B3 Male 18 44 23 26 56 34 Clutch Weight (g) 2.64 14.07 5.07 5.72 14.50 8.94 % Normal 46.00 54.50 75.00 66.50 59.50 70.50...107. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY EXPERIMENT: FINAL BREEDING AND EGG CLUTCH DATA AFTER DIRECT EXPOSURE TO EGLIN AFB SOIL Frog No. Kl K2 K3 Bl B2 B3

  18. Hazards to nuclear plants from off-site release of toxic vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornyik, K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the assessment of risk involved in shipping toxic compounds past nuclear power plants uses a postulated chain of events, starting with a traffic accident causing instantaneous release of the compound as vapor, and leading to incapacitation of control operators in the nuclear plant, described by deterministic and statistical models as appropriate to the respective event. Statistical treatment of relevant atmospheric conditions is a major improvement over more conservative assumptions commonly made in current analyses of this problem. Consequently, one obtains a substantial reduction in the estimated risk expressed in usual terms of the annual probability of an unacceptable event, in spite of the fact that no credit is taken for protective measures other than potential control room isolation

  19. Hazard characterization and special considerations for environmental and decontamination and decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, N.R.

    1993-08-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has changed from defense production of special nuclear materials to cleanup of production facilities at the Hanford Site. The DOE contractors have formed the Energy Facility Contractors Group to support this change in mission. In addition, the Safety Analysis Working Subgroup for Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Decommissioning (ER/D ampersand D) was formed to identify, develop, and share information that supports safety analyses and engineering of ER/D ampersand D activities. Safety analysis is in part the process of identifying and understanding the hazards that could result in exposures to radiological or chemical hazardous substances. The following paragraphs address the special considerations given to hazard characterization for ER/D ampersand D activities

  20. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  1. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions)

  2. Direct method for impact assessment of environmental pollutants and toxicants causing health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman; Adil, A.; Abdullah, A.; Masood, S.R.; Agha, A.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial waste pollutants and toxicants are released in three forms i.e. gas, liquid, solid or their admixtures, causing atmospheric , hydro spheric and lithospheric pollutions. Gaseous wastes pollute the surrounding air before entering the waste-cycle and bio-cycle through vegetation/ forestation(i.e., plant kingdom). Liquid wastes enter the water-cycle directly and speedily whereas solid wastes enter the water-cycle indirectly and slowly. All these wastes, as it is well known later on enter plant and animal kingdoms which ultimately effect the human health and make different body parts sick/malignant. Therefore, the regular monitoring of elemental composition of these body parts becomes imperative. The above mentioned format of impact assessment has been followed during different joint studies (carried out in collaboration with university of the Punjab, INMOL and other Departments) which are based on the analytical data collected during the period of last five years. These samples include specimens of blood serum, cancer tissues, drinking and running water, industrial wastes and effluents etc. The comparison, of analysis of samples of unaffected (healthy) and malignant body parts, leads to the direct assessment of environmental pollutants and the inhabitants. (author)

  3. Occupational and environmental hazard assessments for the isolation, purification and toxicity testing of cyanobacterial toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramasinghe Wasantha A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cyanobacteria can produce groups of structurally and functionally unrelated but highly potent toxins. Cyanotoxins are used in multiple research endeavours, either for direct investigation of their toxicologic properties, or as functional analogues for various biochemical and physiological processes. This paper presents occupational safety guidelines and recommendations for personnel working in field, laboratory or industrial settings to produce and use purified cyanotoxins and toxic cyanobacteria, from bulk harvesting of bloom material, mass culture of laboratory isolates, through routine extraction, isolation and purification. Oral, inhalational, dermal and parenteral routes are all potential occupational exposure pathways during the various stages of cyanotoxin production and application. Investigation of toxicologic or pharmacologic properties using in vivo models may present specific risks if radiolabelled cyanotoxins are employed, and the potential for occupational exposure via the dermal route is heightened with the use of organic solvents as vehicles. Inter- and intra-national transport of living cyanobacteria for research purposes risks establishing feral microalgal populations, so disinfection of culture equipment and destruction of cells by autoclaving, incineration and/or chlorination is recommended in order to prevent viable cyanobacteria from escaping research or production facilities.

  4. Occupational and environmental hazard assessments for the isolation, purification and toxicity testing of cyanobacterial toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacteria can produce groups of structurally and functionally unrelated but highly potent toxins. Cyanotoxins are used in multiple research endeavours, either for direct investigation of their toxicologic properties, or as functional analogues for various biochemical and physiological processes. This paper presents occupational safety guidelines and recommendations for personnel working in field, laboratory or industrial settings to produce and use purified cyanotoxins and toxic cyanobacteria, from bulk harvesting of bloom material, mass culture of laboratory isolates, through routine extraction, isolation and purification. Oral, inhalational, dermal and parenteral routes are all potential occupational exposure pathways during the various stages of cyanotoxin production and application. Investigation of toxicologic or pharmacologic properties using in vivo models may present specific risks if radiolabelled cyanotoxins are employed, and the potential for occupational exposure via the dermal route is heightened with the use of organic solvents as vehicles. Inter- and intra-national transport of living cyanobacteria for research purposes risks establishing feral microalgal populations, so disinfection of culture equipment and destruction of cells by autoclaving, incineration and/or chlorination is recommended in order to prevent viable cyanobacteria from escaping research or production facilities. PMID:19925679

  5. Regorafenib induced severe toxic hepatitis: characterization and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacré, Anne; Lanthier, Nicolas; Dano, Hélène; Aydin, Selda; Leggenhager, Daniela; Weber, Achim; Dekairelle, Anne-France; De Cuyper, Astrid; Gala, Jean-Luc; Humblet, Yves; Sempoux, Christine; Van den Eynde, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Regorafenib is the first small-molecule multikinase inhibitor which showed survival benefits in pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Besides classical adverse events of this drug class, hepatotoxicity has been described as a frequent side effect. Patients with refractory mCRC treated with regorafenib in our institution were reviewed. Severe treatment-related liver toxicity was investigated. Clinical history, liver histology and genetic assessment (sequence analysis) of cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4) and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9) involved in regorafenib metabolization were here reported for patients with severe hepatotoxicity. Among the 93 reviewed patients, 3 presented severe and icteric toxic hepatitis which was fatal for 1 patient. Histopathological liver lesions were different depending on the onset of hepatotoxicity (acute or subacute): acinar zone 3 necrosis in case of acute symptoms, and portal tract inflammation with porto-central bridging and fibrosis in the delayed presentation. None of the patients had CYP3A4 gene mutations. Similar polymorphisms in UGT1A9 gene promoter region (UGT1A9 variant -118T 9>10 [rs3832043]) were found in both patients who presented acute hepatitis. Moreover, it appears retrospectively that both of them already experienced significant toxicity under irinotecan-based chemotherapy. This is the first report of severe hepatotoxicity with available liver histology and genetic assessment of enzymes involved in regorafenib metabolization. This report also reminds the importance of close liver tests monitoring during regorafenib treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Application of Solar radiation to hazardous and toxic wastes destruction. Aplicacion de la radiacion solar a la destruccion de residuos toxicos y peligrosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Gonzalez, M

    1992-01-01

    Solar thermal technology has been recently developing new concentrators and collectors specifically used on environmental applications, like the degradation of hazardous and toxic micropollutants in water and gaseous emissions. This publication gives a scope of some activities undertaken by the Institute for Renewable Energies of CIEMAT within this field in order to adapt the available solar technology to detoxification processes, during 1991. (Author)

  7. Use of Citizen Science and Social Media to Improve Wind Hazard and Damage Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, F.; Meidani, H.

    2017-12-01

    Windstorm losses are significant in the U.S. annually and cause damage worldwide. A large percentage of losses are caused by localized events (e.g., tornadoes). In order to better mitigate these losses improvement is needed in understanding the hazard characteristics and physical damage. However, due to the small-scale nature of these events the resolution of the dedicated measuring network does not capture most occurrences. As a result damage-based assessments are sometimes used to gauge intensity. These damage assessments often suffer from a lack of available manpower, inability to arrive at the scene rapidly and difficulty accessing a damaged site. The use and rapid dissemination of social media, the power of crowds engaged in scientific endeavors, and the public's awareness of their vulnerabilities point to a paradigm shift in how hazards can be sensed in a rapid manner. In this way, `human-sensor' data has the potential to radically improve fundamental understanding of hazard and disasters and resolve some of the existing challenges in wind hazard and damage characterization. Data from social media outlets such as Twitter have been used to aid in damage assessments from hazards such as flood and earthquake, however, the reliability and uncertainty of participatory sensing has been questioned and has been called the `biggest challenge' for its sustained use. This research proposes to investigate the efficacy of both citizen science applications and social media data to represent wind hazards and associated damage. Research has focused on a two-phase approach: 1) to have citizen scientists perform their own `damage survey' (i.e., questionnaire) with known damage to assess uncertainty in estimation and 2) downloading and analysis of social media text and imagery streams to ascertain the possibility of performing `unstructured damage surveys'. Early results have shown that the untrained public can estimate tornado damage levels in residential structures with some

  8. Chronic toxicity and hazard assessment of an inorganic mixture simulating irrigation drainwater to razorback sucker and bonytail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Bullard, Fern A.; Little, Edward E.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted two 90 day chronic toxicity studies with two endangered fish, razorback sucker and bonytail. Swim-up larvae were exposed in a reconstituted water simulating the middle Green River. The toxicant mixture simulated the environmental ratio and concentrations of inorganics reported in a Department of the Interior study for the mouth of Ashley Creek on the Green River, and was composed of nine elements. The mixture was tested at 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X where X was the measured environmental concentration (2 μg/L arsenic, 630 μg/L boron, 10 μg/L copper, 5 μg/L molybdenum, 51 μg/L selenate, 8 μg/L selenite, 33 μg/L uranium, 2 μg/L vanadium, and 20 μg/L zinc). Razorback sucker had reduced survival after 60 days exposure to the inorganic mixture at 8X, whereas growth was reduced after 30 and 60 days at 2X and after 90 days at 4X. Bonytail had reduced survival after 30 days exposure at 16X, whereas growth was reduced after 30, 60, and 90 days at 8X. Swimming performance of razorback sucker and bonytail were reduced after 60 and 90 days of exposure at 8X. Whole-body residues of copper, selenium, and zinc increased in a concentration-response manner and seemed to be regulated at 90 days of exposure at 4X and lower treatments for razorback sucker, and at 8X and lower for bonytail. Adverse effects occurred in fish with whole-body residues of copper, selenium, and zinc similar to those causing similar effects in other fish species. Comparison of adverse effect concentrations with measured environmental concentrations showed a high hazard to the two endangered fish. Irrigation activities may be a contributing factor to the decline of these endangered fishes in the middle Green River. 

  9. Hazardous and other element characterization of new and used domestic plastic food containers using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.; Siddique, N.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy methodology was developed to characterize the hazardous and other inorganic trace element constituents in new and used domestic plastic food containers. INAA due to its non destructive, highly sensitive, multielement and low detection limits characteristics was found to be a good technique for the characterization of polymeric products. Through the variation of irradiation, cooling and counting protocols Al, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Th, Ti, V and Zn were determined, while Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy was used as complementary technique to quantify toxic inorganic elements such as Cd, Pb and Cu. These elements are thought to originate from the polymer manufacturing processes. It was found that there was gradual increase in the concentration of most of these elements from new to used plastic samples. Moreover it was also observed that these inorganic elements are present in higher concentrations in the lower grade containers as compared to the high quality containers. It was also observed that the good quality containers even with the long usage do not degrade to such an extent as the low quality containers. (author)

  10. Toxic metals in WEEE: Characterization and substance flow analysis in waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, Masahiro, E-mail: oguchi.masahiro@nies.go.jp; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi

    2013-10-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has received extensive attention as a secondary source of metals. Because WEEE also contains toxic substances such as heavy metals, appropriate management of these substances is important in the recycling and treatment of WEEE. As a basis for discussion toward better management of WEEE, this study characterizes various types of WEEE in terms of toxic metal contents. The fate of various metals contained in WEEE, including toxic metals, was also investigated in actual waste treatment processes. Cathode-ray tube televisions showed the highest concentration and the largest total amount of toxic metals such as Ba, Pb, and Sb, so appropriate recycling and disposal of these televisions would greatly contribute to better management of toxic metals in WEEE. A future challenge is the management of toxic metals in mid-sized items such as audio/visual and ICT equipment because even though the concentrations were not high in these items, the total amount of toxic metals contained in them is not negligible. In the case of Japan, such mid-sized WEEE items as well as small electronic items are subject to municipal solid waste treatment. A case study showed that a landfill was the main destination of toxic metals contained in those items in the current treatment systems. The case study also showed that changes in the flows of toxic metals will occur when treatment processes are modified to emphasize resource recovery. Because the flow changes might lead to an increase in the amount of toxic metals released to the environment, the flows of toxic metals and the materials targeted for resource recovery should be considered simultaneously. - Highlights: ► Appropriate management of toxic metals contained in WEEE is important during recycling and treatment of WEEE. ► CRT TVs contain large amount of toxic metals with high concentration and thus appropriate management is highly important. ► Mid-sized equipment is a future target for

  11. Characterizing the nature of home care work and occupational hazards: a developmental intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Pia; Quinn, Margaret; Galligan, Catherine; Sama, Susan; Brouillette, Natalie; Okyere, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Home care (HC) aide is the fastest growing occupation, yet job hazards are under-studied. This study documents the context of HC aide work, characterizes occupational safety and health (OSH) hazards, and identifies preventive interventions using qualitative methods. We conducted 12 focus groups among aides and 26 in-depth interviews comprising 15 HC agency, union, and insurance company representatives as well as 11 HC recipients in Massachusetts. All focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded with NVIVO software. Major OSH concerns were musculoskeletal disorders from client care tasks and verbal abuse. Performing tasks beyond specified job duties may be an OSH risk factor. HC aides' safety and clients' safety are closely linked. Client handling devices, client evaluation, care plan development, and training are key interventions for both aides' and clients' safety. Promoting OSH in HC is essential for maintaining a viable workforce. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Potential of semiautomated, synoptic geologic studies for characterization of hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E.; Glennon, M.A.; Eliason, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Siting studies for licensing hazardous facilities require three-dimensional characterization of site geology including lithology, structure, and tectonics. The scope of these studies depends on the type of hazardous facility and its associated regulations. This scope can vary from a pro forma literature review to an extensive, multiyear research effort. Further, the regulatory environment often requires that the credibility of such studies be established in administrative and litigative proceedings, rather than solely by technical peer review. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a technology called remote geologic analysis (RGA). This technology provides reproducible photogeologic maps, determinations of three- dimensional faults and fracture sets expressed as erosional lineaments or planar topographic features, planar feature identification in seismic hypocenter data, and crustal- stress/tectonic analyses. Results from the RGA establish a foundation for interpretations that are defensible in licensing proceedings

  13. Seismic source characterization for the 2014 update of the U.S. National Seismic Hazard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetti, Morgan P.; Powers, Peter; Petersen, Mark D.; Boyd, Oliver; Chen, Rui; Field, Edward H.; Frankel, Arthur; Haller, Kathleen; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles S.; Wheeler, Russell; Zeng, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    We present the updated seismic source characterization (SSC) for the 2014 update of the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) for the conterminous United States. Construction of the seismic source models employs the methodology that was developed for the 1996 NSHM but includes new and updated data, data types, source models, and source parameters that reflect the current state of knowledge of earthquake occurrence and state of practice for seismic hazard analyses. We review the SSC parameterization and describe the methods used to estimate earthquake rates, magnitudes, locations, and geometries for all seismic source models, with an emphasis on new source model components. We highlight the effects that two new model components—incorporation of slip rates from combined geodetic-geologic inversions and the incorporation of adaptively smoothed seismicity models—have on probabilistic ground motions, because these sources span multiple regions of the conterminous United States and provide important additional epistemic uncertainty for the 2014 NSHM.

  14. Characterization of hazardous waste residuals from Environmental Restoration Program activities at DOE installations: Waste management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Esposito, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigators at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with support from associates at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), have assembled an inventory of the types and volumes of radioactive, toxic or hazardous, and mixed waste likely to be generated over the next 30 years as the US Department of Energy (DOE) implements its nationwide Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The inventory and related analyses are being considered for integration into DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) covering the potential environmental impacts and risks associated with alternative management practices and programs for wastes generated from routine operations. If this happens, the ER-generated waste could be managed under a set of alternatives considered under the PEIS and selected at the end of the current National Environmental Policy Act process

  15. Expeditious Methods for Site Characterization and Risk Assessment at Department of Defense Hazardous Waste Sites in the Republic of Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman, Dean

    1999-01-01

    ...) with preferred innovative site characterization technologies and risk assessment methods to meet their needs in obtaining hazardous waste site data and then prioritizing those sites for remediation based upon risk...

  16. A Comparison of Organic Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators Versus the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory Air Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incineration is often the preferred technology for disposing of hazardous waste and remediating Superfund sites. The effective implementation of this technology is frequently impeded by strong public opposition to hazardous waste incineration (HWI). One of the reasons cited for t...

  17. Hazard identification and risk characterization of bisphenols A, F and AF to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišler, Tatjana; Krel, Alja; Gerželj, Urška; Erjavec, Boštjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Pintar, Albin

    2016-05-01

    Production of bisphenol A (BPA) analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) has recently increased, due to clear evidence of adverse effects of BPA on humans and wildlife. Bisphenols (BPs) have already been released into aquatic environment without previous available information about potential adverse effects of BPs and their potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In this study, lethal and sublethal effects of BPF and BPAF to bacteria, algae, crustacea and fish embryos were investigated and the results were compared to the adverse effects obtained for BPA. We found that BPAF was the most toxic compound to Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and Desmodesmus subspicatus; the lowest 72 h EC50 (median effective concentration) and 21 d NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values were determined at 2.2 mg/L regarding zebrafish hatching success and 0.23 mg/L of BPAF obtained for growth and reproduction of water fleas, respectively. In most cases, BPA was more toxic to D. magna, D. rerio and D. subspicatus in comparison to BPF, but pigmentation of zebrafish embryos after 48 h of exposure and reproduction of water fleas after 21-day D. magna reproductive test exposure to BPF were much more impaired. Risk quotients (measured environmental concentration/21 d NOEC) showed that BPA, BPF and BPAF are recently not chronically hazardous to the survival, reproduction and growth of water fleas in surface waters. On the other hand, we importantly show that currently present BPAF concentrations in surface waters could cause a potential ecological risk to aquatic organisms. In the near future, higher concentrations of BPF and BPAF in surface waters are anticipated and for this reason further testing using test systems with various aquatic species and endpoints are needed to provide additional information about toxic impacts of BPF and BPAF on aquatic biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comprehensive characterization and hazard assessment of the DOE-Niagara Falls storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.L.; Dettorre, J.F.; Jackson, D.R.; Ausmus, B.S.

    1981-06-01

    A comprehensive radioecological and nonradiological characterization and hazards assessment was conducted on DOE-Niagara Falls Storage Site. Pitchblende residues and other low-level nuclear waste have been stored on the site since 1944. The most highly radioactive residues were stored in four abandoned buildings, while other wastes were deposited in pits or piled on surface soils on the Site. Several ditches were constructed on the Site to facilitate drainage or excess precipitation. Results of the study will permit the US DOE to form an appropriate remedial action plan for the Site

  19. Characterization of radioactive and hazardous waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieneke, R.E.; Balkey, J.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., Nuclear Materials Technology Div., NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Radioactive and hazardous waste from actinide processing in nuclear facilities must be characterized in order to ensure safe and regulatory compliant disposal. Nondestructive assay techniques are used to determine nuclear material content and analytical chemistry methods are used to establish composition, but these activities are time-consuming and expensive. Regulations allow acceptable knowledge to be used in order to reduce analytical requirements, provided the integrity of documentation can be demonstrated. The viability of the program is based upon record management and traceability and must withstand the rigors of audit. Electronic inventory and data-gathering systems are implemented to reduce record management and reporting burdens. (author)

  20. Characterization of radioactive and hazardous waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieneke, R.E.; Balkey, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive and hazardous waste from actinide processing in nuclear facilities must be characterized in order to ensure safe and regulatory compliant disposal. Nondestructive assay techniques are used to determine nuclear material content and analytical chemistry methods are used to establish composition, but these activities are time-consuming and expensive. Regulations allow acceptable knowledge to be used in order to reduce analytical requirements, provided the integrity of documentation can be demonstrated. The viability of the program is based upon record management and traceability and must withstand the rigors of audit. Electronic inventory and data-gathering systems are implemented to reduce record management and reporting burdens. (author)

  1. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  2. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    greatly enlarged . Histologic examination of the neoplastic tissue growth was per- formed and a diagnosis made of reticulum cell sarcoma of multi...Guinea Pig Venipuncture femoral vein Venipuncture penis Dental exam Rodent Venipuncture tail vein Orbital sinus bleeding Heart Mark rodent using toe

  3. Hazardous Waste Management System - Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste - Toxicity Characteristic - Hydrocarbon Recovery Operations - Federal Register Notice, April 2, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proposal to extend the compliance date for the Toxicity Characteristic until January 25, 1993 for produced groundwater from free phase hydrocarbon recovery operations at certain petroleum industry sites-namely, refineries, marketing terminals, bulk plants.

  4. Hazardous Waste Management System - Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste - Toxicity Characteristic - Hydrocarbon Recovery Operations - Federal Register Notice, October 5, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agency is promulgating an interim final rule to extend the compliance date of the Toxicity Characteristic rule for petroleum refining facilities, marketing terminals and bulk plants engaged in the recovery and remediation operation for 120 days.

  5. Hazardous Waste Management System - Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste - Toxicity Characteristic - Hydrocarbon Recovery Operations - Federal Register Notice, February 1, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extends the compliance date of the Toxicity Characteristic until January 25, 1991 for groundwater that is reinjected or reinfiltrated during existing hydrocarbon recovery operations at petroleum refineries, marketing terminals, and bulk plants.

  6. Molecular characterization and identification of markers for toxic and non-toxic varieties of Jatropha curcas L. using RAPD, AFLP and SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer Pamidimarri, D V N; Singh, Sweta; Mastan, Shaik G; Patel, Jalpa; Reddy, Muppala P

    2009-07-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel, is emerging as an alternative to petro-diesel. The deoiled seed cake remains after oil extraction is toxic and cannot be used as a feed despite having best nutritional contents. No quantitative and qualitative differences were observed between toxic and non-toxic varieties of J. curcas except for phorbol esters content. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety in a mixed population and also help in improvement of the species through marker assisted breeding programs. The present investigation was undertaken to characterize the toxic and non-toxic varieties at molecular level and to develop PCR based molecular markers for distinguishing non-toxic from toxic or vice versa. The polymorphic markers were successfully identified specific to non-toxic and toxic variety using RAPD and AFLP techniques. Totally 371 RAPD, 1,442 AFLP markers were analyzed and 56 (15.09%) RAPD, 238 (16.49%) AFLP markers were found specific to either of the varieties. Genetic similarity between non-toxic and toxic verity was found to be 0.92 by RAPD and 0.90 by AFLP fingerprinting. In the present study out of 12 microsatellite markers analyzed, seven markers were found polymorphic. Among these seven, jcms21 showed homozygous allele in the toxic variety. The study demonstrated that both RAPD and AFLP techniques were equally competitive in identifying polymorphic markers and differentiating both the varieties of J. curcas. Polymorphism of SSR markers prevailed between the varieties of J. curcas. These RAPD and AFLP identified markers will help in selective cultivation of specific variety and along with SSRs these markers can be exploited for further improvement of the species through breeding and Marker Assisted Selection (MAS).

  7. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  8. Characterization of Montserrat volcanic ash for the assessment of respiratory health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwell, Claire Judith

    2002-01-01

    to bio-reactivity and toxicity of dusts within the lung. The surface reactivity of volcanic ash was studied for the first time, to determine if it is capable of producing surface and/or free radicals. Concentrations of hydroxyl radicals are found to be high in respirable volcanic ash in comparison to a known toxic mineral, being 2-3 times higher than a quartz standard. The concentration of free radicals are found to be similar in samples with high and very low cristobalite content. Cristobalite, alone, shows no production of hydroxyl or surface radicals. It is possible, however, that crystalline silica is involved in different mechanisms of toxicity, involving other radicals and pathways. The main cause of high radical productivity is shown to be reduced iron ions (Fe 2+ ) on the surface of ferromagnesian minerals which are known to be particularly reactive in the lung. A new hazard has, therefore, been identified: iron is a major factor that must be considered when assessing the respiratory health hazard of volcanic dusts. (author)

  9. Characterization of Montserrat volcanic ash for the assessment of respiratory health hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwell, Claire Judith

    2002-07-01

    closely linked to bio-reactivity and toxicity of dusts within the lung. The surface reactivity of volcanic ash was studied for the first time, to determine if it is capable of producing surface and/or free radicals. Concentrations of hydroxyl radicals are found to be high in respirable volcanic ash in comparison to a known toxic mineral, being 2-3 times higher than a quartz standard. The concentration of free radicals are found to be similar in samples with high and very low cristobalite content. Cristobalite, alone, shows no production of hydroxyl or surface radicals. It is possible, however, that crystalline silica is involved in different mechanisms of toxicity, involving other radicals and pathways. The main cause of high radical productivity is shown to be reduced iron ions (Fe{sup 2+}) on the surface of ferromagnesian minerals which are known to be particularly reactive in the lung. A new hazard has, therefore, been identified: iron is a major factor that must be considered when assessing the respiratory health hazard of volcanic dusts. (author)

  10. SLEUTH (Strategies and Lessons to Eliminate Unused Toxicants: Help!). Educational Activities on the Disposal of Household Hazardous Waste. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program Report No. 1D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyckman, Claire; And Others

    This teaching unit is part of the final report of the Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. It consists of activities presented in an introduction and three sections. The introduction contains an activity for students in grades 4-12 which defines terms and concepts for understanding household hazardous wastes. Section I provides activities…

  11. Host Response to Environmental Hazards: Using Literature, Bioinformatics, and Computation to Derive Candidate Biomarkers of Toxic Industrial Chemical Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    military threat chemicals with adverse health effects and clinical outcomes to improve diagnostic potential after exposure to toxic industrial...end organ injury following chemical exposures in the field. Markers of end-organ injury and toxicity and other health effects markers, particularly...Biomarkers of Toxic Industrial Chemical Exposure Major Jonathan D. Stallings *1 , Danielle L. Ippolito 1 , Anders Wallqvist 2 , B. Claire McDyre 3 , and

  12. Hazard prioritization and risk characterization of antibiotics in an irrigated Costa Rican region used for intensive crop, livestock and aquaculture farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Elba; Fournier, María Luisa; García, Fernando; Molina, Andrea; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Alfaro, Margarita; Ramírez, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics alter the homeostasis of microbial communities and select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wild. Thus, the accumulation of unnaturally high concentration of these substances in the environment due to their use in human activities can be regarded as a neglected form of pollution, especially in countries with agricultural-based economies. Qualitative and quantitative information on antibiotic usage in Costa Rica is scarce, hence the design and enforcement of prevention strategies and corrective measures is difficult. To address this issue, and aiming in the long run to contribute with a more rational use of pharmaceuticals in the tropics, we characterized the hazard associated with the antibiotics used during 2008 in agriculture, aquaculture, pig farming, veterinary medicine and human medicine in the major irrigation district of Costa Rica. Hazard indicators were calculated based on antibiotic use and a weighted algorithm that also considered antibiotic fate, toxicity, and resistance. Moreover, hazard quotients were computed using maximum environmental concentrations reported for Costa Rican surface waters and predicted no effect concentrations for aquatic organisms. The number of antibiotics used in the ATID during the study were n = 38 from 15 families. Antibiotic consumption was estimated at 1169-109908 g ha(-1) year(-1) and, distinctively, almost half of this figure was traced back to phenicols. Tetracyclines, with a particular contribution of oxytetracycline, were the most widely used antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol, chlortetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and tylosin, in that order showed the highest hazard indicators. Moreover, hazard quotients greater than 1 were calculated for oxacillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and ciprofloxacin. Studies dealing with the ecotoxicology of tetracyclines, sulfonamides

  13. Miniaturized robotically deployed sensor systems for in-situ characterization of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of ''MiniLab'' end effectors are currently being designed for robotic deployment in hazardous areas such as waste storage tanks at Idaho National Engineering Laboratories (INEL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These MiniLabs will be the first ever multichannel hazardous waste characterization end effectors deployed in underground high level waste storage tanks. They consist of a suite of chemical, radiological, and physical properties sensors integrated into a compact package mounted on the end of a robotic arm and/or vehicle. Most of the sensors are commercially available thus reducing the overall cost of design and maintenance. Sensor configurations can be customized depending on site/customer needs. This paper will address issues regarding the cost of field sampling verses MiniLab in-situ measurements and a brief background of the Light Duty utility Arm (LDUA) program. Topics receiving in depth attention will include package size parameters/constraints, design specifications, and investigations of currently available sensor technology. Sensors include radiological, gas, chemical, electrolytic, visual, temperature, and ranging. The effects of radiation on the life of the systems/sensors will also be discussed. Signal processing, control, display, and data acquisition methods will be described. The paper will conclude with an examination of possible applications for MiniLabs

  14. Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranson, C.

    1992-09-01

    Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities

  15. Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

  16. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

  17. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ''baseline'' risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site

  18. Characterization of cholinesterases in Chironomus riparius and the effects of three herbicides on chlorpyrifos toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joanne; Monteiro, Marta S; Quintaneiro, Carla; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the toxicities of four pesticides (the herbicides atrazine, terbuthylazine, metolachlor and the insecticide chlorpyrifos) previously detected in the Alqueva reservoir/dam (south of Portugal) were evaluated individually and in binary combinations of the herbicides and the insecticide using fourth-instar larvae of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius. Chlorpyrifos induced toxicity to midges in all the 48 h toxicity bioassays performed. The swimming behaviour of the larvae was impaired, with EC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.17 μg/L. However, neither s-triazine (atrazine and terbuthylazine) herbicides nor metolachlor alone at concentrations up to 200 μg/L caused significant toxicity to C. riparius. When combined with both s-triazine herbicides, chlorpyrifos toxicity was enhanced by approximately 2-fold when tested in a binary mixture experimental setup, at the 50% effective concentration levels. To evaluate how chlorpyrifos toxicity was being increased, the cholinesterases (ChE) were characterized biochemically using different substrates and selective inhibitors. The results obtained suggested that the main enzyme present in this species is acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and therefore it was assayed upon C. riparius exposures to all pesticides individually and as binary mixtures. Although atrazine and terbuthylazine are not effective inhibitors of AChE, the potentiation of chlorpyrifos toxicity by the two s-triazine herbicides was associated with a potentiation in the inhibition of AChE in midges; both s-triazine herbicides at 200 μg/L increased the inhibition of the AChE activity by 7 and 8-fold, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between swimming behaviour disturbances of larvae and the inhibition of the AChE activity. In contrast, metolachlor did not affect chlorpyrifos toxicity at any of the concentrations tested. Therefore, the herbicides atrazine and terbuthylazine can act as synergists in the presence of chlorpyrifos, increasing

  19. Integrating state-of-the-science technology for a cost-effective hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhr, C.A.; Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Environmental Technology Section in Grand Junction, Colorado has performed numerous hazardous waste site characterization since 1985. One of the most costly aspects of site characterization is the installation of groundwater monitoring wells and the subsequent long-term sampling and analysis costs. By optimizing the location of monitoring wells, better information can be obtained from fewer points, resulting in considerable cost savings to the project. A number of different screening techniques can be used prior to monitoring well installation allowing optimal well and soil-boring placement. Additionally, these screening techniques can provide a large amount of data in a small area to provide insight into local heterogeneities in the subsurface. Several screening techniques have been used by ORNL to accomplish these goals including: (1) geophysical surveys (electromagnetic and magnetic) conducted with the UltraSonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS reg-sign), (2) installation of temporary monitoring wells, (3) analysis of samples in the field with a gas chromatograph (GC), and (4) use of the colloidal borescope for determining groundwater flow directions and velocities

  20. Hazard Characterization of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector: What Are the Knowledge Gaps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malachy I. Okeke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is the vector of choice for human and veterinary applications due to its strong safety profile and immunogenicity in vivo. The use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines against human and animal diseases must comply with regulatory requirements as they pertain to environmental risk assessment, particularly the characterization of potential adverse effects to humans, animals and the environment. MVA and recombinant MVA are widely believed to pose low or negligible risk to ecosystem health. However, key aspects of MVA biology require further research in order to provide data needed to evaluate the potential risks that may occur due to the use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines. The purpose of this paper is to identify knowledge gaps in the biology of MVA and recombinant MVA that are of relevance to its hazard characterization and discuss ongoing and future experiments aimed at providing data necessary to fill in the knowledge gaps. In addition, we presented arguments for the inclusion of uncertainty analysis and experimental investigation of verifiable worst-case scenarios in the environmental risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA. These will contribute to improved risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA vaccines.

