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Sample records for hawkweeds hieracium lactuceae

  1. A new invasive hawkweed, Hieracium glomeratum (Lactuceae, Asteraceae), in the Pacific Northwest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilson, L. M.; Fehrer, Judith; Bräutigam, S.; Grosskopf, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 84, - (2006), s. 133-142 ISSN 0008-4026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium * invasives * DNA fingerprinting Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2006

  2. Intra-individual polymorphism in diploid and apomictic polyploid hawkweeds (Hieracium, Lactuceae, Asteraceae): disentangling phylogenetic signal, reticulation, and noise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fehrer, Judith; Krak, Karol; Chrtek, Jindřich

    -, č. 9 (2009), s. 239 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium * reticulation * evolution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.294, year: 2009 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/9/239

  3. Incongruent plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenies reveal ancient intergeneric hybridization in Pilosella hawkweeds (Hieracium, Cichorieae, Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fehrer, Judith; Gemeinholzer, B.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Bräutigam, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2007), s. 347-361 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SE/610/3/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : molecular phylogeny * Hieracium * chloroplast capture Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2007

  4. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  5. 75 FR 64984 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... hawkweed gall wasp, Aulacidea subterminalis, into the continental United States as a biological control... United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium pilosella, H. aurantiacum, H... control, and the use of biological control organisms. The use of herbicides, while effective, is limited...

  6. Autumn hawkweed (Hieracium sabaudum) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bidmanová, P.; Rotreklová, O.; Danihelka, Jiří; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 2 (2016), s. 101-158 ISSN 1211-8788 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Asteraceae * distribution * central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Novedades sobre el género Pilosella Hill.: (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Sanz, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Se comunica la presencia de diversas especies nuevas del género Pilosella Hill. (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España. Novelties on the genus Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) in Spain, II. Several species of Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) found in Spain.

  8. The Red Queen hypothesis and geographical parthenogenesis in the alpine hawkweed Hieracium alpinum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartmann, M.; Štefánek, M.; Zdvořák, P.; Heřman, P.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Mráz, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2017), s. 681-696 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : apomixis * polyploidy * Red Queen hypothesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  9. Hieracium glabrescens (Asteraceae Rediscovered in the Carpathians

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    Szeląg Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Hieracium glabrescens (F. W. Schultz Murr in the Carpathians is confirmed after over a century by a new locality from the Apuseni Mountains in Romania. This locality, very significant from the phytogeographical point of view, is disjoined ca 500 km from the nearest Balkan localities of the species. The origin of H. glabrescens in the Apuseni Mountains is briefly discussed.

  10. Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides (Asteraceae) in the Black Hills National Forest: New state records for South Dakota, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Dickerson; Cheryl Mayer; Justin Ramsey; Zach Mergen; Mark Gabel

    2016-01-01

    Hieracium spp. (Asteraceae) are noted for their taxonomic complexity, frequent incidence of apomixis and polyploidy, and invasive tendencies. Here we report the Eurasian taxa, Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. and Hieracium piloselloides Vill., as recent additions to the flora of South Dakota. Plants were collected at three locations in the Black Hills during 2014 and 2015...

  11. Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Hieracium piloselloides: Their Potential for Hydrocarbon-Utilizing and Plant Growth-Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of 18 crude-oil-degrading endophytic bacteria for removal of hydrocarbons and promotion of plant growth. Strains were isolated from Hieracium piloselloides (tall hawkweed), which grows in soil heavily polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. Bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas were abundant among the isolates. The potential for hydrocarbon degradation was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of the genes alkB, alkH, C23O, P450, and pah. It was found that 88.89% of the endophytic bacteria contained gene-encoding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) initial dioxygenase, 61% possessed the 2,3-catechol dioxygenase gene, and 39% of strains that were tested had the cytochrome P-450 hydroxylase gene. All isolates were capable of producing indole-3-acetic acid (1.8-76.4 μg/ml). Only 17% of them were able to produce siderophores, excrete cellulase, and solubilize phosphate. Hydrogen cyanide synthesis occurred in 33% of endophytic bacteria. The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity in isolates that were screened was in the range of 2.6 to 74.1 μmol α-ketobutyrate/mg/h. This feature of the bacteria indicated that isolates may enhance the phytoremediation process. Data suggest that crude-oil-degrading endophytic bacteria possess potential to be promising candidates for enhancement of phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Further evaluation of these bacteria is needed in order to assess the role played in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  12. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp..., into the continental United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium pilosella, H...

  13. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae, a new species from North China

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    Alexander Sennikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group H. sect. Aestiva (H. sect. Prenanthoidea × H. sect. Umbellata and is most similar to H. veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements.

  14. Flavonoids and coumarins from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae

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    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical chromatographic methods were successfully applied to isolate nine flavonoid compounds and two coumarin glycosides from the inflorescences and the herb of Hieracium pilosella L. Repeated column chromatography, occasionally paper chromatography and recrystallization made the separation of three flavonoid aglycones and six glycosides - possible. Coumarin glycosides were isolated by preparative thin layer chromatography. Subsequent UV, NMR and MS analyses have led to identification of the following flavonoid derivatives: known for the species - apigenin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O- ß-glucopyranoside, luteolin 4’-O-ß-glucopyranoside, isoetin 7-O-ß- -glucopyranoside, isoetin 4’-O-ß-glucuronide and new for the species – kaempferol 3-methyl ether and apigenin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside. Third isoetin glycoside contained two different sugar moieties: xylose and glucose, probably attached to the hydroxyl groups at C-4’ or C-4’ and C-2’(or 5’ of an aglycone. Umbelliferone 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (skimmin and new for the genus Hieracium esculetin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (cichoriin were determined by NMR and MS methods.

