Jamie K. Boyd, PhD, APRN; Kathryn L. Braun, DrPH
Introduction Physical inactivity and lower levels of education are associated with increased risk for obesity and chronic disease. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups in Hawai'i, Native Hawaiians have a higher prevalence of chronic disease, including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In 2000, 72.5% of Native Hawaiians were overweight, 54.4% met national recommendations for physical activity, and about 10% enrolled in college. Methods We conducted four focus groups involving 3...
Dequin, Henry C.; And Others
Articles in this theme issue focus on young adults and genealogy, music videos, public access microcomputer software selection, literature for and about Black adolescents, library services to reluctant readers, booktalks, historical fiction, the role of young adult services librarians, and the need for adolescents to find their roots through…
Gill, Sam D.
Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…
... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...
Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc
Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P
The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer View this video ... and Young Adults SeventyK Stupid Cancer Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teen Cancer America 13thirty ...
Applies the idea of the theme booktalk to "Wuthering Heights," which serves as a springboard for talking about themes of family rage, confrontation, quarrel and rebellion in other works of literature with relevance to contemporary young people. (JK)
Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.
Lana Sue Ka‘opua
Full Text Available Native Hawaiians comprise 24.3% of Hawai‘i's population, but only 12.6% of the state's older adults. Few published studies have compared health indicators across ethnicities for the state's older adult population or focused on disparities of Native Hawaiian elders. The current study examines data from two state surveillance programs, with attention to cause of death and social-behavioral factors relevant to elders. Findings reveal that Native Hawaiians have the largest years of productive life lost and the lowest life expectancy, when compared to the state's other major ethnic groups. Heart disease and cancer are leading causes of premature mortality. Native Hawaiian elders are more likely to report behavioral health risks such as smoking and obesity, live within/below 100–199% of the poverty level, and find cost a barrier to seeking care. Indicated is the need for affordable care across the lifespan and health services continuum. Future research might explain behavioral factors as influenced by social determinants, including historical trauma on Native Hawaiian longevity.
Refutes the myth that young adults won't read about protagonists younger than themselves. Describes novels from which adolescents can benefit that contain candid treatment of the loss of innocence, the search for home, and the complexities of independence, love, and self-knowledge. (EL)
When Toula's father in »My Big Fat Greek Wedding« says to his daughter (age 30) »you look so old« or when Don DeLillo's protagonist (age 28) »feels old« in »Cosmopolis«, these young characters are attributed an age awareness that has received little attention in age studies so far. Leaving aside...... chronological or biological dimensions of age, this study approaches age as a metaphoric practice, suggesting that »feeling old« is not to be taken literally but metaphorically. The book examines the cultural meanings of age and aging for characters who are in their twenties and thirties and challenges often......-quoted labels such as late-coming-of-age story or perpetual adolescence....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Hawaiian archipelago since 2013. Juvenile...
Brander, Birgitte Gade
Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A
Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Levine, B; Roehrs, T; Zorick, F; Roth, T
The daytime sleepiness of a large sample (n = 129) of healthy, young (age 18-29) adults with no sleep-wake complaints was measured and compared with that of a sample (n = 47) of older (age 30-80) healthy, normal sleeping, subjects. Each spent 8 h in the laboratory on 1 night and received the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) the following day. Sleep latency was measured at 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 h. Mean sleep latency ranged from 2 to 20 min within each group, but the shape of the distribution of latency between groups was different. The mean latency of young subjects (particularly college students) was shorter than that of the older subjects, with the differences occurring between the sleepiest 80% of each distribution. Among the college students, those with higher nocturnal sleep efficiencies (the previous night) were sleepier the following day than those with lower sleep efficiencies. The relation between nocturnal sleep efficiency and daytime sleepiness suggests that the increased sleepiness of average young adults is due to mild sleep restriction.
Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…
Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Ydesen, Christian
Karen Egedal Andreasen, Palle Rasmussen and Christian Ydesen question in their article, how to guide youth in danger of being marginalised or excluded from society in general and the labour market in particular. They analyse the guidance dimension in the youth in development project as described...... in the project and by the youths participating in the project. The project was designed to facilitate and support transition to an adult life by giving participants social support, feedback, experiences, room for reflection and feeling of acceptance and inclusion. In Denmark all social work with young people...... at risk involves guidance to “the right path”, since individual guidance seems to be the key asset in mobilizing young person’s needs and experiences. The article indicates important elements in the guidance of youth at risk, such as psychological intervention and personal support, support from...
... Health Care Decisions Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults KidsHealth > For Parents > Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young ... plan healthy meals. continue Step 3: Explore Young-Adult Education Young adults with cerebral palsy are entitled ...
This book presents an annotated listing of the Young Adult Library Services Association's "Best Books for Young Adults" (BBYA) from 1966-99. Selected books are listed in topical bibliographies under the following subjects: Too Good To Miss; Adventure; Animals; Family; Fantasy; Friendship; Historical Fiction; The Holocaust; Humor;…
Atkinson, Joan; Graves, Gail Tait
The 108 articles and books cited in this annotated bibliography are listed under seven major topic headings: (1) training and personality of the young adult librarian, (2) adolescent psychology and sexuality, (3) sex roles, (4) literature and reading, (5) intellectual freedom and censorship, (6) science fiction, and (7) young adult services.…
Warren C. Sanderson
Full Text Available Many young working age adults in developed countries are failing to thrive in economic, demographic and social terms. Their failure to thrive is a relatively new phenomenon that has not been widely recognized, but it affects young adults in virtually all the more developed countries for which we have relevant data. Young adults nowadays are more often in poverty. They are leaving their parental homes at ever later ages and in some countries the frequency of psychological problems increased. The seriousness of failure to thrive syndrome is reflected in the relationship between relative economic conditions and increased suicide rates. The syndrome is important because young adults are at the prime ages for finding employment, establishing long-run career paths and building an economic basis for founding a family. Developing strategies to arrest the spread of failure to thrive syndrome among young adults, in order to keep them vibrant contributors to our societies, should be a priority for policy makers.
Uecker, Jeremy E.
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171
Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more
Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A
Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.
Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.
There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275
Kolandijan, Nathalie A; Wei, Caimiao; Burke, Anahit; Bedikian, Agop Y
This study compares the natural history and treatment outcomes of cutaneous melanoma in teenagers and young adults to determine if exclusion of teenagers from investigative trials is justified. This is a chart review of patients between the ages of 13 and 40 years treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for melanoma. Data related to the natural history and treatment outcomes were collected. Statistical tools were used to compare characteristics between teenagers and young adults. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to examine the association between age group and overall survival. Of the 476 patients, 109 were teenagers and 367 were young adults. Both groups had comparable disease stage, pathology, and rates of metastasis. Initial disease stage and pathology significantly influenced survival. Sixty-six of 452 patients with skin melanoma developed metastasis. Teenagers survived better than young adults from diagnosis of the skin primary and after development of systemic metastasis. Teenagers tolerated and benefited from interleukin-2-based systemic therapy and targeted therapies as well as the young adults. Because of the similarities in natural history and treatment outcomes between teenage and young adult patients, it is recommended that teenage patients be officially enrolled on adult melanoma therapeutic trials.
Full Text Available Young adults with mental illness who need continuing care when they turn 18 are referred from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry. During this process, young adults are undergoing multiple transitions as they come of age while they transfer to another unit in healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore expectations and experiences of transition from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry as narrated by young adults and relatives. Individual interviews were conducted with three young adults and six relatives and analysed according to grounded theory. The analysis resulted in a core category: managing transition with support, and three categories: being of age but not mature, walking out of security and into uncertainty, and feeling omitted and handling concerns. The young adults’ and relatives' main concerns were that they might be left out and feel uncertainty about the new situation during the transition process. To facilitate the transition process, individual care planning is needed. It is essential that young adults and relatives are participating in the process to be prepared for the changes and achieve a successful transition. Knowledge about the simultaneous processes seems to be an important issue for facilitating transition.
Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J
Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway
Hechler, C.H.; Beijers, R.; Weerth, C. de
AIM: To determine whether young childless adults show negative emotions and cognitive disturbances when listening to infant crying, compared to other disturbing noises, and whether negative emotions and cognitive disturbances are associated. METHODS: We tested the cognitive performances and
Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.
General significance: This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management.
Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel
Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.
Poston-Anderson, Barbara; Weidenbach, Lisa
Surveyed 37 Australian fictional works for young adults to determine how the main characters cope with health issues, and compared the findings with young people's real-life coping strategies. Results indicate that Australian authors present teenage readers with valuable insights into ways of dealing with abuse, illness, and sexuality. (AEF)
Henkel, Ayoe Qvist
Abstract (in English): The digital turn brings about not only changes in young adult literature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but also changes in the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal and interactive, and it in......Abstract (in English): The digital turn brings about not only changes in young adult literature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but also changes in the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal and interactive......, and it integrates elements from game aesthetics. When young adult literature navigates between media, new analytical approaches are required to explore the way in which it operates among various aesthetic strategies and medialities and the way it affects the young adult reader. With this development it becomes....... Digital Literature in Research and Teaching. Bielefeld, Trancript Verlag 2010, Bell, Alice, Astrid Ensslin and Hans Kristian Rustad Analyzing Digital Fiction. New York: Routledge 2014) and theory on picturebook (Nikolajeva, Maria and Carole Scott (2006) How picturebooks work. New York: Routledge)....
Discusses changes in the field of young adult literature since the 1980s. Examines how the definition of "young adult" has evolved. Offers a brief overview of the history of young adult literature from the 1940s. Considers the rise of awards for merit in young adult publishing, noting three in particular. Concludes this is a golden age of young…
Jiang, Yuhong V; Koutstaal, Wilma; Twedell, Emily L
Age-related decline is pervasive in tasks that require explicit learning and memory, but such reduced function is not universally observed in tasks involving incidental learning. It is unknown if habitual attention, involving incidental probabilistic learning, is preserved in older adults. Previous research on habitual attention investigated contextual cuing in young and older adults, yet contextual cuing relies not only on spatial attention but also on context processing. Here we isolated habitual attention from context processing in young and older adults. Using a challenging visual search task in which the probability of finding targets was greater in 1 of 4 visual quadrants in all contexts, we examined the acquisition, persistence, and spatial-reference frame of habitual attention. Although older adults showed slower visual search times and steeper search slopes (more time per additional item in the search display), like young adults they rapidly acquired a strong, persistent search habit toward the high-probability quadrant. In addition, habitual attention was strongly viewer-centered in both young and older adults. The demonstration of preserved viewer-centered habitual attention in older adults suggests that it may be used to counter declines in controlled attention. This, in turn, suggests the importance, for older adults, of maintaining habit-related spatial arrangements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Small Griswold, J. D.
Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics (EYH) are conferences created to promote and foster interest for girls in the areas of science and math. The conferences are held with hopes that girls who attend will be encouraged to consider careers in these disciplines. Since 2014, the University of Hawaii at Mānoa (UH Mānoa) has held three annual EYH-Hawaii events reaching 86,163, and 150 girls respectively. EYH - Hawaii hosted 11 workshops in 2014, 22 in 2015, and 20 in 2016, primarily with atmospheric sciences, oceanography, marine biology, geology and physics related topics. The education outreach activities outlined in this work have far reaching societal implications. The lack of women in the sciences has been a problem for over 50 years and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders represent an event smaller fraction of women in science. It has been shown that mentoring programs, especially those focused on STEM fields, help young women and girls to envision themselves as chemists, physicists, mathematicians and other types of scientists such as those that study the earth and atmosphere which are fields that are not commonly discussed or highlighted in K-12 curriculum. EYH and related conferences for young women increase the likelihood that they will pursue science and math in secondary educational settings. This is essential in a world in which few girls are choosing science and math as potential careers. Here we compile survey results from the three EYH - Hawaii events to determine trends in attendance, interest, and overall impact. Each year attendees were surveyed regarding their overall experience at the conference, individual workshop experience, and personal demographic information. We especially highlight statistics related to the experience of students of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Island descent. Survey results discussed include: grade level, ethnicity/race, hometown, favorite and least favorite aspect and/or workshop of the conference
Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J; Corcoran, David L; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E; Schaefer, Jonathan D; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their "biological aging" (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies.
clines, as for acne, can also be beneficial, as can topical antibiotics like erythro- mycin and clindamycin. ACNE VULGARIS. There has been a recent tendency for acne to persist beyond the teens, or even occur for the first time in adulthood, called persistent adult acne. Adult acne has the same pathogenesis as ordinary ...
This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among young adults (age 23-28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into the world of work facilitates the development of mentoring relationships, especially...
Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.
Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This...
Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014 successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes theories of dystopia and of Young Adult dystopian literature, the Freudian uncanny, studies of the post-apocalyptic film city and new media theory. In Divergent, the dystopian division of society into factions is made enjoyable through production design, particularly in ‘Dauntless’, the faction joined by heroine Tris. This extends to transmedia marketing. The book’s violence is reduced to increase audience engagement, while lack of contextual detail precludes a critical dystopia. In Divergent, the spaces and ideologies of the post-apocalyptic film city are reframed as youth culture. Chicago is gamified, connoting an adventure playground. The space of the Dauntless ‘Pit’ offers symbolic rebirth, community and romance, yet its appeal is uncanny, as with communal spaces in The Host (2013 and The Maze Runner (2014. Divergent’s mirror simulation foregrounds spectacle but other simulations construct immediacy, appearing dream-like not immersive. Like the visions in Young Adult dystopian adaptations How I Live Now (2013 and Ender’s Game (2013, simulations convey individual awareness and supernatural communication. The film combines pleasurable classification and a divergence motif with its heroine’s development, revising dystopian cinematic space. Divergent represents a new form of dystopian cinema.
Beresford, B; Stuttard, L
Awareness is growing that young adults may have distinctive experiences of adult healthcare and that their needs may differ from those of other adult users. In addition, the role of adult health teams in supporting positive transitions from paediatrics is increasingly under discussion. This paper contributes to these debates. It reports a qualitative study of the experiences of young adults - all with complex chronic health conditions - as users of adult health services. Key findings from the study are reported, including an exploration of factors that help to explain interviewees' experiences. Study findings are discussed in the context of existing evidence from young adults in adult healthcare settings and theories of 'young adulthood'. Implications for training and practice are considered, and priorities for future research are identified. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.
Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.
OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING: The ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years.
Kristensen, Bo Traberg
Objectives. To study different aspects of cerebral venous and arterial occlusive disease including cerebrospinalfluid hydrodynamics, epidemiology, aetiology, genetics, metabolic and haemostatic disorders, andcognitive function in young adults in Northern Sweden. Methods. Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics were investigated with a constant pressure infusion methodin patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Ten patients were studied with serial examinations, upto 15 years after the onse...
The principal purpose of assessment, regardless of teaching level, should be to guide instruction. Unlike evaluation, the goal of assessment is not to arrive at a grade for students. Rather, it is to inform the educator as to what needs to be addressed in the classroom. Assessment in a young adult literature (YAL) curriculum is no different. Its…
..., and the sponsor provides more than 50 percent of the student's financial support), and who are not... worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, but... relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and...
Gold, Rinat; Segal, Osnat
In the present study, we compared the processing of both conventional and novel metaphors by deaf versus hearing young adults. Eighteen deaf participants with severe-to-profound hearing loss and 18 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education were presented with word pairs of 4 types (literal, conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, and…
National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Main Hawaiian Islands from 2013-08-02 to 2013-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0159147)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Main Hawaiian Islands in 2013. Juvenile...
National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0159163)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2016. Juvenile...
Full Text Available Stroke is in second place on a mortality list in the world. Also, stroke is a leading cause of disability. Approximately 20% of all strokes occur in Children and young adults. The etiology of stroke in Children and young adults is different from that in older patients, and has an influence on diagnostic evaluation and treatment, so knowledge about older patients cannot always be applied to these patients. The list of stroke etiologies among young adults and children is extensive. Ischemic stroke are more frequent than hemorrhagic strokes in both groups. Stroke in young adults had been thought to be associated with risk factors, including arterial (such as dissection, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, inflammatory arteritis ,moyamoya ,migraine - induced stroke, genetic or inherted arteriopathy, premature atherosclerosis cardiac (such as patent foramen ovale, cardiomyopathy , congenital heart disease and hematologic (such as deficiencies of protein S,protein C,or antithrombin;factor V lieden mutation . Common risk factors for stroke in children include: Sickle-cell disease, diseases of the arteries, abnormal blood clotting, head or neck trauma. There are no specific recommendations or guidelines for primary or secondary stroke prevention in young adults. Primary prevention focused on identifying and managing known vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, disorders of lipid metabolism, and diabetes, and non-drug strategies and lifestyle changes, including smoking, reducing body weight, increasing regular aerobic physical activity, and adopting a healthy diet with more fruit and vegetables and less salt. For secondary stroke prevention, identification of the etiologic mechanism of the initial stroke and the presence of any additional risk factors is most important. It consists of optimal treatment of vascular risk factors administering antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, and if indicated, invasive surgical or
Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Schreiber, Liana R N; Christenson, Gary; Derbyshire, Katherine; Harvanko, Arit; Golden, David; Grant, Jon E
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is estimated to affect 3% to 6% of adults, although limited information is available on the true prevalence and impact of CSB in young adults. This epidemiological study aims to estimate the prevalence and health correlates of CSB using a large sample of students. The survey examined sexual behaviors and their consequences, stress and mood states, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning. The estimated prevalence of CSB was 2.0%. Compared with respondents without CSB, individuals with CSB reported more depressive and anxiety symptoms, higher levels of stress, poorer self-esteem, and higher rates of social anxiety disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, compulsive buying, pathological gambling, and kleptomania. CSB is common among young adults and is associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and a range of psychosocial impairments. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that CSB often may have significant associated morbidity.
Walton, AnnMarie L; Albrecht, Tara A; Lux, Lauren; Judge Santacroce, Sheila
Social media use is ubiquitous among young adults. Young adults with cancer must make important decisions about where, what, and how to share information on social media. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to start conversations about the risks and benefits of social media use. This column aims to review a variety of social media platforms that may be used by young adults with cancer and provide guidance to nurses on initiating open dialogue with young adults about social media usage. .
Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti
This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…
School Library Journal, 2010
The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…
School Library Journal, 2009
The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…
As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…
Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers
Fang, Jing; Wang, Guijing; Ayala, Carma; Lucido, Salvatore J; Loustalot, Fleetwood
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provision implemented policies to improve coverage for young adults. It is not known if it affected access to care among young adults with hypertension. National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2009 and 2011 to 2014 were used. Young adults aged 19-25 years were assessed for potential barriers to access to health care. The authors compared the percentage of each indicator of barriers to access to health care among young adults in general, as well as those with hypertension in the two time periods and estimated the AOR. All data were self-reported. The analyses were conducted in 2016. Among young adults, the frequencies of barrier indicators were significantly lower in 2011-2014 than 2006-2009, except "did not see doctor in the past 12 months." Among those with hypertension, the percentage reporting "no health insurance" (31.3% vs 23.3%, p=0.037); "no place to see a doctor when needed" (30.5% vs 21.6%, p=0.031); or "cannot afford prescribed medicine" (23.0% vs 15.3%, p=0.023) were significantly lower in 2011-2014 compared with that of 2006-2009. The differences maintained statistical significance after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and level of education. Significant differences in select access to care measures were found among young adults with hypertension between 2006-2009 and 2011-2014, as was found among young adults generally. Changes in extension of dependent insurance coverage in 2010 may have led to improvements in access to care among this group. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Catherine Bachleda; Ahlam Fakhar; Laila Hlimi
Employing structural equation modeling and an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) incorporating the additional influence of price perception as a conceptual framework, this paper explored the determinants of sunscreen purchase intention for young Moroccan adults. Consistent with the TPB, results confirmed the importance of subjective norms, attitude and perceived control in shaping sunscreen purchase intention. However, contrary to assumptions price was not found to be a significant fa...
Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exc...
This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among young adults (age 23-28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into the world of work facilitates the development of mentoring relationships, especially among youth who identify work-related mentors after adolescence. These relationships have the potential for promoting attachment to the labor force. Mentoring relationships that develop outside of work settings and during adolescence have a positive impact on the odds of full time employment. The receipt of guidance and advice from mentors, as well as access to weak-tied mentoring relationships, teacher mentors, and friend mentors all contribute to the increased odds of employment in young adulthood. However, adolescent mentoring may be less effective among young women than it is among young men. PMID:19050736
This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among young adults (age 23-28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into the world of work facilitates the development of mentoring relationships, especially among youth who identify work-related mentors after adolescence. These relationships have the potential for promoting attachment to the labor force. Mentoring relationships that develop outside of work settings and during adolescence have a positive impact on the odds of full time employment. The receipt of guidance and advice from mentors, as well as access to weak-tied mentoring relationships, teacher mentors, and friend mentors all contribute to the increased odds of employment in young adulthood. However, adolescent mentoring may be less effective among young women than it is among young men.
Jose, Kim A; Cleland, Verity J; Venn, Alison J; Hansen, Emily
Physical activity recommendations for adults worldwide advise participation in moderate-intensity physical activity, such as walking, on most days of the week. Younger adults report the lowest prevalence of walking. This mixed-methods study explores the salience of Australia's activity recommendations around moderate-intensity physical activity, particularly walking, for young Australian adults. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 young Australians aged 17-25 years. During interviews, Australia's physical activity recommendations for adults were explained to participants, highlighting the inclusion of moderate-intensity physical activity such as walking. Participants were asked to comment on the recommendations and walking for physical activity and exercise. Data from interviews underwent an iterative thematic form of analysis. Participants also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and were asked to complete a pedometer diary. No participant was classified as sedentary; twenty three participants reported walking for transport and nine for leisure (IPAQ). During interviews, the majority of participants (n=20) did not identify walking as physical activity or exercise. Participants focussed on the cardiorespiratory (fitness) benefits associated with physical activity and believed walking was of insufficient intensity to achieve these benefits at their age. Walking was considered an everyday activity and of insufficient intensity to achieve any health or fitness benefits. SO WHAT?: The belief that only vigorous physical activity conveys any fitness benefits may act as a barrier to participation in moderate-intensity physical activity such as walking, particularly among sedentary young people.
Humoud Alqashan; Hayfaa Alkandari
This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced...
Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige
Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.
Kurz, M.D.; Colodner, D.; Trull, T.W.; Moore, R.B.; O'Brien, K.
In an effort to determine the in situ production rate of spallation-produced cosmogenic 3He, and evaluate its use as a surface exposure chronometer, we have measured cosmogenic helium contents in a suite of Hawaiian radiocarbon-dated lava flows. The lava flows, ranging in age from 600 to 13,000 years, were collected from Hualalai and Mauna Loa volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Because cosmic ray surface-exposure dating requires the complete absence of erosion or soil cover, these lava flows were selected specifically for this purpose. The 3He production rate, measured within olivine phenocrysts, was found to vary significantly, ranging from 47 to 150 atoms g-1 yr-1 (normalized to sea level). Although there is considerable scatter in the data, the samples younger than 10,000 years are well-preserved and exposed, and the production rate variations are therefore not related to erosion or soil cover. Data averaged over the past 2000 years indicate a sea-level 3He production rate of 125 ?? 30 atoms g-1 yr-1, which agrees well with previous estimates. The longer record suggests a minimum in sea level normalized 3He production rate between 2000 and 7000 years (55 ?? 15 atoms g-1 yr-1), as compared to samples younger than 2000 years (125 ?? 30 atoms g-1 yr-1), and those between 7000 and 10,000 years (127 ?? 19 atoms g-1 yr-1). The minimum in production rate is similar in age to that which would be produced by variations in geomagnetic field strength, as indicated by archeomagnetic data. However, the production rate variations (a factor of 2.3 ?? 0.8) are poorly determined due to the large uncertainties in the youngest samples and questions of surface preservation for the older samples. Calculations using the atmospheric production model of O'Brien (1979) , and the method of Lal and Peters (1967) , predict smaller production rate variations for similar variation in dipole moment (a factor of 1.15-1.65). Because the production rate variations, archeomagnetic data
Robert J. Lieb
Full Text Available The distinct time in life known as emerging adulthood presents its own unique developmental challenges, most centrally the creation of an adult identity. However, an increasing number of young adults today are not living on their own, as would be expected, but instead are living with their families of origin. For some, co-residence is largely a function of current economic forces. For others, it is evidence of problems with the separation-individuation process. Assessing relational maturity and the development of autonomously valued goals is crucial in forming a treatment plan. Constructivist control mastery theory is a treatment approach that integrates psychodynamic and narrative paradigms and is especially well suited for the treatment of this population, whether applied as a family therapy or individual therapy. This approach focuses on fostering mastery-oriented conversations that facilitate the emergence of adult identity.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults play an important role in regulating the social behaviour of young individuals. However, a few pioneer studies suggest that, more than the mere presence of adults, their proportions in social groups affect the social development of young. Here, we hypothesized that aggression rates and social cohesion were correlated to adult-young ratios. Our biological model was naturally-formed groups of Przewalski horses, Equus f. przewalskii, varying in composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the social interactions and spatial relationships of 12 one- and two-year-old Przewalski horses belonging to five families with adult-young ratios (AYR ranging from 0.67 to 1.33. We found striking variations of aggression rates and spatial relationships related to the adult-young ratio: the lower this ratio, the more the young were aggressive, the more young and adults segregated and the tighter the young bonded to other young. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study demonstrating a correlation between adult-young ratios and aggression rates and social cohesion of young individuals in a naturalistic setting. The increase of aggression and the emergence of social segregation in groups with lower proportions of adults could reflect a related decrease of the influence of adults as regulators of the behaviour of young. This social regulation has both theoretical and practical implications for understanding the modalities of the influence of adults during ontogeny and for recommending optimal settings, as for instance, for schooling or animal group management.
