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Sample records for hawaii puerto rico

  1. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. 319.73-3 Section 319.73-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route.... These samples must be returned to origin or forwarded to a destination outside Hawaii or Puerto Rico in...

  2. Integrated pest management of coffee berry borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: current status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges...

  3. Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons....

  4. Principal Aquifers of the 48 Conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons....

  5. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii and Puerto Rico: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Aristizábal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1 establish a CBB monitoring program, (2 synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3 conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4 establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5 stump prune by blocks. Progress achieved includes the introduction of the mycoinsecticide Beauveria bassiana to coffee plantations, the coordination of area-wide CBB surveys, the establishment and augmentation of native beetle predators, and an observed reduction of CBB populations and increased coffee quality where IPM programs were established. However, CBB remains a challenge for coffee growers due to regional variability in CBB pressures, high costs, and labor issues, including a lack of training and awareness of CBB management practices among growers.

  6. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 13, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.; Whitehead, R.L.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Olcott, Perry G.

    1997-01-01

    and large-scale agricultural operations are not feasible. The island of Hawaii is the largest island of the State (fig. 33) and has the highest altitude at 13,796 feet. Maui is about 10,000 feet above sea level in its eastern part and about 5,800 feet above sea level in its western part; a broad lowland area separates the two parts. Kahoolawe is the smallest of the eight major islands and is only about 1 ,500 feet above sea level in its eastern, highest part. Lanai is about 3,400 feet above sea level in its highest part, but much of the island is less than 1,000 feet above sea level. Molokai is mountainous in its eastern half, where it rises to about 5,000 feet above sea level, but most of the island is less than 1,000 feet above sea level. Oahu has a mountainous ridge along its eastern side and another mountainous area along the western side, where it rises to about 4,000 feet above sea level; however, most of Oahu is less than 1,000 feet above sea level. Kauai is about 5,200 feet above sea level in its central part, but from the base of the mountains shoreward, large areas of the island are less than 1,000 feet above sea level in the southern, eastern, and northern parts. Niihau is mostly less than 1 ,000 feet above sea level, except for a narrow ridge about 1 ,300 feet above sea level along its northeastern side. The topography of each island has a profound effect on development and climate.Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States (fig. 66) are located about 1, 100 miles east-southeast of Miami, Fla. The islands are part of the Greater Antilles island chain which, along with the Lesser Antilles island chain, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands lie approximately 100 miles south of the Puerto Rico Trench, a depression of the ocean floor that reaches depths of 30,249 feet , the deepest known part of the Atlantic Ocean. The main island of Puerto Rico is a rectangular-shaped island that extends

  7. Puerto Rico, humedales [Puerto Rico, wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. Briane; Hefner, John M.; Dopazo, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    La isla de Puerto Rico, localizada al noreste del Mar Caribe y sus islas principales, Vieques, Culebra e Isla de Mona, poseen humedales en abundancia . El clima subtropical, la lluvia abundante y las complejas formas topográficas y geológicas de estas islas dan origen a los humedales, que varían desde los raros e inusuales bosques cubiertos por nubes en las tierras altas, hasta los extensos manglares, yerbas marinas y arrecifes de coral a lo largo de las costas Norte y Sur. Sin embargo, los humedales en Puerto Rico han disminuido en los últimos siglos como resultado del aumento en el desarrollo agrícola, poblacional y turístico. Algunos tipos de humedales como los bosques de palo de pollo (Pterocarpus officinalis) se han reducido a sólo unos pocos remanentes (figura 1).Biológicamente hablando, los humedales de las islas están entre las áreas más productivas. Los humedales asociados con el bosque pluvial en las tierras altas del interior de Puerto Rico contienen varias plantas raras y especies de animales que no se encuentran en otras partes de la Isla. El agua de escorrentía proveniente de los humedales en las partes altas de la Isla proveen una fuente de agua que utilizan varias ciudades para abasto público. Los humedales costeros como los mangles, los colchones de yerbas marinas y los arrecifes de coral proveen áreas para la reproducción y crianza de varios peces, crustáceos y otras especies en la cadena alimenticia (López y otros, 1988). De esta manera, los humedales costeros contribuyen a la productividad biológica de las aguas llanas del mar alrededor de las islas . Los humedales también estabilizan las costas atrapando y reteniendo sedimentos no consolidados y amortiguan la acción de las olas y de las tormentas que tienen el potencial de causar daños en la zona.El valor de los humedales de Puerto Rico para la vida silvestre está muy bien documentado . Por ejemplo, las salinas de Cabo Rojo, en la costa suroeste, proveen áreas para el

  8. PUERTO RICO AND THE PUERTO RICANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STERNAU, HERBERT

    PUERTO RICO WAS DISCOVERED BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IN 1493. THE PROCESS OF COLONIZATION BEGAN IN 1508, WITH THE ARRIVAL OF PONCE DE LEON AND HIS SPANISH SOLDIERS. PUERTO RICO WAS GOVERNED BY SPAIN FOR ABOUT 400 YEARS, AND THE GREAT MASS OF PEOPLE REMAINED POVERTY-STRICKEN, UNDERNOURISHED, AND ILLITERATE. THE ISLAND WAS CEDED TO THE UNITED STATES…

  9. Columbia University Puerto Rico Study.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lifetime childhood asthma prevalence (LCAP) percentages in Puerto Rico Health Regions (HR) are substantially higher in northeastern vs. southwestern HR. Higher...

  10. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  11. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico may be moved interstate to Atlantic Coast ports north of and including Baltimore, MD, under...

  12. Los insectos de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres; S. Medina Gaud

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a brief summary of the natural history and importance of the insects of Puerto Rico. We briefly discuss the orders of insects present in Puerto Rico and some of their families. Where possible, we have tried to avoid technical terms for better comprehension of a general audience. We present the observations or characteristics of insects that humans admire...

  13. Mangos of Puerto Rico, country contribution: Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Puerto Rico; geographical distribution; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests...

  14. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  16. 2004 USACE Puerto Rico Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This record describes Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data acquired for the island of Puerto Rico. The data were acquired for USACE, St. Louis District by 3001,...

  17. 40 CFR 131.40 - Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico 131.40 Section 131.40... Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.40 Puerto Rico (a) Use designations for marine waters. In addition to the Commonwealth's adopted use designations, the following waterbodies in Puerto Rico...

  18. Cobertura desarrollada de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este mapa representa la cobertura desarrollada en Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Cobertura desarrollada se define aqui como areas urbanas, construidas y sin vegetacion, que resultan de actividad humana. Tipicamente, estas incluyen estructuras construidas, concreto, asfalto, u otra infraestructura. La cobertura desarrollada se creo mediante el analisis de...

  19. The Indians of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Robert; And Others

    Produced for use in a coordinated program of studies for students in the Connecticut Migratory Children's Program and for other students whose native language is Spanish, this book about the Indians of Puerto Rico is intended as supplementary reading material for pre-school through fifth grade. The book, illustrated with black and white drawings,…

  20. Fertility determinants in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C W

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the proximate determinants of fertility in Puerto Rico using data from a 1982 island-wide study. Contraceptive use was found to be the primary direct determinant of fertility in Puerto Rico, both for the total population and for each level of education studied. Female sterilization is the most prevalent method of contraception used in Puerto Rico at each educational level. Marriage is also important in Puerto Rico and is the only proximate determinant that varies across education groups. Late age at first marriage, in addition to high contraceptive use, accounts for the below-replacement fertility of women who have more than a high school education. In contrast, women who have not completed high school tend to marry early and not practice contraception for birth-spacing purposes. This study shows the advantages of analyzing fertility determinants at the population subgroup level (i.e., women of various educational attainment levels) so that the fertility of the total population can be better understood.

  1. Drinking and Driving in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Romano, Eduardo; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-01-09

    Epidemiological information is lacking for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in Puerto Rico. To examine the prevalence and correlates of DUI in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household sample of 1510 individuals, aged 18-64 years in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. The rate of 12 month self-reported DUI was 20% among men and 8% among women (p Puerto Rico was high, but the proportion of people arrested for DUI in a span of 12 months or during their lifetime was low. Stricter enforcement of DUI laws may be necessary to minimize DUI in urban Puerto Rico.

  2. 40 CFR 81.355 - Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico. 81.355 Section 81.355... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.355 Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot...

  3. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  4. Los bosques de Puerto Rico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humfredo Marcano Vega; Thomas J. Brandeis; Jeffery A. Turner; No Other

    2015-01-01

    Este informe presenta los resultados del cuarto inventario forestal de las islas del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. El área de bosque en la isla grande de Puerto Rico se mantuvo constante o aumentó ligeramente del año 2004 al 2009. Este cambio parece indicar que la tasa de incremento de cubierta forestal en la isla grande de Puerto Rico ha disminuido desde que...

  5. Human Rabies - Puerto Rico, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styczynski, Ashley; Tran, Cuc; Dirlikov, Emilio; Zapata, María Ramos; Ryff, Kyle; Petersen, Brett; Sanchez, Anibal Cruz; Mayshack, Marrielle; Martinez, Laura Castro; Condori, Rene; Ellison, James; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Peña, Rafael González; Sanabria, Dario; Velázquez, Julio Cádiz; Thomas, Dana; García, Brenda Rivera

    2017-01-06

    On December 1, 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) was notified by a local hospital of a suspected human rabies case. The previous evening, a Puerto Rican man aged 54 years arrived at the emergency department with fever, difficulty swallowing, hand paresthesia, cough, and chest tightness. The next morning the patient left against medical advice but returned to the emergency department in the afternoon with worsening symptoms. The patient's wife reported that he had been bitten by a mongoose during the first week of October, but had not sought care for the bite. While being transferred to the intensive care unit, the patient went into cardiac arrest and died. On December 3, rabies was confirmed from specimens collected during autopsy. PRDH conducted an initial rapid risk assessment, and five family members were started on rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP).

  6. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Escuela Graduada de Salud Pública, Recinto de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Puerto Rico. Departamento de Salud de Puerto Rico (2002) 11. Appendices...Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Mexico City, September 5 – 9, 2007. • Attended a pre-conference workshop on “Children’s Vulnerability to

  7. The neotectonic setting of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, D.G.; Scanlon, Kathryn M.

    1991-01-01

    The island of Puerto Rico, in the northeast Caribbean, lies within a broad deformation zone between the Caribbean and North American plates. The simplest model for the tectonic setting of Puerto Rico has major strike-slip movement on nearly east-west lines in the vicinity of the Puerto Rico Trench coupled to a small counterclockwise rotation of a Puerto Rico block within the broader plate boundary zone. This simple model is attractive because it predicts the tectonic regime south of Puerto Rico, and provides an explanation for a possible component of extension across the Puerto Rico Trench west of 65.5°W. GLORIA long-range sidescan sonar data and seismic reflection profiles have been used to test this model by mapping the major tectonic features across the plate boundary north and south of Puerto Rico. To the north, the new data help to resolve between conflicting models, of underthrusting or strike-slip motion at the Puerto Rico Trench. No direct evidence of compression is seen, although evidence for normal and strike-slip movement is abundant. This, combined with regional considerations, leads us to conclude that the main east-west-trending part of the Puerto Rico Trench between 65.5°W and 68°W lies within a strike-slip regime, although oblique convergence occurs both to the east and west where the plate boundary trends east-southeast. To the south of Puerto Rico, underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath the island decreases from west to east, and it is ultimately replaced by extension in the Virgin Islands Basin east of 65°W.

  8. 27 CFR 26.126 - Taxpayment in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayment in Puerto Rico..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.126 Taxpayment in Puerto Rico. Liquors upon which all...

  9. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: WETLANDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  10. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  11. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  12. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  13. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: STATIONS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  14. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  15. Estimated Bathymetry of the Puerto Rico shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This classification of estimated depth represents the relative bathymetry of Puerto Rico's shallow waters based on Landsat imagery for NOAA's Coastal Centers for...

  16. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: HABITATS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  17. Puerto Rico Relative Vulnerability to Erosion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical factors, such as the slope of the land, the texture of the soil, and the precipitation regime influence erosion in an area. Parts of Puerto Rico are very...

  18. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor... RICO Classification of Industries § 510.20 Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. (a) The legislative history to... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish...

  19. 78 FR 20887 - Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico On December 7, 2012, the Executive Secretary of the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board docketed an application submitted by the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company, grantee of FTZ 7...

  20. Datos Historicos de Puerto Rico (Historical Facts on Puerto Rico). Preliminary Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A volume of information about Puerto Rican history and culture is designed for use by teachers in the bilingual education program of the Chicago public schools to support cultural awareness among native Spanish-speaking students. Six chapters outline important information concerning: the history of Puerto Rico, some aspects of the life of the…

  1. The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

  2. Changes to Puerto Rico's motorcycle rider law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In 2007 Puerto Rico enacted Law 107, a motorcycle safety law that introduced or expanded previous safety-related statutes : such as requiring motorcycle riders and passengers to wear (1) reflective vests at night and protective gear at all times of d...

  3. Island in Crisis: Response to Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2018-01-01

    On September 6, 2017, Hurricane Irma, a Category 5 storm packing winds of 185 miles per hour skirted the northern coast of Puerto Rico, leaving 1 million residents without electrical power. Schools were closed for 5 days, but a major calamity was narrowly avoided. Overall, residents were grateful for their good fortune, but the same could not be…

  4. Lichens in Puerto Rico: an ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Mercado-Díaz; William A. Gould; Grizelle Gonzalez; Robert. Lücking

    2015-01-01

    This work presents basic information on tropical lichenology. It also describes general aspects about the ecology and biodiversity of these organisms in eight forest ecosystems present along an elevational gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico. These ecosystems consist of elfin woodlands, palo colorado, sierra palm, tabonuco, lowland moist, dry, mangrove, and...

  5. Developed land cover of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of developed land cover in Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Developed land cover refers to urban, built-up and non-vegetated areas that result from human activity. These typically include built structures, concrete, asphalt, and other infrastructure. The developed land cover was estimated using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images pan...

  6. Areas naturales protegidas de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Maya Quinones; Mariano Solórzano; Waldemar Alcobas; Caryl Alarcon

    2011-01-01

    En este mapa mostramos las areas naturales protegidas designadas para la conservacion de los recursos naturales en Puerto Rico y regiones reguladas por ley con el potencial de mejorar la conservacion de los mismos. La designacion de areas protegidas es un proceso dinamico debido a que es el resultado de la constante evolucion de valores en los diferentes sectores de la...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-9 - Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rico. 1.1402(a)-9 Section 1.1402(a)-9...) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-9 Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. A resident of Puerto... alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, shall compute his net earnings from...

  8. 33 CFR 165.755 - Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico (a) The following area is established as a safety zone during the... the Eco-Electrica waterfront facility in Guayanilla Bay, Puerto Rico. The safety zone remains in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto...

  9. Aves municipales oficiales de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos M. Domínguez Cristóbal

    2009-01-01

    Las aves constituyen uno de los recursos de muy poco uso como símbolo oficial representativo de los municipios en Puerto Rico. Es muy probable que la decisión que màs pueda influenciar en esa selección esté relacionada con la movilidad de las aves ya que éstas no se limitan a una municipalidad en específico...

  10. Conserva a Puerto Rico con bosques maderables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Wadsworth

    2009-01-01

    [article in Spanish] Puerto Rico consume muchos productos forestales costosos de importar. También tiene bosques extensos con maderas explotables. Además, existen condiciones físicas favorables para la producción de madera útil. No obstante, hoy día no se utiliza la madera de los bosques actuales ocurre la deforestación para cualquier fin. Los Bosques productivos de...

  11. Sand and gravel resources of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rafael W.

    Many of Puerto Rico's beaches are eroding, and though rates of erosion vary, it is a major concern for the tourism and residential development industries. More than 85 percent of the population lives within 7 kilometers of the coast and they are heavily dependent on tourists that are attracted by the island's beaches and coral reefs. High-quality scientific data are needed to help formulate public policy regarding residential and commercial construction along the coast, beach replenishment, and future use of marine resources. Scientists have long recognized that the causes of coastal land loss are not limited to a relative rise in sea level, but can be manmade as well. For example, sediment supply to beaches especially along the north shore of Puerto Rico has been strongly affected by upstream river channeling, dam construction, various agricultural practices, paving and urbanization, as well as shallow-water oceanographic processes. The response to coastal erosion in Puerto Rico has been mostly crisis based leading to engineered solutions that have a negative effect on the coastal environment.

  12. El Estado de los Bosques de Puerto Rico, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Eileen H. Helmer; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2003-01-01

    La cobertura forestal de Puerto Rico sigue aumentando y ahora asciende a un 57 por ciento en la isla de Puerto Rico, 85 por ciento en Vieques y 88 por ciento en Culebra. Los bosques subtropicales secos ocupan 50 346 ha, 6832 ha, 2591 ha y 6217 ha en las islas de Puerto Rico, Vieques, Culebra y Mona, respectivamente. El bosque subtropical húmedo, la zona de vida...

  13. Characterization of the Network of Protected Areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; Maya Quinones; William Gould

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and associated landscape diversity and forest cover characteristics within the network of terrestrial protected areas in Puerto Rico. We conducted spatial analysis to quantify different indicators of diversity at these sites. We found that protected areas in Puerto Rico overlap the most species-rich regions on the island,...

  14. Uso de terreno urbano y rural en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    El Proyecto de Analisis de Gap de Puerto Rico (PRGAP) (Gould et al. 2008) desarrollo tres usos de terrenos para Puerto Rico: Urbano, Suburbano, y Rural (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Estas regiones tambien pueden ser consideradas como urbano, densamente-poblado rural, y escasamente-poblado rural, o como urbano y area silvestre con una interfase de area silvestre-urbana. La...

  15. Analisis espacial de las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    En este mapa de investigacion describimos las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico basado en elementos naturales y antropogenicos del paisaje. Utilizamos datos geoespaciales para calcular la extension y representatividad de elementos del paisaje dentro de las areas protegidas de Puerto Rico, i.e., cobertura del terreno (Gould et al. 2007), asentamientos urbanos...

  16. Estimated water use in Puerto Rico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Rivera, Wanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-use data were aggregated for the 78 municipios of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for 2010. Five major offstream categories were considered: public-supply water withdrawals and deliveries, domestic and industrial self-supplied water use, crop-irrigation water use, and thermoelectric-power freshwater use. One instream water-use category also was compiled: power-generation instream water use (thermoelectric saline withdrawals and hydroelectric power). Freshwater withdrawals for offstream use from surface-water [606 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)] and groundwater (118 Mgal/d) sources in Puerto Rico were estimated at 724 million gallons per day. The largest amount of freshwater withdrawn was by public-supply water facilities estimated at 677 Mgal/d. Public-supply domestic water use was estimated at 206 Mgal/d. Fresh groundwater withdrawals by domestic self-supplied users were estimated at 2.41 Mgal/d. Industrial self-supplied withdrawals were estimated at 4.30 Mgal/d. Withdrawals for crop irrigation purposes were estimated at 38.2 Mgal/d, or approximately 5 percent of all offstream freshwater withdrawals. Instream freshwater withdrawals by hydroelectric facilities were estimated at 556 Mgal/d and saline instream surface-water withdrawals for cooling purposes by thermoelectric-power facilities was estimated at 2,262 Mgal/d.

  17. Land Use, Conservation, Forestry, and Agriculture in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Gould

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global food security concerns emphasize the need for sustainable agriculture and local food production. In Puerto Rico, over 80 percent of food is imported, and local production levels have reached historical lows. Efforts to increase local food production are driven by government agencies, non-government organizations, farmers, and consumers. Integration of geographic information helps plan and balance the reinvention and invigoration of the agriculture sector while maintaining ecological services. We used simple criteria that included currently protected lands and the importance of slope and forest cover in protection from erosion to identify land well-suited for conservation, agriculture and forestry in Puerto Rico. Within these categories we assessed U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA farmland soils classification data, lands currently in agricultural production, current land cover, and current land use planning designations. We found that developed lands occupy 13 percent of Puerto Rico; lands well-suited for conservation that include protected areas, riparian buffers, lands surrounding reservoirs, wetlands, beaches, and salt flats, occupy 45 percent of Puerto Rico; potential working lands encompass 42 percent of Puerto Rico. These include lands well-suited for mechanized and non-mechanized agriculture, such as row and specialty crops, livestock, dairy, hay, pasture, and fruits, which occupy 23 percent of Puerto Rico; and areas suitable for forestry production, such as timber and non-timber products, agroforestry, and shade coffee, which occupy 19 percent of Puerto Rico.

  18. 20 CFR 404.1089 - Figuring net earnings for residents and nonresidents of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... nonresidents of Puerto Rico. 404.1089 Section 404.1089 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Puerto Rico. (a) Residents. If you are a resident of Puerto Rico, whether or not you are an alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, you must figure your net earnings from self...

  19. The Puerto Ricans of Hawaii: On Becoming Hawaii's People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Milton N.; Souza, Blase Camacho

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the history of Puerto Rican migration to and settlement in the Hawaiian islands at the turn of the century, and describes the cultural adaptation and social life of this group and their descendants. (GC)

  20. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: REPTILES (Reptiles and Amphibians)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  1. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: BENTHIC (Benthic Marine Habitats)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  2. Puerto Rico ESI and RSI: SHELFBND (Shelf Boundary)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  3. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  4. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  5. National Status and Trends: Guanica, Puerto Rico Contaminants Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project assesses chemical contaminant status in sediment and coral tissues (Porites astroides) collected in and around Guanica Bay, Puerto Rico in 2009....

  6. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Ground Validation Points 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  7. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - Puerto Rico 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for Puerto Rico, Culebra Island and Vieques Island, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  8. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INVERT (Invertebrate Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  9. Ponce, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ponce, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  10. San Juan, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The San Juan, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  11. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fajardo, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  12. Mayaguez, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mayaguez, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  13. NPP Tropical Forest: Luquillo, Puerto Rico, 1963-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Productivity of lower montane tropical forest at various study sites within the Luquillo Experimental Forest, eastern Puerto Rico from 1963 to present

  14. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arecibo, Puerto Rico Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  15. Vieques, Puerto Rico Benthic Habitat Map - Accuracy Assessment Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  16. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  17. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Lines and Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  18. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  19. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  20. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Accuracy Assessment Points - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  1. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  2. Rainfall-induced landslide susceptibility zonation of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara Lepore; Sameer A. Kamal; Peter Shanahan; Rafael L. Bras

    2011-01-01

    Landslides are a major geologic hazard with estimated tens of deaths and $1–2 billion in economic losses per year in the US alone. The island of Puerto Rico experiences one or two large events per year, often triggered in steeply sloped areas by prolonged and heavy rainfall. Identifying areas susceptible to landslides thus has great potential value for Puerto Rico and...

  3. Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans: A Teaching and Resource Unit for Upper Level Spanish Students or Social Studies Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero, Milagros

    The subject of this teaching and resource unit for Spanish students or social studies classes is Puerto Rico and the Puerto Ricans. The unit has sections dealing with the present conditions of the Puerto Ricans, their culture, and historical perspectives. The appendixes contain: (1) Demands of the Puerto Ricans, (2) Notable Puerto Ricans, (3)…

  4. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Desecheo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  5. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ponce), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  6. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (East Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  7. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Mayaguez), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  8. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Maunabo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  9. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Salinas), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  10. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Rincon), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  11. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (San Juan), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  12. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Candelero), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  13. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (La Pargue), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  14. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ponce), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  15. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (San Juan), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  16. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Maunabo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  17. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ceiba), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  18. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Ceiba), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  19. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Candelero), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  20. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Guayanil), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  1. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (East Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  2. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (La Parguera), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  3. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Arroyo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  4. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Barcelon), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  5. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  6. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isabela), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  7. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Barceloneta), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  8. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Mayaguez), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  9. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Rincon), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  10. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  11. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Mona), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  12. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  13. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Salinas), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  14. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  15. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Arroyo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  16. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isabela), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  17. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Luquillo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  18. Protectionism in Puerto Rico: the impact of the Dealers' Contracts Law on multinational companies planning operations in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krumbein, Richard M

    1993-01-01

    ... of their distributorship agreements by U.S. or foreign companies.(6) The Act reflects the protectionist attitude toward local businesses in Puerto Rico. Successful defenses against wrongful termination actions brought by dealers under the Dealers' Contracts Act are rare because of the Act's narrow definition of "just cause".(7) Furthermore, Puerto Rican co...

  19. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  20. The never ending story of language policy in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Sandra Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis literature review addresses some of the issues discussed in the literature written about the controversial topic of English teaching in Puerto Rico. A deeper look into the language policies established in Puerto Rico since the island became a U.S. colony (1898) could lead us to understand why after more than a century of U.S. occupation, the majority of Puerto Ricans are still not bilingual in English and Spanish RESUMEN El propósito de esta revisión de literatura es presentar pa...

  1. Geology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, E.F.; Wicks, Carol M.; Mylroie, J.; Troester, J.; Alexander, E.C.; Carew, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Isla de Mona is a carbonate island located in the Mona Passage 68 km west of Puerto Rico. The tectonically uplifted island is 12 km by 5 km, with an area of 55 km2, and forms a raised flat-topped platform or meseta. The meseta tilts gently to the south and is bounded by near vertical cliffs on all sides. These cliffs rise from 80 m above sea level on the north to 20 m above the sea on the southern coast. Along the southwestern and western side of the island a three- to six-meter-high Pleistocene fossil reef abuts the base of the cliff to form a narrow coastal plain. The meseta itself consists of two Mio-Pliocene carbonate units, the lower Isla de Mona Dolomite and the upper Lirio Limestone. Numerous karst features, including a series of flank margin caves primarily developed at the Lirio Limestone/Isla de Mona Dolomite contact, literally ring the periphery of the island.

  2. Diagenesis of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA)); Ruiz, H.; Monell, V. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

    1990-05-01

    Isla de Mona is a carbonate plateau, 50 mi west of Puerto Rico. The plateau is composed mostly of two Miocene carbonate units, the Isla de Mona Dolomite overlain by Lirio Limestone. These two units consist primarily of back-reef sands with a reefal sequence present in the Lirio Limestone to the southwest. The Lirio Limestone is heavily karstified with numerous sinkholes in the central part of the island resembling present-day cenotes of the Yucatan peninsula. Numerous large cave openings are exposed along cliffs surrounding the island, with cavern size rapidly decreasing toward the interior. Within the Isla de Mona Dolomite, three different soil development episodes can be identified in the central part of the island, and on the periphery of the island several episodes of vadose diagenesis are identified by the presence of vadose silts and paleotravertine. Both units exhibit selective dissolution of aragonitic skeletal grains with fabric retentive replacement of former high magnesium calcite skeletal components, by calcite in the Lirio Limestone, and by dolomite in the Isla de Mona Dolomite. Petrographic relationships suggest early diagenetic modification by fluids that were substantially undersaturated with respect to aragonite, which preferentially dissolved aragonitic components, near saturation with respect to calcite/high magnesian calcite during dolomitization, and saturated with respect to calcite during calcitization. Stable isotopic composition of individual dolomitized components and dolomite microspar in the Isla de Mona Dolomite define a hyperbolic trend characteristic of composition produced by fluid mixing. The similarity of the karstified Lirio Limestone to present-day Yucatan, the nature and fluid chemistry requirement of the aragonite dissolution and calcite replacement process, the isotopic composition of the dolomite suggest diagenetic modification under meteoric-marine fluid mixing.

  3. Shapefile of the bathymetric contours of Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico, September 2013-May 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Lucchetti, Yauco, Puerto Rico, in 2013–14 in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer...

  4. Data points, corresponding to the bathymetric survey of Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico, September 2013-May 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Lucchetti, Yauco, Puerto Rico, in 2013–14 in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer...

  5. Recent Advances in Dengue: Relevance to Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyd, David H.; Sharp, Tyler M.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue represents an increasingly important public health challenge in Puerto Rico, with recent epidemics in 2007, 2010, and 2012–2013. Although recent advances in dengue vaccine development offer hope for primary prevention, the role of health professionals in the diagnosis and management of dengue patients is paramount. Case definitions for dengue, dengue with warning signs, and severe dengue provide a framework to guide clinical decision-making. Furthermore, the differentiation between dengue and other acute febrile illnesses, such as leptospirosis and chikungunya, is necessary for the appropriate diagnosis and management of cases. An understanding of dengue epidemiology and surveillance in Puerto Rico provides context for clinicians in epidemic and non-epidemic periods. This review aims to improve health professionals’ ability to diagnose dengue, and as highlight the relevance of recent advances in dengue prevention and management in Puerto Rico. PMID:26061055

  6. Leprosy in Puerto Rico: insight into the new millennia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Diana C; Candelario, Nicole; Carrasquillo, Osward Y; Figueroa, Luz; Sánchez, Jorge L

    2017-04-01

    Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined the elimination of the disease as a global prevalence of less than one case per 10,000 population. However, disease transmission is an ongoing worldwide public health concern, as evidenced by the more than 220,000 new cases diagnosed each year. This study is an update of the incidence and prevalence of leprosy in Puerto Rico for the period of 2000-2014. A retrospective analysis of data was obtained from the Tropical Disease Clinic (TDC) of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. Sixty-three new cases of leprosy are detailed in this study. Disease incidence and prevalence were 1.65 and 5.26 per 100,000 inhabitants (of the island of Puerto Rico), respectively, and an average of 4.2 new cases per year. Most of the male patients in the study suffered from lepromatous leprosy (P = 0.026). In all, 47 (74.6%) patients had been born in Puerto Rico, and 29 (46%) had an affected family member or were in close contact with someone with leprosy. Compared to those of previous studies, these results demonstrate a decrease in both the incidence and prevalence of leprosy in Puerto Rico over the past 15 years. The relatively high prevalence of leprosy in Puerto Rico means that it remains endemic on the island. Concerted efforts must be undertaken to achieve the goal of the elimination of this old and stigmatized disease. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. 78 FR 9884 - Approval of Subzone Status; Zimmer Manufacturing BV; Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status; Zimmer Manufacturing BV; Ponce, Puerto Rico Pursuant... in Ponce, Puerto Rico (FTZ Docket B-81-2012, docketed 11/8/2012); Whereas, notice inviting public... Manufacturing BV located in Ponce, Puerto Rico (Subzone 163A), as described in the application and Federal...

  8. 78 FR 13625 - Approval of Subzone Status; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status; Sea World, Inc.; Guaynabo, Puerto Rico On December... submitted by the Puerto Rico Trade & Export Company, grantee of FTZ 61, requesting subzone status subject to the existing activation limit of FTZ 61, on behalf of Sea World, Inc., in Guaynabo, Puerto Rico. The...

  9. 5 CFR 532.275 - Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Puerto Rico. 532.275 Section 532.275 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (a) The Department of Defense shall establish special wage schedules for nonsupervisory ship surveyors and supervisory ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (b) Rates shall...

  10. 27 CFR 19.396 - Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. 19.396 Section 19.396 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... § 19.396 Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico. Spirits removed for shipment to Puerto Rico with...

  11. 26 CFR 1.933-1 - Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Puerto Rico. 1.933-1 Section 1.933-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Exclusion of certain income from sources within Puerto Rico. (a) General rule. (1) An individual (whether a United States citizen or an alien), who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable...