  15. Sterol composition from inflorescences of Hieracium pilosella L.

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    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fraction of sterol acetates from the inflorescences of Hieracium pilosella has been isolated in the typical way from petroleum ether extract. By means of the weight method the total amount of sterols was determined (0.2659%. The mixtures of sterol acetates and free sterols were investigated using GC-MS techniques. The occurrence of about 18 sterols has been observed. Cholesterol, cholest-8(14-en-3b-ol, cholesta-5.7-dien-3b-ol, cholest-7-en-3b-ol, ergosta-5.24-dien-3b-ol, campesterol, stigmasterol, b-sitosterol, fucosterol, 5a-stigmast-7-en-3a-ol were identified. The probable structures of lophenol, isofucosterol, 5a-stigmasta-7.24-dien-3b-ol, lanosta-9(11.24-dien-3b-ol and 24-ethylidene lophenol were stated on the basis of literature data. The last 4 sterols occur in a vestigial quantity, which made its identification impossible. Sitos erol and cholesterol are remarkably dominating sterols in the fraction.

  16. Offspring diversity in Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae): new cytotypes from hybridization experiments and from open pollination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, 1-2 (2000), s. 239-255 ISSN 0015-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005803; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * aneuploids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. Mating interactions between coexisting diploid, triploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Hieracium echioides (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peckert, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 323-334 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * pollen competition * reproductive barriers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2006

  18. Seeds of doubt: Mendel's choice of Hieracium to study inheritance, a case of right plant, wrong trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Ross; Catanach, Andrew; Hand, Melanie; Koltunow, Anna

    2016-12-01

    In this review, we explore Gregor Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium , update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops. From our perspective, it is easy to conclude that Gregor Mendel's work on pea was insightful, but his peers clearly did not regard it as being either very convincing or of much importance. One apparent criticism was that his findings only applied to pea. We know from a letter he wrote to Carl von Nägeli, a leading botanist, that he believed he needed to "verify, with other plants, the results obtained with Pisum". For this purpose, Mendel adopted Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, a phenotypically diverse taxon under botanical study at the time. What Mendel could not have known, however, is that the majority of these plants are not sexual plants like pea, but instead are facultatively apomictic. In these forms, the majority of seed arises asexually, and such progeny are, therefore, clones of the maternal parent. Mendel obtained very few hybrids in his Hieracium crosses, yet we calculate that he probably emasculated in excess of 5000 Hieracium florets to even obtain the numbers he did. Despite that effort, he was perplexed by the results, and they ultimately led him to conclude that "the hybrids of Hieracium show a behaviour exactly opposite to those of Pisum". Apomixis is now a topic of intense research interest, and in an ironic twist of history, Hieracium subgenus Pilosella has been developed as a molecular model to study this trait. In this paper, we explore further Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium, update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops.

  19. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in a highly reticulate group with deep coalescence and recent speciation (Hieracium, Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Caklová, Petra; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2013), s. 138-151 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0657; GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Grant - others:European Union(XE) ES-TAF-1365 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Hieracium * hybridization * incomplete lineage sorting Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.804, year: 2013

  20. Methanol Extracts of 28 Hieracium Species from the Balkan Peninsula - Comparative LC-MS Analysis, Chemosystematic Evaluation of their Flavonoid and Phenolic Acid Profiles and Antioxidant Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Violeta; Niketić, Marjan; Ušjak, Ljuboš; Nikolić, Dejan; Krunić, Aleksej; Zidorn, Christian; Petrović, Silvana

    2018-01-01

    Hieracium s. str. represents one of the largest and most complex genera of flowering plants. As molecular genetics seems unlikely to disentangle intricate relationships within this reticulate species complex, analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids, known as good chemosystematic markers, promise to be more reliable. Data about pharmacological activity of Hieracium species are scarce. Evaluation of the chemosystematic significance of flavonoids and phenolic acids of methanol extracts of aerial flowering parts of 28 Hieracium species from the Balkans. Additionally, investigation of antioxidant potentials of the extracts. Comparative qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids was performed by LC-MS. Multivariate statistical data analysis included non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), unweighted pair-group arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using three colorimetric tests. Dominant phenolics in almost all species were luteolin type flavonoids, followed by phenolic acids. Although the investigated Hieracium species share many compounds, the current classification of the genus was supported by nMDS and UPGMA analyses with a good resolution to the group level. Hieracium naegelianum was clearly separated from the other investigated species. Spatial and ecological distances of the samples were likely to influence unexpected differentiation of some groups within H. sect. Pannosa. The vast majority of dominant compounds significantly contributed to differences between taxa. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was satisfactory and in accordance with their phenolics composition. Comparative LC-MS analysis demonstrated that flavonoids and phenolic acids are good indicators of chemosystematic relationships within Hieracium, particularly between non-hybrid species and groups from the same location. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  1. Anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities of Hieracium pilosella L. extracts

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    LJILJANA P. STANOJEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities of different extracts from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae whole plant were investigated. The total dry extracts were determined for all the investigated solvents: methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane:methanol (9:1. It was found that the highest yield was obtained by extraction with methanol (12.9 g/100 g of dry plant material. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed by the HPLC method, using external standards. Chlorogenic acid, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and umbelliferone were detected in the highest quantity in the extracts. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the extracts depends on the solvent used. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in the methanolic extract, both with and without incubation, EC50 = 0.012 and EC50 = 0.015 mg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts towards the bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were determined by the disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined for all the investigated extracts against all the mentioned microorganisms.