  1. Overview of major hazards. Part 2: Source term; dispersion; combustion; blast, missiles, venting; fire; radiation; runaway reactions; toxic substances; dust explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J.

    Approaches to major hazard assessment and prediction are reviewed. Source term: (phenomenology/modeling of release, influence on early stages of dispersion); dispersion (atmospheric advection, diffusion and deposition, emphasis on dense/cold gases); combustion (flammable clouds and mists covering flash fires, deflagration, transition to detonation; mostly unconfined/partly confined situations); blast formation, propagation, interaction with structures; catastrophic fires (pool fires, torches and fireballs; highly reactive substances) runaway reactions; features of more general interest; toxic substances, excluding toxicology; and dust explosions (phenomenology and protective measures) are discussed.

  2. A tiered asthma hazard characterization and exposure assessment approach for evaluation of consumer product ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andrew; Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Jayjock, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a complex syndrome with significant consequences for those affected. The number of individuals affected is growing, although the reasons for the increase are uncertain. Ensuring the effective management of potential exposures follows from substantial evidence that exposure to some chemicals can increase the likelihood of asthma responses. We have developed a safety assessment approach tailored to the screening of asthma risks from residential consumer product ingredients as a proactive risk management tool. Several key features of the proposed approach advance the assessment resources often used for asthma issues. First, a quantitative health benchmark for asthma or related endpoints (irritation and sensitization) is provided that extends qualitative hazard classification methods. Second, a parallel structure is employed to include dose-response methods for asthma endpoints and methods for scenario specific exposure estimation. The two parallel tracks are integrated in a risk characterization step. Third, a tiered assessment structure is provided to accommodate different amounts of data for both the dose-response assessment (i.e., use of existing benchmarks, hazard banding, or the threshold of toxicological concern) and exposure estimation (i.e., use of empirical data, model estimates, or exposure categories). Tools building from traditional methods and resources have been adapted to address specific issues pertinent to asthma toxicology (e.g., mode-of-action and dose-response features) and the nature of residential consumer product use scenarios (e.g., product use patterns and exposure durations). A case study for acetic acid as used in various sentinel products and residential cleaning scenarios was developed to test the safety assessment methodology. In particular, the results were used to refine and verify relationships among tiered approaches such that each lower data tier in the approach provides a similar or greater margin of safety for a given

  3. Behavioral, clinical, and pathological characterization of acid metalliferous water toxicity in mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanhart, John P.; Wu, Hongmei; Pandher, Karamjeet; MacRae, Russell K.; Cox, Stephen B.; Hooper, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    kidney Cu concentrations were 23- and 6-fold greater, respectively, in SAMW mortalities compared with controls, whereas Cu concentrations in liver were not nearly as increased, suggesting that blood and kidney concentrations may be more useful than liver concentrations for diagnosing Cu toxicosis in wild birds. Based on these findings and other reports of AMW toxicity events in wild birds, we conclude that AMW bodies pose a significant hazard to wildlife that come in contact with them.

  4. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies

  5. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Cabello, G. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Chillán (Chile); Flores, M.; Fernández, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  6. Site characterization and modeling to estimate movement of hazardous materials in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative approach for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurement activities is developed and illustrated with an example application to hypothetical measurement schemes at a potential geologic repository site for radioactive waste. The method is a general one and could also be applied at sites for underground disposal of hazardous chemicals. The approach presumes that measurements will be undertaken to support predictions of the performance of some aspect of a constructed facility or natural system. It requires a quantitative performance objective, such as groundwater travel time or contaminant concentration, against which to compare predictions of performance. The approach recognizes that such predictions are uncertain because the measurements upon which they are based are uncertain. The effectiveness of measurement activities is quantified by a confidence index, β, that reflects the number of standard deviations separating the best estimate of performance from the perdetermined performance objective. Measurements that reduce the uncertainty in predictions lead to increased values of β. The link between measurement and prediction uncertainties, required for the evaluation of β for a particular measurement scheme, identifies the measured quantities that significantly affect prediction uncertainty. The components of uncertainty in those key measurements are spatial variation, noise, estimation error, and measurement bias. 7 refs., 4 figs

  7. The studies on the toxicity mechanism of environmentally hazardous natural (IAA) and synthetic (NAA) auxin--The experiments on model Arabidopsis thaliana and rat liver plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Flasiński, Michał

    2015-06-01

    This paper concerns the studies towards membrane-damage effect of two auxins: indole-3-acetic acid - IAA and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid - NAA on plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) and animal (rat liver) model membranes. The foregoing auxins are plant growth regulators widely used in agriculture to control the quality of the crop. However, their accumulation in the environment makes them hazardous for the living organisms. The aim of our investigations was to compare the effect of natural (IAA) vs. synthetic (NAA) auxin on the organization of plant and animal model membranes and find a possible correlation between membrane-disturbing effect of these compounds and their toxicity. The collected data evidenced that auxins cause destabilization of membranes, decrease their condensation and weakens interactions of molecules. The alterations in the morphology of model systems were also noticed. The foregoing effects of auxins are concentration-dependent and additionally NAA was found to act on animal vs. plant membranes more selectively than IAA. Interestingly, both IAA and NAA induce the strongest disordering in model lipid system at the concentration, which is frequently reported as toxic to animal and plants. Based on the above findings it was proposed that membrane-damage effect induced by IAA and NAA may be important from the point of view of the mechanism of toxicity of these compounds and cannot be ignored in further investigations in this area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Asbestos as 'toxic short-circuit' optic-fibre for UV within the cell-net: — Likely roles and hazards for secret UV and IR metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traill, Robert R

    2011-01-01

    The most toxic asbestos fibres have widths 250nm-10nm, and this toxicity is 'physical', which could mean either mechanical or optical: Tangling with chromosomes is a mechanical hazard occasionally reported, and fibres 100nm wide — or chrysotile (white asbestos) is >150nm. In both cases, UV A /UV B -transmission would then predominate. (Chrysotile 150nm might be benign — escaping both mechanical and optical!). But what would generate such UV, and why would its transmission be toxic? Thar and Kühl (J.Theor.Biol.:2004) explain that the long mitochondria on microtubules may be able to act as UV-lasers, (and many observers since Gurwitsch 1923 have reported ultraweak UV emissions escaping from all types of living bio-tissue). That all suggests some universal secret role for UV, apparently related to mitosis. Insertion of fibre 'short-circuits' could then cause upsets in mitosis-control, and hence DNA irregularities. Such UV-control could parallel similar lower-powered Infra-Red control-systems (as considered elsewhere for coaxial myelin; or as portrayed by G.Albrecht-Buehler's online animations etc.); and the traditional short mitochondria seem better suited for this IR task.

  9. Biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilger, Mariana; Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Bilesky-Jose, Natália; Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, P. C.; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Lima, Renata De

    2017-03-01

    White mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. There are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures (sclerotia). Nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. Here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and characterized. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were initially tested against white mold sclerotia. Their effects on soybean were also investigated with no effects observed. The nanoparticles showed potential against S. sclerotiorum, inhibiting sclerotia germination and mycelial growth. Nanoparticle characterization data indicated spherical morphology, satisfactory polydispersity and size distribution. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoparticles caused both the effects, although, the most toxic concentrations were above those applied for white mold control. Given the potential of the nanoparticles against S. sclerotiorum, we conclude that this study presents a first step for a new alternative in white mold control.

  10. Degradation study of pesticides by direct photolysis - Structural characterization and potential toxicity of photo products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides belong to the large family of organic pollutants. In general, they are intended to fight against crop pests. Distribution of pesticides in nature creates pollution in DIFFERENT compartments of the biosphere (water, soil and air) and can induce acute toxic effects on human beings of the terrestrial and aquatic living biomass. It is now shown that some pesticides are endocrine disruptors and are particularly carcinogenic and mutagenic effects in humans. Pesticides can undergo various processes of transformation in the natural life cycle (biodegradation, volatilization, solar radiation ...) or following applied in the sectors of natural water purification and treatment stations sewage treatment. The presence of degradation products of pesticides in our environment is even more alarming that their structures and potential toxicities generally unknown. Molecules belonging to two families of pesticides were selected for this study: herbicides, represented by metolachlor, and fungicides represented by procymidone, pyrimethanil and boscalid. The first part of the thesis focused on the development of an analytical strategy to characterize the structures of compounds from degradation by photolysis of pesticides. The second part focused on estimating the toxicity of degradation products using a test database in silico. Identification of degradation products was achieved through two complementary analysis techniques: the gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer ''multi-stage'' (GC-MSn) and liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The estimation of the toxicity of the degradation products was performed using the TEST program QSAR recently developed to try to predict the toxicity of molecules. The strategy of the structural elucidation of degradation products of pesticides studied is based on studying of the mechanisms of fragmentation of parent molecules of the degradation products. The molar mass of parent

  11. Treatment of toxic and hazardous organic wastes by wet oxidation process with oxygenated water at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinno, T.; Salluzzo, A.; Nardi, L.; Gili, M.; Luce, A.; Troiani, F.; Cornacchia, G.

    1989-11-01

    The wet oxidation process using air or molecular oxygen is a well-known process from long time. It is suitable to oxidize several types of waste refractory to the usual biological, thermal and chemical treatments. The drastic operating conditions (high pressures and temperatures) prevented its industrial development. In the last years a new interest was assigned to the process for the treatment of nuclear wastes (organic resins and exhaust organic wastes); the treatment is carried out at widely reduced operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and boiling temperature) by means of metallic catalysts and hydrogen peroxide. With some limits, the wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide at low temperature can be applied to conventional waste waters containing toxic organic compounds. In the present report are summarized the activities developed at ENEA Fuel Cycle Department by the task force 'Deox' constituted by laboratory and plant specialists in order to verify the application of the wet oxidation process to the treatment of the toxic wastes. (author)

  12. Management and hazardous waste characterization in Central for Isotop and Radiation Application based on potential dangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niken Hayudanti Anggarini; Megi Stefanus; Prihatiningsih

    2014-01-01

    Separating and storing hazardous waste have been done based on the physical, chemical, and based on potential dangers due to safety hazardous waste temporary storage warehouse. From the results of data collection in 2014 found that the most dominant hazardous waste is organic liquid waste which reaches 61 %, followed by inorganic liquid waste 33 % while organic solid waste and inorganic solid waste has a small portion. When viewed from potential danger, flammable liquid waste has the greatest volume percentage it is 47 % and is followed by a corrosive liquid waste 26 %, while the liquid waste that has not been identified is quite large, which is 9 %. From the highest hazard potential data, hazardous waste storage warehouse is required to have good air circulation and waste storage shelf protected from direct solar heat. Cooperation of lab workers and researchers are also indispensable in providing identification of each waste generated to facilitate the subsequent waste management. (author)

  13. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  14. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  15. Analytical characterization of engineered ZnO nanoparticles relevant for hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragaru, Adina; Kusko, Mihaela; Vasile, Eugeniu; Simion, Monica; Danila, Mihai; Ignat, Teodora; Mihalache, Iuliana; Pascu, Razvan; Craciunoiu, Florea

    2013-01-01

    The optoelectronic properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have determined development of novel applications in catalysis, paints, wave filters, UV detectors, transparent conductive films, solar cells, or sunscreens. While the immediate advantages of using nano-ZnO in glass panel coatings and filter screens for lamps, as protecting products against bleaching, have been demonstrated, the potential environmental effect of the engineered NPs and the associated products was not fully estimated; this issue being of utmost importance, as these materials will be supplied to the market in quantities of tons per year, equating to thousands of square meters. In this study, ZnO-NPs with commercial name Zincox™ have been subjected to a comprehensive characterization, relevant for hazard assessment, using complementary physico-chemical methods. Therefore, the morphological investigations have been corroborated with XRD pattern analyses and UV–Vis absorption related properties resulting an excellent correlation between the geometrical sizes revealed by microscopy (8.0–9.0 nm), and, respectively, the crystallite size (8.2–9.5 nm) and optical size (7.8 nm) calculated from the last two techniques’ data. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic diameter of ZnO-NPs and stability of aqueous dispersions with different concentration of nanoparticles have been analyzed as function of significant solution parameters, like concentration, pH and solution ionic strength. The results suggest that solution chemistry exerts a strong influence on ZnO dissolution stability, the complete set of analyses providing useful information toward better control of dosage during biotoxicological tests.

  16. Chemical toxicity approach for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the event of an airborne release of chemical agent or toxic industrial chemical by accidental or intentional means, emergency responders must have a reasonable estimate of the location and size of the resulting hazard area. Emergency responders are responsible for warning persons downwind of the hazard to evacuate or shelter-in-place and must know where to look for casualties after the hazard has passed or dissipated. Given the same source characterization, modern hazard assessment models provide comparable concentration versus location and time estimates. Even urban hazard assessment models often provide similar predictions. There is a major shortcoming, though, in applying model output to estimating human toxicity effects. There exist a variety of toxicity values for non-lethal effects ranging from short-term to occupational to lifetime exposures. For health and safety purposes, these estimates are all safe-sided in converting animal data to human effects and in addressing the most sensitive subset of the population. In addition, these values are usually based on an assumed 1 hour exposure duration at constant concentration and do not reflect either a passing clouds concentration profile or duration. Emergency responders need expected value toxicity parameters rather than the existing safe-sided ones. This presentation will specify the types of toxicity values needed to provide appropriate chemical hazard estimates to emergency responders and will demonstrate how dramatically their use changes the hazard area.(author)

  17. Unknown plant de-construction hazard -- Toxic COS and CS2 gas from torch cutting of pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.; Nutt, A.W.; Myers, B.L.; Hightower, J.O.

    1994-01-01

    An employee exhibited signs of illness after apparently inhaling fumes generated from a pipe that had been cut with a cutting torch. Identification and quantification of the hazardous air emission for reduction of risk via the Department of Energy Class B Investigation are described in this case study. The old hydrogen sulfide gas flare pipe in the heavy water plant of the Savannah River Site has been abandoned with one end open to atmosphere for almost twenty years. The pipe was being removed and cut into sections for disposal during an asbestos abatement project. It contained ash like corrosion deposits that smolder after torch cutting. Investigation revealed that burning of carbon and sulfur in the oxygen deficient atmosphere in the ash generated carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS 2 ) gas, which vented when the pipe was moved by the injured construction rigger. This is believed to be the first well documented exposure and response of a human to high concentration COS gas. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) gas is also generated during the cutting. SO 2 is almost impossible to inhale and has apparently prevented a similar injury during the cutting. SO 2 is almost impossible to inhale and has apparently prevented a similar injury during the many years of US and Canadian heavy water plant de-construction experience. Immediate water quench of the smoldering ash after each cut has eliminated the hazard of residual COS and CS 2 gas. This previously unrecognized industrial hazard may be encountered by other chemical and petroleum industries during torch cutting of pipes that contain similar deposits of iron oxide, iron sulfate, sulfur and carbon

  18. Ocular hazards of the colors used during the festival-of-colors (Holi) in India--malachite green toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpandian, T; Saha, K; Ravi, A K; Kumari, S S; Biswas, N R; Ghose, S

    2007-01-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nature of the colors used and their toxicity to the eye upon exposure to them during celebration of Holi (our festival-of-colors). Color powders and formulations were procured at random in and around Delhi during the festival. The green/bluish-green colors reported with the higher incidence of ocular toxicity were subjected for further evaluation. Eyewash fluid collected from the patients exposed to the colors was also subjected for analysis. This study was further extended to evaluate the corneal penetration of malachite green using goat cornea in perfusion chamber. In 16/18 color samples collected, malachite green or 4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-phenyl-methyl]-N,N-dimethyl-aniline was detected at different concentrations. In the eyewash fluid of four patients, HPLC estimation confirmed the presence of malachite green at concentrations of 1.3, 0.18, 3.5 and 5.4 microg in 250 ml which was responsible for its reported toxicity. The in vitrotrans-corneal penetration studies did not show any detectable amount of malachite green in effluent fluid-in vitro tissue retention studies revealed that increasing the contact time increases tissue concentration. After 2 min of exposure, the tissue concentration was significantly higher. To conclude, malachite green was extensively used in our festival of Holi and has caused severe ocular irritation with epithelial defect upon exposure, though it did not penetrate through the cornea-further in vitro and in vivo studies are required on colors used in Holi.

  19. Adaption of the Magnetometer Towed Array geophysical system to meet Department of Energy needs for hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; McDonald, J.R.; Russell, R.J.; Robertson, R.; Hensel, E.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded activities that have adapted the US Navy's Surface Towed Ordnance Locator System (STOLS) to meet DOE needs for a ''... better, faster, safer and cheaper ...'' system for characterizing inactive hazardous waste sites. These activities were undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), the Naval Research Laboratory, Geo-Centers Inc., New Mexico State University and others under the title of the Magnetometer Towed Array (MTA)

  20. Probabilistic Surface Characterization for Safe Landing Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Tonislav I. (Inventor); Huertas, Andres (Inventor); Johnson, Andrew E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Apparatuses, systems, computer programs and methods for performing hazard detection and avoidance for landing vehicles are provided. Hazard assessment takes into consideration the geometry of the lander. Safety probabilities are computed for a plurality of pixels in a digital elevation map. The safety probabilities are combined for pixels associated with one or more aim points and orientations. A worst case probability value is assigned to each of the one or more aim points and orientations.

  1. Isolation, characterization and toxicity of native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from different hosts and habitats in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemi-Kahrizeh Akbar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, aerobic, facultative anaerobic and endospore-forming bacterium. Different strains of this species have the ability to produce parasporal crystalline inclusions which are toxic to larvae of different insect orders and other invertebrates and cause rapid death of the host. To determine the importance of this species in microbial control, we collected native strains and studied their virulence on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. More than 148 samples were collected from Alborz, Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces. Experimental samples, including soil samples from forests, fruit gardens, agricultural fields, diseased and dead larvae, were transferred to a laboratory in sterile plastic containers. For evaluating B. thuringiensis isolates virulence, a cabbage leaf dip method with 106 cell · ml−1 concentration of various Bt isolates was applied to diamondback moths. Larval mortality was recorded 72 h after treatment. Based on bioassay results, all isolates were classified into three high, medium and low virulence groups. Protein level characterization based on the SDS-PAGE gel analysis showed that two isolates from a high virulence group have proteins of high molecular masses of 121 and 109 kDa. Results revealed that there is a positive correlation between protein masses and virulence of isolates. In addition, this research introduced nine strains that are highly toxic to P. xylostella and would be valuable as insecticidal agents for controlling lepidopteran pests.

  2. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237, phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512, and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260. The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups P>0.05. Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections.

  3. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  4. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory hazardous and radioactive mixed waste identification and characterization report for CY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, D.D.

    1987-05-01

    This report provides updated tabulations of the hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes generated and/or handled during CY 1986 at each INEL facility operated by EG and G, or any other operating contractor at the Site. These wastes are described in tabular form, providing information such as composition, generating process, contact person, EPA hazardous waste designation, quantity shipped off site (if applicable), and quantity in storage. Waste generation projections for the next ten years are also included for all INEL facilities. Finally, since many of EG and G's inactive disposal sites may prove to be significant sources of either hazardous or radioactive mixed wastes as remedial action activities under RCRA or CERCLA progress, information on these sites is provided. 2 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  5. Emission of toxic explosive and fire hazardous gases in coal piles stored under atmospheric conditions. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.L.; Cohen, H.

    1998-01-01

    Bituminous coal stockpiles stored in open air undergo weathering processes due to low temperature oxidation (40-100 degree C) resulting in quality deterioration. The process is accompanied by emission of hazardous explosive gases such as molecular hydrogen and low molecular weight organic gases. The article describes the process of low temperature oxidation of coal and goes on to report on simulation experiments carried out to assess the oxidation resistance of various coals stored in Israel, performed in small glass batch reactors and on the monitoring of temperatures and gas evolved in large coal piles stored in open air (performed using a portable unit which can penetrate up to 7 meters inside a coal pile). Molecular hydrogen emissions were found in small concentrations, in all types of coal studied. The amount of hydrogen formed in the batch reactors is linearly dependent on the amount of oxygen consumed in the coal oxidation process and also on the temperature. It was only slightly dependent on the coal mass and independent of particle size. Previous published work has only mentioned hydrogen emission at higher temperatures (240 degree C)

  6. Slag-based materials for toxic metal and radioactive waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a salt solution that is a hazardous waste and has both corrosive and metal toxicity characteristics. Objectives of a wasteform designed to stabilize this solution are presented. Disposal site characterization studies are examined

  7. NTP Toxicity Study Report on the atmospheric characterization, particle size, chemical composition, and workplace exposure assessment of cellulose insulation (CELLULOSEINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel L

    2006-08-01

    Cellulose insulation (CI) is a type of thermal insulation produced primarily from recycled newspapers. The newspapers are shredded, milled, and treated with fire-retardant chemicals. The blowing process for installing CI generates a significant quantity of airborne material that presents a potential inhalation hazard to workers. CI was selected for study based upon the high production volume, the potential for widespread human exposure, and a lack of toxicity data; insufficient information was available to determine whether inhalation studies in laboratory animals were technically feasible or necessary. Studies were conducted to characterize the chemical and physical properties of CI aerosols, to evaluate the potential acute pulmonary toxicity of CI, and to assess occupational exposure of CI installers. Workplace exposure assessments were conducted in collaboration with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, 2001). Chemical analyses were performed on samples of bulk CI from four major United States manufacturers. All samples of the bulk CI were found to contain primarily amorphous cellulose (60% to 65%) with a smaller crystalline component (35% to 40%). The crystalline phase was primarily native cellulose (75% to 85%) with a minor amount of cellulose nitrate (15% to 25%). Elemental analyses of acid digests of CI materials indicated that the major components (>0.1% by weight) included aluminum, boron, calcium, sodium, and sulfur. An acid-insoluble residue present in all four materials (3% to 5% of original sample weight) was found to consist primarily of aluminum silicate hydroxide (kaolinite; approximately 85%) with minor amounts (application and that the acute pulmonary toxicity is minimal. The CI exposure assessment was conducted with 10 contractors located across the United States. Air samples of total dust and respirable dust were collected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize any fibers in the dust. Two SEM air

  8. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-mediated surface functionalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shige Wang1, Shihui Wen2, Mingwu Shen2, Rui Guo2, Xueyan Cao2, Jianhua Wang3, Xiangyang Shi1,2,41State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Centro de Química da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, Funchal, PortugalBackground: We report on aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS-mediated surface modification of nanohydroxyapatite with different surface functional groups for potential biomedical applications. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite covalently linked with APTS (n-HA-APTS was reacted with acetic anhydride or succinic anhydride to produce neutralized (n-HA-APTS.Ac or negatively charged (n-HA-APTS.SAH nanohydroxyapatite, respectively. Nanohydroxyapatite formed with amine, acetyl, and carboxyl groups was extensively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements.Results: In vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay revealed that the slight toxicity of the amine-functionalized n-HA-APTS could be eliminated by post-functionalization of APTS amines to form acetyl and carboxyl groups. Blood compatibility assessment demonstrated that the negligible hemolytic activity of the pristine nanohydroxyapatite particles did not appreciably change after APTS-mediated surface functionalization.Conclusion: APTS-mediated functionalization of nanohydroxyapatite with different surface groups may be useful for further functionalization of nanohydroxyapatite with biologically active materials, thereby providing possibilities for a broad range of

  9. APROBA-Plus: A probabilistic tool to evaluate and express uncertainty in hazard characterization and exposure assessment of substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, Bas G H; Mengelers, Marcel J; Bakker, Martine I; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Slob, Wout

    2017-12-01

    To facilitate the application of probabilistic risk assessment, the WHO released the APROBA tool. This tool applies lognormal uncertainty distributions to the different aspects of the hazard characterization, resulting in a probabilistic health-based guidance value. The current paper describes an extension, APROBA-Plus, which combines the output from the probabilistic hazard characterization with the probabilistic exposure to rapidly characterize risk and its uncertainty. The uncertainty in exposure is graphically compared with the uncertainty in the target human dose, i.e. the dose that complies with the specified protection goals. APROBA-Plus is applied to several case studies, resulting in distinct outcomes and illustrating that APROBA-Plus could serve as a standard extension of routine risk assessments. By visualizing the uncertainties, APROBA-Plus provides a more transparent and informative outcome than the more usual deterministic approaches, so that risk managers can make better informed decisions. For example, APROBA-Plus can help in deciding whether risk-reducing measures are warranted or that a refined risk assessment would first be needed. If the latter, the tool can be used to prioritize possible refinements. APROBA-Plus may also be used to rank substances into different risk categories, based on potential health risks without being compromised by different levels of conservatism that may be associated with point estimates of risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of hazardous waste sites: a methods manual. Volume 2. Available sampling methods (second edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, P.J.; Turina, P.J.; Seely, D.E.

    1984-12-01

    Investigations at hazardous waste sites and sites of chemical spills often require on-site measurements and sampling activities to assess the type and extent of contamination. This document is a compilation of sampling methods and materials suitable to address most needs that arise during routine waste site and hazardous spill investigations. The sampling methods presented in this document are compiled by media, and were selected on the basis of practicality, economics, representativeness, compatability with analytical considerations, and safety, as well as other criteria. In addition to sampling procedures, sample handling and shipping, chain-of-custody procedures, instrument certification, equipment fabrication, and equipment decontamination procedures are described. Sampling methods for soil, sludges, sediments, and bulk materials cover the solids medium. Ten methods are detailed for surface waters, groundwater and containerized liquids; twelve are presented for ambient air, soil gases and vapors, and headspace gases. A brief discussion of ionizing radiation survey instruments is also provided

  11. Baseline Hazardous Waste Stream Characterization Survey at the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing Elmendorf AFB, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    CES/DEEV). The Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) is responsible for contractual removal of hazardous waste. BES supports the program...RGNT HOSP ELMEŕDORFGGEPB Test Results ~ Utnit- "-R~one LCL ucg L wosnLCL uq L FP in LCL mci L irwtn Ter~rrn ride LLL miYL 9.1 crot -ne LF mqzL

  12. Quantitative Characterization of the Toxicities of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr Binary Mixtures Using Combination Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct equipartition ray design was used to construct Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr binary mixtures. Microplate toxicity analysis was used to evaluate the toxicity of individual substance and the Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr mixtures on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum. The interacting toxicity of the mixture was analyzed with concentration addition (CA model. In addition, combination index method (CI was proposed and used to quantitatively characterize the toxicity of the binary mixtures of Cd-Ni and Cd-Cr observed in experiment and find the degree of deviation from the predicted outcome of the CA model, that is, the intensity of interacting toxicity. Results indicate that most of the 20 binary mixtures exhibit enhancing and synergistic effect, and only Cd-Cr-R4 and Cd-Cr-R5 mixtures have relatively high antagonistic effects against C. pyrenoidosa. Based on confidence interval, CI can compare the intensities of interaction of the mixtures under varying levels of effect. The characterization methods are applicable for analyzing binary mixture with complex interaction.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nano fibers for its application in the adsorption of toxic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico L, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The production of carbon nano fibers (CNF's) by diverse techniques as the electric arc, laser ablation, or chemical deposition in vapor phase, among other, they have been so far used from final of the 90's. However, the synthesis method by discharge Glow arc of alternating current and high frequency developed by Pacheco and collaborators, is a once alternative for its obtaining. In the plasma Application Laboratory (LAP) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (INlN) it was designed and manufactured a reactor of alternating current and high frequency that produces a Glow arc able to synthesize carbon nano fibers. Its were carried out nano fibers synthesis with different catalysts to different proportions and with distinct conditions of vacuum pressure and methane flow until obtaining the best nano fibers samples and for it, this nano structures were characterized by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Raman spectrometry and EDS spectrometry. Once found the optimal conditions for the nano fibers production its were contaminated with NO 2 toxic gas and it was determined if they present adsorption, for it was used the thermal gravimetric analysis technique. This work is divided in three parts, in the first one, conformed by the chapters 1, at the 3, they are considered the foundations of the carbon nano fibers, their history, their characteristics, growth mechanisms, synthesis techniques, the thermal gravimetric analysis principles and the adsorption properties of the nano fibers. In the second part, consistent of the chapters 4 and 5, the methodology of synthesis and characterization of the nano fibers is provided. Finally, in third part its were carried out the activation energy calculation, the adsorption of the CNF's is analyzed and the conclusions are carried out. The present study evaluates the adsorption of environmental gas pollutants as the nitrogen oxides on carbon nano fibers at environmental or near conditions. Also

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and Toxicity Evaluation of Dextran-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Balas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (DIO-NPs with spherical shape and uniform size distribution as well as their accumulation and toxic effects on Jurkat cells up to 72 h. The characterization of dextran-coated maghemite nanoparticles was done by X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering analyses, transmission electron microscopy imaging, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis, and relaxometry measurements. The quantification of DIO-NPs intracellular uptake showed a progressive accumulation of iron as a function of time and dose accompanied by additional lysosome formation and an increasing darkening exhibited by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner. The cytotoxicity assays revealed a decrease of cell viability and a loss of membrane integrity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Exposure to DIO-NPs determined an increase in reactive oxygen species level up to 72 h. In the first two days of exposure, the level of reduced glutathione decreased and the amount of malondyaldehyde increased, but at the end of the experiment, their concentrations returned to control values. These nanoparticles could be used as contrast agents for MRI but several parameters concerning their interaction with the cells should be taken into consideration for a safe utilization.

  15. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: An approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, Mary T.; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire

  16. Characterization of hazardous constituents in HLW supernate and implications for solid LLW generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgeton, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    High Level Waste supernates are hazardous due to the presence of small quantities of mercury, chromium, lead, silver and barium. The fate of these components based on process knowledge was evaluated. The supernates were grouped into Traditional (normal storage and evaporation), Dilute (stored in Type IV tanks), and Sludge Processing categories, and a review of the limited quantity of available sample data for each type of supernate was performed. The maximum concentration of each hazardous constituent was determined. The most restrictive hazardous constituent in Traditional and Sludge Processing supernates was determined to be mercury, and the most restrictive component in Dilute supernate was chromium. Containers of solid waste contaminated with these supernates must be manifested as nonhazardous before disposal as Low Level Waste in the engineered vaults in the EAV. A method was developed to screen waste containers in order to identify those containers that are nonhazardous. A criterion for 137 Cs content was arbitrarily set to 0.1 Ci, and the volume of supernate required to deposit 0.1 Ci was calculated. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of 137 Cs and over 85 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from normal storage and evaporation operations are nonhazardous. Containers with less than 0.1 Ci of 137 Cs and over 170 lb of solid waste contaminated with supernate from sludge processing operations are nonhazardous. All containers of waste contaminated with supernate from Type IV tanks were evaluated as being nonhazardous. The screening method is readily applicable in the field - if the 137 Cs content of a container is below 0.1 Ci and the weight of the waste is greater than 85 or 170 lb (depending on waste type), the waste container is nonhazardous. Containers not satisfying both criteria will be segregated for additional evaluation

  17. Characterization of the Potential Hazards Associated with Potential RCRA Treatment Noncompliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The purpose of this document is to provide a hazard evaluation of the noncompliances and whether any new actions are required to mitigate potential risk to the worker or the public. In short, we have reviewed the noncompliances and have concluded that the possibility of exothermic reactions leading to radioactive release is not credible, and in one case, inconceivable, stemming from the fact that the majority fraction of the waste is compatible with organic absorbents and neutralizers. It is not expected that the noncompliances would generate or produce uncontrolled flammable fumes, gases, extreme heat, pressure, fire, explosions, or violent reactions.

  18. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emission characterization of sewage treatment facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung-Hee; Dong, Jong-In

    2010-04-01

    Until recently, nearly all sewage treatment-related regulations and researches have focused on the removal of the conventional and toxic pollutants from liquid effluents. The discharge of toxic compounds to the atmosphere has been implicitly regarded as a way of removal or destruction. During sewage treatment, the fate mechanism of volatilization/stripping, sorption and biotransformation primarily determines the fate of volatile HAPs. The objectives of this study are to investigate the emission characteristics of HAPs, which are generated from the liquid surface of sewage treatment facilities, by using an emission isolation flux chamber. HAP emissions increased at the inlet of the aerobic chamber during summer due to the relatively high atmospheric temperature. The percent ratio of flux for toluene reached its peak in winter, accounting for 33.6-34.2% of the total, but decreased to 25.1-28.6% in summer. In autumn, trichloroethene (TCE) was the highest, recording 17.6-18.1%, with chloroform and toluene showing similar levels. It seems that the ratio of chlorinated hydrocarbons increases in both summer and autumn because the chamber temperature during that time is higher than winter. This study is the initial study to investigate the emission characteristics of volatile HAPs emitted from domestic sewage treatment facilities to the air in Korea. Therefore, the isolation flux chamber will be used as an emission estimations tool to measure HAPs from sewage treatment facilities and may be applied to develop the emission factor and national source inventory of HAPs.