  12. 42 CFR 412.220 - Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Puerto Rico. 412.220 Section 412.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.220 Special treatment of certain hospitals located in Puerto Rico. Subpart G of this part sets...

  13. 40 CFR 131.42 - Antidegradation Implementation Methods for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. 131.42 Section 131.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards § 131.42 Antidegradation Implementation Methods for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (a) General... February 2, 1989 Resolution R-89-2-2 of the Governing Board of the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board...

  14. 42 CFR 412.204 - Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs for Hospitals Located in Puerto Rico § 412.204 Payment to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1988 through FY 1997. For discharges occurring on or after October...

  15. 42 CFR 412.370 - General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.370 General provisions for hospitals located in Puerto Rico. Except as provided in § 412.374, hospitals located in Puerto Rico are subject to the rules in this subpart governing the prospective payment...

  16. 77 FR 52310 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61, San Juan, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its...-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, the Puerto Rico Trade and Export... FTZ 61 to include a site in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, adjacent to the San Juan U.S. Customs and Border...

  17. 19 CFR 7.2 - Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... than Puerto Rico. 7.2 Section 7.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... NAVAL STATION § 7.2 Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico. (a) Insular possessions of the United States other than Puerto Rico are also American territory but, because those insular...

  18. 42 CFR 412.374 - Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. 412... Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Special Rules for Puerto Rico Hospitals § 412.374 Payments to hospitals located in Puerto Rico. (a) FY 1998 through FY 2004. Payments for capital-related...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... a different language. (b) Television and Class A television licensees in Puerto Rico may enter into...

  20. 76 FR 63320 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Agency Docket No. FEMA-4017-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a...: This notice amends the notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include...

  1. 76 FR 56464 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...-0001 Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency... declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated August 27, 2011, and related... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following areas among those areas determined to...

  2. 76 FR 58027 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated August... disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following areas...

  3. 76 FR 47222 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4004-DR), dated July 14... for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following area among those areas...

  4. 76 FR 64958 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 5 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated August... declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following area among those...

  5. 75 FR 70019 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated October... disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following areas...

  6. 75 FR 77889 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated October... disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include the following areas...

  7. 77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef Ecosystems for Recreation-Tourism AGENCY: National Oceanic and... values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be made for all ecosystem services for the Guanica Bay Watershed and for recreation-tourism for all of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. The...

  8. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2016-02-03

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, scientific research, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, landslide mitigation, natural resources conservation, sea level rise and subsidence, coastal zone management, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, U.S. territorial, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, and selected U.S. territories, and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data for Alaska, all with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle, provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Office of Management and Budget Circular A‒16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional (3D) representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  9. Land Use, Conservation, Forestry, and Agriculture in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Frank H. Wadsworth; Maya Quinones; Stephen J. Fain; Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos

    2017-01-01

    Global food security concerns emphasize the need for sustainable agriculture and local food production. In Puerto Rico, over 80 percent of food is imported, and local production levels have reached historical lows. Efforts to increase local food production are driven by government agencies, non-government organizations, farmers, and consumers. Integration of geographic...

  10. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  11. Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection Alternatives for Small Communities in Puerto Rico Craig Patterson1, Graciela Ramirez Toro2, Harvey Minnigh2, Cristina Maldonado3, and Rajib Sinha4 1U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, 2Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA),...

  12. Guide to the ecological systems of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Miller; A.E. Lugo

    2009-01-01

    This guide is an introduction to the ecological systems of Puerto Rico. It covers the diversity of ecological systems in the island, their most common plant and animal species, and salient aspects of their structure and functioning. Terrestrial, wetland, coastal, and marine ecosystems are included, as well as agroforest and urban systems. The discussion of the...

  13. Relations between Study and Employment: Music Graduates in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Ileana S.; Lorenzo, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    Higher education programs in Puerto Rico include undergraduate degrees in music, music education, composition, popular music, jazz and Caribbean music, and, most recently, a master’s degree in music education. However, little is known about what music graduates do after concluding college. Do they work in music-related areas? Are they satisfied…

  14. Convective mixing by internal waves in the Puerto Rico Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Gostiaux, L.

    2016-01-01

    A2.4 km long deep-sea mooringwas deployed for 14 months in the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepestpart of the Atlantic Ocean. Below its top buoyancy package, the mooring line held a 200 m long stringof high-resolution temperature sensors and a current meter. Over the instrumented range between6,004 and

  15. Lichenological studies in Puerto Rico: history and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Eugenio Santiago-Valentin

    2010-01-01

    European scientists initiated lichenology in Puerto Rico in the 19th century. Activity of the discipline increased notably on the island during the first three decades of the 20th century, primarily by the field explorations and publications of the New York Botanical Garden scientists and associates (A. A. Heller, N. L. and E. G. Britton, L. W. Riddle), and by the work...

  16. Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Acevedo-Rodr¡guez; M. T. Strong

    2005-01-01

    The present treatment constitutes an updated revision for the monocotyledon and gymnosperm flora (excluding Orchidaceae and Poaceae) for the biogeographical region of Puerto Rico (including all islets and islands) and the Virgin Islands. With this contribution, we fill the last major gap in the flora of this region, since the dicotyledons have been previously revised....

  17. Trailblazing the Carbon Cycle of Tropical Forests from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Brown; Ariel Lugo

    2017-01-01

    We review the literature that led to clarifying the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle from a time when they were considered sources of atmospheric carbon to the time when they were found to be atmospheric carbon sinks. This literature originates from work conducted by US Forest Service scientists in Puerto Rico and their collaborators. It involves the...

  18. Urban and rural land use in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We have developed three land use regions for Puerto Rico: Urban, Suburban, and Rural (Gould et al. 2008; Martinuzzi et al. 2007). These three regions can also be considered urban, densely-populated rural, and sparsely-populated rural or as urban and wildland with a wildland-urban interface. The suburban use is the most dynamic in terms of population growth and land...

  19. Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Emerita Garcia; Veronica Cruz; Sonia Borges; Marcela Zalamea; Maria M. Rivera

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe earthworm communities along an elevation gradient of eight forest types in Northeastern Puerto Rico, and determine whether their abundance, biomass and/or diversity is related to climatic, soil physical/chemical and/or biotic characteristics. We found that the density, biomass, and diversity of worms varied significantly among forest types....

  20. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    O.M. Ramos-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by...

  1. High and low density development in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of high and low density developed lands in Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). The map was created using a mosaic of Landsat ETM+ images that range from the years 2000 to 2003. The developed land cover was classified using the Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA) unsupervised classification (ERDAS 2003)....

  2. Early Results of Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Pine in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe

    1959-01-01

    Despite the presence of more than 500 native tree species in Puerto Rico, many efforts have been made to introduce pine. These attempts have been made because, compared to the native species, pine has a much wider accepted market and has the longer fiber necessary as a component of kraft papers. In addition pine produces higher yields on poor sites, and its...

  3. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  4. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Duconge, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  5. Tropical cyclones and the flood hydrology of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Sturdevant-Rees, P.; Baeck, M.L.; Larsen, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the largest unit discharge flood peaks in the stream gaging records of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have occurred in Puerto Rico. Many of these flood peaks are associated with tropical cyclones. Hurricane Georges, which passed directly over the island on 21-22 September 1998, produced record flood peaks at numerous USGS stations in Puerto Rico. The hydrology and hydrometeorology of extreme flood response in Puerto Rico are examined through analyses of rainfall, based on Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar reflectivity observations and USGS rain gage observations and discharge from USGS stream gaging stations. Peak rainfall accumulations of more than 700 mm occurred in the central mountain region of the island. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were located in the eastern portion of the island in areas with smaller storm total rainfall accumulations but markedly larger rainfall rates at 5-60 min timescale. Orographic precipitation mechanisms played an important role in rainfall distribution over the island of Puerto Rico. Amplification of rainfall accumulations was associated with areas of upslope motion. Elevated low-level cloud water content in regions of upslope motion played an important role in the maximum rainfall accumulations in the central mountain region of Puerto Rico. The largest unit discharge flood peaks, however, were produced by a decaying eye wall mesovortex, which resulted in a 30-45 min period of extreme rainfall rates over the eastern portion of the island. This storm element was responsible for the record flood peak of the Rio Grande de Lo??iza. The role of terrain in development and evolution of the eye wall mesovortex is unclear but is of fundamental importance for assessing extreme flood response from the storm. Hydrologic response is examined through analyses of rainfall and discharge from five pairs of drainage basins, extending from east to west over the island. These analyses point to the

  6. 75 FR 35315 - Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band; New 800 MHz Band Plan for Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico). DATES: Effective July 22, 2010. FOR FURTHER... alternative band plan was appropriate for Puerto Rico due to the unique nature of 800 MHz incumbency in the...

  7. 75 FR 40795 - Review of Sourcing Change, Foreign-Trade Subzone 61H, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Puerto Rico (Inhalation Anesthetics Manufacturing), Guayama, Puerto Rico Pursuant to the regulations of..., at the facility of Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico (Baxter). Subzone 61H was approved by the FTZ... Guayama, Puerto Rico, for the manufacturing and distribution of pharmaceutical products, primarily...

  8. 75 FR 35363 - Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band; New 800 MHz Band Plan for Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Commission determined that an alternative band plan was appropriate for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico) due to the unique nature of 800 MHz incumbency in the Puerto Rico market compared to other...

  9. Political Status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    15 Honorable Nydia M. Velázquez, “Velázquez Criticizes Committee Approval of Puerto Rico Bill,” press release, October 23, 2007. 16 S. 1936, sec...1 (1901); Dooley v. United States, 182 U.S. 222 (1901); Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 224 (1901); Dorr v. United States, 195 U.S. 138 (1904); Balzac v...Porto Rico, 258 U.S. 298 (1922). 41 See, in particular, Balzac v. Porto Rico, 258 U.S. 312-313 (1922). In 1975 the court reaffirmed that Congress

  10. 33 CFR 165.771 - Safety Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Puerto Rico 165.771 Section 165.771 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Zone; Bahia de Ponce, Puerto Rico (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone... Bahia de Ponce, on approach to or departure from the Puerto de Ponce waterfront facility in Bahia de...

  11. 33 CFR 165.778 - Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Puerto Rico. 165.778 Section 165.778 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Security Zone; Port of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (a) Security zone. A moving and fixed security zone is established around all cruise ships entering, departing, mooring, or anchoring in the Port of Mayaguez, Puerto...

  12. New records of parasites for culture Cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Bunkley-Williams

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensive aquaculture sometimes provides conditions favorable for parasites that are not ordinarily found on culture fishes in the wild, and the use of introduced stocks sometimes introduces non-indigenous species to the habitat. When officially asked about the culture of Cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus in Puerto Rico, the authors responded that it was unlikely to cause harm. It was assumed that a well-known culture facility in Florida would assure parasite-free stocks. Subsequent examinations of stocked juveniles surprisingly found parasites new to this fish. An outbreak of Slime-blotch disease, Brooklynella hostilis Lom & Nigrilli, 1970 (Dysteriida: Hartmannulidae occurred in juvenile Cobia after they were shipped from Florida and stocked. This apparently represents a local parasite that took advantage of the weakened and/or crowded fish. The universal aquarium and culture superparasite, Marine Ich, Cryptocaryon irritans Brown, 1951 (Colpodia: Ichthyophthiriidae was introduced with a shipment of juvenile Cobia from Florida. This may not be serious, since the parasite occurs worldwide, unless it represents a new strain to Puerto Rico. Marine Costia, Ichthyobodo sp. (Kinetoplastida: Bodonidae was introduced into Puerto Rico with juvenile Cobia shipped from Florida. This parasite has caused some severe problems in aquaculture hatcheries in Hawaii and Texas after it was introduced with cultured organisms. Thus far, it has not caused any problems locally, but Puerto Rico lacks the marine hatchery facilities where such outbreaks would occur. The question of whether it is established locally will have to wait the development of similar facilities in Puerto Rico. These three species of parasites represent new host records for Cobia. The non-indigenous Ichthyobodo sp. represents new locality records for the tropical Atlantic, Caribbean, and Florida and Puerto Rico. Cobia mature more quickly in culture than in the wild and thus female Cobia

  13. Comparison of Dietary Quality Among Puerto Ricans Living in Massachusetts and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Cepero, Andrea; Valencia, Alexandra; Jimenez, Julio; Lemon, Stephenie C; Palacios, Cristina; Rosal, Milagros C

    2017-04-01

    Puerto Ricans are burdened by nutrition-related diseases, with greater disease prevalence among Puerto Ricans residing in the continental U.S. compared to those in Puerto Rico (PR). However, little is known about diet quality of these two groups. To compare diet quality of Puerto Ricans in Massachusetts (MA) and PR. Puerto Rican patients from health centers in MA (n = 42) and PR (n = 52) completed a food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI). Analysis included Mann-Whitney, Chi square and logistic and quantile regressions. 57.1 % of participants in MA and 19.6 % in PR had a poor diet. Adjusting for age and education, participants in MA were more likely to have a poor diet (OR 3.4; p = 0.02) and lower HEI scores than participants in PR. Diet quality among Puerto Ricans is poor, and is worse among mainland Puerto Ricans compared to islanders.

  14. The Criminalization of Socio-Environmental Struggles in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Atiles-Osoria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the twentieth century and the outset of the twenty-first, Puerto Rico’s sociopolitical and pro-independence struggles from US colonial rule have been influenced by the emergence of mobilizations for environmental justice. This article suggests that our understanding of both environmental and anticolonial mobilizations can be broadened by considering Puerto Rico’s sociopolitical and colonial reality, as well as emphasizing the criminalization processes that take place as an institutional reaction to social mobilization. The structure of the article follows a threefold analysis. In the first part, I describe the historical basis of Puerto Rico’s colonial situation, including its environmental impact, outlining the intertwined nature of these two processes. The second part outlines the mechanisms of repression and criminalization developed by the US and Puerto Rican governments. Finally, part three analyses the Puerto Rican environmental conflicts between 1999 and 2012, as well as how pro-environmental civil disobedience became a criminal offence. A lo largo del siglo XX e inicios del siglo XXI las movilizaciones sociopolíticas y anticoloniales puertorriqueñas y/o las luchas contra el régimen colonial estadounidense en Puerto Rico, se han visto influenciadas por el surgimiento de movilizaciones por la justicia ambiental. Este artículo sugiere que nuestra comprensión de los movimientos ambientales y anticoloniales puertorriqueños puede ser expandida en la medida que consideramos la realidad sociopolítica y colonial puertorriqueña, así como al enfatizar en el estudio de los procesos sistemáticos e institucionales de criminalización desplegados contra estas movilizaciones sociales. La estructura de este articulo se fundamenta en un análisis tridimensional. La primera parte, describe brevemente la historia colonial de Puerto Rico y el impacto del colonialismo sobre el medioambiente, señalando de esta manera la intensa

  15. Media complementarity and health information seeking in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D

    2014-01-01

    This investigation incorporates the Orientation1-Stimulus-Orientation2-Response model on the antecedents and outcomes of individual-level complementarity of media use in health information seeking. A secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data suggests that education and gender were positively associated with individual-level media complementarity of health information seeking, which, in turn, was positively associated with awareness of health concepts and organizations, and this awareness was positively associated with a specific health behavior: fruit and vegetable consumption. This study extends the research in media complementarity and health information use; it provides an integrative social psychological model empirically supported by the Health Information National Trends Survey Puerto Rico data.

  16. Usher syndrome in Puerto Rico: a clinical and genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Casasnovas, Jaime E; Izquierdo, Natalio J; Millán, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate patients with the Usher syn drome in Puerto Rico. Three patients with the Usher syndrome underwent an ophthalmic and audiologic evaluation; and genetic linkage analysis. All patients were legally blind based on visual acuity and visual field results. Two patients had macular edema as shown on Stratus OCT. All patients had moderate hearing loss as part of the syndrome. A patient, and two family members had three mutations leading to protein changes including: p.S4588Y; p.Y4505C; and p.14474M. Phenotypic findings in patients with the Usher syndrome in Puerto Rico are similar to those previously reported. However, to our knowledge, neither these mutations nor OCT findings have been previously described in patients with the syndrome.

  17. Aquatic and wetland plants of Puerto Rico. I. Pteridophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega Hernández, Efrén

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of the aquatic and wetland families of Pteridophytes in Puerto Rico is presented herein. Included are brief descriptions of each family, genus and species, and, when appropriate, keys for genera and species accompany the descriptions. The distribution of each species is also documented with maps, as well as with information on some ecological characteristics of each species.Estudio de los helechos acuáticos y palustres de Puerto Rico, con especial atención a las especies asociadas a cuerpos de aguas quietas y pantanos. Se reconocen 8 géneros y 13 especies. Se dan descripciones, claves, notas de sus hábitats y mapas de distribucidn.

  18. Real Time Flood Alert System (RTFAS) for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Trujillo, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The Real Time Flood Alert System is a web-based computer program, developed as a data integration tool, and designed to increase the ability of emergency managers to rapidly and accurately predict flooding conditions of streams in Puerto Rico. The system includes software and a relational database to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, water levels in streams and reservoirs, and associated storms to determine hazardous and potential flood conditions. The computer program was developed as part of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey Caribbean Water Science Center and the Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency, and integrates information collected and processed by these two agencies and the National Weather Service.

  19. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Patillas, Puerto Rico, March 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2010-01-01

    Lago Patillas is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin, in the municipality of Patillas in southern Puerto Rico, about 3 kilometers north of the town of Patillas and about 8 kilometers northeast of the town of Arroyo (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1914 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico along the towns of Arroyo, Guayama, Patillas, and Salinas. Irrigation releases are made through the outlet works into the Patillas Irrigation Canal that extends 32.2 kilometers from the Patillas dam to Rio Salinas. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill with a structural height of 44.80 meters, a top width of 4.57 meters, a base width of 190.49 meters, and a crest length of 325.21 meters. The spillway structure is physically separated from the earthfill dam, has an elevation of 58.21 meters above mean sea level, and has three radial arm gates (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Grande de Patillas and Rio Marin. The reservoir has a drainage area of 66.3 square kilometers. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez and others (1999). During March 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PREPA conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Patillas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 bathymetric survey data with previous 1997 data. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since April 1997.

  20. Densidad de desarrollo alta y baja en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este mapa demuestra la distribución de terrenos de alta y baja densidad de desarrollo urbano en Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). El mapa fue creado mediante el analisis de un mosaico de imagenes de satelite Landsat ETM+ de los años 2000 – 2003. La clasificacion no supervisada ISODATA (“Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique”) (ERDAS 2003) fue utilizada...

  1. El Toro Wilderness, Luqillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    2011-01-01

    The El Toro Wilderness, designated by Congress in 2005, occupies about 36 percent of the 11,300 ha Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) in northeastern Puerto Rico. It is the only tropical forest in the wilderness system managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. El Toro extends from 370 to 1,074 m in elevation, and is occupied by four forest types found in the...

  2. Community Engagement for Identifying Cancer Education Needs in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Julio; Ramos, Axel; Ramos-Rivera, Francisco E; Gwede, Clement; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan; Brandon, Thomas; Simmons, Vani; Castro, Eida

    2018-02-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Puerto Rico, suggesting a need for improved strategies, programs, and resources devoted to cancer prevention. Enhanced prevention needs in Puerto Rico were initially identified in pilot studies conducted by the Ponce School of Medicine (PSM) in collaboration with the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC). In the current study, we used community engagement to identify specific needs in cancer prevention and education and strategies to create culturally attuned, effective cancer prevention education programs. A total of 37 participants attended a community forum and were assigned to one of three discussion groups: patients/survivors (n = 14); family/caregivers (n = 11); or healthcare providers (n = 12). Most participants were women (73 %), over 35 years of age, and a majority were married (58 %) and had a university education (81 %). The sessions were recorded and transcribed and analyzed for key themes. Participants wanted improved awareness of cancer prevention in Puerto Rico and believed cancer prevention education should start early, ideally in elementary school. Participants also stressed the importance of creating partnerships with private and government agencies to coordinate educational efforts. Suggested strategies included outreach to communities with limited resources, incorporating the testimony of cancer survivors, and utilizing social media to disseminate cancer prevention information.

  3. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  4. Women's employment and changing gender relations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Alice Colón

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Helen Safa's analyses of the impact of development strategies and social policies on gender relations and women headed families in the Caribbean and Puerto Rico. The discussion focuses on findings of a research project regarding patterns of women's employment, autonomy, marital relations, family headship and poverty in Puerto Rico in the decade beginning in the year 2000, using excerpts from interviews conducted with women workers displaced from a clothing and a tuna factory between 2001 and 2002 (Colón et al. 2008), as well as data from the Public Use Sample (PUMS) of the U.S. Census Puerto Rico Community Survey 2005-2007. It is argued that women's employment has resulted in advances in women's autonomy, gender equity, and renegotiations of the provider role, but, intensified by men's unstable earnings, it has also led to the increase of female family headship even among married women. Women's education and employment have been an important means of reducing family poverty both among dual earner families and female heads. Yet, the continuing joblessness in the Island places even higher educated sectors on the verge of economic precariousness.

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.K.; Freemerman, R.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    On February 6, 1987 the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the final phase of the decontamination and decommissioning of the nuclear and reactor facilities at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research (CEER), in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Bechtel National, Inc., was made the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) contractor. The goal of the project was to enable DOE to proceed with release of the CEER facility for use by the University of Puerto Rico, who was the operator. This presentation describes that project and lesson learned during its progress. The CEER facility was established in 1957 as the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, a part of the Atoms for Peace Program. It was a nuclear training and research institution with emphasis on the needs of Latin America. It originally consisted of a 1-megawatt Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), support facilities and research laboratories. After eleven years of operation the MTR was shutdown and defueled. A 2-megawatt TRIGA reactor was installed in 1972 and operated until 1976, when it woo was shutdown. Other radioactive facilities at the center included a 10-watt homogeneous L-77 training reactor, a natural uranium graphite-moderated subcritical assembly, a 200KV particle accelerator, and a 15,000 Ci Co-60 irradiation facility. Support facilities included radiochemistry laboratories, counting rooms and two hot cells. As the emphasis shifted to non-nuclear energy technology a name change resulted in the CEER designation, and plans were started for the decontamination and decommissioning effort.

  6. Foreign direct investment, exports, Gross Domestic Product and the labor market in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miriam Basem-Hassan Lomabrdi; Ahmad H Juma'h; Felix Cué García; Ángel L Ruiz Mercado; Antonio A Lloréns Rivera

    2012-01-01

    .... The findings suggest that consecutive increases in foreign direct investment inflows could significantly reduce the unemployment rate and increase interest in joining the labor force in Puerto Rico...

  7. Family Assistance for Older Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Jesús Fericelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global aging is a growing issue in most countries, including Puerto Rico. The well being of the older adult population depends mainly on a collaborative government initiative that uses both public assistance and the engagement of family members. Puerto Rican policymakers are searching for alternatives to care for the expanding elderly population as well as to protect the country’s economy, avoid the financial cliff, and reduce the high cost of public assistance. The purpose of this article is to analyze The Act for the Improvement of the Family Assistance and for the Support of the Elderly, Act No. 193 of 2002, under the criteria-based model (Gallagher & Haskins, 1984 with a value-critical appraisal (Chambers & Wedel, 2009. I suggest Act No. 193 of 2002 as a model for policymakers who are seeking ways to improve assistance for older adults, by promoting the following values: fairness, familism, fraternity, and accountability.

  8. Realineamiento universitario en la isla de Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aragunde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La dinámica universitaria en Puerto Rico atraviesa por una situación muy especial. La Universidad de Puerto Rico, que es la universidad pública del gobierno, ha sufrido de paros y huelgas en estos últimos dos años debido a un aumento de matrícula impuesto en contra de la voluntad de los estudiantes. Mientras tanto, el Gobierno ha nombrado un grupo de trabajo de ciudadanos identificados con políticas neo liberales para que prepare un proyecto de reforma universitaria que se espera que elimine instancias de participación estudiantiles y profesorales que habían contribuido a democratizar la institución. La historia de la educación en Puerto Rico, desde la llamada conquista de los españoles, pasando por la invasión de los Estados Unidos en el 1898, y hasta llegar a estos comienzos del siglo veintiuno con su impactante recesión económica deben ser repasadas para entender cómo el país ha tenido que luchar para alcanzar los porcentajes altísimos de actividad académica, tanto escolar como universitaria, que le caracterizan y que se podría trastocar con la situación que se ha creado. En tal coyuntura, sin embargo, el sector universitario privado, que ya atiende más del 70% de los estudiantes, tendrá una gran oportunidad de desarrollarse. Si opta por respaldar la investigación científica y no se limita a la enseñanza podrá contribuir generosamente a un realineamiento universitario que cambiará la personalidad de la educación superior puertorriqueña.

  9. Realineamiento universitario en la isla de Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aragunde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2011v4n1p82   La dinámica universitaria en Puerto Rico atraviesa por una situación muy especial. La Universidad de Puerto Rico, que es la universidad pública del gobierno, ha sufrido de paros y huelgas en estos últimos dos años debido a un aumento de matrícula impuesto en contra de la voluntad de los estudiantes. Mientras tanto, el Gobierno ha nombrado un grupo de trabajo de ciudadanos identificados con políticas neo liberales para que prepare un proyecto de reforma universitaria que se espera que elimine instancias de participación estudiantiles y profesorales que habían contribuido a democratizar la institución. La historia de la educación en Puerto Rico, desde la llamada conquista de los españoles, pasando por la invasión de los Estados Unidos en el 1898, y hasta llegar a estos comienzos del siglo veintiuno con su impactante recesión económica deben ser repasadas para entender cómo el país ha tenido que luchar para alcanzar los porcentajes altísimos de actividad académica, tanto escolar como universitaria, que le caracterizan y que se podría trastocar con la situación que se ha creado. En tal coyuntura, sin embargo, el sector universitario privado, que ya atiende más del 70% de los estudiantes, tendrá una gran oportunidad de desarrollarse. Si opta por respaldar la investigación científica y no se limita a la enseñanza podrá contribuir generosamente a un realineamiento universitario que cambiará la personalidad de la educación superior puertorriqueña.

  10. Sedimentation Survey of Lago La Plata, Puerto Rico, July 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2008-01-01

    Lago La Plata dam is located between the municipalities of Naranjito and Toa Alta in north central Puerto Rico, about 5 kilometers south of the town of Toa Alta and about 5 kilometers north of the town of Naranjito. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio de La Plata, the Rio Guadiana, and the Rio Ca?as, and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District, which provides about 35 percent of the total water demand for the area (Soler-Lopez and others, 2000). The reservoir has a drainage area of about 469 square kilometers. The dam was constructed in 1974 and is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool elevation of 52.00 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1979). During October 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to assess the impact of Hurricane Georges on the storage capacity of the reservoir. Between July 17 and 20, 2006, the USGS and the PRASA conducted an additional bathymetric survey of Lago La Plata to update the reservoir storage capacity and determine the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 survey data with the 1998 survey data.. The purpose of this report is to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1998. Historical (1974) data are referenced as needed to account for long-term storage capacity loss trends...

  11. The Identity Development and Coming out Process of Gay Youth in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhanel, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather basic exploratory-descriptive data regarding the self-perceptions and behaviors of Puerto Rican gay youth (16 to 24 years old) during their gay identity development and coming out process. The study was conducted in Puerto Rico to eliminate ethnic minority influences that may be present in Puerto Rican gay…

  12. Grayscale Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands Shaded Relief ? 200- Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Puerto Rico and...

  13. Color Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands Shaded Relief ? 200- Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Puerto Rico and...

  14. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Guerrero, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, March 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2009-01-01

    Lago Guerrero is located in Aguadilla, northwestern Puerto Rico (fig. 1). The reservoir has a surface area of about 32,000 square meters and is excavated in Aymamon Limestone of Miocene age. This bedrock consists of chalk interbed-ded with solution-riddled hard limestone (Monroe, 1969). The reservoir was constructed in the 1930s as part of the Isabela Hydroelectric System to regulate flows to two hydroelectric plants-Central Isabel No. 2, at an elevation of about 110 meters above mean sea level, and Central Isabel No. 3, at about 55 meters above mean sea level. Hydroelectric power generation was discontinued during the early 1960s, although the exact date is unknown (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, written commun., 2007). The principal use of the reservoir since then has been to regulate flow to two public-supply water filtration plants and supply irrigation water for the Aguadilla area. Flow into the reservoir is derived from Lago Guajataca through a 26-kilometer-long Canal Principal de Diversion concrete canal (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, written commun., 2001). Additional inflow occurs on an incidental basis only during intensive rainfall from the immediate drainage area. The present Lago Guerrero drainage area is undetermined, due to the irregular and complex topography of the limestone terrain and anthropogenic modifications to the stormwater drainage system. Stormwater runoff, however, is presumed to be negligible compared to the almost constant inflow to the reservoir of about 59,300 cubic meters per day from Lago Guajataca (CSA Group, 2000). On March 9, 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guerrero to determine the storage capacity of the reservoir and sedimentation amount since a previous survey conducted on May 30, 2001. The March 2006 survey was made to develop a bathymetric map of the reservoir

  15. Machismo y educacion en Puerto Rico [Machismo and Education in Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Isabel

    This book is the result of a study that investigated the influence of "machismo" (a set of attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that perpetuates the myth of male superiority) in elementary education. The study included (1) a content analysis of textbooks used in Spanish and social studies classes in public and private schools in Puerto Rico…

  16. La ensenanza de idiomas en Puerto Rico (Language Teaching in Puerto Rico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Washington

    1976-01-01

    The poor command of Spanish common to many Puerto Ricans is due, not to the teaching of English as a second language, but to the poor instruction of the native language and the lack of emphasis on reading good Spanish literature. The two languages can coexist. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  17. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Mona), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  18. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Desecheo), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  19. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  20. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands;Photomosaic of Puerto Rico (Isla de Culebra), 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Aerial...

  1. 33 CFR 165.758 - Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. (a) Location. Moving and fixed security zones are established 50... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; San Juan, Puerto Rico. 165.758 Section 165.758 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  2. Puerto Rico School Principals: Leadership Perceptions and Practices in Schools in Need of Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jacqueline Bocachica

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of school leadership in Puerto Rico is explored in this study, which was an examination of the perceptions and practices of 12 elementary school principals. Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory that functions within a unique political structure yet is held to the same standards as all U.S. districts. The primary method of data collection…

  3. Civics Education Policy and Americanization in Puerto Rico, 1900-1904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This essay considers U.S. civics education policy in Puerto Rico from 1900 to 1904. Civics education in Puerto Rico during these years offers a particularly unique context for exploring education at the edge of empire during the dawn of the twentieth century. The article begins with a discussion of civics education in the United States around that…

  4. 76 FR 56778 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated August...

  5. Is English a Language Barrier to Public Higher Education in Puerto Rico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to address the question, "Have the austerity measures enacted due to the global economic crisis impacted student enrollments at the University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez?" as Rodríguez (2011. "Social protest and the future of Higher Education in Puerto Rico." "Academe" 97(4).…

  6. The Puerto Rico Gap Analysis Project Volume 1: land cover, vertebrate species distributions, and land stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Gould; C. Alarcon; B. Fevold; M.E. Jimenez; S. Martinuzzi; G. Potts; M. Quinones; M. Solórzano; E. Ventosa

    2008-01-01

    Puerto Rico faces a number of problems common to much of the world. Population is increasing while land area is not, and there are reassessments of land use policy and practice to accommodate growing populations, shifting economies, and changing public value systems. Puerto Rico shares similarities with the Eastern United States with its history of agricultural...