Purpose The consumer competence concept is loaded with ambiguity in the academic as well as in the public use of the term. The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept theoretically and empirically. Methodology/Approach Consumer socialization theories were compared and combined for the th...... consumers and marketers, which has previously been largely overlooked or only implicitly referred to.......Purpose The consumer competence concept is loaded with ambiguity in the academic as well as in the public use of the term. The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept theoretically and empirically. Methodology/Approach Consumer socialization theories were compared and combined...... for the theoretical background, and a mixed-methods methodology was applied for the empirical part. The study included young adults aged 18-25, who had recently established their first household. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to explore the way in which young consumers establish their first household...
González Murillo, M; Turcu, V; De Nicolás Navas, M B; Yeguas Bermejo, A
Hip pain in the young adult is a disabling pathophysiological process may be related to multiple etiologies. The process must be determined in order to make a diagnosis and follow-up treatment. The case is presented of a 29 year old woman with anemia, atraumatic hip pain on the right side, and a limp of one month onset. The differential diagnosis includes infectious, rheumatological, tumor, avascular necrosis of hip, hip impingement, hip dysplasia, osteoarthritis and other syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195
Bauermeister, José A; Morales, Mercedes; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed.
J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work
Toni Yvette Sims-Muhammad
This study explores the perception and attitude of young adults toward conspicuous consumption portrayed in mass media and their conception of poverty. Many young adults may not realize the cadre of consumerist ideologies portrayed throughout the culture and mass media such as buy more, buy newer and improved, buy wants over needs, buy comparatively, buy exclusively and buy to prove. In light of such mass media portrayal, young adult consumption habits may reflect unrealistic ideas about what...
Kansagra, Ankit; Litzow, Mark
Young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are a distinctive category of patients, with substantial difference in disease biology and response to therapy; hence, they pose unique challenges and issues beyond those faced by children and older adults. Despite inferior survival compared to children, there is growing evidence to suggest that young adults have improved outcomes when treated with pediatric-based approaches. With better supportive care and toxicity management and multidisciplinary team and approach, we have made great improvement in outcomes of young adults with ALL. However, despite significant progress, patients with persistence of minimal residual disease have a poor prognosis. This review discusses current controversies in the management of young adults with ALL, outcomes following pediatric and adult protocols, and the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We also explore recent advances in disease monitoring and highlight our approach to incorporation of novel therapies in the management of young adults with ALL.
Harden, P N; Walsh, G; Bandler, N; Bradley, S; Lonsdale, D; Taylor, J; Marks, S D
Transition from paediatric to adult care of young adults with chronic diseases is poorly coordinated, often delayed, and usually managed through a single referral letter. About 35% of young adults lose a successfully functioning kidney transplant within 36 months of transfer from paediatric to adult services. Before and after study of the impact of a new integrated paediatric-adult clinical service for patients with kidney failure. Adult renal centre in Oxford and two paediatric renal centres in London. An integrated paediatric-young adult joint transition clinic and care pathway was established in 2006, in conjunction with a young adult clinical service with regular community based clinics. Previously, young adult transplant recipients were transferred by a single referral letter to an adult renal consultant and managed in a conventional adult clinic. Rates of acute rejection and loss of kidney transplants five years before and five years after the introduction of the integrated young adult care pathway. EFFECTS OF THE CHANGE: Nine young adult kidney transplant recipients were transferred directly to adult care between 2000 and 2006 (group 1). From 2006 to 2010, 12 young adult transplant recipients underwent integrated transition into the new young adult service (group 2). Six transplants were lost in group 1 (67%) compared with no transplant losses in group 2. Implementing an integrated transition clinic, coupled with improving young adults' healthcare experience through a young adult clinic, improved patient adherence to regular medication and engagement with healthcare providers, as judged by reduced transplant failure rates. This model may be applicable to other young adult populations with chronic disease transferring to adult healthcare.
Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P
Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited.Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity.Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P < 0.001), stronger beliefs about physical appearance (aOR = 1.73; P = 0.037), and depressive symptoms (aOR = 3.79; P < 0.001).Conclusions: Indoor tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood.Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...
Selected recent adolescent novels which center on a young adult's relationship with an older adult are analyzed. In these novels which feature older adults and young adults as main characters, the older character has qualities that the teenager examines, then accepts or rejects. In today's nuclear family, teenagers sometimes have very little…
María Martina Casullo
Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria.
Newston, Caroline; Ingram, Bethan
Ambulatory chemotherapy allows high-dose chemotherapy to be delivered in an outpatient facility with multidisciplinary planning and management. At University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, this model of care has been successfully applied to a teenage and young adult population. A mobile infusion device, CADD-Solis VIP pump has allowed chemotherapy and supportive therapy administration in the ambulatory setting. Continuous and intermittent therapies have been delivered. Patients attend the ambulatory care unit daily for assessment and treatment set up. Overnight, they reside in nearby accommodation. Patients are educated to self-manage, promoting independence and empowerment; however, they also have 24-hour access to nursing and medical advice. Clear communication and patient education, adopting a multidisciplinary team approach and clear assessment guidance for patients and staff, is essential to make this model of care successful.
Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rieger, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ruffman, Ted
In a series of 1-shot economic trust games in which participants could make real monetary profits, but also risked losing money, 2 studies compared young and older adults' trust (amount invested with trustees) and trustworthiness (amount returned to investors by trustees). In Study 1, young (n = 35) and older (n = 32) participants acted as investors, and the age of simulated trustees (young, older) was manipulated. In Study 2, young (n = 61) and older (n = 67) participants acted in real life as both investors and trustees. They completed 2 face-to-face trust games with same- and other-age partners, and 3 anonymous trust games with same-, other-, and unknown-age partners. Study 1 found that young and older participants rate older trustees as appearing more trustworthy than young trustees, but neither group invest more with older than young trustees. Rather, older participants were more likely than young participants to invest money averaged across trustee age. In Study 2, there were no age-related differences in trust, but older adults were more trustworthy than young adults in anonymous games with same- and unknown-age partners. It was also found that young adults demonstrate greater reputational concerns than older adults by reciprocating more trust when face-to-face than anonymous. We discuss the complex influences of age on trust game investing and reciprocation, as well as the implications for older adults' wellbeing and financial security. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.
Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…
Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce
The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…
Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville
Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…
It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…
This dissertation is about the relationship of young German adults with the Holocaust. It focuses on the experience of discomfort of young adults in educational encounters with the Holocaust, and is set against the backdrop of tensions inherent in the expectations towards Holocaust education in
Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.
This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB
Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.
Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no
Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.
We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…
School Library Journal, 1982
Outlines competencies needed by librarians working with young adults in any type of information agency. Developed by the Education Committee of the Young Adult Services Division, competencies are listed in seven areas: leadership and professionalism, knowledge of client group, communication, administration, knowledge of materials, access to…
Oral health inequalities exist as anterior tooth loss among young adults is associated with gender, age and occupation of the individual. Trauma seems to be a leading cause of anterior tooth loss among young adults. It is pertinent that education on preventive measures to avoid trauma be made available on various media ...
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W.; Vigeland, Laura M.
Purpose: In this study, we examined syntactic complexity in the spoken language samples of young adults. Its purpose was to contribute to the expanding knowledge base in later language development and to begin building a normative database of language samples that potentially could be used to evaluate young adults with known or suspected language…
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…
Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin
This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…
Three hypotheses were tested with the independent group t-test. Attitudes of young adults toward rape was found to be different based on gender and parental family structure; male young adults had more positive attitudes toward rape than their female counterparts (t = 2.02, df = 318, p < .05); youth from polygamous family ...
Richardson, Anna; Budd, Tracey
Alcohol-related crime is increasingly being recognized as a problem in cities and towns with popular entertainment districts. Crime and disorder linked to alcohol has been particularly connected with binge drinking or heavy sessional drinking. Research evidence indicates that it is the young adult age group who are most likely to be involved in crime and disorder and the most likely to binge drink. This paper examines the relationship between binge drinking and criminal and disorderly behaviour among 18- to 24-year-olds. Secondary analysis was undertaken of the 1998/1999 Youth Lifestyles Survey, a large-scale, representative, household survey of 12- to 30-year-olds living in England and Wales. Binge drinking, and especially male binge drinking, among 18- to 24-year-olds is statistically related to offending behaviour. In the 12 months prior to interview 39% of binge drinkers admitted to committing an offence and 60% admitted criminal and/or disorderly behaviour during or after drinking alcohol. Multivariate analysis found that binge drinking remains strongly associated with criminal and disorderly behaviour even after taking other relevant factors into account. Individuals who got drunk at least once a week had more than five times the odds of being involved in fighting or violent crime. For offences or disorderly behaviour that took place during or after drinking alcohol an individual had a seven times greater chance of breaking or damaging something and a five times greater chance of being involved in a fight if he/she got drunk at least once a week. These findings suggest that frequency of drunkenness is a better predictor of offending behaviour than frequency of drinking per se. Using frequency of drunkenness as the basis for defining binge drinking reveals that a large minority of young adults who binge drink also become involved in offending or disorderly behaviour. Binge drinking is particularly associated with crimes of violence. The relationship between
Hechler, Christine; Beijers, Roseriet; de Weerth, Carolina
To determine whether young childless adults show negative emotions and cognitive disturbances when listening to infant crying, compared to other disturbing noises, and whether negative emotions and cognitive disturbances are associated. We tested the cognitive performances and emotional reactions of 120 childless participants on a working memory task while being subjected to different disturbing noises including infant crying. Participants had the least correct trials on the working memory task, and showed the most negative emotions, when hearing infant crying as compared to the other noises. Participants also showed less positive emotions when hearing infant crying as compared to working in silence. Overall, negative emotions were associated with less correct trials on the working memory task, except in the infant crying condition. Furthermore, cognitive performance and emotional reactions to infant crying were unrelated to personality characteristics. Negative emotions and cognitive disturbances may be general adult responses to infant crying that are not limited to parents. These results suggest a broadly present human emotional and cognitive response to infant crying, that may underlie a general predisposition to care for infants in distress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.
Kaywell, Joan F.
Describes a seven-step process that uses young adult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five young adult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…
Adam E. Green
Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.
Sluman, M. A.; de Man, S.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Sluiter, J. K.
Background Despite improved survival of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), higher rates of unemployment and work-related problems are seen, especially among younger adults. This study was performed to gain insight into current barriers and facilitating experiences at work among young adult
Burke-Miller, Jane; Razzano, Lisa A; Grey, Dennis D; Blyler, Crystal R; Cook, Judith A
Supported Employment (SE) can help transition age youth and young adults to obtain employment and develop meaningful careers and financial security. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the role of SE in achieving employment outcomes for youth (ages 18-24) and young adults (ages 25-30), compared to outcomes for older adults. Given the importance of employment to the quality of life of young people in establishing work histories and starting careers, it is important to have a better understanding of what client and program characteristics result in better employment outcomes. Data are from the Employment Intervention Demonstration Program (EIDP), a multisite randomized controlled trial of SE among 1,272 individuals with psychiatric disabilities in 7 states. Among all study participants, youth and young adults had significantly better outcomes in terms of any employment and competitive employment than older (>30 years) adults. However, in multivariable models of participants randomly assigned to SE, young adults had significantly better outcomes than youth or older adults. Other significant predictors of employment and competitive employment were future work expectations, not receiving Supplemental Security Income, and receipt of more hours of SE services. Characteristics of youth, young adults and SE programs that enhance employment are discussed in terms of policy and practice.
Nair, Sruthi S; Harikrishnan, S; Sarma, P Sankara; Thomas, Sanjeev V
Persons with epilepsy have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity compared to general population and alteration of their biochemical milieu is one of the proposed mechanisms. We aimed to study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults with epilepsy and the association with antiepileptic drug use. An observational study was conducted in persons with epilepsy aged 20-49 years using antiepileptic drugs regularly for the previous three years. The subjects were examined and their blood samples were collected for fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. Over 18 months, 183 patients (120 males; 63 females) were recruited (mean age 32.5 ± 8.9 years). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) by ATP III criteria was present in 54 (29.5%) subjects. People with MetS in our group had higher frequency of abdominal obesity (50.0%) and hypertriglyceridemia (55.5%) than diabetes/impaired fasting glucose (27.8%). Older age (p=0.005) and use of valproate (p=0.012) were associated with significant risk of MetS. Clinicians need to be vigilant regarding the risk of MetS while initiating treatment and following up persons with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooney, T M
This article discusses the potential impact of parental divorce on the lives of young adult offspring. Parental divorce may upset both social and psychological aspects of the transition to adulthood process. The family roles young adults are expected to assume could be altered by the break-up, as could opportunities for particular young adult pursuits, such as advanced education. Heightened adjustment problems also are likely to result, as divorce produces additional life changes during the highly transitional period of early adulthood. Qualitative data from an exploratory study of 39 college students, ages 18-23, illustrate many of the relevant issues. Suggestions for future research are provided.
Yu, Jennifer W; Adams, Sally H; Burns, Jane; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E
Despite parallels in mental health needs among adolescents and young adults, there is a paucity of evidence regarding use of mental health services in young adulthood. Using a longitudinal sample, this study compares rates of mental health counseling use between adolescents and young adults, examines characteristics and predictors of counseling use for young adults, and identifies reasons for foregone care among those with mental health needs in young adulthood. Secondary data analysis was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 10,817 participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Data were derived from an initial survey collected in 1995 (mean age, 15.8 years) and a follow-up survey collected 7 years later (mean age, 21.5 years). Among individuals with depressive symptomology, young adults reported significantly lower rates of counseling use compared with adolescents. When taking into account the severity of mental health problems, female gender, high maternal education, school attendance, and receipt of routine physical examinations were significantly predictive of counseling use among young adults. Young adults of black ethnicity were significantly less likely to receive counseling compared with those of white ethnicity. Overall, 4% of young adults reported foregoing health care in the past year, despite self-reported mental health needs. Inability to pay, belief that the problem would go away, and lack of time were commonly cited reasons for any type of foregone health care. However, concerns regarding physician's care (i.e., fear of what the doctor would say or do, and belief that the doctor would be unable to help) were more frequently mentioned by those who acknowledged a need for counseling services. Low rates of mental health counseling persist from adolescence to young adulthood. Findings such as increased counseling service use among those receiving routine physical examinations, as well as reported concerns of
George B. Richardson
Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
Scott, J. Michael; Sincock, John L.; Di Silvestro, Roger L.
Hawaii's 132 islands, reefs, and shoals extend 1,523 miles from the southernmost island of Hawaii to the northernmost islands at Kure Atoll. The northernmost islands, now eroded almost to sea level, are about 27 million years old, whereas the still-forming island of Hawaii is only about 750,000 years old. The Hawaiian Islands are the most isolated in the world and, as such, have developed many species and subspecies of plants and animals found nowhere else. the arrival of few ancestral species and the isolation of the islands, with their varying ages, elevations, climates, and microhabitats, were ideal for creating this great endemic biota through adaptive radiation.
Harrell, M.B.; Weaver, S.R.; Loukas, A; Creamer, M.; C.N. Marti; Jackson, C.D.; Heath, J.W.; Nayak, P.; Perry, C L; Pechacek, T. F.; Eriksen, M.P.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12?17?years old), young adults (18?29?years old), and older adults (30?+ years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n?=?3907) and young adult college students (n?=?5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n?=?6051) nationwide were administered in 2014?2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation...
Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer young adults with ID (45%) visited a dentist at least once per year, compared with those without ID (58%). ID severity and the presence of co-occurring developmental disabilities predicted dental care use. Sociodemographics, daily functioning, societal participation, dental services, and dental health factors were examined as predictors of dental care frequency. Our findings can help focus efforts toward improving the frequency of dental care visits among young adults with ID. PMID:23501584
... Future Survey on teen drug use ( December 2017 ) View more related News Releases This page was last updated February 2016 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice ...
Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.
This study examined the influence of adolescent psychiatric disorder on young adult recidivism and compared findings with earlier studies of juvenile recidivism. Logistic regression analysis examined subsequent adulthood recidivism (through age 23 years) by disorder profile, adjusting for prior
... Donate Donate Now Fundraise for LRF Planned Giving Relationships and Recovery for Young Adult Lymphoma Survivors By ... like this? The simple answer is with: "I love you..." and then go from there; because if ...
Perneger, Thomas V; Hudelson, Patricia M; Bovier, Patrick A
To explore whether self-reported happiness is associated with mental and physical health status among young adults. Cross-sectional survey of 1257 randomly selected university students in Geneva, Switzerland. The questionnaire included an item that probed the feeling of happiness in the past month, the Short Form-12 health survey (from which mental and physical health scores were computed), scales to measure self-esteem, stress, and social support, reports of various life problems, and sociodemographic information. Most participants felt happy all of the time or most of the time (63%). In multivariate analysis, feeling happy all or most of the time was strongly associated with better mental health (odds ratios for consecutive quartiles of mental health scores: 1.0 (reference), 6.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-10.1), 19.2 (95% CI: 12.2-30.2), 39.9 (95% CI: 22.4-71.0)), but also with the feeling of getting enough love and affection (item from the social support scale, odds ratio: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7), female sex (odds ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), being Swiss (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.5), and higher self-esteem (odds ratios for consecutive quartiles ranged from 1.0 to 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1-5.8). The association between happiness and physical health was weak and statistically non-significant. The strong association between happiness and mental health suggests that asking people if they are happy may help identify mental health care needs. Self-reported happiness may also be a useful outcome measure for evaluation of health interventions.
Larsson, IngBeth; Svedin, Carl-Göran
Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous questionnaires were answered by 269 final year, senior high-school students, mean age 18.6 years; 82.9% of the students reported solitary sexual experiences and 82.5% had mutual experiences together with another child. Most of the children had their experiences together with a same-age friend. Girls had more same-sex experiences than boys did. Thirteen percent reported coercive experiences where they had been tricked, bribed, threatened, or physically forced into participation. Some children, 8.2%, had coerced another child into participation in sexual activities. The majority thought of their childhood experiences as normal. There were also 6.3% of the respondents who had had inappropriate sexual experiences with someone at least 5 years older, the majority being girls. Gender differences were evident in several respects: girls were more often coerced, they felt more guilt, and they had far less experience of masturbation, whereas boys were somewhat more active in explorative activities on their own as well as with peers. Some kind of coercive sexual experiences appears to be part of growing up for quite a few children, although in general the years before puberty seem to be years of frequent mutual sexual exploration and experimentation.
Carvalho, J.C.; Mestrinho, H.D.; Stevens, S.; van Wijk, A.J.
This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young
Ingesson, S. Gunnel
Interviews with 75 teenagers and young adults were performed to investigate how young people with dyslexia experienced school in terms of well-being, educational achievement, self-esteem, peer relations and belief in their future. Results from earlier studies suggest that secondary emotional problems are common. The first six grades in school were…
Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.
Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…
More than a decade ago, the popular topic of discussion in higher education and in pop culture concerned the character traits of what was then called "Generation X" or "GenX" for short. One lasting impact of this focus has been a renewed effort on the part of higher education to define young adulthood and to reassess young adult education. In the…
Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; King, Jessica; Ragan, Kathleen; Buchanan Lunsford, Natasha
Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults. Mental health problems were associated with white race; less than a high school education; lower income; being out of work or unable to work; being uninsured (for men only); poor health; previous diagnosis of asthma, skin cancer, or diabetes; and not having a recent checkup. After controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status, mental health problems among young adults were associated with smoking, binge drinking, inadequate sleep, having no leisure time physical activity, and being overweight or obese (among women only). Cervical cancer screening was not associated with mental health problems after controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status. Mental health problems in young adulthood were associated with potentially modifiable factors and behaviors that increase risk for cancer. Efforts to prevent cancer and promote health must attend to mental health disparities to meet the needs of young adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.
This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and
Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie
The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…
Langley, Linda K.; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Saville, Alyson L.; Ciernia, Annie T.
This study examined adult age differences in reflexive orienting to two types of uninformative spatial cues: central arrows and peripheral onsets. In two experiments using a Posner cuing task, young adults (ages 18 – 28 yrs), young-old adults (ages 60 – 74 yrs), and old-old adults (ages 75 – 92 yrs) responded to targets that were preceded 100–1,000 ms earlier by a central arrow or a peripheral abrupt onset. In Experiment 1, the cue remained present upon target onset. Facilitation effects at early cue-target stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were prolonged in duration for the two older groups relative to the young adults. At later cue-target SOAs, inhibition of return (IOR) that was initiated by peripheral onset cues was observed in the performance of young adults but not in that of the two older groups. In Experiment 2, the cue was presented briefly and removed prior to target onset. The change in cue duration minimized age differences (particularly for young-old adults) in facilitation effects and led to IOR for all three age groups. The findings are consistent with the idea that attentional control settings change with age, with higher settings for older adults leading to delayed disengagement from spatial cues. PMID:21394555
Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois
Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…
Schank, M J; Lawrence, D M
A study of 76 young adult women, 38 nursing students and 38 non-nursing students, examined their lifestyle practices and health locus of control (HLOC). Findings revealed a significant difference between reported lifestyle practices and the career choice of these young adult women. The lifestyle practice areas in which the most notable differences occurred included: use of seat belts, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of junk food intake, use of illegal drugs and hours of sleep per night. While differences in HLOC were evident between nursing and non-nursing students, no relationship was found between a young woman's HLOC and her lifestyle practices. The differences in HLOC showed that nurses were more frequently pure internal whereas most non-nurses were found to be double externals. The pure chance category had the fewest number of respondents. The difference in lifestyle practices between these young adult women can be explained in part by curriculum variations, as can the difference in HLOC patterns.
Smit, H.J.M.; Golding, R.P.; Schramel, F.M.N.H.; Devillé, W.L.; Manoliu, R.A.; Postmus, P.E.
Background: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) attenuation measurements may be more sensitive in finding early emphysematous changes in relatively young subjects than lung function measurements. Objectives: To define lung attenuation parameters in smokers and never-smokers. Methods: A
Johnson, Heather M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Bartels, Christie M; Schumacher, Jessica R; Palta, Mari; Pandhi, Nancy; Sheehy, Ann M; Smith, Maureen A
Young adults meeting hypertension diagnostic criteria have a lower prevalence of a hypertension diagnosis than middle-aged and older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of a new hypertension diagnosis for different age groups and identify predictors of delays in the initial diagnosis among young adults who regularly use primary care. A 4-year retrospective analysis included 14 970 patients, at least 18 years old, who met clinical criteria for an initial hypertension diagnosis in a large, Midwestern, academic practice from 2008 to 2011. Patients with a previous hypertension diagnosis or prior antihypertensive medication prescription were excluded. The probability of diagnosis at specific time points was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox proportional hazard models (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval) were fit to identify predictors of delays to an initial diagnosis, with a subsequent subset analysis for young adults (18-39 years old). After 4 years, 56% of 18-24-year-olds received a diagnosis compared with 62% (25-31-year-olds), 68% (32-39-year-olds), and more than 70% (≥40-year-olds). After adjustment, 18-31-year-olds had a 33% slower rate of receiving a diagnosis (18-24 years hazard ratio 0.66, 0.53-0.83; 25-31 years hazard ratio 0.68, 0.58-0.79) compared with adults at least 60 years. Other predictors of a slower diagnosis rate among young adults were current tobacco use, white ethnicity, and non-English primary language. Young adults with diabetes, higher blood pressures, or a female provider had a faster diagnosis rate. Provider and patient factors are critical determinants of poor hypertension diagnosis rates among young adults with regular primary care use.
Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A
Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes. © The Author(s) 2014.
Margaret A. Allman-Farinelli
Full Text Available Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway.
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIVE HAWAIIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 402.1 What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program? The Native...
Full Text Available This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced and intact families. The findings reveal that adults whose parents divorced show fewer positive attitudes toward marriage than do those individuals from intact marriages. The study also suggests that adults whose parents were divorced carry more positive attitudes toward divorce compared with individuals from intact marriages. Furthermore, gender was found to be an important factor in shaping attitudes toward marriage and divorce. A longitudinal study is recommended to look at the changes in young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce over time, which will help to identify the influence of other factors of attitudes toward marriage and divorce.
Milam, Adam J; Bone, Lee R; Byron, M Justin; Hoke, Kathleen; Williams, Carla D; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Stillman, Frances A
In the U.S., cigar use doubled from 5.0 to 10.6 billion cigars consumed annually between 1997 and 2007, driven in large part by increased sales of cigarette-sized "little cigars" and narrow, mid-sized "cigarillos." The present study examined prevalence of cigarillo use as well as attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to cigarillo use among a sample of predominantly urban African American young adults 18-24 not in school and not employed. Survey data were collected from 131 young adults attending education and job training centers in Baltimore, Maryland and from 78 young adults attending education, job training, or recreational programs in Washington, D.C. In Baltimore, 22% of young adults had smoked a cigarillo in the past 30 days, compared with nearly 63% in D.C. Both populations were heavily exposed to cigarillo advertising and marketing. Cigarillo use in this urban young adult population is a growing public health problem and undermines the progress made in decreasing cigarette use.
Johnson, Heather M; Olson, Andrea G; LaMantia, Jamie N; Kind, Amy J H; Pandhi, Nancy; Mendonça, Eneida A; Craven, Mark; Smith, Maureen A
Only 38% of young adults with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. Lifestyle education is a critical initial step for hypertension control. Previous studies have not assessed the type and frequency of lifestyle education in young adults with incident hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine patient, provider, and visit predictors of documented lifestyle education among young adults with incident hypertension. We conducted a retrospective analysis of manually abstracted electronic health record data. A random selection of adults 18-39 years old (n = 500), managed by a large academic practice from 2008 to 2011 and who met JNC 7 clinical criteria for incident hypertension, participated in the study. The primary outcome was the presence of any documented lifestyle education during one year after meeting criteria for incident hypertension. Abstracted topics included documented patient education for exercise, tobacco cessation, alcohol use, stress management/stress reduction, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and weight loss. Clinic visits were categorized based upon a modified established taxonomy to characterize patients' patterns of outpatient service. We excluded patients with previous hypertension diagnoses, previous antihypertensive medications, or pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of documented education. Overall, 55% (n = 275) of patients had documented lifestyle education within one year of incident hypertension. Exercise was the most frequent topic (64%). Young adult males had significantly decreased odds of receiving documented education. Patients with a previous diagnosis of hyperlipidemia or a family history of hypertension or coronary artery disease had increased odds of documented education. Among visit types, chronic disease visits predicted documented lifestyle education, but not acute or other/preventive visits. Among young adults with incident hypertension, only 55% had documented
Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre
Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…
Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.
Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric
Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.
Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A
We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.
Pelletier, Jennifer E; Graham, Dan J; Laska, Melissa N
To examine associations between young adults' dietary behaviors and perceived social norms for healthy eating. Cross-sectional survey of 1000 diverse college students. Associations between perceived behaviors of family, friends, and significant other and participants' dietary behaviors were examined using t-tests and linear regression. Young adults consumed more fast food if they perceived that their family, friends, or significant other did so (p < .003). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with perceived consumption by family and friends (p < .035). Fruit and vegetable consumption and dinner preparation were associated with perceived behavior of friends only (p < .001). Young adults' dietary behaviors appear to reflect their perceptions of normative behavior, particularly among friends.
Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502
Harinder R. Singh, MD, CCDS
Full Text Available The population of children and young adults requiring a cardiac pacing device has been consistently increasing. The current generation of devices are small with a longer battery life, programming capabilities that can cater to the demands of the young patients and ability to treat brady and tachyarrhythmias as well as heart failure. This has increased the scope and clinical indications of using these devices. As patients with congenital heart disease (CHD comprise majority of these patients requiring devices, the knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations and the technical skills required are different than that required in the adult population. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points in detail to improve the understanding of cardiac pacing in children and young adults.
The crises of the past few years have led to a significant increase in youth unemployment in Europe. This, in turn, has highlighted the long standing phenomenon of well above average youth unemployment. In some countries, the youth unemployment rate reached unprecedented levels, although the rise of unemployment among young people was no more significant than among adults. Furthermore, the media portrayal of young people's situation is sometimes more negative than the reality, failing to take...
Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta
Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in
Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl
To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Participants (n=1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health consequences, or tobacco industry manipulation and with 4 emotive execution styles: drama, testimonial (negative emotive) and humor, sarcasm (positive). Health consequences and negative emotive advertisements were rated significantly most persuasive. This is the first study to support the effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements emphasizing the negative emotive health consequences of smoking among young adults.
Maria Regina Rachmawati; Diana Samara; Purnamawati Tjhin; Magdalena Wartono; Yefta Bastian
Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC). The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects ha...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the way in which the effects of parental divorce surface during the developmental period of young adulthood.
Hierdie studie is ontwerp om die effek wat ouers se egskeiding op die ontwikkelingsfase van jong volwassenheid het, te bestudeer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Smit, H.J.M.; Golding, R.P.; Schramel, F.M.N.H.; Devillé, W.L.; Manoliu, R.A.; Postmus, P. E.
Background: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) attenuation measurements may be more sensitive in finding early emphysematous changes in relatively young subjects than lung function measurements. Objectives: To define lung attenuation parameters in smokers and never-smokers. Methods: A prospective comparative study in a university hospital setting was designed with 20 healthy smoking and 20 nonsmoking volunteers. Attenuation measurements on spirometrically controlled HRCT at three leve...
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Full Text Available Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX331...RX043965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
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Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E
Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12–17 years old, young adults (18–29 years old, and older adults (30+ years old. Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907 and young adult college students (n = 5482 in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051 nationwide were administered in 2014–2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and “usual” e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%, Texas young adult college students (95%, and young adults (71.2% nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco, while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03. Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.
Harrell, M B; Weaver, S R; Loukas, A; Creamer, M; Marti, C N; Jackson, C D; Heath, J W; Nayak, P; Perry, C L; Pechacek, T F; Eriksen, M P
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907) and young adult college students (n = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and "usual" e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%), Texas young adult college students (95%), and young adults (71.2%) nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco), while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03). Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy) may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.
Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.
Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…
Full Text Available Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM. There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the young adult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for Young Adults which measures young adults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1 positive beliefs about CAM; 2 environmental influence; and 3 psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.79 and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that young adults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in young adults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research.
Full Text Available Limited information exists on how adolescents decide to use complementary/alternative medicine (CAM. There are also no instruments specific to CAM, for the young adult population, which makes it difficult to explore knowledge in this area. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the CAM Questionnaire for Young Adults which measures young adults’ attitudes about CAM. Participants for this cross-sectional survey were selected from enrolled undergraduate students at an urban university. Factor analysis identified three subscales: 1 positive beliefs about CAM; 2 environmental influence; and 3 psychological comfort. The scale has good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79 and shows beginning demonstration of validity. Its use in this sample revealed that young adults who are female and have used CAM in the past for preventing or treating illness have the most positive attitude towards CAM and the greatest likelihood for continued use. The implication that prevention may play a role in young adults’ attitudes about CAM is a potential focus for future research.
Full Text Available This article is a synthesis of conducted researches in field of loneliness psychology, in order to reveal the feeling of loneliness and its manifestation at young adults. At this age, the main hazard represent the excessive self-concern or avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The inability to establish personal relationships of trust leads to loneliness. The causes and factors findings that could trigger loneliness, as well as their effects on young adults reflect a multi-featured phenomenon of this complex and ambiguous condition. The clear depiction deficiency of loneliness approach among young adults shows that this phenomenon may have different distinctions. As a prerequisite for personal development, as well as a multitude of causes, these can be expressed through various contexts of social isolation disclosure (voluntary or forced and life consequences of young individual. All of the above represent an additional need of developing the loneliness concept of young, based on an integrated approach and oriented towards structuring the control of loneliness and empirical data-bases.
Meyer, Katie A; Wall, Melanie M; Larson, Nicole I; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
We examined the association between sleep duration and BMI in young adults, and, specifically, in possible gender differences. The population-based sample included 955 young men and 1051 young women (mean age = 25.3 years, s.d. = 1.7) who participated in Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults)-III. In 2008-2009, study participants completed a survey, on which they reported their weight, height, and typical bed and awakening times. Gender-specific regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and weight status, adjusting for age, race, SES, family structure, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and sedentary and dietary behaviors. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, an hour increase in sleep was associated with a -0.38 (-0.70, -0.048) BMI in men. Men who slept BMI (27.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 26.9, 28.9) than men who slept 7-9 h/day (26.5; 95% CI: 26.1, 27.0). Prevalence estimates of overweight (BMI ≥ 25) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) were also inversely associated with sleep duration among men. Sleep duration was not associated with BMI, overweight, or obesity in women. Among women, but not men, there was a statistically significant positive association between trouble falling or staying asleep and mean BMI. Sleep may be an important modifiable risk factor for obesity, particularly in young adult men.
acterized by a reduction in the bone mass density predis- posing to an increased risk of fractures5. Peak bone mass is achieved at its 90% by late adolescence6. Therefore, prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis should begin at young adult age which is considered as the most ade- quate time to invest in bone health.
This article examines the way in which social networks operate within small groups. The study examines the social networks of teens and young adults. Groups of friends were recruited for the study and thus the unit of analysis is the group as opposed to the individual. The members of each group...
Carmien, Stefan; Wohldman, Erica
How the type of representation (icons, photos of objects in context, photos of objects in isolation) displayed on a hand-held computer affected recognition performance in young adults with cognitive disabilities was examined. Participants were required to match an object displayed on the computer to one of three pictures projected onto a screen.…
Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip
This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…
Pedersen, Eric R.; Hummer, Justin F.; Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Traylor, Zach K.; Neighbors, Clayton
Objective: Marijuana use can result in a variety of negative consequences, yet it remains popular among young adults and the general public at large. Combined with the growing empirical support for the benefits of medicinal marijuana as well as the steady increase in popular opinion regarding its legalization, it is of growing importance to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use, reduce consumption levels, and limit resulting negative consequences among young adults who use marijuana. The purpose of this study was to develop and conduct initial psychometric analyses on a new scale, which we named the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana (PBSM) scale. Method: A sample of undergraduate college students who reported past-6-month marijuana use (n = 210) responded to the initial pool of PBSM items and completed measures of marijuana use, consequences from marijuana use, alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategies for alcohol. Results: Results from an iterative principal component analyses process yielded a single-factor structure with 39 items. The PBSM mean composite score negatively associated with marijuana use and consequences, with the strongest correlations evident for past-month users. The PBSM also significantly positively correlated with alcohol protective strategies. Conclusions: Protective behavioral strategies for marijuana appear to be a measurable construct that are related to marijuana frequency and consequences, and thus may be a useful component of intervention and prevention programs with young adults. More work testing the PBSM items with larger and more diverse samples of young adults is encouraged. PMID:27172576
Presents some explanations for the doubling of the young adult suicide rate since 1950. Analyzes the diagnoses and population groups that contribute the most to this increase. Groups that can be readily affected by suicide reduction measures are discussed, and methods for reducing suicide are proposed. (JPS)
Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.
Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…
Of particular interest was how the parent-child relationships in divorced homes foster personal identifications and how this affects the individual's ability to separate from the family of origin as well as the young adult's patterns of relating to others in intimate relationships. The design of the study was qualitative and data was ...
Michelle C. van der Merwe
Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.
Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair
The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…
van Pelt, Philomine A.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Dolhain, Radboud J.E.M.; Kruize, Aike A.; Huisman, Jaap; Wulffraat, Nico M.
Background/Purpose: Internet-use is increasing since it is an efficient way to find information. Information obtained via Health Related Internet (HRI) sites, or online peer support groups might increase knowledge and self-management in adolescents and young adults with Juvenile IdiopathicArthritis
Vered, Yuval; Livny, Alon; Zini, Avi; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D
Our aim was to evaluate the periodontal status and present smoking habits among a representative sample of young adult Israelis and to investigate possible associations. A representative sample of young adult Israelis was examined and interviewed on the day of release from compulsory military service. Collected data included demographic background (gender, education level, family size and father's country of origin) and current smoking habits. Clinical examination included the recording of periodontal health status according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Seven thousand and fifty-six young adults were examined. Sixteen per cent were classified as CPI 0, 78% as CPI 1-2 and 6% as CPI 3-4. In total, 36% of the sample reported a current smoking habit. Periodontal status was significantly improved among non-smokers, females and children of fathers born in Israel or Western countries. Only 7% of the participants demonstrated signs of periodontitis and most young adults did not smoke; a dose-response association was revealed between present smoking habits and periodontal disease.
Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary institutions in south-eastern Nigeria. Patricia Ogechi Ukegbu, Ada Charity Uwaegbute, Chinyere Akudo Echendu, Chukwunonso Ejike, Julie Uche Anyika-Elekeh, Victoria Uzoamaka Asumugha, Solomon Abasiekong Kuyik, Shola Omodamiro, Blessing Nwofia, ...
This annotated bibliography lists 10 works of English-language nonfiction recommended for Hispanic young adults, including a view of pre-Columbian Mexico, biographies of controversial Hispanic men, an anthology of the writings of Juana Ines de la Cruz, an account of bullfighting, and books about Hispanic countries and Hispanic villages in New…
Background: Colorectal carcinoma is thought to be rare among children and young adults among whom presentation is usually at a late stage with poor prognosis. Objective: To review the demography, clinical presentation, morphology, and pathological stage of cases of colorectal carcinomas diagnosed in the children and ...
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell chronic lung disease (SCLD) is often underappreciated by health care providers because its exact prevalence and methods of diagnosis have not been well studied. OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of SCLD among young adult Nigerians with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). METHODS: Ninety ...
Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth
Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…
Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender
Based on virtual conversations drawn from two separate intensive ethnographic studies in Bangladesh and Mongolia, we show that popular cultural texts play a significant role in young adults' heteroglossic language practices. On the one hand, they borrow voices from cultural texts and cross the boundaries of language, i.e., codes, modes, and…
Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan
Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…
Conclusion: Undetected cases of hypertension, with complications and target end-organ damage, exist in young adults in Ibadan and family physicians and other primary care physicians, especially in Nigeria, should pay attention to case finding for hypertension in this age group. African Health Sciences 2009 9(3): 193 - ...
Dagorne, Loïc; Bruckner, Tania; Gaudry, Bruno; Dumont, Sarah; Gaspar, Nathalie
The medical-psycho-socio-educational characteristics of adolescents and young adults affected by cancer require adapted management. Dedicated programmes and life spaces, as well as the availability of a mobile and transversal multidisciplinary team allow care to be customised. In this context, the coordinating nurse is an essential linchpin in the care team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Langeveld, N. E.; Stam, H.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.
In recent years the necessity of measuring quality of life in childhood cancer survivors has been stressed. This paper gives an overview of the results of studies into the quality of life (QL) of young adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas for future research. The review located 30
Everall, Robin D.
Describes study identifying themes that characterize experiences of young adults who made one suicide attempt between the ages of 20 and 24. Six major themes identified include: family experiences, adolescent interactions, emotional experiences, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and perception of control. Views suicide attempts as a…
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.
Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…
Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.
The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…
Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...
Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…
Examines some of the characteristics of third-person narrative used commonly in teenage fiction prior to the 1990's. Explores whether first person narrative actually provides a more engaging mode of reading, and how exactly it does this. Concludes that teenagers are responding to Young Adult fiction enthusiastically because these books are very…
Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D.
Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships…
Holge-Hazelton, B.; Blake-Gumbs, L.; Miedema, B.; Rijswijk, E. van
PURPOSE: Internationally, family physicians (FP) are not routinely involved in young adult cancer (YAC) care. In this short report, we would like to make a compelling argument for primary care involvement. METHODS: Comparative descriptions and literature review. RESULTS: Cancer among YAs is rare and
Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata
Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical…
Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva
This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…
Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl
Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…
Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ
Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with
Li, Qing; Pustaka, Arkhadi
Background: Cyberbullying is connected with online gaming in complex ways. Although cyberbullying can occur while people play games, it is also the case that gaming may have the potential to address cyberbullying and bullying problems. Purpose: This study examines young adults' beliefs and experiences related to cyberbullying and gaming. Sample:…
Smith, Pamela A.
Purpose: To examine resource allocation and sentence processing, this study examined the effects of auditory distraction on grammaticality judgment (GJ) of sentences varied by semantics (reversibility) and short-term memory requirements. Method: Experiment 1: Typical young adult females (N = 60) completed a whole-sentence GJ task in distraction…
Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia
In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.
Keys, Wendy; Marshall, Elizabeth; Pini, Barbara
This paper examines representations of rural lesbian lives in three young adult novels. The novels analysed are "Beauty of the broken" by Tawni Waters (2014), Julie Anne Peters (2005) "Pretend you love me", and "Forgive me if you've heard this one before" by Karelia Stetz-Waters (2014). The first of the novels by…
Murphy, Patricia Ann
Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…
Background: Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the self‑evaluated dental appearance satisfaction ...
Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor
Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…
Objectives: To determine occupational therapy needs of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy living in an urban setting, to identify participation levels in activities of daily living and social activities, to identify factors influencing participation and to determine the contribution of occupational therapy in participating ...
8 out of the 27 patients died giving a percentage mortality of 29.6% and 7 patients were discharged against medical advice. Conclusion: Heamorrhagic stroke was slightly more frequent than ischaemic CVD. Systemic hypertension was also found to be prevalent among these young Nigerian adults with stroke. However ...
Manning, Wendy; Giordano, Peggy; Longmore, Monica
Casual sex is often associated with the young adult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the young adult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006–2007 and included young adults (ages 18–24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that young adults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants with-out a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners. PMID:23297151
Hypercholesterolaemia in children and young adults – current management. ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... All children and adolescents with high-risk lipid disorders such as familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), those with diabetes mellitus or other cardiovascular disease risk factors ...
Prevention of childhood obesity by encouraging physical activities and dietary control would prevent double diabetes. Conclusion: Double diabetes is increasing in children and young adults. A high index of suspicion is required in obese children with diabetes. Keywords: Double diabetes, Emerging problem, Children, ...
Hall, Scott S.
The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…
Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…
Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes ...
Young adult consumers have grown up with computers, with a resultant overspill in new media applications such as the internet, email, blogging, twitter and social networks. In view of this, marketers have to ensure that they understand these consumers' wants and needs and are knowledgeable on how to get their ...
Splete, Howard; Freeman-George, Ann
This article (1) reviews family influences on career development (geographic location, genetic inheritance, family background, socioeconomic status, family composition, parenting style, parental work-related attitudes) and (2) suggests counselor interventions to aid young adults in becoming autonomous in their career development (e.g., review…
Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.
Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…
M. H. Harirchian
Full Text Available Numerous etiologies are responsible for cases of stroke in young adults. This study reviews the causes of two types of stroke (ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults aged 15 to 40years, admitted to our center (a tertiary care center from 1997 to 2002. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of causes of stroke in young adults and compare this with published data in the literature. Using the codes 46.0 to 46.8 of the International Classification of Diseases- 10th Edition (ICD-10, cases were identified from the records of the stroke patients admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital and the data were collected from their files using a comprehensive questionnaire. Forty-two cases of ischemic stroke (62% and 26 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (38% were identified. The leading cause of ischemic stroke was cardioembolism (38.1%, followed by atherosclerosis in 5 cases (11.9%. Among cardiac causes infarction was attributable to consequences of rheumatic heart disease in 8 cases. In 3 cases a cessation or decrease in dose of warfarin was followed directly by an ischemic stroke. The most leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage was hypertension (30.8%. Other causes were anticoagulant therapy, intratumoral hemorrhage, aplastic anemia, leukemia, arteriovenous malformations, and chronic active hepatitis. In conclusion, cardioembolism and hypertension were the most leading causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in young adults admitted in our hospital.
R.H.J.M. Staring (Richard)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Young adults heading for Syria to join the jihad and the safety risks associated with their return are currently a topic of debate in the Netherlands and in many other European countries. Around 120 Dutch citizens have gone abroad to join the jihad and the Dutch
Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess
Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.
Jason Fletcher; David Frisvold
Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research has been targeted to producing evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents the first evidence in the literature on the potential short and intermediate term effects of attending a selective college on health behaviors during and...
Full Text Available Given the importance of maintaining mutuality in interdependent relationships, the goal of the present research was to determine if interpersonal trust serves as a gauge of partners’ commitment within young adults’ close friendships. It was hypothesized that individuals trust their friends to the degree that their friends are committed to their relationship, and that individuals’ perceptions of their friends’ commitment mediates this association. A correlational design was employed and measures were obtained from both members of 60 same-sex friendship dyads. A multilevel modeling approach was used to perform a mediational analysis of model variables; the hypotheses were confirmed. Furthermore, it was revealed that friends demonstrate a moderate degree of mutual commitment in their relationships. Potential avenues for future research regarding the development and consequences of trust in close friendships are discussed.
Sharps, M J
Recent research indicates that some elderly persons experience an age-related visual processing deficit, for which they may attempt to compensate through the use of relational information. This hypothesis was tested, using the category superiority effect as a model system. In studies of young adults, the category superiority effect has been shown to be confined to relatively abstract stimulus materials such as verbal items, and to be absent for more concrete representations such as photographs of actual objects. However, it was predicted that, contrary to the data from young adults, a category superiority effect would be present in elderly adults for both verbal and pictorial stimuli, because elderly people would be expected to use category information to compensate for imageric deficits. This prediction was confirmed, consistent with the hypothesis.
Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae; Cho, Min-Sun; Yoo, Kwon; Chung, Kyu Won
Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. EBV is rather uncommonly confirmed as an etiologic agent of acute hepatitis in adults. Here, we report two cases: the first case with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis and a second case, with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis concomitantly infected with hepatitis A. Both cases involved young adults presenting with fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytosis confirmed by serologic tests, liver biopsy and electron microscopic study.
Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
MacDonald-Jankowski, D S; Li, T T
The first and second molars on the panoramic radiographs of 196 consecutive 15-19-year-old Chinese adults (male:female ratio; 46:54) were assessed in order to establish the prevalence of taurodontism, which is considered to be a marker of underlying genetic disease. The criteria of Shifman and Chanannel (Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1978; 6: 200-3) were employed and the measurements made digitally. Taurodontism was present in 46.4% of patients in this series with a greater prevalence in females (56% compared to 36% in males, P taurodontism is not sufficiently sensitive to be a marker of genetic disease in Chinese.
Berg, M.P. van den; Huizink, A.C; Baal, G.C.M. van; Tieman, W; Ende, J. van der; Verhulst, F.C
... study of intercountry adopted young adults. Young Adult Self-Report ratings were obtained from 1475 adoptees aged 22 - 32 years and Young Adult Behavior Checklist ratings from 1115 adoptive parents...
van den Berg, M. P; Huizink, A. C; van Baal, G. C. M; Tieman, W; van der Ende, J; Verhulst, F. C
... study of intercountry adopted young adults. Young Adult Self-Report ratings were obtained from 1475 adoptees aged 22 - 32 years and Young Adult Behavior Checklist ratings from 1115 adoptive parents...