  20. Trace element content of vegetables grown in the victorian goldfields: characterization of a potential hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, G.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants take-up trace elements essential to healthy growth, but if metal accumulation is excessive, harmful effects are noted in the plant and potentially in the organisms that feed on them. Central Victoria has a rich gold mining heritage, and as such, much of the landscape has been disturbed by the addition of mine waste material, providing an abundant source of metals in a mobile environment. A biogeochemical survey was conducted to evaluate the trace element content of backyard vegetable gardens in the gold field region and the trace element accumulation in commonly grown vegetables. Vegetable (n150) and soil (n59) samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results indicate that vegetables grown in the central Victorian goldfields have only slightly elevated trace element content. Some exceptions exist, specifically for silverbeet, but the hazard potential is minimal

  1. Development of Neutron Probes for Characterization of Hazardous Materials in the Sub-surface Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keegan, R.P.; McGrath, C.A.; Lopez, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron probes are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the detection, identification and quantification of hazardous materials in the ground. Such materials include plutonium, uranium, americium, chlorine and fluorine. Both a Neutron Gamma (NG) probe and a Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) probe are being developed. The NG probe is used primarily for nuclide identification and quantification measurements. The PFN is used mostly for the detection and measurement of fissile material, but also for the determination of thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross sections of the various elements comprising the ground matrix. Calibration of these probes will be carried out at the INEEL using an indoor facility that has been designed for this activity

  2. Seismic source zone characterization for the seismic hazard assessment project PEGASOS by the Expert Group 2 (EG1b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, M.; Gruenthal, G.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the seismic hazard related to the four NNP sites in NW Switzerland was performed within the project PEGASOS. To account for the epistemic uncertainties involved in the process of the characterization of seismic source zones in the frame of probabilistic seismic hazard assessments, four different expert teams have developed and defended their models in the frame of an intensive elicitation process. Here, the results of one out of four expert groups are presented. The model of this team is based first of all on considerations regarding the large scale tectonics in the context of the Alpine collision, and neotectonic constraints for defining seismic source zones. This leads to a large scale subdivision based on the structural 'architectural' considerations with little input from the present seismicity. Each of the eight large zones was characterized by the style of present-day faulting, fault orientation, and hypo central depth distribution. A further subdivision of the larger zones is performed based on information provided by the seismicity patterns. 58 small source zones have been defined in this way, each of them characterized by the available tectonic constrains, as well as the pros and cons of different existing geologic views connected to them. Of special concern in this respect were the discussion regarding thin skinned vs. thick skinned tectonics, the tectonic origin of the 1356 Basel earthquake, the role of the Permo-Carboniferous graben structures, and finally the seismogenic orientation of faults with respect to the recent crustal stress field. The uncertainties connected to the delimitations of the small source zones have been handled in form of their regrouping, formalized by the logic tree technique. The maximum magnitudes were estimated as discretized probability distribution functions. After de-clustering the used ECOS earthquake catalogue and an analysis of data completeness as a function of time the parameters of the

  3. Toxic Hazards Research Unit 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    in monkeys/man. - Materials safety training. - Correct and legal housing for iaboratory animals. - The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic...Whitmire, and E.R. Kinkeea. Presented at the 31st Navy Occupational Health and Preventive Medicina Workshop, Virginia Beach, VA, 11-16 March. 297 7• -7

  4. Toxic Hazards Research Unit - 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    13 APPENDIX 1 DRAIZEa SCALE FOR SCALING OCULAR LESIONS Parameter Score 1. Cornea A Opacity degree of density (area most taken for reading) No opacity...microscopic hepatocytomegaly as the principal manifestations of CTFE-induced hepatotoxicity The electron microscopic examination demonstrated...hemangioma (hemangioendothelioma), chronic portal hepatitis, chronic oviduct inflammation, chronic ovary inflammation, chronic vegetative endocarditis

  5. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  6. Characterization of federated oil fractions used for the PTAC project to study the petroleum fraction-specific toxicity to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Jokuty, P.; Fingas, M.; Sigouin, L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada (PTAC) and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) launched an important research project for the oil and gas industry entitled A Fraction-Specific Toxicity and Derivation of Recommended Soil Quality Guidelines for Crude Oil in Agricultural Soils. The objective was to generate useful and relevant data that could be used to develop soil quality guidelines for petroleum hydrocarbon residuals in agricultural soils. The oil used in the study was Federated crude oil which was fractionated into four fractions using a distillation method. The fraction-based approach was used to support ecologically-relevant, risk-based, soil quality criteria for the protection of environmental health. This paper presented the nominal carbon number and boiling point ranges of these fractions and described the distillation procedures for producing the fractions from the Federated crude oil. The paper also presented the detailed chemical characterization results of each distillation fraction. The toxicity of the crude oil mixture to plants and soil invertebrates was also assessed using standardized toxicity tests. Tests were also conducted to assess the toxicity of fractions of the crude oil and the toxic interactions of the fractions responsible for a significant proportion of the toxicity. Phase 2 of the project was designed to determine if hydrocarbon residuals exceeding 1000 μg/g and weathered for short or long periods of time, posed an ecotoxicological risk or impaired soil physical, chemical and biological properties such that productivity of the agricultural soils was compromised. The objectives of phase 2 were to amend differently textured soils in field plots at sites with fresh crude oil and to monitor their toxicity to terrestrial organisms using laboratory-based ecotoxicity tests. The study showed that because of the nature of the chemical composition of hydrocarbons (such as boiling points, nominal carbon range

  7. Source Characterization and Seismic Hazard Considerations for Hydraulic Fracture Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, K.; Viegas, G. F.; Baig, A. M.; Urbancic, T.

    2015-12-01

    Large microseismic events (M>0) have been shown to be generated during hydraulic fracture treatments relatively frequently. These events are a concern both from public safety and engineering viewpoints. Recent microseismic monitoring projects in the Horn River Basin have utilized both downhole and surface sensors to record events associated with hydraulic fracturing. The resulting hybrid monitoring system has produced a large dataset with two distinct groups of events: large events recorded by the surface network (0structures; small events are concentrated at reservoir depth. Differences in behavior have been observed between these two datasets, leading to conclusions of different underlying processes responsible for the recorded activity. Both datasets show very low seismic efficiency, implying slip weakening and possibly the presence of fluids in the source region. Reservoir events have shear-tensile source mechanisms ranging between tensile opening and tensile closing, and fracture orientations dominated by the rock fabric which are not always optimally oriented to the regional stress field. The observed source characteristics are expected for events driven by increased pore pressure and reduced friction due to lubrication. On average, deep events show higher stress drop, apparent stress, and rupture velocity than reservoir events. This reflects higher confining stresses with depth, and possibly the release of stored energy in the existing zone of weakness. Deep events are dominated by shear failures, but source characteristics are smaller than for naturally occurring tectonic earthquakes of similar magnitude. Most importantly from a seismic hazard perspective, large earthquakes associated with hydrofracing have lower stress drops than tectonic earthquakes, and thus produce smaller peak ground acceleration and less damage on surface. The largest event recorded in this dataset has a moment magnitude of +2.9 and was felt by field crews in the area. The response

  8. Synthesis of β-cyclodextrin hydrogel nanoparticles for improving the solubility of dexibuprofen: characterization and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Qandeel; Ahmad, Mahmood; Minhas, Muhammad Usman

    2017-11-01

    This study was aimed to enhance aqueous solubility of dexibuprofen through designing β-cyclodextrin (βCD) hydrogel nanoparticles and to evaluate toxicological potential through acute toxicity studies in rats. Dexibuprofen is a non-steroidal analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug that is one of safest over the counter medications. However, its clinical effectiveness is hampered due to poor aqueous solubility. βCD hydrogel nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by percent yield, drug loading, solubilization efficiency, FTIR, XRD, DSC, FESEM and in-vitro dissolution studies. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted to assess safety of oral administration of prepared βCD hydrogel nanoparticles. βCD hydrogel nanoparticles dramatically enhanced the drug loading and solubilization efficiency of dexibuprofen in aqueous media. FTIR, TGA and DSC studies confirmed the formation of new and a stable nano-polymeric network and interactions of dexibuprofen with these nanoparticles. Resulting nanoparticles were highly porous with 287 nm in size. XRD analysis revealed pronounced reduction in crystalline nature of dexibuprofen within nanoparticles. Release of dexibuprofen in βCD hydrogel nanoparticles was significantly higher compared with dexibuprofen tablet at pH 1.2 and 6.8. In acute toxicity studies, no significant changes in behavioral, physiological, biochemical or histopathologic parameters of animals were observed. The efficient preparation, high solubility, excellent physicochemical characteristics, improved dissolution and non-toxic βCD hydrogel nanoparticles may be a promising approach for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs.

  9. Chemical studies on the synthesis and characterization of some ion- exchange materials and its use in the treatment of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, A.B.I.

    2013-01-01

    Now inorganic ion exchange materials play an important role in analytical chemistry, based originally on their thermal and radiation resistance as well as their stability to chemical attack.Vanadate salts are one of the main categories of inorganic ion exchange materials widely used in separation and preconcentration of some toxic and hazardous elements from different waste media. Attempts in this study are focused on the preparation of two inorganic ion exchange materials ,Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) for treatment of hazardous waste.These material were characterized using X-ray spectra (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. On the basis of distribution studies, the materials have been found that they are highly selective for Pb(II) and Cs(I)ions. Thermodynamic parameters (i.e. ΔG, ΔS and ΔH) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ and Co 2+ ions on Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + and Pb 2+ ions for Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) as cation exchangers were studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperatures and drying temperatures. The exchange rate was controlled by a particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch technique and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 plots. The values of diffusion coefficients, activation energies and entropies of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. The data obtained have been compared with that reported for other inorganic exchangers. Exchange isotherms for Cs + ,Co 2+ and Cd 2+ ions were determined at 25, 45 and 65±1 degree C. These isotherms showed that Cs + ,Co 2+ and Cd 2+ are physically adsorbed. Finally, separations of the above

  10. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR TOXICS FROM AN OIL-FIRED FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests were conducted on a commercially available firetube package boiler running on #2 through #6 oils to determine the emissions levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion of four fuel oils. Flue gas was sampled to determine levels of volatile and semivolatile...

  12. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  13. Characterization of Airborne Particles in an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Their Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improper disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) can lead to release of toxic chemicals into the environment and also may pose health risks. Thus, recycling e-waste, instead of landfilling, is considered to be an effective way to reduce pollutant release and exposure. However, lit...

  14. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FETOPLACENTAL COMPLEX IN PREGNANT PATIENTS WITH DIFFUSE TOXIC GOITER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Petrukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The course of pregnancy and delivery in patients with diffuse toxic goiter (DTG is often complicated by preeclampsia, fetoplacental insufficiency, placental abruption and associated with higher maternal and perinatal mortality. Aim: To study particulars of fetoplacental complex functioning in DTG. Materials and methods: We assessed pregnant patients with DTG (n = 92 and their newborns (n = 94. By the time of delivery, 86 of patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Functions of fetoplacental complex (by levels of placental lactogen, α-fetoprotein, estriol, progesterone and cortisol were assessed by radioimmune and immunoenzyme assays. Fetometrical parameters of fetuses were studied by ultrasound method. Complex assessment of placentas was done by light and electronic microscopy. Results: Eighty seven (94,6% patients with DTG had combined complications of pregnancy. The most frequent were: the threat of termination of pregnancy, in 68 (73.9% of cases, low placenta placement, in 23 (25%, anemia, in 56 (60.9%, pre-eclampsia, in 56 (60.9%. In 59 of patients (64.1%, fetoplacental insufficiency was diagnosed, with predominance of strain or exhaustion reactions. Critical status of fetoplacental complex was found in pregnant patients with uncontrolled DTG and duration of control of less than 20 weeks, as well as in pregnant patients with DTG relapses. The values of main hormones (placental lactogen, α-fetoprotein and progesterone were below 10th percentile.According to the results of the ultrasound assessments, fetuses from mothers with DTG during gestation demonstrated decrease of the majority or percentile parameters, such as biparietal cranial size, fetal femoral length, abdomen diameter, that was especially prominent in the groups with relapsing DTG.Eighty eight of 94 newborns (93.6% were born full-term. In total, every third baby (29.3% had some degree of intrauterine developmental delay at birth. Among the cases with

  15. Mineralogical characterization of steel industry hazardous waste and refractory sulfide ores for zinc and gold recovery processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagni, A.M.; Hagni, R.D. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Geology Geophysics Dept.)

    1994-04-01

    The steel industry generates dust as a waste product from high temperature electric arc furnaces (EAF), which is a major step in processing scrap metal into steel. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified EAF dust as KO61 hazardous waste, due to its lead, cadmium, and chromium content. The dust also contains valuable zinc, averaging 19%. Detailed mineralogical characterization show the zinc is present as crystals of franklinite-magnetite-jacobsite solid solutions in calcium-iron-silicate glass spheres and as zincite mostly as very small individual spheres. Much of the chromium is present in an insoluble form in solid solution in the iron spinels. This microscopic research is a valuable tool in determining treatment processes for the 600,000 tons of dust generated annually in the US. Refractory gold ores, pyrite and arsenopyrite, have been studied to determine additional, cost-effective methods of processing. One technique under investigation involves roasting sulfide mineral particles to hematite to create porosity through which a leach can permeate to recover the gold. Portlandite, Ca(OH)[sub 2], is added to the roast for retention of hazardous sulfur and arsenic. Modern microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, such electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, cathodoluminescence microscopy, and electron microprobe, have been applied, as well as reflected light and dark field microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the mineralogy of the sulfur, arsenic, and iron phases, and the extent of porosity, permeability, and oxidation state of the ore particles at various roasting temperatures. It is concluded that mineralogical techniques can be effectively applied to the solution of environmental problems.

  16. Comprehensive characterization of the acute and chronic toxicity of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam to a suite of aquatic primary producers, invertebrates, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Meaghean C; Baxter, Leilan R; Maul, Jonathan D; Hanson, Mark L; Hoekstra, Paul F

    2017-10-01

    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide used widely in agriculture to control a broad spectrum of chewing and sucking insect pests. Recent detection of thiamethoxam in surface waters has raised interest in characterizing the potential impacts of this insecticide to aquatic organisms. We report the results of toxicity testing (acute and chronic) conducted under good laboratory practices for more than 30 freshwater species (insects, molluscs, crustaceans, algae, macrophytes, and fish) and 4 marine species (an alga, a mollusc, a crustacean, and a fish). As would be anticipated for a neonicotinoid, aquatic primary producers and fish were the least sensitive organisms tested, with acute median lethal and effect concentrations (LC50/EC50) observed to be ≥80 mg/L in all cases, which far exceeds surface water exposure concentrations. Tested molluscs, worms, and rotifers were similarly insensitive (EC50 ≥ 100 mg/L), except for Lumbriculus sp., with an EC50 of 7.7 mg/L. In general, insects were the most sensitive group in the study, with most acute EC50 values insects (acute EC50 insects (EC50 > 5.5 mg/L). The most sensitive chronic response was for Chironomus riparius, with a 30-d no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC; emergence) of 0.01 mg/L. Observed toxicity to the tested marine organisms was comparable to that of freshwater species. We used the reported data to construct species sensitivity distributions for thiamethoxam, to calculate 5% hazard concentrations (HC5s) for acute data (freshwater invertebrates), and compared these with measured concentrations from relevant North American surface waters. Overall, based on acute toxicity endpoints, the potential acute risk to freshwater organisms was found to be minimal (likelihood of exceeding HC5s < 1%). Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2838-2848. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental

  17. Characterization of marine bacteria highly resistant to mercury exhibiting multiple resistances to toxic chemicals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Ramaiah, N.

    , GP15 and GP16) and one Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CH07) which showed comparatively higher resistance to toxic heavy metals and xenobiotics and were used in more detailed experiments. Antibiotic sensitivity of all three isolates after plasmid curing... using Nucleospin Plasmid isolation kit (Macherey Nagel, Germany) and agarose gel electrophoresis. To further confirm the presence/absence of plasmid, two different plasmid curing assays were performed to note the loss, if any, of mercury resistance...

  18. Characterization and toxicity studies of bioglass by Sol-gel method for prostate cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Wanderley S.; Veloso, Gabriela A.; Silva, Luciana; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most advanced methods for the treatment of prostate cancer in the initial stage is brachytherapy, which uses titanium seeds, incorporated with 125 I, which is radioactive, and which is implanted in the prosthetic volume. In recent studies, we investigated the possibility of applying the Sol-Gel (SG) method for the production of bioactive seeds, incorporated with radioactive Sm in silica glasses for the treatment of cancer. In this project three compositions of the glasses of the SiO 2 -CaO system were synthesized using the SG method. The chemical and physical composition of the seeds were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Atomic Absorption Analysis. A pilot study of in vivo and in vitro toxicity was conducted in rabbit and PC-3 lineage cells. The results showed that the ceramic matrices in the SiO 2 - CaO - Sm system present no toxicity in the in vivo model presenting no post-implant inflammatory process. None restriction of in vitro cell growth was found. In conclusion, there is no toxicity in seeds and the radiotoxicity will occur only in the period in which the seeds present activity coming from 153 Sm

  19. Potential of Annona muricata L. seed oil: phytochemical and nutritional characterization associated with non-toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, phenolic compounds, fatty acid and antioxidant activity in vitro as well as a toxicological screening of A. muricata seed oil in vivo. The chemical composition and quantification of phenolic compounds were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute normative. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The oil was extracted by chloroform/ methanol and precipitated crude (AmPtO and supernatant oils (AmSO were obtained. The fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and total compounds by HPLC-DAD. BALB/C mice received AmPtO and AmSO (0.5 and 1.0mL·Kg-1 for 14 days. Toxicity parameters were assessed. The major fatty acids in the oil were oleic (39.2% and linoleic (33%. HPLC-DAD suggested the presence of acetogenins (annonacin: 595 [M-H]-, with a greater presence in AmPtO. The AmPtO group showed toxicity, which may be related to the acetogenin content in AmPtO. The AmSO group showed no toxicity and this oil has potential for food or medicinal use.

  20. Machine learning for toxicity characterization of organic chemical emissions using USEtox database: Learning the structure of the input space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvuglia, Antonino; Kanevski, Mikhail; Benetto, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    Toxicity characterization of chemical emissions in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a complex task which usually proceeds via multimedia (fate, exposure and effect) models attached to models of dose-response relationships to assess the effects on target. Different models and approaches do exist, but all require a vast amount of data on the properties of the chemical compounds being assessed, which are hard to collect or hardly publicly available (especially for thousands of less common or newly developed chemicals), therefore hampering in practice the assessment in LCA. An example is USEtox, a consensual model for the characterization of human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity. This paper places itself in a line of research aiming at providing a methodology to reduce the number of input parameters necessary to run multimedia fate models, focusing in particular to the application of the USEtox toxicity model. By focusing on USEtox, in this paper two main goals are pursued: 1) performing an extensive exploratory analysis (using dimensionality reduction techniques) of the input space constituted by the substance-specific properties at the aim of detecting particular patterns in the data manifold and estimating the dimension of the subspace in which the data manifold actually lies; and 2) exploring the application of a set of linear models, based on partial least squares (PLS) regression, as well as a nonlinear model (general regression neural network--GRNN) in the seek for an automatic selection strategy of the most informative variables according to the modelled output (USEtox factor). After extensive analysis, the intrinsic dimension of the input manifold has been identified between three and four. The variables selected as most informative may vary according to the output modelled and the model used, but for the toxicity factors modelled in this paper the input variables selected as most informative are coherent with prior expectations based on scientific knowledge

  1. Characterization of aircraft deicer and anti-icer components and toxicity in airport snowbanks and snowmelt runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; Rice, C.P.; Sheesley, R.J.; Failey, G.G.; Cancilla, Devon A.

    2006-01-01

    Snowbank samples were collected from snowbanks within a medium-sized airport for four years to characterize aircraft deicer and anti-icer (ADAF) components and toxicity. Concentrations of ADAF components varied with median glycol concentrations from individual sampling periods ranging from 65 to 5940 mg/L. Glycol content in snowbanks ranged from 0.17 to 11.4% of that applied to aircraft. Glycol, a freezing point depressant, was selectively removed during melt periods before snow and ice resulting in lower glycol concentrations after melt periods. Concentrations of ADAF components in airport runoff were similar during periods of snowmelt as compared to active ADAF application periods; however, due to the long duration of snowmelt events, greater masses of glycol were transported during snowmelt events. Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO), selected APEO degradation products, and 4- and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole were detected in snowbank samples and airport snowmelt. Concentrations of APEO parent products were greater in snowbank samples than in runoff samples. Relative abundance of APEO degradation products increased in the downstream direction from the snowbank to the outfalls and the receiving stream with respect to APEO parent compounds and glycol. Toxicity in Microtox assays remained in snowbanks after most glycol had been removed during melt periods. Increased toxicity in airport snowbanks as compared to other urban snowbanks was not explained by additional combustion or fuel contribution in airport snow. Organic markers suggest ADAF additives as a possible explanation for this increased toxicity. Results indicate that glycol cannot be used as a surrogate for fate and transport of other ADAF components. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  2. Molecular and immunological characterization of gluten proteins isolated from oat cultivars that differ in toxicity for celiac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Real

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Traditionally, treatment with a GFD has excluded wheat, barley and rye, while the presence of oats is a subject of debate. The most-recent research indicates that some cultivars of oats can be a safe part of a GFD. In order to elucidate the toxicity of the prolamins from oat varieties with low, medium, and high CD toxicity, the avenin genes of these varieties were cloned and sequenced, and their expression quantified throughout the grain development. At the protein level, we have accomplished an exhaustive characterization and quantification of avenins by RP-HPLC and an analysis of immunogenicity of peptides present in prolamins of different oat cultivars. Avenin sequences were classified into three different groups, which have homology with S-rich prolamins of Triticeae. Avenin proteins presented a lower proline content than that of wheat gliadin; this may contribute to the low toxicity shown by oat avenins. The expression of avenin genes throughout the development stages has shown a pattern similar to that of prolamins of wheat and barley. RP-HPLC chromatograms showed protein peaks in the alcohol-soluble and reduced-soluble fractions. Therefore, oat grains had both monomeric and polymeric avenins, termed in this paper gliadin- and glutenin-like avenins. We found a direct correlation between the immunogenicity of the different oat varieties and the presence of the specific peptides with a higher/lower potential immunotoxicity. The specific peptides from the oat variety with the highest toxicity have shown a higher potential immunotoxicity. These results suggest that there is wide range of variation of potential immunotoxicity of oat cultivars that could be due to differences in the degree of immunogenicity in their sequences.

  3. Seismic hazard characterization of 69 nuclear plant sites east of the Rocky Mountains: Results and discussion for the Batch 4 sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Savy, J.B.; Mensing, R.W.; Chen, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The EUS Seismic Hazard Characterization Project (SHC) is the outgrowth of an earlier study performed as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The objectives of the SHC were: (1) to develop a seismic hazard characterization methodology for the region east of the Rocky Mountains (EUS), and (2) the application of the methodology to 69 site locations, some of them with several local soil conditions. The method developed uses expert opinions to obtain the input to the analyses. An important aspect of the elicitation of the expert opinion process was the holding of two feedback meetings with all the experts in order to finalize the methodology and the input data bases. The hazard estimates are reported in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 5% damping velocity response spectra (PSV). A total of eight volumes make up this report which contains a thorough description of the methodology, the expert opinion's elicitation process, the input data base as well as a discussion, comparison and summary volume (Volume 6). Consistent with previous analyses, this study finds that there are large uncertainties associated with the estimates of seismic hazard in the EUS, and it identifies the ground motion modeling as the prime contributor to those uncertainties. This document, Volume 5, provides the seismic hazard estimates for the 17 sites in ''Batch 4''

  4. Synthesis and characterization of some inorganic ion exchange materials and its application in the treatment of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, A.B.I.M.

    2008-01-01

    inorganic ion exchange materials play an important role in the last decays in the fields of industry, medicine, agriculture and nuclear technology due to their stabilities towards thermal and radiation and their resistance to chemical attack. the most important property of inorganic ion exchangers enabling their use in the various chemical separation is the selectivity. the selectivity behaviour of synthetic inorganic ion exchanges are still far from being clearly understood. this work had been done in an attempt to synthesize of inorganic ion exchangers such as zircon-titanate and doping alkali metals with zircon-titanate to produce a new developed ion exchanger with properties allow to used in the treatment of hazardous wastes. this work is concerned with the preparation of zircon-titanate and the doping of some alkali metals (K,Na,Li and Cs)with zircon-titanate. characterization of the synthesized ion exchangers using x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, infrared spectroscopy, surface area and thermal analysis were conducted. equilibrium measurements and effect of batch factor, ph of the medium on percent uptake were determined. capacity measurements and sorption isotherm studies were also investigated on zircon-titanate and its dopant products.

  5. Relationships between nuclear magnetic resonance parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity in central Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Stella Maris; Barquin, Mercedes; Katusich, Ofelia; Nudelman, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill in the Central Patagonian zone was studied to evaluate if any relationship exists between the parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity for two plant species and to evaluate if the phytotoxicity to local species would be a good index for the soil contamination. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural indexes and column chromatography compositional indexes were determined to characterize the oil spill in the soil samples. Bioassays were also carried out using Lactuca sativa L (reference) and Atriplex lampa (native species) as test organisms. Measurements of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and the electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil were carried out to evaluate the effect on the bioassays. The principal components analysis of the parameters determined by NMR, compositional indexes, EC, TPH, and toxicology data shows that the first three principal components accounted for the 78% of the total variance (40%, 25%, and 13% for the first, second, and third PC, respectively). A good agreement was found between information obtained by compositional indexes and NMR structural indexes. Soil toxicity increases with the increase of EC and TPH. Other factors, such as, the presence of branched and aromatic hydrocarbons is also significant. The statistical evaluation showed that the Euclidean distances (3D) between the background and each one of the samples might be a better indicator of the soil contamination, compared with chemical criterion of TPH.

  6. A model used to derive hazardous waste concentration limits aiming at the reduction of toxic and hazardous wastes. Applications to illustrate the discharge of secondary categories types B and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.

    1989-11-01

    This report describes a model which may be used to derive hazardous waste concentration limits in order to prevent ground water pollution from a landfill disposal. First the leachate concentration limits are determined taking into account the attenuation capacity of the landfill-site as a whole; waste concentrations are then derived by an elution model which assumes a constant ratio between liquid-solid concentrations. In the example two types of landfill have been considered and in each case concentration limits have been calculated for some hazardous substances and compared with the corresponding regulatory limits. (author)

  7. Hazardous and other element characterization of new and used domestic plastic food containers using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.; Siddique, N.

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) methodology was developed to characterize the inorganic trace element constituents in new and used domestic plastic food containers. INAA was employed through the variation of irradiation, cooling and counting protocols for the determination of Al, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Th, Ti, V and Zn while FAAS was used to quantify toxic inorganic elements such as Cd, Pb and Cu. These elements are thought to originate from the polymer manufacturing processes. It was found that there was gradual increase in the concentration of most of these elements from new to used plastic samples. Moreover it was also observed that these inorganic elements are present in higher concentrations in the lower grade containers as compared to the high quality containers. It was also observed that the good quality containers even with the long usage do not degrade to such an extent as the low quality containers. (Orig./A.B.)

  8. Implementation and certification of Quality Assurance in the toxic and hazards waste management; Implantacion y certificacion de un sistema de calidad en la gestion de residuos toxicos y peligrosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L.C.; Rovira, E.

    1997-09-01

    Centro de Transferencia, S.A. (CETRANSA), belonging to TECMED Group (Tecnicas Medioambientales), has been the first spanish company in their sector (toxics and hazardous waste management), obtaining AENOR`s Registered Enterprise (ER), in accordance with ISO-9002 international reference norma. Following up, the most outstanding aspects related both, Quality Assurance implementation and certification processes carried out. Every thing with the goal to offer a common base, but specific, in focusing the quality challenge for other companies or Institutions in tight link with environmental approach. (Author)

  9. Building and characterizing regional and global emission inventories of toxic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Sala, Serenella; Laurent, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    To define consistent strategies for managing the environmental sustainability of chemicals, it is important to quantify the magnitude of their emissions and their associated impacts. Not all countries monitor and report emissions related to their activities. This is particularly the case for chem......To define consistent strategies for managing the environmental sustainability of chemicals, it is important to quantify the magnitude of their emissions and their associated impacts. Not all countries monitor and report emissions related to their activities. This is particularly the case...... for chemical emissions, whose toxic impacts on human health and ecosystems cannot be readily determined due to gaps in the available data. Emission data that can be retrieved from publicly available databases are typically restricted to a limited number of toxic substances, for a few countries......, or for aggregated regions. Extrapolation strategies are thus needed to fill in those data gaps and to move from the consideration of single countries or regions to the world scale. Little is known about how effective these strategies are in extrapolating emissions. Using emission data available in public databases...

  10. Use of an oiled gravel column dosing system to characterize exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    In August 2005, a freight train derailment near the shore of Lake Wabamun near Edmonton, Alberta resulted in the release of nearly 150,000 litres of Bunker C oil on the lakeshore. The purpose of this study was to define the toxic load of oil in sediments to better describe the exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates. Heavy Bunker C fuel contains a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly the 3-4 ringed alkylated forms that cause sublethal toxic responses in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments where fish spawn. This study evaluated how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to trout embryo. Flow-through oiled gravel columns were used to determine whether the toxic constituents of heavy oil are transferred to water quickly enough to cause toxicity. Embryonic trout exposed to the outflow of these columns showed signs of sublethal toxicity and dose-dependent mortality. In addition, column output of hydrocarbons and CYP1A induction in fish were flow-dependent. The desorption kinetics of the gravel column dosing was characterized in order to evaluate the toxicity of oil on these substrates and relate it back to toxicity of oil in sediments. The time to steady-state desorption of oil constituents in water was first determined, and then the rate at which different classes of oil constituents partition into water were identified.

  11. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  12. Synthesis, characterization and toxicity of azanonaborane-containing imidazoles for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zaria, Mohamed E.; Genady, Afaf R.; Gabel, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The exo-NH 2 R group of the azanonaborane of the type [(RH 2 N)B 8 H 11 NHR] can be exchanged by one hetero-nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring. In the case of histamine, the exchange takes place on the aliphatic amino group, the hetero-nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring or both of them. In vitro experiments using B16 melanoma cells showed that incorporation of B 8 N cluster unit into primary amino group of the histamine increases the compound's toxicity. In contrast, this specificity for cytotoxicity effect was not observed in the case of histamine containing two B 8 N clusters which was relatively nontoxic and did not inhibit colony formation up to 2 mM. (author)

  13. Metals and cocoa products: a study on characterization of toxic and essential metals in chocolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) were assessed in 32 commonly consumed cocoa products (chocolates) prepared by different national and multinational companies. Significant differences were observed between the micro element contents of these varieties (P < 0.01). Frequent consumption of chocolates can enhance the intake of toxic metals in children. The concentration of Pb and Cd in cocoa powder is found to be highest 492 and 197 mu g/L followed by cocoa based chocolates 306 and 46.8 mu g/L, sugar based chocolates 209.8 and 40.3 mu g/L whereas it is least in milk based chocolates samples 88.3 and 33 mu g/L respectively. Weekly intake of toxic metals Pb, Cd and Ni was also calculated. Mean concentration of Pb and Cd was found below the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO. All essential elements were assessed for their weekly intake with the dietary reference intakes (DRI). Results were validated through the analysis of certified reference materials and determined metals concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Data was interpreted through cluster analysis and pattern recognition as depicted. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Fe were found to be highest in the cocoa-based followed by milk-based and sugar-based chocolates. The daily intake of cocoa-based chocolates must be reduced as lead and cadmium intake can otherwise cross the limits set by Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO 2006). Raw materials should be checked before use for metal contents in order to decrease the concentrations of these metals in final chocolate products. (Orig./A.B.)

  14. Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ajab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals.

  15. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  16. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    bioactivation process, depending on the particular HAN and the enzyme involved. HANs can inhibit CYP2E1-mediated metabolism, an effect which may be dependent on a covalent interaction with the enzyme. In addition, HAN compounds inhibit GST-mediated conjugation, but this effect is reversible upon dialysis, indicating that the interaction does not represent covalent binding. No subchronic studies of HAN toxicity are available in the literature. However, studies show that HANs produce developmental toxicity in experimental animals. The nature of developmental toxicity is affected by the type of administration vehicle, which renders interpretation of results more difficult. Skin tumors have been found following dermal application of HANs, but oral studies for carcinogenicity are negative. Pulmonary adenomas were increased following oral administration of HANs, but the A/J strain of mice employed has a characteristically high background rate of such tumors. HANs interact with DNA to produce unscheduled DNA repair, SCE and reverse mutations in Salmonella. HANs did not induce micronuclei or cause alterations in sperm head morphology in mice, but did induce micronuclei in newts. Thus, there is concern for the potential carcinogenicity of HANs. It would be valuable to delineate any relationship between the apparent threshold for micronuclei formation in newts and the potential mechanism of toxicity involving HAN-induced oxidative stress. Dose-response studies in rodents may provide useful information on toxicity mechanisms and dose selection for longer term toxicity studies. Additional studies are warranted before drawing firm conclusions on the hazards of HAN exposure. Moreover, additional studies on HAN-DNA and HAN-protein interaction mechanisms, are needed. Such studies can better characterize the role of metabolism in toxicity of individual HANs, and delineate the role of oxidative stress, both of which enhance the capacity to predict risk. Most needed, now, are new subchronic (and

  17. Characterization of organotypic ventral mesencephalic cultures from embryonic mice and protection against MPP toxicity by GDNF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B; Gramsbergen, J B; Møller Dall, A

    2005-01-01

    We characterized organotypic ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures derived from embryonic day 12 (E12) mice (CBL57/bL6) in terms of number of dopaminergic neurons, cell soma size and dopamine production in relation to time in vitro and tested the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and ...