  7. Aging in Puerto Rico: A Comparison of Health Status Among Island Puerto Rican and Mainland U.S. Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Catherine; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the health status of older island Puerto Ricans, a segment of the U.S. population that has been largely overlooked in aging research. Data from the 2002 Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project and the 2002 Health and Retirement Study are used to examine differences in disease, disability, and self-rated health among island Puerto Ricans and the mainland U.S.-born older adult population. Differences are further examined by gender. Island Puerto Ricans were less likely to have heart disease, stroke, lung disease, cancer, activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and poor self-rated health, but more likely to have hypertension and diabetes. Island Puerto Rican women had worse health relative to island Puerto Rican men. Recent challenges in the funding and provision of health care in Puerto Rico are worrisome given the large number of aging island adults, many of whom have hypertension and diabetes, two conditions that require long-term medical care.

  8. New records of Bodotriidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from Puerto Rico with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Iorgu; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2014-10-20

    In a continuing effort to describe the cumacean fauna of Puerto Rico we describe three new species of Bodotriidae, a family that has never been reported from Puerto Rico before.  While finding and describing new microcrustacean species may not be an impossible task, if there is available taxonomic expertise, the currently described species were found in large numbers within a short distance from the Marine Laboratories of the University of Puerto Rico where the local reefs have been studied for over half a century, highlighting the large gaps that exist in our estimates of Caribbean marine diversity.  The three new species, Cyclaspis gurui sp. nov., Cyclaspis mariae sp. nov. and Vaunthompsonia budaii sp. nov. are reported from a fringing reef off La Parguera, southwest coast of Puerto Rico and Vaunthompsonia cristata Bate, 1858 represents a new record for Puerto Rico from the mesophotic reefs.

  9. 76 FR 1192 - Notice of a Change in Status of an Extended Benefit (EB) Period for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Puerto Rico AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces a change in benefit period eligibility under the EB Program for Puerto Rico. The following change has occurred since the publication of the last notice regarding the State's EB status: Puerto Rico's...

  10. 76 FR 11681 - Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band; New 800 MHz Band Plan for Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... plan in the USVI as it had adopted in Puerto Rico, 75 FR 35363, June 22, 2010. The Bureau received two... band segment. Currently, there are no NPSPAC licensees in the USVI. As with the Puerto Rico band plan...

  11. 78 FR 45894 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands... Management Plan for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (FMP), as prepared [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The reef fish fishery of Puerto Rico and the USVI is managed...

  12. 77 FR 43063 - Affirmation of Vertical Datum for Surveying and Mapping Activities for the Territory of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Activities for the Territory of Puerto Rico AGENCY: National Geodetic Survey (NGS), National Ocean Service.../a016/a016.html ), to affirm the Puerto Rico Vertical Datum of 2002 (PRVD02) as the official civilian vertical datum for surveying and mapping activities for the islands of Puerto Rico, Culebra, Mona and...

  13. 78 FR 37208 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ..., and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing... (EFP) from Puerto Rico's Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (PR DNER). If granted, the... coast and 1 station off the east coast of Puerto Rico in Federal waters. All reef fish caught during the...

  14. Climate influence on dengue epidemics in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R

    2008-10-01

    The variability of the insect-borne disease dengue in Puerto Rico was studied in relation to climatic variables in the period 1979-2005. Annual and monthly reported dengue cases were compared with precipitation and temperature data. Results show that the incidence of dengue in Puerto Rico was relatively constant over time despite global warming, possibly due to the offsetting effects of declining rainfall, improving health care and little change in population. Seasonal fluctuations of dengue were driven by rainfall increases from May to November. Year-to-year variability in dengue cases was positively related to temperature, but only weakly associated with local rainfall and an index of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Climatic conditions were mapped with respect to dengue cases and patterns in high and low years were compared. During epidemics, a low pressure system east of Florida draws warm humid air over the northwestern Caribbean. Long-term trends in past observed and future projected rainfall and temperatures were studied. Rainfall has declined slowly, but temperatures in the Caribbean are rising with the influence of global warming. Thus, dengue may increase in the future, and it will be necessary to anticipate dengue epidemics using climate forecasts, to reduce adverse health impacts.

  15. CDF and PDF Comparison Between Humacao, Puerto Rico and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rosana

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of the atmospherics phenomenon is an important part in the communication system. The principal factor that contributes to the attenuation in a Ka band communication system is the rain attenuation. We have four years of tropical region observations. The data in the tropical region was taken in Humacao, Puerto Rico. Previous data had been collected at various climate regions such as desserts, template area and sub-tropical regions. Figure 1 shows the ITU-R rain zone map for North America. Rain rates are important to the rain attenuation prediction models. The models that predict attenuation generally are of two different kinds. The first one is the regression models. By using a data set these models provide an idea of the observed attenuation and rain rates distribution in the present, past and future. The second kinds of models are physical models which use the probability density functions (PDF).

  16. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Rivera Angel M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwesternPuerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species. The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo, Cueva de Malano(Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán, and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas. The mostconspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales. Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guanoincubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water at ambient laboratory conditions.Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramariasp. and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana were also recorded. They were foundon soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.

  17. Sobre los comienzos del periodismo en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Miguel B. Márquez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pocos años faltan ya para que se cumpla el segundo centenario de la introducción del periodismo en Puerto Rico. Pero la fecha exacta continúa siendo aún un enigma, como si quisiera esconderse al estudio de los investigadores. Ni siquiera ha aparecido todavía el primer ejemplar que se publicó y parece que las esperanzas de hallarlo se han desvanecido por completo. El presente estudio tiene como fin recopilar toda la información existente hasta el momento y aventurar una hipótesis acerca de la más viable de las fechas de comienzos del fenómeno periodístico en la isla, a partir de los datos que se conocen.

  18. 60 Years of Clinical Psychology in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bernal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina aspectos de la historia de la psicología clínica en Puerto Rico a partir de sus inicios en 1946. El escrito presenta el surgimiento en el 1946 y resume los hechos en los sesenta años de su desarrollo. El trabajo se documentó a base de publicaciones, tesis y disertaciones, y entrevistas con profesionales del campo. Este trabajo pretende estimular el conocimiento y el interés por conocer y aportar a las “historias” de la psicología. La disciplina puede alcanzar mayor madurez si conoce su historia y así, se logrará la construcción de una disciplina socialmente informada y responsable de su entorno.

  19. Surviving Sepsis Puerto Rico: A Call For Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Ronald; Matos, Miguel Laforet; Turbay, Tamid

    2015-01-01

    There are 1.7 million sepsis-related hospitalizations each year making it the sixth most common cause for hospitalization in the United States. Not only are this hospitalizations common, they are expensive to our medical system with $15.3 billion spent yearly (3) and hospitalizations lasting 75% longer than for other conditions. In 2001, Rivers et al published in the NEJM the results of his study "Early Goal Directed Therapy (EGDT) in The Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock". EGDT demonstrated a 16.5% decrease in mortality in septic patients (4). In 2002 the Surviving Sepsis Campaign began as a collaboration between the Society of Critical Care Medicine and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine with goals of reducing worldwide sepsis related mortality by 25% in the next 5 years. Despite the proven benefit of early identification and management, knowledge regarding the topic in Puerto Rico remains scarce. In a study performed in PR by Fernandez et al. in 2006, only an alarming 31.4% of doctors from different specialties correctly identified SIRS criteria. Our goal is to educate physicians about the importance of early identification and treatment of the septic patient. A campaign to increase awareness and improve care is essential and we propose treatment protocols for our Puerto Rican hospitals to help reduce morbidity, mortality, length of stay and costs.

  20. Four New Ladybug Species Belonging to Decadiomus Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra-Carmona, A E; Otero, M

    2014-12-01

    While searching for native natural enemies attacking invasive insect pests in Puerto Rico, we found four undescribed ladybug species belonging to the Caribbean ladybug genus Decadiomus Chapin. In this article, we describe the following species from Puerto Rico: Decadiomus seini n. sp., Decadiomus ramosi n. sp., Decadiomus hayuyai n. sp., and Decadiomus martorelli n. sp. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus, shape of prosternal carinae, and drawings of male and female genitalia are presented. We also present a key for Diomini of Puerto Rico and discuss their importance as potential biocontrol agents.

  1. Literatura e identidad nacional en Puerto Rico [1930-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sancholuz

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Literatura e identidad nacional en Puerto Rico [1930-1960]' procura indagar los problemas de construcción de las identidades nacionales en una nación que no llegó a constituirse como Estado independiente. Partimos de esta'paradoja' para analizar lo que Arcadio Díaz Quiñones ha caracterizado como definición 'culturalista' de la nacionalidad, que permite la coexistencia con la situación de dominación colonial que padece Puerto Rico. La definición de la 'nación' se liga así al poder de la escritura y a los paradigmas que manejan los letrados, y no puede verse como expresión de una realidad previamente constituida al margen de los discursos que la articulan. El presente artículo revisa tres momentos claves de emergencia y consolidación de la identidad puertorriqueña como discurso, en el periodo comprendido entre la década del treinta de nuestro siglo y los años sesenta, deteniéndose especialmente en tres ensayos: Insularismo [1934] de Antonio S. Pedreira; El despertar de un pueblo [1942] de Vicente Géigel Polanco; y El puertorriqueño dócil: literatura y realidad psicológica [1960] de René Marqués. Finalmente señalamos también los quiebres y nuevas propuestas de definición de la nacionalidad que se gestan en las producciones literarias a partir de los años setenta

  2. Sedimentation Survey of Lago de Cidra, Puerto Rico, August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2010-01-01

    Lago de Cidra is a reservoir located on the confluence of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana, and Quebrada Prieta, in the municipality of Cidra in east-central Puerto Rico, about 3.0 kilometers northeast of the town of Cidra. The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1946 as a 6.54-million-cubic-meter supplemental water supply for the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir impounds the waters of Rio de Bayamon, Rio Sabana and Quebrada Prieta. The reservoir has a drainage area of 21.4 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity and earthfill structure with a length of approximately 165 meters and a structural height of 24 meters. The spillway portion of the dam is an ungated ogee crest about 40 meters long with a crest elevation of 403.00 meters above mean sea level. Additional information and operational procedures are listed in Soler-Lopez (1999). During August 14-15, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago de Cidra to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1997 bathymetric survey data. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago de Cidra during August 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1997.

  3. Post-1898 Imaginative Geographies: Puerto Rico Migration in 1950s Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tolentino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay studies cultural representations of Puerto Rico’s economic boom and 1952 shift in legal status to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It suggests that apprehending these events requires the reframing of Puerto Rican migration as global phenomena. Drawing on the historical and cultural scholarship on Puerto Rican migration, Operation Bootstrap, and US empire, Tolentino analyzes the famous musical film West Side Story (1961, but also the Hollywood film Sabrina (1954 and Island productions El Otro Camino (The Other Road, 1955 and Maruja (1958. In contrast to prevailing views, she interprets these films as narratives about migration and modernization that engage the discourse of sentimental modernization, the figure of the jíbaro, and the idea of small town Puerto Rico. In so doing, they reveal the global vision at the center of the Operation Bootstrap development plan and Commonwealth formation. The concluding section suggests how the films take up issues in Puerto Rico’s historiography. Rather than merely illuminating a forgotten historical period of 1950s Puerto Rico, the 1950s films negotiate Puerto Rico’s geographical, political, and cultural locations by rethinking institutionalized meanings of 1898 in discourses of Puerto Rico historiography and US empire. Proposing new ways of interpreting the introduction of the Commonwealth in 1952 makes possible the revision of dominant conceptions of 1898 rooted in nation, government, and constitutional law.

  4. Post-1898 Imaginative Geographies: Puerto Rico Migration in 1950s Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tolentino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay studies cultural representations of Puerto Rico’s economic boom and 1952 shift in legal status to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It suggests that apprehending these events requires the reframing of Puerto Rican migration as global phenomena. Drawing on the historical and cultural scholarship on Puerto Rican migration, Operation Bootstrap, and US empire, Tolentino analyzes the famous musical film West Side Story (1961, but also the Hollywood film Sabrina (1954 and Island productions El Otro Camino (The Other Road, 1955 and Maruja (1958. In contrast to prevailing views, she interprets these films as narratives about migration and modernization that engage the discourse of sentimental modernization, the figure of the jíbaro, and the idea of small town Puerto Rico. In so doing, they reveal the global vision at the center of the Operation Bootstrap development plan and Commonwealth formation. The concluding section suggests how the films take up issues in Puerto Rico’s historiography. Rather than merely illuminating a forgotten historical period of 1950s Puerto Rico, the 1950s films negotiate Puerto Rico’s geographical, political, and cultural locations by rethinking institutionalized meanings of 1898 in discourses of Puerto Rico historiography and US empire. Proposing new ways of interpreting the introduction of the Commonwealth in 1952 makes possible the revision of dominant conceptions of 1898 rooted in nation, government, and constitutional law.

  5. Epidemiological Profile of Hispanics Admitted With Acute Myocardial Infarction in Puerto Rico: The Experience of 2007, 2009 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F; Osterman-Pla, Anthony D; Carrasquillo, Onelys; Aranda, Juan; Baez, Stella; Lopez, Mariel; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J

    2017-06-01

    A limited number of studies have been published about coronary artery disease in Hispanics, particularly among the Puerto Rican population. The aim of this study was to present a clinical epidemiological profile and management practices in patients hospitalized in Puerto Rico with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This secondary data analysis from the Puerto Rico Cardiovascular Surveillance Study included 6,162 patients at 19 hospitals in Puerto Rico, during years 2007, 2009 and 2011. The mean age of the patients diagnosed with AMI was 67 ± 13.6 years old, with women being older than men (P Puerto Rico.

  6. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Accuracy Assessment Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  7. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  8. Circulation Modeling for Proposed Port Facility at Ponce and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheffner, Norman

    2002-01-01

    ... of Ponce and Guayanilla, Puerto Rico. Impacts of the proposed construction were determined by conducting numerical simulations of tidal and storm surge circulation at the project sites using with and without the proposed port facilities...

  9. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_483895_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  10. 2007 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_244220_000_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  11. 2008 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_255604_000_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  12. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_1700252_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  13. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_0100092_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  14. 2006 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_215365_004_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  15. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_0900172_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  16. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_0072610_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  17. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_502736_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  18. 2007 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_244220_001_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  19. 2006 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_215365_012_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  20. 2006 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_215365_000_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  1. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Bathymetry Model - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a bathymetry model of the seafloor of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) of the Northeast Ecological Reserve:...

  2. 76 FR 80982 - International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...-0292] International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities I International Cyclotron, Inc. (International Cyclotron; Licensee) is the holder of Byproduct Materials License... International Cyclotron submitted its NRC license application related to the cyclotron, it requested...

  3. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  4. 2008 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_260684_001_ps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  5. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Southwest Puerto Rico Chemical Contaminant Assessment Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the project was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in southwest Puerto Rico, as part of a larger effort to link coral...

  6. Principal aquifers of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is polygon data of shallowest principal aquifers of Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands, developed as part of the effort to produce a map published...

  7. Trees for Urban Use in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Schubert

    1979-01-01

    Describes and illustrates forty-six tree species useful for shade and ornament in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Information is alsoprovided about planting, maintenance, and appropriate use of trees in urban areas.

  8. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 9m Multibeam Bathymetry, Puerto Rico (Tourmaline Bank) - UTM 19N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 9 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of selected portions of seafloor around Tourmaline Bank in Puerto Rico,...

  9. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Ground Validation Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  10. Vieques, Puerto Rico Benthic Habitat Maps derived from 2006-2008 IKONOS imagery and orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  11. Puerto Rico ESI/RSI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) and Reach Sensitivity Index (RSI) data for Puerto Rico. ESI data characterize estuarine...

  12. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  13. Chemical and physical analyses of selected plants and soils from Puerto Rico (1981-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. J. Sanchez; E. Lopez; A. E. Lugo

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the result of many analyses conducted at the laboratory of the IITF of Puerto Rico between 1981 and 1990. our objective was to make available the chemical and physical data developed for tropical forest ecosystems.

  14. Precipitation Frequency for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands is based on precipitation data collected between...

  15. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  16. The Ecological Consequences of Socioeconomic and Land-Use Changes in Postagriculture Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. RICARDO GRAU; T. MITCHELL AIDE; JESS K. ZIMMERMAN; JOHN R. HELMER THOMLINSON; XIOMING ZOU

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to the general trend in the tropics, forests have recovered in Puerto Rico from less than 10% of the landscape in the late 1940s to more than 40% in the present. The recent Puerto Rican history of forest recovery provides the opportunity to study the ecological consequences of economic globalization, reflected in a shift from agriculture to manufacturing and...

  17. Diet of the non-native spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damien Bontemps; Elvira Cuevas; Eileen Ortiz; Joseph Wunderle Jr.; Rafael Joglar

    2016-01-01

    The spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) was introduced to Puerto Rico over 50 years ago with the Tortuguero Lagoon Natural Reserve (TLNR) as its epicenter, where it is now established as an apex predator. Although concerns have been raised regarding the potential impact of this naturalized predator on Puerto Rico’s native fauna, little was known of the caiman’s diet...

  18. Attitudes toward business creation: A comparative study between Catalonia and Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinés Aponte

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the attitudes towards entrepreneurship of two samples of university students from Catalonia and Puerto Rico are analysed. Perceptions of desirability, feasibility and the intention to start a new firm are studied and compared. Institutional Economic Theory is used as a theoretical framework of the research due to its adequacy to the analysis of the conditioning factors to entrepreneurship. Not relevant differences in the attitudes to entrepreneurship between Catalonia and Puerto Rico are found in the research.

  19. La erradicación de la malaria en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Franco Rafael

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, malaria was a serious public health problem in Puerto Rico. In 1962, that country became the first tropical territory in the Americas, and possibly in the world, to receive certification from WHO for having eradicated malaria and having declared itself free of the disease. This report chronicles the tremendous effort that was dedicated to the eradication campaign in Puerto Rico, which took place in the first part of this century.

  20. New distribution record of Cybocephalus kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Curbelo-Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New distribution record of Cybocephalus Kathrynae (Coleoptera, Cybocephalidae on Mona Island, Puerto Rico. A new record of Cybocephalus kathrynae T.R. Smith (Cybocephalidae is reported for Puerto Rico. Adults were collected from the flowers of Mammillaria nivosa (Cactaceae on Mona Island Reserve. Prior to this study, this beetle species was only reported for Monroe and Miami-Dade Counties, Florida, USA.

  1. Comparison of special education and regular students in Puerto Rico on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrata, J L

    1991-08-01

    The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for Children have been standardized for Puerto Rico. In this study the latter test was administered to 24 14-yr.-old boys in special education. No significant differences in scores on Neuroticism or Psychoticism were observed for these boys and 405 12-yr.-old regular students. Results are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of the special education program in Puerto Rico.

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity of sweet potato in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Cuevas, Hugo E; Montero-Rojas, Milly; Bird-Pico, Fernando; Luciano-Rosario, Dianiris; Siritunga, Dimuth

    2014-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the seventh most important food crop due to its distinct advantages, such as adaptability to different environmental conditions and high nutritional value. Assessing the genetic diversity of this important crop is necessary due to the constant increase of demand for food and the need for conservation of agricultural and genetic resources. In Puerto Rico (PR), the genetic diversity of sweet potato has been poorly understood, although it has been part of the diet since Pre-Columbus time. Thus, 137 landraces from different localities around PR were collected and subjected to a genetic diversity analysis using 23 SSR-markers. In addition, 8 accessions from a collection grown in Gurabo, PR at the Agricultural Experimental Station (GAES), 10 US commercial cultivars and 12 Puerto Rican accessions from the USDA repository collection were included in this assessment. The results of the analysis of the 23 loci showed 255 alleles in the 167 samples. Observed heterozygosity was high across populations (0.71) while measurements of total heterozygosity revealed a large genetic diversity throughout the population and within populations. UPGMA clustering method revealed two main clusters. Cluster 1 contained 12 PR accessions from the USDA repository collection, while cluster 2 consisted of PR landraces, US commercial cultivars and the PR accessions from GAES. Population structure analysis grouped PR landraces in five groups including four US commercial cultivars. Our study shows the presence of a high level of genetic diversity of sweet potato across PR which can be related to the genetic makeup of sweet potato, human intervention and out-crossing nature of the plant. The history of domestication and dispersal of sweet potato in the Caribbean and the high levels of genetic diversity found through this study makes sweet potato an invaluable resource that needs to be protected and further studied.

  3. Spirometric nomograms for normal children and adolescents in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO CHEN-MOK

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The use of spirometric reference values specific to the population being tested is preferable. A study carried out in Puerto Rico is used here to develop nomograms for normal children and adolescents based on age and height, two variables that have been found to be good predictors of pulmonary function. Material and methods. The data for healthy individuals aged 5 to 18 were extracted (108 girls and 107 boys from a larger study of spirometric measurements collected on 4 527 individuals attending medical services in Puerto Rico. Several models were tested for the prediction of FEV1, FVC and the ratio FEV1/FVC. The best models were selected for each gender, and nomograms were developed showing the fifth, twenty-fifth, fiftieth, seventy-fifth, and ninety-fifth percentile of the predicted values according to age and height separately. Results. The best models were those using the logarithm of the pulmonary function and the cube of height (R2= 0.79-0.81, and age without transformation (R2= 0.73-0.77. Corresponding nomograms were developed based on these models. The ratio showed little variation for different ages and heights. Conclusions. Pulmonary function can be efficiently predicted by age and height. Nomograms provide a simple way to use spirometric references that can be incorporated to clinical practice.Objetivo. Desarrollar nomogramas espirométricos para niños y adolescentes portorriqueños, de acuerdo con edad y estatura. Material y métodos. Se extrajeron datos de individuos sanos de edades entre 5 y 18 años (108 niñas y 107 niños de un estudio mayor, en el cual se recolectaron medidas espirométricas en 4 527 individuos que se presentaron en los servicios médicos en Puerto Rico. Se probaron varios modelos en la predicción del volumen de espiración forzada en un segundo (FEV1, de la capacidad vital forzada (CVF y la razón VEF1/CVF. Se seleccionaron los mejores modelos para cada sexo y se desarrollaron los nomogramas

  4. Puerto Rico water resources planning model program description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D.W.; Maddock, Thomas; Karlinger, M.R.; Lloyd, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    Because the use of the Mathematical Programming System -Extended (MPSX) to solve large linear and mixed integer programs requires the preparation of many input data cards, a matrix generator program to produce the MPSX input data from a much more limited set of data may expedite the use of the mixed integer programming optimization technique. The Model Definition and Control Program (MODCQP) is intended to assist a planner in preparing MPSX input data for the Puerto Rico Water Resources Planning Model. The model utilizes a mixed-integer mathematical program to identify a minimum present cost set of water resources projects (diversions, reservoirs, ground-water fields, desalinization plants, water treatment plants, and inter-basin transfers of water) which will meet a set of future water demands and to determine their sequence of construction. While MODCOP was specifically written to generate MPSX input data for the planning model described in this report, the program can be easily modified to reflect changes in the model's mathematical structure.

  5. Un estudio transcultural de personalidad: Puerto Rico e Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil B. G. Eysenck

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available 536 hombres y 558 mujeres en Puerto Rico completaron la versión de 101 ítems del Cuestionario de Personalidad de Eysenck para Adultos, traducido en Español. Indices de comparación factorial para todos los factores fueron lo suficientemente a altos para considerar que eran esencialmente idénticos a aquellos originalmente obtenidos en Inglaterra. Fue necesario substituir algunos íterns para lograr una clave de corrección viable. El cuestionario final de 89 ítems dio suficiente confiabilidad para Extroversión, Neurotícismo y Disimulación, con una puntuación un poco más baja (pero con una confiabilidad aceptable para Psicotismo. Las diferencias entre los sexos en la muestra puertorriqueña fueron en la dirección esperada; y los varones sacaron puntuaciones más altas que las mujeres en P y E pero más bajas en N y D. Comparaciones transculturales mostraron a los varones puertorriqueños sacando puntuaciones más altas que los varones británicos en E, N YD pero las mujeres puertorriqueñas sacaron puntuaciones más altas que las mujeres británicas s610 en la Escala de Disimulación con una leve tendencia a ser más extrovertidas que las mujeres británicas

  6. Trailblazing the Carbon Cycle of Tropical Forests from Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Brown

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature that led to clarifying the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle from a time when they were considered sources of atmospheric carbon to the time when they were found to be atmospheric carbon sinks. This literature originates from work conducted by US Forest Service scientists in Puerto Rico and their collaborators. It involves the classification of forests by life zones, estimation of carbon density by forest type, assessing carbon storage changes with ecological succession and land use/land cover type, describing the details of the carbon cycle of forests at stand and landscape levels, assessing global land cover by forest type and the complexity of land use change in tropical regions, and assessing the ecological fluxes and storages that contribute to net carbon accumulation in tropical forests. We also review recent work that couples field inventory data, remote sensing technology such as LIDAR, and GIS analysis in order to more accurately determine the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle and point out new avenues of carbon research that address the responses of tropical forests to environmental change.

  7. Clouds and aerosols in Puerto Rico ─ a new evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dusek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, remains a major area of uncertainty when predicting the properties and behaviour of clouds and their influence on climate. In an attempt to better understand warm cloud formation in a tropical marine environment, a period of intensive measurements took place in December 2004 in Puerto Rico, using some of the latest developments in online instrumentation such as aerosol mass spectrometers, cloud condensation nuclei counters and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser. Simultaneous online measurements of aerosol size distributions, composition, hygroscopicity and optical properties were made near the lighthouse of Cape San Juan in the north-eastern corner of the island and at the top of East Peak mountain (1040 m a.s.l., the two sites separated by 17 km. Additional measurements of the cloud droplet residual and interstitial aerosol properties were made at the mountain site, accompanied by measurements of cloud droplet size distributions, liquid water content and the chemical composition of cloud and rain water samples. Both aerosol composition and cloud properties were found to be sensitive to wind sector. Air from the east-northeast (ENE was mostly free of anthropogenic influences, the submicron fraction being mainly composed of non-sea salt sulphate, while that from the east-southeast (ESE was found to be moderately influenced by populated islands upwind, adding smaller (<100 nm, externally mixed, carbonaceous particles to the aerosol that increased the number concentrations by over a factor of 3. This change in composition was also accompanied with a reduction in the measured hygroscopicity and fractional cloud activation potential of the aerosol. At the mountain site, the average cloud droplet concentrations increased from 193 to 519 cm−3, median volume diameter decreased from 20 to 14 μm and the liquid water content increased from 0.24 to 0.31 g m−3 when the winds

  8. Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first

  9. Genetic structure of the gentle Africanized honey bee population (gAHB) in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Acevedo-Gonzalez, Jenny P; Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Giray, Tugrul

    2013-08-06

    The Africanized honey bee is one of the most spectacular invasions in the Americas. African bees escaped from apiaries in Brazil in 1956, spread over Americas and by 1994 they were reported in Puerto Rico. In contrast to other places, the oceanic island conditions in Puerto Rico may mean a single introduction and different dynamics of the resident European and new-coming Africanized bees.To examine the genetic variation of honey bee feral populations and colonies from different locations in Puerto Rico, we used eight known polymorphic microsatellite loci. In Puerto Rico, gAHB population does not show any genetic structure (Fst = 0.0783), and is best described as one honey bee population, product of hybridization of AHB and EHB. The genetic variability in this Africanized population was similar to that reported in studies from Texas. We observed that European private allele frequencies are high in all but one locus. This contrasts with mainland Africanized populations, where European allele frequencies are diminished. Two loci with European private alleles, one on Linkage Group 7, known to carry two known defensiveness Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs), and the other on Linkage Group 1, known to carry three functionally studied genes and 11 candidate genes associated with Varroa resistance mechanisms were respectively, significantly greater or lower in European allele frequency than the other loci with European private alleles. Genetic structure of Puerto Rico gAHB differs from mainland AHB populations, probably representing evolutionary processes on the island.

  10. The Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut - A Communications and Media Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Gómez, G.; Giménez-Porrata, A.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; Colón-Daleccio, N.

    2012-12-01

    On October 18, 2012 the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) in collaboration with Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency (PREMA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) will be conducting the first Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut. Adequate communications strategies and redundant dissemination methods are a key component for the success of this earthquake exercise. EAS and NOAA Radio messages, indicating the beginning of the earthquake drill, will help emergency managers and the general public better coordinate their practices. Dissemination tools routinely used as part of PRSN earthquake and tsunami protocols, such as PRSNDANIS Broadcast, Ring Down, Ham Radio, RSS, SMS, fax and email service lists, will also be tested. Emergency Management and First Response Agencies at local, regional and state level are being asked to report the times the messages are received, thus allowing us to better assess the effectiveness of our dissemination methods and to establish a baseline for next year ShakeOut. In addition, a partnership with the Puerto Rico Radiobroadcaster Association allows a direct access through this media, facilitating PRSN staff participation on radio programming targeting diverse audiences. Radio spots have been developed to inform the public about the exercise, how to participate, what to do to be safe during an earthquake and how to develop or improve their safety plans. A media approach is critical for the success of the 2012 Puerto Rico ShakeOut since our earthquake drill takes place 2 weeks prior to the Island general election and on the peak-period of the hurricane season.

  11. PRO-FAMILIA -- projects for today's social realities. Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Central Office of AIDS Issues of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico reported in September 1992 that 26% of the island's known cases of AIDS occur in people younger than 29 years old. Since approximately 10 years are needed for an initial HIV infection to develop into AIDS, it is logical to assume that young adults of less than 29 years old. Since approximately 10 years are needed for an initial HIV infection to develop into AIDS it is logical to assume that young adults of less than 29 years with AIDS were infected during adolescence. The Executive Director of PROFAMILIA notes also the significant public health problems tied to the increase in unwanted adolescent pregnancies, the beginning of sexual activity in people younger than 12 years old, and the increase in AIDS cases among people younger than 29 years old. In response, the organization mounted a program of preventive education enabling youths and adults to use peer counseling techniques to teach young people about responsible sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Project for Adolescents is a new initiative in which young people, through peer education, learn about STDs and HIV/AIDS prevention. The design is innovative due to its departure from a model in which the adult provides sex education from an authoritative point of view. PROFAMILIA has also formed 8 Family Planning Information Centers strategically located around the island to increase residents' accessibility to family planning. These successful and well-accepted centers offer a range of medical and laboratory services, as well as affordably priced contraceptives.