Christine H.K. Ou, RN, BN, MSN
Conclusion: Chinese young adults share similar issues with other young adults in relation to not having a primary care provider and accessing preventive care but their health beliefs and practices make their needs for care unique from other young adults.
Berg, M.P. van den; Huizink, A.C; Baal, G.C.M. van; Tieman, W; Ende, J. van der; Verhulst, F.C
...-up study of intercountry adopted young adults. Young Adult Self-Report ratings were obtained from 1475 adoptees aged 22 - 32 years and Young Adult Behavior Checklist ratings from 1115 adoptive parents...
van den Berg, M. P; Huizink, A. C; van Baal, G. C. M; Tieman, W; van der Ende, J; Verhulst, F. C
...-up study of intercountry adopted young adults. Young Adult Self-Report ratings were obtained from 1475 adoptees aged 22 - 32 years and Young Adult Behavior Checklist ratings from 1115 adoptive parents...
Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.
Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…
Full Text Available Bochdalek hernias (BHs arise due to congenital diaphragmatic defect and can result in gross displacement of abdominal tissues into the thorax. Although they are uncommon in occurrence, they usually present as serious respiratory distress in infants. In the adult population, they are asymptomatic and only detected incidentally. In this report, we present the case of a 26-year-old male who acutely presented with severe epigastric pain radiating to the back and deranged vital signs as a result of incorrect previous diagnoses. A large left diaphragmatic hernia containing his pancreatic tail, spleen, stomach and other intra-abdominal organs was confirmed by CT scan, together occupying a third of the hemithorax. Although not common, diagnostics of BHs should be considered in patients presenting with acute abdomen. A plain chest X-ray displaying diminished left diaphragmatic outline or signs of mediastinal shift should raise suspicion. Previous normal chest X-ray can be deceptive and does not rule out a diaphragmatic hernia. Herein, we also review the literature for previously reported acute presentation of 11 similar cases in adults and highlight the value of including BH as one of the differential diagnoses.
Nicholson, Ryan; Graves, Chad; Ellery, Michael; Afifi, Tracie O.
Disordered gambling in young adults is hypothesized as being related to mistaken gambling-related cognitions. Few studies have examined the temporal order of this relationship using longitudinal data. The purpose of this study is to understand the directionality of the relationship between gambling cognitions and gambling severity in a longitudinal sample of young adults. Young adults (N?=?578), initially aged 18?21?years, completed the Manitoba Longitudinal Survey of Young Adults at two time...
van der Graaf, Winette T A; Orbach, Daniel; Judson, Ian R; Ferrari, Andrea
Survival outcomes for adolescent and young adult patients with soft tissue sarcomas lag behind those of children diagnosed with histologically similar tumours. To help understand these differences in outcomes, we discuss the following issues with regard to the management of these patients with soft tissue sarcomas: delays in diagnosis, trial availability and participation, aspects of the organisation of care (with an emphasis on age-specific needs), national centralisation of sarcoma care, international consortia, and factors related to tumour biology. Improved understanding of the causes of the survival gap between adolescents and young adults with sarcomas will help drive new initiatives to improve final health outcomes in these populations. In this Review, we specifically focus on embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and adult soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in adolescents and young adults, and discuss the age-specific needs of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
von Essen, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Fredrika
The overall aim of this study is to specifically investigate how young adults make use of emotional-relational food memories related to "significant others" during childhood when trying to build resilience and solve developmental tasks in this period of life. A theoretical sample of three semi-structured interviews drawn from a larger sample of 30 interviews with young adults in Sweden formed the basis for analysis, guided by the steps of a phenomenologically oriented critical narrative analysis. The results illustrate three different overall directions in how the relationship to food can evolve throughout life among young adults: a relationship dominated by 1) positive emotional food memories associated with the use of food as a secure base and 2) negative emotional food memories associated with either a) being emotionally preoccupied with food or b) dismissing food. The results suggest that internalised memories related to food associated with positive emotions can be used to build resilience, by helping young people to adapt and better manage developmental stress. Internalised food memories related to negative emotions can cause vulnerability, but also become the object of a person's reconstruction. The implications and potential risks of using food practice for developing resilience and a healthy lifestyle are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Interim final rule with... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult... age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TRICARE Young ] Adult program is a premium-based program...
Sep 3, 2013 ... Abstract. Background: The world has been experiencing an increase of stroke among young adults. Occurrence of stroke in young adults dramatically affects the quality of life of the individuals. Objectives: To investigate the quality of life amongst young adults who experienced a stroke living in Kenya.
The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…
Menard, Lauren A.
Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…
Drill, Rebecca L.
Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…
Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Aims This study examined whether parental drinking motives are associated with young adults' drinking motives, and their association with young adults' drinking behaviors. Methods: The sample consisted of 290 18-year-old and 289 20-year-old drinking young adults and their parents. Results: For the
The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important ...
Kohavi, D; Dikapua, L; Rosenfeld, P; Tarazi, E
Various statistics have shown that avulsion (total displacement of tooth out of its socket) following traumatic injuries is relatively infrequent, ranging from 0.5 to 16% of traumatic injuries in the permanent dentition. The maxillary central incisors are the most frequently avulsed teeth. Avulsion of teeth occurs most often in children from 7 to 9 years of age, when the permanent incisors are erupting. Most frequently, avulsion involves a single tooth; but multiple avulsion are occasionally encountered. Fractures of the alveolar socket wall are often associate with avulsion. After the tooth is lost, an almost certain sequelae is the rapid resorption of alveolar bone. In many cases, only a very thin crestal bony lamella remains after healing of the alveolus, with clinically obvious horizontal and vertical depressions. In a young patient missing an anterior tooth, the operator may find implant insertion, in the proper anatomical position, difficult or impossible, because of inadequate bone volume. This situation aggravates with time because of continuous resorption and relative growth of the adjacent alveolar bone around the teeth. New and predictable bone augmentation techniques allow compensation for bone reduction while waiting for completion of growth. In cases of localized ridge augmentation, the amount of initial bone volume and its shape dictate whether implant insertion and bone augmentation will be performed simultaneously. The indications for this approach are: sufficient bone volume to achieve initial implant stability and a predictably high success rate for the augmentation. When bone volume and shape do not allow for initial stability, there is indication for a staged approach, in which the bone is initially augmented, the results are evaluated and the implant is then inserted. The first stage, the bone regeneration phase, may last between 8-10 months. The second, the implant integration period, may take an additional 6-8 months. The effect of growth on
perkembangan dan usia kronologis pemustaka. Kata Kunci: fiksi remaja terjemahan, pengembangan koleksi fiksi, perkembangan remaja, Pitimoss Fun Library Abstract. Library has to provide fiction as one of its collection. There are two kind of fictions; national fiction and translated fiction. Its selection is not only based on amusement function, but also its role to help readers developing themselves. This research aims to describe the roles of translated young adult fiction in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Those aspects are cognitive, social, and affective. Theoritically, this research gives advantages for library and information science, especially for developing selection theory and bibliotheraphy. Practically, the advantages those are given by this research are tended to caretakers of Pitimoss Fun Library and other researchers. This reasearch is done by using qualitative approach.Meanwhile, descriptive method is chosen with case study interpretative as its model. The answers of research questions are based on explanation of six informants and key informant. Six informants are chosen by purposive sampling technique. Meanwhile, key informant is a bibliotheraphist. Observation, interview, document study, and online searching are techniques those are used for collecting data. Research data are analyzed by narrative analysis technique. The result shows the two-way relation between translated young adult fiction and developmental achievement. Translated young adult fictions those are provided by Pitimoss Library have roles in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Even so, developmental achievement also determines the effectiveness of translated fiction roles for young adults. It also helps them to react to controversial issues. The roles of translated young adult fiction can be maximized if Pitimoss Fun Library doing some efforts, such us involving developmental needs as one of selection criteria, also giving guidance and books
Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla
To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions.
Maseli, Anna; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Schoen, Tobias; Fischer, Andreas; Jung, Manuel; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David
The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between healthy lifestyle metrics and blood pressure variability (BPV) in young and healthy adults. A population-based sample of 1,999 individuals aged 25-41 years was investigated. A lifestyle-score from 0 (most unhealthy) to 7 (most healthy) was calculated by giving one point for each of the following components: never smoking cigarettes, adhering to a healthy diet, performing moderate or intense physical activity, having a body mass index healthy adults, adopting a healthy lifestyle was associated with a lower BPV. These associations were independent of mean BP levels.
Tønnesen, Rune; Hovind, Peter Hambak; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn
these variables and vitamin D status in a sample of untreated young adults. METHODS: A total of 738 young adults were enrolled in a (June cross-sectional study 2012 to May 2014) and were recruited from educational institutions in the Copenhagen area. For multivariate logistic regression subjects was categorized...... based on 25[OH]D in serum into; vitamin D sufficiency (S-25[OH]D > 50 nmol/L), vitamin D insufficiency (25 nmol/L ≤ S-25[OH]D ≤ 50 nmol/L), vitamin D deficiency (S-25[OH]D education was obtained by self-reported questionnaires. RESULTS: 700 subjects...... with a valid measurement of S-25[OH]D and a completed questionnaire was analysed. 238 had vitamin D insufficiency, 135 had vitamin D deficiency of which 13 had severe vitamin D deficiency (S-25[OH]D obese...
Prigerson, H G; Slimack, M J
Gender differences were examined in risk factors for suicidality among young adult friends of suicide victims. Data were derived from a follow-up community survey of 76 members of the social network of 23 consecutive adolescent suicide victims 6 years after the friend's death. The Beck-Kovacs Scale for Suicidal Ideation was the outcome measure. Multiple regression analyses revealed aggression to have the only significant effect on suicidality among men, whereas depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had significant independent effects on suicidality among women. Results suggest that young adult men who are aggressive and female subjects with elevated symptoms of depression and/or posttraumatic stress disorder may be at increased risk of suicidality.
Full Text Available As the number of global internet users increases, companies’ online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. It aims to understand the patterns of behavior of these users. The findings of this study provide some understanding to the marketers. Of consequence, such understanding would help them to select where and what to do with their advertisements when they are targeting the young adult internet users in Indonesia.
Kelly E. Courtney
Full Text Available Young adult (N = 96 university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours, low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces in under two hours, and high-binge drinkers (≥ 10 drinks/ounces in under two hours, who had been drinking alcohol at their respective levels for an average of 3 years. The non- and low-binge drinkers exhibited less spectral power than the high-binge drinkers in the delta (0–4 Hz and fast-beta (20–35 Hz bands. Binge drinking appears to be associated with a specific pattern of brain electrical activity in young adults that may reflect the future development of alcoholism.
Thomas, Christopher R; Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J
Life experience shapes personality and chronic trauma in childhood has been associated with risk for development of subsequent personality disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and character of personality disorders and traits in young adult survivors of severe pediatric burn injury. METHOD.: SCID-II and 16PF were completed by 98 young adult survivors of pediatric burn trauma. 48 (49%) met criteria for one or more personality disorders. The most frequent personality disorders were Paranoid (19.4%), Passive Aggressive (18.4%), Antisocial (17.3%), Depressive (11.2%), and Borderline (9.2%). Diagnosis with a personality disorder was associated with comorbid Axis I diagnoses and strongly correlated with personality traits as measured by the 16PF. Pediatric burn trauma is similar to other chronic traumas of childhood in significant correlation with subsequent personality disorder.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the meaning in young adults' lives according to gender, perceived socio economic status, perceived parental attitudes, association or separation of parents and birth order variables. In the light of scientific data, making way for individuals who search for meaning in life or who are not satisfied with the one he / she found is the secondary purpose of this study. The sample group of this research consists of randomly chosen 465 students (215 f...
Chaloupka, Frank J; Henry Wechsler
The effects of cigarette prices and tobacco control policies (including restrictions on smoking in public places and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths) on cigarette smoking among youths and young adults are estimated using data from a nationally representative survey of students in U.S. colleges and universities. Smoking participation rates, the quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers, and level of smoking equations are estimated using appropriate econometric methods. ...
Jukka Törrönen; Antti Maunu
In the article we examine the management of social emotions and friendship bonds by analysing the young adults´ pub and drinking diaries. We assume that emotions that are embodied in the management of friendship ties can be reduced to the emotions of pride and shame. According to Scheff, as primary social emotions, they are present in all communication and action. They express for the participants of interaction the actual "temperature" of social relations. Pride refers to a strong and safe i...
Nurul Retno Nurwulan; Bernard C. Jiang; Hardianto Iridiastadi
Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed th...
... H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Start of Search Controls ... citation PDF Version (515 KB) Barbara Bloom, M.P.A. and Robin A. Cohen, Ph.D. Key findings Data from the National Health Interview Survey: 2008–2009 More than one-half of Hispanic young adults aged 20–29 years were uninsured in ...
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.
Full Text Available Objective: Recurrence of urolithiasis is frequent. There are no reliable markers able to indicate recurrent stone former patients. Fetuin-A inhibits hydroxyapatite crystals formation and expansion. This study aims at evaluating whether serum fetuin-A may predict recurrent urolithiasis in young adults. Materials and methods: This is a multicentre study. Young adults patients with recurrent urolithiasis attending 3 urology clinics were enrolled from July 2011 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were: age 18-40 years, presence of more than one kidney stone. Exclusion criteria were: diabetes mellitus, metabolic disorders, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, infection diseases. Controls were participants without history of urolithiasis and currently undetected stones. Routine biochemistry, serum concentration of oxalate, fetuin-A, and parathyroid hormone (PTH were assessed; 24/h urinary excretion of creatinine, uric acid, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, glucose, oxalate, amylase, and protein was measured. Kidney ultrasonography and plain X-ray examination was performed. Results: The total cohort was represented by 120 young adults participants (90 patients, and 30 controls. Clinical characteristics were not different between patients and controls. No significant differences were found in serum concentrations as well as in 24/h urinary excretion of recorded variables. No significant difference was found in serum concentration of fetuin-A (median 35.1 ± 18.62 SD Vs 35.12 ± 14.12, μg/ml; p = 0,908. Conclusions: The data of present study do not substantiate the hypothesis that serum fetuin-A may be a reliable predictor of recurrent urolithiasis in young adults.
Cordasco Giancarlo; Pagnoni Mario; Polimeni Antonella; Nucera Riccardo; Saccucci Matteo; Tecco Simona; Festa Felice; Iannetti Giorgio
Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, ...
Carvalho, Polliane M.; Castelo, Paula M.; Carpenter, Guy; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D
This study aimed to investigate masticatory function and taste and their possible relationship with salivary flow in young adults with good oral health. The study also examined whether anthropometric measurements and gender could influence the variables studied. A total of 171 subjects were selected (125 females, 46 males). Masticatory performance was evaluated with the sieve method, and perceived masticatory ability was measured using the visual analogue scale. Taste was evaluated using the ...
Gaultier, C; Mortola, J P
The apnea following lung inflation (Hering-Breuer expiratory promoting reflex) is a vagally mediated reflex which is initiated by the activation of pulmonary stretch receptors (PSR) and terminated by the interaction of several factors, which include adaptation of PSR, chemical stimuli, level of anaesthesia, and body temperature. Since PSR activity is determined by the changes in airway tension, the interpretation of the strength of vagal reflexes on the basis of changes in lung volume rather than transpulmonary pressure can be misleading when the mechanical properties of the respiratory system are not constant. In this study we compared the reflex apnea resulting from lung inflation of young and adult mammals, the respiratory system it can be considered weaker or stronger in the young depending upon the normalizing parameter used. However, when considered on the basis of the relative changes in transpulmonary pressure, which better reflects the activation of PSR, the reflex is weaker in young rats and rabbits than in their adult counterparts an similar in dogs. The analysis of the underlying mechanisms suggests a weaker vagal contribution in the young animal, but a satisfactory conclusion requires a better knowledge of the factors which, in the younger animals, result in the termination of the apnea.
The history and tradition of the ceremonial games of ancient Hawaii are described. A physical education unit was developed for grades 7-12 to preserve this part of Hawaiian culture. The legend of the origin of games and various athletic activities unique to the Hawaiian people are presented. (JN)
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T; McGregor, Karla K; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact.
Stroth, Sanna; Hille, Katrin; Spitzer, Manfred; Reinhardt, Ralf
Exercise seems a simple and widely practised behaviour that activates molecular and cellular signalling cascades involved in various central nervous system processes. Despite impressive results obtained in animal studies, fitness interventions have produced less reliable effects in humans, particularly in young adults. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that an individually adapted exercise training consisting of three running sessions of 30 minutes per week for 6 weeks, has the potential to improve visuospatial and verbal memory, concentration performance, and affect in young and healthy adults. Twenty-eight students participated and underwent a graded fitness test to assess individual fitness. The experimental group took part in an aerobic running programme, whereas the control group were asked not to vary their everyday activities. We found a significant increase in visuospatial memory performance and a significant increase in positive affect on a .05 alpha level of significance. However, we observed no effects of running training on concentration performance and verbal memory. We conclude that physical activity can possibly serve as a means to improve positively valenced aspects of affect and benefit visuospatial but not verbal memory in young adults.
Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV.
Bulled, Nicola L
Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics.
Evans, S E; Radford, M
The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified.
Trevino, K M; Fasciano, K; Block, S; Prigerson, H G
This study examined the relationship between perceived social support, quality of life (QoL), and grief in young adults with advanced cancer. Seventy-one young adults (20-40 years) with advanced cancer were administered measures of social support, QoL, and grief. Regression analyses examined the relationship between social support and QoL and grief. Higher levels of total social support were associated with better psychological and existential QoL and less severe grief. Availability of someone to talk to about problems was also associated with better psychological and existential QoL and less severe grief. Tangible support was associated with better psychological and existential QoL. Availability of someone to engage in activities with was only associated with better existential QoL. These results suggest that enhancing social support may improve psychological well-being in this population. In addition, specific types of social support may be particularly relevant to the psychological well-being of young adults with advanced cancer.
Rush, Amanda; Battisti, Robert; Barton, Belinda; Catchpoole, Daniel
To evaluate young adult cancer survivor opinions on whether their biobanked tissue and associated de-identified clinical data obtained during their childhood should require re-consent at the age of majority, when parental consent was originally provided. Thirty young adults (18-34 years old), who were former pediatric oncology patients of The Children's Hospital at Westmead with stored research biospecimens, were recruited. They completed a semistructured interview, which included questions on biobanking re-consent, awareness of biobanked tissue, satisfaction about banked tissue, and independence within the family. Analyses included descriptive and inferential statistics. Sixty percent of participants thought that permission for biobanking should be sought again at adulthood, and the remaining 40% did not think that re-consent was necessary. Seventy percent of participants were unaware of their previously banked tissue, which was dependent upon age at diagnosis. When asked whether they granted permission for their tissue to remain in the biobank, all participants agreed. Although results on whether young adults prefer to re-consent or not for previously biobanked tissue and corresponding clinical data are equivocal, survivors appear to be highly favorable about ongoing biobanking of their childhood specimens for future unspecified research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nomiya, Rie; Nomiya, Shigenobu; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Morita, Norimasa; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Schachern, Patricia A; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Paparella, Michael M
To disclose the histopathologic findings of the cochlea in young adults with generalized arteriosclerosis. It is well known that arteriosclerosis begins and progresses during childhood. Although the relationship between arteriosclerosis and auditory function in elderly people was examined in many reports, the histopathologic effect of arteriosclerosis on the cochlea in young adults has not been studied. This study involved quantitative analysis, including the number of spiral ganglion cells, the loss of cochlear outer hair cells, and the areas of stria vascularis and spiral ligament. It included 10 temporal bones from 6 subjects with generalized arteriosclerosis and 10 age-matched normal control temporal bones from 7 subjects. The mean number of spiral ganglion cells in the cochlea with generalized arteriosclerosis was significantly lower than that in normal controls in the basal turn. The mean loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea with generalized arteriosclerosis was significantly greater than that of normal controls in the basal and apical turns. The stria vascularis and spiral ligament were severely atrophic, with generalized arteriosclerosis in the basal turn. There was no significant difference in the thickness of the spiral modiolar artery between generalized arteriosclerosis and normal controls. Degeneration of the cochlea, especially in the basal turn, was already apparent in young adults with generalized arteriosclerosis.
Vos, LE; Oren, A; Bots, ML; Gorissen, WHM; Grobbee, DE; Uiterwaal, CSPM
Data of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults (ARYA) study were used to investigate the association between birth size and the absolute risk for coronary heart disease in healthy young adults. The cohort study comprises 750 (46.9% men) subjects born between 1970 and 1973. Birth characteristics
Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L; Berwick, Lexie; Tower, Mary; Kenney, Lisa B
Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) remain at risk for developing treatment-associated health conditions as they age; however, many do not obtain recommended follow-up, putting them at unnecessary risk for morbidity. Educational interventions targeted at providing survivors with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthcare independence might improve adherence and outcomes as they transition care to the adult medical system. To identify informational needs, educational preferences, and support that young adult CCSs perceive as beneficial for transition from pediatric to adult medical care. Sixteen young adult CCSs (ages 22-39 years) who have transitioned to adult care participated in focus groups led by a trained moderator and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged: (1) education preferences-pediatric oncology provider as the primary source of information and guidance, enhanced by other formats, and early and ongoing engagement in education; (2) family role in transition-desire for independence and acknowledgement of need for ongoing parental support; (3) expectations for adult providers, such as close relationships, open communication, and care coordination; and (4) knowledge deficits regarding disease/treatment history, risk for long-term complications, and navigation of the adult medical system. Transition education as described by young adult CCSs should be a developmentally appropriate process beginning in early adolescents, primarily administered by pediatric oncology providers, and delivered in multiple formats. While healthcare independence is a goal for young adult CCSs, all stakeholders must recognize that families and providers continue to have an important role supporting survivors with transition logistics and medical decision-making. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stein-Shvachman, Ifat; Karpas, Dikla Segel; Werner, Perla
Depression is a common disease among young and older adults. Although it can be treated, non-adherence is very common among individuals of different ages. The aim of the present paper is to review and summarize research findings regarding depression among young and older adults, with a special focus on the phenomenon of treatment non-adherence among young and older adults with depression. The first section of the review focuses on describing the characteristics of depression in young and olde...
Felix F. Widjaja
Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults
Full Text Available The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts andthe results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adolescents and young adults(AYA. After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALLin the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority ofpediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies inyoung adults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewedemphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with eventfreesurvival rates of 60-65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that theunfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescentswith ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensivechemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which aremore frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like,deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents havebeen translated to young adults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of thesepatients in recent years.
Dalglish, Sarah L; Melchior, Maria; Younes, Nadia; Surkan, Pamela J
Job insecurity, unemployment, and job strain can predict psychological distress and suicide risk. Young people, who are particularly at risk of suicide, may be especially vulnerable to the deterioration of labor market conditions as a result of the current economic crisis in Europe. We aimed to examine the effects of work and employment characteristics on suicidal ideation in a contemporary sample of young adults. Using data from a sample of French young adults surveyed in 2011 (TEMPO study, N = 1,214, 18-37 years old) and their parents who took part in a longitudinal cohort study, we used multiple logistic regression to examine the relationship between job insecurity, lifetime and recent unemployment and suicidal ideation in the past 12 months. Our analyses were adjusted for factors associated with suicidal risk including age, sex, educational attainment, living with a partner, insufficient social support, alcohol abuse, depression and parental history of depression. Five percent of the sample reported suicidal ideation in the preceding 12 months. Controlling for all covariates, the likelihood of suicidal ideation was associated with job insecurity (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.08-4.63), lifetime unemployment (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17-4.29), and recent unemployment (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.04-4.25). After stratifying by educational attainment, the association between suicidal ideation and job insecurity was particularly notable for participants with low educational attainment (OR 9.28, 95% CI 1.19-72.33). Young adults who have unstable and unfavorable employment characteristics are disproportionately likely to be suicidal, which should be monitored, particularly in times of economic downturn.