  2. Effects of heavy-metal-contaminated soil on growth, phenology and biomass turnover of Hieracium piloselloides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryser, Peter; Sauder, Wendy R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of low levels of heavy metals on plant growth, biomass turnover and reproduction were investigated for Hieracium pilosella. Plants were grown for 12 weeks on substrates with different concentrations of heavy metals obtained by diluting contaminated soils with silica sand. To minimize effects of other soil factors, the substrates were limed, fertilized, and well watered. The more metal-contaminated soil the substrate contained, the lower the leaf production rate and the plant mass were, and the more the phenological development was delayed. Flowering phenology was very sensitive to metals. Leaf life span was reduced at the highest and the lowest metal levels, the latter being a result of advanced seed ripening. Even if the effect of low metal levels on plant growth may be small, the delayed and reduced reproduction may have large effects at population, community and ecosystem level, and contribute to rapid evolution of metal tolerance. - Flowering phenology shows a very sensitive response to heavy metal contamination of soils

  3. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hand, M. L.; Vít, Petr; Krahulcová, Anna; Johnson, S. D.; Oelkers, K.; Siddons, H.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith; Koltunow, A. M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2015), s. 17-26 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890; GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gametophytic apomixis * Hieracium * marker inheritance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.801, year: 2015

  4. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in a highly reticulate group with deep coalescence and recent speciation (Hieracium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, K; Caklová, P; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J

    2013-02-01

    Phylogeny reconstruction based on multiple unlinked markers is often hampered by incongruent gene trees, especially in closely related species complexes with high degrees of hybridization and polyploidy. To investigate the particular strengths and limitations of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), low-copy nuclear and multicopy nuclear markers for elucidating the evolutionary history of such groups, we focus on Hieracium s.str., a predominantly apomictic genus combining the above-mentioned features. Sequences of the trnV-ndhC and trnT-trnL intergenic spacers were combined for phylogenetic analyses of cpDNA. Part of the highly variable gene for squalene synthase (sqs) was applied as a low-copy nuclear marker. Both gene trees were compared with previous results based on the multicopy external transcribed spacer (ETS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The power of the different markers to detect hybridization varied, but they largely agreed on particular hybrid and allopolyploid origins. The same crown groups of species were recognizable in each dataset, but basal relationships were strongly incongruent among cpDNA, sqs and ETS trees. The ETS tree was considered as the best approximation of the species tree. Both cpDNA and sqs trees showed basal polytomies as well as merging or splitting of species groups of non-hybrid taxa. These patterns can be best explained by a rapid diversification of the genus with ancestral polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting. A hypothetical scenario of Hieracium speciation based on all available (including non-molecular) evidence is depicted. Incorporation of seemingly contradictory information helped to better understand species origins and evolutionary patterns in this notoriously difficult agamic complex.

  5. The effect of the extraction techniques on the kinetics, yield and antioxidative activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević, Ljiljana P.; Stanković, Mihajlo Z.; Veljković, Vlada; Cakić, Milorad D.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Ilić, Dušica P.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of three extraction techniques (Reflux maceration, Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction) on the kinetics, yield and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L. was investigated. The antioxidant activity of the extracts on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the total flavonoids content was measured by spectrophotometric...

  6. Belowground neighbor perception in Arabidopsis thaliana studied by transcriptome analysis: roots of Hieracium pilosella cause biotic stress

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    Christoph eSchmid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Root-root interactions are much more sophisticated than previously thought, yet the mechanisms of belowground neighbor perception remain largely obscure. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses allow detailed insight into plant reactions to environmental cues.A root interaction trial was set up to explore both morphological and whole genome transcriptional responses in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence or absence of an inferior competitor, Hieracium pilosella.Neighbor perception was indicated by Arabidopsis roots predominantly growing away from the neighbor (segregation, while solitary plants placed more roots towards the middle of the pot. Total biomass remained unaffected. Database comparisons in transcriptome analysis revealed considerable similarity between Arabidopsis root reactions to neighbors and reactions to pathogens. Detailed analyses of the functional category ‘biotic stress’ using MapMan tools found the sub-category ‘pathogenesis-related proteins’ highly significantly induced. A comparison to a study on intraspecific competition brought forward a core of genes consistently involved in reactions to neighbor roots.We conclude that beyond resource depletion roots perceive neighboring roots or their associated microorganisms by a relatively uniform mechanism that involves the strong induction of pathogenesis-related proteins. In an ecological context the findings reveal that belowground neighbor detection may occur independently of resource depletion, allowing for a time advantage for the root to prepare for potential interactions.

  7. The role of natural zeolite and of zeolite modified with ammnonium ions to reduce the uptake of lead, zinc, copper and iron ions in Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella grown on tailing ponds

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    Anca PETER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine if zeolite modified with ammonium ions has a higher capacity than natural zeolite to protect Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella growing on tailing ponds, by reducing the quantity of metal ions these plants would accumulate in their roots and leaves. The influence of the amount of zeolite in the substrate (5% and 10% mass percentage was also studied. The experiments were carried out in laboratory and the concentration of the ions of heavy metal in roots and leaves, after 38 days of growth was established by Flame Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy. The pH, conductivity and redox potential for each of the substrate considered were measured. The results were statistically processed using the one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA. FTIR analyses were performed to establish the structural differences between the natural and modified zeolite. Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella accumulate a smaller quantity of metal ions in roots and leaves in the presence of zeolite modified with ammonium ions than in the presence of natural zeolite. Laboratory tests showed that Hieracium aurantium is more tolerant to ions of heavy metals than Rumex acetosella, as demonstrated by their translocation factors.In terms of reducing the uptake of ions of heavy metals, only the zeolite modified with ammonium has a significant protective effecton Hieracium aurantium, while both natural zeolite and zeolite modified demonstrate a significant role for Rumex acetosella, asrevealed by statistical tests.