  18. [Elimination of toxic compounds, biological evaluation and partial characterization of the protein from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Juárez, L A; Trejo González, A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new methodology to remove the toxic compounds present in jojoba meal and flour. Also, to perform the biological evaluation of the detoxified products and to chemically characterize the protein fractions. Jojoba meal and seed without testa were deffated with hexane and detoxified with a 7:3 isopropanol-water mixture which removed 86% of total phenolic compounds and 100% of simmondsins originally present, the resulting products had reduced bitterness and caused no deaths on experimental animals. NPR values obtained for diets containing such products were significantly different from those obtained with the casein control (p less than 0.05). Total protein was made up of three different fractions: the water-soluble fraction was the most abundant (61.8%), followed by the salt-soluble (23.6%), and the alkaline soluble fraction (14.6%). The nitrogen solubility curves showed that the isoelectric point for the water-soluble and salt-soluble fractions was pH 3.0, while that of the alkaline fraction fell in the range of 4.5-5.0. All fractions had a maximum solubility at pH 7.0. The methodology reported here, offers a viable solution to eliminate toxic compounds from jojoba meal or seeds, and upgrades the potential use of products such as animal feed or raw material for the production of protein isolates.

  19. Metal toxicity characterization factors for marine ecosystems: considering the importance of the estuary for freshwater emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    The study develops site-dependent characterization factors (CFs) for marine ecotoxicity of metals emitted to freshwater, taking their passage of the estuary into account. To serve life cycle assessment (LCA) studies where emission location is often unknown, site-generic marine CFs were developed...... with an estuary removal process to calculate FF. BF and EF were taken from Dong et al. Environ Sci Technol 50:269–278 (2016). Site-generic marine CFs were derived from site-dependent marine CFs. Different averaging principles were tested, and the approach representing estuary discharge rate was identified...... between both methods. Accounting for estuary removal particularly influences marine ecotoxicity CFs for emission to freshwater of metals that have a strong tendency to complex-bind to particles. It indicates the importance of including estuary in the characterization modelling when dealing with those...

  20. Metals and cocoa products: a study on characterization of toxic and essential metals in chocolates (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Husnain, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometer (both with FAAS and GFAAS modes of atomization), was used for analyzing essential and toxic metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd) contents in 32 commonly consumed cocoa products (chocolates) prepared by different national and multinational companies. Significant differences were observed between the micro element contents of the 32 varieties (P < 0.01). The risk posed by the quantity of heavy metals lead, cadmium and nickel present in cocoa products (chocolates) is of serious apprehension and weekly intake was calculated. The Concentration of Pb and Cd in cocoa powder is found to be highest 492 and 197 mu g/L followed by cocoa based chocolates 306 and 46.8 mu g/L, sugar based chocolates 209.8 and 40.3 mu g/L whereas it is least in milk based chocolates samples 88.3 and 33 mu g/L respectively. The concentration of Pb and Cd was found below the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO. All essential elements were assessed for their weekly intake with the dietary reference intakes. In order to validate our results, certified reference material (Wheat flour 1589, Milk powder A-11 and Milk Powder A-8) were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd levels. Determined concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Data was interpreted through cluster analysis and pattern recognition. (author)

  1. Characterization of Morus species in respect to micro, macro, and toxic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Marija M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the mineral composition of the extracts of the fruits, leaves and roots of white mulberry (Morus alba L. and black mulberry (Morus nigra L. grown in Serbia. All extract samples of white and black mulberry were analyzed for the content of micro (B, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Zn, macro (Ca, Mg, Na, and toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The study revealed that parts of the plant had statistically significant impact on the levels of the examined elements among the two Morus species. All extracts contained high amounts of Ca, Mg, Na, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The studies showed that in the most of extracts dominant macro element was Mg (591- 1942 μg/g of dry extract, while dominant microelements were Zn, B, Cu in all extracts, except for the black mulberry leaves, whose extract was most abundant in Fe (143 μg/g of dry extract. The highest content of micro and macro elements was detected in the extract of black mulberry leaves. This work contributes to the knowledge of the nutritional properties of Morus species. The obtained results may be useful in the evaluation of new dietary and food products.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31013

  2. Wastewater/Storm Water Characterization and Toxicity Identification Evaluation, Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    support the NPDES permit renewal appl ication. the studies should collect sufficient data to characterize waste streams, including wastewater and WINTP...26Apr 1 30Apr I 1May I 2May Arsenic I uiI ᝺ ᝺i ᝺  ᝺! ᝺ Barium I ug l I i  . 4001 SWot 1000 " 2600 Beryllium J ug 1 ᝺ <o 0 <o

  3. Calculation characterization of spent fuel hazard related to partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A. S.; Bergelson, B. R.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Volovik, A.I. . E-mail of corresponding author: geras@itep.ru; Gerasimov, A.S.)

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity is one of important characteristics of radwaste hazard. Radiotoxicity of actinides and fission products from spent fuel of VVER-1000 reactor for processes of burnup, long-term storage, and transmutation is discussed. (author)

  4. THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROID 2004 BL86: A FRAGMENT OF A DIFFERENTIATED ASTEROID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Takir, Driss; Corre, Lucille Le [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell Road, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gary, Bruce L. [Hereford Arizona Observatory, Hereford, AZ 85615 (United States); Thomas, Cristina A. [NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hardersen, Paul S. [Department of Space Studies, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 (United States); Ogmen, Yenal [Green Island Observatory, Geçitkale, Maǧusa, via Mersin 10  North Cyprus (Turkey); Benni, Paul [Acton Sky Portal, 3 Concetta Circle, Acton, MA 01720 (United States); Kaye, Thomas G. [Raemor Vista Observatory, Sierra Vista, AZ 85650 (United States); Gregorio, Joao [Atalaia Group, Crow Observatory (Portalegre) Travessa da Cidreira, 2 rc D, 2645-039 Alcabideche (Portugal); Garlitz, Joe [1155 Hartford Street, Elgin, OR 97827 (United States); Polishook, David [Weizmann Institute of Science, Herzl Street 234, Rehovot, 7610001 (Israel); Nathues, Andreas, E-mail: reddy@psi.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-09-20

    The physical characterization of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) is important for impact hazard assessment and evaluating mitigation options. Close flybys of PHAs provide an opportunity to study their surface photometric and spectral properties that enable the identification of their source regions in the main asteroid belt. We observed PHA (357439) 2004 BL86 during a close flyby of the Earth at a distance of 1.2 million km (0.0080 AU) on 2015 January 26, with an array of ground-based telescopes to constrain its photometric and spectral properties. Lightcurve observations showed that the asteroid was a binary and subsequent radar observations confirmed the binary nature and gave a primary diameter of 300 m and a secondary diameter of 50–100 m. Our photometric observations were used to derive the phase curve of 2004 BL86 in the V-band. Two different photometric functions were fitted to this phase curve, the IAU H–G model and the Shevchenko model. From the fit of the H–G function we obtained an absolute magnitude of H = 19.51 ± 0.02 and a slope parameter of G = 0.34 ± 0.02. The Shevchenko function yielded an absolute magnitude of H = 19.03 ± 0.07 and a phase coefficient b = 0.0225 ± 0.0006. The phase coefficient was used to calculate the geometric albedo (Ag) using the relationship found by Belskaya and Schevchenko, obtaining a value of Ag = 40% ± 8% in the V-band. With the geometric albedo and the absolute magnitudes derived from the H–G and the Shevchenko functions we calculated the diameter (D) of 2004 BL86, obtaining D = 263 ± 26 and D = 328 ± 35 m, respectively. 2004 BL86 spectral band parameters and pyroxene chemistry are consistent with non-cumulate eucrite meteorites. A majority of these meteorites are derived from Vesta and are analogous with surface lava flows on a differentiated parent body. A non-diagnostic spectral curve match using the Modeling for Asteroids tool yielded a best-match with non-cumulate eucrite Bereba. Three other

  5. Characterization and preliminary toxicity assay of nano-titanium dioxide additive in sugar-coated chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Xin; Cheng, Bin; Yang, Yi-Xin; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Jia-Hui; Du, Li-Jing; Liu, Yuanfang; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Haifang

    2013-05-27

    Nanotechnology shows great potential for producing food with higher quality and better taste through including new additives, improving nutrient delivery, and using better packaging. However, lack of investigations on safety issues of nanofood has resulted in public fears. How to characterize engineered nanomaterials in food and assess the toxicity and health impact of nanofood remains a big challenge. Herein, a facile and highly reliable separation method of TiO2 particles from food products (focusing on sugar-coated chewing gum) is reported, and the first comprehensive characterization study on food nanoparticles by multiple qualitative and quantitative methods is provided. The detailed information on nanoparticles in gum includes chemical composition, morphology, size distribution, crystalline phase, particle and mass concentration, surface charge, and aggregation state. Surprisingly, the results show that the number of food products containing nano-TiO2 (TiO2 in gum is nano-TiO2 , and it is unexpectedly easy to come out and be swallowed by a person who chews gum. Preliminary cytotoxicity assays show that the gum nano-TiO2 particles are relatively safe for gastrointestinal cells within 24 h even at a concentration of 200 μg mL(-1) . This comprehensive study demonstrates accurate physicochemical property, exposure, and cytotoxicity information on engineered nanoparticles in food, which is a prerequisite for the successful safety assessment of nanofood products. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, release kinetics and toxicity profile of drug-loaded starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; El-Rafie, M H; El-sheikh, M A; El-Feky, Gina S; Hebeish, A

    2015-11-01

    The current research work focuses on the medical application of the cost-effective cross-linked starch nanoparticles, for the transdermal delivery using Diclofenac sodium (DS) as a model drug. The prepared DS-cross-linked starch nanoparticles were synthesized using nanoprecipitation technique at different concentrations of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) in the presence of Tween 80 as a surfactant. The resultant cross-linked starch nanoparticles loaded with DS were characterized using world-class facilities such as TEM, DLS, FT-IR, XRD, and DSc. The efficiency of DS loading was also evaluated via entrapment efficiency as well as in vitro release and histopathological study on rat skin. The optimum nanoparticles formulation selected by the JMP(®) software was the formula that composed of 5% maize starch, 57.7mg DS and 0.5% STPP and 0.4% Tween 80, with particle diameter of about 21.04nm, polydispersity index of 0.2 and zeta potential of -35.3mV. It is also worth noting that this selected formula shows an average entrapment efficiency of 95.01 and sustained DS release up to 6h. The histophathological studies using the best formula on rat skin advocate the use of designed transdermal DS loaded cross-linked starch nanoparticles as it is safe and non-irritant to rat skin. The overall results indicate that, the starch nanoparticles could be considered as a good carrier for DS drug regarding the enhancement in its controlled release and successful permeation, thus, offering a promising nanoparticulate system for the transdermal delivery non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodegradable polymeric system for cisplatin delivery: Development, in vitro characterization and investigation of toxicity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Noor; Khare, Vaibhav; Dubey, Ravindra; Saneja, Ankit; Kushwaha, Manoj; Singh, Gurdarshan; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Balkrishan; Gupta, Prem N.

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent anticancer agent used in the treatment of various solid tumors, however, its clinical use is limited due to severe adverse effects including nephrotoxicity. In this investigation cisplatin loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were developed and characterized for various in vitro characteristics including size distribution, zeta potential, drug loading and release profile. PLGA nanoparticles were successfully developed as investigated using scanning electron microscopy and exhibited average particles size and zeta potential as 284.8 nm and − 15.8 mV, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry indicated an absence of any polymer–drug interactions. Cisplatin nanoparticles exhibited in vitro anticancer activity against A549 cells comparable to that of cisplatin solution. The biodistribution study in mice indicated that the kidney cisplatin level was significantly (p < 0.01) lower with cisplatin nanoparticles than cisplatin solution. Following two cycles of cisplatin treatment, a week apart, blood urea nitrogen level was found to be higher in case of cisplatin solution as compared to cisplatin nanoparticles. Further, there was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in plasma creatinine level in case of cisplatin solution as compared to cisplatin nanoparticles. Histopathological examination of kidney from cisplatin nanoparticles treated group revealed no kidney damage, however, a sign of nephrotoxicity was observed in the case of cisplatin solution. The results suggest that PLGA nanoparticle based formulation could be a potential option for cisplatin delivery. - Highlights: • Cisplatin is detected by LCMS following complexation with DDTC. • Nanoparticles showed lower cisplatin accumulation in the kidney. • Nephrotoxicity was evaluated by BUN and creatinine level and by histopathology. • Nanoparticles exhibited lower nephrotoxicity

  8. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...

  9. Chemical hazards analysis of resilient flooring for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Tom; Silas, Julie; Vallette, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses resilient flooring, evaluating the potential health effects of vinyl flooring and the leading alternatives-synthetic rubber, polyolefin, and linoleum-currently used in the healthcare marketplace. The study inventories chemicals incorporated as components of each of the four material types or involved in their life cycle as feedstocks, intermediary chemicals, or emissions. It then characterizes those chemicals using a chemical hazard-based framework that addresses persistence and bioaccumulation, human toxicity, and human exposures.

  10. Toxicity of organic chemical pollution in groundwater downgradient of a landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Jensen, S. D.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and distribution of toxicity related to organic chemical contaminants in the leachate plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark). A total of 27 groundwater samples were preconcentrated by solidphase extraction (SPE) using XAD-2...... bioassays, it was concluded that SPE extracts of groundwater collected close to the landfill were toxic. The toxicity decreased with the distance from the landfill. At distances greater than 80 m from the border of the landfill, the groundwater toxicity was not significantly different from the background...... characterization and hazard ranking of groundwater polluted with complex chemical mixtures, such as landfill leachates....

  11. Solidification process for toxic and hazardous wastes. Second part: Cement solidification matrices; Inertizzazione di rifiuti tossici e nocivi (RTN). Parte seconda: Inertizzazione in matrici cementizie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, A; Arcuri, L; Dotti, M; Pace, A; Pietrelli, L; Ricci, G [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy); Basta, M; Cali, V; Pagliai, V [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Saluggia (Italy)

    1989-05-15

    This paper reports the second part of a general study carried out at the Nuclear Fuel Division aiming at verifying the possible application of the radioactive waste solidification processes to industrial hazardous wastes (RTN). The cement solidification of several RTN types has been taken into consideration, both from the technical and from the economic point of view. After a short examination of the Italian juridical and economical situation in the field, which demonstrates the need of the RTN solidification, the origin and characteristics of the RTN considered in the study and directly provided by the producing industries are reviewed. The laboratory experimental results of the cementation of RTN produced by gold manufacturing industries and by galvanic industries are reported. The cementation process can be considered a very effective mean for reducing both the RTN management costs and the environmental impact of RTN disposal. (author)

  12. Synthesis characterization and toxicity of lanthanide complexes with schiff bases derived from S-benzoyl dithiocarbazate and aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqi, K S; Tabassum, S; Zaidi, S A.A.; Kureshy, R I; Khan, N H [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1989-12-01

    New O:N:S and N:S donor ligands namely, S-benzoyl-N-(o-hydroxybenzaldehyde) dithiocarbazate, S-benzoyl-N-(N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde ) dithiocarbazate, S-benzoyl-N(N-thiophene-2-aldehyde) dithiocarbazate and their complexes with La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Yb(III), and Lu(III) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, NMR and electronic spectroscopy. The nephelauxetic effect(1-{beta}overlined), bonding parameter, {beta}overlined, bsup(1/2) and Sinha covalency parameter {delta}, have been calculated. Their positive values indicate covalent nature of metal-ligand bond which is also supported by their molar conductances measured in nitrobenzene. Magnetic moment values exhibit paramagnetic nature of the complexes. Log K,{Delta}G, {Delta}H and {Delta}S values have also been ca lculated. Toxicity of the compounds has been evaluated against cockroaches and fungi(Aspergillus flavus and A. niger). The LD{sub 50} and % inhibition values demonstrate greater efficacy of the complexes than that of the free bases. (author). 4 tabs., 12 refs.

  13. Synthesis characterization and toxicity of lanthanide complexes with schiff bases derived from S-benzoyl dithiocarbazate and aldehydes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, K.S.; Tabassum, S.; Zaidi, S.A.A.; Kureshy, R.I.; Khan, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    New O:N:S and N:S donor ligands namely, S-benzoyl-N-(o-hydroxybenzaldehyde) dithiocarbazate, S-benzoyl-N-(N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde ) dithiocarbazate, S-benzoyl-N(N-thiophene-2-aldehyde) dithiocarbazate and their complexes with La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), Yb(III), and Lu(III) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, NMR and electronic spectroscopy. The nephelauxetic effect(1-βoverlined), bonding parameter, βoverlined, bsup(1/2) and Sinha covalency parameter δ, have been calculated. Their positive values indicate covalent nature of metal-ligand bond which is also supported by their molar conductances measured in nitrobenzene. Magnetic moment values exhibit paramagnetic nature of the complexes. Log K,ΔG, ΔH and ΔS values have also been ca lculated. Toxicity of the compounds has been evaluated against cockroaches and fungi(Aspergillus flavus and A. niger). The LD 50 and % inhibition values demonstrate greater efficacy of the complexes than that of the free bases. (author). 4 tabs., 12 refs

  14. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  15. Assessing the environmental hazard of individual and combined pharmaceuticals: acute and chronic toxicity of fluoxetine and propranolol in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, Valentina; Fabbri, Elena; Pasteris, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are widespread emerging contaminants and, like all pollutants, are present in combination with others in the ecosystems. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the toxic response of the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to individual and combined pharmaceuticals. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor widely prescribed as antidepressant, and propranolol, a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent used to treat hypertension, were tested. Several experimental trials of an acute immobilization test and a chronic reproduction test were performed. Single chemicals were first tested separately. Toxicity of binary mixtures was then assessed using a fixed ratio experimental design. Five concentrations and 5 percentages of each substance in the mixture (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) were tested. The MIXTOX model was applied to analyze the experimental results. This tool is a stepwise statistical procedure that evaluates if and how observed data deviate from a reference model, either concentration addition (CA) or independent action (IA), and provides significance testing for synergism, antagonism, or more complex interactions. Acute EC50 values ranged from 6.4 to 7.8 mg/L for propranolol and from 6.4 to 9.1 mg/L for fluoxetine. Chronic EC50 values ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 mg/L for propranolol and from 0.23 to 0.24 mg/L for fluoxetine. Results showed a significant antagonism between chemicals in both the acute and the chronic mixture tests when CA was adopted as the reference model, while absence of interactive effects when IA was used.

  16. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999

  17. Hazards from radioactive waste in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper compares the hazards from wastes from a 1000-MW(e) nuclear power plant to these from wastes from a 1000-MW(e) coal fueled power plant. The latter hazard is much greater than the former. The toxicity and carcinogenity of the chemicals prodcued in coal burning is emphasized. Comparisions are also made with other toxic chemicals and with natural radioactivity

  18. 30 CFR 47.21 - Identifying hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances. (4) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identifying hazardous chemicals. 47.21 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Hazard Determination § 47.21 Identifying hazardous chemicals. The...

  19. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  20. Assessment of multi-chemical pollution in aquatic ecosystems using toxic units: compound prioritization, mixture characterization and relationships with biological descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginebreda, Antoni; Kuzmanovic, Maja; Guasch, Helena; de Alda, Miren López; López-Doval, Julio C; Muñoz, Isabel; Ricart, Marta; Romaní, Anna M; Sabater, Sergi; Barceló, Damià

    2014-01-15

    Chemical pollution is typically characterized by exposure to multiple rather than to single or a limited number of compounds. Parent compounds, transformation products and other non-targeted compounds yield mixtures whose composition can only be partially identified by monitoring, while a substantial proportion remains unknown. In this context, risk assessment based on the application of additive ecotoxicity models, such as concentration addition (CA), is rendered somewhat misleading. Here, we show that ecotoxicity risk information can be better understood upon consideration of the probabilistic distribution of risk among the different compounds. Toxic units of the compounds identified in a sample fit a lognormal probability distribution. The parameters characterizing this distribution (mean and standard deviation) provide information which can be tentatively interpreted as a measure of the toxic load and its apportionment among the constituents in the mixture (here interpreted as mixture complexity). Furthermore, they provide information for compound prioritization tailored to each site and enable prediction of some of the functional and structural biological variables associated with the receiving ecosystem. The proposed approach was tested in the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain) using exposure and toxicity data (algae and Daphnia) corresponding to 29 pharmaceuticals and 22 pesticides, and 5 structural and functional biological descriptors related to benthic macroinvertebrates (diversity, biomass) and biofilm metrics (diatom quality, chlorophyll-a content and photosynthetic capacity). Aggregated toxic units based on Daphnia and algae bioassays provided a good indication of the pollution pattern of the Llobregat River basin. Relative contribution of pesticides and pharmaceuticals to total toxic load was variable and highly site dependent, the latter group tending to increase its contribution in urban areas. Contaminated sites' toxic load was typically dominated by

  1. Use of Advanced Tsunami Hazard Assessment Techniques and Tsunami Source Characterizations in U.S. and International Nuclear Regulatory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, A. M.; Godoy, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, as well as the anticipation of the submission of license applications for new nuclear facilities, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for nuclear power plants and other coastal facilities in the United States. To undertake this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program jointly undertaken with researchers at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the purpose of assessing tsunami hazard on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. This study identified and modeled both seismic and landslide tsunamigenic sources in the near- and far-field. The results from this work are now being used directly as the basis for the review of tsunami hazard at potential nuclear plant sites. This application once again shows the importance that the earth sciences can play in addressing issues of importance to society. Because the Indian Ocean Tsunami was a global event, a number of cooperative international activities have also been initiated within the nuclear community. The results of US efforts are being incorporated into updated regulatory guidance for both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the United Nation’s International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Coordinated efforts are underway to integrate state-of-the art tsunami warning tools developed by NOAA into NRC and IAEA activities. The goal of the warning systems project is to develop automated protocols that allow scientists at these agencies to have up-to-the minute user-specific information in hand shortly after a potential tsunami has been identified by the US Tsunami Warning System. Lastly, USGS and NOAA scientists are assisting the NRC and IAEA in a special Extra-Budgetary Program (IAEA EBP) on tsunami being coordinated by the IAEA’s International Seismic Safety

  2. Characterization of post-disaster environmental management for Hazardous Materials Incidents: Lessons learnt from the Tianjin warehouse explosion, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Duan, Huabo; Zuo, Jian; Song, MingWei; Zhang, Yukui; Yang, Bo; Niu, Yongning

    2017-09-01

    Hazardous Materials Incidents (HMIs) have attracted a growing public concern worldwide. The health risks and environmental implications associated with HMIs are almost invariably severe, and underscore the urgency for sound management. Hazardous Materials Explosion incidents (HMEIs) belong to a category of extremely serious HMIs. Existing studies placed focuses predominately on the promptness and efficiency of emergency responses to HMIs and HMEIs. By contrast, post-disaster environmental management has been largely overlooked. Very few studies attempted to examine the post-disaster environmental management plan particularly its effectiveness and sufficiency. In the event of the Tianjin warehouse explosion (TWE), apart from the immediate emergency response, the post-disaster environmental management systems (P-EMSs) have been reported to be effective and sufficient in dealing with the environmental concerns. Therefore, this study aims to critically investigate the P-EMSs for the TWE, and consequently to propose a framework and procedures for P-EMSs in general for HMIs, particularly for HMEIs. These findings provide a useful reference to develop P-EMSs for HMIs in the future, not only in China but also other countries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Benthic invertebrate exposure and chronic toxicity risk analysis for cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes: Comparison of hazard quotient and probabilistic risk assessment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodburn, Kent B; Seston, Rita M; Kim, Jaeshin; Powell, David E

    2018-02-01

    This study utilized probabilistic risk assessment techniques to compare field sediment concentrations of the cyclic volatile methylsiloxane (cVMS) materials octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4, CAS # 556-67-2), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5, CAS # 541-02-6), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6, CAS # 540-97-6) to effect levels for these compounds determined in laboratory chronic toxicity tests with benthic organisms. The concentration data for D4/D5/D6 in sediment were individually sorted and the 95th centile concentrations determined in sediment on an organic carbon (OC) fugacity basis. These concentrations were then compared to interpolated 5th centile benthic sediment no-observed effect concentration (NOEC) fugacity levels, calculated from a distribution of chronic D4/D5/D6 toxicologic assays per OECD guidelines using a variety of standard benthic species. The benthic invertebrate fugacity biota NOEC values were then compared to field-measured invertebrate biota fugacity levels to see if risk assessment evaluations were similar on a field sediment and field biota basis. No overlap was noted for D4 and D5 95th centile sediment and biota fugacity levels and their respective 5th centile benthic organism NOEC values. For D6, there was a small level of overlap at the exposure 95th centile sediment fugacity and the 5th centile benthic organism NOEC fugacity value; the sediment fugacities indicate that a negligible risk (1%) exists for benthic species exposed to D6. In contrast, there was no indication of risk when the field invertebrate exposure 95th centile biota fugacity and the 5th centile benthic organism NOEC fugacity values were compared. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  5. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  6. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusinska, Maria; Tulinska, Jana; El Yamani, Naouale; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Rollerova, Eva; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Smolkova, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment. Toxicity can be tested in vivo and in vitro; in compliance with the 3Rs, alternative strategies for in vitro testing should be further developed for NMs. Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. For testing NMs in vitro, a battery of tests should be performed on cells of human origin, either cell lines or primary cells, in conditions as close as possible to an in vivo situation. Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizing Adversity of Lysosomal Accumulation in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies: Results from the 5th ESTP International Expert Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysosomes have a central role in cellular catabolism, trafficking, and processing of foreign particles. Accumulation of endogenous and exogenous materials in lysosomes represents a common finding in nonclinical toxicity studies. Histologically, these accumulations often lack dist...

  8. Waste minimization via destruction of hazardous organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing technologies that are capable of destroying hazardous organics, that is, converting them basically to water and carbon dioxide. If these technologies were incorporated into the main processing operation where the waste is produced, then the volume and toxicity of the hazardous or mix hazardous waste generated would be significantly reduced. This presentation will briefly discuss some of the waste treatment technologies under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on destroying hazardous organics

  9. Characterization of lepidopteran-specific cry1 and cry2 gene harbouring native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates toxic against Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad Lone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt based biopesticides are feasible alternatives to chemical pesticides. Here, we present the distribution of lepidopteran-specific cry1 and cry2 genes in native B. thuringiensis. Forty four out of 86 colonies were found to harbour crystals by phase contrast microscopy exhibiting a Bt index of 0.51. PCR analysis resulted in the amplification of cry1 in 24 and cry2 in 14 isolates. Twelve of the isolates showed presence of both cry1 and cry2, while 18 isolates did not show presence of either of the genes. Toxicity screening using spore-crystal mixtures against 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera revealed that the isolates (50% were either mildly toxic or not toxic (36.36%, and only 13.63% were toxic. The results are interesting, particularly so because the same isolates were previously reported to contain lepidopteran specific vip3A genes also, hence can complement the toxicity of the isolates harbouring vip3A genes.

  10. A tiered analytical protocol for the characterization of heavy oil residues at petroleum-contaminated hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, S.J.T.; Kenefick, S.L.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fuhr, B.J.; Holloway, L.R.; Rawluk, M.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from abandoned refinery sites in Alberta, Canada is used to illustrate a tiered analytical approach to the characterization of complex hydrocarbon wastes. Soil extracts isolated from heavy oil- and creosote-contaminated sites were characterized by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), ultraviolet fluorescence, simulated distillation (GC-SIMDIS) and chemical ionization GC-MS analysis. The combined screening and detailed analytical methods provided information essential to remedial technology selection including the extent of contamination, the class composition of soil extracts, the distillation profile of component classes and the distribution of individual class components within various waste fractions. Residual contamination was characteristic of heavy, degraded oils, consistent with documented site operations and length of hydrocarbon exposure at the soil surface

  11. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  12. UV-visible degradation of boscalid--structural characterization of photoproducts and potential toxicity using in silico tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Yannick; Kinani, Aziz; Rifai, Ahmad; Souissi, Yasmine; Clavaguera, Carine; Bourcier, Sophie; Jaber, Farouk; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2014-05-30

    Boscalid is a carboximide fungicide mainly used for vineyard protection as well as for tomato, apple, blueberry and various ornamental cultivations. The structural elucidation of by-products arising from the UV-visible photodegradation of boscalid has been investigated by gas chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry (GC/MS(n) ) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) couplings. The potential toxicities of transformation products were estimated by in silico calculations. Aqueous solutions of boscalid were irradiated up to 150 min in a self-made reactor equipped with a mercury lamp. Analyses were carried out using a gas chromatograph coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in both electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes and a liquid chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer operated in electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. Multiple-stage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed to establish dissociation pathways of ions. The QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) T.E.S.T. program allowed the estimation of the toxicities of the by-products. Eight photoproducts were investigated. Chemical structures were proposed not only on the interpretation of multi-stage CID experiments, but also on kinetics data. These structures led us to suggest photodegradation pathways. Three photoproducts were finally detected in Lebanon in a real sample of grape leaves for which routine analysis had led to the detection of boscalid at 4 mg kg(-1). With one exception, the structures proposed for the photoproducts on the basis of mass spectra interpretation have not been reported in previous studies. In silico toxicity predictions showed that two photoproducts are potentially more toxic than the parent compound considering oral rat LD50 while five photoproducts may induce mutagenic toxicity. With the exception of one compound, all photoproducts may

  13. UV-visible degradation of boscalid- structural characterization of photoproducts and potential toxicity using in silico tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, A.; Jaber, F.; Lassalle, Y.; Kinani, A.; Souissi, Y.; Clavaguera, C.; Bourcier, S.; Bouchonnet, St.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Boscalid is a carboximide fungicide mainly used for vineyard protection as well as for tomato, apple, blueberry and various ornamental cultivations. The structural elucidation of by-products arising from the UV-visible photodegradation of boscalid has been investigated by gas chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) couplings. The potential toxicities of transformation products were estimated by in silico calculations. METHODS: Aqueous solutions of boscalid were irradiated up to 150 min in a self-made reactor equipped with a mercury lamp. Analyses were carried out using a gas chromatograph coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in both electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes and a liquid chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer operated in electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. Multiple-stage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed to establish dissociation pathways of ions. The QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) T.E.S.T. program allowed the estimation of the toxicities of the by-products. RESULTS: Eight photoproducts were investigated. Chemical structures were proposed not only on the interpretation of multi-stage CID experiments, but also on kinetics data. These structures led us to suggest photodegradation pathways. Three photoproducts were finally detected in Lebanon in a real sample of grape leaves for which routine analysis had led to the detection of boscalid at 4 mg kg1. CONCLUSIONS: With one exception, the structures proposed for the photoproducts on the basis of mass spectra interpretation have not been reported in previous studies. In silico toxicity predictions showed that two photoproducts are potentially more toxic than the parent compound considering oral rat LD50 while five photoproducts may induce mutagenic toxicity. With the exception of one compound

  14. Schiff Bases of Benzothiazol-2-ylamine and Thiazolo[5,4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine as Anticonvulsants: Synthesis, Characterization and Toxicity Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rashmi; Singh, Ajeet P; Sonar, Pankaj K; Mishra, Mudita; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2016-01-01

    Schiff bases have a broad spectrum of biological activities like antiinflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, anticancer, antioxidant, anthelmintic and so forth. Thus, after a thorough perusal of literature, it was decided to conjugate benzothiazol-2-ylamine/thiazolo [5, 4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine with aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes to get a series of Schiff bases. Synthesis, characterization, in-silico toxicity profiling and anticonvulsant activity of the Schiff bases of Benzothiazol-2-ylamine and Thiazolo [5, 4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine. Aniline/4-aminopyridine was converted to the corresponding thiourea derivatives, which were cyclized to obtain benzothiazol-2-ylamine/thiazolo [5, 4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine. Finally, these were condensed with various aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes to obtain Schiff bases of benzothiazol-2-ylamine and thiazolo [5, 4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine. The synthesized compounds were characterized and screened for their anticonvulsant activity using maximal electroshock (MES) test and isoniazid (INH) induced convulsions test. In-silico toxicity profiling of all the synthesized compounds was done through "Lazar" and "Osiris" properties explorer. Majority of the compounds were more potent against MES induced convulsions than INH induced convulsions. Schiff bases of benzothiazol-2-ylamine were more effective than thiazolo [5, 4-b] pyridin-2-ylamine against MES induced convulsions. The compound benzothiazol-2-yl-(1H-indol-2-ylmethylene)-amine (VI) was the most potent member of the series against both types of convulsions. Compound VI exhibited the most significant activity profile in both the models. The compounds did not exhibit any carcinogenicity or acute toxicity in the in-silico studies. Thus, it may be concluded that the Schiff bases of benzothiazol-2-ylamine exhibit the potential to be promising and non-toxic anticonvulsant agents.