Pedersen, Eric R.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Neighbors, Clayton
Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based intervention in this heavy drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine: (1) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (2) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (3) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-same-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans’ own drinking, and (4) whether perceptions about others’ attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association on drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. PMID:26415056
Yorke, Janelle; Parle, Michael; James, Melveta; Gay, Tatiana; Harkess, Michelle; Glanville, Allan
Little is known about adolescents' and young adults' experience with cystic fibrosis while waiting for or after receiving a lung transplant. The psychological and psychosocial factors that may influence these patients' transplant outcomes are yet to be fully explored. To explore the psychosocial impact of the lung transplant journey on adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis. A questionnaire-based pilot study was used to enable descriptive, comparative, and correlational analyses between pretransplant and posttransplant groups. A major lung transplant unit in Australia. Twenty-seven patients (9 before and 18 after transplantation) participated in the study. The mean ages were 18.7 years (SD 4.2) and 22.6 years (SD 3.9) in the pretransplant and posttransplant groups, respectively. In all domains of the Short Form 36 except Mental Health and Social Functioning, the posttransplant group had significantly higher scores (P < .05) compared to the pretransplant group. The Hospital and Anxiety and Depression Scale total Distress score in the posttransplant group was related to the number of rejection episodes (r = 0.47, P = .049) as well as hospital admissions (r = 0.51, P = .012), The number of rejection episodes was significantly related to patients' perceived level of self-efficacy (P = .025), importance to health (P = .001), and ease (P =.10) of monitoring their symptoms. This study provides some insight into the needs of adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis and the differences between those who are awaiting a transplant and those who have received a transplant. Assessing the young person's perceptions in relation to activities such as exercising, monitoring symptoms, and taking medications can give helpful insights into the transition phase, but require further research.
Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton
Social norms-based interventions have shown promise in reducing drinking behavior and the resulting consequences in young adults. Although most research has focused on young civilians (i.e., college students), some studies have investigated social norms-based interventions with active-duty military and veteran samples. Yet, research has not yet determined how to maximize the effectiveness of social norms-based interventions in this heavy-drinking population. As an initial step toward this goal, the current study utilized a community sample of 1,023 young adult veterans to examine (a) whether veteran perceptions of the drinking behavior of their veteran peers differ from their perceptions of civilian drinking behavior, (b) whether perceptions of specific veteran groups differ from the actual drinking behavior of veterans within those groups, (c) what levels of specificity in reference groups (same-gender civilians, same-branch veterans, same-gender veterans, or same-branch-and-gender veterans) are most strongly associated with veterans' own drinking, and (d) whether perceptions about others' attitudes toward drinking also contribute independently of perceived behavioral norms to veteran drinking. Findings indicated that participants perceived that other veterans drank more than civilians and that veteran groups drank more than veterans in the sample actually drank. Veteran-specific perceived behavioral norms were similar in their associations with drinking outcomes, whereas same-gender civilian perceived behavioral norms exhibited little or no associations with drinking. Veteran-specific perceived attitudinal norms exhibited little or no association with drinking behavior after controlling for perceived behavioral norms. These findings can be used to inform the development of social norms interventions for young adult veterans. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Pendergast, Felicity J; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; McNaughton, Sarah A
Meal skipping rates may be highest during young adulthood, a period of transition and development. Although these dietary behaviours may increase future risk of chronic disease, limited research has investigated correlates of meal skipping in young adults. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that investigated correlates of meal skipping behaviours in young adults (aged 18-30 years). EBSCO host, MEDLINE Complete, Global Health, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Informit platforms were searched for eligible articles. Correlates were defined as any factor that was either associated with meal skipping or was self-reported by the participant to have an influence on meal skipping. Randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case-control studies, nested case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal studies were eligible for inclusion. Three-hundred and thirty-one articles were identified, 141 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, resulting in 35 included studies. Multiple methodological and reporting weaknesses were apparent in the reviewed studies with 28 of the 35 studies scoring a negative rating in the risk of bias assessment. Meal skipping (any meal), defined as the skipping of any meal throughout the day, was reported in 12 studies with prevalence ranging between 5 and 83%. The remaining 25 studies identified specific meals and their skipping rates, with breakfast the most frequently skipped meal 14-88% compared to lunch 8-57% and dinner 4-57%. Lack of time was consistently reported as an important correlate of meal skipping, compared with correlates such as cost and weight control, while sex was the most commonly reported associated correlate. Breakfast skipping was more common among men while lunch or dinner skipping being more common among women. This review is the first to examine potential correlates of meal skipping in young adults. Future research would benefit from stronger design and
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a perception that kidney transplant recipients transferred from pediatric centers to adult care have an increased risk of graft loss. It is not clear whether young adults transplanted in adult centers also suffer from high graft loss rates. Methods We examined death censored graft survival in 3 cohorts of young patients transplanted at a single center. Pediatric (PED patients transplanted at the pediatric center were compared to a cohort of young adults (YAD; age 18- Results In a multivariate Cox model for death-censored graft survival, PED survival was statistically similar to the YAD (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44, 1.7, p = 0.66, however the ADL cohort (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25, 0.82, p = 0.009 demonstrated better survival. Admitted non-adherence rates were not different among cohorts. Patients were transferred within a narrow age window (18.6 ± 1.0 age in years but at a wide range of times from the date of transplantation (5.1 ± 3.5 years and with a wide range of graft function (serum creatinine 182 ± 81 μmol/L. Conclusions The perception that pediatric transfers do poorly reflects advanced graft dysfunction in some at the time of transfer. The evidence also suggests that it is not the transfer of care that is the critical issue but rather recipients, somewhere between the ages of 11-14 and 25, are a unique and vulnerable cohort. Effective strategies to improve outcomes across this age group need to be identified and applied consistently.
McVey, Alana J.; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Casnar, Christina L.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth M.; Gordon, Nakia S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan
Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, "PEERS® for Young Adults," shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment…
Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth
This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women.
Capitão, L P; Murphy, S E; Browning, M; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J
Fluoxetine is generally regarded as the first-line pharmacological treatment for young people, as it is believed to show a more favourable benefit:risk ratio than other antidepressants. However, the mechanisms through which fluoxetine influences symptoms in youth have been little investigated. This study examined whether acute administration of fluoxetine in a sample of young healthy adults altered the processing of affective information, including positive, sad and anger cues. A total of 35 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 21 years old were randomized to receive a single 20 mg dose of fluoxetine or placebo. At 6 h after administration, participants completed a facial expression recognition task, an emotion-potentiated startle task, an attentional dot-probe task and the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. Subjective ratings of mood, anxiety and side effects were also taken pre- and post-fluoxetine/placebo administration. Relative to placebo-treated participants, participants receiving fluoxetine were less accurate at identifying anger and sadness and did not show the emotion-potentiated startle effect. There were no overall significant effects of fluoxetine on subjective ratings of mood. Fluoxetine can modulate emotional processing after a single dose in young adults. This pattern of effects suggests a potential cognitive mechanism for the greater benefit:risk ratio of fluoxetine in adolescent patients.
Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Orbach, D.; Judson, I.R.; Ferrari, A.
Survival outcomes for adolescent and young adult patients with soft tissue sarcomas lag behind those of children diagnosed with histologically similar tumours. To help understand these differences in outcomes, we discuss the following issues with regard to the management of these patients with soft
Sharon L. Manne
Full Text Available Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement, lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.
Pedersen, Willy; Kristiansen, Hans W
Is young people's sexuality becoming more fluid and less tied to steady, stable identity patterns? Are we developing into a society where sexual relationships between individuals of the same sex are no longer reserved for the small minority of gay men and lesbian women? Adherents of so-called queer theory have promulgated such views. Using a population-based sample of young adults (aged 19 to 26, N 2753), we investigated homosexual experiences, desire and identity. We found that levels of prevalence of homosexuality were primarily a function of the criteria we used. Using the most restricted ("narrow") definitions, we found that about one percent of both genders reported "exclusive" homosexual interest and identity. Using the most inclusive criteria, we found that one of ten young men and one of four young women reported having some homosexual experience, interest or identity. Still, the most striking finding involved the substantial gender-specific differences: homoerotic activity and interest are far more interwoven with heterosexual activity for women. There are strong indications that homosexuality is a lot more threatening and potentially in conflict with traditional male gender roles than we find to be the case for women. In other words, while there may be signs of more fluid sexual identity categories, this phenomenon primarily applies to women.
Schmitz, Taylor W; Dixon, Matthew L; Anderson, Adam K; De Rosa, Eve
Here we examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether advanced age affects 2 mechanisms of attention that are widely thought to enhance signal processing in the sensory neocortex: gain and tuning. Healthy young and older adults discriminated faces under varying levels of object competition while fMRI was acquired. In young adults, cortical response magnitude to attended faces was maintained despite increasing competition, consistent with gain. Cortical response selectivity, indexed from repetition suppression, also increased only for attended faces despite increasing competition, consistent with tuning. Older adults exhibited intact gain, but altered tuning, with extrastriate cortical tuning determined by object salience rather than attention. Moreover, the magnitude of this susceptibility to stimulus-driven processing was associated with a redistribution of attention-driven competitive processes to the frontal cortices. These data indicate that although both gain and tuning are modulated by increased perceptual competition, they are functionally dissociable in the extrastriate cortices, exhibit differential susceptibility to advanced aging, and spare the frontal cortices a considerable processing burden through early selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daniel J. Kruger
Full Text Available Adults in many species exhibit exchanges in reproductively relevant currencies, where males trade resources for sexual relations with females, and females have sex with males in exchange for provisioning. These exchanges can occur outside of a long-term partnership, which itself could be considered a commitment to the accessibility of reproductive currencies provided by each partner. The current study investigated whether young adults who are not in acute need of resources intentionally attempt reproductive currency exchanges outside of dating relationships or formal committed relationships such as marriage; and whether young adults have awareness of being the target of such attempts made by others. College students (N = 475 completed a brief survey assessing their own attempts to exchange reproductively relevant currencies, as well as others' attempts to make these exchanges with them. Men were more likely to report making attempts to trade investment for sex and women were more likely to report attempted trades of sex for investment. Participants' experiences of exchange attempts initiated by other individuals mirrored these patterns. Men were more likely to report another individual trying to trade sex for their investment, and women were more likely to report another individual trying to trade investment for sex with them. The vast majority of these attempted exchanges took place outside of existing relationships, although a small portion did lead to short or long-term relationships.
McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Lederman, Howard M; Aherrera, Angela D; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A; Crawford, Thomas O; Ryan, Timothy; Wright, Jennifer; Collaco, Joseph M
Pulmonary disease contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in people with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). To determine the association between age and lung function in children and young adults with A-T and to identify factors associated with decreased lung function, pulmonary function tests were performed in 100 consecutive people with A-T. Children and adults ranging from 6 to 29 years of age and with the diagnosis of A-T were recruited, and underwent pulmonary function tests. The mean forced vital capacity % predicted (FVC %) in the population was 56.6 ± 20.0. Males and females between 6 and 10 years of age had similar pulmonary function. Older females were found to have significantly lower FVCs % than both older males (P pulmonary function testing on two or more occasions over an average of 2 years. In children and young adults with A-T, older females and people who required supplemental gamma globulin had significantly lower lung function by cross-sectional analysis. Stable lung function is possible over a 2-year period. Recognition of groups who are at higher risk for lower pulmonary function may help direct care and improve clinical outcomes in people with A-T. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Moschos, M M; Chatziralli, I P; Siasou, G; Papazisis, L
Computer use can cause visual problems. The purpose of our study was to evaluate visual problems due to computer use in young adults. Participants in our study were 87 adults, 48 male and 39 female, mean aged 31.3 years old (SD 7.6). All the participants completed a questionnaire regarding visual problems detected after computer use. The mean daily use of computers was 3.2 hours (SD 2.7). 65.5 % of the participants complained for dry eye, mainly after more than 2.5 hours of computer use. 32 persons (36.8 %) had a foreign body sensation in their eyes, while 15 participants (17.2 %) complained for blurred vision which caused difficulties in driving, after 3.25 hours of continuous computer use. 10.3 % of the participants sought medical advice for their problem. There was a statistically significant correlation between the frequency of visual problems and the duration of computer use (p = 0.021). 79.3 % of the participants use artificial tears during or after long use of computers, so as not to feel any ocular discomfort. The main symptom after computer use in young adults was dry eye. All visual problems associated with the duration of computer use. Artificial tears play an important role in the treatment of ocular discomfort after computer use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Chen, Chin-Mi; Du, Bao-Feng; Ho, Ching-Liang; Ou, Wei-Jen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chen, Wei-Ching
Family resilience helps family members successfully overcome adversity, for example, chronic disease or unpleasant situations. However, few studies have identified correlates of family resilience among adolescents/young adults having a parent with cancer. This longitudinal study explored (1) relationships among family resilience, adolescents' perceived stress, and parent-adolescent/young adult communication; (2) trends in family resilience with data collection time; and (3) differences in parent-adolescent/young adult communication by parent gender (ie, father or mother). Participants were teenagers and young adults (12-25 years) with a parent who had cancer. Data were collected using structured questionnaires at 3 times for 4 to 5 months, with 2 months between each collection. Of 96 adolescent/young adult participants enrolled at T1, only 32 completed all measurements at T3. We found that (1) family resilience was negatively associated with adolescents' perceived stress (B=-0.35) and positively associated with adolescent/young adult communication with both the father (B=0.58) and the mother (B=0.36), (2) the degree of family resilience at T3 was significantly lower than at T1 (B=-4.79), and (3) at all 3 data collection times, the degree of adolescent/young adult communication was higher with mothers than with fathers, whether the mother had cancer or did not have cancer. Family resilience was positively associated with parent-adolescent/young adult communication and negatively related to perceived stress. Family resilience tended to decline with longer parental survival since cancer diagnosis. We suggest nursing interventions to reduce adolescent/young adult stress and develop optimal parent-adolescent/young adult communication to enhance family resilience.
Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine
The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia.
Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and
Full Text Available Pain due to cancer is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by the patients at some or the other time during the course of treatment or disease progression. The multidimensional nature of cancer pain is characterized by various dimensions including physical, social, psychological, and spiritual; which together constitute the term "total pain". Young cancer patients illustrate their unique psychological and developmental needs. This case report highlights the concept of "total cancer pain" in a young adult and demonstrates his distinctive social, spiritual, and psychological sufferings. The report emphasizes that addressing all these concerns is considerably significant in order to provide optimal pain relief to the patient. In the present scenario, it has been done by a skillful multiprofessional team communicating effectively with both the patient and the carer.
Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Williams, Karen; Stratton, Gareth; Atkinson, Greg; Cable, Nigel T
Active video games (exergames) increase energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) compared with sedentary video gaming. The physiological cost and enjoyment of exergaming in adolescents, and young and older adults has not been documented, nor compared with aerobic exercise. This study compared the physiological cost and enjoyment of exergaming on Wii Fit with aerobic exercise in 3 populations. Cardiorespiratory and enjoyment measurements were compared in 14 adolescents, 15 young adults, and 13 older adults during handheld inactive video gaming, Wii Fit activities (yoga, muscle conditioning, balance, aerobics), and brisk treadmill walking and jogging. For all groups EE and heart rate (HR) of Wii Fit activities were greater than handheld gaming (P exercise (P moderate intensity activity in adolescents, young adults, and older adults with respective mean (SD) metabolic equivalents of 3.2 (0.7), 3.6 (0.8), and 3.2 (0.8). HR during Wii aerobics fell below the recommended intensity for maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. Group enjoyment rating was greater for Wii balance and aerobics compared with treadmill walking and jogging (P moderate intensity activity through the modification of typically sedentary leisure behavior.
Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus
Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool'sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven
Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herberman Mash, Holly B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Shear, M. Katherine; Ursano, Robert J.
Young adults experience problematic responses to loss more often than is commonly recognized. Few empirical studies have examined the contribution of intra- and interpersonal characteristics to grief and depression in bereaved young adults. This study investigated the association of dependency and quality of the relationship with the deceased (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief (CG) and depression. Participants were 157 young adults aged 17–29 who experienced loss of a family member or close friend within the past three years (M = 1.74 years). Participants completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief, Beck Depression Inventory, Depth and Conflict subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory, and the Dependency subscale of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Relationships among dependency and interpersonal depth and conflict and CG and depression were examined through analyses of covariance. Sixteen percent of participants met criteria for CG and 34% had mild to severe depression. Dependency and depth were independently related to CG and dependency was related to depression, but the pattern of associations was somewhat different for each outcome. Greater depth was associated with CG, at both high and low levels of dependency. High levels of dependency were related to more depressive symptoms. Interpretation of the findings is limited by the relatively small sample size and cross-sectional design. CG and depression are related but distinct responses to loss. Although dependency is associated with both CG and depression following loss, relationships between the bereaved and deceased that are characterized by high levels of depth are particularly related to the development of CG symptoms. PMID:24921421
Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation
Manlove, Jennifer; Welti, Kate; Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Barry, Megan
Although expanding research has found that relationship characteristics can shape contraceptive use among young adults, limited research has examined how relationship characteristics intersect to form distinct types of relationships and how relationship types are linked to contraceptive use. Data from the 2002-2005 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort were used to examine contraceptive use in 3,485 young adult dating relationships. Latent class analysis was employed to develop a typology of relationships using measures of relationship structure (duration) and quality (intimacy, commitment and conflict). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between relationship type and contraceptive use and method choice at last sex. Four types of relationships were identified, two shorter term and two longer term, differentiated by levels of intimacy, commitment and conflict. Young adults in longer term relationships with greater conflict and lower intimacy and commitment were less likely than those in other long-term relationships to use hormonal and dual methods versus no method (relative risk ratios, 0.6-0.7). Hormonal method use, versus no method use or condom use, was more prevalent in short-term relationships with greater intimacy and commitment and lower conflict than in other short-term relationships (1.7 and 1.9, respectively). Classifying short-term relationships as "casual" or long-term ones as "serious" may ignore heterogeneity within these categories that may have implications for contraceptive use. Future qualitative research could provide a better understanding of relationship types and couples' fertility intentions and access to and use of contraceptives. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Chen, Chih-Kuang; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Ning-Hung; Huang, Li-Ting; Chou, Shih-Wei; Wu, Katie P; Ko, Pei-Chih; Wong, Alice M K; Wu, Chih-Kuan
To investigate the effect of sedative music on the different stages of the sleep cycle in young adults with various sleep latencies by using polysomnography (PSG). Prospective, randomized, controlled, crossover study. Sleep center of a teaching hospital. Young adults with different sleep latencies. Poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score ≥5) were excluded. Each participant stayed one night in the sleep center for adaptation and on each of the following two nights was assigned to (1) music and (2) control (without music) conditions in random order. In the music condition, sedative music composed by certified music therapists was played on a compact disc player for the first hour the participant was in bed. Sleep measures recorded with PSG, including sleep latency and durations of sleep stages. Twenty-four young adults (mean±standard deviation, 24.5±2.6 years) participated. They were classified into the short sleep latency (SL) group if the baseline SL of the adaptation night was shorter than 10 minutes or into the long SL group if the baseline SL was 10 minutes or longer. Sedative music did not alter the SL in either group. Sedative music reduced stage II sleep in both SL groups (main effect of music, p=0.03; interaction effect, p=0.87) but increased the duration of deep sleep (stages III and IV) only in the long SL group (main effect of music, p=0.15; interaction effect, p=0.02). In participants with long SL, sedative music improved the quality of sleep by prolonging the duration of deep sleep. This effect provides an alternative and noninvasive way to improve sleep in selected persons experiencing sleep problems.
Fegran, Liv; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Aagaard, Hanne; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid
The objective of this study was to synthesize qualitative studies of how adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases experience the transition from paediatric to adult hospital care. The review is designed as a qualitative metasynthesis and is following Sandelowski and Barroso's guidelines for synthesizing qualitative research. Literature searches were conducted in the databases PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), ISI Web of Science, and Nordic and German databases covering the period from 1999 to November 2010. In addition, forward citation snowball searching was conducted in the databases Ovid, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Of the 1143 records screened, 18 studies were included. Inclusion criteria were qualitative studies in English, German or Nordic languages on adolescents' and young adults' transition experiences when transferring from paediatric to adult care. There was no age limit, provided the focus was on the actual transfer process and participants had a chronic somatic disease. The studies were appraised as suitable for inclusion using a published appraisal tool. Data were analyzed into metasummaries and a metasynthesis according to established guidelines for synthesis of qualitative research. Four themes illustrating experiences of loss of familiar surroundings and relationships combined with insecurity and a feeling of being unprepared for what was ahead were identified: facing changes in significant relationships, moving from a familiar to an unknown ward culture, being prepared for transfer and achieving responsibility. Young adults' transition experiences seem to be comparable across diagnoses. Feelings of not belonging and of being redundant during the transfer process are striking. Health care professionals' appreciation of young adults' need to be acknowledged and valued as competent collaborators in their own transfer is crucial, and may protect them from
Nurul Retno Nurwulan
Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.
Cuskelly, M; Einam, M; Jobling, A
Thirty-one young adults (17-23 years of age) with Down syndrome participated in two self-imposed delay of gratification trials. Thirty-six and forty-eight percent waited for the experimenter to return (15 minutes) on Trials 1 and 2 respectively, and thirty-six percent waited for the experimenter on both occasions. Expressive language differentiated those who waited from those who did not. A discriminant analysis which included measures of expressive language, temperament characteristics and parental attitudes to childrearing gave very good separation of the two groups. Directions for future researched are discussed.
Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C; Iridiastadi, Hardianto
Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.
Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Blake-Gumbs, Lyla; Miedema, Baujke
PURPOSE: Internationally, family physicians (FP) are not routinely involved in young adult cancer (YAC) care. In this short report, we would like to make a compelling argument for primary care involvement. METHODS: Comparative descriptions and literature review. RESULTS: Cancer among YAs is rare...... issues the YA cancer patient may present with. The role of the FP in follow-up care seems to be very limited. CONCLUSIONS: YACs in the western world seem to have comparable medical and psychosocial problems. However, the nature of health insurance is such that it impacts differently on the care...
Almeida, Ricardo Alvim da Costa Marques de
Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada no ISPA - Instituto Universitário para a obtenção de grau de Mestre na especialidade de Psicologia Clínica This study investigated the perceptions on beliefs, stereotypes, roles, preferences and sexual risk-taking with a focus on gender differences from a sample of 1284 young adults. We assessed these perceptions using a sociodemographic questionnaire, a sexual double standard, gender roles and sexual risk-taking scales. We unexpectedly found women to be...
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke
Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....
Phillips, Abigail Leigh
Cyberbullying is a problem many young adults ages 12 to 18 have experienced on a daily basis. Adult support is critical in both the prevention and intervention of cyberbullying. Although parents, teachers, and school administrators have been highlighted as sources of support for cyberbullied young adults, librarians have not been studied as a…
Aquilino, William S.
Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…
Aquilino, William S.
Explored implications of childhood family disruption for parent-adult child relations in sample of 4,516 young adults. Among young adults raised in single-parent families, relationships with custodial mothers and custodial fathers remained quite positive into early adulthood. Becoming noncustodial parent resulted in severe deterioration of…
... Spotlight December 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services receivedÂ in the past yearÂ among young ...
Conclusions: Incidence of critical CAD in young adults is quite high. Young patients with CAD are mainly males, and SVD is more common. Emphasis should be given on diagnosis and management of risk factors in this vulnerable group.
Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.
While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older
Rupp, Tracy L; Acebo, Christine; Carskadon, Mary A
The study objective was to determine the acute effects of a moderate evening dose of alcohol on salivary melatonin levels in humans with stable prior sleep-wake histories and in a controlled environment. Twenty-nine adults (nine males) ages 21 to 25 (M=22.6, SD=1.2) yrs adhered to a 10-day at-home stabilized sleep schedule followed by three in-lab adaptation, placebo, and alcohol (order counterbalanced) study nights. Alcohol (vodka: 0.54 g/kg for men and 0.49 g/kg for women) or placebo beverage was consumed over 30 min, ending 1 h before stabilized bedtime. At 140 and 190 min after alcohol administration, melatonin level was reduced by 15% and 19%, respectively, in comparison to placebo. The findings indicate that a moderate dose of alcohol in the evening suppressed melatonin in young adults.
Hald, Gert Martin
a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time......The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using...... or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography...