  12. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Acute Stroke Care in the Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Ralph L; Gardener, Hannah; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Ciliberti-Vargas, Maria A; Gutierrez, Carolina M; Asdaghi, Negar; Burgin, W Scott; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J; Nobo, Ulises; Oluwole, Sofia; Rose, David Z; Waters, Michael F; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Robichaux, Mary; Waddy, Salina P; Romano, Jose G; Rundek, Tatjana

    2017-02-14

    Racial-ethnic disparities in acute stroke care can contribute to inequality in stroke outcomes. We examined race-ethnic disparities in acute stroke performance metrics in a voluntary stroke registry among Florida and Puerto Rico Get With the Guidelines-Stroke hospitals. Seventy-five sites in the Florida Puerto Rico Stroke Registry (66 Florida and 9 Puerto Rico) recorded 58 864 ischemic stroke cases (2010-2014). Logistic regression models examined racial-ethnic differences in acute stroke performance measures and defect-free care (intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment, in-hospital antithrombotic therapy, deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, discharge antithrombotic therapy, appropriate anticoagulation therapy, statin use, smoking cessation counseling) and temporal trends. Among ischemic stroke cases, 63% were non-Hispanic white (NHW), 18% were non-Hispanic black (NHB), 14% were Hispanic living in Florida, and 6% were Hispanic living in Puerto Rico. NHW patients were the oldest, followed by Hispanics, and NHBs. Defect-free care was greatest among NHBs (81%), followed by NHWs (79%) and Florida Hispanics (79%), then Puerto Rico Hispanics (57%) ( P disparity in Puerto Rico persisted (2010: NHWs=63%, NHBs=65%, Florida Hispanics=59%, Puerto Rico Hispanics=31%; 2014: NHWs=93%, NHBs=94%, Florida Hispanics=94%, Puerto Rico Hispanics=63%). Racial-ethnic/geographic disparities were observed for acute stroke care performance metrics. Adoption of a quality improvement program improved stroke care from 2010 to 2014 in Puerto Rico and all Florida racial-ethnic groups. However, stroke care quality delivered in Puerto Rico is lower than in Florida. Sustained support of evidence-based acute stroke quality improvement programs is required to improve stroke care and minimize racial-ethnic disparities, particularly in resource-strained Puerto Rico. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Grayscale Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands Shaded Relief - 200- Meter Resolution 200509 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Puerto Rico and...

  14. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Color Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands Shaded Relief - 200- Meter Resolution 200512 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Puerto Rico and...

  15. Cultural Diversity of Interpersonal Communication Competence: A Study of Puerto Rico Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby C. Vaught

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research and theories of interpersonal communication reflect mainstream U.S. culture. In an attempt to better understand the communication practices of Spanish-speaking cultures, an exploratory study of interpersonal communication was conducted involving Puerto Rican managers. The Index of Interpersonal Communication Competence (IICC was translated into Spanish and administered in two large international pharmaceutical companies in Puerto Rico. The results of the study are discussed in terms of implications for communication theory and applied communication research.

  16. Bankruptcy and loans in Puerto Rico:an exploratory overview of their relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Álvarez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico has been going through a period of economic downturn since 2006, beginning a little before the global economic recession. This paper examines the behavior of loans granted by the commercial banking sector and their relationship with the number of business bankruptcies filed in Puerto Rico between 1999 and 2011. Findings draw attention to the fact that from 2006, there has been a steady decline in the number of personal, commercial and mortgage loans approved by the commercial banking sector, as well as in their value. An increase in the filing of bankruptcy is also observed. The number of loans approved by banks in Puerto Rico show a strong correlation with the economic activity index (EAI and other economic indicators that help to explain the island’s employment situation (total employment, labor force participation rate and unemployment rate.

  17. Physicians and pharmacists in Puerto Rico during the Wars of Independence, 1810-1830.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Vega, Ivette

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th Century, there was a "chronic lack of physicians, medications, and hospital facilities, easily overwhelmed epidemics" in Puerto Rico. But, the arrival of newcomers from various parts of the world to the Island contributed to socio-economic development and the improvement of health conditions and health care. The Wars of Independence throughout Spanish American colonies (1808-1826), resulted in population movements into the Island, particularly from Tierra Firme (Venezuela), as well as from Spain (1808-1814). In 30 years the population doubled. Puerto Rico had 44 physicians, 13 pharmacists, and 45 "curanderos" or "healers"; the municipality of Ponce had 6 physicians and 2 pharmacists. The progress made by the southern society was remarkable. Those arriving from Venezuela were at the time the most benefited of the Spanish emigrants. They were educated people mastering languages, commerce, agriculture, science and medicine. This, in turn, stimulated progress, and economic and social wellbeing in Puerto Rico.

  18. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin...

  19. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  20. The distribution and biology of potential vectors of Xylella fastidiosa on coffee and citrus in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa (Wells et al.) (Xf) surround the Caribbean Basin. Two major commodities of Puerto Rico, coffee and citrus, are highly susceptible to Xf. We surveyed potential vectors of Xf in coffee and citrus farms in western Puerto Rico over an 18 month period. Cicadel...

  1. 33 CFR 165.776 - Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico 165.776 Section 165.776 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.776 Security Zone; Coast Guard Base San Juan, San Juan Harbor, Puerto Rico (a...

  2. 50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 20.101 Section 20.101 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.101 Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico...

  3. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire: Spanish for Puerto Rico Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Cruz-Gomez, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire to Spanish for Puerto Rico. Five steps were followed for the cross-cultural adaptation: forward translations into Spanish for Puerto Rico, synthesis of the translations, back translations into English, revision by…

  4. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Puerto Rico and...

  6. Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long history of ineffective land use planning. This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand how people use and develop the lands. We define three new regions for Puerto Rico: Urban (16%), Densely Populated Rural (36%), and Sparsely Populated Rural (48%). Eleven...

  7. Hurricanes, climate change and the cholera epidemic in Puerto Rico of 1855-1856.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Hurricanes and global climate changes may affect the environmental factors of cholera dynamics in warm coastal areas, vulnerable to seasonal or sporadic outbreaks. The cholera epidemic of Puerto Rico in 1855-1856 had a profound effect on the Puerto Rican society; but it was not influenced by any climatic events, such as preceding hurricanes or storms based on past documentary sources. Particularly, the environmental non-toxigenic strains of Vibrio Cholerae in Puerto Rican water sources can maintain their pathogenic potential for sporadic or erratic toxigenic cholera outbreaks--if a "perfect storm" ever occurs.

  8. Techniques for water demand analysis and forecasting: Puerto Rico, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Close, E.R.; Lopez, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of the Commonwealth-of Puerto Rico since 1947 has brought public pressure on Government agencies for rapid development of public water supply and waste treatment facilities. Since 1945 the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority has had the responsibility for planning, developing and operating water supply and waste treatment facilities on a municipal basis. The purpose of this study was to develop operational techniques whereby a planning agency, such as the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, could project the temporal and spatial distribution of .future water demands. This report is part of a 2-year cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Environmental Quality Board of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, for the development of systems analysis techniques for use in water resources planning. While the Commonwealth was assisted in the development of techniques to facilitate ongoing planning, the U.S. Geological Survey attempted to gain insights in order to better interface its data collection efforts with the planning process. The report reviews the institutional structure associated with water resources planning for the Commonwealth. A brief description of alternative water demand forecasting procedures is presented and specific techniques and analyses of Puerto Rico demand data are discussed. Water demand models for a specific area of Puerto Rico are then developed. These models provide a framework for making several sets of water demand forecasts based on alternative economic and demographic assumptions. In the second part of this report, the historical impact of water resources investment on regional economic development is analyzed and related to water demand .forecasting. Conclusions and future data needs are in the last section.

  9. Mold populations and dust mite allergen concentrations in house dust samples from across Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Stephen; Choi, Hyunok; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Acosta, Luis M; Divjan, Adnan; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamin; Rivera-Mariani, Felix; Chew, Ginger L

    2016-01-01

    Lifetime childhood asthma prevalence (LCAP) percentages in Puerto Rico Health Regions (HR) are substantially higher in northeastern vs. southwestern HR. Higher average relative humidity in the northeast might promote mold and mite exposures and possibly asthma prevalence. To test this hypothesis, mold contamination, Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) values were measured in floor dust (n = 26) and dust mite allergen concentrations in bed dust (n = 14). For this analysis, the eight HR were divided into those with LCAP > 30% (n = 3) and Mold exposures might partially explain the differences in LCAP HR in Puerto Rico.

  10. Fishery population and habitat assessment in Puerto Rico streams: phase 2 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Thomas J.; Smith, William E.; Buttermore, Elissa N.; Cooney, Patrick B.; Cope, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This document serves as the Final Report for research on Puerto Rico stream fishes and their habitat funded by the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, in the form of a grant to the North Carolina Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. This research was also conducted to meet the thesis requirement for a Master of Science degree granted to Elissa Buttermore (Chapters 3–4) and the dissertation requirement for a Doctor of Philospophy degree granted to William Smith (Chapters 5–8). Formatting differs among chapters, as each was developed to target a specific scientific journal and to conform to journal style.

  11. Data and shape files for the sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    This data release contains spatial data associated the sedimentation survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey cfor the Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, during March and April 2015 to provide up-to-date information about the relation of pool elevation and storage volume in the reservoir. The survey was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. A total of 264 navigation lines were surveyed, using a depth sounding device coupled to a global positioning system. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom referenced with respect to the spillway elevation.

  12. Hofstede cultural indexes and their impact on leadership styles in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Ortiz Rivera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between “national culture” (cultural dimensions and leadership styles displayed by managers in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico. In this study, the independent variable was “national culture” and the national culture index (Geert Hofstede, 1980 served as indicator. In contrast, leadership styles were the dependent variable measured using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ (Bass and Avolio, 2004. Findings indicate that, overall, “national culture” resulted as a significant variation in transactional and transformational leadership styles employed by managers working in foreign companies operating in Puerto Rico.

  13. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(8)(B)-1 - Remuneration for services performed in possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico) by citizen of the United States. 31.3401(a)(8)(B)-1... performed in possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico) by citizen of the United States. (a... by a citizen of the United States within a possession of the United States (other than Puerto Rico...

  14. 19 CFR 7.1 - Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from warehouse for shipment to; duty on foreign-grown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from... INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.1 Puerto Rico; spirits and wines withdrawn from... bonded manufacturing warehouse for shipment in bond to Puerto Rico pursuant to section 311, Tariff Act of...

  15. PR_Q09.TIF - Puerto Rico U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (9 of 9) (ACEA, 50 m, Clarke1866)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Puerto Rico U.S. EEZ study area includes the seafloor between the island of Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rico Trench floor and extends west to Mona Canyon and east...

  16. Plants from Puerto Rico with anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, A D; Ríos-Olivares, E; De Jesús, L; Ortiz, D; Pagán, J; Méndez, S

    1998-09-01

    This study assesses the antitubercular potential of natural products obtained from plants reputed to have medicinal properties and collected from the tropical flora of Puerto Rico. The increase in persons infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) the world over and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe and other infectious bacteria has created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. In Phase I of this study, ethanolic leaf extracts of fifty local plants were submitted to preliminary screening to assess their in vitro Mycobacterium smegmatis inhibitory activity using the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method. In Phase II, the definitive screening of the six most promising extracts which inhibited M. smegmatis were assayed for their MTB inhibitory activity using the BACTEC 460 susceptibility test method. The brine shrimp bioassay was used as a toxicity bioassay and the mice inoculation test was used to determine mice tolerance to the effect of the daily intraperitoneal inoculations of the plant extracts. MTB showed varying degrees of susceptibility to each plant extract. This effect was dependent upon the plant species, dose and time of exposure. Evidence is provided suggesting that: (1) Six crude plant extracts (12%) tested possessed inhibitory capacity at the amount of 500 micrograms per disc; (2) Mammea americana extract yielded the strongest inhibitory effect at 50 micrograms per disc, followed by Marchantia polymorpha, Mangifera indica, Callistemon citrinus, Syzygium jambos and Momordica charantia; (3) the bactericidal inhibitory pattern of MTB growth, exposed to Mammea americana extract, was comparable to streptomycin; and (4) the transitory reduction pattern of MTB growth, produced by Callistemon citrinus, Marchantia polymorpha extracts at 100 micrograms and 250 micrograms, was similar to that of bacteriostatic agents. Of 50 plants screened six extracts tested for their anti-MTB activity yielded positive

  17. The white band disease type II pathogen in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L Gil-Agudelo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The white band disease type I (WBD-I epizootic event of the early 1980’s resulted in significant changes in the structure and composition of coral communities throughout the wider Caribbean. The disease decimated populations of acroporid corals throughout their geographic distribution and it is still affecting the surviving and recovering populations of these corals in a number of localities in the wider Caribbean. The putative pathogen for this syndrome (WBD-I was never identified. A second pattern of white band was described later as white band type II (WBD-II. A potential pathogen named Vibrio charchariae was identified but Koch’s postulates were never fulfilled. In this work, we present results of a preliminary approach to confirm the identity of the pathogen of WBD-II. During the fall months of 2004, samples of Acropora cervicornis with signs of WBD-II were collected from a small population in Mario reef, an isolated patch reef off La Parguera, southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Bacteria extracted from these samples were isolated in TCBS agar, grown in Glycerol Seawater agar, and then used to inoculate separated, healthy-looking colonies of the same population in the same reef. Isolation, culture, and inoculations of bacteria were conducted under controlled conditions within hours of collection, and no microorganisms that were not already in the reef community were introduced with these experiments. Some of the newly inoculated colonies developed the disease signs within 24 hr. These were subsequently sampled and bacterial re-isolated to be identified, thus complying with the first steps to fulfill Koch ’s postulates for this disease. Rates of advance of the disease signs varied between 0.5 and 2 cm/day. Preliminary analyses indicated that the potential cause of WBD-II is a Vibrio species very close to Vibrio harveyi, a synonymy of V. charchariae. All inoculated coral colonies that developed the signs of WBD-II, behaved as the naturally

  18. The shape of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico El estado de la epidemia de VIH/SIDA en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Gomez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information on AIDS patients in Puerto Rico, including their general sociodemographic profile, some risk-related parameters, characteristics of vulnerable groups, and elements of the clinical spectrum of the disease. Data were analyzed from the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program and available studies about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico. A total of 23 089 AIDS cases was reported to the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program from January 1981 through February 1999. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has affected mostly males and females between the ages of 30 and 49, though cases have also been reported for other age groups. The cumulative proportion of persons with AIDS who are women has increased tremendously, from 11.4% for the 1981-1986 period to 21.6% for the entire 1981-1999 period. In Puerto Rico the category of injecting drug users (IDUs accounts for the majority of the AIDS cases (52%, followed by heterosexual contact (22%, and men who have sex with men (17%. The three main diagnoses for AIDS on the island are wasting syndrome (30.7%; esophageal, bronchial, and lung candidiasis (29.4%; and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (26.8%. According to 1994 vital statistics for Puerto Rico, AIDS was the fourth-leading cause of death. The overall reported AIDS mortality rate was 42.0 per 100 000 persons, with the rate for males, 67.8, much higher than it was for females, 17.4. AIDS is the first cause of death among persons between 30 and 39 years old. Intense efforts are needed to better understand the epidemic in Puerto Rico and its biology, social and family impacts, and financial costs.Este estudio presenta información sobre los pacientes con sida en Puerto Rico, como su perfil sociodemográfico general, los factores de riesgo, las características de los grupos vulnerables y los elementos del espectro clínico de la enfermedad. Los datos analizados procedían del Programa de Vigilancia del sida en Puerto Rico y de estudios sobre

  19. Genetic analysis of a novel invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R. Graham; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R.; Reed, Robert N.; Revell, Liam J.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical island Puerto Rico is potentially vulnerable to invasion by some species of exotic snakes; however, until now no established populations had been reported. Here we report and genetically characterize the nascent invasion of Puerto Rico by an exotic constricting snake of the family Boidae (Boa constrictor) using mtDNA and microsatellite data. Over 150 individual B. constrictor have been removed from Mayagüez municipality since May 2011, and our results from the genetic analysis of 32 individuals suggest that this population was recently founded by individuals of one subspecies from a genetic lineage common to zoo and breeding collections, but that the potential propagule pool consists of two subspecies. We also suggest that anthropogenic long-distance dispersal within the island of Puerto Rico may be occurring from the established population, with implications for further establishment across the island. This study represents the first report of the naturalization of an invasive species of boid snake in Puerto Rico and will be important in determining mitigation strategies for this invasion as well as providing a basis for comparison to other on-going studies of invasive snakes.

  20. The condition of scleractinian corals and associated reef fauna in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scleractinian corals, octocorals, sponges, fishes, and foraminifera were assessed at 24 sites near La Parguera, Puerto Rico in fall 2008. Sites were selected to coincide with locations sampled by NOAA in 2005 for sediment contaminants. Our goals were to evaluate the sensitivity o...

  1. The effects of changing land cover on streamflow simulation in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Van Beusekom; L.E. Hay; R.J. Viger; W.A. Gould; J.A. Collazo; A. Henareh Khalyani

    2014-01-01

    This study quantitatively explores whether land cover changes have a substantive impact on simulated streamflow within the tropical island setting of Puerto Rico. The Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to compare streamflow simulations based on five static parameterizations of land cover with those based on dynamically varying parameters derived from...

  2. Fungal pathogen complexes associated with rambutan, longan and mango diseases in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different fungi have been associated with diseased inflorescences, leaves, and fruits of mango, rambutan and longan. During a fungal disease survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 at six orchards of rambutan and longan, and one orchard of mango in Puerto Rico, symptoms such as fruit rot, infloresc...

  3. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  4. Geomorphology, disturbance, and the soil and vegetation of two subtropical wet steepland watersheds of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo F.N. Scatena

    1995-01-01

    Relationships between landforms, soil nutrients, forest structure, and the relative importance of different disturbances were quantified in two subtropical wet steepland watersheds in Puerto Rico. Ridges had fewer landslides and treefall gaps, more above-ground biomass, older aged stands, and greater species richness than other landscape positions. Ridge soils had...

  5. 76 FR 24512 - Laguna Cartagena National Wildlife Refuge, Lajas, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Laguna Cartagena National Wildlife Refuge, Lajas, Puerto Rico; Draft... CCP/EA) for Laguna Cartagena National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for public review and comment. In the... Cartagena NWR. We started the process through a notice of intent in the Federal Register on May 16, 2007 (72...

  6. Monitoreo del Aire en Puerto Rico a través de la Ciencia Ciudadana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comunidad de Tallaboa/Encarnación en Peñuelas, Puerto Rico es un ejemplo de una comunidad comprometida con mejorar la calidad de aire para sus residentes que han sufrido el impacto acumulativo de la contaminacion en su localidad.

  7. Tropical cyclone effects on insect colonization and abundance in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Torres

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge of the ways in which insects disperse is important in decisions concerning their control. The dispersal of insects aided by the wind cannot be regarded as accidental and occasional but as an adaptive feature of the phylum (Johnson and Bowden 1973). Due to its location, Puerto Rico is exposed to cyclone winds that can affect the colonization and abundance...

  8. SalHUD--A Graphical Interface to Public Health Data in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto G; Arce-Corretjer, Roberto; Solá-Sloan, Juan M; Conde, José G

    2015-12-22

    This paper describes SalHUD, a prototype web-based application for visualizing health data from Puerto Rico. Our initial focus was to provide interactive maps displaying years of potential life lost (YPLL). The public-use mortality file for year 2008 was downloaded from the Puerto Rico Institute of Statistics website. Data was processed with R, Python and EpiInfo to calculate years of potential life lost for the leading causes of death on each of the 78 municipalities in the island. Death records were classified according to ICD-10 codes. YPLL for each municipality was integrated into AtlasPR, a D3 Javascript map library. Additional Javascript, HTML and CSS programing was required to display maps as a web-based interface. YPLL for all municipalities are displayed on a map of Puerto Rico for each of the ten leading causes of death and for all causes combined, so users may dynamically explore the impact of premature mortality. This work is the first step in providing the general public in Puerto Rico with user-friendly, interactive, visual access to public health data that is usually published in numerical, text-based media.

  9. Modeling College Graduation GPA Considering Equity in Admissions: Evidence from the University of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Díaz, Horacio; García, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Over concerns about private school students' advantages in standardized tests, beginning in 1995-96 the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) implemented a new admissions formula that reduced the weight they previously had in the General Admissions Index (GAI), on which its admissions decisions are based. This study seeks to determine the possible…

  10. Authorship Policies for the Conduct of Graduate Research in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Bonet-Rivera, Ivette

    2011-01-01

    Authorship credit is one of the areas addressed by research integrity. Policies established by graduate academic programs and academic institutions in Puerto Rico are analyzed by describing authorship principles included. Twenty-six percent of the policies specify that students are authors of their research work. Four percent of the policies…

  11. Invasion by native tree species prevents biotic homogenization in novel forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar J. Abelleira Martinez

    2010-01-01

    There is concern that secondary forests dominated by introduced species, known as novel forests, increase taxonomical similarity between localities and lead to biotic homogenization in human dominated landscapes. In Puerto Rico, agricultural abandonment has given way to novel forests dominated by the introduced African tulip tree Spathodea campanulata Beauv. (...

  12. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Salvesen von Essen, Beatriz; Lamias, Mark J; Shulman, Holly; Hernandez-Virella, Wanda I; Taraporewalla, Aspy J; Vargas, Manuel I; Harrison, Leslie; Ellington, Sascha R; Soto, Leslianne; Williams, Tanya; Rodriguez, Aurea; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rivera, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Rice, Marion E; Dee, Deborah L; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Barfield, Wanda; Smith, Ruben A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Deseda, Carmen; Warner, Lee

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.

  13. Exposure to Rabies in Small Indian Mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) from Two Regions in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, Are R; Johnson, Shylo R; Gilbert, Amy T; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-10-01

    The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) was introduced to several Caribbean Islands to control rat (Rattus spp.) damage to sugarcane plantations. Mongooses failed at suppressing rat populations and are now considered pests throughout most of their introduced range. Importantly, mongooses are rabies reservoirs on several Caribbean Islands. In Puerto Rico, mongooses have been implicated in up to 70% of reported animal rabies cases. There is no rabies vaccination program for wildlife in Puerto Rico, and data on rabies in mongooses are limited. We conducted a serosurvey of mongooses in two different ecologic environments in Puerto Rico: El Yunque National Forest and Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge. We collected 119 serum samples from 112 mongooses, 44 (39.3%) of which were positive for rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies. We also collected oral swabs from 147 mongooses, including 88 from which we also collected serum. No oral swabs were positive for rabies virus RNA. Our data support previous research suggesting rabies virus is circulating within the mongoose population on Puerto Rico.

  14. First report of multiple races of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rice nursery located in the Lajas Valley, in the southwestern corner of Puerto Rico has been used by US rice breeders for the past 43 years to produce one to two extra generations per year. In April, 2015, blast disease lesions were observed on rice breeding lines belonging to the USDA ARS DB NR...

  15. Research project for integrated control of the southern cattle fever tick in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico (PR) is infested with the southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, which is considered the most economically important external parasite of livestock worldwide. A research coalition involving the livestock industry in PR, the PR Department of Agriculture (...

  16. Hepatitis C serosorting among people who inject drugs in rural Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ian; Curtis, Ric; Reyes, Juan Carlos; Abadie, Roberto; Khan, Bilal; Dombrowski, Kirk

    2017-06-01

    Due to the high cost of treatment, preventative measures to limit Hepatitis C (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) are encouraged by many public health officials. A key one of these is serosorting, where PWID select risk partners based on concordant HCV status. Research on the general U.S. population by Smith et al. (2013) found that knowledge of one's own HCV status facilitated serosorting behaviors among PWID, such that respondents with knowledge of their own status were more likely to ask potential partners about their status prior to sharing risk. Our objective was to see if this held true in rural Puerto Rico. We replicate this study using a sample of PWID in rural Puerto Rico to draw comparisons. We used respondent driven sampling to survey 315 participants, and have a final analytic sample of 154. The survey was heavily modeled after the National HIV Behavioral Survey, which was the dataset used by the previous researchers. We found that among PWID in rural Puerto Rico, unlike in the general population, knowledge of one's own HCV status had no significant effect on the selection of one's most recent injection partner, based on his/her HCV status. We conclude that PWID in rural Puerto Rico differ from the general U.S. population when it comes to serosorting behaviors, and that these differences should be taken into account in future outreaches and intervention strategies.

  17. Communication Ethics in the Communication Curriculum: United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy; Leavitt, Michelle A.; Hoffer, Melba; Charron, Lori N.; Ballard, Robert L.; Bell McManus, Leeanne M.; Holba, Annette M.; Jovanovic, Spoma; Tompkins, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the status of communication ethics pedagogy at colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Data were collected from 193 institutions that responded to an online survey. Results showed an increase in communication ethics courses compared with 19 years ago, with 51% now offering a required or…

  18. The Work of US Public Health Service Officers in Puerto Rico, 1898-1919.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, Jose G

    2017-09-01

    The history of the US Public Health Service (PHS) is usually presented in terms of diseases or discoveries; this article examines twenty years' activity in one location. When the United States invaded Puerto Rico in 1898, the Marine Hospital Service (now PHS) took responsibility for foreign quarantine, inspection of immigrants, and medical care for merchant seamen. Its officers evaluated the sanitary conditions of port cities, helped reorganize local disease surveillance and control, and investigated endemic diseases (e.g., hookworm-related anemia) and epidemics (e.g., bubonic plague). After World War I and pandemic influenza, and the greater self-government allowed Puerto Rico by Congress in 1917, PHS officers withdrew from routine local sanitary actions. A narrow geographic focus (Puerto Rico), to examine PHS activity over time (1898 to 1919) provides a richer picture of the agency's impact, and reveals how the sum of disease control activities affected the development of an area's health status and institutions. The duties and, importantly, the personal initiatives of PHS officers in Puerto Rico, such as WW King, produced lasting impact on scientific institutions and administrative, professional, and health care practices.

  19. The Role of Socioeconomic Factors in the Prediction of Persistence in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dika, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    While research literature suggests that socioeconomic factors play a role in predicting educational attainment, very little research has been done to examine these relationships using data from Puerto Rico. A logistic regression approach was adopted to investigate the extent to which family and school socioeconomic factors predict retention from…

  20. Puerto Rico: gateway to landscape” from an ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    The exhibit Puerto Rico: Gateway to Landscape proposes to explore various ways in which citizens approach the landscape, or construct it – inside and outside the city – and considers city planning, the creation of parks and natural reserves, and their interpretation. From a perspective of citizen involvement, this thematic scaffolding related to landscape and the...

  1. Physiography, geology, and land cover of four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.F. Murphy; R.F. Stallard; M.C. Larsen; W.A. Gould

    2012-01-01

    Four watersheds with differing geology and land cover in eastern Puerto Rico have been studied on a long-term basis by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets. These watersheds are typical of tropical, island-arc settings found in many parts of the world. Two watersheds are located on coarse-grained granitic rocks that weather...

  2. Contribution to the study of the genus Helicopsyche (Trichoptera) from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Flint, O.S.

    1991-01-01

    Seven new species and one new subspecies of Helicopsyche von Sieboid are described from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico based on adults; additionally four species and one subspecies belonging to the fauna of these islands are redescribed. Both sexes are described when correct association of

  3. Examination of changes to the motorcycle law in Puerto Rico : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Puerto Rico enacted a comprehensive motorcycle safety law : in 2007 to address the rise in fatal motorcycle crashes. Prior to : the enactment of the law, the popularity of motorcycle riding : increased rapidly from 47,920 registrations in 2000, to 89...

  4. Four new species of Coenogonium (Ascomycota: Ostropales) from vulnerable forest ecosystems in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Mercado-Diaz; W.A. Gould; G. Gonzalez; R. Lucking

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Coenogonium are described from the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico—C. aurantiacum Mercado-Díaz & Lucking, C. borinquense Mercado-Díaz & Lucking, C. dimorphicum Mercado-Díaz & Lucking and C. portoricense Mercado-Díaz & Lucking. All were discovered in small and highly fragmented forest remnants of...

  5. Chemical and physical analyses of selected plants and soils from Puerto Rico (1981-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Sanchez; E. Lopez; A.E. Lugo

    2015-01-01

    This report contains the results of analyses conducted at the chemistry laboratory of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry in Puerto Rico from 1981 to 2000. The data set includes 109,177 plant analyses and 70,729 soil analyses. We report vegetation chemical data by plant part, species, life zone, soil order, geology, or parent material. Soil data are...

  6. Hourly laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Arendt

    2011-01-01

    Temporal aspects of egg deposition are important factors governing avian reproductive success. I report hourly egg-laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico during 1979–2000. Initiatory eggs were laid by early morning (median 5 0642 hrs, AST) and almost half of the eggs were laid by...

  7. Ship motion effects in CTD-data from weakly stratified waters of the Puerto Rico trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    Shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD)-casts have been made to maximum 7220 m in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). In PRT-waters from 5500 m and deeper and specifically below the 6500 m transition to the hadal-zone, the vertical density stratification is found very weak, with

  8. Soil Phosphorus Fractionation during Forest Development on Landslide Scars in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline Frizano; Arthur H. Johnson; David R. Vann; Frederick N. Scatena

    2002-01-01

    Mineral soils from a chronosequence of landslide scars ranging in age from 1 to more than 55 years in a subtropical montane rain forest of eastern Puerto Rico were used to determine the rate at which labile P capital recovers during primary succession. Nine organic and inorganic soil P fractions were measured using the Hedley sequential extraction procedure. Deep soil...

  9. Observations on the fauna that visit African Tulip Tree (Spathodea campanulata Beauv.) forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar J. Abelleira Martinez

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal field observations in secondary forests dominated by the introduced African tulip tree (Spathodea campanulata) in Puerto Rico show a faunal assemblage that consists mostly of native species (81.1 percent). The most abundant species were common birds and reptiles, yet some uncommon fauna appear to be visiting or residing in these forests. The observations...

  10. Allometry, biomass, and chemical content of novel African Tulip Tree (Spathodea campanulata) forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo; Oscar J. Abelleira; Alexander Collado; Christian A. Viera; Cynthia Santiago; Diego O. Velez; Emilio Soto; Giovanni Amaro; Graciela Charon; Jr. Colon; Jennifer Santana; Jose L. Morales; Katherine Rivera; Luis Ortiz; Luis Rivera; Mianel Maldonado; Natalia Rivera; Norelis J. Vazquez

    2011-01-01

    The African tulip tree, Spathodea campanulata, the most common tree in Puerto Rico, forms novel forest types with mixtures of native and other introduced tree species. Novel forests increase in area in response to human activity and there is no information about their biomass accumulation and nutrient cycling. We established allometric relationships and chemically...

  11. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in plantation and secondary forest in wet tropics in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI YIQING; MING XU; ZOU XIAOMING; PEIJUN SHI§; YAOQI ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    We compared the soil carbon dynamics between a pine plantation and a secondary forest, both of which originated from the same farmland abandoned in 1976 with the same cropping history and soil conditions, in the wet tropics in Puerto Rico from July 1996 to June 1997. We found that the secondary forest accumulated the heavy-fraction organic carbon (HF-OC) measured by...

  12. Puerto Rico's forest inventory: adapting the forest inventory and analysis program to a Caribbean island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. J. Brandeis

    2003-01-01

    Rapid Changes in vegetation over short distances, high species diversity, and fragmented landscape challege the implementation of the Forest service's Forest inventory and Analysis (FIA)program on Puerto Rico. Applying the hexagonal FIA grid as used on the continental United States, the Forest service is installing a new forest sampling and monitoring framework...