  15. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  16. Characterization of toxin complex gene clusters and insect toxicity of bacteria representing four subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten strains representing four lineages of Pseudomonas (P. chlororaphis, P. corrugata, P. koreensis, and P. fluorescens subgroups) were evaluated for toxicity to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains within the P. chlororaphis subgroup exhibi...

  17. Preparation and characterization of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments for toxicity tests: toward more environmentally realistic nickel partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Ivey, Chris D.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Two spiking methods were compared and nickel (Ni) partitioning was evaluated during a series of toxicity tests with 8 different freshwater sediments having a range of physicochemical characteristics. A 2-step spiking approach with immediate pH adjustment by addition of NaOH at a 2:1 molar ratio to the spiked Ni was effective in producing consistent pH and other chemical characteristics across a range of Ni spiking levels. When Ni was spiked into sediment having a high acid-volatile sulfide and organic matter content, a total equilibration period of at least 10 wk was needed to stabilize Ni partitioning. However, highest spiking levels evidently exceeded sediment binding capacities; therefore, a 7-d equilibration in toxicity test chambers and 8 volume-additions/d of aerobic overlying water were used to avoid unrealistic Ni partitioning during toxicity testing. The 7-d pretest equilibration allowed excess spiked Ni and other ions from pH adjustment to diffuse from sediment porewater and promoted development of an environmentally relevant, 0.5- to 1-cm oxic/suboxic sediment layer in the test chambers. Among the 8 different spiked sediments, the logarithm of sediment/porewater distribution coefficient values (log Kd) for Ni during the toxicity tests ranged from 3.5 to 4.5. These Kd values closely match the range of values reported for various field Ni-contaminated sediments, indicating that testing conditions with our spiked sediments were environmentally realistic.

  18. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty....... As a whole, the assessment of toxicity in LCA has progressed on a very sharp learning curve during the past 20 years. This rapid progression is expected to continue in the coming years, focusing more on direct exposure of workers to chemicals during manufacturing and of consumers during product use...

  19. Hazard analysis in uranium hexafluoride production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Maristhela Passoni de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    The present work provides a method for preliminary hazard analysis of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The proposed method identify both chemical and radiological hazards, as well as the consequences associated with accident scenarios. To illustrate the application of the method, a uranium hexafluoride production facility was selected. The main hazards are identified and the potential consequences are quantified. It was found that, although the facility handles radioactive material, the main hazards as associated with releases of toxic chemical substances such as hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous ammonia and nitric acid. It was shown that a contention bung can effectively reduce the consequences of atmospheric release of toxic materials. (author)

  20. Functional characterizations of venom phenotypes in the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and evidence for expression-driven divergence in toxic activities among populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margres, Mark J.; Walls, Robert; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E.; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes frequently vary across and within species. The connection between specific phenotypic effects and function, however, is less understood despite being essential to our understanding of the adaptive process. Snake venoms are ideal for identifying functionally important phenotypic variation because venom variation is common, and venoms can be functionally characterized through simple assays and toxicity measurements. Previous work with the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) used multivariate statistical approaches to identify six unique venom phenotypes. We functionally characterized hemolytic, gelatinase, fibrinogenolytic, and coagulant activity for all six phenotypes, as well as one additional venom, to determine if the statistically significant differences in toxin expression levels previously documented corresponded to differences in venom activity. In general, statistical differences in toxin expression predicted the identified functional differences, or lack thereof, in toxic activity, demonstrating that the statistical approach used to characterize C. adamanteus venoms was a fair representation of biologically meaningful differences. Minor differences in activity not accounted for by the statistical model may be the result of amino-acid differences and/or post-translational modifications, but overall we were able to link variation in protein expression levels to variation in function as predicted by multivariate statistical approaches. PMID:27179420

  1. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  2. Preparation and characterization of Nano-graphite/TiO_2 composite photoelectrode for photoelectrocatalytic degradation of hazardous pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong; Jia, Jialin; Zhang, Yuhang; Wang, Na; Guo, Xiaolei; Yu, Xiujuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The chemical-coupling Nano-graphite(G)/TiO_2 composite was successfully prepared via a modified sol-gel method and then was fabricated as a photoelectrode by the hot-press approach. Nano-G/TiO_2 photoelectrode displayed high PEC activity and stability, which was attributed to Nano-G as suitable electronic conductors to promote charge collection and charge transport as well as the synergetic effect between PC and EC reactions. - Highlights: • Nano-G/TiO_2 photoelectrode was prepared by the sol-gel and hot-press methods. • Nano-G/TiO_2 photoelectrode exhibited high charges separation performance. • Nano-G/TiO_2 photoelectrode displayed excellent PEC activity. • Contribution of active species for degradation of RhB was investigated. • Enhanced PEC mechanism of Nano-G/TiO_2 photoelectrode was proposed. - Abstract: Nano-graphite(Nano-G)/TiO_2 composite photoelectrode was fabricated via sol-gel reaction, followed by the hot-press approach. The morphology, structure and light absorption capability of composite was characterized by various characterizations. The photoelectrochemical property and photoelectrocatalytic(PEC) activity of photoelectrode were also investigated. Results revealed that anatase TiO_2 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm were dispersed uniformly on the thickness of 2–3 nm Nano-G, and Ti−O−C bond was formed. The absorption edge of Nano-G/TiO_2 photoelectrode was red-shifted towards low energy region and the enhanced visible light absorption was obtained. The charge transfer resistance of Nano-G/TiO_2 photoelectrode was significantly decreased after the addition of Nano-G. And its transient photoinduced current was 10.5 times the value achieved using TiO_2 electrode. Nano-G/TiO_2 photoelectrode displayed greatly enhanced PEC activity of 99.2% towards the degradation of phenol, which was much higher than the 29.1% and 58.3% degradation seen on TiO_2 and Nano-G electrode, respectively. The highly efficient

  3. 1995 Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Fifth edition, pp 1640-1641. Cannon, W.C., E.F. Blanton, and K.E. McDonald . 1983. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. 44(12):923933. Capen, C.C. 1995. In: "Casarett...recirculating gas uptake system with a volume of 8.0 L was used for the estimation of whole animal metabolic constants (Vmaxc, K,,,, and Kfc ) (Gargas...Cannon, W.C., E.F. Blanton, and K.E. McDonald . 1983. The flowpast chamber: an improved nose-only exposure system for rodents. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 44

  4. Disposal of hazardous and toxic waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A repository for waste packages is in the form of a below-ground tunnel having a filled access shaft and lined borehole. A tube passes down through the filling in the access shaft and the tunnel, lined borehole and tube are filled with a plastic substance such as a bentonite clay or bitumen to provide a pressure in the repository greater than the pressure provided by water in the ground around the repository. A trench with a sealing cap can be used as an alternative to a tunnel. (author)

  5. Immune System Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Hazard Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to chemicals may alter immune system health, increasing the risk of infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. The chapter provides a concise overview of the immune system, host factors that affect immune system heal, and the effects that xenobiotic exposure may have ...

  6. 1996 Toxic Hazards Research Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    gasoline , diesel fuel, and jet propulsion (JP) fuel (Staats, 1994). Millions of dollars are spent each year at petroleum contaminated sites for remediation...of locomotor activity and auditory startle reflex tests will be provided in the detailed technical report (in progress). Body Weights and Food...Olfactory Sensitization, Acoustic Startle, Prepulse Inhibition and Habituation, Total Locomotor Activity, Tail Flick Analgesia, and the Treadmill Test of

  7. Towards an integrated approach for characterization of sinkhole hazards in urban environments: the unstable coastal site of Casalabate, Lecce, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delle Rose, Marco; Leucci, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Sinkholes occur in many areas of the world, especially where carbonate rocks crop out. They are formed due to natural processes or caused by man's activities. In both cases, severe consequences have to be registered on the anthropogenic environment and related infrastructures. Knowledge of both the mechanism of the sinkhole formation and the localization of this subtle geohazard is therefore necessary for planners and decision makers to perform the most appropriate and suitable programs of land use and development. The Apulia region of southern Italy is characterized for most of its extension by carbonate rocks, which makes it one of the most remarkable examples of karst in the Mediterranean basin. The sinkhole formation in Apulia urban areas has recently produced severe damages, especially along its coastal planes, where different types of sinkholes occur. The detection of cavities, that could collapse and create a sinkhole, in an urban environment presents numerous difficulties (buried networks, reworked soils, etc). A methodology has been developed to respond to this need based on the integration of four complementary methods: geological analysis of outcrops and existing borehole descriptions, aerophotogrammetric interpretation of aerial photos, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The combination of these methods, applied to a test sector in the city of Casalabate, made it possible to locate the principal karstic conduits beneath the study area and identify a zone of high sinkhole geohazard associated with one such feature

  8. Characterization of a highly toxic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki very similar to the HD-73 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Pozo, Yaritza; Del Rincón-Castro, Ma Cristina; Ibarra, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    The LBIT-1200 strain of Bacillus thuringiensis was recently isolated from soil, and showed a 6.4 and 9.5 increase in toxicity, against Manduca sexta and Trichoplusia ni, respectively, compared to HD-73. However, LBIT-1200 was still highly similar to HD-73, including the production of bipyramidal crystals containing only one protein of ∼130 000 kDa, its flagellin gene sequence related to the kurstaki serotype, plasmid and RepPCR patterns similar to HD-73, no production of β-exotoxin and no presence of VIP genes. Sequencing of its cry gene showed the presence of a cry1Ac-type gene with four amino acid differences, including two amino acid replacements in domain III, compared to Cry1Ac1, which may explain its higher toxicity. In conclusion, the LBIT-1200 strain is a variant of the HD-73 strain but shows a much higher toxicity, which makes this new strain an important candidate to be developed as a bioinsecticide, once it passes other tests, throughout its biotechnological development. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Sun light mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles as carrier for 6-mercaptopurine: Preparation, characterization and toxicity studies in zebrafish embryo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshkumar, Moorthy [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India); Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara [Bioproducts Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai 600020 (India); Sathish Kumar, Muniram [Department of Pharmaceutics, Anna University, Trichy, Tamilnadu (India); Dinesh, Murugan Girija [Thanthai Hansroever College, Perambalur, Tamilnadu (India); Kannappan, Sudalyandi [Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture, Chennai 600028 (India); Suguna, Lonchin, E-mail: slonchin@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Gold nanoparticles prepared using eco-friendly method with good in vitro stability. ► Can be used as drug delivery system. ► Did not show any toxicity in zebrafish embryo. ► More toxic to cancer cells when compared to N-Au-Mp and Mp. -- Abstract: The objective of this study is to synthesize green chemistry based gold nanoparticles by sun light irradiation method. The prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were modified using folic acid and then coupled with 6-mercaptopurine. These modified nanoparticles were used as a tool for targeted drug delivery to treat laryngeal cancer. In the present study, novel bionanocomposites containing nutrient agar coated gold nano particles (N-AuNPs) coupled with 6-mercaptopurine (drug) (N-AuNPs-Mp), folic acid (ligand) (N-AuNPs-Mp-Fa) and rhodamine (dye) (N-AuNPs-Rd), a fluorescent agent, were prepared and characterized by IR, UV, TEM, Particle size analysis and in vitro stability. The toxicity and fluorescence of N-Au was studied using zebrafish embryo model. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free Mp, N-Au-Mp and N-Au-Mp-Fa against HEp-2 cells was compared and found that the amount of Mp required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (IC{sub 50}) was much lower in N-Au-Mp-Fa than in free Mp and N-Au-Mp.

  10. Sun light mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles as carrier for 6-mercaptopurine: Preparation, characterization and toxicity studies in zebrafish embryo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshkumar, Moorthy; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara; Sathish Kumar, Muniram; Dinesh, Murugan Girija; Kannappan, Sudalyandi; Suguna, Lonchin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gold nanoparticles prepared using eco-friendly method with good in vitro stability. ► Can be used as drug delivery system. ► Did not show any toxicity in zebrafish embryo. ► More toxic to cancer cells when compared to N-Au-Mp and Mp. -- Abstract: The objective of this study is to synthesize green chemistry based gold nanoparticles by sun light irradiation method. The prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were modified using folic acid and then coupled with 6-mercaptopurine. These modified nanoparticles were used as a tool for targeted drug delivery to treat laryngeal cancer. In the present study, novel bionanocomposites containing nutrient agar coated gold nano particles (N-AuNPs) coupled with 6-mercaptopurine (drug) (N-AuNPs-Mp), folic acid (ligand) (N-AuNPs-Mp-Fa) and rhodamine (dye) (N-AuNPs-Rd), a fluorescent agent, were prepared and characterized by IR, UV, TEM, Particle size analysis and in vitro stability. The toxicity and fluorescence of N-Au was studied using zebrafish embryo model. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free Mp, N-Au-Mp and N-Au-Mp-Fa against HEp-2 cells was compared and found that the amount of Mp required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (IC 50 ) was much lower in N-Au-Mp-Fa than in free Mp and N-Au-Mp.

  11. Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls

  12. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  14. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  15. Summary reports on some ecotoxicologically hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, H.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on industrial waste water discharge into a public sewage system initiated a study in which the available knowlege on ecologically hazardous materials was compiled. The report contains information on polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitride, pentachlorophenol, and further toxic substances. (UT) [de

  16. FY 1999 cooperation program - Comprehensive research cooperation in environmental technology. Research cooperation in toxic/hazardous waste management in the Laguna de Bay region; 1999 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Kankyo gijutsu sogo kenkyu kyoryoku - Raguna ko chiiki ni okeru yudoku yugai haikibutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing preventive measures for water contamination in the Laguna de Bay region, the Philippines, where the water contamination is in progress and the eutrophication is feared, a research cooperation project was carried out on the water quality contamination monitoring technology (measuring method/analysis method/prediction method). In the survey of the state of generation of toxic/hazardous waste, the following were grasped based on the existing data: amount of use of toxic/hazardous substances in factories, state of generation of waste, situation of the processing/disposal, etc. In the detailed survey of the situation of pollution in the Laguna de Bay region, specimens of water quality and bottom material were collected from the lake and rivers thereinto, and qualitative/quantitative analysis of contaminants was made using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gaschromatograph mass spectrometer. As to the evaluation of pollutant sources and control method, the paper conducted the introduction of measures generally taken against pollutant sources, study of a method to grasp the behavior of contaminants by the environmental assessment method for the closed water area, etc. The training was also conducted for researchers/engineers widely in charge of management of toxic/hazardous waste in the Philippines. (NEDO)

  17. Characterization of DNA topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for toxicity evaluation of camptothecin and hydoxy-camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT, a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1. Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner, a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1 among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337-930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future.

  18. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  19. Application of cell-based assays for toxicity characterization of complex wastewater matrices: Possible applications in wastewater recycle and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Preeti; Naoghare, Pravin K; Gandhi, Deepa; Devi, S Saravana; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Bafana, Amit; Kashyap, Sanjay M; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to pre-concentrated inlet or outlet STP wastewater extracts at different concentrations (0.001% to 1%) induced dose-dependent toxicity in MCF-7 cells, whereas drinking water extracts did not induce cytotoxicity in cells treated. GC-MS analysis revealed the occurrence of xenobiotic compounds (Benzene, Phthalate, etc.) in inlet/outlet wastewater extracts. Cells exposed to inlet/outlet extract showed elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS: inlet: 186.58%, ploss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm: inlet, 74.91%, pcontrol. These concentrations induced DNA damage (Tail length: inlet: 34.4%, pcontrol (Tail length: 7.5%). Cell cycle analysis displayed drastic reduction in the G1 phase in treated cells (inlet, G1:45.0%; outlet, G1:58.3%) compared to the control (G1:67.3%). Treated cells showed 45.18% and 28.0% apoptosis compared to the control (1.2%). Drinking water extracts did not show any significant alterations with respect to ROS, Δψm, DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptosis compared to the control. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis were found to be differentially expressed in cells exposed to inlet/outlet extracts. Herein, we propose cell-based toxicity assays to evaluate the efficacies of wastewater treatment and recycling processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene expression profiling to characterize sediment toxicity – a pilot study using Caenorhabditis elegans whole genome microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifferscheid Georg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, toxicity of river sediments is assessed using whole sediment tests with benthic organisms. The challenge, however, is the differentiation between multiple effects caused by complex contaminant mixtures and the unspecific toxicity endpoints such as survival, growth or reproduction. The use of gene expression profiling facilitates the identification of transcriptional changes at the molecular level that are specific to the bio-available fraction of pollutants. Results In this pilot study, we exposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to three sediments of German rivers with varying (low, medium and high levels of heavy metal and organic contamination. Beside chemical analysis, three standard bioassays were performed: reproduction of C. elegans, genotoxicity (Comet assay and endocrine disruption (YES test. Gene expression was profiled using a whole genome DNA-microarray approach to identify overrepresented functional gene categories and derived cellular processes. Disaccharide and glycogen metabolism were found to be affected, whereas further functional pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome biogenesis, metabolism of xenobiotics, aging and several developmental processes were found to be differentially regulated only in response to the most contaminated sediment. Conclusion This study demonstrates how ecotoxicogenomics can identify transcriptional responses in complex mixture scenarios to distinguish different samples of river sediments.

  1. Treatment of hazardous organic wastes using silent discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Anderson, G.K.; Bechtold, L.A.; Coogan, J.J.; Heck, H.G.; Kang, M.; McCulla, W.H.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the past two decades, interest in applying non-equilibrium plasmas to the removal of hazardous chemicals from gaseous media has been growing, in particular from heightened concerns over the pollution of our environment and a growing body of environmental regulations. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we are currently engaged in a project to develop non-equilibrium plasma technology for hazardous waste treatment. Our present focus is on dielectric-barrier discharges, which are historically called silent electrical discharges. This type of plasma is also named a silent discharge plasma (SDP). We have chosen this method due to its potential for high energy efficiency, its scientific and technological maturity, and its scalability. The SDP process has been demonstrated to be reliable and economical for the industrial-scale synthesis of ozone, where municipal water treatment plants frequently require the on-site generation of thousands of kilograins per day (Eliasson ampersand Kogelschatz). The related methods of corona processing are presently the focus of work at other institutions, particularly for flue gas processing. Both SDP and corona processes are characterized by the production of large quantities of highly reactive free radicals, especially atomic oxygen O(3P) and the hydroxyl OH, in the gaseous medium and their subsequent reaction with contaminants. Our primary objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more amenable to treatment. In the ideal case, the hazardous wastes are destructively oxidized to simpler, non-hazardous compounds plus CO2 and H2O. Sometimes the reaction products are still potentially hazardous, but are easily treated by conventional methods to yield non-hazardous products

  2. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  3. Toward the assessment of food toxicity for celiac patients: characterization of monoclonal antibodies to a main immunogenic gluten peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Morón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to gluten prolamins from wheat, barley, rye and, in some patients, oats. Partially digested gluten peptides produced in the digestive tract cause inflammation of the small intestine. High throughput, immune-based assays using monoclonal antibodies specific for these immunotoxic peptides would facilitate their detection in food and enable monitoring of their enzymatic detoxification. Two monoclonal antibodies, G12 and A1, were developed against a highly immunotoxic 33-mer peptide. The potential of each antibody for quantifying food toxicity for celiac patients was studied. METHODS: Epitope preferences of G12 and A1 antibodies were determined by ELISA with gluten-derived peptide variants of recombinant, synthetic or enzymatic origin. RESULTS: The recognition sequences of G12 and A1 antibodies were hexameric and heptameric epitopes, respectively. Although G12 affinity for the 33-mer was superior to A1, the sensitivity for gluten detection was higher for A1. This observation correlated to the higher number of A1 epitopes found in prolamins than G12 epitopes. Activation of T cell from gluten digested by glutenases decreased equivalently to the detection of intact peptides by A1 antibody. Peptide recognition of A1 included gliadin peptides involved in the both the adaptive and innate immunological response in celiac disease. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and epitope preferences of the A1 antibody resulted to be useful to detect gluten relevant peptides to infer the potential toxicity of food for celiac patients as well as to monitor peptide modifications by transglutaminase 2 or glutenases.

  4. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obi, E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria); Akunyili, Dora N. [National Agency of Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), Lagos (Nigeria); Ekpo, B. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu (Nigeria); Orisakwe, Orish E. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi (Nigeria)]. E-mail: eorish@yahoo.com

    2006-10-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO{sub 3}.The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

  5. Computational Approaches to Chemical Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Summary Computational prediction of toxicity has reached new heights as a result of decades of growth in the magnitude and diversity of biological data. Public packages for statistics and machine learning make model creation faster. New theory in machine learning and cheminformatics enables integration of chemical structure, toxicogenomics, simulated and physical data in the prediction of chemical health hazards, and other toxicological information. Our earlier publications have characterized a toxicological dataset of unprecedented scale resulting from the European REACH legislation (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals). These publications dove into potential use cases for regulatory data and some models for exploiting this data. This article analyzes the options for the identification and categorization of chemicals, moves on to the derivation of descriptive features for chemicals, discusses different kinds of targets modeled in computational toxicology, and ends with a high-level perspective of the algorithms used to create computational toxicology models. PMID:29101769

  6. Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian herbal remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, E.; Akunyili, Dora N.; Ekpo, B.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2006-01-01

    The uses of herbal products are not regulated in Nigeria and in many low-income countries and are freely available to everyone. The safety of these herbal medicines is poorly understood. This study characterizes the content of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, selenium, zinc, lead and mercury in a random sample of Nigerian traditional products. Ready-to-use herbal products were purchased from the open market and digested using HNO 3 .The heavy metal content of the digested filtrate was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry Uni-cam Model 929. The result showed that 100% of the samples contained elevated amounts of heavy metals. These data alert us to the possibility of heavy metal toxicity from herbal products in Nigeria. The public health hazards from ingestion of herbal medicines should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies

  7. Hazardous air pollutant handbook: measurements, properties, and fate in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, C.W. (ed.); Gordon, S.M.; Kelly, T.J.; Holdren, M.W.; Mukund, R. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Focussing on the 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) identified in the Title III of the US Clean Air Act Amendments, this work reviews the methods used to identify, measure, and locate the presence of toxics in ambient air. After a classification and characterization of the HAPs, the current status of ambient measurement methods are surveyed and categorized according to applicable, likely, and potential methods. The results of studies of ambient air concentrations of the HAPs are presented. Methods used to study atmospheric transformations of toxic air pollutants are reviewed and the concept of atmospheric lifetimes of HAPs is discussed.

  8. Evaluation and interpretation of maternal toxicity in Segment II studies: Issues, some answers, and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, John M.; Chernoff, Neil; Keen, Carl L.; Daston, George P.

    2005-01-01

    Biologically rational regulatory policies with regards to developmental toxicity are often based on the extrapolation of standard laboratory rodent bioassay results to the human population. Significantly contributing to the difficulty of this task is the possibility that general toxic effects on the maternal organism may affect the developing conceptus. This review examines maternal factors which may bear directly or indirectly upon developmental outcome, with emphasis on those of greatest relevance to the hazard assessment process. Standard teratology testing protocols call for top dosage levels that induce overt maternal toxicity, and the developmental effects of this toxicity (both alone, and with concurrent embryo/fetal insult) continue to present regulators with considerable interpretive difficulties. In response to these problems, there have been both research and literature review efforts dealing with the relationship of maternal and developmental toxicity. Maternally mediated developmental toxicity occurs with a number of agents, and toxicant-induced alterations in maternal physiology may affect the conceptus at dosages not causing overt maternal toxicity. Relevant studies are reviewed here, and suggestions for avenues of future research are offered including the identification of any syndromes of developmental effects occurring at maternally toxic levels irrespective of the causative agent, and experimental approaches for the characterization of maternal toxicity

  9. Biosynthesis, characterization, and acute toxicity of Berberis tinctoria-fabricated silver nanoparticles against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the mosquito predators Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector, including dengue. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap leaf extract of Berberis tinctoria as reducing and stabilizing agent and tested against Ae. albopictus and two mosquito natural enemies. AgNPs were characterized by using UV–vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In laboratory conditions, the toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated on larvae and pupae of Ae. albopictus. Suitability Index/Predator Safety Factor was assessed on Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. The leaf extract of B. tinctoria was toxic against larval instars (I–IV) and pupae of Ae. albopictus; LC50 was 182.72 ppm (I instar), 230.99 ppm (II), 269.65 ppm (III), 321.75 ppm (IV), and 359.71 ppm (pupa). B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs were highly effective, with LC50 of 4.97 ppm (I instar), 5.97 ppm (II), 7.60 ppm (III), 9.65 ppm (IV), and 14.87 ppm (pupa). Both the leaf extract and AgNPs showed reduced toxicity against the mosquito natural enemies M. thermocyclopoides and T. splendens. Overall, this study firstly shed light on effectiveness of B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs as an eco-friendly nanopesticide, highlighting the concrete possibility to employ this newer and safer tool in arbovirus vector control programs.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluation of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Based on MPEG, Poly(ε-caprolactone, and Itaconic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of chemically cross-linked pH-sensitive hydrogels based on methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol-poly(caprolactone-acryloyl chloride (MPEG-PCL-AC, PECA, poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA, MEG, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS, and itaconic acid (IA were prepared without using any organic solvent by heat-initiated free radical method. The obtained macromonomers and hydrogels were characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR, respectively. Morphology study of hydrogels was also investigated in this paper, and it showed that the hydrogels had good pH-sensitivity. The acute toxicity test and histopathological study were conducted in BALB/c mice. The results indicated that the maximum tolerance dose of the hydrogel was higher than 10000 mg/kg body weight. No morality or signs of toxicity were observed during the whole 7-day observation period. Compared to the control groups, there were no important adverse effects in the variables of hematology routine test and serum chemistry analysis both in male or female treatment group. Histopathological study also did not show any significant lesions, including heart, liver, lung, spleen, kidney, stomach, intestine, and testis. All the results demonstrated that this hydrogel was nontoxic after gavage. Thus, the hydrogel might be the biocompatible potential candidate for oral drug delivery system.

  11. Beyond platinum: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity of Cu(II-releasing polymer nanoparticles for potential use as a drug delivery vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Alesha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The field of drug delivery focuses primarily on delivering small organic molecules or DNA/RNA as therapeutics and has largely ignored the potential for delivering catalytically active transition metal ions and complexes. The delivery of a variety of transition metals has potential for inducing apoptosis in targeted cells. The chief aims of this work were the development of a suitable delivery vector for a prototypical transition metal, Cu2+, and demonstration of the ability to impact cancer cell viability via exposure to such a Cu-loaded vector. Carboxylate-functionalized nanoparticles were synthesized by free radical polymerization and were subsequently loaded with Cu2+ via binding to particle-bound carboxylate functional groups. Cu loading and release were characterized via ICP MS, EDX, XPS, and elemental analysis. Results demonstrated that Cu could be loaded in high weight percent (up to 16 wt.% and that Cu was released from the particles in a pH-dependent manner. Metal release was a function of both pH and the presence of competing ligands. The toxicity of the particles was measured in HeLa cells where reductions in cell viability greater than 95% were observed at high Cu loading. The combined pH sensitivity and significant toxicity make this copper delivery vector an excellent candidate for the targeted killing of disease cells when combined with an effective cellular targeting strategy.

  12. A biological method for in-situ synthesis of hydroxyapatite-coated magnetite nanoparticles using Enterobacter aerogenes: Characterization and acute toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Elham; Talebnia Rowshan, Farid; Hosseini, Morteza

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are being widely investigated for various applications in medical engineering and wastewater treatment. In this work, the MNPs were thoroughly coated by bacterial synthesized HA nanoparticles during biomineralization process using Enterobacter aerogenes. The resulting bacterial-induced precipitate was then calcined at 600°C and investigated with respect to structural characteristics, particle size and magnetic strength by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EDS, TEM and VSM analyses. The effects of MNPs and HA-coated MNPs (HA-MNPs) on the viability of human MCF-7 cell lines were also investigated via mitochondrial activity test (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. The powder characterization results showed appropriate structural properties for HA-MNPs samples. The particles diameter size of the MNPs and HA-MNPs were in the range of 3-25nm and 20-80nm, respectively. The biologically-synthesized HA-MNPs formed a stable suspension in water while keeping their magnetic property. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of HA-MNPs was measured at ~10emug -1 which was in good agreement with the structural composition of this sample. Finally, the results of the cell lines viability indicated that coating of toxic MNPs via biomineralization was a promising approach in order to synthesize bio-compatible magnetic nanoparticles with suitable physical and chemical structural characteristics. The toxicity level of MNPs was reduced by 10 fold when coated by bacterial-synthesized HA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps

  14. Apoprotein Structure and Metal Binding Characterization of a de Novo Designed Peptide, α3DIV, that Sequesters Toxic Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plegaria, Jefferson S; Dzul, Stephen P; Zuiderweg, Erik R P; Stemmler, Timothy L; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2015-05-12

    De novo protein design is a biologically relevant approach that provides a novel process in elucidating protein folding and modeling the metal centers of metalloproteins in a completely unrelated or simplified fold. An integral step in de novo protein design is the establishment of a well-folded scaffold with one conformation, which is a fundamental characteristic of many native proteins. Here, we report the NMR solution structure of apo α3DIV at pH 7.0, a de novo designed three-helix bundle peptide containing a triscysteine motif (Cys18, Cys28, and Cys67) that binds toxic heavy metals. The structure comprises 1067 NOE restraints derived from multinuclear multidimensional NOESY, as well as 138 dihedral angles (ψ, φ, and χ1). The backbone and heavy atoms of the 20 lowest energy structures have a root mean square deviation from the mean structure of 0.79 (0.16) Å and 1.31 (0.15) Å, respectively. When compared to the parent structure α3D, the substitution of Leu residues to Cys enhanced the α-helical content of α3DIV while maintaining the same overall topology and fold. In addition, solution studies on the metalated species illustrated metal-induced stability. An increase in the melting temperatures was observed for Hg(II), Pb(II), or Cd(II) bound α3DIV by 18-24 °C compared to its apo counterpart. Further, the extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis on Hg(II)-α3DIV produced an average Hg(II)-S bond length at 2.36 Å, indicating a trigonal T-shaped coordination environment. Overall, the structure of apo α3DIV reveals an asymmetric distorted triscysteine metal binding site, which offers a model for native metalloregulatory proteins with thiol-rich ligands that function in regulating toxic heavy metals, such as ArsR, CadC, MerR, and PbrR.

  15. Novel of core-shell AlOOH/Cu nanostructures: Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and in vitro toxicity in Neuro-2a cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakina, O. V., E-mail: ovbakina@ispms.tsc.ru; Fomenko, A. N., E-mail: alserova@ispms.tsc.ru; Korovin, M. S., E-mail: msk@ispms.tsc.ru; Glazkova, E. A., E-mail: eagl@ispms.tsc.ru; Svarovskaya, N. V., E-mail: nvsv@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Sciences SB RAS, Akademicheskii Pr. 2/4, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Core-shell micro/nanostructures were fabricated by the reaction of Al/Cu bimetallic nanoparticles with water. Al/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained using the method of simultaneous electrical explosion of a pair of the corresponding metal wires in an argon atmosphere. The nanoparticles are chemically active and interact with water at 60°C to form core-shell micro/nanostructures. The obtained products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering and the nitrogen adsorption method. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized structures was investigated against E. coli and St. aureus. The toxic effect of these nanostructures against the Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cell line was investigated. AlOOH/Cu nanostructures are shown to inhibit cell proliferation. The AlOOH/Cu nanostructures are good candidates for medical applications.

  16. FLUORIDE TOXICITY – A HARSH REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Bandlapalli Pavani; Mandava Ragini; David Banji; Otilia J F Banji; N Gouri Pratusha

    2011-01-01

    There are many incidents of fluoride toxicity whether it is acute or chronic. Fluoride toxicity is an environmental hazard which arises from the upper layers of geological crust and is dissolved in water. Prolonged drinking of such water causes chronic fluoride toxicity. Use of fluoride containing compounds for various purposes such as dental products, metal, glass, refrigerator and chemical industries act as a source of fluoride poisoning and increase the risk of toxicity. This review reflec...