Flynn, Traci; Möller, Claes; Lohmander, Anette; Magnusson, Lennart
Speech recognition in noise is affected when otitis media with effusion (OME) is present in young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate. The objective of this study was to describe the hearing and performance on auditory tasks of young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate as compared to young adults without cleft lip and palate. Twenty-six young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 23 young adults without cleft lip and palate participated in the study. Pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, speech recognition in noise at the word and sentence level, and masking level difference were examined. Results revealed elevated hearing thresholds in the young adults with cleft lip and palate as compared with young adults without cleft lip and palate. No differences concerning speech recognition in noise and binaural processing were observed between the young adults with cleft lip and palate and those without. However, there was poorer speech recognition performance in those adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate and OME on the day of testing as compared with young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate without OME on the day of testing.
Wagner, Janelle L; Wilson, Dulaney A; Kellermann, Tanja; Smith, Gigi; Malek, Angela M; Wannamaker, Braxton; Selassie, Anbesaw W
Neurodevelopmental and behavioral health disorders commonly occur with epilepsy, yet risk for young adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and risk characteristics of neurodevelopmental and behavior health comorbidities among young adults with epilepsy compared with those among young adults with migraine and healthy controls. A case-control study examining hospital admission, outpatient, and emergency department (ED) visits for young adults with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis of epilepsy, migraine, or lower extremity fracture (LEF) was conducted. The association of epilepsy, migraine, or LEF with comorbidities was evaluated with univariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression. From 2000 to 2013, 29,139 young adults ages 19 to 25years were seen in hospitals and EDs for epilepsy (5666), migraine (17,507), or LEF (5966). Young adults with epilepsy had higher proportions of behavioral health comorbidities (51.8%) compared with controls with migraine (37.6%) or LEF (21.6%). In young adults with epilepsy compared with migraine, the increased risk of having any behavioral health comorbidity was 76%, and neurodevelopmental comorbidity was 297%. After adjustment, young adults with epilepsy showed significantly higher odds of each behavioral health comorbidity compared with controls with migraine and LEF. Young adults with epilepsy are particularly susceptible to behavioral health and neurodevelopmental disorders. Results are discussed within the context of transition to adult care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Niland, Patricia; McCreanor, Tim; Antonia C. Lyons; Griffin , Christine
Background: Young adults are highly-active users of social network sites such as Facebook for their everyday friendship socializing. Alcohol companies have strategically used Facebook to embed their alcohol marketing into young adults’ social networking friendship activities, blurring the lines between user and alcohol brand generated content. This study explored mechanisms through which commercial alcohol interests interact with young adults’ online friendship practices and how young adults ...
Eshel, Y; Sharabany, R; Friedman, U
Intimacy in young heterosexual adults was studied as a function of their familial roles. The 168 males and females employed represented four familial role groups: late adolescents, single adults, married people and parents. Participants were administered two forms of an Intimacy Scale (Sharabany, 1994) in which they described their desired and their obtained intimacy with a same-sex and an opposite-sex best friend. Results indicated that (a) intimacy of adults with opposite-sex partner was higher than intimacy with same-sex friend. (b) Although no direct effect of familial role on intimacy was found, the married and parent groups displayed greater intimacy towards their spouses than late adolescents and single adults towards their opposite-sex partners. (c) Women who were late adolescents and women who were married scored significantly higher than men in intimacy. However, single women expressed significantly lower intimacy than single men. (d) Higher intimacy with opposite-sex partner was associated with a concurrent lower same-sex intimacy. (e) Satisfaction with other-sex partner was higher in the married group than in the other groups.
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among teenagers and young adults. The prevalence of asthma among young adults in Sweden is approximately 7- 10%. Despite this, only a limited number of studies have focused on asthma, allergy and allergic inflammation in this age group. The aims of this thesis are to study the consequences of asthma and allergy in teenagers and young adults, incidence and riskfactors for death due to asthma, and deterioration in asthma prior and...
Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M
Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites.
Juho M. Strömmer
Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity (or the mismatch response, MMR, an event-related potential (ERP elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years and elderly (66–95 years adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites. Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The somatosensory MMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions.
Raísa Coutinho Vitcel
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain reference values of chewing time of several food textures in young adults. METHOD: descriptive study with a quantitative approach that was developed in a clinical reference, being the population composed of 40 young adults between 18-30 years of age, of both genres. As exclusion criteria: those with neuromuscular and / or degenerative diseases or consequences thereof, as well as subjects who were making use of any orthodontic / orthopedic resource. We conducted a dental evaluation, followed by a clinical assessment. One at a time, the following foods were offered: French bread, wafer biscuit, roasted cashews, for voluntary chewing. To measure the food chewing time, we used a stopwatch, and this collection procedure was filmed. Data analysis was performed by means of the SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM® program. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between the medians of chewing time of French bread, wafer biscuit and cashew nuts, which were 33.0s (interquartile amplitude 29.0 - 40.0, 10.0s (interquartile amplitude 8.25-12.0 and 18.5s (interquartile amplitude 15.0-23.75, respectively. CONCLUSION: The texture of foods influences the length of mastication. The more rigid is the food, the more cycles and mandibular movements, and therefore the longer the duration of chewing.
Wells, Brooke E; Kelly, Brian C; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Though research indicates a complex link between substance use and sexual risk behavior, there is limited research on the association between sexual risk behavior and prescription drug misuse. In light of alarming increases in prescription drug misuse and the role of demographic characteristics in sexual risk behavior and outcomes, the current study examined demographic differences (gender, sexual identity, age, relationship status, parental class background, and race/ethnicity) in sexual risk behavior, sexual behavior under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behavior under the influence of prescription drugs in a sample of 402 young adults (ages 18 to 29) who misused prescription drugs. Nearly half of the sexually active young adult prescription drug misusers in this sample reported recent sex under the influence of prescription drugs; more than three-quarters reported recent sex without a condom; and more than one-third reported recent sex without a condom after using prescription drugs. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models indicated that White race, younger age, higher parental class, and being a heterosexual man were all associated with sexual risk behavior, sex under the influence of prescription drugs, and sexual risk under the influence of prescription drugs. Findings have implications for the targeting of prevention and intervention efforts.
Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A
To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salonen, Minna K; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G
Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.
López-Martínez, Sara; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Solera-Martinez, Montserrat; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fuentes-Chacón, Rosa M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente
Our objective was to analyze the association between different intensities of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults. Cross-sectional study including 275 university students, 18-30 years old, from Cuenca, Spain. We evaluated (a) physical activity using accelerometry, (b) aerobic capacity (VO2max), and (c) muscle strength, by a muscle strength index calculated as the sum of the standardized z score of handgrip dynamometry/weight and standing broad jump. An MS index was estimated by summing standardized z scores of waist circumference, ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein, mean arterial blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. The mean scores of MS index and HOMAIR were significantly higher and the VO2max significantly lower for individuals who did not perform 20 min or more per week of vigorous physical activity. However, those who performed 250 min/week of moderate physical activity showed no significant differences in either VO2max or the MS index when compared with individuals who did not perform this level of activity. The MS index was lower in those with medium-high levels of aerobic capacity. In addition, individuals with medium-high levels of muscular fitness showed lower waist circumference and a lower MS index. VO2max and muscle strength are negatively associated with metabolic risk. 20-min/week of vigorous physical activity was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in young adults; moderate physical activity did not show association with lower cardiometabolic risk.
Minna K Salonen
Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.
G Ruben H Regterschot
Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.
Cortese, Daniel K; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M
This is the first study describing the tobacco industry's objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999, targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions. Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the "under-the-radar" strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded Websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking.
Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M
We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria Regina Rachmawati
Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.
Maria Regina Rachmawati
Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.
Patil, Sujata M; Shope, Jean Thatcher; Raghunathan, Trivellore E; Bingham, C Raymond
Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them.
Lambert, S B; Morgan, M L; Riddell, M A; Andrews, R M; Kelly, H A; Leydon, J A; Catton, M C; Lynch, P A; Gercovich, D K; Lester, R A; Carnie, J A; Rouch, G J
To describe an outbreak of measles in Victoria. Case series with cases identified through enhanced passive surveillance and outbreak-related active surveillance. State of Victoria, 1999. Number of cases; epidemiological links and patterns of transmission; patient demographic features and vaccination status; complications. 75 cases were identified (74 laboratory-confirmed; and one epidemiologically linked to a laboratory-confirmed case), with onset between 11 February and 2 May 1999. The first case was in a 21-year-old woman who had recently holidayed in Bali and worked at a large cinema complex in Melbourne. Sixteen cases occurred in people who had contact with the index case at the cinema on one evening. The outbreak spread to regional Victoria and South Australia. Median age of patients was 22 years; 64 (85%) were born between 1968 and 1981, with only one patient in the age group targeted by the primary school component of the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign; this child had not been vaccinated. More than a third of patients (28) were hospitalised (total, 97 inpatient days), and five were healthcare workers. This outbreak was caused by international importation of measles virus. It highlights the change in epidemiology of measles in Australia, from a disease of childhood to one predominantly affecting young adults. A strong two-dose childhood vaccination program, vigilant surveillance, and rapid response to outbreaks will continue to be the basis of measles control, but better protection for young adults should be considered.
Carvalho, Polliane M; Castelo, Paula M; Carpenter, Guy H; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D
This study aimed to investigate masticatory function and taste and their possible relationship with salivary flow in young adults with good oral health. The study also examined whether anthropometric measurements and gender could influence the variables studied. A total of 171 subjects were selected (125 females, 46 males). Masticatory performance was evaluated with the sieve method, and perceived masticatory ability was measured using the visual analogue scale. Taste was evaluated using the drop test with four different flavors in three different concentrations, and unstimulated and stimulated saliva flows were measured. The anthropometric variables measured included body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The independent variables studied could not predict masticatory performance. The independent variables, BMI, WC, and gender, predicted 14% of perceived masticatory ability, and BMI predicted 5% of taste. Masticatory performance was not related to salivary flow or anthropometric parameters in young healthy adults. Perceived masticatory ability was related to BMI, WC, and gender, whereas taste was only weakly related to BMI. The flow rate did not exhibit a statistically significant difference between males and females for the anthropometric groups. (J Oral Sci 58, 391-399, 2016).
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E
Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people. Adults aged 18-29 years were recruited from a longitudinal study investigating impulsivity in young people. Exclusion criteria were presence of any axis-I morbidity or cannabis use. Subjects undertook neurocognitive assessment using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Demographic, clinical, and cognitive differences between smokers (N = 37) and nonsmokers (N = 177) were characterized. Groups were well matched in terms of age, education, income, and gender. In comparison to nonsmokers, nicotine users showed significant cognitive impairments on sustained attention (target detection: p= .005), spatial working memory (errors: p= .023, strategy use: p= .004), executive planning (p= .002), and did not appropriately adjust behavior as a function of risk (Gamble task risk adjustment: p= .004). Smokers were intact on general response speeds and response inhibition. These data, using objective translational paradigms, support an association between tobacco smoking and cognitive problems in young people, with implications for such individuals and for society. Future studies should extend these results longitudinally to explore causality, and evaluate effects of nicotinic agents (including anti-smoking medications) on cognition. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.
Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L
Shoplifting is a relatively common behavior in young adults, but the demographic and neuropsychological correlates of shoplifting remain poorly characterized in this context. Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29 years) were recruited from the general community on the basis of having no Axis I disorders, no history of illicit substance use, and no history of conduct disorder or antisocial personality disorder. Participants were grouped according to presence or absence of shoplifting (at least 1 time over the past 12 months). Measures relating to impulsivity along with objective computerized neuropsychological measures were collected. Shoplifters (n = 14) and controls (n = 95) did not differ significantly in terms of salient demographic characteristics. Compared with controls, shoplifters endorsed higher impulsivity on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, gambled significantly more points on the Cambridge Gambling Task, and showed deficits on the hardest level of difficulty on the Spatial Working Memory task. Performance on executive planning, set-shifting, and response inhibition did not differ significantly between shoplifters and controls. This study identified significant cognitive deficits in those with past-year shoplifting behavior even in the absence of Axis I disorders and a history of illicit drugs or alcohol. These preliminary findings inform our understanding of the neurocognitive sequelae of shoplifting and its relationship with other impulse control problems, subclinical and clinical. Future work should use longitudinal designs to examine the temporal relationship between these deficits, shoplifting behavior, other impulsive behavior, and functional impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lowe, C S; Radius, S M
This study investigated young adults' contraceptive behaviors and attitudes through application of a comprehensive, theoretical framework. Specifically, a social-psychological approach to understanding preventive behaviors (e.g., contraceptive practices), was developed, incorporating the Health Belief Model and other factors, which offered a means for evaluating the extent to which contraceptive behaviors were influenced by individual and group characteristics. The study group consisted of 283 unmarried students at several schools who were, on average, 19 years of age. Results suggested that effective contraceptive behavior associated most strongly with respondents' perceiving relatively few barriers to their use of contraception, their maintenance of extensive interpersonal skills, and their regarding peer norms as consistent with effective contraceptive behavior. Findings also underlined a need for continuing education about sexuality and contraception. Dangerous misinformation prevailed regarding respondents' knowledge of areas that include anatomy, physiology, and appropriate use of effective contraceptive methods. Finally, results implied a need to consider broad behavioral, social, and interpersonal issues as they relate to young adults' effective contraceptive behavior. Future studies of contraceptive risk taking are encouraged to examine both individual and social factors affecting sexual and contraceptive practices if unplanned pregnancy is to be minimized, if not eliminated.
Victor Karandashev; Megan Benton; Candace Edwards
This study reconstructed the participants’ retrospective experience of how attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety developed during the course of romantic relationships in young adults. Participants...
Martínez-Pabón, María C; Morales-Uchima, Sandra M; Martínez-Delgado, Cecilia M
Determining the relationship between saliva's physicochemical properties, cariogenic microorganism count, facultative anaerobic and gram-negative bacteria based on caries' experience in young adults...
Gorman, Jessica R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Standridge, Daniel; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Romero, Sally A D; Roberts, Samantha A; Su, H Irene
We compared adoption consideration between female young adult cancer survivors and women of the same age in the general US population, hypothesizing that cancer survivors who desired children would report greater interest in adoption than an age-adjusted general population sample who desired children. After age-standardizing the cancer survivor cohort to match the age distribution of the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth (NSFG), we estimated adoption consideration among women age 18-35 years who wanted a (another) child in the two cohorts overall and within age groups. We assessed characteristics and concerns related to adoption consideration among cancer survivors. Among cancer survivors, 81.6 % (95 % CI 75.7-87.6) reported that they would consider adoption compared to 40.3 % (95 % CI 40.3-40.3) of women in the general population. While over 80 % of the cancer survivor sample reported that they would consider adoption, only 15 % of cancer survivors reported no concerns about adoption. The most common concerns were desire for a biological child (48 %), expense (45 %), adoption agency candidacy (41 %), and needing more information (39 %). We observed a twofold higher interest in adoption when comparing the cancer survivor with the general population, suggesting that adoption is a consideration for many young women who have survived cancer. Adoption is an important family-building option for those who want to have a child but are unable to or choose not to have a biological child. However, young adult survivors may need more support to understand and navigate this process.
Stein, Michael D; Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J
Most young adult women who smoke marijuana also drink alcohol. Marijuana-related problems are associated with marijuana use frequency. We hypothesized that increased alcohol use frequency potentiates the association between frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problem severity. We recruited women aged 18 to 24 who smoked marijuana at least monthly and were not treatment seeking. Marijuana and alcohol use were measured using the timeline follow-back method. Problems associated with marijuana use were assessed using the Marijuana Problems Scale. Participants (n = 332) averaged 20.5 ± 1.8 years of age, were 66.7% non-Hispanic White, and reported using marijuana on 51.5 ± 30.6 and alcohol on 18.9 ± 16.8 of the 90 previous days. Controlling for education, ethnicity, years of marijuana use, and other drug use, frequency of marijuana use (b = .22; p < .01) and frequency of alcohol use (b = 0.13; p < .05) had significant, positive effects on marijuana problem severity. In a separate multivariate model, the linear by linear interaction of marijuana by alcohol use frequency was significant (b = 0.18; p < .01), consistent with the hypothesis. Concurrent alcohol use impacts the experience of negative consequences from marijuana use in a community sample of young women. Discussions of marijuana use in young adults should consider the possible potentiating effects of alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schuster, Randi Melissa; Fontaine, Madeleine; Nip, Emily; Zhang, Haiyue; Hanly, Ailish; Eden Evins, A
Young adults with psychiatric illnesses are more likely to use cannabis and experience problems from use. It is not known whether those with a lifetime psychiatric illness experience a prolonged cannabis withdrawal syndrome with abstinence. Participants were fifty young adults, aged 18-25, recruited from the Boston-area in 2015-2016, who used cannabis at least weekly, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify Axis I psychiatric diagnoses (PD+ vs PD-), and attained cannabis abstinence with a four-week contingency management protocol. Withdrawal symptom severity was assessed at baseline and at four weekly abstinent visits using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale. Cannabis dependence, age of initiation, and rate of abstinence were similar in PD+ and PD- groups. There was a diagnostic group by abstinent week interaction, suggesting a difference in time course for resolution of withdrawal symptoms by group, F(4,46)=3.8, p=0.009, controlling for sex, baseline depressive and anxiety symptoms, and frequency of cannabis use in the prior 90days. In post hoc analyses, there was a difference in time-course of cannabis withdrawal. PD- had significantly reduced withdrawal symptom severity in abstinent week one [t(46)=-2.2, p=0.03], while PD+ did not report improved withdrawal symptoms until the second abstinent week [t(46)=-4.1, p=0.0002]. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms improved over four weeks in young people with and without a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. However, those with a psychiatric illness reported one week delayed improvement in withdrawal symptom severity. Longer duration of cannabis withdrawal may be a risk factor for cannabis dependence and difficulty quitting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Richardson, Devon P; Daly, Corinne; Sutradhar, Rinku; Paszat, Lawrence F; Wilton, Andrew S; Rabeneck, Linda; Baxter, Nancy N
There are limited data on health care use among survivors of young adult cancers. We aimed to describe patterns of hospitalization among a cohort of long-term survivors compared with noncancer controls. Persons diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 44 years with malignancies in Ontario, Canada, from 1992 to 1999, who lived at least 5 years recurrence free, were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry and matched to noncancer controls. Hospitalizations were determined using hospital discharges, and rates were compared between survivors and controls. The absolute excess rate of hospitalizations was determined for each type of malignancy in survivors per 100 person-years of follow-up. The cohort included 20,275 survivors and 101,344 noncancer controls. During the study period, 6,948 (34.3%) survivors were admitted to the hospital and the adjusted relative rate (ARR) of hospitalizations in survivors compared with controls was 1.51 (95% CI, 1.48 to 1.54). The rate of hospitalization was highest for survivors of upper GI, leukemia, and urologic malignancies. The hospitalization rate (per person) for survivors significantly decreased from 0.22 in the first time period examined (5 to 8 years after diagnosis) to 0.15 in the last time period examined (18 to 20 years after diagnosis, P < .0001). However, at all time periods, survivors were more likely to be hospitalized than controls (ARR at 5 to 8 years, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.57 to 1.81]; ARR at 18 to 20 years, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.08 to 1.37]). Survivors of young adult cancers have an increased rate of hospitalization compared with controls. The rate of hospitalization for 20-year survivors did not return to baseline, indicating a substantial and persistent burden of late effects among this generally young population. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Loster, Jolanta E; Osiewicz, Magdalena A; Groch, Magdalena; Ryniewicz, Wojciech; Wieczorek, Aneta
The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the general Polish population has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to determine how frequently Polish young adults demonstrated the signs and symptoms of TMD, and how often they were aware of these. The study involved 260 volunteers of approximately 18 years of age (and with an F:M ratio of 2.8), who had completed the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) questionnaire in its internationally accepted Polish version. The volunteers were students from three randomly selected high schools in Kraków, Poland. Following the clinical examinations, all participants received none or one or more of the RDC/TMD axis I diagnoses on one or both sides: muscle disorders (group I), disk displacements (group II), arthralgia, osteoarthritis, and osteoarthrosis (group III). Classification on RDC/TMD axis II involved pain-related impairment (Graded Chronic Pain Severity, from 0: no TMD pain in the prior 6 months, to IV: high disability-severely limiting), depression, and somatization levels (normal, moderate, severe). On the RDC/TMD axis I, 69 (26.5%) of the participants received one or more of the possible diagnoses. Awareness of TMD was present in 20 (7.7%) people from that group, in the form of self-complaints. The difference between females and males was statistically significant (p = 0.0013). On the RDC/TMD axis II assessment, a diagnosis of pain, depression, or somatization was given in 38 (14.6%) cases from that group. Muscle disorders were most frequently diagnosed in the group of Polish young adults, and the prevalence of the disease did not differ across similar groups of young people. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Roelants, M; Michielsen, D; Van Steirteghem, A; Verheyen, G; Tournaye, H
What is the semen quality of young adult men who were conceived 18-22 years ago by ICSI for male infertility? In this cohort of 54 young adult ICSI men, median sperm concentration, total sperm count and total motile sperm count were significantly lower than in spontaneously conceived peers. The oldest ICSI offspring cohort worldwide has recently reached adulthood. Hence, their reproductive health can now be investigated. Since these children were conceived by ICSI because of severe male-factor infertility, there is reasonable concern that male offspring have inherited the deficient spermatogenesis from their fathers. Previously normal pubertal development and adequate Sertoli and Leydig cell function have been described in pubertal ICSI boys; however, no information on their sperm quality is currently available. This study was conducted at UZ Brussel between March 2013 and April 2016 and is part of a large follow-up project focussing on reproductive and metabolic health of young adults, between 18 and 22 years and conceived after ICSI with ejaculated sperm. Results of both a physical examination and semen analysis were compared between young ICSI men being part of a longitudinally followed cohort and spontaneously conceived controls who were recruited cross-sectionally. Results of a single semen sample in 54 young adult ICSI men and 57 spontaneously conceived men are reported. All young adults were individually assessed, and the results of their physical examination were completed by questionnaires. Data were analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression, adjusted for covariates. In addition, semen parameters of the ICSI fathers dating back from their ICSI treatment application were analysed for correlations. Young ICSI adults had a lower median sperm concentration (17.7 million/ml), lower median total sperm count (31.9 million) and lower median total motile sperm count (12.7 million) in comparison to spontaneously conceived peers (37.0 million/ml; 86
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E
Suicide represents a leading cause of death in young people, yet relatively little is known regarding the neurobiological sequelae of preceding suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Although some studies have reported cognitive deficits associated with suicidality, very few studies have been undertaken in young people, especially from non-clinical contexts. To quantify cognitive deficits associated with suicidality using a representative sample of young people, recruited from the general community using media advertisements. 304 adults (18-29 years) undertook the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI) suicidality module, along with Cambridge Gamble and Stop-Signal tasks. Suicidality was defined as non-zero MINI scores (broad definition) and a past history of suicide attempt(s) (narrow definition). Clinical features and cognitive performance were compared between those with and those without suicidality, using analysis of variance/chi-square; findings were further explored using linear regression. Suicidality was relatively common (broad definition: 14.8%; narrow definition: 5.3%) in young people and was associated with impaired decision-making on the Cambridge Gamble task (p suicidality definition). Linear regression demonstrated that decision-making performance was associated with a significant incremental benefit with respect to predicting suicidality, over and above the utility of demographic and clinical variables considered (p suicidality, and may thereby predispose towards a range of suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Further work is needed to clarify the chain of progression from such thoughts/behaviours, which are relatively common, through to actual suicide, which is not. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for young adults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.…
Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research
Henkel, Ayoe Qvist
The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature.......The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...
Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.