  13. Hurricane recovery at Cabezas de San Juan, Puerto Rico, and research opportunities at Conservation Trust Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver; Elizabeth Padilla Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    The Cabezas de San Juan Natural Reserve (El Faro), an exposed peninsular area located in the Subtropical dry forest of northeastern Puerto Rico, was impacted by hurricanes Hugo (1989) and Georges (1998). From 1998 to 2008, a 0.10 ha plot was used to assess forest structure, species composition, and stem growth. During post-hurricane recovery, stem density, tree height...

  14. Long-term decline of a winter-resident bird community in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Faaborg; W. J. Arendt; J. D. Toms; K. M. Dugger; W. A. Cox; M. Canals Mora

    2013-01-01

    Despite concern expressed two decades ago, there has been little recent discussion about continuing declines of migrant bird populations. Monitoring efforts have been focused almost exclusively on the breeding grounds. We describe the long-term decline of a winter-resident bird population in Guanica Commonwealth Forest, Puerto Rico, one of the last remaining tracts of...

  15. Coral reef condition and benthic sedimentation threat in four regions of south Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scleractinian corals, gorgonian octocorals, sponges and fishes were assessed near the cities of LaParguera, Guánica, Guayanilla, and Jobos along the southern coast of Puerto Rico in November – December 2010. Survey sites were targeted near areas with varying benthic...

  16. Differences in knowledge about birds and their conservation between rural and urban residents of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar O. Vazquez-Plass; Joseph M. Wunderle

    2010-01-01

    People’s knowledge of birds and the opinions and perceptions about specific issues related to the conservation of birds were quantified in rural and urban communities in northeastern Puerto Rico. Data were collected using questionnaires in interviews with 131 citizens haphazardly selected within the study site. Our results indicate that urban residents had a...

  17. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  18. 76 FR 24511 - Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ..., including opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, and environmental... overlooking the southwestern tip of Puerto Rico. The establishment of the refuge was justified for the... wildlife observation and photography. The friends group, Caborroje os, would continue to partner with us in...

  19. Commercial potential of rambutan cultivars grown at two locations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown on an Oxisol and Ultisol were evaluated for four years under intensive management at Isabela and Corozal, Puerto Rico, respectively. There were significant differences in number and weight of fruits per hectare between locations and years. Signif...

  20. First report of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, significant post-harvest disease losses of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) have been reported and several pathogens have been associated with fruit rot. Even though rambutan was introduced to Puerto Rico in 1927, it was not until 1998 that commercial farms were established in the wester...

  1. Yield and Fruit Quality of Rambutan Cultivars Grown at Two Locations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars grown on an Oxisol and Ultisol were evaluated for three years under intensive management at Isabela and Corozal, Puerto Rico, respectively. There were significant differences in number and weight of fruits per hectare between locations and years. Signi...

  2. Fungal diversity associated with rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is an exotic tropical fruit of increasing importance in international markets, and that has awakened great interest from farmers in Puerto Rico. During 2008 and 2009, fruit rot and lesions on leaves, branches, and flowers were observed in rambutan orchards through t...

  3. 76 FR 50455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, Puerto Rico Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 163--Ponce, Puerto Rico Application for Expansion An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by CODEZOL, C.D., grantee of FTZ... submitted pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign-Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the...

  4. 75 FR 12730 - Foreign-Trade Zone 163-Ponce, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 163--Ponce, Puerto Rico; Application for Expansion An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by CODEZOL, C.D., grantee of... pursuant to the provisions of the Foreign-Trade Zones Act, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the...

  5. 75 FR 41801 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 163, Ponce, Puerto Rico, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 163, Ponce, Puerto Rico, Area Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, CODEZOL, C.D., grantee of Foreign...

  6. Snakes of the genus Alsophis in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert

    1966-01-01

    The eastern end of the Greater Antilles between the Mona and the Anegada passages is composed of isolated Mona in the former passage, Puerto Rico (including its satellite islets), Vieques, Culebra, and the Virgin Islands. The major islands of the Virgins are St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola,

  7. Florida and Puerto Rico Secondary Science Teachers' Knowledge and Teaching of Climate Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Feldman, Allan; Vernaza-Hernandez, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about climate change science are pervasive among the US public. This study investigated the possibility that these misconceptions may be reflective of science teachers' knowledge and teaching of climate change science. Florida and Puerto Rico secondary science teachers who claim to teach extensively about climate change were…

  8. Structure and species composition of novel forests dominated by an introduced species in northcentral Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar J. Abelleira Martinez; Mariela A. Rodríguez; Ivonne Rosario; Nataly Soto; Armando López; Ariel E. Lugo

    2010-01-01

    The African tulip tree, Spathodea campanulata Beauv., is an introduced species forming novel forest types in Puerto Rico. These forests develop naturally after deforestation, agricultural use and land abandonment, and there are many questions as to their ecological characteristics. We sampled structure and species composition of large, small, and juvenile trees (C10,...

  9. EPA Settles Major Air Pollution Case with CEMEX de Puerto Rico, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced today that CEMEX de Puerto Rico, Inc., a major cement producer, will spend an estimated $1.7 million on pollution controls that will reduce harmful emissions of nitrogen oxides, pollutants

  10. Unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico: la influencia del clima, el substrato y la topografia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2008-01-01

    El mapa de unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico representa variaciones climaticas, topograficas y del substrato mediante la integracion de seis zonas climaticas (Ewel y Whitmore, 1973), seis substratos (Bawiec, 2001; USGS, 2005), cinco posiciones topograficas, o topoformas (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), y cuerpos de agua (USGS 2005). Los substratos representan el conjunto...

  11. A Successful Applied Physics Program at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Rafael J.; Guerra-Vela, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Presents innovative ideas that have been incorporated into the applied physics program at the Humacao Campus of the University of Puerto Rico since 1981. Describes a program that was designed as a professional (terminal) one with mechanisms to guide students who wish to pursue graduate studies. (Author/YDS)

  12. Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Auxiliary Training Program. The Comprehensive Report, Exhibits G to L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. School of Dentistry.

    This annex supplements the Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Training Program Comprehensive Report (CE 028 213) and is comprised of exhibits G through L. Among the information included in the exhibits is the evaluation reports of the commission on accreditation, the detailed curriculum, and the accredited program's scope, sequence, and course…

  13. Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Auxiliary Training Program. The Comprehensive Report, Exhibits A to F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan. School of Dentistry.

    This annex supplements the Puerto Rico Experimental Model Dental Training Program Comprehensive Report (CE 028 213) and is comprised of exhibits A through F. Among the information included in the exhibits is the experimental model schedule, the schematic representation, the content display, and the course outlines for all courses in the program.…

  14. Issues for an Evaluation of Freire-Inspired Programs in the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facundo, Blanca

    Paulo Freire is a Brazilian educator whose theories link educational processes with revolutionary political aims. This report describes attempts by predominantly Latino proponents of his theories to develop "liberating education" (educacion liberadora) in the United States and in Puerto Rico. Section 1 describes the national, political,…

  15. The frequency and distribution of recent landslides in three montane tropical regions of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew C. Larsen; Angel J. Torres-Sanchez

    1998-01-01

    Landslides are common in steep mountainous areas of Puerto Rico where mean annual rainfall and the frequency of intense storms are high. Each year, landslides cause extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life. Average population density is high, 422 peoplerkm2, and is increasing. This increase in population density is accompanied by growing...

  16. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability (Journal article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show...

  17. Landscape units of Puerto Rico: influence of climate, substrate, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones

    2008-01-01

    The landscape units map of Puerto Rico represents climatic, substrate, and topographic variation by integrating six climatic zones (Ewel and Whitmore 1973), six distinct substrates (Bawiec 2001, USGS 2005), five topographic positions or landforms (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), and prominent lakes and rivers (USGS 2005). Substrates were a simplified set of Bawiec’s (2001)...

  18. Puerto Rico School Characteristics and Student Graduation: Implications for Research and Policy. REL 2017-266

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault, Susan; Li, Yibing; Bhatt, Monica P.; Narlock, Jason

    2017-01-01

    High school graduation is a critical milestone for students as it has implications for future opportunity and success on both individual and societal levels. In Puerto Rico recent changes in how high school graduation rates are calculated have drawn closer attention to the issue of high school graduation and thus a growing interest in…

  19. Estimating soil turnover rate from tree uprooting during hurricanes in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie T. Lenart; D.A. Falk; F.N. Scatena; W.R. Osterkamp

    2010-01-01

    Soil turnover by tree uprooting in primary and secondary forests on the island of Puerto Rico was measured in 42 study plots in the months immediately after the passage of a Category 3 hurricane. Trunk basal area explained 61% of the variability of mound volume and 53% of the variability of mound area. The proportion of uprooted trees, the number of uprooted trees, or...

  20. Stormflow generation in a small rain forest catchment in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.; Scatena, F.N.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Hogezand, R.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Various complementary techniques were used to investigate the stormflow generating processes in a small headwater catchment in northeastern Puerto Rico. Over 100 samples were taken of soil matrix water, macropore flow, streamflow and precipitation, mainly during two storms of contrasting magnitude,

  1. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Puma Energy Caribe, LLC in Bayamon, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma Energy Caribe LLC (Puma) is located in the Luchetti Industrial Park in Bayamón, Puerto Rico. The site is bounded to the west and southwest by industrial and commercial facilities, and to the south and east by Fort Buchanan, a U.S. military reservation

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of "Ataque de Nervios" in Puerto Rico: Further Examination of a Cultural Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo San Miguel, Vivian E.; Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Canino, Glorisa J.; Ramirez, Rafael R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a quantitative analysis and assessment of the symptoms of "ataque de nervios." A sample of 121 individuals living in Puerto Rico provided qualitative and structured data on "ataques de nervios" and psychiatric correlates. A total of 77 participants reported having an "ataque de nervios" during…

  3. Structure and composition of vegetation along an elevational gradient in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.A. Gould; G. Gonzalez; G. Carrero Rivera

    2006-01-01

    Question: What are the composition, conservation status, and structural and environmental characteristics of eight mature tropical forest plant communities that occur along an elevational gradient. Location: Northeastern Puerto Rico. Methods: We quantified the species composition, diversity, conservation status, and ecological attributes of eight mature tropical forest...

  4. Short-term precipitation and temperature trends along an elevation gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Van Beusekom; Grizelle Gonzalez; Maria Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Corrigendum published on April 20, 2016 https://doi.org/10.1175/EI-D-15-0044.1. Incorporated to the original PDF. As is true of many tropical regions, northeastern Puerto Rico is an ecologically sensitive area with biological life that is highly...

  5. Development of a Landforms Model for Puerto Rico and its Application for Land Cover Change Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Brook E. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of land morphology is essential to supporting a wide range environmental studies. We developed a landforms model that identifies eleven landform units for Puerto Rico based on parameters of land position and slope. The model is capable of extracting operational information in a simple way and is adaptable to different environments and objectives...

  6. Lithological and fluvial controls on the geomorphology of tropical montane stream channels in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew S. Pike; F.N. Scatena; Ellen E. Wohl

    2010-01-01

    An extensive survey and topographic analysis of fi ve watersheds draining the Luquillo Mountains in north-eastern Puerto Rico was conducted to decouple the relative infl uences of lithologic and hydraulic forces in shaping the morphology of tropical montane stream channels. The Luquillo Mountains are a steep landscape composed of volcaniclastic and igneous rocks that...

  7. Spatial data for sedimentation survey of Lago Caonillas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, September-November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Lopez, Luis R.

    2016-01-01

    This data release contains spatial data for sedimentation survey of Lago Caonillas, Utuado, Puerto Rico and includes reservoir bottom contours and water depth data. The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Caonillas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. Construction of the Lago Caonillas reservoir was completed in 1948 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 55.66 million cubic meters (Mm 3 ). Because of the importance of Lago Caonillas to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Caonillas between September and November 2012. Data collection began in September 2012; however, low water levels restricted the survey extent to about half of the reservoir, leaving the river deltas unaccounted for. Intense rainfall during October 2012 raised the water level to spillway elevation, and the remaining part of the reservoir was then surveyed. The results of these surveys were used to update the reservoir water storage capacity and to estimate its useful life.

  8. Brainstorming transformative solutions - Sustainable Puerto Rico in 2080 - a focus on energy and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    This narrative scenario depicts one of many possible futures for the island of Puerto Rico in which the goals of energy and food supply resilience have been met. Set in the year 2080, the narrative describes a series of hypothetical (but possible) events, a set of proactive gover...

  9. The Effect of Land Use on Soil Erosion in the Guadiana Watershed in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANIA DEL MAR LÓPEZ; T. MITCHELL AIDE; SCATENA F. N.

    1998-01-01

    The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System to determine the influence of land use and other environmental factors on soil erosion in the Guadiana watershed in Puerto Rico. Mean annual erosion, suspended sediment discharge, and the rainfall-erosion factor of the RUSLE increased with annual rainfall....

  10. Species composition, diversity and structure of novel forests of Castilla elastica in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Fonseca da Silva; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    Attributes of novel forests (secondary forests containing introduced species) were compared with those of native secondary forests of similar age. The study area was the biological reserve called El Tallonal, in Puerto Rico. Species composition, tree density, basal area and soil bulk density were characterized; Importance value index (IVI), Shannon’s diversity index (H...

  11. An historical overview of forest service silvicultural activities in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Forestry has a long history in the Caribbean lslands, in particular, in Puerto Rico. This experience, implemented in recent years through numerous partnerships, involves research, inventory and monitoring, and resource management, and has been communicated through demonstration and educational activities. Much of this history is documented in the 24 volumes of the...

  12. Radio diagnostics and analysis on the Puerto Rico CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, J. E. S.; Bruhn, F.; Isham, B.; Rincon-Charris, A.

    2014-04-01

    The Puerto Rico CubeSat is a collaboration between Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, the University of Puerto Rico, the Ana G. Ḿendez University System, NASA Marshal Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama at Huntsville, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, and M¨alardalens University. Principle goals include providing aerospace and systems engineering experiences to students at the participating institutions. Mission objectives include the acquisition of space weather data to aid in better understanding the Sun to Earth connection. The Puerto Rico Cube- Sat is a 3U configuration, 10 × 10 × 30 cm. Active attitude control will be used to align the long (3U) axis along the orbital path, and the satellite will rotate along the 3U axis to assist in thermal management. The Puerto Rico CubeSat will carry two scientific payloads. One is CARLO (Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillation), which is designed to measure ion turbulence from 0 to 10 kHz. CARLO will operate in a ram configuration, thus giving it the ability to distinguish between ambient and spacecraftinduced irregularities in plasma density. The second payload is GIMMERF, a 0 to 30 MHz radio instrument, consisting of a digital 4-channel direct sampling receiver board, atmospheric-noise-limited preamplifiers, and four electrically short monopole antennas. The antennas are connected electronically, as dipoles, to enable measurements of the full 3-dimensional electric field vector signal, which, in turn makes it possible to characterize the radio emissions in terms of Stokes parameters and to perform direction finding. GIMME-RF will use artificial neural network technology to automatically identify radio data of interest. All radio data will be downloaded at 1% time resolution, and radio data of special interest (automatically identified or human selected) will be downloaded at full time and frequency resolution. CARLO and GIMME-RF are complementary instruments, as CARLO will measure low

  13. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Hispanics living in Puerto Rico: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pons, María; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Sevilla, Javier; Márquez-Lespier, Juan M; Morgan, Douglas; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important etiologic factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, one of the top ten leading causes of cancer death in Puerto Rico. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infections in this population was previously unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of H. pylori and its associated risk factors in Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study was designed using an existing population-based biorepository. Seropositivity was determined using the Premier ™ H. pylori immunoassay. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence was estimated with 95% confidence using marginal standardization following logistic regression. To assess the risk factors associated with H. pylori seropositivity, a multivariable log-binomial model was fitted to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 528 population-based serum samples were analyzed. The mean age of the study population was 41 ± 12 years, of whom 55.3% were females. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 33.0% (95% CI = 28.3%-38.1%). Increasing age and having Puerto Rico. The H. pylori seroprevalence observed in Puerto Rico is similar to the seroprevalence reported in the overall population of the United States. The association between H. pylori seroprevalence and the risk factors analyzed offers insight into the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Puerto Rico and warrants further investigation. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Tourism and climate conditions in San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Méndez-Lázaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The general behavior of the tourism sector in Puerto Rico, with its marked seasonality, hints at a close relationship between tourism activities and climate conditions. Even if weather condition is only one of many variables considered by travelling tourists, climate conditions weigh heavily in the majority of the decisions. The effect of climate variability on the environment could be manifested in warmer temperature, heat waves, and changes in the frequency of extreme weather events, such as severe storms and hurricanes, floods, and sea level rise. These conditions affect different sectors of society, among them public health and the economy. Therefore, our research has two main objectives: to establish a tourism climate index (TCI for Puerto Rico and to analyze if occupancy rates in hotels correspond to local weather conditions. Even though there are many other variables that could have positive or negative effects on tourism activities, results showed a significant association between occupancy rate in Puerto Rico and climate indexes. According to both TCI and the mean historical climate for tourism indexes, the most favorable months for tourism in Puerto Rico were February and March (winter, whereas the worst season was the end of August and the beginning of September (summer-fall. Although winter represents dry conditions and lower temperatures in San Juan, it also represents the highest occupancy rate during the years examined. In summer and fall, data showed high occupancy rates, yet climate conditions were not suitable; these months also correspond to the hurricane season. During this season, high relative occupancy rates responded to internal and local tourism patterns. It can therefore be assumed that until the climate-tourism relationship is well characterized, there is little hope of fully understanding the potential economic effects, detrimental or beneficial, of global climate change, not only on tourism in Puerto Rico, but on

  15. Endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico: incidence, mortality and survival (1992-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Karen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in Puerto Rico and the United States (US. Methods We compare the age-specific and age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates and the survival of endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico with that of non-Hispanic whites (NHW, non-Hispanic blacks (NHB and Hispanics in the US. Data from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program were analyzed from 1992-2003. Results Age-standardized incidence rates of endometrial cancer increased significantly (p 0.05 for NHW (APC = -0.1% and Hispanics in the US (APC = 0.4%. Mortality trends remained constant in all racial/ethnic groups (p > 0.05. For 1999-2003, women in Puerto Rico had similar incidence of endometrial cancer as Hispanics (Standardized rate ratio [SRR] = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.87-1.01, although their risk was lower than that of NHW (SRR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.53-0.59 and NHB (SRR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.84-0.98. Meanwhile, women in Puerto Rico had 15% higher risk of death than Hispanic women (SRR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.03-1.30 similar risk than NHW (SRR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.83-1.03, and lower risk than NHB (SRR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.46-0.57. Puerto Rico (63.1% and NHB (56.8% had a lower 5-year survival than NHW (78.4% and Hispanics (79.5%. An age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model showed that compared with women in Puerto Rico, Hispanic women in the United States had 37% lower mortality risk (HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.56-0.71 and NHW had 53% lower mortality risk (HR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.43-0.52 after 5 years of diagnosis; NHB women had 22% higher mortality risk than women in Puerto Rico (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.36. Conclusions The lower burden of endometrial cancer in Puerto Rico suggests the presence of protective factors or lower exposure to risk factors in this population, although increases in incidence suggest changes in the occurrence of lifestyles and environmental risk factors

  16. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. [University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Caribbean Stranding Network

    1999-10-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico`s north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  17. A Ten-year Assessment of Anabolic Steroid Misuse among Competitive Athletes in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, P; Jorge, JC; Cruz-Sánchez, A; Amy, E; Barreto-Estrada, JL

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse in the Caribbean region in spite of increased popularity among athletes and adolescents. The present study examines the usage of AAS among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico. Methods Doping test results of competitive athletes obtained by random sampling out of competition during the 2000–2009 period were analysed. Doping tests were executed by the Centre for Sports, Health and Exercise Sciences (Albergue Olímpico, Salinas, Puerto Rico). A total of 550 athletes were monitored during 2000–2009. Information was collected with regard to competitive sport, gender and AAS compounds whenever a positive test result was encountered. Results From the total sample of monitored cases during the past decade, 5.4% showed adverse analytical findings. Anabolic androgenic steroids misuse was detected among male (62%) and female (38%) athletes. Weightlifting showed the greatest percentage of positive AAS doping test results (70% of total cases) and stanozolol was the most commonly misused exogenous androgen (60% of abused AAS whether alone or as part of a cocktail). Testosterone was the most common endogenous misused steroid (10% of misused compounds). Conclusion In Puerto Rico, AAS misuse was detected across competitive sports for both genders. Although AAS misuse among Puerto Rican athletes shares some features that are consistent with the international sports community, it is imperative to address AAS misuse in the Caribbean region. PMID:22519228

  18. A ten-year assessment of anabolic steroid misuse among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, P; Jorge, J C; Cruz-Sánchez, A; Amy, E; Barreto-Estrada, J L

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse in the Caribbean region in spite of increased popularity among athletes and adolescents. The present study examines the usage of AAS among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico. Doping test results of competitive athletes obtained by random sampling out of competition during the 2000-2009 period were analysed. Doping tests were executed by the Centre for Sports, Health and Exercise Sciences (Albergue Olímpico, Salinas, Puerto Rico). A total of 550 athletes were monitored during 2000-2009. Information was collected with regard to competitive sport, gender and AAS compounds whenever a positive test result was encountered. From the total sample of monitored cases during the past decade, 5.4% showed adverse analytical findings. Anabolic androgenic steroids misuse was detected among male (62%) and female (38%) athletes. Weightlifting showed the greatest percentage of positive AAS doping test results (70% of total cases) and stanozolol was the most commonly misused exogenous androgen (60% of abused AAS whether alone or as part of a cocktail). Testosterone was the most common endogenous misused steroid (10% of misused compounds). In Puerto Rico, AAS misuse was detected across competitive sports for both genders. Although AAS misuse among Puerto Rican athletes shares some features that are consistent with the international sports community, it is imperative to address AAS misuse in the Caribbean region.

  19. Hydrogeology of Puerto Rico and the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    The availability of hydrogeologic maps for Puerto Rico and the outlying islands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona are important to hydrogeologists, groundwater specialists, and water resource managers and planners. These maps, in combination with the report, serve as a source of information to all users by providing basic hydrogeologic and hydrologic knowledge in a concise illustrated format. Puerto Rico and the outlying islands cover a total area of 8,927 square kilometers (km2). Of this total area, about 3,500 km2 are underlain by hydrogeologic units that are classified as intergranular or fissured. These hydrogeologic units form the principal aquifer systems throughout Puerto Rico and the outlying islands. In Puerto Rico, the most extensive and intensely developed aquifers are the North Coast Limestone aquifer system and the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system. Withdrawals from these two aquifer systems constitute nearly 70 percent of the total groundwater withdrawn in Puerto Rico. The spatial extent of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system is about 2,000 km2. Within this aquifer system, groundwater development is greatest in the 800-km2 area between the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río de la Plata. This also is the area for which concern is the highest regarding the future use of groundwater as a primary source of water for domestic and industrial use. With an estimated withdrawal of 280,000 cubic meters per day (m3/d), groundwater constituted the principal source of water within this area providing 100 percent of the water for self-supplied industries and about 85 percent for public water supplies in 1985. By 2005, groundwater withdrawals decreased to 150,000 m3/d. The spatial extent of the South Coastal Alluvial Plain aquifer system is about 470 km2. The estimated consumptive groundwater withdrawal from the aquifer system was 190,000 m3/d in 1980 and 170,000 m3/d in 2005. About 60 percent and 40 percent of the groundwater withdrawal from the South

  20. Perfil de las bibliotecas universitarias de Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo-Montalvo, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Perfil de las Bibliotecas Universitarias Puertorriqueñas is the product of a research conducted during the year 2006-2007in which ninety three academic libraries participated. The work allows a diagnostic of the Puerto Rican academic libraries, through the thorough collection of cualitative and cuantitative facts, as well as its characterization according to the types of libraries and the nature of the institutions they support. The Perfil also provides useful information for the development ...

  1. Hydrology and climate of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter C in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rico lies directly in the path of the easterly trade winds, which deliver steady rainfall to the mountains and steer tropical wave systems toward the island. Hurricanes and tropical storms derived from these tropical waves differ in frequency and intensity, contributing to substantial interannual variation in precipitation and stream discharge. Puerto Rico's steep topography and small water-storage capacity leave the island's water supply and developed flood plains vulnerable to extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts. This vulnerability may increase in the future owing to ongoing change, both local (such as land-cover shifts, water-supply projects, and construction of roads and other infrastructure) and regional (climate variability and change). Climate change, which could lead to more intense and prolonged droughts as well as an increase in the magnitude and frequency of destructive storms in the Caribbean, may alter temperature and affect the availability of water for human and ecosystem needs. Accurate assessment of hydrologic regimes and water budgets is therefore crucial for effective management of water resources. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets program, hydrologic and geomorphologic processes and stream chemistry of four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico, which differ in geology and land cover, have been studied since 1991. Spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation and stream discharge, along with water budgets, were determined for the watersheds for the period 1991 to 2005. The locations of the watersheds relative to the Luquillo Mountains and the range's associated rain shadow dominate hydrological processes, dwarfing influences of land cover. The influence of geology is reflected in recession characteristics of the rivers (recession is faster in soils overlying volcaniclastic bedrock) and in hillslope geomorphic processes (sediment is delivered at higher

  2. Multibeam Mapping and Remotely Operated Vehicle Exploration of the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Armstrong, R.; Chaytor, J. D.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    During October 2013, an ocean exploration project took place off the coast of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This project, a collaborative effort between the Ocean Exploration Trust, the US Geological Survey, the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, the University of Rhode Island, and NOAA, was aimed at exploring regions of the US exclusive economic zone (EEZ) south of the Puerto Rico Trench axis, and north of Mona Island, Puerto Rico, and the US and British Virgin Islands, and portions of the Anegada Passage. The research vessel E/V Nautilus and the Hercules/Argus ROV system were used to expand the multibeam sonar bathymetric data coverage of the region, collect high definition video footage of seafloor features, and to collect biological and geological samples along selected transects. Particular areas of interest for targeted ROV dives included: the region where a large M7.2 1918 earthquake produced a tsunami that struck northwestern corner of Puerto Rico; a transect up the vertical wall of the Mona Rift (4000 to 1500 m depth); transects along the Septentrional fault system; dives in areas of suspected fluid flow through faults, fissures, and offshore Karst systems associated with the tilted carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico; dives in the Anegada Passage at the entry points for surface Atlantic waters that circulate into the Caribbean; and in regions to investigate and date sedimentary features offset by fault motion and potential tsunamigenic landslides. Biological sampling of many deep-sea benthic organisms (including deep water corals) have never been attempted before in this area. These samples are being used to understand more about the diversity, population dynamics, genetics, and habitat connectivity of these communities, and to provide an age constraint for disturbed sedimentary features. Until this cruise, the location and distribution of deep coral habitats in the US Caribbean was largely unknown. The available information on benthic

  3. Rio Bauta Abajo, Orocovis, Puerto Rico Monitoring: Citizen Science in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, L. D.; Rodriguez, C.

    2015-12-01

    "Conoce tu rio" (Learn about your river) is a Citizen Science-"Para La Naturaleza" Project with the purpose of providing citizens effective monitoring methods for water quality and macro invertebrates. Through the monthly monitoring of Rio Grande de Manatí watershed in Puerto Rico, volunteers gained the knowledge and skills necessary to conduct the same methodology in other rivers of Puerto Rico. This is the case of the Rio Bauta Abajo-Orocovis group, initiated by a volunteer of "Conoce tu Rio". The new group has the objective of monitoring the water quality, shrimps and other macro invertebrate diversity and abundance in a stream reach of Rio Bauta Abajo, Orocovis, Puerto Rico. The group is also part of the EPA Equipment Loan Program for Pathogen and Water Quality Monitoring. Shrimps and macro invertebrates are captured using nets. In this ongoing project, preliminary results show that 5 of the 17 shrimp species of Puerto Rico and the freshwater crab have been captured in the monitoring point of Rio Bauta Abajo. The most abundant species captured was Atya scabra representing 70% of the abundance. The second most abundant species was Xiphocaris elongata representing 20% of the abundance. We also found a large number of gravid females of two shrimp species. Sixty percent of captured Atya scabra were gravid while 100% of the captured Xiphocaris elongata were gravid. Water quality is within the standard except for phosphorous and nitrogen. The most abundant species inhabit different habitats in the river. Atya scabra is found in the riffles and Xiphocaris elongata is found in the stream borders and or pools. The high number of gravid females suggests that the dry season is the reproductive season for this two species. The high concentration of phosphorous and nitrogen suggest that in the area there area either crops of animals facilities whose runoff is getting to the river. This monitoring group expects to continue motivating citizens to monitor the water quality in

  4. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 3m Multibeam Bathymetry, Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques) - UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 3 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of a selected portion of seafloor south of Isla de Vieques in Puerto Rico,...

  5. Final PSD Permit Extension Letter - Energy Answers Arecibo, LLC/Energy Answers Arecibo Puerto Rico Renewable Energy Project, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the Final PSD Permit Extension Letter for Energy Answers Arecibo Puerto Rico Renewable Energy Project, issued on April 10, 2017 and the EPA Public Announcement for Final PSD Permit Extension for Energy Answers Arecibo, PR.

  6. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 3m Backscatter Mosaic, Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques) - UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 3 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of selected portions of seafloor around Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCFHR, in...

  7. Use of Blood Donor Screening Data to Estimate Zika Virus Incidence, Puerto Rico, April–August 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Ocfemia, M. Cheryl Bañez; Alsina, Jose O.; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Moseley, Robin R.; Chung, Koo-Whang; Rivera-García, Brenda; Bello-Pagán, Melissa; Pate, Lisa L.; Galel, Susan A.; Williamson, Phillip; Kuehnert, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Puerto Rico has been heavily impacted by Zika virus, a mosquitoborne flavivirus that emerged in the Americas during 2015. Although most persons with Zika virus show no symptoms, the virus can cause neurologic and other complications, including fetal microcephaly. Local Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico has been reported since December 2015. To prevent transfusion-associated transmission, local blood collection ceased in March 2016 but resumed in April 2016 after Zika virus screening of blood donations became available. Using data from screening of blood donations collected by the 2 largest blood centers in Puerto Rico during April 3–August 12, 2016, and assuming a 9.9-day duration of viremia, we estimated that 469,321 persons in Puerto Rico were infected during this period, for an estimated cumulative incidence of 12.9%. Results from blood donation screening during arboviral outbreaks can supplement routine clinical and surveillance data for improved targeting of prevention efforts. PMID:28263141

  8. Compliance With Injury Prevention Measures in Youth Pitchers: Survey of Coaches in Little League of Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pamias-Velázquez, Kristian J; Figueroa-Negrón, Mariam M; Tirado-Crespo, Janiliz; Mulero-Portela, Ana L

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance of pitching coaches of 9- to 14-year-old Little League teams in Puerto Rico with the Administrative Order 2006-01 and the USA Baseball guidelines. Hypotheses: (1...