  8. Hieracium sylvularum (Asteraceae in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve: invasive plant or historical heritage of the flora?

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    Anatoliy A. Khapugin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protected Areas are considered as one of the most appropriate tool for biodiversity conservation. However, invasion of alien species is one of the main and widely known problems of these territories. Therefore, the timely detection and prevention of the invasive species dispersal is one of the main tasks of researchers in Protected Areas. The European species Hieracium sylvularum was found in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve in 2012. In the following years, new locations have been discovered there. That is why the main traits of the ecology and biology, invasiveness level of the alien species were studied. An investigation of the five known H. sylvularum locations has been carried out in the Mordovia Reserve. Attention has been paid to the age-structure of the populations, the accompanying floras' composition and morphometrical parameters of the generative individuals. The environmental conditions of habitats were revealed and compared using phytoindication methods. The mass and germination of seeds, harvested on different locations, were studied. The results indicate that H. sylvularum is not an invasive species. This alien plant is able to reproduce primarily vegetatively. Probably, the population area can extend gradually on each location. Seed dispersal is difficult due to low germinability of seeds, despite of their significant number per plant. Based on obtained results, dry and semi-dry light lichen-moss-Pinus-forests have a higher invasibility by H. sylvularum. Therefore, perhaps, its new locations may be found especially in these habitats. Annual monitoring of the currently known locations of this alien plant is necessary in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve.

  9. The effect of the operation conditions and the extraction techniques on the yield, kinetics and composition of methanol extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

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    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal operational extraction conditions were determined by investigating the influence of the methanol concentration, solvomodule and temperature of the maceration extraction on the yield and kinetics of total extractive matter, chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Hieracium pilosella L. Based on the results of Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction kinetics investigations of the total extractive matter and the components under the optimal maceration operation conditions it was found that the highest yields of the extractive matter and investigated bioactive components extracted from the dry plant material were obtained by using the Soxhlet extraction method. The contents of chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside in the extracts were determined by HPLC method. Chlorogenic acid is the component with the highest share in all the extracts.

  10. Compilation of 1987 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    differences between exposure t.Npes. ke examined the .TL log to deterri ne the operational status of the antenna (mi. off. multiple on and offs during the da ...Foliage insects and fruit 14 Fruit 15 Foliage insects and seeds 16 Bark insects 17 Nectar and sap 18 Aquatic vegetation 19 Aquatic invertebrates C. Habitat...Coltsfoot Chamaedaphfle calyculata Petasites palmatus Bear Berry Dandelion Arctostaphylos uva -ursi Taraxacum officinale 122 Hawkweed Hieracium sp. 123

  11. Comparison between two genera, species and cultivars in lactuceae, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, M.Z.; Godward, M.B.E.

    1985-01-01

    Seeds of Lactuca sativa (cultivars Lobjoits Green Cos, Tom Thumb) and Lactuca serriola collected from the field, were irradiated with 10 and 30 Kr of gamma radiation. These and control seeds were grown on, and the chiasma frequencies determined in the M 1 plants. Chromosome types had been identified (Haque and Godward, Paper I) so that it was possible to determine chiasma frequency for each chromosome type. The relationship between chromosome length and chaisma frequency, dose and chiasma frequency, per bivalent and per nucleus, for each cultivar or species, was examined. There was reduction with dose of chiasma frequency in L. serriola, but increase with dose in the two clutivars of L. sativa. The results are discussed in relation to genic control of chiasma frequency, and genic control of sensitivity to radiation. Chiasma frequency was not determined in C. intybus. (author)

  12. Comparison between two genera, species and cultivars in Lactuceae, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, M.Z.; Godward, M.B.E.

    1986-01-01

    Estimation of DNA amounts (in arbitrary units) in two genera, two species, and three cultivars of one species, permits comparison between them and indicates that the biggest difference is between the two genera, Lactuca and Cichorium; but that the difference between the cultivars of Lactuca sativa is greater than the difference between Lactuca serriola and the mean for Lactuca sativa. Lactuca serriola is a presumed ancestor of Lactuca sativa. The most radiosensitive species, L. serriola, has slightly less DNA and smaller nuclear volume than the next most sensitive, L. sativa cult. Cos. This is discussed. (author)

  13. Comparison between two genera, species and cultivars in Lactuceae, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, M.Z.; Godward, M.B.E.

    1986-01-01

    The germination time under standard conditions was determined in control material of three cultivars of Lactuca sativa and L. serriola, and also the time of first nuclear division from dormancy, together with mitotic index at stated times from onset of mitosis. The effect of seed irradiation on the mitotic index and on the production of anaphase bridges at the same dose in the different cultivars or species was investigated. Results are presented as histograms and/or tables. The order of sensitivity to radiation of two of the cultivars of L. sativa and L. serriola, determined by growth inhibition studies, not presented, was as follows: Tom Thumb (L. sativa) < Cos (L. sativa) < L. serriola. More aberrations were produced at the same dose in the sensitive species. The results are discussed. (author)

  14. Trichomes in the tribe Lactuceae (Asteraceae) - taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Mráz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2008), s. 616-630 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Compositae * micromorphological characters * systematics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  15. The Full Breadth of Mendel's Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Peter J; Ellis, T H Noel