  17. Characterization of the branched antimicrobial peptide M6 by analyzing its mechanism of action and in vivo toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Alessandro; Giuliani, Andrea; Falciani, Chiara; Fabbrini, Monica; Pileri, Silvia; Lelli, Barbara; Bracci, Luisa

    2007-06-01

    We analyzed functional activity of the antimicrobial peptide M6 in vitro and in vivo. The peptide was identified by our group by phage library selection, rational modification and synthesis in a tetrabranched form (Pini et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2005; 49: 2665-72). We found that it binds lipopolysaccharide, causes perforation of cell membranes without destroying external cell morphology and strongly binds DNA. The latter feature suggests that it could inhibit metabolic pathways, blocking DNA replication and/or transcription. We also observed that M6 does not stimulate humoral immune response when repeatedly administered to animals. We also analyzed M6 toxicity when administered to animals by intraperitoneal or by intravenous injection, determining a preliminary LD50 (125 and 37.5 mg/kg, respectively), which suggested that M6 could be used in vivo. These features make the antimicrobial branched peptide M6 a promising candidate for the development of a new antibacterial drug. Copyright (c) 2007 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with toxic shock syndrome, using polyethylene infection chambers in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D F; Kling, J M; Kirkland, J J; Best, G K

    1983-01-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) were compared with non-TSS strains of S. aureus with respect to their virulence in rabbits. When the organisms were injected into subcutaneous chambers (perforated polyethylene golf balls) to assess virulence, a rapid mortality was observed with TSS but not with non-TSS strains. Of 16 TSS strains, 11 caused lethal infections in 33 rabbits tested, and none of the 5 control strains caused mortality in 10 rabbits. This evidence of enhanced virulence associated with TSS strains did not appear to be associated with the size of the inoculum. In addition, strains which produced lethal infections appeared to do so despite a reduction in the size of the original inoculum during the first 24 h. All of the TSS strains and none of the non-TSS strains elaborated extracellular protein(s) with a neutral pI when grown in a dialyzed beef heart medium. No other physiological difference was noted between the TSS and non-TSS strains.

  19. Seismic source characterization of the Alpine foreland in the context of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis by PEGASOS Expert Group 1 (EG1a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, S. M. [Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Institut, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Slejko, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Seismic source characterization is performed as part of the PEGASOS project for the assessment of the seismic hazard at the 4 sites of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plants. The analysis is performed according to the Level 4 procedures for expert elicitation defined in the guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Committee whereby the quantification of uncertainties plays a crucial role. According to our analysis, which is one amongst four that were performed in the frame of PEGASOS, the most important epistemic uncertainty is related to the question as to whether basement-rooted faults at the margins of pre-existing Permo-Carboniferous troughs are prone for compressive or transpressive reactivation under the present-day stress field or not. The question after the present-day style of deformation in the Alpine foreland (thick-skinned versus thin-skinned) is closely related to this key question. Together with the consideration of uncertainties regarding the mapping of seismogenic zones and/or line sources, alternative zonations are presented in form of a logic tree with 21 branches. Area sources play a predominant role in the working area located at the margin of a diffuse plate boundary. Earthquake recurrence relationships are discussed by taking into account a series of uncertainties. These concern the evaluation of b-values and the evaluation of a-values once the b-values were fixed. Both parameters in the Gutenberg-Richter law are based on non-perfect and incomplete catalogue data that were carefully analysed beforehand. Since PEGASOS demanded an analysis of annual probabilities down to one event in 10{sup 7} years, the question after the value of the maximum possible earthquake magnitude M{sub max} and related error in M{sub max} estimates plays a crucial role. We estimate M{sub max} by using geological as well as statistical methods. M{sub max} = 6.9 cannot be excluded in most areas, in the Basel area M{sub max} = 7.3 is possible. Uncertainties in a, b and M{sub max

  20. Evidence of Enhanced Subrosion in a Fault Zone and Characterization of Hazard Zones with Elastic Parameters derived from SH-wave reflection Seismics and VSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, S. H.; Tanner, D. C.; Tschache, S.; Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Subrosion, the dissolution of soluble rocks, e.g., sulfate, salt, or carbonate, requires unsaturated water and fluid pathways that enable the water to flow through the subsurface and generate cavities. Over time, different structures can occur that depend on, e.g., rock solubility, flow rate, and overburden type. The two main structures are sinkholes and depressions. To analyze the link between faults, groundwater flow, and soluble rocks, and to determine parameters that are useful to characterize hazard zones, several shear-wave (SH) reflection seismic profiles were surveyed in Thuringia in Germany, where Permian sulfate rocks and salt subcrop close to the surface. From the analysis of the seismic sections we conclude that areas affected by tectonic deformation phases are prone to enhanced subrosion. The deformation of fault blocks leads to the generation of a damage zone with a dense fracture network. This increases the rock permeability and thus serves as a fluid pathway for, e.g., artesian-confined groundwater. The more complex the fault geometry and the more interaction between faults, the more fractures are generated, e.g., in a strike slip-fault zone. The faults also act as barriers for horizontal groundwater flow perpendicular to the fault surfaces and as conduits for groundwater flow along the fault strike. In addition, seismic velocity anomalies and attenuation of seismic waves are observed. Low velocities high attenuation may indicate areas affected by subrosion. Other parameters that characterize the underground stability are the shear modulus and the Vp/Vs ratio. The data revealed zones of low shear modulus high Vp/Vs ratio >2.5, which probably indicate unstable areas due to subrosion. Structural analysis of S-wave seismics is a valuable tool to detect near-surface faults in order to determine whether or not an area is prone to subrosion. The recognition of even small fault blocks can help to better understand the hydrodynamic groundwater conditions

  1. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  2. Hazardous waste minimization tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railan, R.

    1994-01-01

    Under RCRA section 3002 9(b) and 3005f(h), hazardous waste generators and owners/operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are required to certify that they have a program in place to reduce the volume or quantity and toxicity of hazardous waste to the degree determined to be economically practicable. In many cases, there are environmental, as well as, economic benefits, for agencies that pursue pollution prevention options. Several state governments have already enacted waste minimization legislation (e.g., Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act of 1989, and Oregon Toxic Use Reduction Act and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act, July 2, 1989). About twenty six other states have established legislation that will mandate some type of waste minimization program and/or facility planning. The need to address the HAZMIN (Hazardous Waste Minimization) Program at government agencies and private industries has prompted us to identify the importance of managing The HAZMIN Program, and tracking various aspects of the program, as well as the progress made in this area. The open-quotes WASTEclose quotes is a tracking system, which can be used and modified in maintaining the information related to Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, in a manageable fashion. This program maintains, modifies, and retrieves information related to hazardous waste minimization and recycling, and provides automated report generating capabilities. It has a built-in menu, which can be printed either in part or in full. There are instructions on preparing The Annual Waste Report, and The Annual Recycling Report. The program is very user friendly. This program is available in 3.5 inch or 5 1/4 inch floppy disks. A computer with 640K memory is required

  3. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  4. More About Hazard-Response Robot For Combustible Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Henry W.; Ohm, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents additional information about design and capabilities of mobile hazard-response robot called "Hazbot III." Designed to operate safely in combustible and/or toxic atmosphere. Includes cameras and chemical sensors helping human technicians determine location and nature of hazard so human emergency team can decide how to eliminate hazard without approaching themselves.

  5. Chemical characterization and toxicity assessment of fine particulate matters emitted from the combustion of petrol and diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Fei; Lou, Wenhao; Li, Dan; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-12-15

    Fuel consumption is one of the major contributors to air pollution worldwide. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that the diesel and petrol exhaust fine particulate matters (FPMs) are associated with increases of various diseases. However, the influences of different fuel types and their chemical components on toxicity have been less investigated. In this study, four kinds of fuels that widely used in China were burned in a laboratory simulation, and the FPMs were collected and analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that black carbon was mainly soot with a dendritic morphology. For light diesel oil, marine heavy diesel oil, 93 octane petrol and 97 octane petrol diesel oil, the emission factors of FPMs were 3.05±0.29, 3.21±0.54, 2.36±0.33, and 2.28±0.25g/kg fuel, respectively. And the emission factors for the "16 US EPA" PAHs of FPM were 0.45±0.20, 0.80±0.22, 1.00±0.20, and 1.05±0.19mg/g FPMs, respectively. Fe is the most abundant metal in these FPMs, and the emission factors of FPMs were 2.58±1.70, 4.45±0.11, 8.18±0.58, and 9.24±0.17mg/g FPMs, respectively. We ranked the cytotoxicity of the FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>97 octane petrol>93 octane petrol>light diesel oil, and the genotoxicity of FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>light diesel oil>93 octane petrol>97 octane petrol. Significant correlations were found between PAH concentrations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Our results demonstrated that fuels exhaust FPMs have strong association with ROS activity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. These results indicated that fuels exhaust FPMs pose a potentially serious health, and emphasized the importance of assessing the health risks posed by the particulate pollutants in vehicle exhausts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS)-based characterization of U.S. non-native venomous snake exposures, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Steven A; Oakes, Jennifer A; Boyer, Leslie V

    2007-01-01

    Non-native (exotic) snake exposures in the United States have not been systematically characterized. The Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) database of the American Association of Poison Control Centers was analyzed to quantify the number and types, demographic associations, clinical presentations, managements and outcomes, and the health resource utilization of non-native snake exposures. From 1995 through 2004, there were 399 non-native exposures in the TESS database. Of these, 350 snakes (87%) were identified by genus and species, comprising at least 77 different varieties. Roughly equal percentages of snakes originated in Asia, Africa and Latin America, with a smaller number from the Middle-East, Australia, and Europe. Nearly half were viperids and a little more than a third were elapids. The vast majority of exposed individuals were adults. However, almost 15% were aged 17 years or less, and almost 7% were children aged 5 years or younger. Eighty-four percent were males. The vast majority of exposures occurred at the victim's own residence. Over 50% were evaluated at a healthcare facility, with 28.7% admitted to an ICU. Overall, 26% of patients were coded as receiving antivenom treatment. Coded outcomes were similar between viperid and elapid envenomations. There were three deaths, two involving viperid snakes and one elapid. Enhancements to the TESS database are required for better precision in and more complete characterization of non-native snake envenomations.

  7. Ecological characterization of toxic phytoplankton species (Dinophysis spp., Dinophyceae) in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and the implications for monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, Janja . E-mail france@mbss.org; Mozetic, Patricija

    2006-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events are often registered in Slovenian mariculture areas (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea) and are related to the occurrence of Dinophysis spp. The annual dynamic of this genus and succession of the most important species were studied at two shellfish farms during monitoring fieldwork in the period 1995-2003. Results indicate that the Dinophysis genus maintains a relatively stable inter-annual dynamic at both sites. The Dinophysis community is characterized by two surface maxima in June and September, while in the middle layer only the autumn peak is pronounced (peak median 92 cells l -1 ). Occasional abundance maxima of around 2000 cells l -1 in the surface layer indicate that potential outbursts of toxic species are less predictable than their seasonal dynamic. On the basis of multivariate analysis, Dinophysis sacculus was characterized as a typical late spring-early summer species, and Dinophysis caudata and Dinophysis fortii as autumn species. Correlation analysis revealed the influence of stratified conditions only on the most abundant species, D. sacculus. Ecological characteristics of the species were combined with shellfish safety requirements towards a more effective monitoring

  8. Characterization of Timed Changes in Hepatic Copper Concentrations, Methionine Metabolism, Gene Expression, and Global DNA Methylation in the Jackson Toxic Milk Mouse Model of Wilson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Le

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wilson disease (WD is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA (tx-j mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal to adulthood (28 weeks. Methods: Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results: Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion: Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENALAPRIL AND RANITIDINE CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY AND THEIR TOXICITY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Jehár Oliveira Quintão

    Full Text Available Due to its low cost, its capability for disinfection and oxidation, chlorination using gaseous chlorine or hypochlorite salts, has also been commonly applied in water treatment plants for oxidation and disinfection purposes. Little is known about the identity and toxicity of by-products resulting from the chlorination of pharmaceutical micropollutants, such as enalapril (ENA and ranitidine (RAN. ENA and RAN chlorination by-products were characterized in this study by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/HRMS and their toxicity were assessed by MTT assay. Chlorination experiments with ENA and RAN solutions (10 mg L-1 indicate degradation efficiencies of 100% for both compounds after only 5 min of exposure to chlorine at concentration of 9.53 mg Cl2 L-1. On the other hand mineralization rates were lower than 3%, thereby indicating there was accumulation of degradation by-products in all experiments. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed, at all times of reaction after the addition of hypochlorite, the presence of 1-(2-((4-(chlorophenyl-1-ethoxy-1-oxobutan-2-ylaminopropanoylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (enalapril by-product and N-chloro-N-(2-(((chloro-5-((dimethylaminomethylfuran-2-ylmethylsulfinylethyl-N-methyl-2-nitroethene 1,1-diamine (ranitidine by-product. Despite the formation of oxidized chlorinated by-products in all chlorination assays, the treated solutions were nontoxic to HepG2 cells by the MTT assay. It has been observed that chlorination (10 mg L-1, 5 min of ENA and RAN solutions exhibited high degradation efficiencies of the target compounds and low mineralization rates. Based on the mass spectrometry data, the routes for ENA and RAN successive oxidation by chlorine has been proposed.

  10. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Three Myotoxins from Bothrops mattogrossensis Snake Venom with Toxicity against Leishmania and Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa A. de Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops mattogrossensis snake is widely distributed throughout eastern South America and is responsible for snakebites in this region. This paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of three new phospholipases A2 (PLA2s, one of which is presumably an enzymatically active Asp49 and two are very likely enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2 homologues. The purification was obtained after two chromatographic steps on ion exchange and reverse phase column. The 2D SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the proteins have pI values around 10, are each made of a single chain, and have molecular masses near 13 kDa, which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The N-terminal similarity analysis of the sequences showed that the proteins are highly homologous with other Lys49 and Asp49 PLA2s from Bothrops species. The PLA2s isolated were named BmatTX-I (Lys49 PLA2-like, BmatTX-II (Lys49 PLA2-like, and BmatTX-III (Asp49 PLA2. The PLA2s induced cytokine release from mouse neutrophils and showed cytotoxicity towards JURKAT (leukemia T and SK-BR-3 (breast adenocarcinoma cell lines and promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The structural and functional elucidation of snake venoms components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins during envenomation and their potential pharmacological and therapeutic applications.

  11. Tsunami hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  12. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  13. Synthesis and characterization of titanium vanadate and vanadium antimonate and their use in treatment of some toxic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husein, W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ion exchangers are insoluble solid materials, which carry exchangeable cations or anions. When the ion exchanger is in contact with an electrolyte solution, these ions are exchanged with an equivalent amount of other ions of the same sign .Synthetic inorganic ion exchangers possess good ion-exchange capacity, high chemical and radiation stabilities, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. These materials were characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. On the basis of distribution studies, titanium vanadate was highly selective for Cs(I) while vanadium antimonate was selective for Cu 2+ ions . Thermodynamic parameters (i.e. ΔG o , ΔS o and ΔH o ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Cs + , Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ and Co 2+ ions on titanium vanadate and vanadium antimonate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of diffusion of Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Cs + in the H -form of titanium vanadate and vanadium antimonate cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, drying temperature. The exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch technique and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 plots. The values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. The data obtained have been compared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers. Exchange isotherms for H + /Co 2+ , H + /Cu 2+ , H + /Cd 2+ and H + /Cs + were determined at 25, 45 and 60±1 degree C. These isotherms showed that Co 2+ ,Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Cs + are chemically adsorbed. Moreover, the values of thermodynamic parameters were determined and the overall adsorption processes were found spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, removal of the above mentioned cations on titanium vanadate and

  14. Aceclofenac nanocrystals with enhanced in vitro, in vivo performance: formulation optimization, characterization, analgesic and acute toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Haroon Rahim,1 Abdul Sadiq,1 Shahzeb Khan,1 Mir Azam Khan,1 Syed Muhammad Hassan Shah,2 Zahid Hussain,3 Riaz Ullah,4 Abdelaaty Abdelaziz Shahat,4,5 Khalid Ibrahim6 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 2Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Universiti Teknologi, Mara, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Phytochemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; 6Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Muzahmeiah Branch, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: This study was aimed to enhance the dissolution rate, oral bioavailability and analgesic potential of the aceclofenac (AC in the form of nanosuspension using cost-effective simple precipitation–ultrasonication approach. The nanocrystals were produced using the optimum conditions investigated for AC. The minimum particle size (PS and polydispersity index was found to be 112±2.01 nm and 0.165, respectively, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (1%, w/w, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (1%, w/w and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.12%, w/w. The characterization of AC was performed using zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The saturation solubility of the AC nanocrystals was substantially increased 2.6- and 4.5-fold compared to its unprocessed active pharmaceutical ingredient in stabilizer solution and unprocessed drug. Similarly, the dissolution rate of the AC nanocrystals was substantially enhanced compared to its other counterpart. The results showed that >88% of AC nanocrystals were dissolved in first 10 min compared to unprocessed AC (8.38%, microsuspension (66

  15. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  16. Human hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.; Vignes, S.; Wolber, G.

    1976-01-01

    Among health hazards from ionizing radiations, a distinction is made of observed, likely and theoretical risks. Theoretical risks, derived from extrapolation of observations on sublethal exposures to low doses may frighten. However, they have nothing in common with reality as shown for instance, by the study of carcinogenesis risks at Nagasaki. By extrapolation to low doses, theoretical mutation risks are derived by geneticians from the observation of some characters especially deleterious in the progeny of parents exposed to sublethal doses. One cannot agree when by calculation they express a population exposure by a shift of its genetic balance with an increase of the proportion of disabled individuals. As a matter of fact, experimental exposure of successive generations of laboratory animals shows no accumulation of deleterious genes, sublethal doses excepted. Large nuclear plants should not be overwhelmed by horrible charges on sanitary grounds, whereas small sources have but too often shown they may originate mortal risks [fr

  17. Integrative characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus dumerilii (Elapidae) from Colombia: Proteome, toxicity, and cross-neutralization by antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno

    2016-03-16

    In Colombia, nearly 2.8% of the 4200 snakebite accidents recorded annually are inflicted by coral snakes (genus Micrurus). Micrurus dumerilii has a broad distribution in this country, especially in densely populated areas. The proteomic profile of its venom was here studied by a bottom-up approach combining RP-HPLC, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Venom proteins were assigned to eleven families, the most abundant being phospholipases A2 (PLA2; 52.0%) and three-finger toxins (3FTx; 28.1%). This compositional profile shows that M. dumerilii venom belongs to the 'PLA2-rich' phenotype, in the recently proposed dichotomy for Micrurus venoms. Enzymatic and toxic venom activities correlated with protein family abundances. Whole venom induced a conspicuous myotoxic, cytotoxic and anticoagulant effect, and was mildly edematogenic and proteolytic, whereas it lacked hemorrhagic activity. Some 3FTxs and PLA2s reproduced the lethal effect of venom. A coral snake antivenom to Micrurus nigrocinctus demonstrated significant cross-recognition of M. dumerilii venom proteins, and accordingly, ability to neutralize its lethal effect. The combined compositional, functional, and immunological data here reported for M. dumerilii venom may contribute to a better understanding of these envenomings, and support the possible use of anti-M. nigrocinctus coral snake antivenom in their treatment. Coral snakes represent a highly diversified group of elapids in the New World, with nearly 70 species within the genus Micrurus. Owing to their scarce yields, the biochemical composition and toxic activities of coral snake venoms have been less well characterized than those of viperid species. In this work, an integrative view of the venom of M. dumerilii, a medically relevant coral snake from Colombia, was obtained by a combined proteomic, functional, and immunological approach. The venom contains proteins from at least eleven families, with a predominance of phospholipases A2 (PLA2), followed by three

  18. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  19. In vivo characterization of fusion protein comprising of A1 subunit of Shiga toxin and human GM-CSF: Assessment of its immunogenicity and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloomi, Mana; Bouzari, Saeid; Shariati, Elaheh

    2010-10-01

    Most cancer cells become resistant to anti-cancer agents. In the last few years, a new approach for targeted therapy of human cancer has been developed using immunotoxins which comprise both the cell targeting and the cell killing moieties. In the present study, the recombinant Shiga toxin A1 subunit fused to human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (A1-GM-CSF), previously produced in E. coli, was further characterized. The recombinant protein could cause 50% cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in cells bearing GM-CSF receptors. The non-specific toxicity of the fusion protein was assessed in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. No mortality was observed in either group of mice, with different concentration of fusion protein. The lymphocyte proliferation assay, induction of specific IgG response and a mixed (Th1/Th2) response were observed only in BALB/c mice. The mixed response in BALB/c mice (Th1/Th2) could be explained on the basis of the two components of the fusion protein i.e. A1 and GM-CSF.

  20. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials – Selection of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1–15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or – if not all compounds are identified – from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different

  1. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  2. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  3. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  4. A re-evaluation of PETROTOX for predicting acute and chronic toxicity of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Leon Paumen, Miriam; Butler, Josh D; Letinski, Daniel J; den Haan, Klass

    2017-08-01

    The PETROTOX model was developed to perform aquatic hazard assessment of petroleum substances based on substance composition. The model relies on the hydrocarbon block method, which is widely used for conducting petroleum substance risk assessments providing further justification for evaluating model performance. Previous work described this model and provided a preliminary calibration and validation using acute toxicity data for limited petroleum substance. The objective of the present study was to re-evaluate PETROTOX using expanded data covering both acute and chronic toxicity endpoints on invertebrates, algae, and fish for a wider range of petroleum substances. The results indicated that recalibration of 2 model parameters was required, namely, the algal critical target lipid body burden and the log octanol-water partition coefficient (K OW ) limit, used to account for reduced bioavailability of hydrophobic constituents. Acute predictions from the updated model were compared with observed toxicity data and found to generally be within a factor of 3 for algae and invertebrates but overestimated fish toxicity. Chronic predictions were generally within a factor of 5 of empirical data. Furthermore, PETROTOX predicted acute and chronic hazard classifications that were consistent or conservative in 93 and 84% of comparisons, respectively. The PETROTOX model is considered suitable for the purpose of characterizing petroleum substance hazard in substance classification and risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2245-2252. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Evolution of electronic waste toxicity: Trends in innovation and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Rapid innovation in printed circuit board, and the uncertainties surrounding quantification of the human and environmental health impacts of e-waste disposal have made it difficult to confirm the influence of evolving e-waste management strategies and regulatory policies on materials. To assess these influences, we analyzed hazardous chemicals in a market-representative set of Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs, 1996-2010). We used standard leaching tests to characterize hazard potential and USEtox® to project impacts on human health and ecosystem. The results demonstrate that command-and-control regulations have had minimal impacts on WPCBs composition and toxicity risks; whereas technological innovation may have been influenced more by resource conservation, including a declining trend in the use of precious metals such as gold. WPCBs remain classified as hazardous under U.S. and California laws because of excessive toxic metals. Lead poses the most significant risk for cancers; zinc for non-cancer diseases; copper had the largest potential impact on ecosystem quality. Among organics, acenaphthylene, the largest risk for cancers; naphthalene for non-cancer diseases; pyrene has the highest potential for ecotoxicological impacts. These findings support the need for stronger enforcement of international policies and technology innovation to implement the strategy of design-for-the-environment and to encourage recovery, recycling, and reuse of WPCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental characterization and mondeling of hazards: BLEVE and Boilover/Etude expérimentale et modélisation de phénomènes aggravants :BLEVE et BOILOVER

    OpenAIRE

    Laboureur, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis is conducted in the frame of a research project involving the ‘von Karman Institute (VKI Belgium)’ and the ‘Ecole des mines d’Alès (EMA France) with the support of the CEA Gramat. This project is about theoretical study, experimental characterization and modeling of hazards from pressurized or atmospheric reservoirs, containing liquids, flammable or not. The objective of this thesis is to study the apparition criteria and the consequences of an accident involving a containe...

  7. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  8. Treatment of toxic and hazardous organic wastes by wet oxidation process with oxygenated water at low temperature; Trattamento dei rifiuti tossici e nocivi organici mediante il processo di ossidazione ad umido con acqua ossigenata a bassa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccinno, T; Salluzzo, A; Nardi, L [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy); Gili, M; Luce, A; Troiani, F [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Saluggia (Italy); Cornacchia, G [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Trisaia (Italy)

    1989-11-15

    The wet oxidation process using air or molecular oxygen is a well-known process from long time. It is suitable to oxidize several types of waste refractory to the usual biological, thermal and chemical treatments. The drastic operating conditions (high pressures and temperatures) prevented its industrial development. In the last years a new interest was assigned to the process for the treatment of nuclear wastes (organic resins and exhaust organic wastes); the treatment is carried out at widely reduced operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and boiling temperature) by means of metallic catalysts and hydrogen peroxide. With some limits, the wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide at low temperature can be applied to conventional waste waters containing toxic organic compounds. In the present report are summarized the activities developed at ENEA Fuel Cycle Department by the task force 'Deox' constituted by laboratory and plant specialists in order to verify the application of the wet oxidation process to the treatment of the toxic wastes. (author)

  9. Characterization of part of the toxic effects due to alpha irradiation and to the physico-chemical properties of some actinides. An in vitro study on the alveolar macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizon, Celine

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the specific effects due to radiotoxicity of α irradiation and the chemical toxicity of actinides. This was performed on alveolar macrophages extracted from rats and primates by pulmonary lavage. This was done by an in vitro study using either α irradiation from electrodeposited sources, or soluble actinides and lanthanides added to the culture medium. Necrosis and apoptosis induction were quantified after vital staining. For each treatment, cells were studied 1 or 7 days after plating. After either α irradiation or exposure to elements, the main route of death induced was apoptosis. After α irradiation, alveolar macrophages are very radioresistant cells. The observed D0 was between 30 and 100 Gy, depending on the species studied and the time in culture at exposure. In fact, alveolar macrophages irradiated after 1 week in culture have show less radioresistance than those treated after 1 day. The chemical toxicity of Uranium and Neptunium was independent both of time in culture at exposure and the animal species. The threshold we observed were respectively at 5 10 -4 and 3 10 -6 M. Moreover, within the concentrations studied, Thorium have not shown any toxicity towards alveolar macrophages. 1 day after plating macrophages, lanthanides exerts a higher chemical toxicity than actinides (threshold : 5 10 -6 M, Gadolinium, 5 10 -5 M, Cerium). These toxicities decreases more than 10 times after exposure 7 days after plating or for primates cells. This phenomenon seems to be due to cell harvesting and/or to cell adaptation to culture. Preliminary results show an impairment of cytokines production, which could be specific of the toxic studied. This was observed at concentrations which appeared non toxic as regards to apoptosis induction. The use of primates alveolar macrophages allow us to extrapolate some of the obtained results to Human. (author) [fr

  10. Ultrasonic Nakagami-parameter characterization of parotid-gland injury following head-and-neck radiotherapy: A feasibility study of late toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yuefeng [Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Tridandapani, Srini [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Beitler, Jonathan J.; Yu, David S.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.edu [Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The study aims to investigate whether Nakagami parameters—estimated from the statistical distribution of the backscattered ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) signals—could provide a means for quantitative characterization of parotid-gland injury resulting from head-and-neck radiotherapy. Methods: A preliminary clinical study was conducted with 12 postradiotherapy patients and 12 healthy volunteers. Each participant underwent one ultrasound study in which ultrasound scans were performed in the longitudinal, i.e., vertical orientation on the bilateral parotids. For the 12 patients, the mean radiation dose to the parotid glands was 37.7 ± 9.5 Gy, and the mean follow-up time was 16.3 ± 4.8 months. All enrolled patients experienced grade 1 or 2 late salivary-gland toxicity (RTOG/EORTC morbidity scale). The normal parotid glands served as the control group. The Nakagami-scaling and Nakagami-shape parameters were computed from the RF data to quantify radiation-induced parotid-gland changes. Results: Significant differences in Nakagami parameters were observed between the normal and postradiotherapy parotid glands. Compared with the control group, the Nakagami-scaling parameter of the postradiotherapy group decreased by 25.8% (p < 0.001), and the Nakagami-shape parameter decreased by 31.3% (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 for the Nakagami-scaling parameter and was 0.95 for the Nakagami-shape parameter, which further demonstrated the diagnostic efficiency of the Nakagami parameters. Conclusions: Nakagami parameters could be used to quantitatively measure parotid-gland injury following head-and-neck radiotherapy. Moreover, the clinical feasibility was demonstrated and this study provides meaningful preliminary data for future clinical investigation.

  11. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  12. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  13. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  14. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  15. [The toxic and hygienic characteristics of the new synthetic organic flocculants AES-5, AES-7 and AES-10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Nekrasova, L S; Mudryĭ, I V

    2000-03-01

    A toxicological and hygienic characterization is submitted of novel synthetic organic flocculant AEC-5, AEC-7, AEC-10 which are low-toxicity substances and are classified under the fourth class of hazards. They have no skin-resorptive, locally irritative action and are endowed with a weak cumulative activity of functional character. The AEC-5 flocculant exerts a moderately manifest sensitizing effect in the dermal route of entry.

  16. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author) [es

  17. Environmental Public Health Tracking: a cost-effective system for characterizing the sources, distribution and public health impacts of environmental hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P J; Middleton, J D; Rudge, G

    2017-09-01

    The contemporary environment is a complex of interactions between physical, biological, socio-economic systems with major impacts on public health. However, gaps in our understanding of the causes, extent and distribution of these effects remain. The public health community in Sandwell West Midlands has collaborated to successfully develop, pilot and establish the first Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) programme in Europe to address this 'environmental health gap' through systematically linking data on environmental hazards, exposures and diseases. Existing networks of environmental, health and regulatory agencies developed a suite of innovative methods to routinely share, integrate and analyse data on hazards, exposures and health outcomes to inform interventions. Effective data sharing and horizon scanning systems have been established, novel statistical methods piloted, plausible associations framed and tested, and targeted interventions informed by local concerns applied. These have influenced changes in public health practice. EPHT is a powerful tool for identifying and addressing the key environmental public health impacts at a local level. Sandwell's experience demonstrates that it can be established and operated at virtually no cost. The transfer of National Health Service epidemiological skills to local authorities in 2013 provides an opportunity to expand the programme to fully exploit its potential. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Toxicity of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Among radionuclides of importance in atomic energy, 3 H has relatively low toxicity. The main health and environmental worry is the possibility that significant biological effects may follow from protracted exposure to low concentrations in water. To examine this possible hazard and measure toxicity at low tritium concentrations, chronic exposure studies were done on mice and monkeys. During vulnerable developmental periods animals were exposed to 3 HOH, and mice were exposed also to 60 Co gamma irradiation and energy-related chemical agents. The biological endpoint measured was the irreversible loss of female germ cells. Effects from tritium were observed at surprisingly low concentrations where 3 H was found more damaging than previously thought. Comparisons between tritium and gamma radiation showed the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to be greater than 1 and to reach approximately 3 at very low exposures. For perspective, other comparisons were made: between radiation and chemical agents, which revealed parallels in action on germ cells, and between pre- and postnatal exposure, which warn of possible special hazard to the fetus from both classes of energy-related byproducts

  19. Special Report: Hazardous Wastes in Academic Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…

  20. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  1. Survey of naturally occurring hazardous materials in deep geologic formations: a perspective on the relative hazard of deep burial of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.A.; Cohen, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Hazards associated with deep burial of solidified nuclear waste are considered with reference to toxic elements in naturally occurring ore deposits. This problem is put into perspective by relating the hazard of a radioactive waste repository to that of naturally occurring geologic formations. The basis for comparison derives from a consideration of safe drinking water levels. Calculations for relative toxicity of FBR waste and light water reactor (LWR) waste in an underground repository are compared with the relative toxicity indices obtained for average concentration ore deposits. Results indicate that, over time, nuclear waste toxicity decreases to levels below those of naturally occurring hazardous materials

  2. Radiological hazards of narghile smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A.E.M.; Abd El-Aziz, N.S.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.; Chaouachi, K.