  9. Use of Blood Donor Screening Data to Estimate Zika Virus Incidence, Puerto Rico, April-August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Michelle S; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Ocfemia, M Cheryl Bañez; Alsina, Jose O; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Moseley, Robin R; Chung, Koo-Whang; Rivera-García, Brenda; Bello-Pagán, Melissa; Pate, Lisa L; Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip; Kuehnert, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    Puerto Rico has been heavily impacted by Zika virus, a mosquitoborne flavivirus that emerged in the Americas during 2015. Although most persons with Zika virus show no symptoms, the virus can cause neurologic and other complications, including fetal microcephaly. Local Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico has been reported since December 2015. To prevent transfusion-associated transmission, local blood collection ceased in March 2016 but resumed in April 2016 after Zika virus screening of blood donations became available. Using data from screening of blood donations collected by the 2 largest blood centers in Puerto Rico during April 3-August 12, 2016, and assuming a 9.9-day duration of viremia, we estimated that 469,321 persons in Puerto Rico were infected during this period, for an estimated cumulative incidence of 12.9%. Results from blood donation screening during arboviral outbreaks can supplement routine clinical and surveillance data for improved targeting of prevention efforts.

  10. Sun Illuminated Color Image of the 150 meter grid of the Puerto Rico Trench (SUNILLUM.TIF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic features in the Puerto Rico trench are remotely sensed, monitored, collected, studied, and analyzed. This data set was colorized by depth and converted to...

  11. Bailey's Ecoregions and Subregions of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is commonly called Bailey's ecoregions and shows ecosystems of regional extent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Four...

  12. High Resolution Aerial Photography of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 1965-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographs were acquired for the Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands Benthic Mapping Project in 1999 by NOAA Aircraft Operation Centers aircraft and National...

  13. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 3m Multibeam Bathymetry, Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques) - UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 3 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of a selected portion of seafloor south of Isla de Vieques in Puerto Rico,...

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Puerto Rico using the Coral Demographics method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Demographic method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in Puerto Rico as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The coral...

  15. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 3m Backscatter Mosaic, Puerto Rico (Isla de Vieques) - UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 3 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of selected portions of seafloor around Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCFHR, in...

  16. Social support and its association with sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and perceived academic stress among college students in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pagán, Ideliz; Fabián, Carla; Ríos, Josué L; Betancourt, Jesmari; Cruz, Sonia Y; González, Anaisa M; Rivera-Soto, Winna T

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the association between social support, dietary pattern, and academic stress among college students in Puerto Rico, based on their socio-demographic characteristics...

  17. Reformas coloniales, economía y especialización productiva en Puerto Rico y Cuba, 1760-1850

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santamaría García, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    In the last third of the 18th Century and the early decades of 19th Century the economies of Puerto Rico and Cuba started a process of strong expansion and especialization, mainly in the area of sugar production...

  18. Contrasting responses of coral reef fauna and foraminiferal assemblages to human influence in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reef biota including stony corals, sponges, gorgonians, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates and foraminifera were surveyed in coastal waters near La Parguera, in southwestern Puerto Rico. The goal was to evaluate sensitivity of coral reef biological indicators to human distur...

  19. 1:1,000,000-Scale Contours of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows elevation contour lines for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was derived from the 100-meter resolution elevation data set...

  20. 75 FR 27225 - Hass Avocados from Mexico; Importation into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD13 Hass Avocados from Mexico; Importation into the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Other Changes AGENCY: Animal and... fruits and vegetables regulations to provide for the importation of Hass avocados from Mexico into Puerto...

  1. Scores on the eysenck personality questionnaire for a sample of children and adolescents receiving psychological treatment in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrata, Jose Luis; Rosa, Abraham; Mendez, Viviana

    2003-08-01

    Personality questionnaire scores obtained by children and adolescents (n = 28) receiving psychological treatment at a health facility in Humacao, Puerto Rico were examined. The scores were compared with those of regular school children of the same age, of Gurabo, Puerto Rico, who were not in treatment (n = 30). The children in treatment obtained higher scores on Psychoticism, lower scores on Extraversion, and similar scores on Neuroticism and Dissimulation by comparison with regular students.

  2. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of drinking, binge drinking, and related health and social problems in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines prevalence and predictors of drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol-related social and health problems in Puerto Rico. Respondents constitute a multi-stage household probability sample (N = 1,510) from San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. Men compared to women (Coeff: .34; 95 CI = .19-.50; p drinking (Coeff: 1.06; 95 CI= .63-1.49; p drinks. Those in the 40-49 age group have a lower mean number of weekly drinks than those in the 18-29 age group (Coeff.: -.23; 95 CI = -.42-.03; p drinking norms (AOR: 3.62; 95 CI = 1.87-6.99; p drinking (AOR: 3.41; 95 CI = 1.04-11.09; p drink per week (AOR: 1.03; 95 CI = 1.01-1.05; p binge (AOR: 3.52; 95 CI = 2.14-5.80; p binge drinking and social and health problems was not expected. Puerto Ricans appear to drink less than the general population and Hispanics and Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland. Up to date epidemiological findings provide information about high risk groups and correlates of alcohol problems in the population. These are now available for Puerto Rico and can be used in the design of prevention interventions. (Am J Addict 2016;25:478-485). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. [University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Caribbean Stranding Network

    1999-07-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico's north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  5. Survival of female white-cheeked pintails during brood rearing in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Flores, Marisel; Davis, J. Brian; Vilella, Francisco; Kaminski, Richard M.; Cruz-Burgos, José A.; Lancaster, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Anas bahamensis (White-cheeked Pintail) is widely distributed across the Caribbean islands and South America. The species is classified as threatened in Puerto Rico and a species of least concern across most of its range. Little demographic data exist for the species, particularly during the breeding season. During 2000-2002, we radiomarked 31 incubating females at the Humacao Nature Reserve (Humacao) in southeastern Puerto Rico and estimated daily and interval survival rates of females during brood rearing. Only one of 31 birds died; the average ±95% CI daily survival rate of pintails was 0.998 ± 0.989-0.999 for all years, and interval survival was 0.913 ± 0.527-0.987 for a 60-day brood-rearing period. High survival of females suggests their mortality during brood rearing does not influence White-cheeked Pintail populations at Humacao, but further studies of reproductive and annual ecology are needed.

  6. Trends of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Children under 2 Years of Age in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, Israel; García, Inés; García-Fragoso, Lourdes; Puig, Gilberto; Pedraza, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Luis; Santaella, Alvaro; Arce, Sylvia; Toledo, Marilyn; Soto, Edwin; Valcárcel, Marta

    2015-06-01

    The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant viral pathogen causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants, today. In tropical climates the RSV infection may occur throughout the year. The purpose of this study was to asses RSV infections during the 2009‒2010 RSV season in children under 2 years of age and to evaluate the trend of positive RSV tests in the period of 2007 to 2009. A retrospective review of data collected from 6 hospitals in Puerto Rico was performed. Patients with confirmed RSV bronchiolitis were included in the study. A total of 4,678 patients were included. The mean age of the patients was 7 months. Data showed that RSV infection occurred throughout the studied months. Data confirms a year-round presence of RSV in Puerto Rico. The RSV surveillance system needs to be reinforced to establish and understand the epidemiology of RSV and to review the current immunoprophylaxis guidelines.

  7. The family tree is not cut: marriage among slaves in eighteenth-century Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stark

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examines the frequency of slave marriage in 18th-c. Puerto Rico, through family reconstitution based on parish baptismal, marriage, and death registers. Author first sketches the development of slavery, and the work regimens and conditions of the not yet sugar-dominated slavery in Puerto Rico. Then, he describes the religious context and social implications of marriage among slaves, and discusses, through an example, spousal selection patterns, and further focuses on age and seasonality of the slave marriages. He explains that marriage brought some legal advantages for slaves, such as the prohibited separation, by sale, of married slaves. In addition, he explores how slaves pursued marital strategies in order to manipulate material conditions. He concludes from the results that in the 18th c. marriage among slaves was not uncommon, and appear to have been determined mostly by the slaves own choice, with little direct intervention by masters. Most slaves married other slaves, with the same owner.

  8. Alternative Education and the Development of Resilience in Youth Who Have Abandoned School in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barrientos Soto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the practices of Alternative Schools in Puerto Rico that promote the aptitudes of resilience in students returning to school after having dropped-out. The research aims to identify the factors leading up the decision of dropping out of school and the specific practices performed which have made a difference for these students to remain in their new Alternative Schools. Information was analyzed from 10 Alternative Schools in Puerto Rico on the pressing factors that lead them to abandon school. The educational model of an Alternative School was examined to determine the best practices that build resilience in these youth. Among the findings, the leading factors in the decision to abandon school were related to academic failure followed by chronic absenteeism and cutting classes. The relation with a caring adult, significant student participation and emotional healing appear to be critical aspects in developing resilience in this student population.

  9. Thecate dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Bahía Fosforescente, Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Becerril, David U.; Navarro R., Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Bahía Fosforescente, Puerto Rico, is well-known because of biolurniniscence caused by high concentrations of dinoflagellates. However, the specific cornposition of dinoflagellates has not been studied in detail. Several samples taken during 1975-1987 with net were analysed to study the dinoflagellates in the bayo Twenty-six taxa were identified, including 19 species, ti varieties, and one form, together with three species not fully identified, all of thern thecate. The valid, currentIy recogn...

  10. Landscape assessment of tree communities in the northern karst region of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliann E. Aukema; Tomas A. Carlo; Jaime A. Collazo

    2007-01-01

    The northern karst of Puerto Rico is a unique formation that contains one of the island’s largest remaining forested tracts. The region is under ever-increasing human pressure, but large portions of it are being considered for conservation. Forest classification of the region is at a coarse scale, such that it is considered one vegetation type. We asked whether there...

  11. Storage capacity and sedimentation trends of Lago Garzas, Puerto Rico, 1996-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Lopez, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Lago Garzas is located in west-central Puerto Rico, about 3.5 kilometers southwest of the town of Adjuntas, in the confluence of the Río Vacas and three other unnamed tributaries (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), and was constructed in 1943 for hydroelectric power generation and municipal water use along the southern coast. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill embankment lined with boulders, and has a height of 61.57 meters, a top width of 9.14 meters, a base width of 365.76 meters, and a crest length of 227.37 meters; State Road PR-518 crosses the top of the dam. A morning-glory-type spillway is located near the west abutment of the dam at an elevation of 736.12 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, 1969). Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the Lago Garzas earthfill dam and the morning-glory spillway section. Additional information and operational procedures are provided in Soler-López and others (1999). During July 17-18, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Garzas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1996 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Garzas during July 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1996.

  12. [A new species of the chiton Lepidochitona (Polyplacophora: Ischnochitonidae) from Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Cedar I

    2010-06-01

    The genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 has two species in the Caribbean: L. liozonis (Dall & Simpson, 1901) and L. rosea Kaas, 1972. We describe a third species: Lepidochitona rufoi sp. nov. from Puerto Rico. Lepidochitona rufoi differs from both in having a finely granulose tegmentum, smaller size, a very fine central radula tooth, and different anal plate form and color pattern. It also differs from L. liozonis in having longer marginal spicules.

  13. Constraining Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands microplate internal deformation with two decades of GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A. M.; Jansma, P. E.; Mattioli, G. S.; James, S. A.; Ihemedu, D.; Quintana, S. M.; Salazar, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Puerto Rico - Virgin Island microplate, a crustal block within the deformation region of the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone has been monitored with campaign and permanent Global Positioning System stations for almost 20 years. Within this time period a total of 37 sites have been used to describe and quantify internal deformation of the plate and estimate elastic strain accumulation along the key geological bounding features. In June 2011, 12 of the 20 sites that comprise the campaign GPS network in Puerto Rico were re-occupied and their results were merged with at least three years of continuous GPS data from the Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands cGPS network. The remaining 8 in PR sites will be reoccupied soon, while sites from the Virgin Islands were last reoccupied in 2007. All data were processed with v5 of GOAII using an APP strategy. Here we present the latest results of the newly computed velocity field of our mixed network in both North America and Caribbean fixed frames employing the latest IGS05 reference frame and updated satellite orbits, earth orientation, and xfiles from JPL. Of particular importance in this study are the results of a three station transect across the Lajas Valley, the most seismically active area on southwestern Puerto Rico. Relative to a fixed velocity for a campaign site on Isla Magueyes in La Parguera, the southernmost site in the Lajas Valley has a residual motion of -4.38±1.39 and 2.41±2.10 mm/yr in the north and east components, respectively. This suggests that there is SSE-directed shortening across a structure located between these two sites. In contrast, sites near Mayagüez are moving toward SW at ˜2 mm/yr relative to La Parguera. These results demonstrate the PRVI block shows small internal deformation in addition to its generally westward rigid block translation relative the stable interior of the Caribbean plate.

  14. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). It will evaluate disparity issues and outcomes in cancer care delivery and treatments. |

  15. Acceptability and Cultural Appropriateness of Self-Help Booklets for Relapse Prevention in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzie, Nicole S; Simmons, Vani N; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Diaz, Diana B; Piñeiro, Barbara; Jimenez, Julio; Castro, Eida; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with a range of cancers and is related to five of seven leading causes of death in Puerto Rico. Minimal self-help interventions have shown promising results in reaching participants and preventing relapse from smoking. Specifically, a collection of eight self-help booklets has demonstrated efficacy (Brandon et al., 2000; 2004). Those booklets have been transcreated into Spanish, with efforts to make them culturally appropriate across a range of Hispanic cultures. We conducted a pilot study in Ponce, Puerto Rico, to evaluate the Spanish version of our smoking relapse-prevention booklets. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 current and former smokers. Interviews were conducted to elicit feedback regarding the booklet's content, cultural appropriateness, dissemination, and perceived availability of smoking cessation resources in Puerto Rico. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using content analysis, with a priori codes based on the interview guide. Emergent themes were examined. Overall, participants liked the booklets' content, perceived them to be culturally appropriate, easy to read and understand. Regarding dissemination, it was recommended that the booklets be disseminated by physicians and advertised through television. Most importantly, participants reported the best way to distribute and complement the booklets would be through support groups. Participants also reported having limited knowledge about resources provided in the community to aid smoking cessation. Overall, this pilot study was able to show the cultural acceptability of the booklets and highlights the need for the dissemination of these materials among current and former smokers in Puerto Rico.

  16. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Negrón, AM; Molina, MJ; Mayor, AM; Rodriguez, VE; Vilá, LM

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from Puerto Rico. A total of 204 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (per the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) were evaluated. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute classification. Socioeconomic–demographic parameters, health-related behaviours, clinic...

  17. Resolving the Promise of Democracy: Ending Puerto Rico’s Colonial Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    colonized it in the early sixteenth century, installing the beginning of colonial dominion in Puerto Rico.1 Strategic Stronghold During...started constructing the now famous castles of El Morro, San Cristobal and San Geronimo to thwart potential invaders from the sea. The Dutch and British... colonization lasting four centuries under the authority Spain and more recently the United States. During this entire period, there have only been

  18. Modelling the effects of quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Moraima; Laborde, José; Kulkarni, Amit; Pillsbury, Matthew; Lauschke, Andreas; Monsanto, Homero A; Marques-Goyco, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    No study has estimated the potential impact of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Puerto Rico, a population with considerable burden of HPV-related morbidities. We evaluated the health and economic impacts of implementing a vaccination strategy for females and males in Puerto Rico, with the quadrivalent HPV (HPV4) vaccine, under different vaccination scenarios. We adapted a mathematical model which estimates the direct and indirect health benefits and costs of HPV4 vaccination in a dynamic population. The model compared three vaccination scenarios against screening only (no-vaccination) for three doses of HPV4 vaccine among individuals aged 11-15 years in Puerto Rico: 1) 34% for females and 13% for males (34%F/13%M), 2) 50% for females and 40% for males (50%F/40%M), and 3) 80% for female and 64% for male (80%F/64%M). Data specific to Puerto Rico was used. When not available, values from the United States were used. Input data consisted of demographic, behavioral, epidemiological, screening, and economic parameters. The model predicted decreases in: 1) HPV infection prevalence for females and males, 2) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer incidence for females, 3) genital warts incidence for females and males, and 4) cervical cancer deaths among females, when various vaccination program scenarios were considered. In addition, when the vaccination percentage was increased in every scenario, the reduction was greater and began earlier. The analysis also evidenced an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $1,964 per quality-adjusted life year gained for the 80%F/64%M uptake scenario. HPV vaccine can prove its cost effectiveness and substantially reduce the burden and costs associated to various HPV-related conditions when targeted to the adequate population together with an organized HPV vaccination program.

  19. Paleomagnetic evidence for Late Miocene counterclockwise rotation of north coast carbonate sequence, Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.A.; Plumley, P.W. (Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)); Schellekens, J.H. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

    1991-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of the essentially undeformed middle Tertiary carbonate sequence along the north coast of Puerto Rico reveals statistically significant pre-Pliocene discordance of characteristic component directions against those expected from cratonic North America for much of the section. Despite generally weak to moderately weak magnetic intensities, confirmation of the magnetization as primary in origin comes from the presence of two distinct components of magnetization, intrasite bipolarity, and/or the reproducibility of measurements. The mean geographic direction for the upper Oligocene to middle Miocene strata is 335.2{degree}/32.9{degree} and the corrected mean paleomagnetic pole is 207.6{degree}/66.5{degree}, (N = 3, {alpha}95 = 4.3{degree}). This suggests a counter-clockwise (CCW) block rotation of Puerto Rico and its microplate of 24.5{degrees} ({plus minus} 5.8{degrees}) during the late Miocene. Using a width of 250 km for the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) between the North American Plate and Caribbean Plate, the mean left lateral displacement implied is 1.8 to 2.4 cm/yr, which agrees fairly well with published relative motion rates for the two plates. Average rotation rate for 50 Ma to 20 Ma was 0.7{degree}/my but perhaps as great as 4{degree}/my in the Miocene. Resolution of mean paleolatitude indicates northward motion of a degree or less during the period of rotation. Causes of this short-lived rotation may include (1) tectonic escape from the inhibiting presence of the Bahama Banks and Beata Ridge during eastward motion of Puerto Rico along the sinistral transpressive Puerto Rico Trench and Muertos Trough fault systems or (2) changes in relative plate motions of the Caribbean and North American Plate during the late Miocene.

  20. Land use, population dynamics, and land-cover change in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.A. Gould; S. Martinuzzi; I.K. Páres-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    We assessed current and historic land use and land cover in the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding area in eastern Puerto Rico, including four small subwatersheds that are study watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. This region occupies an area of 1,616 square kilometers, about 18 percent of the total land...

  1. Modelling the effects of quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination in Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Ortiz

    Full Text Available No study has estimated the potential impact of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination in Puerto Rico, a population with considerable burden of HPV-related morbidities. We evaluated the health and economic impacts of implementing a vaccination strategy for females and males in Puerto Rico, with the quadrivalent HPV (HPV4 vaccine, under different vaccination scenarios.We adapted a mathematical model which estimates the direct and indirect health benefits and costs of HPV4 vaccination in a dynamic population. The model compared three vaccination scenarios against screening only (no-vaccination for three doses of HPV4 vaccine among individuals aged 11-15 years in Puerto Rico: 1 34% for females and 13% for males (34%F/13%M, 2 50% for females and 40% for males (50%F/40%M, and 3 80% for female and 64% for male (80%F/64%M. Data specific to Puerto Rico was used. When not available, values from the United States were used. Input data consisted of demographic, behavioral, epidemiological, screening, and economic parameters.The model predicted decreases in: 1 HPV infection prevalence for females and males, 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer incidence for females, 3 genital warts incidence for females and males, and 4 cervical cancer deaths among females, when various vaccination program scenarios were considered. In addition, when the vaccination percentage was increased in every scenario, the reduction was greater and began earlier. The analysis also evidenced an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of $1,964 per quality-adjusted life year gained for the 80%F/64%M uptake scenario.HPV vaccine can prove its cost effectiveness and substantially reduce the burden and costs associated to various HPV-related conditions when targeted to the adequate population together with an organized HPV vaccination program.

  2. Primary factors affecting water quality and quantity in four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program, four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico were monitored to identify and evaluate the effects of geology, landcover, atmospheric deposition, and other factors on stream water quality and quantity. Two catchments are located on coarse-grained granitic plutonic rocks, which weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sediments, which weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. These differing soil materials result in different hydrologic regimes. Soils on the granitic rocks have greater permeability than those developed on the volcaniclastic rocks, allowing more water infiltration and potentially greater landslide erosion rates. For each bedrock type, one catchment was covered with mature rainforest, and the other catchment was affected by agricultural practices typical of eastern Puerto Rico. These practices led to the erosion of much of the original surface soil in the agricultural watersheds, which introduced large quantities of sediment to stream channels. The agricultural watersheds are undergoing natural reforestation, like much of Puerto Rico. Eastern Puerto Rico receives large atmospheric inputs of marine salts, pollutants from the Northern Hemisphere, and Saharan Desert dust. Marine salts contribute over 80 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation, with peak inputs in January. Intense storms, mostly hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Temperate pollution contributes nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate, with maximum inputs during northern cold fronts in January, April, and May. Pollution inputs have increased through time. Desert dust peaks in June and July, during times of maximum dust transport from the Saharan Desert across the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Correlation between earthworms and plant litter decomposition in a tropical wet forest of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Dechainea; Honghua Ruanb; Yaniria Sanchez-de Leon; Xiaoming Zou

    2005-01-01

    Earthworms are recognized to play an important role in the decomposition of organic materials. To test the use of earthworms as an indicator of plant litter decomposition, we examined the abundance and biomass of earthworms in relation to plant litter decomposition in a tropical wet forest of Puerto Rico. We collected earthworms at 0–0.1m and 0.1–0.25m soil depths from...

  4. Susceptibility of Florida Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to dengue viruses from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, Barry W; Smartt, Chelsea T; Shin, Dongyoung; Bettinardi, David; Malicoate, Jolene; Anderson, Sheri L; Richards, Stephanie L

    2014-12-01

    Locally acquired dengue cases in the continental U.S. are rare. However, outbreaks of dengue-1 during 2009, 2010, and 2013 in Florida and dengue-1 and -2 in Texas suggest vulnerability to transmission. Travel and commerce between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland is common, which may pose a risk for traveler-imported dengue cases. Mosquitoes were collected in Florida and used to evaluate their susceptibility to dengue viruses (DENV) from Puerto Rico. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were susceptible to virus infection with DENV-1 and -2. No significant differences were observed in rates of midgut infection or dissemination between Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus for DENV-1 (6-14%). Aedes aegypti was significantly more susceptible to midgut infection with DENV-2 than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti, ∼28%; Ae. albopictus, ∼9%). The dissemination rate with dengue-2 virus for Ae. aegypti (23%) was greater than Ae. albopictus (0%), suggesting that Ae. albopictus is not likely to be an important transmitter of the DENV-2 isolate from Puerto Rico. These results are discussed in light of Florida's vulnerability to DENV transmission. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Nueva especie del quitón Lepidochitona (Polyplacophora: Ischnochitonidae de Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 tiene dos especies en el Caribe: L. liozonis (Dall & Simpson, 1901 y L. rosea Kaas, 1972. Se describe una tercera especie: Lepidochitona rufoi sp. nov. de Puerto Rico. Lepidochitona rufoi difiere de ambas por tener un tegumento finamente granuloso, menor tamaño, una rádula con dientes centrales muy finos, la forma de la valva anal y el color diferentes. También difiere de L. liozonis por tener espículas marginales más largas.A new species of the chiton Lepidochitona (Polyplacophora: Ischnochitonidae from Puerto Rico. The genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 has two species in the Caribbean: L. liozonis (Dall & Simpson, 1901 and L. rosea Kaas, 1972. We describe a third species: Lepidochitona rufoi sp. nov. from Puerto Rico. Lepidochitona rufoi differs from both in having a finely granulose tegmentum, smaller size, a very fine central radula tooth, and different anal plate form and color pattern. It also differs from L. liozonis in having longer marginal spicules. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 635-644. Epub 2010 June 02.

  6. Beyond quarantine: a history of leprosy in Puerto Rico, 1898-1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levison Julie H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From biblical times to the modern period, leprosy has been a disease associated with stigma. This mark of disgrace, physically present in the sufferers' sores and disfigured limbs, and embodied in the identity of a 'leper', has cast leprosy into the shadows of society. This paper draws on primary sources, written in Spanish, to reconstruct the social history of leprosy in Puerto Rico when the United States annexed this island in 1898. The public health policies that developed over the period of 1898 to the 1930s were unique to Puerto Rico because of the interplay between political events, scientific developments and popular concerns. Puerto Rico was influenced by the United States' priorities for public health, and the leprosy control policies that developed were superimposed on vestiges of the colonial Spanish public health system. During the United States' initial occupation, extreme segregation sacrificed the individual rights and liberties of these patients for the benefit of society. The lives of these leprosy sufferers were irrevocably changed as a result.

  7. Risk factors, prevalence trend, and clustering of hypospadias cases in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, Luis A; Alvelo-Maldonado, Laureane; Padró-Mojica, Irmari; Seguinot, José; Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to determine the distribution pattern of hypospadias cases across a well-defined geographic space. The dataset for this study was produced by the Birth Defects Prevention and Surveillance System of the Department of Health of Puerto Rico (BDSS-PR), which linked the information of male newborns of the Puerto Rico Birth Cohort dataset (PRBC; n=92,285) from 2007 to 2010. A population-based case-control study was conducted to determine prevalence trend and to estimate the potential effects of maternal age, paternal age, birth-related variables, and health insurance status on hypospadias. Two types of geographic information systems (GIS) methods (Anselin Local Moran's I and Getis-Ord G) were used to determine the spatial distribution of hypospadias prevalence. Birthweight (<2500 g), age of mother (40+years), and private health insurance were associated with hypospadias as confirmed with univariate and multivariate analyses at 95% CI. A cluster of hypospadias cases was detected in the north-central region of Puerto Rico with both GIS methods (p≤0.05). The clustering of hypospadias prevalence provides an opportunity to assess the underlying causes of the condition and their relationships with geographical space. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility determination of hydroelectric power generation at Patillas Reservoir, Puerto Rico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetter, J.J. Jr.

    1979-02-01

    The overall feasibility of retrofit for hydroelectric power generation at the Patillas Reservoir, an existing impoundment located near the town of Patillas, Puerto Rico, was studied. The scope of work and project intent is limited to establishing valid acceptance or non-acceptance criteria for this specific site as an example of power generation potential at existing dams of relatively low head (less than or equal to 20 m) in the United States. Information is included on hydrologic conditions at the site, retrofit plant design, economic analysis, environmental, legal, social and institutional aspects, and availability of plant equipment. It is concluded that generation of hydropower at Patillas is entirely practical and uncomplicated from an engineering viewpoint, has no adverse environmental effects and is economically justifiable for the island of Puerto Rico. The final agency or contractor roles for development are reasonably well-established. There are no prohibitory laws or regulations concerning this development. In fact, according to Puerto Rico legislation, such hydropower developments appear to be mandated. The installed capacity of the site ranges from 665 kW to approximately 1500 kW depending on extent of development of the available options. (LCL)

  9. Land Use Patterns and Fecal Contamination of Coastal Waters in Western Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norat, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Health of the Graduate School of Public Health of the Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico (UPR-RCM) conducted this research project on how different patterns of land use affect the microbiological quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Coastal shellfish growing areas, stream and ocean bathing beaches, and pristine marine sites in the Bay are affected by the discharge of the three study rivers. Satellite imagery was used to study watershed land uses which serve as point and nonpoint sources of pathogens affecting stream and coastal water users. The study rivers drain watersheds of different size and type of human activity (including different human waste treatment and disposal facilities). Land use and land cover in the study watersheds were interpreted, classified and mapped using remotely sensed images from NASA's Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). This study found there is a significant relationship between watershed land cover and microbiological water quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Land covers in the Guanajibo, Anasco, and Yaguez watersheds were classified into forested areas, pastures, agricultural zones and urban areas so as to determine relative contributions to fecal water contamination. The land cover classification was made processing TM images with IDRISI and ERDAS software.

  10. Impacts of Urban Development on Precipitation in the Tropical Maritime Climate of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Torres-Valcárcel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is critical for sustaining natural and managed ecosystems, and precipitation is a key component in the water cycle. To understand controls on long-term changes in precipitation for scientific and environmental management applications it is necessary to examine whether local land use and land cover change (LULCC has played a significant role in changing historical precipitation patterns and trends. For the small tropical island of Puerto Rico, where maritime climate is dominant, we used long-term precipitation and land use and land cover data to assess whether there were any detectable impacts of LULCC on monthly and yearly precipitation patterns and trends over the past century. Particular focus was given to detecting impacts from the urban landscape on mesoscale climates across Puerto Rico. We found no statistical evidence for significant differences between average monthly precipitation in urban and non-urban areas directly from surface stations, but, after subdividing by Holdridge Ecological Life Zones (HELZs in a GIS, there were statistically significant differences (α = 0.05 in yearly average total precipitation between urban and non-urban areas in most HELZs. Precipitation in Puerto Rico has been decreasing over the past century as a result of a decrease in precipitation during periods (months or years of low rain. However, precipitation trends at particular stations contradict synoptic-scale long-term trends, which suggests that local land use/land cover effects are driving precipitation variability at local scales.

  11. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

  12. Public attitudes toward-and identification of-cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Carlo, Edna J; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents' identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to-but somewhat less positive than-their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the effects-or lack thereof-of considerations of stuttering on attitudes toward cluttering; (b) describe differences in public identification of children and adults who either clutter or stutter; (c) describe differences between attitudes toward cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico

  13. Psychometric properties of the Cambridge depersonalization scale in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Soto, Michell R; Vélez-Pastrana, María; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; González, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    Depersonalization experiences have been studied in the United States and Europe, but there is a dearth of investigations with Latino populations. In the current study we examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS) in 300 adult individuals from the community and compared the results with those reported previously with non-Latino clinical populations. Discrepant findings have been reported with respect to the factor structure of the CDS. We performed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the CDS items and compared our results with published analyses on other populations. Results revealed that the psychometric properties of the CDS, such as reliability, seem adequate, although the factor structure of the CDS seems to be inconsistent across studies. We selected a 4-factor solution that was most parsimonious and best fit our data. Furthermore, we obtained a moderate, statistically significant relationship (r = .64, p = .001) between the CDS and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Our results, utilizing a nonclinical sample of Puerto Rican adults, suggest that depersonalization experiences can be reliably measured in a Latino and Spanish-speaking population.

  14. Reconnaissance of Volatile Synthetic Organic Chemicals at Public Water Supply Wells Throughout Puerto Rico, November 1984-May 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Rios, Senen; Garcia, Rene; Aviles, Ada

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ground water is the principal source of drinking water for about 850,000 people in Puerto Rico (National Water Summary, 1985). Ground-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural, and industrial water uses in Puerto Rico are about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) (Torres-Sierra and Aviles, 1985). The development of the most accessible surface water supplies will result in an increasing demand for ground water. Recent investigations conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey, WRD (USGS) have shown the presence of toxic synthetic organic chemicals in ground water throughout Puerto Rico (Gomez-Gomez and Guzman-Rios, 1982). Volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOC's) have been detected in water from public water supply wells in concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 micrograms per liter (Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1984 and Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1985). As result of these findings, pumpage was discontinued at 6 wells operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico agency responsible for public-water supply. Monitoring of 10 additional wells in the vicinity of those wells is being conducted by the USGS in cooperation with PRASA. In 1985, the USGS began a comprehensive islandwide study of VOC's in drinking water. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) and PRASA. Samples were collected from 243 public-water supply wells operated by PRASA (flgure 1). The authors wish to acknowledge the support, assistance and cooperation of the PRASA staff throughout Puerto Rico in the sample collection effort. The authors are especially grateful to Engineer Carlos Garcia-Troche from the PRASA main office in San Juan.