    2016-12-01

    Gregor Mendel's "Experiments on Plant Hybrids" (1865/1866), published 150 years ago, is without doubt one of the most brilliant works in biology. Curiously, Mendel's later studies on Hieracium (hawkweed) are usually seen as a frustrating failure, because it is assumed that they were intended to confirm the segregation ratios he found in Pisum Had this been his intention, such a confirmation would have failed, since, unknown to Mendel, Hieracium species mostly reproduce by means of clonal seeds (apomixis). Here we show that this assumption arises from a misunderstanding that could be explained by a missing page in Mendel's first letter to Carl Nägeli. Mendel's writings clearly indicate his interest in "constant hybrids," hybrids which do not segregate, and which were "essentially different" from "variable hybrids" such as in Pisum After the Pisum studies, Mendel worked mainly on Hieracium for 7 years where he found constant hybrids and some great surprises. He also continued to explore variable hybrids; both variable and constant hybrids were of interest to Mendel with respect to inheritance and to species evolution. Mendel considered that their similarities and differences might provide deep insights and that their differing behaviors were "individual manifestations of a higher more fundamental law." Copyright © 2016 van Dijk and Ellis.

  16. Cytotype distribution and phylogeography of Hieracium intybaceum (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Jaroslav; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2015), s. 487-498 ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : AFLP * glacial refugia * geographical parthenogenesis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2015

  17. Species relationships in Lactuca S.L. (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) inferred from AFLP fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.M.; Zevenbergen, M.J.; Berg, van den R.G.

    2001-01-01

    An AFLP data set comprising 95 accessions from 20 species of Lactuca s.l. (sensu lato) and related genera was generated using the primer combinations E35/M48 and E35/M49. In phenetic analyses of a data subset, clustering with UPGMA based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient resulted in the highest

  18. The detection, rate and manifestation of residual sexuality in apomictic populations of Pilosella (Asteraceae, Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Rotreklová, O.; Krahulec, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2014), s. 239-258 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : facultative apomixis * haploid parthenogenesis * interspecific hybridization * Pilosella * residual sexuality Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  19. Geographical parthenogenesis, genome size variation and pollen production in the arctic-alpine species Hieracium alpinum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráz, P.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Šingliarová, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 1 (2009), s. 41-51 ISSN 0253-1453 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : apomixis * Compositae * polyploidy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.900, year: 2009

  20. Ploidy levels and reproductive behaviour in invasive Hieracium pilosella in Patagonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2011), s. 25-31 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Patagonia * ploidy levels * hybridization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  1. Expressivity of apomixis in 2n + n hybrids from an apomictic and a sexual parent: insights into variation detected in Pilosella (Asteraceae: Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František; Rosenbaumová, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2011), s. 263-274 ISSN 0934-0882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : inheritance of apomixis * residual sexuality * unreduced hybrids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  2. Sexual reproduction as a source of ploidy level variation in the model agamic complex of Pilosella bauhini and P. officinarum (Asteraceae: Lactuceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosenbaumová, R.; Krahulec, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 1 (2015), s. 279-290 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Pilosella * residual sexuality * hybridization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2015

  3. Jestřábník okoličnatý (Hieracium umbellatum) v České republice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, S.; Danihelka, Jiří; Rotreklová, O.; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2014), s. 73-95 ISSN 1801-5972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Asteraceae * Central Europe * chromosome numbers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Hieracium (s. str.) – evidence for bidirectional gene flow and spontaneous allopolyploidization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráz, P.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 293, 1-4 (2011), s. 237-245 ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : additive polymorphism * hybridization * polyploidization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2011

  5. Sexual Hieracium pilosella plants are better inter-specific, while apomictic plants are better intra-specific competitors

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, Christian; Schmid, Bernhard; Stöcklin, Jürg; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    Apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, occurs in over 40 plant families. This widespread phenomenon can lead to the fixation of successful genotypes, resulting in a fitness advantage. On the other hand, apomicts are expected to lose their fitness advantage if the environment changes because of their limited evolutionary potential, which is due to low genetic variability and the potential accumulation of deleterious somatic mutations. Nonetheless, some apomicts have been extremely succe...

  6. Jestřábník hroznatý (Hieracium racemosum) v České republice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moltašová, H.; Rotreklová, O.; Danihelka, Jiří; Gottschlich, G.; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-27 ISSN 1211-5258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Asteraceae * Central Europe * chromosome numbers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Enriching ploidy level diversity: the role of apomictic and sexual biotypes of Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae) that coexist in polyploid populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Rotreklová, O.; Krahulec, František; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Plačková, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2009), s. 281-306 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0059; GA ČR GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : facultative apomixis * genome instability * hybrid swarms * residual sexuality * unreduced gametes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.320, year: 2009

  8. The structure of the agamic complex of Hieracium subgen. Pilosella in the Šumava Mts and its comparison with other regions in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulec, František; Krahulcová, Anna; Fehrer, Judith; Bräutigam, S.; Schuhwerk, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-26 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005203; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/0059; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : breeding systems * chromosome number * polyhaploids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.396, year: 2008 http://www.ibot.cas.cz/preslia/P081Kra.pdf

  9. New sections in Taraxacum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Štěpánek, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2004), s. 259-274 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/02/0346 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Asteraceae * Compositae * Lactuceae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2004

  10. Community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in undisturbed vegetation revealed by analyses of LSU rdna sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren; Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutualistic symbiosis with plant roots and are found in most ecosystems. In this study the community structure of AMF in a clade of the genus Glomus was examined in undisturbed costal grassland using LSU rDNA sequences amplified from roots of Hieracium...