This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low
Sanford, Stacy D; Zhao, Fengmin; Salsman, John M; Chang, Victor T; Wagner, Lynne I; Fisch, Michael J
Cancer incidence has increased among young adults (YAs) and survival rates have not improved compared with other age groups. Patient-reported outcomes may enhance our understanding of this vulnerable population. In a multisite prospective study, patients completed a cancer symptom inventory at the time of enrollment (T1) and 4 weeks to 5 weeks later (T2). YAs (those aged ≤ 39 years) with breast or colorectal cancer were compared with older adults (those aged ≥ 40 years) with breast or colorectal cancer with regard to symptom severity, symptom interference, changes over time, and medical care. Participants included 1544 patients with breast cancer (96 of whom were YAs) and 718 patients with colorectal cancer (37 of whom were YAs). Compared with older adults, YAs with breast cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe drowsiness, hair loss, and symptom interference with relationships at T1. YAs with colorectal cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe pain, fatigue, nausea, distress, drowsiness, shortness of breath, and rash plus interference in general activity, mood, work, relationships, and life enjoyment compared with older adults. Compared with older adults, shortness of breath, appetite, and sore mouth were more likely to improve in YAs with breast cancer; vomiting was less likely to improve in YAs with colorectal cancer. Referrals for supportive care were few, especially among patients with colorectal cancer. YAs with breast cancer were somewhat more likely to be referred to nutrition and psychiatry services than older patients. YAs reported symptom severity, symptom interference, and variations over time that were distinct from older patients. Distinctions were found to differ by diagnostic group. These findings enhance the understanding of symptom burden in YAs and inform the development of targeted interventions and future research. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Schmitz, Rachel M; Tyler, Kimberly A
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and other sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ+) young adults face unique identity-related experiences based on their immersion in distinctive social contexts. The predominant framework of performing separate analyses on samples of LGBTQ+ young people by their primary social status obfuscates more holistic understandings of the role of social context. Using 46 in-depth interviews with LGBTQ+ college students and LGBTQ+ homeless young adults, we ask: How are LGBTQ+ young adults' capacities for "doing" their gender and sexual identities shaped by their distinctive social contexts? In developing their identities, both groups of LGBTQ+ young adults navigated their social environments to seek out resources and support. Most college students described their educational contexts as conducive to helping them develop their identities, or "undo" rigid norms of gender and sexuality. Homeless young adults' social environments, meanwhile, imposed complex barriers to self-expression that reinforced more normative expectations of "doing" gender and sexual identities.
Reiner, Alexander P.; Kahn, Arnold; Eisner, Brian H.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Sadetsky, Natalia; Williams, O. Dale; Polak, Joseph F.; Jacobs, David R.; Stoller, Marshall L.
Purpose Recent reports suggest that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share a number of risk factors. There has been no previous examination of the relationship between kidney stones and subclinical atherosclerotic disease Here we assessed the relationship between nephrolithiasis and carotid wall thickness and carotid stenosis assessed by B-mode ultrasound in the general community using data from The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Methods CARDIA is a U.S. population-based, observational study of 5,115 white and African-American men and women between the ages of 18 and 30 years at recruitment in 1985-1986. Results By the year 20 exam, 200 (3.9%) of CARDIA participants had reported ever having kidney stones. Symptomatic kidney stones were associated with greater carotid wall thickness measured at the year 20 exam, particularly of the internal carotid/bulb region. Using a composite dichotomous endpoint of carotid stenosis and/or upper quartile of internal carotid/bulb wall thickness, the association of kidney stones with carotid atherosclerosis was significant (odds ratio=1.6; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.3; p=0.01) even after adjusting for major atherosclerotic risk factors. Conclusions The association between a history of kidney stones and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in young adults adds further support to the notion that nephrolithiasis and atherosclerosis share common systemic risk factors and/or pathophysiology. PMID:21251678
Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah
The acoustic characteristics of sustained vowel have been widely investigated across various languages and ethnic groups. These acoustic measures, including fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) are not well established for Malaysian Malay young adults. This article studies the acoustic measures of Malaysian Malay adults using acoustical analysis. The study analyzed six sustained Malay vowels of 60 normal native Malaysian Malay adults with a mean of 21.19 years. The F(0) values of Malaysian Malay males and females were reported as 134.85±18.54 and 238.27±24.06Hz, respectively. Malaysian Malay females had significantly higher F(0) than that of males for all the vowels. However, no significant differences were observed between the genders for the perturbation measures in all the vowels, except RAP in /e/. No significant F(0) differences between the vowels were observed. Significant differences between the vowels were reported for all perturbation measures in Malaysian Malay males. As for Malaysian Malay females, significant differences between the vowels were reported for Shim and APQ11. Multiethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) varies between Malaysian Malay and other ethnic groups. However, the perturbation measures cannot be directly compared, where the measures vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.
Gough, Aisling; Linden, Mark A; Spence, Dale; Halliday, Henry L; Patterson, Christopher C; McGarvey, Lorcan
To assess long-term impairments of executive functioning in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Participants were assessed on measures of executive functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and social functioning. Survivors of BPD (n = 63; 34 males; mean age 24.2 years) were compared with groups comprising preterm (without BPD) (executive functioning relating to problem solving (OR: 5.1, CI: 1.4-19.3), awareness of behavior (OR: 12.7, CI: 1.5-106.4) and organization of their environment (OR: 13.0, CI: 1.6-107.1). Birth weight, HRQoL and social functioning were predictive of deficits in executive functioning. This study represents the largest sample of survivors into adulthood of BPD and is the first to show that deficits in executive functioning persist. Children with BPD should be assessed to identify cognitive impairments and allow early intervention aimed at ameliorating their effects. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults born preterm with very-low birth weight, and particularly those who develop BPD, are at increased risk of exhibiting defects in executive functioning. Clinicians and educators should be made aware of the impact that BPD can have on the long-term development of executive functions. Children and young adults identified as having BPD should be periodically monitored to identify the need for possible intervention.
Zeuwts, Linus H R H; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu
Child bicyclists are at greater risk to get involved in a traffic accident. Although hazard perception tests between inexperienced and experienced car drivers revealed significant differences in perceptual-cognitive skills, a similar test for bicyclists is not yet existent. Therefore this study aimed to compare visual search patterns and reaction times of child bicyclists and adult bicyclists utilizing a hazard perception test for cyclists. Seventy-five children and forty-one adults were presented with eleven video clips filmed from the perspective of the bicyclist. The participants were required to press a response button whenever they detected a hazardous situation. Children were found to have significantly delayed reaction times and time until the first fixation on the latent covert hazards compared to adults. The inefficient visual search patterns in children may be attributed to an immature visual system. However, the finding that children fixated later on the hazards and only responded to the covert latent hazards when they became salient indicate difficulties with identifying possible hazards. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that children's situation awareness is dependent upon experience too, and not just maturation. Therefore, implications for training young bicyclists will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Whitham, Siena Elizabeth
Only a handful of studies have looked at the lived experiences of adults with autism (Muller, Schuler, & Yates, 2008). To date, no studies have looked at the romantic experiences of adults with autism. This study describes the relationship experiences of young adults with autism. Seven young adults with autism were interviewed about their romantic experiences. The participants were asked questions about their experiences from whom they dated, to how they met, to how they felt about their rela...
Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E
Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled. Among gamblers, young adults who attended religious services up to three times per month as adolescents are more likely to experience gambling problems than those who never attend. Notably, accounting for a young adult's propensity for risk-taking behavior does not explain the associations between religion and gambling.
Azodo, Cc; Ogbomo, Ac
Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. The aim of the study was to determine the self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. This cross-sectional survey of financial industry prone undergraduates of University of Benin was conducted between July and September, 2010. The self-administered questionnaire which assessed information on demographic characteristics, smoking habit, alcohol use, previous dental visit, dental appearance satisfaction, tooth shape, size, arrangement and strength was the tool of data collection. The data was subjected to descriptive, Chi-square and regression statistics using statistical package for the social sciences version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). (P appearance satisfaction was expressed by 79.4% (317/399) of the participants. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction were skin color (P = 0.03, odds ratio [OR] =2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09-6.09) and perceived tooth strength (P = 0.02, OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 1.40-24.28) among males and alcohol consumption (P = 0.04, OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.95] and perceived size of tooth (P = 0.02, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.15-4.89) among females. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among the participants were ethnicity (P = 0.04, OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), skin color (P = 0.04, OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.93), perceived tooth size (P = 0.03, OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.07-3.09) and strength (P = 0.01, OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.58-7.41). Ethnicity, tooth arrangement, size and strength need to be given detailed consideration in tooth replacement as they emerged as the significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults.
Ishida, Julie H; Auer, Reto; Vittinghoff, Eric; Pletcher, Mark J; Reis, Jared P; Sidney, Stephen; Johansen, Kirsten L; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Peralta, Carmen A; Shlipak, Michael G
Marijuana use has become more widely accepted in the United States and has been legalized in many areas. Although it is biologically plausible that marijuana could affect kidney function, epidemiologic data are lacking. We conducted a cohort study among young adults with preserved eGFR (i.e., eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. At scheduled examinations occurring every 5 years and starting at study year 10 (calendar years, 1995-1996), cystatin C was collected over a 10-year period, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was collected over a 15-year period. We investigated the cross-sectional association between current and cumulative marijuana use (in marijuana-years; one marijuana-year equals 365 days of marijuana use) and eGFR by cystatin C (eGFRcys) at year 10. In longitudinal analyses, we investigated the association between cumulative marijuana use and eGFRcys change and rapid (≥3%/year) eGFRcys decline over two 5-year intervals and prevalent albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g) over a 15-year period. Past or current marijuana use was reported by 83% (3131 of 3765) of the cohort, and the mean eGFRcys was 111 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at year 10. Over the following 10 years, 504 had rapid eGFRcys decline, and over the following 15 years, 426 had prevalent albuminuria. Compared with no use, daily current use and ≥5 marijuana-years of cumulative use were associated with lower eGFRcys at year 10: -4.5% (95% confidence interval, -8.1 to -0.7%; P=0.02) and -3.0% (95% confidence interval, -5.6 to -0.4%; P=0.03), respectively. Marijuana use was not significantly associated with eGFRcys change, rapid eGFRcys decline, or prevalent albuminuria. Although we identified a modest cross-sectional association between higher marijuana exposure and lower eGFRcys among young adults with preserved eGFR, our findings were largely null and did not demonstrate a longitudinal association
Loukas, Kathryn M; Raymond, Laurie; Perron, Amanda R; McHarg, Laura A; LaCroix Doe, Tynisha C
The Social Cognition and Interaction Training-Autism (SCIT-A) is a social cognition curriculum for young adults with autism developed at the University of North Carolina. This study seeks to further the use of SCIT-A as a tool for family centered practice. This study explored the value of a complementary parent/caretaker support group on occupational performance of young adult children participating in the SCIT-A program. An interprofessional SCIT-A program for young adults with high functioning autism (HFA) was examined for its effect on transition. The program included five parents/caregivers and three young adult males with HFA. Final data collection was performed on three parents/caregivers and one young adult with HFA. A mixed methods approach utilized two focus groups for caregivers and young adults. Quantitative results were obtained from the young adult. This paper describes themes among caregivers which included: (1) swapping family stories; (2) experiencing an epiphany; (3) place-making; and (4) transformation. Results for the young adult are also presented. This pilot study suggests a positive impact and possible future trajectories of research and programming of social cognition during transition to adult occupations. The importance of support and participation of caretakers to facilitate transition is elucidated.
Bergman, Yoav S; Bodner, Ehud
Upon encountering older adults, individuals display varying degrees of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. While some display compassion and empathy, others draw away and wish to maintain their distance from them. The current study examined if and how ageist attitudes influence the association between the sight of physical incapacity in older age and compassionate reactions toward them. We predicted that ageist attitudes would interfere with the ability to respond to them with compassion. Young adults (N = 149, ages 19-29) were randomly distributed into two experimental conditions, each viewing a short video portraying different aspects of older adult physicality; one group viewed older adults displaying incapacitated behavior, and the other viewed fit behavior. Participants subsequently filled out scales assessing aging anxieties, and ageist and compassionate attitudes. Ageism was associated with reduced compassion toward the figures. Moreover, viewing incapacitated older adults led to increased concern toward them and perceived efficacy in helping them. However, significant interactions proved that higher scores of ageism in response to the videos led to increased need for distance and reduced efficacy toward incapacitated adults, an effect not observed among subjects with lower ageism scores. Ageism seems to be a factor which disengages individuals from older adults displaying fragility, leading them to disregard social norms which dictate compassion. The results are discussed from the framework of terror management theory, as increased mortality salience and death-related thoughts could have led to the activation of negative attitudes which, in turn, reduce compassion.
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Full Text Available Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
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Full Text Available Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Germline containing young adult....jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Germline containing young adult...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Germline containing young adult...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
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Full Text Available Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
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Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S
Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today's culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.
Full Text Available Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies, editing (cropping and filtering, and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%. The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.
Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S.
Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:28588530
Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.
Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas of secondary school students and young nurses. Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (N = 68), some of whom were immigrants (N = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analyzed using content analysis. According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.
Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E
Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chintan Madhusudan Raval
Full Text Available Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one′s customary place of daily activities, with the inability to recall some or all of one′s past. There is no systematic data existing on it and very few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a case of fugue in a young adult male who travelled 8 times away from his home during last 1 year. He has a loss of memory for episodes with patchy recall of few events. Longest duration of fugue episode was of 1-month. The case describes mode of presentation to hospital and treatment given to restore his identity and reunite him in society and family.
Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D
at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International......BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed......-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up, 10591 survivors (24.5%) were discharged from the hospital with cardiovascular disease, whereas 8124 were expected (RR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI)] = 1.28 to 1.33; P cardiovascular disease per 100000...
Ezhova, Ivanka; Martinez, Nicole; Ciais, Catherine; Fogliarini, Anne; Cherikh, Faredj; Coso, Diane; Peyrade, Frédéric
Announcement of diagnosis is a critical step in establishing a trust-based relationship of quality between patient and physician. Disclosing "bad news" is a difficult and sensitive task which has direct consequences on psychological, emotional and relational levels, as well as on therapeutic management. This is a potentially traumatic experience which requires a long process of integration and psychological adaptation. The hematologist-oncologist occupies a central position: He introduces the framework for a multidisciplinary care, while taking into account the personality and behavior of the teenager or young adult. We propose an analysis of doctor-patient interaction; an overview of psychological issues associate with diagnosis disclosure; suggestions to build and manage communication with patients; and a clarification of the role of the psychologist and of the psychological adjustment at the time of disclosure.
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke
Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s......Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....
McGuire, Katherine; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B
When two or more people witness an event together, the event report from one person can influence others' reports. In the current study we examined the role of age and motivational factors on peer influence regarding event reports in adolescents and young adults. Participants (N=249) watched a short video of a robbery then answered questions with no co-witness information or with information believed to be from a co-witness. Public and private response conditions were included to explore motivations for peer influence. Co-witness information influenced participants' responses, although the effect was equally strong in the private and the public co-witness conditions. Peer influence on event reports was steady across a large age range (11- to 25-year-olds).
Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie
Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.
Gao, Kenneth; Boyd, Chelsie; Wiederhold, Mark D; Wiederhold, Brenda K
Chronic stress in young adults has become a growing problem within recent decades and many are unable to find cost-effective and accessible treatment for psychological stress in their daily lives. We analyze the market of using a mobile application, Positive Technology, as a solution. Eleven participants, aged between 18 and 24, participated in the exercise. Self-reported stress reduction was measured via an online marketing survey, while physiological measurements were monitored via peripheral devices. Secondary goals assessed the app's ease-of-use, accessibility, and cost. Results indicate that participants enjoyed the availability of the mobile solution and found the app to be fun and easy to learn. Stress levels were reduced in 73% of the participants, with higher effects in females and in participants aged 18-24. We conclude that the mobile platform is an effective means of delivering psychological stress reduction, and could provide an accessible, cost-effective solution.
Coelho, C A; Liles, B Z; Duffy, R J
In an effort to provide some expectation regarding the influences of task and rehearsal, the narrative ability of 20 normal young adults was examined under the conditions of story retelling and story generation. Each task was repeated after a 1-week interval in order to investigate a possible practice effect. Sentence production, intersentential cohesion, and story grammar organization were analyzed. Results indicated that the subjects' performance varied as a function of task presentation as well as the measure used to describe narrative production. The only across-trials difference noted was an increase in cohesive adequacy from trial 1 to trial 2 for one of the story generation tasks. It may be concluded that (a) context does influence the manner and competence of narrative presentation, and (b) that rehearsal of a complex narrative improves narrative coherence.
Hinnant, J Benjamin; Forman-Alberti, Alissa B; Aquino, Ana K; Szollos, Sebastian; Degnan, Kathryn A
We investigated the interaction between approach behaviours (measured through performance on a resource-gathering task) and self-reported global life stress to predict substance use. Our hypothesis that high levels of approach behaviour in combination with high life stress would predict elevated substance use was guided by the reinforcement sensitivity theory (Gray & McNaughton, ). Ninety-three young adult students (61 women and 32 men) completed a computerized resource-gathering task and questionnaires assessing global life stress and substance use. Consistent with the hypothesis, approach behaviour was positively related to substance use for individuals with high life stress. The findings suggest that person by environment interactions are useful in understanding substance use and we discuss how approach-motivated individuals may arrive at different substance use outcomes as a function of stressful contexts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vargas, Perla A
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.
Sneha Sameer Ganu
Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.
Kingston, Dawn; Heaman, Maureen; Fell, Deshayne; Chalmers, Beverley
Pregnant adolescents face unique challenges. Understanding the experiences, knowledge, and behaviors of adolescents during the pregnancy and postpartum periods may contribute to improvement of their maternity care. The purpose of this study was to compare the maternity experiences, knowledge, and behaviors of adolescent, young adult, and adult women by using a nationally representative sample. This study used data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (N = 6421). The weighted proportions of each variable were calculated by using survey sample weights. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. Bootstrapping techniques were used to calculate variance estimates for prevalence and 95% confidence intervals. Adolescents and young adults were more likely to experience physical abuse in the previous 2 years, initiate prenatal care late, not take folic acid before or during pregnancy, have poor prenatal health behaviors, have a lower cesarean delivery rate, have lower breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, experience more stressful life events, experience postpartum depression symptoms, and rate their infant's health as suboptimal than adult women. Adolescents were more likely to rate their own health as suboptimal. Adolescents have unique needs during pregnancy and postpartum. Health care professionals should seek to provide care in a manner that acknowledges these needs.
Jolyanne eLe Duc
Full Text Available This study examined whether or not the acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating may be modulated by emotions differentially between young and older adults. Two groups of participants (mean age Young: 24 y.o.; Elderly: 63.6 y.o. were presented with three types of auditory stimuli (Startle alone, High or Low frequency Prepulse while viewing pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant images. Electromyographic activity of the eyeblink response was measured. Results show that older adults displayed diminished eyeblink responses whereas younger adults displayed enhanced eyeblink responses when viewing negative images. Sensorimotor gating also differed between young and older adults, with enhanced sensorimotor gating abilities while viewing positive pictures in older adults and diminished abilities while viewing negative pictures among younger adults. These results argue in favor of a differential emotional influence on the sensorimotor abilities of young and older adults, with a positivity bias among the latter.
Gutierrez-Colina, Ana M; Smith, Aimee W; Mara, Constance A; Modi, Avani C
The objectives of this study were to examine the continuity of adherence barriers across stages of development in pediatric epilepsy and to assess the differential influence of barriers on several important clinical outcomes from early childhood to young adulthood, including adherence, seizures, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A developmentally representative sample of youth 2-25years with epilepsy was obtained by combining data from five different studies. A total of 269 caregivers and 77 adolescents and young adults were included in this investigation. Participants completed measures of adherence barriers and HRQOL. An electronic monitoring system was used to assess adherence to the primary antiepileptic drug over 30days. The prevalence of individual barriers across development and their relative importance as predictors of clinical outcomes were examined. Adherence barriers are characterized by both continuity and discontinuity from early childhood to early adulthood. Barriers such as disliking the taste of medication, parent forgetfulness, and refusal to take medications were significantly more salient during certain developmental periods. No significant differences across age groups were found for other barriers, including difficulty getting to the pharmacy and embarrassment. Certain adherence barriers, such as running out of medications, were more important to particular clinical outcomes despite being low prevalence. Adherence barriers differentially predicted adherence, seizure control, and HRQOL based on developmental stage. Routine assessment of adherence barriers is imperative from toddlerhood to young adulthood given that the prevalence of barriers and their relative influence on important health outcomes vary by developmental stage. Adherence intervention efforts should be targeted, developmentally tailored, and focused on those barriers that are most predictive of poor outcomes for a given developmental period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier
Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Kim, Young-Oh; Lee, Jae-Young; Cho, BeLong; Lim, Chun Soo; Jung, Sung-Eun
Abstract Young adulthood is a critical developmental period for establishing life-long health behaviors. However, too little attention has been paid to young adult health promotion. The purpose of this study was to describe the processes of development and implementation involved in a collaborative university-wide health promotion program and to evaluate the achievements of the program. A 3-day university-wide health promotion program was developed and implemented in the nation's largest public university in South Korea in September 2013. Its objectives were to heighten health awareness, to promote healthy behaviors, especially active lifestyle and healthy diet, and to disseminate health knowledge, skills, and access to health resources among young people. The program comprised 14 health lectures, 12 events, and 25 booths. To monitor and evaluate the program, a cross-sectional postevent survey was conducted. A convenience sample of 625 university members who participated in the program was used. The statistics were analyzed with a general linear model and paired t test. The program evaluation demonstrated that this university-wide program effectively provided opportunities for students to access health information, knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and available health services and resources. Participants positively evaluated most of the processes of the program activities and services. Participants’ overall evaluation score (83% rated “excellent” or “good”) and reparticipation intention (86%) were high. The majority of participants reported increased awareness of health (80%) and the need for a university health promotion program (87%) after the program. Most of the evaluation scores were similarly high for health lectures and booths/events. In conclusion, the university-wide health promotion program was effective in improving university members’ health awareness and providing opportunities for students to access various health information and
Soe, Minn M; Swanson, Mark E; Bolen, Julie C; Thibadeau, Judy K; Johnson, Natalie
AIM Persons with spina bifida who adopt unhealthy lifestyles could be at increased risk of adverse health outcomes because the presence of spina bifida may magnify this risk. We estimated overall and age-specific prevalence of selected health risk behaviors (HRBs) in young people with spina bifida and examined the association between HRBs and depression. METHOD We performed analyses on data obtained from individuals with spina bifida (n=130; mean age 23y SD 4y 5mo; 64 males, 66 females; 64% lumbosacral lesion; 77% with shunt) who participated in a population-based survey conducted by the Arkansas Spinal Cord Commission in 2005. RESULTS Compared with national estimates, young people with spina bifida tend to eat less healthy diets, do less exercise, and engage inmore sedentary activities. Respondents were less likely to use substances (alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs), which peaked among 25 to 31 year olds. About 90% saw a doctor in the previous year. Nearly one half reported mild or major depressive symptoms. In the logistic regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, ethnic group, education, employment, marital status, living arrangement, level of lesion, presence of shunt, mobility, self-rated health and healthcare utilization), major depressive symptoms were associated with current alcohol drinking (adjusted odds ratio: 4.74; 95% CI 1.18–19.04). INTERPRETATION Young adults with spina bifida exhibit unhealthy behaviors that continue into their late 20s. The findings highlight the need to increase awareness of their health risk profiles in the spina bifida community and show opportunities for mental health and health risk screening and counseling by healthcare providers. PMID:22937873
Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance
Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360
Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert
Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sreekumar, A V; Rupesh, P L; Pradeep, Nishna
The aim of this study was to find out the nature of occlusion and tooth contact during various eccentric mandibular movements in young adults with class I occlusion. The sample consisted of 100 young adults with class I occlusion with full complement of teeth. Anterior disclusion in centric occlusion was demonstrated using a shim stock interposed between the upper and lower anteriors. Disclusion of posteriors was ascertained during 1.5 mm straight protusion and in edge-to-edge protrusion, visually as well as using a silk floss method. Posterior disclusion was also verified during lateroprotrusion and crossover. Besides these occlusal wear of teeth also were observed. The results of this study showed that the anterior disclusion is seen only in one-fourth of the subjects compared to almost three-fourth showing posterior disclusion. Mutually protected occlusion was also seen only in one-fourth of the subjects. Canine protective mechanism is seen in a relatively large number of subjects, but it was not overwhelmingly predominant. No correlation could be established between cuspid wear and the type of occlusion. A relatively high percentage of subjects showed wear on posterior teeth when there was no posterior disclusion. From the above study it is seen that posterior disclusion is acknowledged as a common factor except when a bilateral balance is present. Since bilateral balance is harmful, the ideal occlusal relationship in eccentric movements is in favor of posterior disclusion. Posterior disclusion is easily obtainable when restorations are planned. From the findings and results it has been possible to make some contributions on the nature of tooth contacts and disclusion during various eccentric movements and compare it with the requirements of ideal occlusion.
Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J; Martin, Aaron M; Bull, Sheana S
Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eric R Pedersen
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook's wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment.
Pedersen, Eric R; Naranjo, Diana; Marshall, Grant N
The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook's wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment.
Pedersen, Eric R.; Naranjo, Diana; Marshall, Grant N.
The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook’s wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment. PMID:28249027
Lalithambigai, G; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, G; Ramya, Shenoy; Pai, B H Mithun
The tobacco epidemic is a heralding health menace, particularly among college students. Tobacco usage among young can have an especially devastating effect as they can be exposed for longer periods. Data to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in young adults will be a valuable addition to the existing resources. An analytical cross-sectional study was therefore carried out in Mangalore city using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with a representative sample of 720 students aged 18-20 years selected from degree colleges by multi-stage random sampling. Prevalence of 'ever users' and 'current users' of smoking were 20.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The mean age at initiation of cigarette smoking was 16 years and the majority (31 %) smoked in public places. Interestingly, 84% of them knew about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. About one half of smokers had some or most of their friends smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed gender (OR=8.585: CI-3.26-22.5), pocket money (OR=4.165; CI=1.76-9.82) and peer's smoking habit (OR= 5.15; CI-2.21-11.9) have higher odds as correlates of tobacco usage among college students. It is of prime importance to highlight the role of prevention of smoking initiation rather than subsequently trying to stop the habit. Comprehensive interventions embracing family, friends and social milieu are needed to reduce tobacco use among students in India.
Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith
Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.
Wiegerink, D.; Roebroeck, M.; Bender, J.; Stam, H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
Objective of this study is to describe the problems young adults with Cerebral Palsy (CP) experience in the various stages of the sexual response cycle, and the physical and emotional obstacles they experience with sexuality. In this prospective cohort study 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) with
Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.
This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…
Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…
Lupia, Arthur; Philpot, Tasha S.
Many young adults are not politically active. Since 1972, their participation and interest levels have declined not only in absolute terms but also relative to other voting-age groups. This paper examines how the Internet can reverse this trend. It focuses on how leading news and political information Web sites affected young adults during the…
Fekkes, M.; Kamphuis, R.P.; Ottenkamp, J.; Verrips, E.; Vogels, T.; Kamphuis, M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
The present study examined the social impediments experienced by young adults with minor congenital heart disease (CHD) and compared the health status and health-related quality of life of these CHD-patients with a matched group (age, sex) from the general population. Young adults with minor CHD,
Hall, Sarah A.
Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…
Trembath, David; Germano, Carmela; Johanson, Graeme; Dissanayake, Cheryl
Anxiety is known to be common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet little is known about the nature of their experiences or the strategies they use to live and cope with their reported anxiety. In this qualitative study, we began to address this issue through two focus groups involving 11 young adults with ASD, and 10…
Feldman, S. Shirley; Gowen, L. Kris; Fisher, Lawrence
Examined longitudinally the influence of gender and family factors assessed during adolescence on young adult romantic intimacy. Found that men reported more problems of insufficient intimacy than women, regardless of family dynamics. Flexible control, family cohesion, and mothers' marital satisfaction predicted young adults' intimacy. Family…
Examines Web sites on the Internet that were created especially for teenagers by various public libraries. Highlights include young adult areas and services in actual library buildings; a list of outstanding teen Web sites; and a list of factors to consider when creating a young adult Web page. (LRW)
Havalchak, Anne; White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Sepulveda, Martin
This study contributes to the body of research on the educational outcomes of young adults who were formerly placed in foster care. Telephone interviews were conducted with 359 young adults (a 54.6% response rate). Participants must have been served for at least one year by one private foster care agency in one of its twenty-two offices. Results…
Miller, David James
Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) face unique social skills challenges as they transition into independent living environments and seek fulfilling relationships within their communities. Research has focused on social education and interventions for children with autism, while transitioning young adults with ASD have received…
Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.
Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…
Çakar, Firdevs Savi
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…
K. Vanheusden (Kathleen)
textabstractOnly up to one-third of young adults with a mental disorder seek professional help. The reasons for this low help-seeking rate are largely unclear. The first aim of this thesis is to explain why young adults are unlikely to seek professional help when facing mental health problems. The
Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.
This study assessed quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer compared to a group of young adults with no history of cancer. The impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors and self-esteem on survivors' quality of life and worries was studied.
Bal, M.I.; Sattoe, J.N.T.; Schaardenburgh, N.R. van
Background: Finding and maintaining employment is a major challenge for young adults with physical disabilities and their work participation rate is lower than that of healthy peers. This paper is about a program that supports work participation amongst young adults with chronic physical
Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.
Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…
Altena, Astrid M.; Krabbenborg, Manon A M; Boersma, Sandra N.; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D.; van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Wolf, Judith R.L.M.
The development of a strong working alliance between homeless young adults and their social workers is seen as a critical component in the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine the composition of the working alliance between homeless young adults and their social workers, and
Altena, A.M; Krabbenborg, M.A.M.; Boersma, S.N.; Beijersbergen, M.D.; Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.
The development of a strong working alliance between homeless young adults and their social workers is seen as a critical component in the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine the composition of the working alliance between homeless young adults and their social workers, and
Slaman, J.; van den Berg-Emons, R.; Tan, S.S.; Russchen, H.; van Meeteren, J.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Stam, H.; Roebroeck, M.
Objective: To evaluate the cost-utility of a lifestyle intervention among adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Design: Single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting: Six university hospital/clinics in the Netherlands. Participants: Fifty-seven adolescents and young adults with
L.M. Buffart (Laurien); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita); M.S. van Wijlen-Hempel (Marie); H.J. Stam (Henk); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij)
textabstractTo assess components of health-related physical fitness in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele (MMC), and to study relations between aerobic capacity and other health-related physical fitness components. This cross-sectional study included 50 adolescents and young adults
Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Albrecht, Chelesa; Pendleton, Daniel M.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if physical arousal produced by isometric hand-dynamometer contraction performed during word-list learning affects young adults' free recall or recognition memory. Method: Twenty-four young adults (12 female; M[subscript age] = 22 years) were presented with 4 20-item word lists. Moderate arousal…
Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline
Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…
Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana
Identifying English Education courses focused on young adult literature as apposite sites for exploring teacher conceptions of youth and the texts aimed for youths' consumptions, this article addresses the multiple sources of tension--and pedagogical potential--of teaching a young adult literature course centrally framed around controversial…
Houle, Jason N.
In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…
Kelly, Stacy M.; Kapperman, Gaylen
Introduction: Little research has been reported on all aspects of sexuality as it pertains to individuals with visual impairments. This article analyzes data on the sexual experiences of young adults who are visually impaired and young adults without disabilities. Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal…
Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi
This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…
Hultqvist, Sara; Nørup, Iben
protection for young adults who cannot work for health reasons . A strong emphasis on paid work as the main source to social participation has legitimized work-promoting activation that targets socially vulnerable groups such as young adults with comprehensive health problems. In this paper we discuss...
Lisha, Nadra E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Holmes, Louisa M.; Ling, Pamela M.
Social benefits likely play a role in young adult tobacco use. The Social Prioritization Index (SPI) was developed to measure the degree to which young adults place a great importance on their social lives. We examined the usefulness of this measure as a potential predictor of tobacco use controlling for demographics and tobacco-related attitudes.…
van Alebeek, A.; van der Heijden, P.T.; Hessels, C.; Thong, Melissa; van Aken, M.A.G.
One of the most common personality disorders among adolescents and young adults is the Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The objective of current study was to assess three questionnaires that can reliably screen for BPD in adolescents and young adults (N = 53): the McLean Screening Instrument
It is well recognised that management of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) poses difficult challenges for physicians and health care organisations as a whole. In Ireland and in particular the west of Ireland there has been little audit or research on young adults with T1DM and the services available to them.
Describes a young adult summer reading game which is offered in three age-level versions from grades 1 through 12 at Enoch Pratt Free Library (Maryland). Benefits of young adult reading games in public libraries, game rules and sample questions, and the game finale visit to Walters Art Gallery are highlighted. (EJS)
D.J.H.G. Wiegerink (Diana); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J. Bender (Jim); H.J. Stam (Henk); P.T. Cohen-Kettenis (Peggy)
textabstractObjective of this study is to describe the problems young adults with Cerebral Palsy (CP) experience in the various stages of the sexual response cycle, and the physical and emotional obstacles they experience with sexuality. In this prospective cohort study 74 young adults (46 men; 28
Sung, Kyu-Taik; Kim, Bum Jung; Torres-Gil, Fernando
There has been little research on how young people respect, or disrespect, older adults. This study explored the ways in which young adults connote elder respect by utilizing two different forms of data. Based on quantitative data from a survey of 521 college students, a set of 11 behavioral forms of elder respect was obtained. Out of these forms,…
Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van; Dekker, J.
Coping strategies were compared across adolescents and young adults with several chronic digestive disorders and healthy peers, and across age groups. Subsequently, the impact of coping on performance in school and leisure activities was investigated. Participants were adolescents and young adults
Davey, Antoinette; Carter, Mary; Campbell, John L
This literature review focuses on what matters to young adults when they access primary care services in the United Kingdom. Patients' access to and experience of primary care services differs across age groups. Existing research has largely focused on the needs and experiences of children, adolescents, and adults. There is some evidence to suggest the views of young adults (aged 18-25 years) that may differ from the views of other age groups, and research has not previously reported specifically on the views of this group of the population. The literature was reviewed to identify the views and priorities of young UK adults regarding primary healthcare provision, and furthermore, to identify those related topics that would benefit from further research. Relevant academic publications and grey literature published from 2000 onwards was reviewed and synthesised. We identified and reported emerging themes that were of importance to young adults in respect of the UK primary care provision. A total of 19 papers met our inclusion criteria. Young adults access primary care services less frequently than other age groups; this may be because of their experience of primary care throughout childhood and adolescence. Five aspects of primary care provision emerged as being of importance to young adults--the accessibility and availability of services, the confidentiality of health-related information, issues relating to communication with healthcare professionals, continuity of care, and behaviours and attitudes expressed towards young adults by healthcare professionals. There is a lack of focus of current research on the expectations, needs, and primary healthcare experiences of young adults. Young adults may hold views that are distinct from other age groups. Further research is needed to better understand the needs of a young adult population as their needs may impact the future use of services.
Higgins, Jenny A; Wang, Yu
Condoms can help young adults protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. We examined young people's attitudes about whether condoms reduced pleasure and how these attitudes shape condom practices. We used a nationally representative sample of 2328 heterosexually active, unmarried 15- to 24-year-old young adults to document multivariate associations with condom nonuse at the last sexual episode. For both young men and women, pleasure-related attitudes were more strongly associated with lack of condom use than all sociodemographic or sexual history factors. Research and interventions should consistently assess and address young people's attitudes about how condoms affect pleasure.
Hälbig, Thomas D; Creighton, Judy; Assuras, Stephanie; Borod, Joan C; Tse, Winona; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Foldi, Nancy S; Kaufmann, Horacio; Olanow, C Warren; Voustianiouk, Andrei
Whereas aging affects cognitive and psychomotor processes negatively, the impact of aging on emotional processing is less clear. Using an "old-new" binary decision task, we ascertained the modulation of response latencies after presentation of neutral and emotional pictures in "young" (M = 27.1 years) and "young-old" adults with a mean age below 60 (M = 57.7 years). Stimuli varied on valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) and arousal (high and low) dimensions. Young-old adults had significantly longer reaction times. However, young and young-old adults showed the exact same pattern of response time modulation by emotional stimuli: Response latencies were longer for high-arousal than for low-arousal pictures and longer for negative than for positive or neutral stimuli. This result suggests that the specific effects of implicitly processed emotional valence and arousal information on behavioral response time are preserved in young-old adults despite significant age-related psychomotor decline.
Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina
This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the young adults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides young adults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides young adults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for young adults with SLDs.
Rabin, Carolyn; Dunsiger, Shira; Ness, Kirsten K.; Marcus, Bess H.
Purpose: Young adults who have been treated for cancer face several health and psychosocial risks. To minimize these risks, is it imperative that they address any modifiable risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle. Unfortunately, more than half of young adult cancer survivors remain sedentary. To facilitate the adoption of physical activity (PA) in this population—potentially reducing health and psychosocial risks—we developed and pilot tested an internet-based PA intervention for young sur...
Ramirez, Adriana; Ekselius, Lisa; Ramklint, Mia
The aim of this study was to examine differences in childhood, adolescent and adult onset of depression. Young psychiatric outpatients (n = 156) diagnosed with a lifetime depressive episode were divided into three groups according to age of onset of their first depressive episode: childhood (≤12 years, n = 21), adolescent (13-17 years, n = 58) and early adult onset (18-25 years, n = 77). Participants were assessed by diagnostic interviews and by questionnaires measuring previous life events and childhood developmental delays. Clinical characteristics and various risk factors were compared between groups. This clinical sample was dominated by women, with onset of their first depressive episode occurring during adolescence. Childhood onset was related to an increased number of depressive episodes, higher prevalence of personality disorders, more current social problems and more reported development delays during childhood regarding literacy learning, social skills and memory. They also reported more separation anxiety symptoms and neglect during childhood and more experiences of teenage pregnancies and abortions. Childhood onset of depression is associated with more severe symptoms, more psychosocial risk factors and childhood developmental delays. Because all onset groups shared many features, the results are inconclusive if there are distinct subgroups according to age of onset. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Gaffo, Angelo L; Jacobs, David R; Sijtsma, Femke; Lewis, Cora E; Mikuls, Ted R; Saag, Kenneth G
To determine if serum urate concentration is associated with development of hypertension in young adults. Retrospective cohort analysis from 4752 participants with available serum urate and without hypertension at baseline from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study; a mixed race (African-American and White) cohort established in 1985 with 20 years of follow-up data for this analysis. Associations between baseline serum urate concentration and incident hypertension (defined as a blood pressure greater or equal to 140/90 or being on antihypertensive drugs) were investigated in sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable Cox-proportional analyses. Mean age (SD) at baseline was 24.8 (3.6) years for men and 24.9 (3.7) years for women. Compared with the referent category, we found a greater hazard of developing hypertension starting at 345 µmol/l (5.8 mg/dl) of serum urate for men and 214 µmol/l (3.6 mg/dl) for women. There was a 25% increase in the hazard of developing hypertension in men (HR1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36)) per each mg/dl increase in serum urate but no significant increase in women (HR 1.06 (95%CI 0.97 to 1.16)). We found a significant independent association between higher serum urate concentrations and the subsequent hazard of incident hypertension, even at concentrations below the conventional hyperuricaemia threshold of 404 µmol/l (6.8 mg/dl).
Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.
Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989–1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000–2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547
Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W
Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (pnarcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.
Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi
In this study, we elucidated the difference in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitivities between young and adult cats on therapeutic and adverse effects. In the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using flunixin-meglumine, young (12 months old) cats of both sexes were given LPS (0.3 µg/kg, i.v.), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30 min before the LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pre-treatment with flunixin in both adult and young cats. In addition, flunixin showed almost the same antipyretic effects in both young and adult cats. The animals were administered flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days, and sacrificed 24 hr later to examine the gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In adult cats, flunixin caused many severe lesions in the small intestine. In contrast, very few gastrointestinal lesions were produced by flunixin in young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of flunixin, plasma concentrations of flunixin were analysed using a high performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of flunixin between young and adult cats from 0.5 to 4 hr after the injection. These results demonstrated that NSAIDs could be used more safely in young than in adult cats from the points of gastrointestinal adverse effects. Furthermore, this difference in gastrointestinal lesions between adult and young cats was not related with the plasma concentration of flunixin.
Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, W.H.J.
This longitudinal study examined person–environment interplay by testing interaction effects between adolescent personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) and young adult romantic relationship quality on young adult delinquency and anxiety. The study employed six
Toumbourou, John W; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Smith, Rachel; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F
To examine the rates of young adult alcohol and drug use and alcohol problems, adolescent predictors of young adult alcohol problems and correlations with young adult social, work and recreational environments. Adolescents were followed longitudinally into young adulthood. Predictors were measured in grade 9 (average age 15), and environmental correlates and outcomes in young adulthood (average age 21). Students recruited in Victoria, Australia in 2002, were resurveyed in 2010/11. Analytical n=2309, 80% retention. Adolescent self-report predictors included past-month alcohol use. Young adults completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) together with reports of environmental influences. Comparisons to United States national school graduate samples revealed higher rates of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use (other than cannabis) in Victoria. For example, rates of past month use at age 21-22 were: alcohol 69.3% US versus 84.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 81.3-88.6% Victoria; illicit drugs (other than cannabis) 8.8 versus 12.7%, CI 9.7-15.7%. AUDIT alcohol problems (scored 8+) were identified for 41.2%, CI 38.8-43.6% of young adults in Victoria. The likelihood of young adult alcohol problems was higher for frequent adolescent alcohol users and those exposed to environments characterized by high alcohol use and problems in young adulthood. High rates of alcohol problems are evident in more than two in five Australian young adults, and these problems appear to be influenced both by earlier patterns of adolescent alcohol use and by young adult social, work and recreational environments. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
Soanes, Louise; Gibson, Faith
For adolescents and young adults living in high-income countries cancer remains the most common disease-related death. Increasing survival rates and projected longevity are positive outcomes, although long-term consequences of cancer and/or its treatment will likely increase the global burden of cancer. In low and middle-income countries the impact and needs of young adults with cancer are largely unknown and require further attention. However, universal studies have revealed that cancer-related needs for this group are multifactorial, complex and largely unmet. In response to these findings, the body of work on supportive care for young adults with cancer is growing. Yet, there is no published research in the context of the United Kingdom, regarding the role young adults play in managing their supportive cancer care needs. To explore the experience, purpose and meaning of supportive cancer care to young adults recently diagnosed with cancer. Using constructivist grounded theory, data were collected in one to one interviews with eleven young adults (seven women and four men aged 19-24 years) being treated for cancer in two English hospitals. Data were analyzed using open and focused coding, constant comparison, theoretical coding and memoing, and this enabled construction of a subjective theory. Young adults in this study interpreted cancer as an interruption to the events, experiences and tasks forming the biographical work of their adult identity. Data analysis led to the construction of the theory, 'protecting an adult identity: self in relation to a diagnosis of cancer in young adulthood'. This theory arose from three categories: fragility of self, maintaining self in an altered reality and mobilizing external resources. Young adults faced the loss of their early adult identity. Interpreting cancer as a temporary interruption, they sought to re-establish their identity by directly and indirectly managing their supportive care needs. These findings contribute to
Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Almansa, Josue; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bultmann, Ute
Background Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on
Full Text Available In humans and non-human primates (NHP, white matter neurons (WMNs persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR, temporal (TE, and parietal (Par association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30μm thickness, and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of
Lindskoog Pettersson, Anna; Wahlberg Ramsay, Marika; Lundström, Linda; Rosén, Robert; Nilsson, Maria; Unsbo, Peter; Brautaset, Rune
The aim of the present project was to investigate accommodative behavior in young adults and adolescents fitted with an aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens with focus on evaluating whether these lenses can be an alternative treatment for subjects in which a reduced level of blur and thereby accommodation in near vision is aimed at. Twenty normal subjects aged between 21 and 35 years participated in the study. Aberrometry was perfomed using a Zywave™ aberrometer, first on the uncorrected eyes of all subjects, and again while the subjects wore a multifocal contact lens with a +1.00 add. A Shin-Nippon N Vision-K 5001 Autoref-Keratometer was used to measure accommodative response with two different refractive corrections: (1) habitual spectacle correction only, and (2) habitual correction and a aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens. Four hours of adaptation to the lens was allowed. The lag when wearing only the habitual spectacles was compared with the lag while wearing both the habitual spectacles and the aspheric multifocal contact lens. The mean lag of accommodation for the subject group was 0.85 D (±0.57 SD) and 0.75 D (±0.52 SD) without and with the multifocal lens, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no difference in lag (t = 0.8479, p = 0.407) with and without the lens. In conclusion, young normal subjects do not relax accommodation when fitted with aspheric multifocal center distance lenses when the addition is +1.00. It is therefore unlikely that subjects with accommodative ability, in whom the treatment purpose is to reduce blur and thereby accommodation, can be effectively treated with such lenses.
Sliwinski, Samantha K; Gooding, Holly; de Ferranti, Sarah; Mackie, Thomas I; Shah, Supriya; Saunders, Tully; Leslie, Laurel K
Young adults with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are at a critical period for establishing behaviors to promote future cardiovascular health. To examine challenges transitioning to adult care for young adults with FH and parents of FH-affected young adults in the context of 2 developmental tasks, transitioning from childhood to early adulthood and assuming responsibility for self-management of a chronic disorder. Semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 young adults with FH and 12 parents of affected young adults from a pediatric subspecialty preventive cardiology program in a northeastern academic medical center. Analyses were conducted using a modified grounded theory framework. Respondents identified 5 challenges: (1) recognizing oneself as a decision maker, (2) navigating emerging independence, (3) prioritizing treatment for a chronic disorder with limited signs and symptoms, (4) managing social implications of FH, and (5) finding credible resources for guidance. Both young adults and parents proposed similar recommendations for addressing these challenges, including the need for family and peer involvement to establish and maintain diet and exercise routines and to provide medication reminders. Systems-level recommendations included early engagement of adolescents in shared decision-making with health care team; providing credible, educational resources regarding FH; and using blood tests to track treatment efficacy. Young adults with FH transitioning to adult care may benefit from explicit interventions to address challenges to establishing healthy lifestyle behaviors and medication adherence as they move toward being responsible for their medical care. Further research should explore the efficacy of recommended interventions. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Limperg, Perrine F; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A; van Rossum, Marion A J; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A
The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18-30 years. A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch population aged 18-30 years, stratified by age, sex, marital status and education, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA online. Internal consistency of the PedsQL_YA scales was determined with Cronbach's alphas. Norm scores were obtained by calculating the mean PedsQL scale scores by gender, age and health status. Differences in scale scores were analyzed for gender, age and health status (construct validity) using two-sample t-tests and effect sizes were calculated. Construct validity was determined by testing differences in PedsQL scores between healthy young adults and young adults with chronic health conditions. All scales of the PedsQL_YA showed satisfactory to excellent internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas between .77 and .94. Men reported higher scores (indicating better HRQOL) than women on all scales (p adults with chronic health conditions scored lower on all scales (p adults, indicating good construct validity. Effect sizes varied from medium to large. The Dutch version of the PedsQL_YA has adequate psychometric properties. With the availability of reliable norm data, the PedsQL_YA can be used as a tool in the evaluation of health related quality of life in healthy young adults and those with a chronic health condition.
Lee, Ji-Hye; Park, Youn-Kwan; Kim, Joo-Han
Neck pain (NP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder, but little is known about the associated risk factors. We compared anatomic differences in the neck and trunk area of young adult patients with chronic NP and control subjects without NP to identify risk factors and predictors. This is an age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched retrospective case-control study of a consecutive sample. Patients with axial NP for longer than 6 months (23 males and 25 females) and pain-free volunteers (23 males and 25 females) were included. Outcome measures were linear and angular dimensions of the cervicothoracic junction. Midsagittal magnetic resonance imaging scans of the cervicothoracic spine were obtained. Four linear and four angular parameters were identified and measured. These parameters included depth of the T1-manubrium arch (T1AD), depth of the thoracic cage (TXD), tangential height of T1 (T1H1), relative height of T1 (T1H2), T1 slope (T1S), thoracic inlet inclination (TiI), T1-manubrium arch inclination (T1AI), and the angular difference between TiI and T1AI (TiI-T1AI). The measurements were taken by two neurosurgeons. Depth of the T1-manubrium arch and TiI were identified as predictors for NP in the binary logistic regression analysis. Each millimeter increase in T1AD lessened the probability of NP with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.823 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.701-0.966) in females and 0.809 (95% CI, 0.681-0.959) in males. Each degree increase in TiI was associated with the probability of NP with an adjusted OR of 1.247 (95% CI, 1.060-1.466) in males. Measurement of cervicothoracic junctional structures is a reliable and feasible method of estimating potential predictor of chronic NP in young adults. Forward inclination of the thoracic inlet in males and a shallow thoracic cage in females were identified as important predictors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.