  15. 7 CFR 318.13-6 - Transit of fruits and vegetables from Hawaii or the territories into or through the continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit of fruits and vegetables from Hawaii or the... the Territories § 318.13-6 Transit of fruits and vegetables from Hawaii or the territories into or through the continental United States. Fruits and vegetables from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the...

  16. Predictors of school dropout among adolescents in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, José M; Robles, Rafaela R; Reyes, Juan C; Matos, Tomás D; Negrón, Juan L; Cruz, Miguel A

    2009-12-01

    This research aims to understand the circumstances associated with school dropout in a cohort of Puerto Rican adolescents. The study collected data from adolescents and their parents. Information related to school dropout among adolescents was obtained from the second year follow-up data from the longitudinal study funded by NIDA "Risky Families Embedded in Risky Environments" (Grant No. R01 DA 15301). Data was collected employing a self-administered and a face-to-face interview protocol. Prediction of school dropout was assessed throughout adolescent characteristics, family background, school experiences and behaviors. During the second follow-up, two years after the baseline assessment, approximately 6.2% of the adolescents reported dropping out from school. Logistic regression analysis indicates that older adolescents (OR = 6.6, 1.37-31.67), whose mother used drugs during pregnancy (OR = 4.9, 1.31-17.91), who reported high rates of absenteeism (OR = 4.8, 1.63-14.13), high school grade retention (OR = 3.7, 1.14-12.05), and attended school where teachers were attacked or wounded by students (O R =7.0, 1.44-34.17) were more likely to dropout of school. : These findings emphasize the need to further understand the effects of different elements of adolescents' environment such as family and school. It has been posited that dropping out of school is a process whose characteristics can be detected long before it occurs. The fact that students who dropout are more likely to report skip classes and grade retention can be relevant elements in prevention and early intervention for teachers and other school personnel.

  17. Suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among general practice patients with chronic health conditions in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Huertas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mildred Vera2,4, María L Reyes-Rabanillo1, Sarah Huertas3, Deborah Juarbe4, Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo4, Aracelis Huertas5, Marisol Peña61Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System, San Juan, Puerto Rico; 2Department of Health Services Administration, School of Public Health; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine; 4Center for Evaluation and Sociomedical Research, School of Public Health; 5School of Health Professions; 6Center for Preparedness in Public Health, School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico.Background: Little is known about suicidal ideation among general practice patients in Puerto Rico. In this study we examined the rates, severity, and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among general practice patients with chronic illnesses. This is important in targeting appropriate interventions and management approaches to minimize and prevent suicide.Methods: We screened patients with chronic physical conditions at general practices. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the suicidality module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Major depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module. The relationship between sociodemographic factors, depression and suicidal ideation was examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the subgroup that acknowledged suicidal ideation, we used multinomial logistic regression analysis to estimate simultaneously the multivariate associations of depression and sociodemographic factors with suicidality risk levels.Results: Of the 2068 patients screened, 15.4% acknowledged recent suicidal ideation. Among this group, 8.6% reported passive ideation, 3.7% active ideation without a plan, and 3.1% active ideation with a plan or attempt. According to multivariate logistic regression, suicidal ideation was higher among patients with moderately severe depression and severe depression than

  18. The Genetic Diversity and Evolution of HIV-1 Subtype B Epidemic in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pablo; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Nayra; Vargas, Freddie; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-23

    HIV-1 epidemics in Caribbean countries, including Puerto Rico, have been reported to be almost exclusively associated with the subtype B virus (HIV-1B). However, while HIV infections associated with other clades have been only sporadically reported, no organized data exist to accurately assess the prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the nucleotide sequence data of the HIV pol gene associated with HIV isolates from Puerto Rican patients. The sequences (n = 945) were obtained from our "HIV Genotyping" test file, which has been generated over a period of 14 years (2001-2014). REGA subtyping tool found the following subtypes: B (90%), B-like (3%), B/D recombinant (6%), and D/B recombinant (0.6%). Though there were fewer cases, the following subtypes were also found (in the given proportions): A1B (0.3%), BF1 (0.2%), subtype A (01-AE) (0.1%), subtype A (A2) (0.1%), subtype F (12BF) (0.1%), CRF-39 BF-like (0.1%), and others (0.1%). Some of the recombinants were identified as early as 2001. Although the HIV epidemic in Puerto Rico is primarily associated with HIV-1B virus, our analysis uncovered the presence of other subtypes. There was no indication of subtype C, which has been predominantly associated with heterosexual transmission in other parts of the world.

  19. Direct and indirect impact of federal transfer to individuals and to the government of Puerto Rico

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    Ángel Luis Ruiz Mercado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Puerto Rico Planning Board classifies individual transfer payments into two categories: “earned transfers” and “granted” transfers. The purpose of this work is to estimate the direct and indirect economic effects of federal and other transfer payments to Puerto Rico using two input-output models and two vectors of employment and income coefficients base on tables for years 1992 and 2002. The economic impacts were estimated for three economic indicators namely, gross output, direct and indirect employment and direct and indirect wage income. The results presented in this work shows that the argument that Puerto Ricans enjoy relatively generous income supplements and retirement benefits without imposing heavy tax burdens on highly compensated workers failed to distinguish that most of the transfer payments to individuals were in the category of earned transfers. It is doubtful that this type of transfer “imposeheavy tax burdens” to American taxpayers. Since we are an open economy mostof the income generated by transfer to individuals is spent of goods and servicesa substantial amount of which comes from United States. It is also doubtful thatearned transfer to individuals (especially transfers in the form of pensions andpayments to veterans have any significant impact on the labor force participation rate or the incentives to work.

  20. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  1. Status and nesting of the yellow-billed cuckoo in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Cameron B.; Kepler, Angela K.

    1978-01-01

    Knowledge of the status of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) in the Greater Antilles has been clouded by the bird's elusive behavior and spotty distribution on the islands, and by a major movement of North American migrants through the area to and from their wintering grounds in South America. Although Bond (1956) states that they breed in the Greater Antilles, nests are known only from Cuba, St. Croix (Bond 1956), and Jamaica (Lack 1976), and Bond considered the bird rare in Puerto Rico. Other students of Puerto Rican ornithology have suggested that the species is "uncommon" (Leopold 1963), "rare" (McCandless 1958), or a regular migrant or resident species (Wetmore 1916). Although no nests have been reported, most authors suspect that it breeds, and agree that it frequents coastal areas in western or southwestern Puerto Rico, primarily from May to September (Wetmore 1916, Danforth 1936, McCandless 1958, Leopold 1963, Biaggi 1970). From 1968 to 1971 we conducted linear strip censuses along pre-selected routes throughout the island, counting all birds heard or seen (Kepler and Kepler 1970); data we obtained on the Yellow-billed Cuckoo helped clarify and amplify existing information on its distribution and status.

  2. Seismic and tsunami hazard in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rodriguez, Rafael W.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    1999-01-01

    Executive SummaryPuerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are located at an active plate boundary between the North American plate and the northeast corner of the Caribbean plate. The region was subject in historical times to large magnitude earthquakes and devastating tsunamis. A major downward tilt of the sea floor north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, large submarine rockslides, and an unusually large negative gravity anomaly are also indicative of a tectonically active region. Scientists have so far failed to explain the deformation of this region in a coherent and predictable picture, such as in California, and this has hampered their ability to assess seismic and tsunami hazards in the region. The NE corner of the Caribbean is unique among the seismically-active regions of the United States in that it is mostly covered by water. This fact presents an additional challenge for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation.The workshop, convened in San Juan on March 23-24, 1999, was "historic" in that it brought together for the first time a broad spectrum of scientists, engineers, and public and private sector officials who deal with such diverse questions as tectonic models, probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, prediction of tsunami runup, strong ground motion, building codes, stability of man-made structures, and the public’s preparedness for natural disasters. It was an opportunity for all the participants to find out how their own activity fit into the broad picture of science and how it aids society in hazard assessment and mitigation. In addition, the workshop was offered as a continuing education course at the Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimensores de Puerto Rico, which assured a rapid dissemination of the results to the local community. A news conference which took place during the workshop alerted the public to the efforts of the USGS, other Federal agencies, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, universities and the private sector.During the

  3. Community beliefs and practices about dengue in Puerto Rico Creencias y prácticas comunitarias relacionadas con el dengue en Puerto Rico

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    Carmen L. Pérez-Guerra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In spite of long-term endemicity and repeated government and private efforts, effective, sustained community participation for dengue prevention remains a challenge in Puerto Rico. This study explored differences found in interviews conducted in 2001 in attitudes toward dengue and its prevention by respondents' gender and whether they had a prior dengue infection. Findings may be used to develop messages to promote Aedes aegypti control practices. METHODS: From September to October 2003, 11 focus groups were conducted in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Fifty-nine persons (35 women, 24 men, > 18 years of age, who had been identified through the Puerto Rico dengue surveillance system participated in the focus groups. Analysis was based on grounded theory. RESULTS: Women considered dengue important because of its economic, emotional, and health impact, and they were concerned more often than men about insufficient garbage removal and water disposal. Participants with a previous dengue diagnosis were more concerned about risk of the disease, were more knowledgeable about dengue and its prevention, and recommended use of repellents more often than their counterparts without a previous dengue diagnosis. Barriers to sustained dengue prevention included misconceptions from outdated educational materials, " invisibility" of dengue compared with chronic diseases, and lack of acceptance of responsibility for dengue prevention. CONCLUSION: Suggested strategies to motivate residents' actions included working with government agencies to address structural problems that increase mosquito populations, improving access to information on garbage collection and water disposal through telephone hotlines, increasing publicity and information about dengue by mass media campaigns, and educating health professionals.OBJETIVO: A pesar de la prolongada endemia y los reiterados esfuerzos gubernamentales y privados, la participación efectiva y sostenida de la comunidad

  4. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico.

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    Veroushka Ballester

    Full Text Available The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn's disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10-6 and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10-4. The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and "local" continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10-6. Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci.

  5. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Veroushka; Guo, Xiuqing; Vendrell, Roberto; Haritunians, Talin; Klomhaus, Alexandra M; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot P B; Rotter, Jerome I; Torres, Esther A; Taylor, Kent D

    2014-01-01

    The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn's disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10-6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10-4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and "local" continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10-6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci.

  6. Una mirada hacia las actitudes lingüísticas en Puerto Rico

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    Carla M. Mojica De León

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de San Juan de Puerto Rico hacia al español del país y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 personas estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Se presentan los resultados que revelan las actitudes lingüísticas de los puertorriqueños hacia su español, las diversas creencias cognitivas y afectivas que las motivan y la percepción que muestran hacia el resto de las variedades del español. Nuestros hallazgos revelan que los puertorriqueños presentan una actitud positiva hacia su variedad y la variante peninsular, aunque rechazan algunos fenómenos lingüísticos de ambos dialectos. Se constata, además, que el habla de los grupos migratorios, representada en nuestro caso por la variedad dominicana, se percibe con menos prestigio. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from San Juan de Puerto Rico towards Spanish spoken in the country and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The results of the study reveal the linguistic attitudes of Puerto Ricans toward their variety of Spanish, their cognitive and affective beliefs, and the perception they have of the other varieties of the Spanish language. Our findings confirm that Puerto Ricans have positive attitudes towards their own variety and the

  7. Effect of a Dengue Clinical Case Management Course on Physician Practices in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, George S; Gregory, Christopher J; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Perez-Guerra, Carmen; Soto-Gomez, Eunice; Matos, Desiree; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-11-15

     Prior to 2010, the clinical management of dengue in Puerto Rico was inconsistent with World Health Organization guidelines. A 4-hour classroom-style course on dengue clinical management was developed in 2009 and mandated for Puerto Rico medical licensure in 2010. Fifty physicians were trained as "master trainers" and gave this course to 7638 physicians. This study evaluated the effect of the course on the clinical management of hospitalized dengue patients.  Pre- and post-course test responses were compared. Changes in physician practices were assessed by reviewing medical records of 430 adult and 1075 pediatric dengue patients at the 12 hospitals in Puerto Rico that reported the most cases during 2008-2009 (pre-intervention) and 2011 (post-intervention). Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare key indicators of dengue management.  Physician test scores increased from 48% to 72% correct. Chart reviews showed that the percentage of adult patients who did not receive corticosteroids increased from 30% to 68% (odds ratio [OR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-9.5) and from 91% to 96% in pediatric patients (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9). Usage of isotonic intravenous saline during the critical period increased from 57% to 90% in adult patients (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4) and from 25% to 44% in pediatric patients (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.2-5.3).  Management of dengue inpatients significantly improved following implementation of a classroom-style course taught by master trainers. An online version of the course was launched in 2014 to expand its reach and sustainability. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Physician survey to determine how dengue is diagnosed, treated and reported in puerto rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashek, Kay M; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Ramos, Mary M; Pérez-Guerra, Carmen L; Garcia Rivera, Enid J; Sun, Wellington

    2014-10-01

    Dengue is a major cause of morbidity in Puerto Rico and is well-known to its physicians. Early case identification and timely initiation of treatment for patients with severe dengue can reduce medical complications and mortality. To determine clinical management and reporting practices, and assess knowledge of dengue and its management, a survey was sent to 2,512 physicians with a medical license in Puerto Rico. Of the 2,313 physicians who received the survey, 817 (35%) completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 708 were currently practicing medicine; 138 were board certified (Group 1), 282 were board eligible (Group 2), and 288 had not finished residency (Group 3). Although respondents clinically diagnosed, on average, 12 cases of dengue in the preceding three months, 31% did not report any suspected cases to public health officials while about half (56%) reported all cases. Overall, 29% of respondents correctly identified early signs of shock and 48% identified severe abdominal pain and persistent vomiting as warning signs for severe dengue with the proportion of correct respondents highest in Group 1. Reportedly about sixty percent (57%) appropriately never give corticosteroids or prophylactic platelet transfusions to dengue patients. One third (30%) of respondents correctly identified administration of intravenous colloid solution as the best treatment option for dengue patients with refractory shock and elevated hematocrit after an initial trial of intravenous crystalloids, and nearly one half (46%) correctly identified administration of a blood transfusion as the best option for dengue patients with refractory shock and decreased hematocrit after a trial of intravenous crystalloids. Even though dengue has been endemic in Puerto Rico for nearly 4 decades, knowledge of dengue management is still limited, compliance with WHO treatment guidelines is suboptimal, and underreporting is significant. These findings were used to design a post graduate training

  9. Physician survey to determine how dengue is diagnosed, treated and reported in puerto rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay M Tomashek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major cause of morbidity in Puerto Rico and is well-known to its physicians. Early case identification and timely initiation of treatment for patients with severe dengue can reduce medical complications and mortality. To determine clinical management and reporting practices, and assess knowledge of dengue and its management, a survey was sent to 2,512 physicians with a medical license in Puerto Rico. Of the 2,313 physicians who received the survey, 817 (35% completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 708 were currently practicing medicine; 138 were board certified (Group 1, 282 were board eligible (Group 2, and 288 had not finished residency (Group 3. Although respondents clinically diagnosed, on average, 12 cases of dengue in the preceding three months, 31% did not report any suspected cases to public health officials while about half (56% reported all cases. Overall, 29% of respondents correctly identified early signs of shock and 48% identified severe abdominal pain and persistent vomiting as warning signs for severe dengue with the proportion of correct respondents highest in Group 1. Reportedly about sixty percent (57% appropriately never give corticosteroids or prophylactic platelet transfusions to dengue patients. One third (30% of respondents correctly identified administration of intravenous colloid solution as the best treatment option for dengue patients with refractory shock and elevated hematocrit after an initial trial of intravenous crystalloids, and nearly one half (46% correctly identified administration of a blood transfusion as the best option for dengue patients with refractory shock and decreased hematocrit after a trial of intravenous crystalloids. Even though dengue has been endemic in Puerto Rico for nearly 4 decades, knowledge of dengue management is still limited, compliance with WHO treatment guidelines is suboptimal, and underreporting is significant. These findings were used to design a post graduate

  10. Late HIV Testing in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossas-Milligan, Katherine Y; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F; Mayor, Angel M; Fernández-Santos, Diana M; Dworkin, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    Late HIV testing (LT), defined as receiving an AIDS diagnosis within a year of one's first positive HIV test, is associated with higher HIV transmission, lower HAART effectiveness, and worse outcomes. Latinos represent 36% of LT in the US, yet research concerning LT among HIV cases in Puerto Rico is scarce. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with LT, and a Cochran‒Armitage test was used to determine LT trends in an HIV-infected cohort followed at a clinic in Puerto Rico specialized in the management and treatment of HIV. From 2000 to 2011, 47% of eligible patients were late testers, with lower median CD4 counts (54 vs. 420 cells/mm3) and higher median HIV viral load counts (253,680 vs. 23,700 copies/mL) than non-LT patients. LT prevalence decreased significantly, from 47% in 2000 to 37% in 2011. In a mutually adjusted logistic regression model, males, older age at enrollment and past history of IDU significantly increased LT odds, whereas having a history of amphetamine use decreased LT odds. When the data were stratified by mode of transmission, it became apparent that only the category men who have sex with men (MSM) saw a significant reduction in the proportion of LT, falling from 67% in 2000 to 33% in 2011. These results suggest a gap in early HIV detection in Puerto Rico, a gap that decreased only among MSM. An evaluation of the manner in which current HIV-testing guidelines are implemented on the island is needed.

  11. Job Satisfaction and Relocation Desire among Pediatric Dentists in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Oscar; Saman, Daniel M; Tabares, Miguel; Hernández, Ana; Sanders-Ward, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    To determine the levels of satisfaction, license status, and desire to relocate of pediatric dentists in Puerto Rico. Pediatric dentists in Puerto Rico were surveyed via telephone interviews. Data were collected through a 34-item questionnaire that explored satisfaction as related to income, continuing education, professional goals, and participation in the Mi Salud program. Frequencies, chi-square analysis, and Fisher's exact 2-tailed t-test were utilized to determine the relationships between satisfaction and the demographics of the pediatric dentists. Sixty pediatric dentists participated in our survey-77% of the total number of pediatric dentists practicing in Puerto Rico. Overall, 65% of the participating pediatric dentists expressed dissatisfaction. Male pediatric dentists were more dissatisfied than their female colleagues were. Most pediatric dentists participating in Mi Salud expressed dissatisfaction. When asked about whether or not they had considered migrating to the mainland, those who were dissatisfied were more likely to have considered that idea than were those who were satisfied. Overall, 57% of the pediatric dentists comprising our sample had considered relocating to the continental United States. In general, the pediatric dentists who participated in our study expressed dissatisfaction in most areas except when asked about their ability to reach professional goals. Determining the levels of satisfaction of health care providers is important in the maintaining of an adequate workforce. As current levels of dissatisfaction are high, it is important to determine what variables are related to satisfaction so that corrective measures can be taken to ensure that retention rates improve, thereby maintaining an adequate pediatric dental workforce.

  12. DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Severity in Puerto Rico: Prevalence, Criteria Profile, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Gruenewald, Paul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2018-02-01

    Our aim was to examine lifetime criteria profiles and correlates of severity (mild, moderate, severe) of DSM-5 alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household random sample of individuals 18 to 64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The survey response rate was 83%. DSM-5 AUD was identified with the Spanish version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analyses also identify correlates of each severity level using an ordered logistic regression model. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-5 AUD among men and women was 38 and 16%, respectively. Mild lifetime DSM-5 AUD was the most prevalent severity level among both men (18%) and women (9%). The most common criteria, independent of gender and severity level, were drinking larger quantities and for longer than planned (men range: 80 to 97%; women range: 78 to 91%) and hazardous use (men range: 56 to 91%; women range: 42 to 74%). Results from ordered logistic regression showed that the adjusted odds ratio for weekly drinking frequency, greater volume of alcohol consumed per drinking occasion, positive attitudes about drinking, drinking norms, and male gender invariantly increased risks across all DSM-5 AUD severity levels (mild, moderate, severe). Greater negative attitudes about drinking, low family cohesion, and Protestant religion were related to greater risks at higher AUD severity levels. AUD prevalence is high in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prevalence rates for some criteria are equally high across severity levels and poorly differentiate between mild, moderate, or severe DSM-5 AUD. The sociodemographic and alcohol-related risks vary across DSM-5 severity levels. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Physician Survey to Determine How Dengue Is Diagnosed, Treated and Reported in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashek, Kay M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Ramos, Mary M.; Pérez-Guerra, Carmen L.; Garcia Rivera, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a major cause of morbidity in Puerto Rico and is well-known to its physicians. Early case identification and timely initiation of treatment for patients with severe dengue can reduce medical complications and mortality. To determine clinical management and reporting practices, and assess knowledge of dengue and its management, a survey was sent to 2,512 physicians with a medical license in Puerto Rico. Of the 2,313 physicians who received the survey, 817 (35%) completed the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 708 were currently practicing medicine; 138 were board certified (Group 1), 282 were board eligible (Group 2), and 288 had not finished residency (Group 3). Although respondents clinically diagnosed, on average, 12 cases of dengue in the preceding three months, 31% did not report any suspected cases to public health officials while about half (56%) reported all cases. Overall, 29% of respondents correctly identified early signs of shock and 48% identified severe abdominal pain and persistent vomiting as warning signs for severe dengue with the proportion of correct respondents highest in Group 1. Reportedly about sixty percent (57%) appropriately never give corticosteroids or prophylactic platelet transfusions to dengue patients. One third (30%) of respondents correctly identified administration of intravenous colloid solution as the best treatment option for dengue patients with refractory shock and elevated hematocrit after an initial trial of intravenous crystalloids, and nearly one half (46%) correctly identified administration of a blood transfusion as the best option for dengue patients with refractory shock and decreased hematocrit after a trial of intravenous crystalloids. Even though dengue has been endemic in Puerto Rico for nearly 4 decades, knowledge of dengue management is still limited, compliance with WHO treatment guidelines is suboptimal, and underreporting is significant. These findings were used to design a post graduate training

  14. The Development of the Puerto Rico Lightning Detection Network for Meteorological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Marc D.; Miranda, Carmelo; Medin, J.; Ojeda, L. J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    A land-based Puerto Rico Lightning Detection Network (PR-LDN) dedicated to the academic research of meteorological phenomena has being developed. Five Boltek StormTracker PCI-Receivers with LTS-2 Timestamp Cards with GPS and lightning detectors were integrated to Pentium III PC-workstations running the CentOS linux operating system. The Boltek detector linux driver was compiled under CentOS, modified, and thoroughly tested. These PC-workstations with integrated lightning detectors were installed at five of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) campuses distributed around the island of PR. The PC-workstations are left on permanently in order to monitor lightning activity at all times. Each is networked to their campus network-backbone permitting quasi-instantaneous data transfer to a central server at the UPR-Bayam n campus. Information generated by each lightning detector is managed by a C-program developed by us called the LDN-client. The LDN-client maintains an open connection to the central server operating the LDN-server program where data is sent real-time for analysis and archival. The LDN-client also manages the storing of data on the PC-workstation hard disk. The LDN-server software (also an in-house effort) analyses the data from each client and performs event triangulations. Time-of-arrival (TOA) and related hybrid algorithms, lightning-type and event discriminating routines are also implemented in the LDN-server software. We also have developed software to visually monitor lightning events in real-time from all clients and the triangulated events. We are currently monitoring and studying the spatial, temporal, and type distribution of lightning strikes associated with electrical storms and tropical cyclones in the vicinity of Puerto Rico.

  15. Reasons for low influenza vaccination coverage among adults in Puerto Rico, influenza season 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Carmen S; Mercado-Crespo, Melissa C; Rivera, Brenda; Serrano-Rodriguez, Ruby; Macklin, Nora; Rivera, Angel; Graitcer, Samuel; Lacen, Mayra; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kennedy, Erin D

    2015-07-31

    Influenza vaccination is recommended annually for all persons 6 months and older. Reports of increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality during the 2013-2014 influenza season raised concerns about low adult influenza immunization rates in Puerto Rico. In order to inform public health actions to increase vaccination rates, we surveyed adults in Puerto Rico regarding influenza vaccination-related attitudes and barriers. A random-digit-dialing telephone survey (50% landline: 50% cellphone) regarding influenza vaccination, attitudes, practices and barriers was conducted November 19-25, 2013 among adults in Puerto Rico. Survey results were weighted to reflect sampling design and adjustments for non-response. Among 439 surveyed, 229 completed the survey with a 52% response rate. Respondents' median age was 55 years; 18% reported receiving 2013-2014 influenza vaccination. Among 180 unvaccinated respondents, 38% reported barriers associated with limited access to vaccination, 24% reported they did not want or need influenza vaccination, and 20% reported safety concerns. Vaccinated respondents were more likely to know if they were recommended for influenza vaccination, to report greater perceived risk of influenza illness, and to report being less concerned about influenza vaccine safety (p-valuevaccination and 17% were offered vaccination. Vaccination rates were higher among adults who received a recommendation and/or offer of influenza vaccination (43% vs. 14%; p-valuevaccination and patient attitudes (low perceived risk of influenza virus infection) may have contributed to low vaccination rates during the 2013-2014 season. HCP and public health practitioners should strongly recommend influenza vaccination and provide vaccinations during clinical encounters or refer patients for vaccination. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Reasons for low influenza vaccination coverage among adults in Puerto Rico, influenza season 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Carmen S.; Mercado-Crespo, Melissa C.; Rivera, Brenda; Serrano-Rodriguez, Ruby; Macklin, Nora; Rivera, Angel; Graitcer, Samuel; Lacen, Mayra; Bridges, Carolyn B.; Kennedy, Erin D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccination is recommended annually for all persons 6 months and older. Reports of increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality during the 2013–2014 influenza season raised concerns about low adult influenza immunization rates in Puerto Rico. In order to inform public health actions to increase vaccination rates, we surveyed adults in Puerto Rico regarding influenza vaccination-related attitudes and barriers. Methods A random-digit-dialing telephone survey (50% landline: 50% cellphone) regarding influenza vaccination, attitudes, practices and barriers was conducted November 19–25, 2013 among adults in Puerto Rico. Survey results were weighted to reflect sampling design and adjustments for non-response. Results Among 439 surveyed, 229 completed the survey with a 52% response rate. Respondents’ median age was 55 years; 18% reported receiving 2013–2014 influenza vaccination. Among 180 unvaccinated respondents, 38% reported barriers associated with limited access to vaccination, 24% reported they did not want or need influenza vaccination, and 20% reported safety concerns. Vaccinated respondents were more likely to know if they were recommended for influenza vaccination, to report greater perceived risk of influenza illness, and to report being less concerned about influenza vaccine safety (p-value vaccination and 17% were offered vaccination. Vaccination rates were higher among adults who received a recommendation and/or offer of influenza vaccination (43% vs. 14%; p-value vaccination and patient attitudes (low perceived risk of influenza virus infection) may have contributed to low vaccination rates during the 2013–2014 season. HCP and public health practitioners should strongly recommend influenza vaccination and provide vaccinations during clinical encounters or refer patients for vaccination. PMID:26144896

  17. An Initial Review of the Characteristics and Determinants of Female Entrepreneurs in Puerto Rico Características y determinantes de mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico: una mirada inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisela Santiago Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the characteristics and determinants of Puerto Rican female entrepreneurs in 2007.  This study utilizes data from the Adult Population Survey (APS for 2007 from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM Project.  We find that female entrepreneurs in Puerto Rico are most likely sole owners of their business establishment, face many local competitors, and do not generally export their goods or services outside of the Island. The primary motivation for business start-up was business opportunism along with a personal goal of greater independence at the workplace.  Education serves as a fundamental determinant of female entrepreneurship. Este artículo describe las características y determinantes de mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico para el 2007. El estudio utiliza los datos de la Encuesta de la Población Adulta del Proyecto de Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, por sus siglas en inglés. Se encontró que las mujeres empresarias en Puerto Rico tienden a ser dueñas únicas de sus negocios, tienen muchos competidores locales, y usualmente no exportan sus bienes o servicios fuera de la Isla. La motivación primaria para empezar el negocio fue tener una oportunidad de negocio junto a una meta personal de mayor independencia en el lugar de trabajo. La educación es un determinante fundamental de ser empresaria en Puerto Rico.

  18. Nueva especie del quitón Lepidochitona (Polyplacophora: Ischnochitonidae de Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 tiene dos especies en el Caribe: L. liozonis (Dall & Simpson, 1901 y L. rosea Kaas, 1972. Se describe una tercera especie: Lepidochitona rufoi sp. nov. de Puerto Rico. Lepidochitona rufoi difiere de ambas por tener un tegumento finamente granuloso, menor tamaño, una rádula con dientes centrales muy finos, la forma de la valva anal y el color diferentes. También difiere de L. liozonis por tener espículas marginales más largas.

  19. An Overview of the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, G.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; De La Matta, M.

    2012-12-01

    With a population of 4 million, Puerto Rico will be celebrating this year, for first time, an Island-wide earthquake drill following the Great California ShakeOut model. Most of our population has never experienced a large earthquake, since our last significant event occurred on 1918, and is not adequately prepared to respond to a sudden ground movement. During the moderate-size earthquakes (M5.2-5.8) that have been felt in Puerto Rico since 2010, and despite Puerto Rico Seismic Network education efforts, the general public reaction was inappropriate, occasionally putting themselves and others at risk. Our overarching goal for the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut is to help develop seismic awareness and preparedness in our communities. In addition, our main objectives include: to teach the public to remain calm and act quickly and appropriately during a seismic event, the identification and correction of potential hazards that may cause injuries, and the development/update of mitigation plans for home, work place and/or school. We are also taking this opportunity to clarify the misconceptions of other methods of protection (e.g. triangle of life) and warning equipment and systems that do not have sound scientific or applicable basis for our country. We will be presenting an overview of the accomplishment of our earthquake drill and the different strategies we are using, such as internet, social media and collaboration with state government agencies and professional groups, to reach diverse age and educational level groups and to promote their participation. One of our main target groups this year are school students since their experience can have a direct and positive impact on their families. The drill webpage was developed in Spanish and English as well as our promotional and educational materials. Being the first time a Spanish-speaking country coordinates a ShakeOut exercise we hope our experience and the materials we are developing could be of use and benefit to

  20. Mud transportation on a steep shelf, Rio de La Plata shelf, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, K.A.; Pilkey, O.H.; Trumbull, J.V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Hurricanes David (August 29-30, 1979) and Frederick (September 2-5, 1979) caused major flooding of the Rio de La Plata in northern Puerto Rico. A thin mud layer was deposited across the narrow insular shelf adjacent to the river mouth. Within 5 months, fair-weather shelf-winnowing processes moved the mud layer entirely from the shelf, 0.5 to 2 km to the shelf break at the 50-m contour and beyond. The process of mud movement is termed 'mud hopping.' ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  1. Measuring the economic benefit of maintaining the ecological integrity of the Río Mameyes in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; John. Loomis

    1999-01-01

    A contingent valuation in-person survey of Puerto Rican households was performed from April to August 1995 to estimate their willingness-to-pay for preserving instream flows in the Río Mameyes and avoiding a dam on the Río Fajardo. Annual willingness-to-pay was $21 for each river. When expanded to the 1 million households in Puerto Rico for the 5-year period households...