  11. Compilation of 1990 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. Tabs C thru F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    maculosa has increased since 1983 until it is now the most abundant flowering plant on the hill. Also abundant are Cirsium palustre Fragaria virginiana...two Megachile species under study, Sespecially for M. inermis. They were Hieracium aurantiacum Cirsium palustre and Centaurea maculosa . Further...site in 1988 because of a substantial population of Centaurea maculosa that bloomed in late July, in spite of the drought and hot temperatures. This

  12. Embryo sac development in some representatives of the tribe Cynodonteae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strydom

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Chloris virgata Sw., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., Harpochloa falx (L. f. Kuntze, and Tragus berteronianus Schult. have a Polygonum type of embryo sac development. Unreduced embryo sacs were found in Eustachys paspaloides (Vahl Lanza & Mattei,  Harpochloa falx, and  Rendlia altera (Rendle Chiov. Both facultative and obligate apomixis were observed. The Hieracium type of embryo sac development was observed in the aposporic specimens.

  13. Embryo sac development in some representatives of the tribe Cynodonteae (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Strydom; J. J. Spies

    1994-01-01

    Chloris virgata Sw., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Harpochloa falx (L. f.) Kuntze, and Tragus berteronianus Schult. have a Polygonum type of embryo sac development. Unreduced embryo sacs were found in Eustachys paspaloides (Vahl) Lanza & Mattei,  Harpochloa falx, and  Rendlia altera (Rendle) Chiov. Both facultative and obligate apomixis were observed. The Hieracium type of embryo sac development was observed in the aposporic specimens.

  14. HIERACIO UMBROSI-QUERCETUM PETRAEAE PÎNZARU, CANTEMIR, MANIC & POPESCU – ASS. NOVA, FROM THE CENTRAL MOLDOVAN PLATEAU OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel PÎNZARU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The forests of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. with Hieracium umbrosum Jord., found on the Central Moldovan Plateau, are described in this article. Based on 12 relevés, the authors have grouped these forests in an plant community that is new for science – Hieracio umbrosi-Quercetum petraeae Pînzaru, Cantemir, Manic et Popescu, included in the alliance Quercion pubescenti-petraeae Br.-Bl. 1932, the order Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae Klika 1933, cl. QUERCO-FAGETEA Br.-Bl. et Vlieger in Vlieger 1937.

  15. Aportació al coneixement de l’herbari Trèmols de l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavioli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The herbarium BC-Trèmols was created during the second half of the 19th century by the Catalan chemist and botanist Frederic Trèmols Borrell. Between 1930 and 1960, the technician Antoni Marcos carried out a thorough review. The current collection consists of approximately 9000 specimen sheets; is made up of 58 volumes reordered by Marcos, two volumes with the original structure, four boxes of Hieracium and 85 boxes with additional material. Up to now 22 volumes and four boxes of Hieracium have been computerized (3695 specimens; we made an inventory at genus level of all volumes, and we computerized the original catalogue of the herbarium and the existing taxonomical fiches. We have also developed a preliminary inventory of the contents of the extra boxes. The analysis of these 3695 herbarium specimens clearly shows that it mainly consists of samples obtained by exchange (67.1% especially within the Société Helvétique pour l’Échange des Plantes and the Societat Botànica Barcelonesa. Among the materials studied we found two specimens regarded as interesting from a taxonomical and/or nomenclatural point of view (isotypes of Silene holzmanii Heldr. ex Boiss. and of Arenaria minutiflora Loscos. Therefore, the main interest of the herbarium lies in the diversity of the geographical provenance of plants, which makes of this collection one of the first “pan-European herbaria” in Catalonia.El herbario BC-Trèmols fue creado durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX por el químico y botánico catalán Frederic Trèmols i Borrell. Entre 1930 y 1960, el técnico Antoni Marcos llevó a cabo una profunda revisión. La colección actual consta aproximadamente de unos 9000 pliegos; está formada por 58 volúmenes reordenados por Marcos, más otros dos con la estructura original, cuatro cajas de Hieracium y 85 cajas de material adicional. Hasta la fecha se han informatizado 22 de los volúmenes y las cuatro cajas de Hieracium (3695 especímenes, se

  16. Biotechnological potential of endophytic actinomycetes associated with Asteraceae plants: isolation, biodiversity and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-04-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from five Asteraceae plants were isolated and evaluated for their bioactivities. From Parthenium hysterophorus, Ageratum conyzoides, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus asper and Hieracium canadense, 42, 45, 90, 3, and 2 isolates, respectively, were obtained. Of the isolates, 86 (47.2 %) showed antimicrobial activity. Majority of the isolates were recovered from the roots (n = 127, 69.7 %). The dominant genus was Streptomyces (n = 96, 52.7 %), while Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Nocardia and Micromonospora were also recovered. Overall, 36 of the 86 isolates were significantly bioactivity while 18 (20.9 %) showed strong bioactivity. In total, 52.1 and 66.6 % showed potent cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities. The LC50 for 15 strains was <20 μg/ml. Compared to the ascorbate standard (EC50 0.34 μg/ml), all isolates gave impressive results with notable EC50 values of 0.65, 0.67, 0.74 and 0.79 μg/ml.