    2008-07-01

    Narghile smoking pastes, known as jurak and moassel, are not standardized manufacture. This study aims at drawing the first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in relation to moassel-narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range of variations in the natural radioactivity. The distribution pattern of these natural radio-nuclides, during smoking, between smoke, ash and water filter is unknown, except for 210Po. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of 210Po was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radio-nuclides is discussed. Further research in this direction is needed. (author)(tk)

  3. [Tetrabromobisphenol A - Toxicity, environmental and occupational exposures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosiewicz, Monika; Bukowska, Bożena

    2017-02-28

    Brominated flame retardants (BFR), including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) represents 25% of the global market of flame retardants. Among them, TBBPA is used on the largest scale (approx. 60%) because of its firebreak properties and widespread occurrence in every day products such as furniture, upholstery, adhesives and electronic equipment. A broad application of TBBPA can contribute to environmental pollution. Tetrabromobisphenol A has been determined in soil, water, river sediments and the atmosphere. Tetrabromobisphenol A is characterized by a high value of coefficient n-octanol/water (log P = 4.5), low acidity, and it may exist in undissociated or dissociated form. Due to the high hydrophobicity, TBBPA may accumulate in living organisms, including humans at different food chain levels. The occurrence of TBBPA in humans, e.g., in blood, fat tissue and mother milk, has been reported. Tetrabromobisphenol A is classified as hazard statements (H) H400/H410, which means that it is toxic to aquatic biota, causing long-term changes in these organisms. Up to now, only a few studies have been conducted to assess potential toxicity of high doses of TBBPA to mammals. Although many people are occupationally exposed to TBBPA during production or processing of this substance in their workplaces, there are only a few studies that have assessed the real hazard associated with TBPPA exposure. The aim of the study was to discuss the latest literature (mainly from the years 2010-2016) referring to the presence of TBBPA in the environment and its effects to living organisms. Data concerning occupational exposure to TBBPA were also presented. Med Pr 2017;68(1):121-134. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Genetic and toxinological characterization of North Atlantic strains of the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis and allelopathic interactions with toxic and non-toxic species from the genera Prorocentrum, Coolia and Gambierdiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Portela, María; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José Mariano; Bañuelos, Rosa Mª; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The genus Ostreopsis includes several toxic species that can develop blooms in benthic ecosystems, with potential harmful consequences for human health and marine invertebrates. Despite of this, little is known about the allelopathic interactions between these organisms and other co-occurring microalgae that exploit similar spatial and nutrient resources in benthic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to follow these interactions in cultures of two Ostreopsis ribotypes with different toxin profiles (O. cf. ovata contained ovatoxins-a, b, c and e, while only ovatoxin-d was found in O .sp. "Lanzarote-type"), mixed with species of three benthic dinoflagellate genera (Coolia, Prorocentrum and Gambierdiscus), isolated from the same area (North East Atlantic, Canary Islands). In a first experiment, the potential allelopathic effects on growth rates were followed, in mixed cultures of Coolia monotis (a non toxic species) exposed to the clarified medium and to cells of O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata. Growth delayed in C. monotis was observed specially in clarified medium, while the O. sp. "Lanzarote-type" strain attained much lower densities in mixed cultures. In a second experiment, we examined the potential effects of clarified media from O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata on the adherence capacity in two toxic species (Prorocentrum hoffmannianum and Gambierdiscus excentricus). Contrasting effects were found: a significant increase of adherence capacity in P. hoffmannianum vs attachment decline in G. excentricus, that experienced also severe deleterious effects (cell lysis). Our results suggest the existence of weak to moderate allelopathic interactions between the studied organisms, although the outcome is dependent on the species involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization and evolutionary analysis of tributyltin-binding protein and pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin-binding protein genes in toxic and nontoxic pufferfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Y; Lee, J M; Shiraishi, M; Komatsu, S; Miki, S; Shimasaki, Y; Mochioka, N; Kusakabe, T; Oshima, Y

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of toxin accumulation in pufferfishes has been long-standing problem in toxicology and evolutionary biology. Pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin-binding protein (PSTBP) is involved in the transport and accumulation of tetrodotoxin and is one of the most intriguing proteins related to the toxicity of pufferfishes. PSTBPs are fusion proteins consisting of two tandem repeated tributyltin-binding protein type 2 (TBT-bp2) domains. In this study, we examined the evolutionary dynamics of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes to understand the evolution of toxin accumulation in pufferfishes. Database searches and/or PCR-based cDNA cloning in nine pufferfish species (6 toxic and 3 nontoxic) revealed that all species possessed one or more TBT-bp2 genes, but PSTBP genes were found only in 5 toxic species belonging to genus Takifugu. These toxic Takifugu species possessed two or three copies of PSTBP genes. Phylogenetic analysis of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes suggested that PSTBPs evolved in the common ancestor of Takifugu species by repeated duplications and fusions of TBT-bp2 genes. In addition, a detailed comparison of Takifugu TBT-bp2 and PSTBP gene sequences detected a signature of positive selection under the pressure of gene conversion. The complicated evolutionary dynamics of TBT-bp2 and PSTBP genes may reflect the diversity of toxicity in pufferfishes. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Emergency Evacuation of Hazardous Chemical Accidents Based on Diffusion Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang-Hua Zhang; Hai-Yue Liu; Rui Zhu; Yang Liu

    2017-01-01

    The recent rapid development of information technology, such as sensing technology, communications technology, and database, allows us to use simulation experiments for analyzing serious accidents caused by hazardous chemicals. Due to the toxicity and diffusion of hazardous chemicals, these accidents often lead to not only severe consequences and economic losses, but also traffic jams at the same time. Emergency evacuation after hazardous chemical accidents is an effective means to reduce the...

  7. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1998-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  8. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  11. Principles for disposal of radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The double hazard of mixed wastes is characterized by several criteria: radioactivity on the one hand, and chemical toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness as well as chemical reactivity on the other hand. Chemotoxic waste normally has a much more complex composition than radioactive waste and appears in much larger quantities. However, the two types of waste have some properties in common when it comes to their long-term impact on health and the environment. In order to minimize the risk associated with mixed waste management, the material assigned for ultimate disposal should be thoroughly detoxified, inertized, or mineralized prior to conditioning and packaging. Good control over the environmental consequence of waste disposal requires that detailed criteria for tolerable contamination should be established, and that compliance with these criteria can be demonstrated. For radioactive waste, there has been an extensive international development of criteria to protect human health. For non-radioactive waste, derived criteria exist only for a limited number of substances

  12. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  13. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  14. Reviewing and visualizing the interactions of natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a broad overview, characterization, and visualization of the interaction relationships between 21 natural hazards, drawn from six hazard groups (geophysical, hydrological, shallow Earth, atmospheric, biophysical, and space hazards). A synthesis is presented of the identified interaction relationships between these hazards, using an accessible visual format particularly suited to end users. Interactions considered are primarily those where a primary hazard triggers or increases the probability of secondary hazards occurring. In this paper we do the following: (i) identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, 90 interactions; (ii) subdivide the interactions into three levels, based on how well we can characterize secondary hazards, given information about the primary hazard; (iii) determine the spatial overlap and temporal likelihood of the triggering relationships occurring; and (iv) examine the relationship between primary and secondary hazard intensities for each identified hazard interaction and group these into five possible categories. In this study we have synthesized, using accessible visualization techniques, large amounts of information drawn from many scientific disciplines. We outline the importance of constraining hazard interactions and reinforce the importance of a holistic (or multihazard) approach to natural hazard assessment. This approach allows those undertaking research into single hazards to place their work within the context of other hazards. It also communicates important aspects of hazard interactions, facilitating an effective analysis by those working on reducing and managing disaster risk within both the policy and practitioner communities.

  15. Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Frank; Elswick, Barbara; James, R Arden; Marr, Melissa C; Myers, Christina B; Tyl, Rochelle W

    2003-01-01

    This evaluation was part of a much more comprehensive testing program to characterize the mammalian toxicity potential of the gasoline oxygenator additive tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), and was initiated upon a regulatory agency mandate. A developmental toxicity hazard identification study was conducted by TAME vapor inhalation exposure in two pregnant rodent species. Timed-pregnant CD(Sprague-Dawley) rats and CD-1 mice, 25 animals per group, inhaled TAME vapors containing 0, 250, 1500 or 3500 ppm for 6 h a day on gestational days 6-16 (mice) or 6-19 (rats). The developmental toxicity hazard potential was evaluated following the study design draft guidelines and end points proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Based on maternal body weight changes during pregnancy, the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 250 ppm for maternal toxicity in rats and 1500 ppm for developmental toxicity in rats using the criterion of near-term fetal body weights. In mice, more profound developmental toxicity was present than in rats, at both 1500 and 3500 ppm. At the highest concentration, mouse litters revealed more late fetal deaths, significantly reduced fetal body weights per litter and increased incidences of cleft palate (classified as an external malformation), as well as enlarged lateral ventricles of the cerebrum (a visceral variation). At 1500 ppm, mouse fetuses also exhibited an increased incidence of cleft palate and the dam body weights were reduced. Therefore, the NOAEL for the mouse maternal and developmental toxicity was 250 ppm under the conditions of this study. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  17. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility's operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment

  18. Integrated treatment process of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fujimura, Y.; Nakashima, T.; Moriya, Y.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated waste treatment system was studied based on technologies developed for the treatment of liquid radioactive, organic, and aqueous wastes containing hazardous materials and soils contaminated with heavy metals. The system consists of submerged incineration, metal ion fixing and stabilization, and soil washing treatments. Introduction of this system allows for the simultaneous processing of toxic waste and contaminated soils. Hazardous organic wastes can be decomposed into harmless gases, and aqueous wastes can be converted into a dischargeable effluent. The contaminated soil is backfilled after the removal of toxic materials. Experimental data show that the integration system is practical for complicated toxic wastes

  19. REAL-TIME EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS DURING STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT OPERATION OF A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW)diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emission...

  20. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  1. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers

  2. Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivato, Alberto; Gaspari, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration

  3. Reproductive and developmental hazards in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElgunn, B

    1998-05-01

    Toxic exposures to both the father and the mother before conception and to the mother during pregnancy can affect fertility, the course of pregnancy, and fetal development. The present focus on cancer-causing chemicals in toxicity evaluations has overshadowed other important health endpoints, such as reproductive and developmental toxicity, that may occur at much lower levels of exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke, video display terminals, and indoor air quality are three of the most common concerns of pregnant women in their places of work. The controversies and uncertainties about these and the lack of data on other potential hazards make toxic exposure both a delicate and a necessary issue when counseling women about their workplace health during pregnancy.

  4. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  5. Hazardous constituent source term. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has several facilities that either generate and/or store transuranic (TRU)-waste from weapons program research and production. Much of this waste also contains hazardous waste constituents as regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxicity characteristic metals in the waste principally include lead, occurring in leaded rubber gloves and shielding. Other RCRA metals may occur as contaminants in pyrochemical salt, soil, debris, and sludge and solidified liquids, as well as in equipment resulting from decontamination and decommissioning activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) contaminate many waste forms as a residue adsorbed on surfaces or occur in sludge and solidified liquids. Due to the presence of these hazardous constituents, applicable disposal regulations include land disposal restrictions established by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The DOE plans to dispose of TRU-mixed waste from the weapons program in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by demonstrating no-migration of hazardous constituents. This paper documents the current technical basis for methodologies proposed to develop a post-closure RCRA hazardous constituent source term. For the purposes of demonstrating no-migration, the hazardous constituent source term is defined as the quantities of hazardous constituents that are available for transport after repository closure. Development of the source term is only one of several activities that will be involved in the no-migration demonstration. The demonstration will also include uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of contaminant transport

  6. Multi scenario seismic hazard assessment for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Shaimaa Ismail; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; El-Eraki, Mohamed Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa within a sensitive seismotectonic location. Earthquakes are concentrated along the active tectonic boundaries of African, Eurasian, and Arabian plates. The study area is characterized by northward increasing sediment thickness leading to more damage to structures in the north due to multiple reflections of seismic waves. Unfortunately, man-made constructions in Egypt were not designed to resist earthquake ground motions. So, it is important to evaluate the seismic hazard to reduce social and economic losses and preserve lives. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is used to evaluate the hazard using alternative seismotectonic models within a logic tree framework. Alternate seismotectonic models, magnitude-frequency relations, and various indigenous attenuation relationships were amended within a logic tree formulation to compute and develop the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. Hazard contour maps are constructed for peak ground acceleration as well as 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.5-, 1-, and 2-s spectral periods for 100 and 475 years return periods for ground motion on rock. The results illustrate that Egypt is characterized by very low to high seismic activity grading from the west to the eastern part of the country. The uniform hazard spectra are estimated at some important cities distributed allover Egypt. The deaggregation of seismic hazard is estimated at some cities to identify the scenario events that contribute to a selected seismic hazard level. The results of this study can be used in seismic microzonation, risk mitigation, and earthquake engineering purposes.

  7. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  8. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  9. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  10. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag 2+ or Ce +4 are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs

  12. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of phosphofructokinase activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals that a functional glycolytic carbon flow is necessary to limit the accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates under hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yee Phong

    Full Text Available Metabolic versatility has been increasingly recognized as a major virulence mechanism that enables Mycobacterium tuberculosis to persist in many microenvironments encountered in its host. Glucose is one of the most abundant carbon sources that is exploited by many pathogenic bacteria in the human host. M. tuberculosis has an intact glycolytic pathway that is highly conserved in all clinical isolates sequenced to date suggesting that glucose may represent a non-negligible source of carbon and energy for this pathogen in vivo. Fructose-6-phosphate phosphorylation represents the key-committing step in glycolysis and is catalyzed by a phosphofructokinase (PFK activity. Two genes, pfkA and pfkB have been annotated to encode putative PFK in M. tuberculosis. Here, we show that PFKA is the sole PFK enzyme in M. tuberculosis with no functional redundancy with PFKB. PFKA is required for growth on glucose as sole carbon source. In co-metabolism experiments, we report that disruption of the glycolytic pathway at the PFK step results in intracellular accumulation of sugar-phosphates that correlated with significant impairment of the cell viability. Concomitantly, we found that the presence of glucose is highly toxic for the long-term survival of hypoxic non-replicating mycobacteria, suggesting that accumulation of glucose-derived toxic metabolites does occur in the absence of sustained aerobic respiration. The culture medium traditionally used to study the physiology of hypoxic mycobacteria is supplemented with glucose. In this medium, M. tuberculosis can survive for only 7-10 days in a true non-replicating state before death is observed. By omitting glucose in the medium this period could be extended for up to at least 40 days without significant viability loss. Therefore, our study suggests that glycolysis leads to accumulation of glucose-derived toxic metabolites that limits long-term survival of hypoxic mycobacteria. Such toxic effect is exacerbated when

  15. Health hazards associated with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattan, Gurulingappa; Kaul, Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area and presents a variety of hazards for human health and environment. It is widely believed that engineered nanomaterials will be increasingly used in biomedical applications (as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools). However, before these novel materials can be safely applied in a clinical setting, their toxicity needs to be carefully assessed. Nanoscale materials often behave different from the materials with a larger structure, even when the basic material is same. Many mammals get exposed to these nanomaterials, which can reach almost every cell of the mammalian body, causing the cells to respond against nanoparticles (NPs) resulting in cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. The important key to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials is that their minute size, smaller than cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate the basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. There is a wealth of evidence for the noxious and harmful effects of engineered NPs as well as other nanomaterials. The rapid commercialization of nanotechnology field requires thoughtful, attentive environmental, animal and human health safety research and should be an open discussion for broader societal impacts and urgent toxicological oversight action. While 'nanotoxicity' is a relatively new concept to science, this comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  17. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  18. Amino acid sequence and biological characterization of BlatPLA₂, a non-toxic acidic phospholipase A₂ from the venom of the arboreal snake Bothriechis lateralis from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Laat, Marco; Fernández, Julián; Durban, Jordi; Villalobos, Eva; Camacho, Erika; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Bothriechis is considered a monophyletic, basal genus of arboreal Neotropical pitvipers distributed across Middle America. The four species found in Costa Rica (B. lateralis, B. schlegeli, B. nigroviridis, B. supraciliaris) differ in their venom proteomic profiles, suggesting that different Bothriechis taxa have evolved diverse trophic strategies. In this study, we isolated a phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) from B. lateralis venom, aiming at increasing our knowledge on the structural and functional characteristics of group II acidic PLA₂s, whose toxic actions are generally more restricted than those displayed by basic PLA₂s. The new acidic enzyme, BlatPLA₂, occurs as a monomer of 13,917 Da, in contrast to many basic group II PLA₂s which associate into dimers and often display myotoxicity and/or neurotoxicity. Its amino acid sequence of 122 residues predicts an isoelectric point of 4.7, and displays significant differences with previously characterized acidic PLA₂s, with which it shows a maximum sequence identity of 78%. BlatPLA₂ is catalytically active but appears to be devoid of major toxic activities, lacking intravenous or intracerebroventricular lethality, myotoxicity, in vitro anticoagulant activity, and platelet aggregation or inhibition effects. Phylogenetic relationships with similar group II enzymes suggest that BlatPLA₂ may represent a basal sequence to other acidic PLA₂s. Due to the metabolic cost of venom protein synthesis, the presence of a relatively abundant (9%) but non-toxic component is somewhat puzzling. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that BlatPLA₂ could have a role in the pre-digestion of prey, possibly having retained characteristics of ancestral PLA₂s without evolving towards potent toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seismic hazard in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mueller, Charles; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 national seismic-hazard model for the conterminous United States incorporates new scientific results and important model adjustments. The current model includes updates to the historical catalog, which is spatially smoothed using both fixed-length and adaptive-length smoothing kernels. Fault-source characterization improved by adding faults, revising rates of activity, and incorporating new results from combined inversions of geologic and geodetic data. The update also includes a new suite of published ground motion models. Changes in probabilistic ground motion are generally less than 10% in most of the Intermountain West compared to the prior assessment, and ground-motion hazard in four Intermountain West cities illustrates the range and magnitude of change in the region. Seismic hazard at reference sites in Boise and Reno increased as much as 10%, whereas hazard in Salt Lake City decreased 5–6%. The largest change was in Las Vegas, where hazard increased 32–35%.

  20. In situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, S S; Lower, W R

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of the environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by the laboratory analysis of the environmental samples or by the measurement of the biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. A canary in a cage, used by 19th century miners as a biological indicator for rising levels of toxic gases, is a classical example of in situ hazard identification. The induced toxic effects are often the result of synergistic and antagonistic interactions among various physical and chemical factors that are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Therefore, conceivably the biological effects measured on or near the impacted site have greater relevancy for hazard assessment to man than from the data derived from the environmental samples analyzed in the lab. The organisms most commonly employed for the assessment of mutagenicity under real-world conditions are: (1) flowering plants, (2) wild and captive mammals, and (3) aquatic vertebrates. Plant species such as Tradescantia paludosa, Zea mays, and Osmunda regalis have been used for monitoring ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the U.S.A., nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also for the assessment of potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals such as dogs can be used as sentinels to provide information on the effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate the environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed for assessing the health hazards and prioritizing the clean-up efforts at hazardous waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution. Since 1970, a number of studies has been reported on the

  1. Granular biodurable nanomaterials: No convincing evidence for systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Horn, Marcus; Gebel, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterials are usually defined by primary particle diameters ranging from 1 to 100 nm. The scope of this review is an evaluation of experimental animal studies dealing with the systemic levels and putative systemic effects induced by nanoparticles which can be characterized as being granular biodurable particles without known specific toxicity (GBP). Relevant examples of such materials comprise nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black. The question was raised whether GBP nanomaterials systemically accumulate and may possess a relevant systemic toxicity. With few exceptions, the 56 publications reviewed were not performed using established standard protocols, for example, OECD guidelines but used non-standard study designs. The studies including kinetic investigations indicated that GBP nanomaterials were absorbed and systemically distributed to rather low portions only. There was no valid indication that GPB nanomaterials possess novel toxicological hazard properties. In addition, no convincing evidence for a relevant specific systemic toxicity of GBP nanomaterials could be identified. The minority of the papers reviewed (15/56) investigated both nanosized and microsized GBP materials in parallel. A relevant different translocation of GBP nanomaterials in contrast to GBP micromaterials was not observed in these studies. There was no evidence that GPB nanomaterials possess toxicological properties other than their micromaterial counterparts.

  2. General aspects of metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, H; Kolkowska, P; Watly, J; Krzywoszynska, K; Potocki, S

    2014-01-01

    This review is focused on the general mechanisms of metal toxicity in humans. The possible and mainly confirmed mechanisms of their action are discussed. The metals are divided into four groups due to their toxic effects. First group comprises of metal ions acting as Fenton reaction catalyst mainly iron and copper. These types of metal ions participate in generation of the reactive oxygen species. Metals such as nickel, cadmium and chromium are considered as carcinogenic agents. Aluminum, lead and tin are involved in neurotoxicity. The representative of the last group is mercury, which may be considered as a generally toxic metal. Fenton reaction is a naturally occurring process producing most active oxygen species, hydroxyl radical: Fe(2+) + He2O2 ↔ Fe(3+) + OH(-) + OH(•) It is able to oxidize most of the biomolecules including DNA, proteins, lipids etc. The effect of toxicity depends on the damage of molecules i.e. production site of the hydroxyl radical. Chromium toxicity depends critically on its oxidation state. The most hazardous seems to be Cr(6+) (chromates) which are one of the strongest inorganic carcinogenic agents. Cr(6+) species act also as oxidative agents damaging among other nucleic acids. Redox inactive Al(3+), Cd(2+) or Hg(2+) may interfere with biology of other metal ions e.g. by occupying metal binding sites in biomolecules. All these aspects will be discussed in the review.

  3. Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study

  4. Toxicity of sediment-associated substituted phenylamine antioxidants on the early life stages of Pimephales promelas and a characterization of effects on freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Ryan S; Parrott, Joanne L; Galicia, Melissa; Shires, Kallie; Sullivan, Cheryl; Toito, John; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Milani, Danielle; Gillis, Patty L; Balakrishnan, Vimal K

    2017-10-01

    Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are high production volume chemicals that are incorporated into a variety of commercial products (e.g., polymers, dyes, lubricants). There are few data on chronic toxicity of SPAs to fish and no data on the toxicity of SPAs to the early life stages of fish. The physicochemical properties of SPAs would suggest that if they were to enter an aquatic ecosystem they would partition into sediment. Therefore, the present study focused on investigating the chronic effect of sediment-associated SPAs to the early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Eggs and larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with diphenylamine (DPA), N-phenyl-1-napthylamine (PNA), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPDA), or 4,4'-methylene-bis[N-sec-butylaniline] (MBA). The most sensitive endpoint for DPA, PNA, and DPPDA was total survival with 21-d median lethal concentrations (LC50s) based on concentration in overlying water of 1920, 74, and 35 μg/L, respectively. The most sensitive endpoint for MBA was growth with a 21-d median effective concentration (EC50) of 71 μg/L. The same endpoints were the most sensitive in terms of concentrations of DPA, PNA, DPPDA, and MBA in sediment (101, 54, 111, and 76 μg/g dry wt, respectively). Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were constructed for each SPA based on acute and chronic toxicity data generated in the present study and found in the literature. Overall, P. promelas was in the midrange of chronic sensitivity, with the most sensitive species being Tubifex tubifex. The SSDs indicate that DPA based on concentration in water is the least toxic to aquatic biota of the 4 SPAs investigated. The constructed SSDs indicate that a concentration in water and sediment of 1 μg/L and 1 μg/g dry weight, respectively, would be protective of >95% of the aquatic species tested. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2730-2738. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Classification of baseline toxicants for QSAR predictions to replace fish acute toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendza, Monika; Müller, Martin; Wenzel, Andrea

    2017-03-22

    Fish acute toxicity studies are required for environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by national and international legislations such as REACH, the regulations of plant protection products and biocidal products, or the GHS (globally harmonised system) for classification and labelling of chemicals. Alternative methods like QSARs (quantitative structure-activity relationships) can replace many ecotoxicity tests. However, complete substitution of in vivo animal tests by in silico methods may not be realistic. For the so-called baseline toxicants, it is possible to predict the fish acute toxicity with sufficient accuracy from log K ow and, hence, valid QSARs can replace in vivo testing. In contrast, excess toxicants and chemicals not reliably classified as baseline toxicants require further in silico, in vitro or in vivo assessments. Thus, the critical task is to discriminate between baseline and excess toxicants. For fish acute toxicity, we derived a scheme based on structural alerts and physicochemical property thresholds to classify chemicals as either baseline toxicants (=predictable by QSARs) or as potential excess toxicants (=not predictable by baseline QSARs). The step-wise approach identifies baseline toxicants (true negatives) in a precautionary way to avoid false negative predictions. Therefore, a certain fraction of false positives can be tolerated, i.e. baseline toxicants without specific effects that may be tested instead of predicted. Application of the classification scheme to a new heterogeneous dataset for diverse fish species results in 40% baseline toxicants, 24% excess toxicants and 36% compounds not classified. Thus, we can conclude that replacing about half of the fish acute toxicity tests by QSAR predictions is realistic to be achieved in the short-term. The long-term goals are classification criteria also for further groups of toxicants and to replace as many in vivo fish acute toxicity tests as possible with valid QSAR

  6. Toward identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Wendell P; Sedlak, David L; Barlaz, Morton A; Henry, Heather F; Muir, Derek C G; Swackhamer, Deborah L; Weber, Eric J; Arnold, Robert G; Ferguson, P Lee; Field, Jennifer A; Furlong, Edward T; Giesy, John P; Halden, Rolf U; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Howard, Philip H; Luthy, Richard G; Meyer, Anita K; Sáez, A Eduardo; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vulpe, Chris D; Wiesner, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled "Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation" held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  7. Toxicity identification evaluation methods for identification of toxicants in refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, K.A.; Mount, D.R.; Hackett, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    During the last five years, the authors have used Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods to characterize and identify the source(s) of toxicity in effluents from dozens of municipal and industrial facilities. In most cases, specific chemicals responsible for toxicity have been identified. Although generally successful, the initial experience was that for several refinery effluents, they were able only to qualitatively characterize the presence of organic toxicants; standard toxicant identification procedures were not able to isolate specific organic chemicals. They believe that organic toxicity in these refinery effluents is caused by multiple organic compounds rather than by just a few; evidence for this includes an inability to isolate toxicity in a small number of fractions using liquid chromatography and the presence of very large numbers of compounds in isolated fractions. There is also evidence that the toxicant(s) may be ionic, in that the toxicity of whole effluent and isolated fractions often show increasing toxicity with decreasing pH. Finally, positive-pressure filtration has also reduced toxicity in some samples. In this presentation the authors summarize their experiences with refinery effluents, focusing on typical patterns they have observed and alternative procedures they have used to better understand the nature of these toxicants

  8. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  9. Treatment and disposal of toxic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Train, D

    1983-03-01

    An unparallelled expansion of material benefits to life and commerce in the '50s and '60s caused wastes to increase in variety and complexity. Amongst these some materials were particularly hazardous, being flammable, corrosive, reactive or toxic. This article presents simple guidelines for use in complex waste disposal situations.

  10. Construction and characterization of the interdomain chimeras using Cry11Aa and Cry11Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis and identification of a possible novel toxic chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunjun; Zhao, Qiang; Zheng, Dasheng; Ding, Xuezhi; Wang, Jingfang; Hu, Quanfang; Yuan, Zhiming; Park, Hyun-Woo; Xia, Liqiu

    2014-01-01

    Three structural domains of mosquitocidal Cry11Aa and Cry11Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis were exchanged to produce interdomain chimeras [BAA (11Ba/11Aa/11Aa), ABA (11Aa/11Ba/11Aa), AAB (11Aa/11Aa/11Ba), ABB (11Aa/11Ba/11Ba), BAB (11Ba/11Aa/11Ba), BBA (11Ba/11Ba/11Aa]. Chimeras BAB, BAA, BBA, and AAB formed inclusion bodies in the crystal-negative B. thuringiensis host and produced expected protein bands on SDS-PAGE gel. However, no inclusion body or target protein could be found for chimeras ABA and ABB. In bioassays using the fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, AAB had ~50 % lethal concentrations of 4.8 and 2.2 μg ml(-1), respectively; however, the rest of chimeras were not toxic. This study thus helps to understand the domain-function relationships of the Cry11Aa and Cry11Ba toxins. The toxic chimera, AAB, might be a candidate for mosquito control as its amino acid sequence is different from the two parental toxins.

  11. Argonne National Laboratory - West's approach to filter characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    Like other DOE facilities, ANL-W uses a variety of nuclear grade, industrial grade, or furnace-type particulate filters to control airborne radioactivity and hazardous contaminants in radiological containment structures or processes. As designed, these filters entrain and ultimately concentrate contaminants in the media. Toxic metal contaminants include cadmium, chromium, lead; and mercury present in sufficient concentrations to exhibit the hazardous waste characteristic of toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261.24. Radionuclide contaminants deposited in the media may at times accumulate in sufficient quantity to classify the filter as transuranic or remote-handled waste. Upon their removal from the ventilation system, these particulate filters become wastes, which must be characterized to determine their hazardous and radioactive classifications. A well defined filter characterization process is essential for the proper/consistent waste characterization and minimization and for maintaining personnel radiological exposures as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) (1,2). ANL-W has developed an approach to filter sampling and characterization to meet these needs. The ANL-W filter sampling and characterization process is designed to ensure representative sampling and/or process knowledge is utilized in characterizing the filters. The data obtained through sampling and/or process knowledge is used to show compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (3) and Treatment/Storage/Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria. The ANL-W filter characterization involves the collection of process information, filter handling and sampling, sample analysis, data management filter characterization, and waste handling. Each element of the process is streamlined to ensure proper characterization while minimizing radiological exposure to maintenance workers, samplers, laboratory personnel, and waste handlers

  12. Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominick, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and

  13. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  14. Toxicity studies of drugs and chemicals in animals: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saganuwan

    2017-01-01

    Toxicity study is the investigation of either short or long-term toxic effects of a drug or chemical on animals. The toxicity is dose-dependent as asserted by Paracelsus over 500 years ago. However, short-term toxic effect is determined using median lethal dose (LD50) first introduced by Trevan in 1927 and revised many times. Presently there is a growing preponderance of rejection of scientific papers on acute toxicity study, simply because of the belief that in the current hazard and safety ...

  15. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  16. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  17. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  19. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  20. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1992-03-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing an electrochemical process, based upon mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), that converts toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, and chloride or chloride precipitates. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag 2+ , Co 3+ , or Fe 3+ are produced at an anode. These can attack organic molecules directly, and may also produce hydroxyl free radicals that promote destruction. Solid and liquid radioactive waste streams containing only inorganic radionuclide forms may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. The coulombic efficiency of the process has been determined, as well as the destruction efficiency for ethylene glycol, a surrogate waste. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient- temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag(II) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(III) and Co(III) are attractive alternatives to Ag(II) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data have been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(III) and Co(III). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, these data have enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(III) and Co(III) with Ag(II). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(II) had already been collected

  1. Toxic effects of amoxicillin on the photosystem II of Synechocystis sp. characterized by a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiangliang; Deng Chunnuan; Zhang Daoyong; Wang Jianlong; Mu Guijin; Chen Ying

    2008-01-01

    Amoxicillin is one of the widely used antibiotics of environmental concern. This study shows that amoxicillin has toxic effects on the photosynthesis of Synechocystis sp. Its inhibitory effects on photosystem II (PSII) of Synechocystis sp. were investigated by using a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests. The inhibitory effects of amoxicillin on PSII activity of Synechocystis sp. are concentration-dependent. Amoxicillin exposure leads to slowing down of electron transport on both donor side and acceptor side and causes accumulation of P680 + . Q A - reoxidation test revealed that amoxicillin hinders electron transfer from Q A - to Q B /Q B - and more Q A - is oxidized through S 2 (Q A Q B ) - charge recombination. Analysis of PSII heterogeneity demonstrated that an exposure to amoxicillin increases the proportion of inactive PSII (PSII X ) centers and the proportion of PSII centers with small antenna (PSIIβ). These changes finally result in deterioration of full photosynthesis performance

  2. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  3. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  4. A toxicity reduction evaluation for an oily waste treatment plant exhibiting episodic effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, M; Gelderloos, A B; Hughes, J S

    1998-07-30

    A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) was conducted on the oily wastewater treatment plant (Plant) at a Naval Fuel Depot. The Plant treats ship and ballast wastes, berm water from fuel storage areas and wastes generated in the fuel reclamation plant utilizing physical/chemical treatment processes. In the first period of the project (Period I), the TRE included chemical characterization of the plant wastewaters, monitoring the final effluent for acute toxicity and a thorough evaluation of each treatment process and Plant operating procedures. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were performed as part of the overall TRE to characterize and identify possible sources of toxicity. Several difficulties were encountered because the effluent was saline, test organisms were marine species and toxicity was sporadic and unpredictable. The treatability approach utilizing enhancements, improved housekeeping, and operational changes produced substantial reductions in the acute toxicity of the final effluent. In the second period (Period II), additional acute toxicity testing and chemical characterization were performed through the Plant to assess the long-term effects of major unit process improvements for the removal of toxicity. The TIE procedures were also modified for saline wastewaters to focus on suspected class of toxicants such as surfactants. The TRE was successful in reducing acute toxicity of the final effluent through process improvements and operational modifications. The results indicated that the cause of toxicity was most likely due to combination of pollutants (matrix effect) rather than a single pollutant.

  5. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, Sultan A.