  2. El cabotaje marítimo en la cadena de suministros agrícola de Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Suárez-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio examina el efecto multidimensional del cabotaje marítimo que regula el transporte marítimo entre los mercados de Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y Puerto Rico. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los efectos que esta medida no tarifaria tiene sobre el sector agroindustrial en Puerto Rico. La metodología de investigación consistió de entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis de datos secundarios de los rubros agrícolas de mayor importación. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que es la interacción de medidas no tarifarias inherentes a la relación comercial entre ambos países que incide en la eficiencia y competitividad del sector agroindustrial en Puerto Rico.

  3. El cabotaje marítimo en la cadena de suministros agrícola de Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Suárez-Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio examina el efecto multidimensional del cabotaje marítimo que regula el transporte marítimo entre los mercados de Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y Puerto Rico. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los efectos que esta medida no tarifaria tiene sobre el sector agroindustrial en Puerto Rico. La metodología de investigación consistió de entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis de datos secundarios de los rubros agrícolas de mayor importación. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que es la interacción de medidas no tarifarias inherentes a la relación comercial entre ambos países que incide en la eficiencia y competitividad del sector agroindustrial en Puerto Rico.

  4. Assessment of non-point sources of fecal pollution in coastal waters of Puerto Rico and Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachoon, Dave S; Markand, Shanu; Otero, Ernesto; Perry, Garvin; Ramsubhag, Adesh; Ramsubaugh, Adash

    2010-07-01

    Traditional and molecular methods (PCR) were used to detect, quantify and identify the source of fecal pollution in coastal sites of Puerto Rico and Trinidad. Enterococci and Escherichia coli standard plate counts were used as a general indicator of fecal contamination while the PCR detection of Bifidobacteria adolescentis and human or bovine specific Bacteroidales were used to examine potential sources. Seven of 14 sites in Trinidad including Maracas Bay which is a major public beach contained significant fecal contamination based on enterococci numbers counts exceeding established thresholds for areas of direct contact. Forty six percent of the 27 stations in Puerto Rico were over the established thresholds for enterococci and 49% according to E. coli counts. About 31% of the stations examined in Puerto Rico had evidence of human derived fecal contamination. Human fecal pollution was detected in only one station from Trinidad. Bovine derived contamination was detected only once. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Risk and protective factors associated with youth violence among secondary school students in a nationally representative sample in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J C; Moscoso, M; Vélez, C N; Rodríguez, F; Colón, H M; Robles, R; Parrilla, I; Ramos, G; Suárez, C M; Mercado, H; Suárez, R A

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, youth violence has received increasing attention as a major public health issue in Puerto Rico as well as in the United States. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors of youth violence in a representative sample of school adolescents in Puerto Rico. Risk and protective factors were grouped into five domains: individual, family, peer group, school and community. From a total of 2,385 participants, 10.7% reported at least one violent behavior and 3.4% reported two or more violent behaviors. In multiple regression analysis the risk factors identified were male gender, junior grade students, having a favorable attitude towards antisocial behavior, use of ecstasy, involvement with antisocial peers and reporting antisocial parents. Participation in family decisions was the only protective factor associated with violence. Findings from this study could have important implications for the development of preventive programs for the adolescent population in Puerto Rico.

  6. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  7. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin...

  8. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Puerto Rico and...

  10. Lags from Money to Inflation in a Monetary Integrated Economy: Evidence from the Extreme Case of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the time-lenght of money growth's long and short run effect in affecting the rate of inflation in the context of an economy of extreme monetary integration. Money growth is measured as the rate of growth of Puerto Rico's consumer price index. By analyzing the case of Puerto Rico, we find that a dynamic expansion of money is reflected on prices immediately, but the unitary effect occurs approximately within ten quarters. In addition, the results show that local inflation is significantly influenced by its own past history and monetary policy, with the second having the greater effect.

  11. Public perception of climate change in a period of economic crisis in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Santos-Corrada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analysis is performed to measure Puerto Rican citizens’ perceptions of environmental issues and global climate change (GCC. Puerto Rico (PR is presently facing an economic crisis that began in 2010. In addition, the island has faced many extreme weather events that have greatly impacted the economy, including a dry period that lasted from the beginning of 2014 until the end of 2015 [1]. By replicating a study done in Greece (GR, [2] found that the citizens of PR are more informed about GCC (43% than Greeks (34%. However, only 29% of Puerto Ricans said they knew about the effects of greenhouse gases, as compared to 44% of Greeks. The citizens of PR (67% and GR (91% claim they do not have confidence that their respective governments and agencies will be able to face GCC. In both cases, they have a higher confidence level in environmental organizations than in the scientific community. In PR, 89% of the citizens are concerned about the degradation of natural resources. At 64%, this concern is also significant in the case of GR, although the figure has decreased from previous years. Both countries place more responsibility in the hands of those in government and industry to take action on GCC. That being said, the people of GR have made it known they are willing to perform individual actions as well.

  12. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  13. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Cassie; Berenz, Erin C; Sheerin, Christina; Amstadter, Ananda B; Canino, Glorisa; Silberg, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only), and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female) of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, χ(2) = 64.44, p PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology (β = 0.33, p PTEs increased (βs = 0.15, 0.16, ps < 0.05). Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (βs = 0.24, 0.20, ps < 0.01, respectively). These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  14. Potentially Traumatic Events, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Depression among Adults in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassie eOverstreet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; data available in males only, and depressive symptoms in a Puerto Rican sample of 678 adult caretakers (50% female of twins participating in the Puerto Rican Infant Twin Study. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0 was utilized to assess rates of PTEs, PTSD, and depression among male participants while an abbreviated version of the CIDI 3.0 and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire were administered to females to assess PTEs and depressive symptoms. Significantly more males than females reported exposure to a PTE (76.6% vs. 44.2%, 2=64.44, p<.001. In males, endorsement of multiple PTEs was associated with increased level of PTSD symptomatology ( = .33, p < .001. With regard to depression, a similar dose-response relationship was found in both males and females, with depressive symptoms increasing as number of PTEs increased (s = .15, .16, ps < .05. Exposure to an attack with a weapon was significantly associated with increased depression symptoms in both males and females (s=.24, .20, ps<.01, respectively. These findings highlight the need for identification of putative risk and resilience factors among PTE-exposed individuals in Puerto Rico.

  15. Enviar o no enviar migradólares: migración y remesas en Puerto Rico, República Dominicana y México

    OpenAIRE

    Duany, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Puerto Ricans in the United States send less money to their relatives in their country of origin than most other Hispanics. The paradox of the relatively low level of remittances to Puerto Rico, despite a high outmigration rate, warrants further investigation. This essay compares remittance patterns among Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Mexicans in the United States. In particular, it assesses the impact of transfer payments from the U.S. government on Puerto Rican remittances. ...

  16. Water-quality reconnaissance of Laguna Tortuguero, Vega Baja, Puerto Rico, March 1999-May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Lopez, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Conde-Costas, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The Laguna Tortuguero, a slightly saline to freshwater lagoon in north-central Puerto Rico, has a surface area of about 220 hectares and a mean depth of about 1.2 meters. As part of a water-quality reconnaissance, water samples were collected at about monthly and near bi-monthly intervals from March 1999 to May 2000 at four sites: three stations inside the lagoon and one station at the artificial outlet channel dredged in 1940, which connects the lagoon with the Atlantic Ocean. Physical characteristics that were determined from these water samples were pH, temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen saturation, and discharge at the outlet canal. Other water-quality constituents also were determined, including nitrogen and phosphorus species, organic carbon, chlorophyll a and b, plankton biomass, hardness, alkalinity as calcium carbonate, and major ions. Additionally, a diel study was conducted at three stations in the lagoon to obtain data on the diurnal variation of temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved oxygen saturation. The data analysis indicates the water quality of Laguna Tortuguero complies with the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board standards and regulations.

  17. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S. [Ensys Energy & Systems, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  18. Enhanced West Nile Virus Surveillance in a Dengue-Endemic Area—Puerto Rico, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Aponte, Jomil M.; Luce, Richard R.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Beltrán, Manuela; Vergne, Edgardo; Argüello, D. Fermín; García, Enid J.; Sun, Wellington; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    In June of 2007, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in sentinel chickens and blood donors in Puerto Rico, where dengue virus (DENV) is hyperendemic. Enhanced human surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) began in eastern Puerto Rico on July 1, 2007. Healthcare providers submitted specimens from AFI cases for WNV and DENV virology and serology testing. Over 6 months, 385 specimens were received from 282 cases; 115 (41%) specimens were DENV laboratory-positive, 86 (31%) specimens were laboratory-indeterminate, and 32 (11%) specimens were laboratory-negative for WNV and DENV. One WNV infection was detected by anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test. DENV and WNV infections could not be differentiated in 27 cases (10%). During a period of active WNV transmission, enhanced human surveillance identified one case of symptomatic WNV infection. Improved diagnostic methods are needed to allow differentiation of WNV and DENV in dengue-endemic regions. PMID:23478583

  19. Population Declines of Mountain Coqui (Eleutherodactylus portoricensis) in the Cordillera Central of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Brittany S.; Ríos-Franceschi, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The Mountain Coqui (Eleutherodactylus portoricensis) is a frog endemic to montane rainforests in the Cordillera Central and Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Classified as endangered by the IUCN Red List and as vulnerable by the Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of Puerto Rico, this species has undergone considerable decline in the Luquillo Mountains. To evaluate the population status of E. portoricensis across its entire range, we conducted ~87 hours of surveys at 18 historical localities and 25 additional localities that we considered suitable for this species. We generated occupancy models to estimate the probability of occurrence at surveyed sites and to identify geographic and climatic factors affecting site occupancy. We also constructed a suitability map to visualize population status in relation to the presence of land cover at elevations where the species has been documented, and determined the dates when populations were last detected at historical localities. Eleutherodactylus portoricensis was detected at 14 of 43 localities, including 10 of 18 historical localities, but it was not detected at any localities west of Aibonito (western Cordillera Central). Occupancy models estimated the probability of occurrence for localities in the western Cordillera Central as zero. Site occupancy was positively associated with montane cloud forest, and negatively associated with the western Cordillera Central, maximum temperature, and precipitation seasonality. The suitability map suggests that declines have occurred despite the presence of suitable habitat. We suggest upgrading the extinction risk of E. portoricensis and potentially developing a captive breeding program for this species. PMID:25685250

  20. Virus-Specific Differences in Rates of Disease during the 2010 Dengue Epidemic in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Santiago, Luis M.; Rivera, Aidsa; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L.; Gonzalez Feliciano, Lorenzo; Margolis, Harold S.; Tomashek, Kay M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue is a potentially fatal acute febrile illness (AFI) caused by four mosquito-transmitted dengue viruses (DENV-1–4) that are endemic in Puerto Rico. In January 2010, the number of suspected dengue cases reported to the passive dengue surveillance system exceeded the epidemic threshold and an epidemic was declared soon after. Methodology/Principal Findings To characterize the epidemic, surveillance and laboratory diagnostic data were compiled. A suspected case was a dengue-like AFI in a person reported by a health care provider with or without a specimen submitted for diagnostic testing. Laboratory-positive cases had: (i) DENV nucleic acid detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in an acute serum specimen; (ii) anti-DENV IgM antibody detected by ELISA in any serum specimen; or (iii) DENV antigen or nucleic acid detected in an autopsy-tissue specimen. In 2010, a total of 26,766 suspected dengue cases (7.2 per 1,000 residents) were identified, of which 46.6% were laboratory-positive. Of 7,426 RT-PCR-positive specimens, DENV-1 (69.0%) and DENV-4 (23.6%) were detected more frequently than DENV-2 (7.3%) and DENV-3 (Puerto Rico in the late 1960's. This epidemic re-emphasizes the need for more effective primary prevention interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality of dengue. PMID:23593526

  1. Sociodemographic patterns of household water-use costs in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Padilla, Ingrid; Meeker, John D; Cordero, Jose F; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2015-08-15

    Variability of household water-use costs across different sociodemographic groups in Puerto Rico is evaluated using census microdata from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Multivariate analyses such as multiple linear regression (MLR) and factor analysis (FA) are used to classify, extract and interpret the household water-use costs. The FA results suggest two principal varifactors in explaining the variability of household water-use costs (64% in 2000 and 50% in 2010), which are grouped into a soft coefficient (social, economic and demographic characteristics of household residents, i.e., age, size, income, education) and a hard coefficient (dwelling conditions, i.e., number of rooms, units in the building, building age). The demographic profile of a high water-use household in Puerto Rico tends to be that of renters, people who live in larger or older buildings, people living in metro areas, or those with higher education level and higher income. The findings and discussions from this study will help decision makers to plan holistic and integrated water management to achieve water sustainability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the Decrease in the Surgical Population of the University of Puerto Rico-Affiliated Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Norma I; Santiago, Elvis; Luque, César

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the magnitude of the decrease in the surgical population of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR)-affiliated hospitals. We examined all the surgical cases that were entered into the Surgical Database from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015. This database collects patient and procedural information from the surgical services of the UPR-affiliated hospitals. Thus, the number of surgical patients for the 3-year study period was determined and their characteristics recorded. The group was subdivided into 3 subgroups, according to year: 2013, 2014, and 2015. All the variables studied were tabulated for the 3 subgroups and the values compared. The differences between subgroups were evaluated using the chi2 test or ANOVA, whichever was appropriate, with a p-value of less than 0.05 being considered significant. During the 3-year period, the Surgical Database collected information on 14,626 cases. The mean age of the group was 48 (±23) years. The gender distribution indicated that 55% of the sample members were women and 45% were men. A 14% decline in the number of surgical cases occurred from 2013 through 2015. The changes were not limited to a decline in numbers; the patients were sicker, as evidenced by a statistically significant (pPuerto Rico.

  3. Depression symptoms and stressful life events among college students in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Rivera-Medina, Carmen L; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis; Suárez-Torres, Alba; Bernal, Guillermo

    2013-03-05

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with stressful adaptation experiences that may increase symptoms of depression. We explored the prevalence and sex differences of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in freshmen Latino college students in Puerto Rico, and identified stressful life events that could contribute to symptoms of depression. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three freshmen college students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) public education system were assessed for depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and stressful life events using open questions. Nine percent of the sample reported depression symptoms at a moderate or severe level (BDI>20). Chi square analyses revealed a significantly higher prevalence for three of the stressful life events in females than males: relocation (10.2% females vs. 7.3% males; X(2) (1)=4.13, p=.042), break-up of a significant relationship (25.3% females vs. 17.8% males; X(2) (1)=13.76, pcollege, whereas for males a similar model without the relationship break-up variable resulted in a better fit. Freshmen college students present a broad range of depression symptoms and certain stressful life events are associated with an increased prevalence of depression symptoms. Early detection of depression and tailored prevention programs should be developed to improve both mental health and academic performance among the college population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sedimentation survey of Lago Lucchetti, Yauco, Puerto Rico, September 2013–May 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-08-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Lucchetti, Yauco, Puerto Rico, in 2013–14 in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. The survey updated a previous survey, conducted in 2000, and provided accurate information regarding reservoir storage capacity and sedimen­tation rate using bathymetric techniques and a global positioning system coupled with a depth sounder device. The results of the 2013–14 survey indicated a total storage capacity for Lago Lucchetti of 10.21 million cubic meters and a long­-term sedimentation rate loss of 0.16 million cubic meters per year based on the original capacity in 1952. Sediment accumulation was about 10.14 million cubic meters over the life of the reservoir, which represents a storage decrease of about 50 percent of the original capacity in 1952. On the basis of a comparison between the 2013–14 and 2000 surveys, the useful life for Lago Lucchetti is projected to end in 2076.

  5. Capacity Needs in Community-Based Organizations for Enhancing Translational Research in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Giovanni; Sardiñas, Lili M.; Acosta-Perez, Edna; Medina, Lizbeth; Rivera, Mirza; Pattatucci, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Background In an effort to form and sustain community–academic partnerships (CAPs) to enhance clinical and translational research, an assessment of needs for selecting and implementing evidence-based programs (EBPs) was conducted among a group of community-based organizations (CBOs) throughout Puerto Rico. Methods The survey was based on an instrument developed by the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network. It assessed specific service information, program selection/implementation processes, knowledge and perception of EBPs, funding venues, evaluation processes, and capacity and training needs. Recruitment consisted of contacting 100 nonprofit organizations in Puerto Rico that work or address specific health areas, namely, cancer, neurological disorders, HIV, and cardiovascular health. Results The survey revealed wide variability in understanding what constitutes an EBP. Training needs for building a productive translational research process also were identified. Prominent among these were securing funding for ongoing operations, utilizing data for decision making, developing collaborations, managing information, conducting community needs assessments, and program evaluation. Conclusions These findings point to important implications for promoting community–campus partnerships for advancing clinical and translational research. PMID:24859102

  6. Upstream to downstream: stormwater quality in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrove, Meagan E; Ballestero, Thomas P

    2012-08-01

    The focus of this research was upon consequences of urban stormwater runoff entering two streams in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. Mayagüez is the largest urban area of the western side of the island of Puerto Rico and provides an excellent point of reference to monitor the affects of urban development on water quality in a tropical climate. The two monitored streams were Quebrada del Oro and Cano Majagual. The research hypothesis asks, "Does stormwater runoff from urban development measurably affect the water quality of downstream receiving water by raising the conductivity, temperature, and flow quantity characteristics during storm events in comparison to upstream water quality?" In essence, the results for Quebrada del Oro agreed with the hypothesis of this project, while Cano Majagual produced results different from the hypothesis primarily due to the absence of non-urbanized land use for both upstream and downstream sections as well as the buffering capacity of a large wetland just upstream of the downstream instrument location of Cano Majagual. Both streams showed signs of stream impairment according to the temperature criteria (32°C or 90°F) set by the Junta de Calidad Ambiental and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Dissolved oxygen levels of the streams were severely affected by water temperature and oxygen-consuming matter within these stream systems, making dissolved oxygen and temperature important water quality parameters for tropical climates.

  7. Red-tailed Hawk movements and use of habitat in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, Francisco; Nimitz, Wyatt F.

    2012-01-01

    The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a top predator of upland ecosystems in the Greater Antilles. Little information exists on the ecology of the insular forms of this widely distributed species. We studied movements and resource use of the Red-tailed Hawk from 2000 to 2002 in the montane forests of northeastern Puerto Rico. We captured 32 and used 21 radio-marked Red-tailed Hawks to delineate home range, core area shifts, and macrohabitat use in the Luquillo Mountains. Red-tailed Hawks in the Luquillo Mountains frequently perched near the top of canopy emergent trees and were characterized by wide-ranging capabilities and extensive spatial overlap. Home range size averaged 5,022.6 6 832.1 ha (305–11,288 ha) and core areas averaged 564.8 6 90.7 ha (150–1,230 ha). This species had large mean weekly movements (3,286.2 6 348.5 m) and a preference for roadside habitats. Our findings suggest fragmentation of contiguous forest outside protected areas in Puerto Rico may benefit the Red-tailed Hawk

  8. Family cohesion and pride, drinking and alcohol use disorder in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Canino, Glorisa

    2017-01-01

    The extended multigenerational family is a core value of Hispanic culture. Family cohesion/pride can have protective effects on drinking- and drug-use-related behavior among Hispanics. To examine the association between family cohesion/pride, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household random sample of 1510 individuals 18-64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Bivariate analyses showed that family cohesion/pride was not associated with the average number of drinks consumed per week but was associated with binge drinking among men. Family cohesion/pride was also associated with DSM-5 AUD. Results of the multivariate analyses were consistent with these bivariate results for DSM-5 AUD. Respondents with low (OR = 2.2, 95CL = 1.21-3.98; p cohesion/pride were more likely than those with high family cohesion/pride to have a positive diagnosis of DSM-5 AUD. More liberal drinking norms and positive attitudes toward drinking were also strong predictors of the average number of drinks consumed per week. More liberal drinking norms also predicted binge drinking, and DSM-5 AUD. Higher family cohesion/pride may have a protective effect against DSM-5 AUD. This may have practical implications for clinical and prevention programs. As long as high cohesion is not enabling drinking, these programs can enhance and support family cohesion/pride to help clients in treatment and recovery and prevent drinking problems.

  9. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Julio Cesar; Puig, Marieva; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Morales, Marangelie; Asencio, Gloria; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Castro, Eida; Santori, Carmen Vélez; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to culturally adapt and validate a scale to measure HIV-related felt stigma in a group of People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Puerto Rico. The researchers conducted a two-phase cross-sectional study with 216 participants (60, first phase; 156, second phase). The first phase consisted of the cultural adaptation of the scale; the second evaluated its psychometric properties. After conducting a factor analysis, a 17-item scale, the HIV Felt-Stigma Scale (HFSS), resulted. Participants completed the Puerto Rico Comprehensive Center for the Study of Health Disparities Socio-demographic Questionnaire, the HFSS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Sexual Abuse dimension of the History of Abuse Questionnaire; the case managers completed the Case Manager Stigma Guide with subjects. The HFSS measures four dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. The alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients (0.91 and 0.68, respectively) indicated satisfactory validity and reliability; the scale suggested adequate convergent validity. The HFSS is a culturally sensitive instrument that fills the existing gap in the measurement of felt stigma in Spanish-speaking PLWHA. PMID:20665283

  10. Depression symptoms and stressful life events among college students in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis; Suárez-Torres, Alba; Bernal, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Background The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with stressful adaptation experiences that may increase symptoms of depression. We explored the prevalence and sex differences of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in freshmen Latino college students in Puerto Rico, and identified stressful life events that could contribute to symptoms of depression. Methods Two thousand one hundred sixty-three freshmen college students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) public education system were assessed for depression symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and stressful life events using open questions. Results Nine percent of the sample reported depression symptoms at a moderate or severe level (BDI ≥ 20). Chi square analyses revealed a significantly higher prevalence for three of the stressful life events in females than males: relocation (10.2% females vs. 7.3% males; X2 (1) = 4.13, p=.042), break-up of a significant relationship (25.3% females vs. 17.8% males; X2 (1) = 13.76, pcollege, whereas for males a similar model without the relationship break-up variable resulted in a better fit. Conclusions Freshmen college students present a broad range of depression symptoms and certain stressful life events are associated with an increased prevalence of depression symptoms. Early detection of depression and tailored prevention programs should be developed to improve both mental health and academic performance among the college population. PMID:22939390

  11. Gravity Modeling of the Cerro Goden fault zone, NW Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Asencio, E.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake served as a reminder of potential earthquake hazards on upper-crustal fault systems along the northern boundary of the Carribean plate. In this study we modeled the structure of the Cerro Goden and subparallel fault zones in northwestern Puerto Rico, which cross through densely populated areas, using existing and newly collected gravity data. The fault zone had previously been mapped at the surface, but the details of the fault zone in the subsurface and the detailed structure remain poorly constrained. We used our gravity data to extend surface geologic models to greater depth. Specifically, we modeled and interpreted a north-to-south 2-D model perpendicular to the Cerro Goden fault zone. We used horizontal derivative and residual anomaly maps to emphasize edges of subsurface bodies and shallow structures of interest. Our preliminary 2D model constrains the width and depth extent of serpentinite bodies along the fault zones, the relationship of the faults with the Cerro Goden anticline in central Puerto Rico, and confirms the steep NE dip of the faults extrapolated from surface data. Additional data will be collected in the future across the Cerro Goden fault zone to laterally extend our models of subsurface structural features.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Katharine B.; Bertolli, Jeanne; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Romero, Lisa; Koonin, Lisa M.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Bracero, Nabal; Jamieson, Denise J.; Barfield, Wanda; Moore, Cynthia A.; Mai, Cara T.; Korhonen, Lauren C.; Frey, Meghan T.; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Torres-Muñoz, Ricardo; Grosse, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of increasing access to contraception in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak. The intervention is projected to cost an additional $33.5 million in family planning services and is likely to be cost-saving for the healthcare system overall. It could reduce Zika virus–related costs by $65.2 million ($2.8 million from less Zika virus testing and monitoring and $62.3 million from avoided costs of Zika virus–associated microcephaly [ZAM]). The estimates are influenced by the contraception methods used, the frequency of ZAM, and the lifetime incremental cost of ZAM. Accounting for unwanted pregnancies that are prevented, irrespective of Zika virus infection, an additional $40.4 million in medical costs would be avoided through the intervention. Increasing contraceptive access for women who want to delay or avoid pregnancy in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak can substantially reduce the number of cases of ZAM and healthcare costs. PMID:27805547

  13. New Year's Eve injuries caused by celebratory gunfire--Puerto Rico, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-24

    Bullets fired into the air during celebrations fall with sufficient force to cause injury and death. However, few data exist regarding the epidemiology of injuries related to celebratory gunfire. In Puerto Rico, where such celebratory actions are common, news media reports have indicated that approximately two persons die and an estimated 25 more are injured each year from celebratory gunfire on New Year's Eve. The Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) invited CDC and local law enforcement agencies to assist in the investigation of injuries resulting from celebratory gunfire that occurred during December 31, 2003-January 1, 2004. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation, which determined that 1) bullets from probable celebratory gunfire caused 19 injuries, including one death and 2) such injuries affected a higher percentage of women and children aged <15 years than injuries from noncelebratory gunfire, with the majority occurring in certain public housing areas in densely populated, metropolitan San Juan. Education and enforcement of existing laws are needed to prevent these injuries.

  14. Climate as a driver of tropical insular diversity: comparative phylogeography of two ecologically distinctive frogs in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Brittany S; Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A; Cook, Joseph A

    2015-08-01

    The effects of late Quaternary climate on distributions and evolutionary dynamics of insular species are poorly understood in most tropical archipelagoes. We used ecological niche models under past and current climate to derive hypotheses regarding how stable climatic conditions shaped genetic diversity in two ecologically distinctive frogs in Puerto Rico. Whereas the Mountain Coquí, Eleutherodactylus portoricensis , is restricted to montane forest in the Cayey and Luquillo Mountains, the Red-eyed Coquí, E. antillensis , is a habitat generalist distributed across the entire Puerto Rican Bank (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, excluding St. Croix). To test our hypotheses, we conducted phylogeographic and population genetic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci of each species across their range in Puerto Rico. Patterns of population differentiation in E. portoricensis , but not in E. antillensis , supported our hypotheses. For E. portoricensis , these patterns include: individuals isolated by long-term unsuitable climate in the Río Grande de Loíza Basin in eastern Puerto Rico belong to different genetic clusters; past and current climate strongly predicted genetic differentiation; and Cayey and Luquillo Mountains populations split prior to the last interglacial. For E. antillensis , these patterns include: genetic clusters did not fully correspond to predicted long-term unsuitable climate; and past and current climate weakly predicted patterns of genetic differentiation. Genetic signatures in E. antillensis are consistent with a recent range expansion into western Puerto Rico, possibly resulting from climate change and anthropogenic influences. As predicted, regions with a large area of long-term suitable climate were associated with higher genetic diversity in both species, suggesting larger and more stable populations. Finally, we discussed the implications of our findings for developing evidence-based management decisions for E. portoricensis , a

  15. Caracteristicas de los Estudiantes de Ciencias Agricolas y de Economia Domestica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico (Characteristics of the Agricultural Science and Home Economics Students of the University of Puerto Rico). Publicacion 135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Edna Droz; Calero, Reinaldo

    As part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research project on young adults, a questionnaire was distributed in the fall of 1977 to all agriculture science and home economics students at the University of Puerto Rico in order to determine their personal and parental backgrounds; work, college, and high school experiences; life goals and attitudes…

  16. Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, Craig G.; Kwak, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

  17. On the Outskirts of National Health Reform: A Comparative Assessment of Health Insurance and Access to Care in Puerto Rico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Maria; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2015-09-01

    Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens, yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We analyzed national survey data from 2011 to 2012 and found that despite its far poorer population, Puerto Rico outperforms the mainland United States on several measures of health care coverage and access to care. While the ACA significantly increases federal resources in Puerto Rico, ongoing federal restrictions on Medicaid funding and premium tax credits in Puerto Rico pose substantial health policy challenges in the territory. Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens. Yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This article presents an overview of Puerto Rico's health care system and a comparative analysis of coverage and access to care in Puerto Rico and the mainland United States. We analyzed 2011-2012 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and 2012 data from the American Community Survey and its counterpart, the Puerto Rico Community Survey. Among adults 18 and older, we examined health insurance coverage; access measures, such as having a usual source of care and cost-related delays in care; self-reported health; and the receipt of recommended preventive services, such as cancer screening and glucose testing. We used multivariate regression models to compare Puerto Rico and the mainland United States, adjusted for age, income, race/ethnicity, and other demographic variables. Uninsured rates were significantly lower in Puerto Rico (unadjusted 7.4% versus 15.0%, adjusted difference: -12.0%, p care and to have had a checkup within the past year, and fewer experienced cost-related delays in care. Screening rates for diabetes, mammograms, and Pap smears were comparable or better in Puerto Rico, while colonoscopy rates were

  18. AABW-transport variation and its effect on internal wave motions between top and bottom of the Puerto Rico Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2017-01-01

    Slow subinertial variations in Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) are investigated interacting with internal waves and associated turbulent mixing in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT), northwest Atlantic. Just below the PRT's top at 5,500 m, a deep-sea mooring was deployed for 14 months. Around 6,100 m, the

  19. Secondary forest succession and tree planting at the Laguna Cartagena and Cabo Rojo wildlife refuges in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Weaver; J.J. Schwagerl

    2008-01-01

    Secondary forest succession and tree planting are contributing to the recovery of the Cabo Rojo refuge (Headquarters and Salinas tracts) and Laguna Cartagena refuge (Lagoon and Tinaja tracts) of the Fish and Wildlife Service in southwestern Puerto Rico. About 80 species, mainly natives, have been planted on 44 ha during the past 25 y in an effort to reduce the threat...

  20. Identification of the prevalent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the female population of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutil, Julie; Colon-Colon, Jose L; Matta, Jaime L; Sutphen, Rebecca; Echenique, Miguel

    2012-05-01

    Mutations in the breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary breast cancers. Knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of BRCA mutations in a specific population or ethnic group is necessary to provide accurate genetic counseling for breast cancer patients and their families; however, these data have not been gathered in the population of Puerto Rico. We conducted a retrospective study of female breast cancer patients undergoing genetic testing for BRCA mutations in the highest-volume breast surgery practices in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Data collection includes three-generation family cancer history and results from complete BRCA sequencing. A total of six different deleterious mutations were observed, including one mutation in BRCA1 and five mutations in BRCA2. Three recurrent mutations (BRCA1 del exon1-2, BRCA2 4150G>T, and BRCA2 6027del4) account for over 70% of all the BRCA mutations observed in this study population. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of hereditary breast cancer in Puerto Rico and assesses the accuracy of existing genetic risk assessment tools in that population. This data is expected to contribute to providing accurate and efficient tools for the clinical management of hereditary breast cancer in Puerto Rico. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.