  17. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  18. Competitive interactions are mediated in a sex-specific manner by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Antennaria dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, S; Vega-Frutis, R; Kytöviita, M-M

    2017-03-01

    Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment. Females and males were grown in the following competitive settings: (i) without competition, (ii) with intrasexual competition, (iii) with intersexual competition, and (iv) with interspecific competition by Hieracium pilosella - a plant with similar characteristics to A. dioica. Half of the pots were grown with Claroideoglomus claroideum, an AM fungus isolated from the same habitat as the plant material. We evaluated plant survival, growth, flowering phenology, and production of AM fungal structures. Plant survival was unaffected by competition or AM fungi. Competition and the presence of AM fungi reduced plant biomass. However, the sexes responded differently to the interaction between fungal and competition treatments. Both intra- and interspecific competition results were sex-specific, and in general, female performance was reduced by AM colonization. Plant competition or sex did not affect the intraradical structures, extraradical hyphae, or spore production of the AM fungus. These findings suggest that plant sexual differences affect fundamental processes such as competitive ability and symbiotic relationships with AM fungi. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Ryan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis, with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa

  20. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Frank M; Meyers, Ryan

    2010-11-06

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Our data

  1. Conditions Promoting Mycorrhizal Parasitism Are of Minor Importance for Competitive Interactions in Two Differentially Mycotrophic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, Martina; Unger, Stephan; Hellmann, Christine; Beyschlag, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may range along a broad continuum from strong mutualism to parasitism, with mycorrhizal benefits received by the plant being determined by climatic and edaphic conditions affecting the balance between carbon costs vs. nutritional benefits. Thus, environmental conditions promoting either parasitism or mutualism can influence the mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD) of a plant and in consequence may play an important role in plant-plant interactions. In a multifactorial field experiment we aimed at disentangling the effects of environmental and edaphic conditions, namely the availability of light, phosphorus and nitrogen, and the implications for competitive interactions between Hieracium pilosella and Corynephorus canescens for the outcome of the AMF symbiosis. Both species were planted in single, intraspecific and interspecific combinations using a target-neighbor approach with six treatments distributed along a gradient simulating conditions for the interaction between plants and AMF ranking from mutualistic to parasitic. Across all treatments we found mycorrhizal association of H. pilosella being consistently mutualistic, while pronounced parasitism was observed in C. canescens, indicating that environmental and edaphic conditions did not markedly affect the cost:benefit ratio of the mycorrhizal symbiosis in both species. Competitive interactions between both species were strongly affected by AMF, with the impact of AMF on competition being modulated by colonization. Biomass in both species was lowest when grown in interspecific competition, with colonization being increased in the less mycotrophic C. canescens, while decreased in the obligate mycotrophic H. pilosella. Although parasitism-promoting conditions negatively affected MGD in C. canescens, these effects were small as compared to growth decreases related to increased colonization levels in this species. Thus, the lack of plant control over

  2. Conditions Promoting Mycorrhizal Parasitism are of Minor Importance for Competitive Interactions in Two Differentially Mycotrophic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Friede

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF may range along a broad continuum from strong mutualism to parasitism, with mycorrhizal benefits received by the plant being determined by climatic and edaphic conditions affecting the balance between carbon costs vs. nutritional benefits. Thus, environmental conditions promoting either parasitism or mutualism can influence the mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD of a plant and in consequence may play an important role in plant-plant interactions.In a multifactorial field experiment we aimed at disentangling the effects of environmental and edaphic conditions, namely the availability of light, phosphorus and nitrogen, and the implications for competitive interactions between Hieracium pilosella and Corynephorus canescens for the outcome of the AMF symbiosis. Both species were planted in single, intraspecific and interspecific combinations using a target-neighbor approach with six treatments distributed along a gradient simulating conditions for the interaction between plants and AMF ranking from mutualistic to parasitic.Across all treatments we found mycorrhizal association of H. pilosella being consistently mutualistic, while pronounced parasitism was observed in C. canescens, indicating that environmental and edaphic conditions did not markedly affect the cost:benefit ratio of the mycorrhizal symbiosis in both species. Competitive interactions between both species were strongly affected by AMF, with the impact of AMF on competition being modulated by colonization. Biomass in both species was lowest when grown in interspecific competition, with colonization being increased in the less mycotrophic C. canescens, while decreased in the obligate mycotrophic H. pilosella. Although parasitism-promoting conditions negatively affected MGD in C. canescens, these effects were small as compared to growth decreases related to increased colonization levels in this species. Thus, the lack of plant

  3. Floristic diversity in relation to geomorphological and climatic factors in the subalpinealpine belt of the Rodna Mountains (the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coldea, G.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the GLORIA-EUROPE project, the floristic diversity, frequency and species coverage in relation to the main ecological gradients (altitude,aspect were studied in the alpine pasture (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi and subalpine dwarf shrub communities (Rhododendro myrtifolii - Vaccinetum of the four summits from the Pietrosul Rodnei massif (Romanian Carpathians. Floristic diversity is higher in the plant communities from lower altitude summits (Golgota, Gropile, while it decreases in communities, to higher summits (Buhaiescu, Rebra. For each 100 m increase in the altitude of subalpine-alpine summits, a decrease of approximately 10% was found in the number of vascular plant species. Arctic-Alpine species (Carex curvula, ¡uncus trifidus, Hieracium alpinum, Oreochloa disticha, etc. and a Carpatho-Balkanic regional species (Rhododendron myrtifolium have the highest frequency and coverage in these plant communities. In northern and eastern slope areas, where the vegetation cover is 15-30% lower than on western and southern slopes and the soil temperature is generally 1-3°C lower during the vegetative season (June-August, the mean number of species per square meter is 25% higher than in southern and western slope areas.