    2004-01-01

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  6. Reactive chemicals and process hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surianarayanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exothermic chemical reactions are often accompanied by significant heat release, and therefore, need a thorough investigation before they are taken to a plant scale. Sudden thermal energy releases from exothermic decompositions and runaway reactions have contributed to serious fire and explosions in several chemical process plants. Similarly, thermal runaway had also occurred in storage and transportation of reactive chemicals. The secondary events of thermal runaway reactions can be rupture of process vessel, toxic spills and release of explosive vapor clouds or combination of these also. The explosion hazards are governed by the system thermodynamics and kinetics of the thermal process. Theoretical prediction of limiting temperature is difficult due to process complexities. Further, the kinetic data obtained through classical techniques, at conditions far away from runaway situation, is often not valid for assessing the runaway behavior of exothermic processes. The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the causes and several contributing factors for thermal runaway and instability and present analyses of the methodologies of the new instrumental techniques for assessing the thermal hazards of reactive chemicals during processing, storage and transportation. (author)

  7. Comparative developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant oxygenated PAHs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Andrea L.; Goodale, Britton C.; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael T.; Swanson, Annika J.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are byproducts of combustion and photo-oxidation of parent PAHs. OPAHs are widely present in the environment and pose an unknown hazard to human health. The developing zebrafish was used to evaluate a structurally diverse set of 38 OPAHs for malformation induction, gene expression changes and mitochondrial function. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf) to a dilution series of 38 different OPAHs and evaluated for 22 developmental endpoints. AHR activation was determined via CYP1A immunohistochemistry. Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PHEQ), 1,9-benz-10-anthrone (BEZO), xanthone (XAN), benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (7,12-B[a]AQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-ANTQ) were evaluated for transcriptional responses at 48 hpf, prior to the onset of malformations. qRT-PCR was conducted for a number of oxidative stress genes, including the glutathione transferase(gst), glutathione peroxidase(gpx), and superoxide dismutase(sod) families. Bioenergetics was assayed to measure in vivo oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in 26 hpf embryos exposed to OPAHs. Hierarchical clustering of the structure-activity outcomes indicated that the most toxic of the OPAHs contained adjacent diones on 6-carbon moieties or terminal, para-diones on multi-ring structures. 5-carbon moieties with adjacent diones were among the least toxic OPAHs while the toxicity of multi-ring structures with more centralized para-diones varied considerably. 9,10-PHEQ, BEZO, 7,12-B[a]AQ, and XAN exposures increased expression of several oxidative stress related genes and decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measurement of mitochondrial respiration. Comprehensive in vivo characterization of 38 structurally diverse OPAHs indicated differential AHR dependency and a prominent role for oxidative stress in the toxicity mechanisms. - Highlights: • OPAHs are byproducts of combustion present in the environment. • OPAHs pose a largely

  8. Avoiding the Hazards of Hazardous Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Under a 1980 law, colleges and universities can be liable for cleanup of hazardous waste on properties, in companies, and related to stocks they invest in or are given. College planners should establish clear policy concerning gifts, investigate gifts, distance university from business purposes, sell real estate gifts quickly, consult a risk…

  9. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  10. In silico prediction of Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity for diverse industrial chemicals with substructure pattern recognition and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feixiong; Shen, Jie; Yu, Yue; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Lee, Philip W; Tang, Yun

    2011-03-01

    There is an increasing need for the rapid safety assessment of chemicals by both industries and regulatory agencies throughout the world. In silico techniques are practical alternatives in the environmental hazard assessment. It is especially true to address the persistence, bioaccumulative and toxicity potentials of organic chemicals. Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity is often used as a toxic endpoint. In this study, 1571 diverse unique chemicals were collected from the literature and composed of the largest diverse data set for T. pyriformis toxicity. Classification predictive models of T. pyriformis toxicity were developed by substructure pattern recognition and different machine learning methods, including support vector machine (SVM), C4.5 decision tree, k-nearest neighbors and random forest. The results of a 5-fold cross-validation showed that the SVM method performed better than other algorithms. The overall predictive accuracies of the SVM classification model with radial basis functions kernel was 92.2% for the 5-fold cross-validation and 92.6% for the external validation set, respectively. Furthermore, several representative substructure patterns for characterizing T. pyriformis toxicity were also identified via the information gain analysis methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  12. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  13. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  14. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Technical Report: 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    varnish makers’ and painters’ naphtha, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 32:263-281. Carpenter, C. P.. E. R. Kinkead, D. L. Geary, L. J. Sullivan, Jr., and J...and Pharmacology of Inorganic and Fluorine Contairnin Compounds, AMRL-TR-67-224, Aerospace Medical Research Laboiatory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

  15. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Technical Report: 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    exposed to TOCP exhibited the classic lesions of delayed neuropathy (Smith and Lillie, 1931; Barnes and Denz, 1953; (avanagh, 1954; and Fenton , 1955...Safety of *.i Chemicals in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics , The staff of the Divi- sion of Pharmacology of the Federal Food and Drug Administration, Austin...Annual Technical Report: 1967, AMRL-TR-67-137 (AD 834723), Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Fenton , J. C

  16. Application of computational systems biology to explore environmental toxicity hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Grandjean, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computer-based modeling is part of a new approach to predictive toxicology.Objectives: We investigated the usefulness of an integrated computational systems biology approach in a case study involving the isomers and metabolites of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT......) to ascertain their possible links to relevant adverse effects.Methods: We extracted chemical-protein association networks for each DDT isomer and its metabolites using ChemProt, a disease chemical biology database that includes both binding and gene expression data, and we explored protein-protein interactions...... using a human interactome network. To identify associated dysfunctions and diseases, we integrated protein-disease annotations into the protein complexes using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database.Results: We found 175 human proteins linked to p,p´-DDT...

  17. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report (26th) (1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism In the absence of a significant degree of enzyme indluction, compounds such as clofibrate and di(2.erthylhoxyl...or chlorotrifluoroethylene oligomers and the acid metabolic products of this hydraulic fluid material. Initial acute studies also were conducted on a...Perhalocarboxylic Acids Physiologically Based Pharniacokinetic Model Polychiorotrifluoroethylene Silahydrocarbon Triethylborane Trimethy lol propane Phosphate

  18. 1994 Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    aminotransaminase ANOVA Analysis of variance AP Ammonium perchlorate AST Aspartate aminotransaminase AvGas Aviation gasoline BBDR Biological based dose...the study. This was confirmed by the Opto-Varimex tests in which no differences in locomotor skills were noted in either treated or control animals...during the course of the study, where no differences in locomotor skills were found in treated or control animals. One half of the male rats (six

  19. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  20. Slow, spontaneous degradation of lansoprazole, omeprazole and pantoprazole tablets: isolation and structural characterization of the toxic antioxidants 3H-benzimidazole-2-thiones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, A; Touma, M; Rudler, H; Afonso, C; Seuleiman, M

    2013-09-01

    The spontaneous degradation of lansoprazole, omeprazole and pantoprazole tablets upon long-term and forced storage conditions was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The more abundant products could be isolated by liquid chromatography and their molecular weights determined by Mass Spectrometry (MS). Their structures, established according to their spectroscopic data, were compared to those of either the literature or of authentic samples. Thus lansoprazole led mainly to a mixture of 3H-benzimidazole-2-thione (2a) and 3H-benzimidazole-2-one (2c), omeprazole mainly to a mixture of 5-methoxy-3H-benzimidazole-2-thione (1a) and 2-hydroxymethyl-3, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxypyridine (1b), and pantoprazole, to 5-difluoromethoxy-3H-benzimidazole-2-thione (3a) and 2-hydroxymethyl-3, 4-dimethoxypyridine (3b). Although some of the degradation products had already been observed under different conditions, the detection of benzimidazole-2-thiones is unprecedented and their involvement as possible physiological, yet toxic antioxidants must be emphasized. Plausible, unified mechanisms for the formation of the different degradation products observed herein and in previous papers from the literature are suggested.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Lipid Nanoparticles Containing Natural Botanical Oil for Sun Protection: Characterization and in vitro and in vivo Human Skin Permeation and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréo-Filho, Newton; Bim, Antonio Vinicius Kosiski; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Kitice, Nidia Ayumi; Haridass, Isha N; Abd, Eman; Santos Lopes, Patricia; Thakur, Sachin S; Parekh, Harendra S; Roberts, Michael S; Grice, Jeffrey E; Benson, Heather A E; Leite-Silva, Vânia Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    The use of sunscreen products is widely promoted by schools, government agencies, and health-related organizations to minimize sunburn and skin damage. In this study, we developed stable solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing the chemical UV filter octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC). In parallel, we produced similar stable SLNs in which 20% of the OMC content was replaced by the botanical urucum oil. When these SLNs were applied to the skin of human volunteers, no changes in fluorescence lifetimes or redox ratios of the endogenous skin fluorophores were seen, suggesting that the formulations did not induce toxic responses in the skin. Ex vivo (skin diffusion) tests showed no significant penetration. In vitro studies showed that when 20% of the OMC was replaced by urucum oil, there was no reduction in skin protection factor (SPF), suggesting that a decrease in the amount of chemical filter may be a viable alternative for an effective sunscreen, in combination with an antioxidant-rich vegetable oil, such as urucum. There is a strong trend towards increasing safety of sun protection products through reduction in the use of chemical UV filters. This work supports this approach by producing formulations with lower concentrations of OMC, while maintaining the SPF. Further investigations of SPF in vivo are needed to assess the suitability of these formulations for human use. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Purification and partial characterization of a new mannose/glucose-specific lectin from Dialium guineense Willd seeds that exhibits toxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Alfa U; Silva, Helton C; Silva, Mayara T L; Pereira Júnior, Francisco N; Cajazeiras, João B; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Leal, Rodrigo B; Teixeira, Edson H; Rocha, Bruno A M; Nascimento, Kyria S; Nagano, Celso S; Cavada, Benildo S

    2013-08-01

    A new mannose/glucose-specific lectin, named DigL, was purified from seeds of Dialium guineense by a single step using a Sepharose 4b-Mannose affinity chromatography column. DigL strongly agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by d-mannose, d-glucose, and derived sugars, especially α-methyl-d-mannopyranoside and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine. DigL has been shown to be a stable protein, maintaining its hemagglutinating activity after incubation at a wide range of temperature and pH values and after incubation with EDTA. DigL is a glycoprotein composite by approximately 2.9% of carbohydrates by weight. By sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, the purified DigL exhibited an electrophoretic profile consisting of a broad band of 28-30 kDa. Analysis using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry indicated that purified DigL possesses a molecular average mass of 28 452 ± 2 Da and shows the presence of possible glycoforms. In addition, DigL exhibited an intermediary toxic effect on Artemia sp. nauplii, and this effect was both dependent on native structure and mediated by a carbohydrate-binding site. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ecological significance of hazardous concentrations in a planktonic food web

    OpenAIRE

    De Laender, F.; Soetaert, K.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Middelburg, J.J.; Janssen, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are statistical distributions that are used to estimate the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species at a given toxicant concentration, the hazardous concentration for that fraction of species (HCPAF). Here, we use an aquatic food web model that includes 14 phytoplankton and 6 zooplankton species to estimate the number of species experiencing a biomass reduction when the food web is exposed to the HCPAF and this for 1000 hypothetical toxicants an...

  4. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  5. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  6. Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met

  7. Hazardous materials management and compliance training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    OSHA training for hazardous waste site workers is required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). In December 1986, a series of regulations was promulgated by OSHA on an interim basis calling for the training of workers engaged in hazardous waste operations. Subsequent to these interim regulations, final rules were promulgated and these final rules on hazardous waste operations and emergency response became effective on March 6, 1990. OSHA has conducted hearings on the accreditation of training programs. OSHA would like to follow the accreditation process under the AHERA regulations for asbestos, in which the model plan for accreditation of asbestos abatement training was included in Section 206 of Title 11 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). OSHA proposed on January 26, 1990, to perform the accreditation of training programs for hazardous waste operations and that proposal suggested that they follow the model plan similar to the one used for AHERA. They did not propose to accredited training programs for workers engaged in emergency response. These new regulations pose a significant problem to the various contractors and emergency responders who deal with hazardous materials spill response, cleanup and site remediation since these programs have expanded so quickly that many people are not familiar with what particular segment of the training they are required to have and whether or not programs that have yet to be accredited are satisfactory for this type of training. Title III of SARA stipulates a training program for first responders which includes local emergency response organizations such as firemen and policemen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the needs of workers at hazardous waste site remediation projects and workers who are dealing with hazardous substances, spill response and cleanup

  8. Isolation and molecular characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis found in soils of the Cerrado region of Brazil, and their toxicity to Aedes aegypti larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane dos Santos Lobo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the potential of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates obtained in the Cerrado region of the Brazilian state of Maranhão for the biological control of Aedes aegypti larvae. The isolates were obtained from soil samples and the identification of the B. thuringiensis colonies was based on morphological characteristics. Bioassays were run to assess the pathogenicity and toxicity of the different strains of the B. thuringiensis against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti. Protein profiles were obtained by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to detect the toxin genes found in the bacterial isolates. Overall, 12 (4.0% of the 300 isolates obtained from 45 soil samples were found to present larvicidal activity, with the BtMA-104, BtMA-401 and BtMA-560 isolates causing 100% of mortality. The BtMA-401 isolate was the most virulent, with the lowest median lethal concentration (LC50 (0.004 × 107 spores/mL, followed by the Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis standard (0.32 × 107 spores/mL. The protein profiles of BtMA-25 and BtMA-401 isolates indicated the presence of molecular mass consistent with the presence of the proteins Cry4Aa, Cry11Aa and Cyt1, similar to the profile of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis IPS-82. Surprisingly, however, none of the cry and cyt genes analyzed were amplified in the isolate BtMA-401. The results of the present study revealed the larvicidal potential of B. thuringiensis isolates found in the soils of the Cerrado region from Maranhão, although further research will be necessary to better elucidate and describe other genes associated with the production of insecticidal toxins in these isolates.

  9. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  10. POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENT CYCLES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTIPLE SOURCES IN THE IRRIGATION DITCHES FROM THE RAVENNA COASTAL PLAIN THROUGH TRACE ELEMENTS AND ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While monitoring the physico-chemical characteristics, trace elements and O-H-Sr-B isotopic data were obtained in superficial waters from a number of irrigations canals and ditches in the Ravenna coastal plain, in order to highlight the cycling of potentially toxic elements and the different sources of the solutes. Surveys were conducted during March and July 2008, and considered as representative of the waters in winter and summer, respectively. In summer, the water mass balance in the network is mostly controlled by the ingression of freshwaters from the Canale Emiliano Romagnolo (CER. The O-H isotopic data indicated that, in winter, waters are primarily recharged from Apennine catchments and undergo evaporation to different extents.The boron isotopic signature indicates the important role played by the marine component. A major seawater contribution was evidenced in canals close to the coastline; however, the process controlling the origin of dissolved boron is not solely related to direct mixing with sea water but comprises an additional source probably related to water-soil exchanges and boron of marine origin leaching, owing to the prolonged exposure of alluvial sediments to sea water. An additional boron contribution from the agricultural practice was is also evidenced. Calculation based on the conservative behaviour of chloride ions indicated that in canals and ditches not directly connected with the sea up to the 80% of the Sr budget did not originate from seawater, indicating a source from Al-silicate minerals and supporting the hypothesis of significant soil-water interactions and chemical exchanges.The positive correlation between pH and dissolved oxygen in winter waters is likely to reflect CO2 consumption during algal photosynthesis, favouring the in-situ generation of colloidal particles due to the oxidative precipitation of ferric iron oxy-hydroxides and probably small carbonate particles able to adsorb trace metals on their

  11. A simplified hazard audit procedures guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.G.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Scott, W.B.; Murphy, K.J.

    1991-02-01

    As part of on-going technical support services to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a simplified hazard audit procedures guide which enables cost-effective and timely assessment and characterization of the DOE nuclear (reactor and nonreactor) and non-nuclear facilities safety profile

  12. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  14. Introduction: Hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Lee, Saro; Trofymchuk, Oleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    Twenty papers were accepted into the session on landslide hazard mapping for oral presentation. The papers presented susceptibility and hazard analysis based on approaches ranging from field-based assessments to statistically based models to assessments that combined hydromechanical and probabilistic components. Many of the studies have taken advantage of increasing availability of remotely sensed data and nearly all relied on Geographic Information Systems to organize and analyze spatial data. The studies used a range of methods for assessing performance and validating hazard and susceptibility models. A few of the studies presented in this session also included some element of landslide risk assessment. This collection of papers clearly demonstrates that a wide range of approaches can lead to useful assessments of landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  15. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  16. Health Hazard Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 1, 2018 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluation, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  17. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  18. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  19. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  1. Nitrous Oxide Explosive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    concentrations of N2O. A test program is suggested that could answer questions about decomposition propagation control in large N2O systems and hazards...accident. OSHA fined Scaled Composites for not training their workers informing them about N2O hazards, instructing them on safe procedures, and...seemed present that could produce temperatures in excess of the autogeneous ignition temperature (AIT) for the polymers? Autogeneous ignition

  2. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  3. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  4. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  5. HAZARD ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S; Tinh Tran, T.

    2008-01-01

    Washington Safety Management Solutions, LLC developed web-based software to improve the efficiency and consistency of hazard identification and analysis, control selection and classification, and to standardize analysis reporting at Savannah River Site. In the new nuclear age, information technology provides methods to improve the efficiency of the documented safety analysis development process which includes hazard analysis activities. This software provides a web interface that interacts with a relational database to support analysis, record data, and to ensure reporting consistency. A team of subject matter experts participated in a series of meetings to review the associated processes and procedures for requirements and standard practices. Through these meetings, a set of software requirements were developed and compiled into a requirements traceability matrix from which software could be developed. The software was tested to ensure compliance with the requirements. Training was provided to the hazard analysis leads. Hazard analysis teams using the software have verified its operability. The software has been classified as NQA-1, Level D, as it supports the analysis team but does not perform the analysis. The software can be transported to other sites with alternate risk schemes. The software is being used to support the development of 14 hazard analyses. User responses have been positive with a number of suggestions for improvement which are being incorporated as time permits. The software has enforced a uniform implementation of the site procedures. The software has significantly improved the efficiency and standardization of the hazard analysis process

  6. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  7. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Lessons to be learned from radioactive waste disposal practices for non-radioactive hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    The criteria to be set up for any kind of hazardous waste disposal must always be put in perspective: 1. what are the waste characteristics? 2. what time period for safe isolation is of interest? 3. which geological disposal alternatives exist? Different approaches may be used in the short- and long-term perspective. In either case, a general procedure is recommended which involves concentrating, containing and isolating the source of toxicity, both radioactive and chemotoxic substances, as far as practicable. Waste characterization of either chemotoxic or radioactive wastes should be performed applying comparable scientifically based principles. The important question which arises is whether their hazard potential can be quantified on the basis of dose comparison regarding the morbidity effects of radiation and of chemical pollutants. Good control over the consequences of hazardous waste disposal requires threat detailed criteria for tolerable contamination of radioactive as well as chemical pollutants should be established, and that compliance with these criteria can be demonstrated. As yet, there are no well developed principles for assessing the detriment from most types of genotoxic waste other than radioactive material. The time horizon discussed for both categories of waste for their proof of safe isolation differs by a factor of about one hundred. (au)

  9. Characterization of the metabolic transformation of thiamethoxam to clothianidin in Helicoverpa armigera larvae by SPE combined UPLC-MS/MS and its relationship with the toxicity of thiamethoxam to Helicoverpa armigera larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yinjun; Shi, Xueyan

    2017-09-01

    In order to characterize the metabolic transformation of thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO) in Helicoverpa armigera larvae and clarify its relationship with the insecticidal toxicity of TMX, method for determination of TMX and its metabolite clothianidin (CLO) residues in H. armigera larvae by solid phase extraction (SPE) combined UPLC-MS/MS was established. Following acetonitrile extraction and purification by SPE on florisil cartridge and C 18 cartridge sequently, and cleanup by PSA adsorption, TMX and CLO residues in H. armigera larvae were successfully determined by UPLC-MS/MS. By using the established method, the concentration-time curves of TMX and its metabolite CLO in H. armigera larvae in vivo and metabolism of TMX by microsome of H. armigera larvae midguts in vitro were studied. TMX was quickly eliminated from H. armigera larvae with the elimination half-life as 4.2h. Meanwhile, only a small amount of CLO was formed from TMX metabolism, with the maximum CLO level in H. armigera larvae only accounts for the metabolic transformation of 7.99% of TMX, at 10h after intravenous TMX administration. Our results suggested that the low insecticidal efficacy of TMX against H. armigera larvae was related with the rapidly elimination of TMX from H. armigera larvae, meanwhile, CLO as TMX metabolite at a very low level in vivo didn't contribute to TMX toxicity to H. armigera larvae. In H. armigera larvae, TMX didn't act as proinsecticide for CLO in insecticidal efficacy of TMX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tetrabromobisphenol A – Toxicity, environmental and occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jarosiewicz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brominated flame retardants (BFR, including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA represents 25% of the global market of flame retardants. Among them, TBBPA is used on the largest scale (approx. 60% because of its firebreak properties and widespread occurrence in every day products such as furniture, upholstery, adhesives and electronic equipment. A broad application of TBBPA can contribute to environmental pollution. Tetrabromobisphenol A has been determined in soil, water, river sediments and the atmosphere. Tetrabromobisphenol A is characterized by a high value of coefficient n-octanol/water (log P = 4.5, low acidity, and it may exist in undissociated or dissociated form. Due to the high hydrophobicity, TBBPA may accumulate in living organisms, including humans at different food chain levels. The occurrence of TBBPA in humans, e.g., in blood, fat tissue and mother milk, has been reported. Tetrabromobisphenol A is classified as hazard statements (H H400/H410, which means that it is toxic to aquatic biota, causing long-term changes in these organisms. Up to now, only a few studies have been conducted to assess potential toxicity of high doses of TBBPA to mammals. Although many people are occupationally exposed to TBBPA during production or processing of this substance in their workplaces, there are only a few studies that have assessed the real hazard associated with TBPPA exposure. The aim of the study was to discuss the latest literature (mainly from the years 2010–2016 referring to the presence of TBBPA in the environment and its effects to living organisms. Data concerning occupational exposure to TBBPA were also presented. Med Pr 2017;68(1:121–134

  11. Department of Energy Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the hazardous waste remedial actions program (HAZWRAP) which manages approximately 200 hazardous waste projects. These projects include preliminary assessments, site inspections, and remedial investigation/feasibility studies. The author describes the procedures HAZWRAP follows to ensure quality. The discussion covers the quality assurance aspects of project management, project planning, site characterization, document control and technical teamwork

  12. Hazard Quotients, Hazard Indexes, and Cancer Risks of Toxic Metals in PM10 during Firework Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonfire night is a worldwide phenomenon given to numerous annual celebrations characterised by bonfires and fireworks. Since Thailand has no national ambient air quality standards for metal particulates, it is important to investigate the impacts of particulate injections on elevations of air pollutants and the ecological health impacts resulting from firework displays. In this investigation, Pb and Ba were considered potential firework tracers because their concentrations were significantly higher during the episode, and lower than/comparable with minimum detection limits during other periods, indicating that their elevated concentrations were principally due to pyrotechnic displays. Pb/Ca, Pb/Al, Pb/Mg, and Pb/Cu can be used to pin-point emissions from firework displays. Air mass backward trajectories (72 h from the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model indicated that areas east and north-east of the study site were the main sources of the airborne particles. Although the combined risk associated with levels of Pb, Cr, Co., Ni, Zn, As, Cd, V, and Mn was far below the standards mentioned in international guidelines, the lifetime cancer risks associated with As and Cr levels exceeded US-EPA guidelines, and may expose inhabitants of surrounding areas of Bangkok to an elevated cancer risk.

  13. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, S.B.; Martínez-García, G.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Booij, P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects

  14. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  15. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  16. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  17. Work-principle model for predicting toxic fumes of nonideal explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Michael S. [National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh Research Center, P.O. Box 18070, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0070 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    The work-principle from thermodynamics was used to formulate a model for predicting toxic fumes from mining explosives in underground chamber tests, where rapid turbulent combustion within the surrounding air noticeably changes the resulting concentrations. Two model constants were required to help characterize the reaction zone undergoing rapid chemical transformations in conjunction with heat transfer and work output: a stoichiometry mixing fraction and a reaction-quenching temperature. Rudimentary theory with an unsteady uniform concentration gradient was taken to characterize the combustion zone, yielding 75% for the mixing fraction. Four quenching temperature trends were resolved and compared to test results of ammonium nitrate compositions with different fuel-oil percentages (ANFO). The quenching temperature 2345 K was the optimum choice for fitting the two major components of fume toxicity: carbon monoxide (CO) and total nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}). The resulting two-constant model was used to generate comparisons for test results of ANFO compositions with additives. Though respectable fits were usually found, charge formulations which reacted weakly could not be resolved numerically. The work-principle model yields toxic concentrations for a range of charge formulations, making it a useful tool for investigating the potential hazard of released fumes and reducing the risk of unwanted incidents. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Risk management at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Doty, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with additional resources and direction for the identification, evaluation, and remediation of hazardous waste sites in the United States. SARA established more stringent requirements for the Superfund program, both in terms of the pace of the program and the types of remedial alternatives selected. The central requirement is that remedial alternatives be ''protective of public health and the environment'' and ''significantly and permanently'' reduce the toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants. The mandate also requires that potential risk be considered in the decision-making process. This document discusses risk management at hazardous waste sites. Topics include selection of sites for placement on the National Priority List, risk assessment and the decision process, risk reduction and remedial alternative selection, and aquifer restoration. 10 refs., 2 figs

  19. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC reg-sign to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications

  20. Robotics and artificial intelligence for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    In our technological society, hazardous materials including toxic chemicals, flammable, explosive, and radioactive substances, and biological agents, are used and handled routinely. Each year, many workers who handle these substances are accidently contaminated, in some cases resulting in injury, death, or chronic disabilities. If these hazardous materials could be handled remotely, either with a teleoperated robot (operated by a worker in a safe location) or by an autonomous robot, then human suffering and economic costs of accidental exposures could be dramatically reduced. At present, it is still difficult for commercial robotic technology to completely replace humans involved in performing complex work tasks in hazardous environments. The robotics efforts at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research represent a significant effort at contributing to the advancement of robotics for use in hazardous environments. While this effort is very broad-based, ranging from dextrous manipulation to mobility and integrated sensing, the technical portion of this paper will focus on machine learning and the high-level decision making needed for autonomous robotics

  1. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  2. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  4. Natural Hazards, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhban, Badaoui

    Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

  5. Barrow hazards survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)

  6. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  7. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products Hazard Indicators I II III IV Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg >50 thru 500 mg/kg >500 thru 5,000 mg/kg >5,000 mg/kg Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg >200 thru 2000 mg/kg >2000 thru 20,000 mg/kg >20,000 mg/kg Inhalation LC50 Up to and including...

  8. Hazards of TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans

  9. Current Knowledge on the Use of Computational Toxicology in Hazard Assessment of Metallic Engineered Nanomaterials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Guangchao; Peijnenburg, Willie; Xiao, Yinlong; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-01-01

    As listed by the European Chemicals Agency, the three elements in evaluating the hazards of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) include the integration and evaluation of toxicity data, categorization and labeling of ENMs, and derivation of hazard threshold levels for human health and the environment.

  10. LCIA selection methods for assessing toxic releases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2002-01-01

    the inventory that contribute significantly to the impact categories on ecotoxicity and human toxicity to focus the characterisation work. The reason why the selection methods are more important for the chemical-related impact categories than for other impact categories is the extremely high number......Characterization of toxic emissions in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is in many cases severely limited by the lack of characterization factors for the emissions mapped in the inventory. The number of substances assigned characterization factors for (eco)toxicity included in the dominating LCA....... The methods are evaluated against a set of pre-defined criteria (comprising consistency with characterization and data requirement) and applied to case studies and a test set of chemicals. The reported work is part of the EU-project OMNIITOX....

  11. Hazardous properties of paint residues from the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajasaari, Kati; Kulovaara, Maaret; Joutti, Anneli; Schultz, Eija; Soljamo, Kari

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this study was to screen nine excess paint residues for environmental hazard and to evaluate their disposability in a non-hazardous or hazardous-waste landfill. These residues were produced in the process of spray-painting furniture. Residues were classified according to their leaching and ecotoxicological properties. Leaching properties were determined with the European standard SFS-EN 12457-2 leaching-test. The toxicity of the leaching-test eluates was measured with plant-, bacteria- and enzyme-inhibition bioassays. Total organic carbon, formaldehyde and solvent concentrations in the solid wastes and in the leaching-test eluates were analysed. It seemed likely that leached formaldehyde caused very high acute toxicity in leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues. This hypothesis was based on the fact that the formaldehyde concentrations in the leaching-test eluates of the dry-booth residues were 62-75 times higher than the EC50 value reported in the literature for formaldehyde. The results of the water-curtain booth residues showed that the samples with the highest TOC and aromatic solvent concentrations were also the most toxic. The studied excess paint residues were complex organic mixtures and contained large amounts of compounds not identifiable from chemical data. Therefore, the evaluation of the hazard based solely on available chemical data is unlikely to be sufficient, as evidenced by our study. Our results show that harmful compounds remain in the solid waste and the toxicity results of their leaching-test eluates show that toxicity may leach from residues in contact with water at landfill sites. They also confirm the benefit of combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays in assessing the potential environmental hazard of complex organic mixtures found in wastes. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  12. The perception of hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The fourth chapter deals with the profusion of factors determining the differing assessment of hazards by our society. Subjective factors influencing risk perception comprise, among others, general knowledge and recognition of a hazard; the degree of voluntariness when taking the risk and its influencibility; the problem of large scale accidents; immediate and delayed results. Next to the objective and the subjective risks, the individual and the social or collective risks are assessed differently. The author dicusses in detail recent investigations into and study methods for the determination of risk perception, while eliminating systematic trends from subjective perception since common assessments are shared by whole groups of individuals time and again which allow a better understanding of today's handling of hazards. (HSCH) [de

  13. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  14. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties.

  15. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  16. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rosendahl Appelquist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used to support management decisions at local, regional and national level, in areas with limited access to geophysical data. The assessment for Djibouti applies a geographic information system (GIS to develop a range of national hazard maps along with relevant hazard statistics and is showcasing the procedure for applying the CHW methodology for national hazard assessments. The assessment shows that the coastline of Djibouti is characterized by extensive stretches with high or very high hazards of ecosystem disruption, mainly related to coral reefs and mangrove forests, while large sections along the coastlines of especially northern and southern Djibouti have high hazard levels for gradual inundation. The hazard of salt water intrusion is moderate along most of Djibouti’s coastline, although groundwater availability is considered to be very sensitive to human ground water extraction. High or very high erosion hazards are associated with Djibouti’s sedimentary plains, estuaries and river mouths, while very high flooding hazards are associated with the dry river mouths.

  17. Wind hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, D.; Moland, M.; Sciaudone, J.C.; Twisdale, L.A.; Vickery, P.J.; Mizzen, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the CNSC Fukushima Action Plan, NB Power has embarked on a wind hazard assessment for the Point Lepreau Generating Station site that incorporates the latest up to date wind information and modeling. The objective was to provide characterization of the wind hazard from all potential sources and estimate wind-driven missile fragilities and wind pressure fragilities for various structures, systems and components that would provide input to a possible high wind Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The paper will discuss the overall methodology used to assess hazards related to tornadoes, hurricanes and straight-line winds, and site walk-down and hazard/fragility results. (author)

  18. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  19. Hazard Communication Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  20. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nano fibers for its application in the adsorption of toxic gases; Sintesis y caracterizacion de nanofibras de carbono para su aplicacion en la adsorcion de gases toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico L, J A

    2004-07-01

    The production of carbon nano fibers (CNF's) by diverse techniques as the electric arc, laser ablation, or chemical deposition in vapor phase, among other, they have been so far used from final of the 90's. However, the synthesis method by discharge Glow arc of alternating current and high frequency developed by Pacheco and collaborators, is a once alternative for its obtaining. In the plasma Application Laboratory (LAP) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (INlN) it was designed and manufactured a reactor of alternating current and high frequency that produces a Glow arc able to synthesize carbon nano fibers. Its were carried out nano fibers synthesis with different catalysts to different proportions and with distinct conditions of vacuum pressure and methane flow until obtaining the best nano fibers samples and for it, this nano structures were characterized by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Raman spectrometry and EDS spectrometry. Once found the optimal conditions for the nano fibers production its were contaminated with NO{sub 2} toxic gas and it was determined if they present adsorption, for it was used the thermal gravimetric analysis technique. This work is divided in three parts, in the first one, conformed by the chapters 1, at the 3, they are considered the foundations of the carbon nano fibers, their history, their characteristics, growth mechanisms, synthesis techniques, the thermal gravimetric analysis principles and the adsorption properties of the nano fibers. In the second part, consistent of the chapters 4 and 5, the methodology of synthesis and characterization of the nano fibers is provided. Finally, in third part its were carried out the activation energy calculation, the adsorption of the CNF's is analyzed and the conclusions are carried out. The present study evaluates the adsorption of environmental gas pollutants as the nitrogen oxides on carbon nano fibers at environmental or near conditions. Also