    [fr] Dans le cadre du projet GLORIA EUROPE on a étudié la diversité floristique, la fréquence et le recouvrement des espèces, par rapport aux principaux gradients écologiques (altitude, exposition, au sein des associations de prés alpins (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi et des buissons subalpins de petite taille (Rhododendro myrtifolii - Vaccinietum, sur quatre sommets dans le massif Pietrosul Mare (Les Carpates Roumaines. La diversité floristique est plus grande chez les associations de plantes des sommets avec des altitudes plus basses (Golgota, Gropile et elle s'abaisse chez les associations des sommets plus hauts (Buhaiescu

  4. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants-Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václavík, Tomáš; Beckmann, Michael; Cord, Anna F; Bindewald, Anja M

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H. pilosella only). While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation) and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere) vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere) range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%), and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%). Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date) were at similar

  5. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants—Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cord, Anna F.; Bindewald, Anja M.

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants’ native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H. pilosella only). While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation) and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere) vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere) range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%), and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%). Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date) were at similar

  6. Historical study: Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiling, F

    1991-07-01

    efficiency. This included meteorology, the measurement of ground water levels, further hybridization in plants (a.o. involving the hawk week Hieracium up to about 1873), vegetable and fruit tree horticulture, apiculture, and agriculture in general. This involved Mendel's active participation in many organizations interested in advancing these fields at a time when appropriate research institutes did not exist in Brünn. Some of the positions he took in his capacity of Abbot had severe repercussions and further taxed Mendel's already over-stressed system. The worst of these was a 10-year confrontation with the government about the taxation of the monastery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. The Vascular Flora of Rarău Massif (Eastern Carpathians, Romania. Note I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Oprea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the flora of the Rarău Massif, an area lying in the northeastern part of Romania, nearby the town of Câmpulung Moldovenesc. This study attempt to list all the vascular plants (i.e. ferns, conifers, and flowering plants from the whole area of Rarău Massif. Till now, there are published several papers on this area, but no paper deals with the whole surface of Rarău Massif. The research was carried out between 2000 to 2011. During the study period, 1377 taxa (1089 species and 288 subspecies, belonging to 95 families and 411 genera; 43 of the species belong to Pteridophytes, 8 belongs to Gymnosperms, and 1038 belongs to Angiosperms (835 Dicotyledons, 203 Monocotyledons subdivisions. The largest families (in terms of the number of species and subspecies included are: Asteraceae (167, Poaceae (78, Brassicaceae (53, Rosaceae and Lamiaceae (50, Scrophulariaceae and Cyperaceae (47, Caryophyllaceae and Ranunculaceae (42. The highest number of species, of a certain genus, is like the next: Carex L. (39, Centaurea L. (25, Hieracium L. (21, Festuca L. (19, Senecio L. (12, Cirsium, Pilosella, and Poa (11, etc. Since the flora of the area is analysed according to Raunkiaer’s life forms, the results are as follows: Hemicryptophytes 605 species (H=55.6%, Cryptophytes (also called Geophytes 137 species (G=12.6%, Therophytes 120 species (11.0%, Phanerophytes 84 species (Ph=7.7%, Chamaephytes 57 species (Ch=5.2%, Hemitherophytes 77 species (Ht=7.1%, Helo-hydatophytes 8 species (HH=0.7%, and Epiphytes 1 species (Ep=0.1%. The phytogeographic elements are the next ones: European=375 species (36.6%, Eurasian=349 species (34.0%, Circumboreal=148 species (14.8%, Cosmopolite=37 species (3.6%, Carpathians=31 species (3.0%, Pontics=19 species (1.9%, Mediterranean-submediterrannean=11 species (1.1%, and Adventitious=2 species (0.2%. The number of endemic and near-endemic taxa (species and subspecies within the study area is 53 (5.2%.

  8. Effects of UV-B radiation on leaf hair traits of invasive plants-Combining historical herbarium records with novel remote sensing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Václavík

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet-B (UV-B radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species and hair length (H. pilosella only. While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%, and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%. Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date were at

  9. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-11-01

    , where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and,respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa ,Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and bestrepresented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site.The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the allianceswhere these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neitheras frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surfaceand time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.

  10. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    area, where by May it represents up to 20% of the inferior layer's biomass; on the limestone ground they do not exceed 0.5%. The most frequent are on the soil surface: Polytrichum formosum, Pogonatum nanum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa at Sotrile and, respectively Metzgeria furcata var. ulvula, Leskea nervosa , Ctenidium molluscum at Lunca Mare. In the Lunca Mare area, the most relevant herbaceous species in the structure of the biomass are Viola reichenbachiana, Festuca drymeja, Sanicula europaea and Campanula trachelium; in spring there are also Erytronium dens-canis and Lathyrus vernus. In the Sotrile area these are: Luzula luzuloides, Carex digitata, Calamagrostis arundinacea and Hieracium transsylvanicum, in both spring and autumn. Hedera helix, present especially at the surface, is the most frequent and best represented in terms of biomass in both beech forests, and in particular in the Lunca Mare site. The species characteristic to the phytocoenological association and to the alliances where these beech forests are included are representative through their biomass for the Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum association, while the orchids species characteristic to associations present on the limestone ground, although very diverse and with a great number of individuals for this taxonomic group, are not representative, neither as frequency nor as biomass or density, compared to other herbal species with a larger coenotic value, which are included in the Epipactieto-Fagetum association. The necromass accumulated in the area analyzed decays slowly, varying greatly with surface and time. It averages 4492 kg/ha in the Lunca Mare area and 4134 kg/ha in the Sotrile area. The necromass is made mostly of fallen leaves, and, at least in the Lunca Mare area, the July values are amplified by vernal herb flora.